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Sample records for rate model based

  1. Rate-Based Model Predictive Control of Turbofan Engine Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative model predictive control strategy is developed for control of nonlinear aircraft propulsion systems and sub-systems. At the heart of the controller is a rate-based linear parameter-varying model that propagates the state derivatives across the prediction horizon, extending prediction fidelity to transient regimes where conventional models begin to lose validity. The new control law is applied to a demanding active clearance control application, where the objectives are to tightly regulate blade tip clearances and also anticipate and avoid detrimental blade-shroud rub occurrences by optimally maintaining a predefined minimum clearance. Simulation results verify that the rate-based controller is capable of satisfying the objectives during realistic flight scenarios where both a conventional Jacobian-based model predictive control law and an unconstrained linear-quadratic optimal controller are incapable of doing so. The controller is evaluated using a variety of different actuators, illustrating the efficacy and versatility of the control approach. It is concluded that the new strategy has promise for this and other nonlinear aerospace applications that place high importance on the attainment of control objectives during transient regimes.

  2. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  3. Global Earthquake Activity Rate models based on version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kreemer, C.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Global Earthquake Activity Rate (GEAR) models have usually been based on either relative tectonic motion (fault slip rates and/or distributed strain rates), or on smoothing of seismic catalogs. However, a hybrid approach appears to perform better than either parent, at least in some retrospective tests. First, we construct a Tectonic ('T') forecast of shallow (≤ 70 km) seismicity based on global plate-boundary strain rates from version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map. Our approach is the SHIFT (Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics) method described by Bird et al. [2010, SRL], in which the character of the strain rate tensor (thrusting and/or strike-slip and/or normal) is used to select the most comparable type of plate boundary for calibration of the coupled seismogenic lithosphere thickness and corner magnitude. One difference is that activity of offshore plate boundaries is spatially smoothed using empirical half-widths [Bird & Kagan, 2004, BSSA] before conversion to seismicity. Another is that the velocity-dependence of coupling in subduction and continental-convergent boundaries [Bird et al., 2009, BSSA] is incorporated. Another forecast component is the smoothed-seismicity ('S') forecast model of [Kagan & Jackson, 1994, JGR; Kagan & Jackson, 2010, GJI], which was based on optimized smoothing of the shallow part of the GCMT catalog, years 1977-2004. Both forecasts were prepared for threshold magnitude 5.767. Then, we create hybrid forecasts by one of 3 methods: (a) taking the greater of S or T; (b) simple weighted-average of S and T; or (c) log of the forecast rate is a weighted average of the logs of S and T. In methods (b) and (c) there is one free parameter, which is the fractional contribution from S. All hybrid forecasts are normalized to the same global rate. Pseudo-prospective tests for 2005-2012 (using versions of S and T calibrated on years 1977-2004) show that many hybrid models outperform both parents (S and T), and that the optimal weight on S

  4. Nonparametric Hammerstein model based model predictive control for heart rate regulation.

    PubMed

    Su, Steven W; Huang, Shoudong; Wang, Lu; Celler, Branko G; Savkin, Andrey V; Guo, Ying; Cheng, Teddy

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel nonparametric model based model predictive control approach for the regulation of heart rate during treadmill exercise. As the model structure of human cardiovascular system is often hard to determine, nonparametric modelling is a more realistic manner to describe complex behaviours of cardiovascular system. This paper presents a new nonparametric Hammerstein model identification approach for heart rate response modelling. Based on the pseudo-random binary sequence experiment data, we decouple the identification of linear dynamic part and input nonlinearity of the Hammerstein system. Correlation analysis is applied to acquire step response of linear dynamic component. Support Vector Regression is adopted to obtain a nonparametric description of the inverse of input static nonlinearity that is utilized to form an approximate linear model of the Hammerstein system. Based on the established model, a model predictive controller under predefined speed and acceleration constraints is designed to achieve safer treadmill exercise. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm can achieve optimal heart rate tracking performance under predefined constraints.

  5. Modelling the spreading rate of controlled communicable epidemics through an entropy-based thermodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, WenBin; Wu, ZiNiu; Wang, ChunFeng; Hu, RuiFeng

    2013-11-01

    A model based on a thermodynamic approach is proposed for predicting the dynamics of communicable epidemics assumed to be governed by controlling efforts of multiple scales so that an entropy is associated with the system. All the epidemic details are factored into a single and time-dependent coefficient, the functional form of this coefficient is found through four constraints, including notably the existence of an inflexion point and a maximum. The model is solved to give a log-normal distribution for the spread rate, for which a Shannon entropy can be defined. The only parameter, that characterizes the width of the distribution function, is uniquely determined through maximizing the rate of entropy production. This entropy-based thermodynamic (EBT) model predicts the number of hospitalized cases with a reasonable accuracy for SARS in the year 2003. This EBT model can be of use for potential epidemics such as avian influenza and H7N9 in China.

  6. Mixture of a seismicity model based on the rate-and-state friction and ETAS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    Currently the ETAS model [Ogata, 1988, JASA] is considered to be a standard model of seismicity. However, because the ETAS model is a purely statistical one, the physics-based seismicity model derived from the rate-and-state friction (hereafter referred to as Dieterich model) [Dieterich, 1994, JGR] is frequently examined. However, the original version of the Dieterich model has several problems in the application to real earthquake sequences and therefore modifications have been conducted in previous studies. Iwata [2015, Pageoph] is one of such studies and shows that the Dieterich model is significantly improved as a result of the inclusion of the effect of secondary aftershocks (i.e., aftershocks caused by previous aftershocks). However, still the performance of the ETAS model is superior to that of the improved Dieterich model. For further improvement, the mixture of the Dieterich and ETAS models is examined in this study. To achieve the mixture, the seismicity rate is represented as a sum of the ETAS and Dieterich models of which weights are given as k and 1-k, respectively. This mixture model is applied to the aftershock sequences of the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Mid-Niigata sequences which have been analyzed in Iwata [2015]. Additionally, the sequence of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan 1965-1970 is also analyzed. The value of k and parameters of the ETAS and Dieterich models are estimated by means of the maximum likelihood method, and the model performances are assessed on the basis of AIC. For the two aftershock sequences, the AIC values of the ETAS model are around 3-9 smaller (i.e., better) than those of the mixture model. On the contrary, for the Matsushiro swarm, the AIC value of the mixture model is 5.8 smaller than that of the ETAS model, indicating that the mixture of the two models results in significant improvement of the seismicity model.

  7. Rate-based process modeling study of CO{sub 2} capture with aqueous monoethanolamine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.; Chen, C.C.; Plaza, J.M.; Dugas, R.; Rochelle, G.T.

    2009-10-15

    Rate-based process modeling technology has matured and is increasingly gaining acceptance over traditional equilibrium-stage modeling approaches. Recently comprehensive pilot plant data for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) solution have become available from the University of Texas at Austin. The pilot plant data cover key process variables including CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas stream, CO{sub 2} loading in lean MEA solution, liquid to gas ratio, and packing type. In this study, we model the pilot plant operation with Aspen RateSep, a second generation rate-based multistage separation unit operation model in Aspen Plus. After a brief review of rate-based modeling, thermodynamic and kinetic models for CO{sub 2} absorption with the MEA solution, and transport property models, we show excellent match of the rate-based model predictions against the comprehensive pilot plant data and we validate the superiority of the rate-based models over the traditional equilibrium-stage models. We further examine the impacts of key rate-based modeling options, i.e., film discretization options and flow model options. The rate-based model provides excellent predictive capability, and it should be very useful for design and scale-up of CO{sub 2} capture processes.

  8. Acid–base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Modi; Titcombe, Mari; Jiang, Jingkun; Jen, Coty; Kuang, Chongai; Fischer, Marc L.; Eisele, Fred L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Hanson, David R.; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models show that particles formed by nucleation can affect cloud cover and, therefore, the earth's radiation budget. Measurements worldwide show that nucleation rates in the atmospheric boundary layer are positively correlated with concentrations of sulfuric acid vapor. However, current nucleation theories do not correctly predict either the observed nucleation rates or their functional dependence on sulfuric acid concentrations. This paper develops an alternative approach for modeling nucleation rates, based on a sequence of acid–base reactions. The model uses empirical estimates of sulfuric acid evaporation rates obtained from new measurements of neutral molecular clusters. The model predicts that nucleation rates equal the sulfuric acid vapor collision rate times a prefactor that is less than unity and that depends on the concentrations of basic gaseous compounds and preexisting particles. Predicted nucleation rates and their dependence on sulfuric acid vapor concentrations are in reasonable agreement with measurements from Mexico City and Atlanta. PMID:23091030

  9. Acid-base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Modi; Titcombe, Mari; Jiang, Jingkun; Jen, Coty; Kuang, Chongai; Fischer, Marc L; Eisele, Fred L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Hanson, David R; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H

    2012-11-13

    Climate models show that particles formed by nucleation can affect cloud cover and, therefore, the earth's radiation budget. Measurements worldwide show that nucleation rates in the atmospheric boundary layer are positively correlated with concentrations of sulfuric acid vapor. However, current nucleation theories do not correctly predict either the observed nucleation rates or their functional dependence on sulfuric acid concentrations. This paper develops an alternative approach for modeling nucleation rates, based on a sequence of acid-base reactions. The model uses empirical estimates of sulfuric acid evaporation rates obtained from new measurements of neutral molecular clusters. The model predicts that nucleation rates equal the sulfuric acid vapor collision rate times a prefactor that is less than unity and that depends on the concentrations of basic gaseous compounds and preexisting particles. Predicted nucleation rates and their dependence on sulfuric acid vapor concentrations are in reasonable agreement with measurements from Mexico City and Atlanta.

  10. Modeling of Diffusion Based Correlations Between Heart Rate Modulations and Respiration Pattern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    1 of 4 MODELING OF DIFFUSION BASED CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HEART RATE MODULATIONS AND RESPIRATION PATTERN R.Langer,(1) Y.Smorzik,(2) S.Akselrod,(1...generations of the bronchial tree. The second stage describes the oxygen diffusion process from the pulmonary gas in the alveoli into the pulmonary...patterns (FRC, TV, rate). Keywords – Modeling, Diffusion , Heart Rate fluctuations I. INTRODUCTION Under a whole-body management perception, the

  11. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat 'unconventional' aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method is able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  12. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat "unconventional" aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method was able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  13. A fault-based model for crustal deformation, fault slip-rates and off-fault strain rate in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Yuehua; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2016-01-01

    We invert Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity data to estimate fault slip rates in California using a fault‐based crustal deformation model with geologic constraints. The model assumes buried elastic dislocations across the region using Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast Version 3 (UCERF3) fault geometries. New GPS velocity and geologic slip‐rate data were compiled by the UCERF3 deformation working group. The result of least‐squares inversion shows that the San Andreas fault slips at 19–22  mm/yr along Santa Cruz to the North Coast, 25–28  mm/yr along the central California creeping segment to the Carrizo Plain, 20–22  mm/yr along the Mojave, and 20–24  mm/yr along the Coachella to the Imperial Valley. Modeled slip rates are 7–16  mm/yr lower than the preferred geologic rates from the central California creeping section to the San Bernardino North section. For the Bartlett Springs section, fault slip rates of 7–9  mm/yr fall within the geologic bounds but are twice the preferred geologic rates. For the central and eastern Garlock, inverted slip rates of 7.5 and 4.9  mm/yr, respectively, match closely with the geologic rates. For the western Garlock, however, our result suggests a low slip rate of 1.7  mm/yr. Along the eastern California shear zone and southern Walker Lane, our model shows a cumulative slip rate of 6.2–6.9  mm/yr across its east–west transects, which is ∼1  mm/yr increase of the geologic estimates. For the off‐coast faults of central California, from Hosgri to San Gregorio, fault slips are modeled at 1–5  mm/yr, similar to the lower geologic bounds. For the off‐fault deformation, the total moment rate amounts to 0.88×1019  N·m/yr, with fast straining regions found around the Mendocino triple junction, Transverse Ranges and Garlock fault zones, Landers and Brawley seismic zones, and farther south. The overall California moment rate is 2.76×1019

  14. Modeling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis Using a GPO-Based Adaptive Filter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Yaopeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel generalized play operator-based (GPO-based) nonlinear adaptive filter is proposed to model rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity for smart actuators. In the proposed filter, the input signal vector consists of the output of a tapped delay line. GPOs with various thresholds are used to construct a nonlinear network and connected with the input signals. The output signal of the filter is composed of a linear combination of signals from the output of GPOs. The least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is used to adjust the weights of the nonlinear filter. The modeling results of four adaptive filter methods are compared: GPO-based adaptive filter, Volterra filter, backlash filter and linear adaptive filter. Moreover, a phenomenological operator-based model, the rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (RDGPI) model, is compared to the proposed adaptive filter. The various rate-dependent modeling methods are applied to model the rate-dependent hysteresis of a giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA). It is shown from the modeling results that the GPO-based adaptive filter can describe the rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinear of the GMA more accurately and effectively. PMID:26861349

  15. Modeling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis Using a GPO-Based Adaptive Filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Yaopeng

    2016-02-06

    A novel generalized play operator-based (GPO-based) nonlinear adaptive filter is proposed to model rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity for smart actuators. In the proposed filter, the input signal vector consists of the output of a tapped delay line. GPOs with various thresholds are used to construct a nonlinear network and connected with the input signals. The output signal of the filter is composed of a linear combination of signals from the output of GPOs. The least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is used to adjust the weights of the nonlinear filter. The modeling results of four adaptive filter methods are compared: GPO-based adaptive filter, Volterra filter, backlash filter and linear adaptive filter. Moreover, a phenomenological operator-based model, the rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (RDGPI) model, is compared to the proposed adaptive filter. The various rate-dependent modeling methods are applied to model the rate-dependent hysteresis of a giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA). It is shown from the modeling results that the GPO-based adaptive filter can describe the rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinear of the GMA more accurately and effectively.

  16. Model-based control of networked distributed systems with multi-rate state feedback updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Eloy; Antsaklis, Panos

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a model-based multi-rate control technique for stabilisation of uncertain discrete-time systems that transmit information through a limited bandwidth communication network. This model-based multi-rate approach is applied to two networked architectures. First, we discuss the implementation of a centralised control system with distributed sensing capabilities and, second, we address the problem of stabilisation of networks of coupled subsystems with distributed sensors and controllers. In both cases, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the uncertain system with multi-rate model updates. Furthermore, we show that, in general, an important reduction of network bandwidth can be obtained using the multi-rate approach with respect to the single-rate implementations. Finally, an extension is provided that addresses restricted access to the communication channel.

  17. Estimating base rates of impairment in neuropsychological test batteries: a comparison of quantitative models.

    PubMed

    Decker, Scott L; Schneider, W Joel; Hale, James B

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychologists frequently rely on a battery of neuropsychological tests which are normally distributed to determine impaired functioning. The statistical likelihood of Type I error in clinical decision-making is in part determined by the base rate of normative individuals obtaining atypical performance on neuropsychological tests. Base rates are most accurately obtained by co-normed measures, but this is rarely accomplished in neuropsychological testing. Several statistical methods have been proposed to estimate base rates for tests that are not co-normed. This study compared two statistical approaches (binomial and Monte Carlo models) used to estimate the base rates for flexible test batteries. The two approaches were compared against empirically derived base rates for a multitest co-normed battery of cognitive measures. Estimates were compared across a variety of conditions including age and different α levels (N =3,356). Monte Carlo R(2) estimates ranged from .980 to .997 across five different age groups, indicating a good fit. In contrast, the binomial model fit estimates ranged from 0.387 to 0.646. Results confirm that the binomial model is insufficient for estimating base rates because it does not take into account correlations among measures in a multitest battery. Although the Monte Carlo model produced more accurate results, minor biases occurred that are likely due to skewess and kurtosis of test variables. Implications for future research and applied practice are discussed. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Speciation rates decline through time in individual-based models of speciation and extinction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Fang, Jingyun; Pacala, Stephen W

    2013-09-01

    A well-documented pattern in the fossil record is a long-term decline in the origination rate of new taxa after diversity rebounds from a mass extinction. The mechanisms for this pattern remain elusive. In this article, we investigate the macroevolutionary predictions of an individual-based birth-death model (BDI model) where speciation and extinction rates emerge from population dynamics. We start with the simplest neutral model in which every individual has the same per capita rates of birth, death, and speciation. Although the prediction of the simplest neutral model agrees qualitatively with the fossil pattern, the predicted decline in per-species speciation rates is too fast to explain the long-term trend in fossil data. We thus consider models with variation among species in per capita rates of speciation and a suite of alternative assumptions about the heritability of speciation rate. The results show that interspecific variation in per capita speciation rate can induce differences among species in their ability to resist extinction because a low speciation rate confers a small but important demographic advantage. As a consequence, the model predicts an appropriately slow temporal decline in speciation rates, which provides a mechanistic explanation for the fossil pattern.

  19. Modeling Low-Dose-Rate Effects in Irradiated Bipolar-Base Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Cirba, C.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Graves, R.J.; Michez, A.; Milanowski, R.J.; Saigne, F.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Witczak, S.C.

    1998-10-26

    A physical model is developed to quantify the contribution of oxide-trapped charge to enhanced low-dose-rate gain degradation in bipolar junction transistors. Multiple-trapping simulations show that space charge limited transport is partially responsible for low-dose-rate enhancement. At low dose rates, more holes are trapped near the silicon-oxide interface than at high dose rates, resulting in larger midgap voltage shifts at lower dose rates. The additional trapped charge near the interface may cause an exponential increase in excess base current, and a resultant decrease in current gain for some NPN bipolar technologies.

  20. A New Statistically based Autoconversion rate Parameterization for use in Large-Scale Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Zhang, Junhua; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2002-01-01

    The autoconversion rate is a key process for the formation of precipitation in warm clouds. In climate models, physical processes such as autoconversion rate, which are calculated from grid mean values, are biased, because they do not take subgrid variability into account. Recently, statistical cloud schemes have been introduced in large-scale models to account for partially cloud-covered grid boxes. However, these schemes do not include the in-cloud variability in their parameterizations. In this paper, a new statistically based autoconversion rate considering the in-cloud variability is introduced and tested in three cases using the Canadian Single Column Model (SCM) of the global climate model. The results show that the new autoconversion rate improves the model simulation, especially in terms of liquid water path in all three case studies.

  1. A New Statistically based Autoconversion rate Parameterization for use in Large-Scale Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Zhang, Junhua; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2002-01-01

    The autoconversion rate is a key process for the formation of precipitation in warm clouds. In climate models, physical processes such as autoconversion rate, which are calculated from grid mean values, are biased, because they do not take subgrid variability into account. Recently, statistical cloud schemes have been introduced in large-scale models to account for partially cloud-covered grid boxes. However, these schemes do not include the in-cloud variability in their parameterizations. In this paper, a new statistically based autoconversion rate considering the in-cloud variability is introduced and tested in three cases using the Canadian Single Column Model (SCM) of the global climate model. The results show that the new autoconversion rate improves the model simulation, especially in terms of liquid water path in all three case studies.

  2. On rate-dependent mechanical model for adaptive magnetorheological elastomer base isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents research on the phenomenological model of an adaptive base isolator. The adaptive base isolator is made of field-dependent magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) which can alter its physical property under application of magnetic field. Experimental testing demonstrated that the developed MRE base isolator possesses an amazing ability to vary its stiffness under applied magnetic field. However, several challenges have been encountered when it comes modeling such novel device. For example, under a large deformation, the MRE base isolator exhibits a clear strain stiffening effect and this behavior escalates with the increasing of applied current. In addition, the MRE base isolator has also shown typical rate-dependent behavior. Following a review on mechanical models for viscos-elastic rubber devices, a novel rate-dependent model is proposed in this paper to capture the behavior of the new MRE base isolator. To develop a generalized model, the proposed model was evaluated using its performance under random displacement input and a seismic input. It shows that the proposed rate-dependent model can successfully describe the complex behavior of the device.

  3. Physically-based strength model of tantalum incorporating effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; ...

    2016-06-14

    In this work, we develop a tantalum strength model that incorporates e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to incorporate temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the model are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength model agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa.more » The proposed strength model is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength model that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.« less

  4. Physically-based strength model of tantalum incorporating effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2016-06-14

    In this work, we develop a tantalum strength model that incorporates e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to incorporate temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the model are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength model agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa. The proposed strength model is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength model that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.

  5. Physically-based strength model of tantalum incorporating effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2016-06-14

    In this work, we develop a tantalum strength model that incorporates e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to incorporate temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the model are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength model agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa. The proposed strength model is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength model that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.

  6. Global stability and attractivity of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaodan; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Wenshu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study the global stability and attractivity of the endemic equilibrium for a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. The model was introduced in Li (2015). We prove that the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if α (a parameter of this model) is sufficiently large, and is globally attractive if the transmission rate λ satisfies λ/λc ∈(1 , 2 ] , where λc is the epidemic threshold. Some numerical experiments are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  7. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-based Human Airway Models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-01-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography (MDCT)-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ*) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h0*) as h0* = 1.15 τ*0.272, R = 0.842. PMID:25869455

  8. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-Based Human Airway Models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-11-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ (*)) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h 0 (*) ) as [Formula: see text].

  9. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  10. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  11. Comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, K.C.

    1984-10-01

    An in-vitro dissolution study was conducted on two respirable oxidized depleted uranium samples. The dissolution rates generated from this study were then utilized in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group lung clearance model and a lung clearance model proposed by Cuddihy. Predictions from both models based on the dissolution rates of the amount of oxidized depleted uranium that would be cleared to blood from the pulmonary region following an inhalation exposure were compared. It was found that the predictions made by both models differed considerably. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the differences in the way each model perceives the clearance from the pulmonary region. 33 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  12. Dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. This type of nonlinear incidence can be used to describe the psychological effect of certain diseases spread in a contact network at high infective levels. We first find a threshold value for the transmission rate. This value completely determines the dynamics of the model and interestingly, the threshold is not dependent on the functional form of the nonlinear incidence rate. Furthermore, if the transmission rate is less than or equal to the threshold value, the disease will die out. Otherwise, it will be permanent. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the theoretical results. We also consider the effect of the nonlinear incidence on the epidemic dynamics.

  13. Cooling rate estimations based on kinetic modelling of Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Onorato, P. I. K.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A finite one-dimensional kinetic model was developed to estimate the cooling rates of lunar rocks. The model takes into consideration the compositional zonation of olivine and applies Buening and Buseck (1973) data on ion diffusion in olivine. Since the 'as-solidified' profile of a given olivine is not known, a step-function, with infinite gradient, is assumed; the position of this step is based on mass balance considerations of the measured compositional profile. A minimum cooling rate would be associated with the preservation of a given gradient. The linear cooling rates of lunar rocks 12002 and 15555 were estimated by use of the olivine cooling-rate indicator to be 10 C/day and 5 C/day, respectively. These values are lower than those obtained by dynamic crystallization studies (10-20 C/day).

  14. Cooling rate estimations based on kinetic modelling of Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Onorato, P. I. K.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A finite one-dimensional kinetic model was developed to estimate the cooling rates of lunar rocks. The model takes into consideration the compositional zonation of olivine and applies Buening and Buseck (1973) data on ion diffusion in olivine. Since the 'as-solidified' profile of a given olivine is not known, a step-function, with infinite gradient, is assumed; the position of this step is based on mass balance considerations of the measured compositional profile. A minimum cooling rate would be associated with the preservation of a given gradient. The linear cooling rates of lunar rocks 12002 and 15555 were estimated by use of the olivine cooling-rate indicator to be 10 C/day and 5 C/day, respectively. These values are lower than those obtained by dynamic crystallization studies (10-20 C/day).

  15. Introduction of a prediction model to assigning periodontal prognosis based on survival rates.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Canut, Pedro; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alvarez-Novoa, Pablo; Alvarez-Novoa, Carmen; Marcos, Ana; Noguerol, Blas; Noguerol, Fernando; Zabalegui, Ion

    2017-09-04

    To develop a prediction model for tooth loss due to periodontal disease (TLPD) in patients following periodontal maintenance (PM), and assess its performance using a multicentre approach. A multilevel analysis of eleven predictors of TLPD in 500 patients following PM was carried out to calculate the probability of TLPD. This algorithm was applied to three different TLPD samples (369 teeth) gathered retrospectively by nine periodontist, associating several intervals of probability with the corresponding survival rates, based on significant differences in the mean survival rates. The reproducibility of these associations was assessed in each sample (One-way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison with Bonferroni corrections). The model presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity, with optimal calibration and discrimination measurements. Seven intervals of probability were associated with seven survival rates and these associations contained close to 80% of the cases: the probability predicted the survival rate at this percentage. The model performed well in the three samples, since the mean survival rates of each association were significantly different within each sample, while no significant differences between the samples were found in pair-wise comparisons of means. This model might be useful for predicting survival rates in different TLPD samples This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanism‐Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, DP; Hansen, M; Bagger, JI; Lund, A; Rehfeld, JF; Alskär, O; Karlsson, MO; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, FK; Bergstrand, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism‐based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin concentrations were not predictive of GBE, and an alternative model linking the nutrients amount in the upper intestine to GBE was preferred. Relative to fats, the potency on GBE was 68% for proteins and 2.3% for carbohydrates. The model predictions were robust across a broad range of nutritional content and may potentially be used to predict postprandial changes in drug absorption. PMID:28028939

  17. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  18. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women).

  19. Effect of control sampling rates on model-based manipulator control schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosla, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of changing the control sampling period on the performance of the computed-torque and independent joint control schemes is discussed. While the former utilizes the complete dynamics model of the manipulator, the latter assumes a decoupled and linear model of the manipulator dynamics. Researchers discuss the design of controller gains for both the computed-torque and the independent joint control schemes and establish a framework for comparing their trajectory tracking performance. Experiments show that within each scheme the trajectory tracking accuracy varies slightly with the change of the sampling rate. However, at low sampling rates the computed-torque scheme outperforms the independent joint control scheme. Based on experimental results, researchers also conclusively establish the importance of high sampling rates as they result in an increased stiffness of the system.

  20. Time-dependent sleep stage transition model based on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toki; Mizuno, Osamu; Tanaka, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    A new model is proposed to automatically classify sleep stages using heart rate variability (HRV). The generative model, based on the characteristics that the distribution and the transition probabilities of sleep stages depend on the elapsed time from the beginning of sleep, infers the sleep stage with a Gibbs sampler. Experiments were conducted using a public data set consisting of 45 healthy subjects and the model's classification accuracy was evaluated for three sleep stages: wake state, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM sleep. Experimental results demonstrated that the model provides more accurate sleep stage classification than conventional (naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine) models that do not take the above characteristics into account. Our study contributes to improve the quality of sleep monitoring in the daily life using easy-to-wear HRV sensors.

  1. MRI-based anatomical model of the human head for specific absorption rate mapping

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Nikos; Angelone, Leonardo; Tulloch, Seann; Sorg, Scott; Kaiser, Jonathan; Kennedy, David

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based, high-resolution, numerical model of the head of a healthy human subject. In order to formulate the model, we performed quantitative volumetric segmentation on the human head, using T1-weighted MRI. The high spatial resolution used (1 × 1 × 1 mm3), allowed for the precise computation and visualization of a higher number of anatomical structures than provided by previous models. Furthermore, the high spatial resolution allowed us to study individual thin anatomical structures of clinical relevance not visible by the standard model currently adopted in computational bioelectromagnetics. When we computed the electromagnetic field and specific absorption rate (SAR) at 7 Tesla MRI using this high-resolution model, we were able to obtain a detailed visualization of such fine anatomical structures as the epidermis/dermis, bone structures, bone-marrow, white matter and nasal and eye structures. PMID:18985401

  2. Expectation maximization-based likelihood inference for flexible cure rate models with Weibull lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy; Pal, Suvra

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a flexible cure rate survival model has been developed by assuming the number of competing causes of the event of interest to follow the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution. This model includes some of the well-known cure rate models discussed in the literature as special cases. Data obtained from cancer clinical trials are often right censored and expectation maximization algorithm can be used in this case to efficiently estimate the model parameters based on right censored data. In this paper, we consider the competing cause scenario and assuming the time-to-event to follow the Weibull distribution, we derive the necessary steps of the expectation maximization algorithm for estimating the parameters of different cure rate survival models. The standard errors of the maximum likelihood estimates are obtained by inverting the observed information matrix. The method of inference developed here is examined by means of an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study. Finally, we illustrate the proposed methodology with a real data on cancer recurrence.

  3. Research and realization of ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dandan; Hou, Huirang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    For ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model, when the noise frequency is close to that of the desired signals (called similar-frequency noise) or the received signal amplitude is small and unstable at big flow rate, local convergence of the algorithm genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles may appear, and measurement accuracy may be affected. Therefore, an improved method energy genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles (EGACO-3cycles) is proposed to solve this problem. By judging the maximum energy position of signal, the initial parameter range of exponential model can be narrowed and then the local convergence can be avoided. Moreover, a DN100 flow rate measurement system with EGACO-3cycles method is established based on NI PCI-6110 and personal computer. A series of experiments are carried out for testing the new method and the measurement system. It is shown that local convergence doesn't appear with EGACO-3cycles method when similar-frequency noises exist and flow rate is big. Then correct time of flight can be obtained. Furthermore, through flow calibration on this system, the measurement range ratio is achieved 500:1, and the measurement accuracy is 0.5% with a low transition velocity 0.3 m/s.

  4. MRI-based strain and strain rate analysis of left ventricle: a modified hierarchical transformation model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Different from other indicators of cardiac function, such as ejection fraction and transmitral early diastolic velocity, myocardial strain is promising to capture subtle alterations that result from early diseases of the myocardium. In order to extract the left ventricle (LV) myocardial strain and strain rate from cardiac cine-MRI, a modified hierarchical transformation model was proposed. Methods A hierarchical transformation model including the global and local LV deformations was employed to analyze the strain and strain rate of the left ventricle by cine-MRI image registration. The endocardial and epicardial contour information was introduced to enhance the registration accuracy by combining the original hierarchical algorithm with an Iterative Closest Points using Invariant Features algorithm. The hierarchical model was validated by a normal volunteer first and then applied to two clinical cases (i.e., the normal volunteer and a diabetic patient) to evaluate their respective function. Results Based on the two clinical cases, by comparing the displacement fields of two selected landmarks in the normal volunteer, the proposed method showed a better performance than the original or unmodified model. Meanwhile, the comparison of the radial strain between the volunteer and patient demonstrated their apparent functional difference. Conclusions The present method could be used to estimate the LV myocardial strain and strain rate during a cardiac cycle and thus to quantify the analysis of the LV motion function. PMID:25602778

  5. Error-Rate Estimation Based on Multi-Signal Flow Graph Model and Accelerated Radiation Tests

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yueke; Xing, Kefei; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Zelong

    2016-01-01

    A method of evaluating the single-event effect soft-error vulnerability of space instruments before launched has been an active research topic in recent years. In this paper, a multi-signal flow graph model is introduced to analyze the fault diagnosis and meantime to failure (MTTF) for space instruments. A model for the system functional error rate (SFER) is proposed. In addition, an experimental method and accelerated radiation testing system for a signal processing platform based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA) is presented. Based on experimental results of different ions (O, Si, Cl, Ti) under the HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, the SFER of the signal processing platform is approximately 10−3(error/particle/cm2), while the MTTF is approximately 110.7 h. PMID:27583533

  6. Error-Rate Estimation Based on Multi-Signal Flow Graph Model and Accelerated Radiation Tests.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Wang, Yueke; Xing, Kefei; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Zelong

    2016-01-01

    A method of evaluating the single-event effect soft-error vulnerability of space instruments before launched has been an active research topic in recent years. In this paper, a multi-signal flow graph model is introduced to analyze the fault diagnosis and meantime to failure (MTTF) for space instruments. A model for the system functional error rate (SFER) is proposed. In addition, an experimental method and accelerated radiation testing system for a signal processing platform based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA) is presented. Based on experimental results of different ions (O, Si, Cl, Ti) under the HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, the SFER of the signal processing platform is approximately 10-3(error/particle/cm2), while the MTTF is approximately 110.7 h.

  7. Testing foetal-maternal heart rate synchronization via model-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Maik; van Leeuwen, Peter; Suhrbier, Alexander; Malberg, Hagen; Grönemeyer, Dietrich; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2009-04-13

    The investigation of foetal reaction to internal and external conditions and stimuli is an important tool in the characterization of the developing neural integration of the foetus. An interesting example of this is the study of the interrelationship between the foetal and the maternal heart rate. Recent studies have shown a certain likelihood of occasional heart rate synchronization between mother and foetus. In the case of respiratory-induced heart rate changes, the comparison with maternal surrogates suggests that the evidence for detected synchronization is largely statistical and does not result from physiological interaction. Rather, they simply reflect a stochastic, temporary stability of two independent oscillators with time-variant frequencies. We reanalysed three datasets from that study for a more local consideration. Epochs of assumed synchronization associated with short-term regulation of the foetal heart rate were selected and compared with synchronization resulting from white noise instead of the foetal signal. Using data-driven modelling analysis, it was possible to identify the consistent influence of the heartbeat duration of maternal beats preceding the foetal beats during epochs of synchronization. These maternal beats occurred approximately one maternal respiratory cycle prior to the affected foetal beat. A similar effect could not be found in the epochs without synchronization. Simulations based on the fitted models led to a higher likelihood of synchronization in the data segments with assumed foetal-maternal interaction than in the segment without such assumed interaction. We conclude that the data-driven model-based analysis can be a useful tool for the identification of synchronization.

  8. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  9. The rate equation based optical model for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Kang; Li, Haokai; Guo, Keqin; Wang, Heng; Li, Dacheng; Zhang, Wending; Mei, Ting; Chua, Soo Jin

    2017-03-01

    An optical model based on the rate equation was developed to calculate the emission spectrum of a phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode (pc-WLED) taking into consideration the phosphor weight percentage, film thickness, and optical properties of phosphor, viz. absorption spectrum, quantum efficiency spectrum and fluorescent emission spectrum. Films containing a mixture of phosphor and silicone elastomer encapsulant were investigated using this model. A linear relationship was found between the peak absorption coefficient and the phosphor weight percentage with slopes of 66.76  ±  0.52 mm‑1 and 29.66  ±  2.05 mm‑1 for a red phosphor CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ and a yellow phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, respectively. With these parameters, the model predicted emission spectra which are in good agreement with measurement, thus verifying the validity of the model. The model correctly predicts redshift and spectral width reduction of the emission peak for increasing phosphor weight percentage or film thickness, as expected from the phenomenon of photon reabsorption by the phosphors. This model does not require the use of Monte Carlo simulation and Mie theory.

  10. The relationship between afterslip and aftershocks: a study based on Coulomb-Rate-and-State models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattania, Camilla; Hainzl, Sebastian; Roth, Frank; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-05-01

    The original Coulomb stress hypothesis, as well as most physics based models of aftershock sequences, assume that aftershocks are triggered by the instantaneous coseismic stress: in other words, the stress field is treated as stationary following the mainshock. However, several lines of evidence indicate that postseismic processes may affect aftershock triggering. The cumulative seismic moment of afterslip can be a significant fraction of the coseismic moment, generating comparable stress changes; moreover, afterslip has a similar time dependence as aftershocks, suggesting that the two processes may be linked. Aftershocks themselves contribute to the redistribution of stresses, and they can trigger their own aftershocks: spatial clustering, and the success of statistical models which include secondary triggering (ETAS) suggest that, even though aftershocks typically generate stresses orders of magnitude smaller than the mainshock, they are significant on a local scale. Our goal is to study the effect of postseismically induced stresses in the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks. We focus on the two processes described above (afterslip and secondary triggering), and do not consider other phenomena such as poroelastic response and viscoelastic relaxation. We study a period of 250 days following the mainshock, for two case studies: the Parkfield, Mw=6.0 and the Tohoku, Mw=9.0 earthquakes. We model the seismic response to stress changes using the Dieterich constitutive law, derived from a population of faults governed by Rate-and-State dependent friction; we also consider uncertainties in the input stress field using a Monte Carlo technique. We find that modeling secondary triggering systematically improves model performance; afterslip has a less significant overall impact on the model, but in both cases studies we observe clusters of seismicity which, due to their location relative to the coseismic and postseismic slip, are better explained when afterslip

  11. Mechanical properties of methacrylate-based model dentin adhesives: Effect of loading rate and moisture exposure

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical behavior of model methacrylate-based dentin adhesives under conditions that simulate the wet oral environment. A series of monotonic and creep experiments were performed on rectangular beam samples of dentin adhesive in three-point bending configuration under different moisture conditions. The monotonic test results show a significant effect of loading rate on the failure strength and the linear limit (yield point) of the stress-strain response. In addition, these tests show that the failure strength is low, and the failure occurs at a smaller deformation when the test is performed under continuously changing moisture conditions. The creep test results show that under constant moisture conditions, the model dentin adhesives can have a viscoelastic response under certain low loading levels. However, when the moisture conditions vary under the same low loading levels, the dentin adhesives have an anomalous creep response accompanied by large secondary creep and high strain accumulation. PMID:23744598

  12. Rate-Dependent Homogenization Based Continuum Plasticity Damage Model for Dendritic Cast Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    The overall framework of this rate-dependent HCPD model follows the structure of the anisotropic Gursen- Tvergaard-Needleman( GTN ) type elasto...with evolving porosity. The HCPD model follows the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman or GTN models framework established in [14, 15, 16, 17] that account for...this method. In [32, 33] the VCFEM model has been extended for rate-dependent elastic- viscoplastic porous ductile material. Micromechanical analysis

  13. Model-based detection of heart rate turbulence using mean shape information.

    PubMed

    Smith, Danny; Solem, Kristian; Laguna, Pablo; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Sörnmo, Leif

    2010-02-01

    A generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) statistic is proposed for detection of heart rate turbulence (HRT), where a set of Karhunen-LoEve basis functions models HRT. The detector structure is based on the extended integral pulse frequency modulation model that accounts for the presence of ectopic beats and HRT. This new test statistic takes a priori information regarding HRT shape into account, whereas our previously presented GLRT detector relied solely on the energy contained in the signal subspace. The spectral relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and HRT is investigated for the purpose of modeling HRV "noise" present during the turbulence period, the results suggesting that the white noise assumption is feasible to pursue. The performance was studied for both simulated and real data, leading to results which show that the new GLRT detector is superior to the original one as well as to the commonly used parameter turbulence slope (TS) on both types of data. Averaging ten ventricular ectopic beats, the estimated detection probability of the new detector, the previous detector, and TS were found to be 0.83, 0.35, and 0.41, respectively, when the false alarm probability was held fixed at 0.1.

  14. Modeling study of seated reach envelopes based on spherical harmonics with consideration of the difficulty ratings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhi; Ren, Jindong; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Qun; Liu, Honghao

    2017-04-01

    Reach envelopes are very useful for the design and layout of controls. In building reach envelopes, one of the key problems is to represent the reach limits accurately and conveniently. Spherical harmonics are proved to be accurate and convenient method for fitting of the reach capability envelopes. However, extensive study are required on what components of spherical harmonics are needed in fitting the envelope surfaces. For applications in the vehicle industry, an inevitable issue is to construct reach limit surfaces with consideration of the seating positions of the drivers, and it is desirable to use population envelopes rather than individual envelopes. However, it is relatively inconvenient to acquire reach envelopes via a test considering the seating positions of the drivers. In addition, the acquired envelopes are usually unsuitable for use with other vehicle models because they are dependent on the current cab packaging parameters. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct reach envelopes for real vehicle conditions based on individual capability data considering seating positions. Moreover, traditional reach envelopes provide little information regarding the assessment of reach difficulty. The application of reach envelopes will improve design quality by providing difficulty-rating information about reach operations. In this paper, using the laboratory data of seated reach with consideration of the subjective difficulty ratings, the method of modeling reach envelopes is studied based on spherical harmonics. The surface fitting using spherical harmonics is conducted for circumstances both with and without seat adjustments. For use with adjustable seat, the seating position model is introduced to re-locate the test data. The surface fitting is conducted for both population and individual reach envelopes, as well as for boundary envelopes. Comparison of the envelopes of adjustable seat and the SAE J287 control reach envelope shows that the latter

  15. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2014-01-01

    When animals have to make a number of decisions during a limited time interval, they face a fundamental problem: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible “conditions.” A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each “condition” being a “state” and the value of decision thresholds being the “actions” taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values. PMID:24904252

  16. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2014-01-01

    WHEN ANIMALS HAVE TO MAKE A NUMBER OF DECISIONS DURING A LIMITED TIME INTERVAL, THEY FACE A FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible "conditions." A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each "condition" being a "state" and the value of decision thresholds being the "actions" taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values.

  17. Analysis and Computation of a Base Labor Rate for Cost Models of Major Weapon System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    was to analyze and compare the Base Labor Rates determined by the full cost approach versus the Maintenance Cost System. If the labor rates were...Southeastern United Statea which support ?-ransport aircraft were studied. The elements of cost which make up the Depot Labor Rate were used to facilitate the...10. MCS Labor Rate.............. 47 vi . LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Full Cost Approach . . . . ,. **13 vii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW The cost

  18. Logarithmic rate based elasto-viscoplastic cyclic constitutive model for soft biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yilin; Kang, Guozheng; Yu, Chao; Poh, Leong Hien

    2016-08-01

    Based on the logarithmic rate and piecewise linearization theory, a thermodynamically consistent elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is developed in the framework of finite deformations to describe the nonlinear time-dependent biomechanical performances of soft biological tissues, such as nonlinear anisotropic monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting. In the proposed model, the soft biological tissue is assumed as a typical composites consisting of an isotropic matrix and anisotropic fiber aggregation. Accordingly, the free energy function and stress tensor are divided into two parts related to the matrix and fiber aggregation, respectively. The nonlinear biomechanical responses of the tissues are described by the piecewise linearization theory with hypo-elastic relations of fiber aggregation. The evolution equations of viscoplasticity are formulated from the dissipation inequalities by the co-directionality hypotheses. The anisotropy is considered in the hypo-elastic relations and viscoplastic flow rules by introducing some material parameters dependent on the loading direction. Then the capability of the proposed model to describe the nonlinear time-dependent deformation of soft biological tissues is verified by comparing the predictions with the corresponding experimental results of three tissues. It is seen that the predicted monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting of soft biological tissues are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence-Based Adequacy Model for School Funding: Success Rates in Illinois Schools that Meet Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explores the 2010 recommendation of the Educational Funding Advisory Board to consider the Evidence-Based Adequacy model of school funding in Illinois. This school funding model identifies and costs research based practices necessary in a prototypical school and sets funding levels based upon those practices. This study…

  20. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-05-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by Manning's equation to obtain a data set containing the elevations of the river beds throughout the basin. The second advancement is the provision of parameter uncertainties and, therefore, the uncertainties in the rated discharge. The third advancement concerns estimating the discharge while considering backwater effects. We analyzed the Amazon Basin using nearly one thousand series that were obtained from ENVISAT and Jason-2 altimetry for more than 100 tributaries. Discharge values and related uncertainties were obtained from the rain-discharge MGB-IPH model. We used a global optimization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Bayesian framework to determine the rating curves. The data were randomly allocated into 80% calibration and 20% validation subsets. A comparison with the validation samples produced a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of 0.68. When the MGB discharge uncertainties were less than 5%, the Ens value increased to 0.81 (mean). A comparison with the in situ discharge resulted in an Ens value of 0.71 for the validation samples (and 0.77 for calibration). The Ens values at the mouths of the rivers that experienced backwater effects significantly improved when the mean monthly slope was included in the RC. Our RCs were not mission-dependent, and the Ens value was preserved when applying ENVISAT rating curves to Jason-2 altimetry at crossovers. The cease-to-flow parameter of our RCs provided a good proxy for determining river bed elevation. This proxy was validated

  1. A lattice hydrodynamic model based on delayed feedback control considering the effect of flow rate difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunong; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a lattice hydrodynamic model is derived considering not only the effect of flow rate difference but also the delayed feedback control signal which including more comprehensive information. The control method is used to analyze the stability of the model. Furthermore, the critical condition for the linear steady traffic flow is deduced and the numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the advantage of the proposed model with and without the effect of flow rate difference and the control signal. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis correspondingly.

  2. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  3. Multi-sequence H.264/AVC Rate Control Based on the Linear Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuszak, Grzegorz; Pietrasiewicz, Andrzej

    Multi-sequence video coding can distribute bit-budget among sequences to balance the qualities subject to a common limitation on the bit-rate. This paper presents the method of selection of a common quantization parameter, which is applied concurrently to each sequence. The approach takes into account ρ-domain rate-distortion models kept independently for each video sequence and builds a common model. The output buffer is verified jointly for all the sequences and drives a joint bit allocation process. The method has been verified in simulation to demonstrate its usefulness in video encoding.

  4. Estimation of inlet flow rates for image-based aneurysm CFD models: where and how to begin?

    PubMed

    Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Piccinelli, Marina; KrishnankuttyRema, Resmi; Steinman, David A

    2015-06-01

    Patient-specific flow rates are rarely available for image-based computational fluid dynamics models. Instead, flow rates are often assumed to scale according to the diameters of the arteries of interest. Our goal was to determine how choice of inlet location and scaling law affect such model-based estimation of inflow rates. We focused on 37 internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm cases from the Aneurisk cohort. An average ICA flow rate of 245 mL min(-1) was assumed from the literature, and then rescaled for each case according to its inlet diameter squared (assuming a fixed velocity) or cubed (assuming a fixed wall shear stress). Scaling was based on diameters measured at various consistent anatomical locations along the models. Choice of location introduced a modest 17% average uncertainty in model-based flow rate, but within individual cases estimated flow rates could vary by >100 mL min(-1). A square law was found to be more consistent with physiological flow rates than a cube law. Although impact of parent artery truncation on downstream flow patterns is well studied, our study highlights a more insidious and potentially equal impact of truncation site and scaling law on the uncertainty of assumed inlet flow rates and thus, potentially, downstream flow patterns.

  5. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Determining Corn Stover Removal Rate and Transboundary Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J. W. A.; Smith, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  6. An agent-based modeling approach for determining corn stover removal rate and transboundary effects.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J W A; Smith, C T

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  7. Satisfaction Ratings of QOLPAV: Psychometric Properties Based on the Graded Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2013-01-01

    A scale measuring quality of life (QOL) is important in adolescent research. Using the graded response model (GRM), this study evaluates the psychometric properties of the satisfaction ratings of the Quality of Life Profile Adolescent Version (QOLPAV). Data for 1,392 adolescents were used to check IRT assumptions such as unidimensionality and…

  8. Satisfaction Ratings of QOLPAV: Psychometric Properties Based on the Graded Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2013-01-01

    A scale measuring quality of life (QOL) is important in adolescent research. Using the graded response model (GRM), this study evaluates the psychometric properties of the satisfaction ratings of the Quality of Life Profile Adolescent Version (QOLPAV). Data for 1,392 adolescents were used to check IRT assumptions such as unidimensionality and…

  9. Evaluating crown fire rate of spread predictions from physics-based models

    Treesearch

    C. M. Hoffman; J. Ziegler; J. Canfield; R. R. Linn; W. Mell; C. H. Sieg; F. Pimont

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the behavior of crown fires is challenging due to the complex set of coupled processes that drive the characteristics of a spreading wildfire and the large range of spatial and temporal scales over which these processes occur. Detailed physics-based modeling approaches such as FIRETEC and the Wildland Urban Interface Fire Dynamics Simulator (WFDS) simulate...

  10. Source mass eruption rate retrieved from satellite-based data using statistical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouhier, Mathieu; Guillin, Arnaud; Azzaoui, Nourddine; Eychenne, Julia; Valade, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ash clouds emitted during volcanic eruptions have long been recognized as a major hazard likely to have dramatic consequences on aircrafts, environment and people. Thus, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) around the world, whose mission is to forecast the location and concentration of ash clouds over hours to days, using volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDs). Those models use input parameters such as plume height (PH), particle size distribution (PSD), and mass eruption rate (MER), the latter being a key parameter as it directly controls the amount of ash injected into the atmosphere. The MER can be obtained rather accurately from detailed ground deposit studies, but this method does not match the operational requirements in case of a volcanic crisis. Thus, VAACs use empirical laws to determine the MER from the estimation of the plume height. In some cases, this method can be difficult to apply, either because plume height data are not available or because uncertainties related to this method are too large. We propose here an alternative method based on the utilization of satellite data to assess the MER at the source, during explosive eruptions. Satellite-based techniques allow fine ash cloud loading to be quantitatively retrieved far from the source vent. Those measurements can be carried out in a systematic and real-time fashion using geostationary satellite, in particular. We tested here the relationship likely to exist between the amount of fine ash dispersed in the atmosphere and of coarser tephra deposited on the ground. The sum of both contributions yielding an estimate of the MER. For this purpose we examined 19 eruptions (of known duration) in detail for which both (i) the amount of fine ash dispersed in the atmosphere, and (ii) the mass of tephra deposited on the ground have been estimated and published. We combined these data with contextual information that may

  11. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  12. Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Hu, Qinhong

    2015-09-28

    This study statistically analyzed a grain-size based additivity model that has been proposed to scale reaction rates and parameters from laboratory to field. The additivity model assumed that reaction properties in a sediment including surface area, reactive site concentration, reaction rate, and extent can be predicted from field-scale grain size distribution by linearly adding reaction properties for individual grain size fractions. This study focused on the statistical analysis of the additivity model with respect to reaction rate constants using multi-rate uranyl (U(VI)) surface complexation reactions in a contaminated sediment as an example. Experimental data of rate-limited U(VI) desorption in a stirred flow-cell reactor were used to estimate the statistical properties of multi-rate parameters for individual grain size fractions. The statistical properties of the rate constants for the individual grain size fractions were then used to analyze the statistical properties of the additivity model to predict rate-limited U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment, and to evaluate the relative importance of individual grain size fractions to the overall U(VI) desorption. The result indicated that the additivity model provided a good prediction of the U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. However, the rate constants were not directly scalable using the additivity model, and U(VI) desorption in individual grain size fractions have to be simulated in order to apply the additivity model. An approximate additivity model for directly scaling rate constants was subsequently proposed and evaluated. The result found that the approximate model provided a good prediction of the experimental results within statistical uncertainty. This study also found that a gravel size fraction (2-8mm), which is often ignored in modeling U(VI) sorption and desorption, is statistically significant to the U(VI) desorption in the sediment.

  13. Evaluation of Finite-Rate GasSurface Interaction Models for a Carbon Based Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Goekcen, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of finite-rate gas-surface interaction model between air and the carbon surface are studied. The first set is an engineering model with one-way chemical reactions, and the second set is a more detailed model with two-way chemical reactions. These two proposed models intend to cover the carbon surface ablation conditions including the low temperature rate-controlled oxidation, the mid-temperature diffusion-controlled oxidation, and the high temperature sublimation. The prediction of carbon surface recession is achieved by coupling a material thermal response code and a Navier-Stokes flow code. The material thermal response code used in this study is the Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal-response and Ablation Program, which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. The flow code solves the reacting full Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation method. Recession analyses of stagnation tests conducted in NASA Ames Research Center arc-jet facilities with heat fluxes ranging from 45 to 1100 wcm2 are performed and compared with data for model validation. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests is Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Additionally, computational predictions of surface recession and shape change are in good agreement with measurement for arc-jet conditions of Small Probe Reentry Investigation for Thermal Protection System Engineering.

  14. Development of a QTL-environment-based predictive model for node addition rate in common bean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Gezan, Salvador A; Eduardo Vallejos, C; Jones, James W; Boote, Kenneth J; Clavijo-Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Osorno, Juan M; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen; Roman-Paoli, Elvin; Gonzalez, Abiezer; Beaver, James; Ricaurte, Jaumer; Colbert, Raphael; Correll, Melanie J

    2017-05-01

    This work reports the effects of the genetic makeup, the environment and the genotype by environment interactions for node addition rate in an RIL population of common bean. This information was used to build a predictive model for node addition rate. To select a plant genotype that will thrive in targeted environments it is critical to understand the genotype by environment interaction (GEI). In this study, multi-environment QTL analysis was used to characterize node addition rate (NAR, node day(- 1)) on the main stem of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). This analysis was carried out with field data of 171 recombinant inbred lines that were grown at five sites (Florida, Puerto Rico, 2 sites in Colombia, and North Dakota). Four QTLs (Nar1, Nar2, Nar3 and Nar4) were identified, one of which had significant QTL by environment interactions (QEI), that is, Nar2 with temperature. Temperature was identified as the main environmental factor affecting NAR while day length and solar radiation played a minor role. Integration of sites as covariates into a QTL mixed site-effect model, and further replacing the site component with explanatory environmental covariates (i.e., temperature, day length and solar radiation) yielded a model that explained 73% of the phenotypic variation for NAR with root mean square error of 16.25% of the mean. The QTL consistency and stability was examined through a tenfold cross validation with different sets of genotypes and these four QTLs were always detected with 50-90% probability. The final model was evaluated using leave-one-site-out method to assess the influence of site on node addition rate. These analyses provided a quantitative measure of the effects on NAR of common beans exerted by the genetic makeup, the environment and their interactions.

  15. Modeling High Rate Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal in a Vertical Flow Alum Sludge based Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, Lordwin; Zhao, Yaqian

    2014-05-01

    Increased awareness of the impacts of diffuse pollution and their intensification has pushed forward the need for the development of low-cost wastewater treatment techniques. One of such efforts is the use of novel DASC (Dewatered Alum Sludge Cakes) based constructed wetlands (CWs) for removing nutrients, organics, trace elements and other pollutants from wastewater. Understanding of the processes in CWs requires a numerical model that describes the biochemical transformation and degradation processes in subsurface vertical flow (VF) CWs. Therefore, this research focuses on the development of a process-based model for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal to achieve a stable performance by using DASC as a substrate in CWs treatment system. An object-oriented modelling tool known as "STELLA" which works based on the principle of system dynamics is used for the development of P and N model. The core objective of the modelling work is oriented towards understanding the process in DASC-based CWs and optimizes design criteria. The P and N dynamic model is developed for DASC-based CWs. The P model developed exclusively for DASC-based CW was able to simulate the effluent P concentration leaving the system satisfactorily. Moreover, the developed P dynamic model has identified the major P pathways as adsorption (72%) followed by plant uptake (20%) and microbial uptake (7%) in single-stage laboratory scale DASC-based CW. Similarly, P dynamic simulation model was developed to simulate the four-stage laboratory scale DASC-based CWs. It was found that simulated and observed values of P removal were in good agreement. The fate of P in all the four stages clearly shows that adsorption played a pivotal role in each stage of the system due to the use of the DASC as a substrate. P adsorption by wetland substrate/DASC represents 59-75% of total P reduction. Subsequently, plant uptake and microbial uptake have lesser role regarding P removal (as compared to adsorption).With regard

  16. The effects of composition on glass dissolution rates: The application of four models to a data base

    SciTech Connect

    Geldart, R.W.; Kindle, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Four models have been applied to a data base to relate glass dissolution in distilled water to composition. The data base is used to compare the precisions obtained from the models in fitting actual data. The usefulness of the data base in formulating a model is also demonstrated. Two related models in which the composite or pH-adjusted free energy of hydration of the glass is the correlating parameter are compared with experimental data. In a structural model, the nonbridging oxygen content of the glasses is used to correlate glass dissolution rate to composition. In a model formulated for this report, the cation valence and the oxygen content of the glass are compared with observed dissolution rates. The models were applied to the 28-day normalized silica release at 90/sup 0/C for over 285 glass compositions with surface area to volume ratios of 10 m/sup -1/ (Materials Characterization Center MCC-1 glass durability test using distilled water). These glasses included the nonradioactive analogs of WV205 and SRL-165, as well as SRL-131, PNL 76-68, and a European glass, UK209. Predicted glass dissolution rates show similar fits to the data for all four models. The predictions of the models were also plotted for two subsets of the glasses: waste glasses and Savannah River Laboratory glasses. The model predictions fit the data for these groups much better than they fit the data for the entire set of glasses. 14 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. [Estimating of backscattering rate in Lake Chaohu based on bio-optical model].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Hua; Li, Yun-Mei; Lü, Heng; Xu, Yi-Fan; Xu, Xin; Huang, Jia-Zhu

    2011-02-01

    Backscattering rate is the important factor of above water spectra. A bio-optical model simplified in near-infrared bands was constructed to estimate backscattering rate in Lake Chaohu by using the in-situ data measured in June 2009. The results show that the maximum value of backscattering rate in Lake Chaohu is 0.059, the minimum value is 0.001 4 and the mean value is 0.023 6. Backscattering rate and spatial differences in the west of Lake Chaohu are all greater than that in the east. In addition, particle refractive index of each sampling site was calculated by using backscattering rate. The dominant factors of in-water particles were determined according to the change scopes of refractive index. The results show that 74% of all sampling sites are dominated by inorganic particles, 18.5% of all sampling sites are dominated by both phytoplankton and inorganic particles, and the rest of sampling sites which accounts only for 7.4% of all sampling sites are dominated by phytoplankton. This indicates that backscattering character of Chaohu Lake is mainly affected by inorganic particles, while the effect of algae particle is relatively small.

  18. Dynamic mechanical response and a constitutive model of Fe-based high temperature alloy at high temperatures and strain rates.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiang; Wang, Gang; Li, Jianfeng; Rong, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The effects of strain rate and temperature on the dynamic behavior of Fe-based high temperature alloy was studied. The strain rates were 0.001-12,000 s(-1), at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800 °C. A phenomenological constitutive model (Power-Law constitutive model) was proposed considering adiabatic temperature rise and accurate material thermal physical properties. During which, the effects of the specific heat capacity on the adiabatic temperature rise was studied. The constitutive model was verified to be accurate by comparison between predicted and experimental results.

  19. The European style arithmetic Asian option pricing with stochastic interest rate based on Black Scholes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarti, Yuyun Guna; Noviyanti, Lienda; Setyanto, Gatot R.

    2017-03-01

    The stock investment is a high risk investment. Therefore, there are derivative securities to reduce these risks. One of them is Asian option. The most fundamental of option is option pricing. Many factors that determine the option price are underlying asset price, strike price, maturity date, volatility, risk free interest rate and dividends. Various option pricing usually assume that risk free interest rate is constant. While in reality, this factor is stochastic process. The arithmetic Asian option is free from distribution, then, its pricing is done using the modified Black-Scholes model. In this research, the modification use the Curran approximation. This research focuses on the arithmetic Asian option pricing without dividends. The data used is the stock daily closing data of Telkom from January 1 2016 to June 30 2016. Finnaly, those option price can be used as an option trading strategy.

  20. Innovative model-based flow rate optimization for vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an innovative approach is presented to optimize the flow rate of a 6-kW vanadium redox flow battery with realistic stack dimensions. Efficiency is derived using a multi-physics battery model and a newly proposed instantaneous efficiency determination technique. An optimization algorithm is applied to identify optimal flow rates for operation points defined by state-of-charge (SoC) and current. The proposed method is evaluated against the conventional approach of applying Faraday's first law of electrolysis, scaled to the so-called flow factor. To make a fair comparison, the flow factor is also optimized by simulating cycles with different charging/discharging currents. It is shown through the obtained results that the efficiency is increased by up to 1.2% points; in addition, discharge capacity is also increased by up to 1.0 kWh or 5.4%. Detailed loss analysis is carried out for the cycles with maximum and minimum charging/discharging currents. It is shown that the proposed method minimizes the sum of losses caused by concentration over-potential, pumping and diffusion. Furthermore, for the deployed Nafion 115 membrane, it is observed that diffusion losses increase with stack SoC. Therefore, to decrease stack SoC and lower diffusion losses, a higher flow rate during charging than during discharging is reasonable.

  1. A Predictive Model for Vehicle Air Exchange Rates based on a Large, Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Fruin, Scott A.; Hudda, Neelakshi; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    The in-vehicle microenvironment is an important route of exposure to traffic-related pollutants, particularly ultrafine particles. However, significant particle losses can occur under conditions of low air exchange rate (AER) when windows are closed and air is recirculating. AERs are lower for newer vehicles and at lower speeds. Despite the importance of AER in affecting in-vehicle particle exposures, few studies have characterized AER and all have tested only a small number of cars. One reason for this is the difficulty in measuring AER with tracer gases such as SF6 the most common method. We developed a simplified yet accurate method for determining AER using the occupants’ own production of CO2 a convenient compound to measure. By measuring initial CO2 build-up rates and equilibrium values of CO2 at fixed speeds, AER was calculated for 59 vehicles representative of California’s fleet. AER measurements correlated and agreed well with the largest other study conducted (R2=0.83). Multi-variable models captured 70% of the variability in observed AER using only age, mileage, manufacturer and speed. These results will be useful to exposure and epidemiological studies since all model variable values are easily obtainable through questionnaire. PMID:21428392

  2. Predictive model for vehicle air exchange rates based on a large, representative sample.

    PubMed

    Fruin, Scott A; Hudda, Neelakshi; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J

    2011-04-15

    The in-vehicle microenvironment is an important route of exposure to traffic-related pollutants, particularly ultrafine particles. However, significant particle losses can occur under conditions of low air exchange rate (AER) when windows are closed and air is recirculating. AERs are lower for newer vehicles and at lower speeds. Despite the importance of AER in affecting in-vehicle particle exposures, few studies have characterized AER and all have tested only a small number of cars. One reason for this is the difficulty in measuring AER with tracer gases such as SF(6), the most common method. We developed a simplified yet accurate method for determining AER using the occupants' own production of CO(2), a convenient compound to measure. By measuring initial CO(2) build-up rates and equilibrium values of CO(2) at fixed speeds, AER was calculated for 59 vehicles representative of California's fleet. AER measurements correlated and agreed well with the largest other study conducted (R(2) = 0.83). Multivariable models captured 70% of the variability in observed AER using only age, mileage, manufacturer, and speed. These results will be useful to exposure and epidemiological studies since all model variable values are easily obtainable through questionnaire.

  3. A physically based model of temperature and strain rate dependent yield in BCC metals: Implementation into crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Carroll, Jay D.; Boyce, Brad L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop a crystal plasticity finite element model (CP-FEM) that constitutively captures the temperature and strain rate dependent flow stresses in pure BCC refractory metals. This model is based on the kink-pair theory developed by Seeger (1981) and is calibrated to available data from single crystal experiments to produce accurate and convenient constitutive laws that are implemented into a BCC crystal plasticity model. The model is then used to predict temperature and strain rate dependent yield stresses of single and polycrystal BCC refractory metals (molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten and niobium) and compared with existing experimental data. To connect to larger length scales, classical continuum-scale constitutive models are fit to the CP-FEM predictions of polycrystal yield stresses. The results produced by this model, based on kink-pair theory and with origins in dislocation mechanics, show excellent agreement with the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model for temperature and strain-rate dependent flow. This framework provides a method to bridge multiple length scales in modeling the deformation of BCC metals.

  4. A biophysically-based neuromorphic model of spike rate- and timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rachmuth, Guy; Shouval, Harel Z; Bear, Mark F; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2011-12-06

    Current advances in neuromorphic engineering have made it possible to emulate complex neuronal ion channel and intracellular ionic dynamics in real time using highly compact and power-efficient complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) analog very-large-scale-integrated circuit technology. Recently, there has been growing interest in the neuromorphic emulation of the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) Hebbian learning rule by phenomenological modeling using CMOS, memristor or other analog devices. Here, we propose a CMOS circuit implementation of a biophysically grounded neuromorphic (iono-neuromorphic) model of synaptic plasticity that is capable of capturing both the spike rate-dependent plasticity (SRDP, of the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro or BCM type) and STDP rules. The iono-neuromorphic model reproduces bidirectional synaptic changes with NMDA receptor-dependent and intracellular calcium-mediated long-term potentiation or long-term depression assuming retrograde endocannabinoid signaling as a second coincidence detector. Changes in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic weights are registered and stored in a nonvolatile and compact digital format analogous to the discrete insertion and removal of AMPA or GABA receptor channels. The versatile Hebbian synapse device is applicable to a variety of neuroprosthesis, brain-machine interface, neurorobotics, neuromimetic computation, machine learning, and neural-inspired adaptive control problems.

  5. An enhanced rate-based emission trading program for NOX: the Dutch model.

    PubMed

    Sholtz, A M; Van Amburg, B; Wochnick, V K

    2001-12-01

    Since 1997 government and industry in The Netherlands have been engaged in intensive policy discussions on how to design an emission trading program that would satisfy the Government's policy objectives within the national and international regulatory framework and accommodate industry's need for a flexible and cost-effective approach. Early on in the discussion the most promising solution was a rate-based approach, which dynamically allocated saleable emission credits based on a performance standard rate and actual energy used by facilities. All industrial facilities above a threshold of 20 MWth would be judged on their ability to meet this performance rate. Those "cleaner" than the standard can sell excess credits to others with an allocation that is less than their actual NOX emission. With some changes in law, such a design could be made to fit well into the national and EU legislative framework while at the same time uniquely meeting industry's requirement of flexibility toward economic growth and facility expansion. (An analysis of the legislative changes required will be given in a separate paper by Chris Dekkers.) However, the environmental outcome of such a system is not as certain as under an absolute emission cap. At the request of the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), in close cooperation with the working group of government and industry representatives introduced a number of features into the Dutch NOX program allowing full exploitation of market mechanisms while allowing intermediate adjustments in the performance standard rates. The design is geared toward meeting environmental targets without jeopardizing the trading market the program intends to create. The paper discusses the genesis of the two-tier credit system ACE helped to design, explains the differences between primary (fixed) and secondary (variable) credits, and outlines how the Dutch system is expected to

  6. Evolution of the rate of biological aging using a phenotype based computational model.

    PubMed

    Kittas, Aristotelis

    2010-10-07

    In this work I introduce a simple model to study how natural selection acts upon aging, which focuses on the viability of each individual. It is able to reproduce the Gompertz law of mortality and can make predictions about the relation between the level of mutation rates (beneficial/deleterious/neutral), age at reproductive maturity and the degree of biological aging. With no mutations, a population with low age at reproductive maturity R stabilizes at higher density values, while with mutations it reaches its maximum density, because even for large pre-reproductive periods each individual evolves to survive to maturity. Species with very short pre-reproductive periods can only tolerate a small number of detrimental mutations. The probabilities of detrimental (P(d)) or beneficial (P(b)) mutations are demonstrated to greatly affect the process. High absolute values produce peaks in the viability of the population over time. Mutations combined with low selection pressure move the system towards weaker phenotypes. For low values in the ratio P(d)/P(b), the speed at which aging occurs is almost independent of R, while higher values favor significantly species with high R. The value of R is critical to whether the population survives or dies out. The aging rate is controlled by P(d) and P(b) and the amount of the viability of each individual is modified, with neutral mutations allowing the system more "room" to evolve. The process of aging in this simple model is revealed to be fairly complex, yielding a rich variety of results.

  7. Probabilistic short-term forecasting of eruption rate at Kīlauea Volcano using a physics-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Deterministic models of volcanic eruptions yield predictions of future activity conditioned on uncertainty in the current state of the system. Physics-based eruption models are well-suited for deterministic forecasting as they can relate magma physics with a wide range of observations. Yet, physics-based eruption forecasting is strongly limited by an inadequate understanding of volcanic systems, and the need for eruption models to be computationally tractable. At Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, episodic depressurization-pressurization cycles of the magma system generate correlated, quasi-exponential variations in ground deformation and surface height of the active summit lava lake. Deflations are associated with reductions in eruption rate, or even brief eruptive pauses, and thus partly control lava flow advance rates and associated hazard. Because of the relatively well-understood nature of Kīlauea's shallow magma plumbing system, and because more than 600 of these events have been recorded to date, they offer a unique opportunity to refine a physics-based effusive eruption forecasting approach and apply it to lava eruption rates over short (hours to days) time periods. A simple physical model of the volcano ascribes observed data to temporary reductions in magma supply to an elastic reservoir filled with compressible magma. This model can be used to predict the evolution of an ongoing event, but because the mechanism that triggers events is unknown, event durations are modeled stochastically from previous observations. A Bayesian approach incorporates diverse data sets and prior information to simultaneously estimate uncertain model parameters and future states of the system. Forecasts take the form of probability distributions for eruption rate or cumulative erupted volume at some future time. Results demonstrate the significant uncertainties that still remain even for short-term eruption forecasting at a well-monitored volcano - but also the value of a physics-based

  8. Gully recharge rates and debris flows: A combined numerical modeling and field-based investigation, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Yvonne E.; Johnson, E. A.; Chaikina, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall, snowmelt and/or other mass movements are possible triggers to initiate debris flows. In supply-limited landscapes, clastic and organic materials (together termed debris) accumulate in the gully via various geomorphic processes that occur on gully sidewalls. The conceptualization of this phenomenon has been termed the gully recharge rate, with several recent field studies measuring such rates in coastal British Columbia. In the present study, a simple numerical model is introduced to estimate debris flow volumes in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia based on debris flow recurrence intervals, gully recharge rates and factors affecting deposition of debris flow material. Debris flow volumes obtained in model runs are somewhat lower than field-based values by about half, which is a reasonable result for this exploratory study. The annual erosion rate (clastic material) for debris flows in the model run is 0.031 mm yr- 1. This value is about 0.57 × of the field-based value and is lower than the erosion rate for debris slides in Haida Gwaii of 0.1 mm yr- 1. Deposition of debris flows in the model occurs in 60% of cases due to a decrease in channel gradient, with deposition resulting from high stream junction angles being less common. Locations for initiation of debris flow deposition were situated in stream orders 3 and 4 in 60% of cases. Sensitivity analysis shows that in comparison to other model variables, recharge rate has the greatest effect on the statistics and frequency distributions of debris flow volumes and total debris flow volume (summation of all debris activity in a basin) over the study time period.

  9. The contagious nature of imprisonment: an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates.

    PubMed

    Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James

    2014-09-06

    We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible-infected-suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology.

  10. The contagious nature of imprisonment: an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James

    2014-01-01

    We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible–infected–suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology. PMID:24966237

  11. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Becher, T; Schädler, D; Weiler, N; Möller, K

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (pI), inspiration and expiration time (tI, tE) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal pI and adequate tE can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's 'optimized' settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.

  12. A model-based evaluation of sedimentary reconstructions of 10Be production rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Lewis; Plancherel, Yves; Khatiwala, Samar; Henderson, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric production of 10Be is small when solar activity and, therefore, solar magnetic field and total solar irradiance are strong. Variations in solar activity affect climate and the production of other climate-relevant isotopes, such as 14C. Solar activity is thus an important variable to constrain. Since 10Be production is clearly related to solar activity and the cycle of beryllium is simpler than that of carbon, 10Be records in ice cores have been used to reconstruct total solar irradiance variability. Unfortunately, 10Be records in ice cores are not only affected by variations in atmospheric production, but are also modulated by changes in wind patterns since spatiotemporal atmospheric 10Be gradients are quite large. In that context, sedimentary 10Be records from the abyssal ocean could be of great interest: since the residence time of 10Be in the ocean is thought to be comparable to the overturning time-scale of the ocean, spatial 10Be gradients may be relatively weaker than those in the atmosphere. Under these conditions, regional oceanic variability should only weakly affect the distribution of 10Be in the ocean and local sedimentary 10Be records are expected to represent the global average 10Be production better than 10Be measured in ice cores. We here show results from a global ocean model of 10Be that we use to investigate the spatial variability of simulated sedimentary 10Be records and test the sensitivity of the 10Be sedimentary flux to uncertainties in the circulation field and in the particle chemistry of beryllium. Our ocean model is based on the Transport Matrix method. The surface 10Be input fluxes are taken from atmospheric model simulations. Our model experiments, constrained by available dissolved 10Be data, show that there exist regions in the ocean where the sedimentary 10Be flux is relatively insensitive to changes in input patterns and magnitudes, assumed particle chemistry and flux patterns, and ocean circulation. We submit that

  13. Calibrating a physical model based on Geant4 to calculate cosmogenic nuclide production rates on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Dong, Tiekuang; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-04-01

    A physical model based on the open-source toolkit Geant4 for production rates of cosmogenic nuclei on the lunar surface is proposed and calibrated. The fluxes of proton and neutron beneath the lunar surface are obtained by simulating the physical processes between the cosmic-ray particles and the lunar surface material. By combining the experimental proton cross sections and the a posteriori neutron cross sections, we calculate the production rate depth profiles of long-lived nuclei (10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, and 53Mn). Through comparing experimental and theoretical data for these nuclei, we find that for all the selected nuclei, experimental and theoretical production rate depth profiles agree well with each other by introducing a single normalization factor. It means that the physical model based on Geant4 can also reproduce the depth profiles of cosmogenic nuclei, and that this model can be used by everyone worldwide. In addition, we predict the production rates of three stable nuclei (21Ne, 22Ne, and 38Ar).

  14. Correlation of a hypoxia based tumor control model with observed local control rates in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Avanzo, Michele; Stancanello, Joseph; Franchin, Giovanni; Sartor, Giovanna; Jena, Rajesh; Drigo, Annalisa; Dassie, Andrea; Gigante, Marco; Capra, Elvira

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To extend the application of current radiation therapy (RT) based tumor control probability (TCP) models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to include the effects of hypoxia and chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: A TCP model is described based on the linear-quadratic model modified to account for repopulation, chemotherapy, heterogeneity of dose to the tumor, and hypoxia. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which parameters exert the greatest influence on the uncertainty of modeled TCP. On the basis of the sensitivity analysis, the values of specific radiobiological parameters were set to nominal values reported in the literature for NPC or head and neck tumors. The remaining radiobiological parameters were determined by fitting TCP to clinical local control data from published randomized studies using both RT and CRT. Validation of the model was performed by comparison of estimated TCP and average overall local control rate (LCR) for 45 patients treated at the institution with conventional linear-accelerator-based or helical tomotherapy based intensity-modulated RT and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the model is most sensitive to the radiosensitivity term {alpha} and the dose per fraction. The estimated values of {alpha} and OER from data fitting were 0.396 Gy{sup -1} and 1.417. The model estimate of TCP (average 90.9%, range 26.9%-99.2%) showed good correlation with the LCR (86.7%). Conclusions: The model implemented in this work provides clinicians with a useful tool to predict the success rate of treatment, optimize treatment plans, and compare the effects of multimodality therapy.

  15. Chemical weathering rates in deep-sea sediments: Comparison of multicomponent reactive transport models and estimates based on 234U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    Chemical weathering rates in natural systems are typically much slower than expected based on experiments and theory. There are several possible explanations. However, because it has been difficult to determine what effects in particular reduce the rates in specific settings, natural rates remain difficult to predict. Silicate-rich deep-sea sediments provide an ideal in-situ laboratory for investigating weathering rates because certain potentially important factors, such as advective transport through heterogeneous media, limitations on the availability of reactive surface area due to low porosity and/or cementation, unsaturated flow conditions, and seasonal variations in fluid flux and temperature, do not occur in this setting. Geochemical profiles from Site 984 in the North Atlantic are modeled using a multi-component reactive transport model (CRUNCH) to determine in-situ rates of plagioclase dissolution and other diagenetic processes, including sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation. Various possible processes which might contribute to slower rates in the field are considered, including the effect of mineral saturation state, secondary precipitation of clays, inhibition by dissolved aluminum, and the availability of reactive surface area. The reactive transport model includes an isotopic solid-solution formulation that tracks the isotopic composition of precipitating (calcite) and dissolving (plagioclase and calcite) phases, thus allowing the determination of plagioclase dissolution rates. The rate constants for plagioclase determined by geochemical transport modeling of major element profiles are within the same range determined from U-series calculations and suggest that natural weathering rates for this system are on the order of 10-17.5 to 10-17.7 mol/m2/sec assuming estimates of reactive surface area are correct, several orders of magnitude slower than laboratory-derived rates. The slow plagioclase rates are most likely due to the fact that

  16. Specific absorption rates and induced current distributions in an anatomically based human model for plane-wave exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, O.P.; Gu, Y.G.; Chen, J.Y.; Bassen, H.I. )

    1992-09-01

    The authors have previously reported local, layer-averaged, and whole-body-averaged specific absorption rates and induced currents for a 5,628-cell anatomically based model of a human for plane-wave exposures 20-100 MHz. Using a higher resolution, 45,024-cell model of the human body, calculations have now been extended to 915 MHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. Because of the higher resolution of the model, it has been possible to calculate specific absorption rates for various organs (brain, eyes, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, and intestines) and for various parts of the body (head, neck, torso, legs, and arms) as a function of frequency in the band 100-915 MHz. Consistent with some of the experimental data in the literature, the highest part-body-averaged specific absorption rate for the head and neck region (as well as for the eyes and brain) occurs at 200 MHz for the isolated condition and at 150 MHz for the grounded condition of the model. Also observed is an increasing specific absorption rate for the eyes for frequencies above 350 MHz due to the superficial nature of power deposition at increasing frequencies.

  17. Strain-rate sensitivity of foam materials: A numerical study using 3D image-based finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongle; Li, Q. M.; Withers, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    Realistic simulations are increasingly demanded to clarify the dynamic behaviour of foam materials, because, on one hand, the significant variability (e.g. 20% scatter band) of foam properties and the lack of reliable dynamic test methods for foams bring particular difficulty to accurately evaluate the strain-rate sensitivity in experiments; while on the other hand numerical models based on idealised cell structures (e.g. Kelvin and Voronoi) may not be sufficiently representative to capture the actual structural effect. To overcome these limitations, the strain-rate sensitivity of the compressive and tensile properties of closed-cell aluminium Alporas foam is investigated in this study by means of meso-scale realistic finite element (FE) simulations. The FE modelling method based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) image is introduced first, as well as its applications to foam materials. Then the compression and tension of Alporas foam at a wide variety of applied nominal strain-rates are simulated using FE model constructed from the actual cell geometry obtained from the CT image. The stain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength (collapse stress) and tensile strength (0.2% offset yield point) are evaluated when considering different cell-wall material properties. The numerical results show that the rate dependence of cell-wall material is the main cause of the strain-rate hardening of the compressive and tensile strengths at low and intermediate strain-rates. When the strain-rate is sufficiently high, shock compression is initiated, which significantly enhances the stress at the loading end and has complicated effect on the stress at the supporting end. The plastic tensile wave effect is evident at high strain-rates, but shock tension cannot develop in Alporas foam due to the softening associated with single fracture process zone occurring in tensile response. In all cases the micro inertia of individual cell walls subjected to localised deformation is found to

  18. Toy Stories: Modeling Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics is increasingly recognized for its crucial role in developing the foundational skills and understandings for algebra. In this article, the author uses a lesson to introduce the concept of "rates"--comparing two different types and units of measure--and how to graph them. Described is the lesson and shared…

  19. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented.

  20. Modelling temperature-compensated physiological rates, based on the co-ordination of responses to temperature of developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Parent, B; Turc, O; Gibon, Y; Stitt, M; Tardieu, F

    2010-05-01

    Temperature fluctuates rapidly and affects all developmental and metabolic processes. This often obscures the effects of developmental trends or of other environmental conditions when temperature fluctuates naturally. A method is proposed for modelling temperature-compensated rates, based on the coordination of temperature responses of developmental processes. In a data set comprising 41 experiments in the greenhouse, growth chamber, or the field, the temperature responses in the range of 6-36 degrees C for different processes were compared in three species, maize, rice, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Germination, cell division, expansive growth rate, leaf initiation, and phenology showed coordinated temperature responses and followed common laws within each species. The activities of 10 enzymes involved in carbon metabolism exhibited monotonous exponential responses across the whole range 10-40 degrees C. Hence, the temperature dependence of developmental processes is not explained by a simple relationship to central metabolism. Temperature-compensated rates of development were calculated from the equations of response curve, by expressing rates per unit equivalent time at 20 degrees C. This resulted in stable rates when temperatures fluctuated over a large range (for which classical thermal time was inefficient), and in time courses of leaf development which were common to several experiments with different temperature scenarios.

  1. Cancer Detection Rates in a Population-Based, Opportunistic Screening Model, New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Dey, Subhojit; Bhan, Chandra Mohan; Bumb, Dipika; Govil, Jyostna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2017-01-01

    Background In India, cancer accounts for 7.3% of DALY’s, 14.3% of mortality with an age-standardized incident rate of 92.4/100,000 in men and 97.4/100,000 in women and yet there are no nationwide screening programs. Materials and Methods We calculated age-standardized and age-truncated (30-69 years) detection rates for men and women who attended the Indian Cancer Society detection centre, New Delhi from 2011-12. All participants were registered with socio-demographic, medical, family and risk factors history questionnaires, administered clinical examinations to screen for breast, oral, gynecological and other cancers through a comprehensive physical examination and complete blood count. Patients with an abnormal clinical exam or blood result were referred to collaborating institutes for further investigations and follow-up. Results A total of n=3503 were screened during 2011-12 (47.8% men, 51.6% women and 0.6% children <15 years) with a mean age of 47.8 yrs (±15.1 yrs); 80.5% were aged 30-69 years and 77.1% had at least a secondary education. Tobacco use was reported by 15.8%, alcohol consumption by 11.9% and family history of cancer by 9.9% of participants. Follow-up of suspicious cases yielded 45 incident cancers (51.1% in men, 48.9% in women), consisting of 55.5% head and neck (72.0% oral), 28.9% breast, 6.7% gynecological and 8.9% other cancer sites. The age-standardized detection rate for all cancer sites was 340.8/100,000 men and 329.8/100,000 women. Conclusions Cancer screening centres are an effective means of attracting high-risk persons in low-resource settings. Opportunistic screening is one feasible pathway to address the rising cancer burden in urban India through early detection. PMID:25773793

  2. Full-band Monte Carlo model with screened pseudopotential based phonon scattering rates for a lattice with basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hoa; Hofmann, Karl R.; Paasch, Gernot

    2002-11-01

    In advanced full-band Monte Carlo (MC) models, the Nordheim approximation with a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell for a lattice with two atoms per elementary cell is still common, and in the most detailed work on silicon by Kunikiyo [et al.] [J. Appl. Phys. 74, 297 (1994)], the atomic positions in the cell have been incorrectly introduced in the phonon scattering rates. In this article the correct expressions for the phonon scattering rates based on the screened pseudopotential are formulated for the case of several atoms per unit cell. Furthermore, the simplest wave number dependent approximation is introduced, which contains an average of the cell structure factor and the acoustic and the optical deformation potentials as two parameters to be fitted. While the band structure is determined by the pseudopotential at the reciprocal lattice vectors, the phonon scattering rates are essentially determined by wave numbers below the smallest reciprocal lattice vector. Thus, in the phonon scattering rates, the pseudopotential form factor is modeled by the simple Ashcroft model potential, in contrast to the full band structure, which is calculated using a nonlocal pseudopotential scheme. The parameter in the Ashcroft model potential is determined using a method based on the equilibrium condition. For the screening of the pseudopotential form factor, the Lindhard dielectric function is used. Compared to the Nordheim approximation with a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell, the approximation results in up to 10% lower phonon scattering rates. Examples from a detailed comparison of the influence of the two deformation potentials on the electron and hole drift velocities are presented for Ge and Si at different temperatures. The results are prerequisite for a well-founded choice of the two deformation potentials as fit parameters and they provide an explanation of the differences between the two materials, the origin of the anisotropy of the drift velocities, and the origin of the dent in

  3. Improving Snow Process Modeling with Satellite-Based Estimation of Near-Surface-Air-Temperature Lapse Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei

    2017-04-01

    In distributed hydrological modeling, surface air temperature (Tair) is of great importance in simulating cold region processes, while the near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) is crucial to prepare Tair (when interpolating Tair from site observations to model grids). In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) was rigorously evaluated in a typical cold, large river basin (e.g., the upper Yellow River basin), given a mean monthly NLRs. Based on the validated model, we have examined the influence of the NLR on the simulated snow processes and streamflows. We found that the NLR has a large effect on the simulated streamflows, with a maximum difference of greater than 24 % among the various scenarios for NLRs considered. To supplement the insufficient number of monitoring sites for near-surface-air-temperature at developing/undeveloped mountain regions, the nighttime MODIS LST is used as an alternative to derive the approximate NLR at a finer spatial scale (e.g., at different elevation bands, different land covers, different aspects, and different snow conditions). Using satellite-based estimation of NLR, the modeling of snow processes has been greatly refined. Results show that both the determination of rainfall/snowfall and the snow pack process were significantly improved, contributing to a reduced summer evapotranspiration and thus an improved streamflow simulation.

  4. Improving snow process modeling with satellite-based estimation of near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Litao; Shrestha, Maheswor; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chen, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    In distributed hydrological modeling, surface air temperature (Tair) is of great importance in simulating cold region processes, while the near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) is crucial to prepare Tair (when interpolating Tair from site observations to model grids). In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) was rigorously evaluated in a typical cold, large river basin (e.g., the upper Yellow River basin), given a mean monthly NLRs. Based on the validated model, we have examined the influence of the NLR on the simulated snow processes and streamflows. We found that the NLR has a large effect on the simulated streamflows, with a maximum difference of greater than 24% among the various scenarios for NLRs considered. To supplement the insufficient number of monitoring sites for near-surface-air-temperature at developing/undeveloped mountain regions, the nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface temperature is used as an alternative to derive the approximate NLR at a finer spatial scale (e.g., at different elevation bands, different land covers, different aspects, and different snow conditions). Using satellite-based estimation of NLR, the modeling of snow processes has been greatly refined. Results show that both the determination of rainfall/snowfall and the snowpack process were significantly improved, contributing to a reduced summer evapotranspiration and thus an improved streamflow simulation.

  5. Assessing multiscale complexity of short heart rate variability series through a model-based linear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Ranuzzi, Giovanni; De Maria, Beatrice; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    We propose a multiscale complexity (MSC) method assessing irregularity in assigned frequency bands and being appropriate for analyzing the short time series. It is grounded on the identification of the coefficients of an autoregressive model, on the computation of the mean position of the poles generating the components of the power spectral density in an assigned frequency band, and on the assessment of its distance from the unit circle in the complex plane. The MSC method was tested on simulations and applied to the short heart period (HP) variability series recorded during graded head-up tilt in 17 subjects (age from 21 to 54 years, median = 28 years, 7 females) and during paced breathing protocols in 19 subjects (age from 27 to 35 years, median = 31 years, 11 females) to assess the contribution of time scales typical of the cardiac autonomic control, namely in low frequency (LF, from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF, from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz) bands to the complexity of the cardiac regulation. The proposed MSC technique was compared to a traditional model-free multiscale method grounded on information theory, i.e., multiscale entropy (MSE). The approach suggests that the reduction of HP variability complexity observed during graded head-up tilt is due to a regularization of the HP fluctuations in LF band via a possible intervention of sympathetic control and the decrement of HP variability complexity observed during slow breathing is the result of the regularization of the HP variations in both LF and HF bands, thus implying the action of physiological mechanisms working at time scales even different from that of respiration. MSE did not distinguish experimental conditions at time scales larger than 1. Over a short time series MSC allows a more insightful association between cardiac control complexity and physiological mechanisms modulating cardiac rhythm compared to a more traditional tool such as MSE.

  6. Agent-based mathematical modeling as a tool for estimating Trypanosoma cruzi vector-host contact rates.

    PubMed

    Yong, Kamuela E; Mubayi, Anuj; Kribs, Christopher M

    2015-11-01

    The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, spread by triatomine vectors, affects over 100 mammalian species throughout the Americas, including humans, in whom it causes Chagas' disease. In the U.S., only a few autochthonous cases have been documented in humans, but prevalence is high in sylvatic hosts (primarily raccoons in the southeast and woodrats in Texas). The sylvatic transmission of T. cruzi is spread by the vector species Triatoma sanguisuga and Triatoma gerstaeckeri biting their preferred hosts and thus creating multiple interacting vector-host cycles. The goal of this study is to quantify the rate of contacts between different host and vector species native to Texas using an agent-based model framework. The contact rates, which represent bites, are required to estimate transmission coefficients, which can be applied to models of infection dynamics. In addition to quantitative estimates, results confirm host irritability (in conjunction with host density) and vector starvation thresholds and dispersal as determining factors for vector density as well as host-vector contact rates.

  7. Smooth extraction of SVC fine-granular SNR scalable videos with a virtual-GOP-based rate-distortion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Gao, Wen; Zhao, Debin

    2008-01-01

    Fine-Granular SNR scalable (FGS) technologies in H.264/AVC-based scalable video coding (SVC) provide a flexible and effective foundation for scaling FGS enhancement layer (EL) to accommodate different and variable network capacities. To support smooth quality extraction of SVC FGS videos, it's important to obtain the Rate-Distortion (R-D) function of each picture or group of pictures (GOP). In this paper, firstly, we introduce the R-D analysis of SVC FGS coding in our prior work. Then, with the analysis and models, we present virtual GOP concept and a virtual-GOP-based packet scheduling algorithm is proposed to acquire the optimal packet scheduling sequence in a virtual GOP. Based on the packet scheduling algorithm and the R-D analysis of FGS EL, an effective and flexible D-R model is proposed to describe the D-R function of the virtual GOP. Then, with the R-D model of virtual GOPs, a practical non-search algorithm for smooth quality reconstruction is introduced. Compared to the quality layer method, the reconstructed video quality is improved not only objectively but also subjectively.

  8. Experimentally- and Dislocation-Based Multi-scale Modeling of Metal Plasticity Including Temperature and Rate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2005-08-01

    Excluding high-temperature creep, the plastic deformation of metals occurs by the motion of dislocations that produce slip on various slip planes in various slip directions. It is thus natural to seek to develop constitutive relations for metal plasticity, based on the concept of dislocations and their kinematics and kinetics. Such an approach has been successfully used by a number of investigators over the past several decades. More recently, however, the development of the recovery Hopkinson techniques by this writer and his coworkers at UCSD's CEAM, has provided important experimental tools to obtain reliable data on stress-strain response of variety of metals over broad ranges of strain rates and temperatures. A wealth of information has become available to guide and verify constitutive models that are proposed to describe metal plasticity. Using such data, I have been able to create a class of dislocation-based models that involve a few material constants, and seem to accurately characterize the response of a large number of metals over 10-4 to 105/s strain rates, and 77 to 1,300K temperatures.

  9. Real-time inversions for finite fault slip models and rupture geometry based on high-rate GPS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minson, Sarah E.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Gomberg, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an inversion strategy capable of using real-time high-rate GPS data to simultaneously solve for a distributed slip model and fault geometry in real time as a rupture unfolds. We employ Bayesian inference to find the optimal fault geometry and the distribution of possible slip models for that geometry using a simple analytical solution. By adopting an analytical Bayesian approach, we can solve this complex inversion problem (including calculating the uncertainties on our results) in real time. Furthermore, since the joint inversion for distributed slip and fault geometry can be computed in real time, the time required to obtain a source model of the earthquake does not depend on the computational cost. Instead, the time required is controlled by the duration of the rupture and the time required for information to propagate from the source to the receivers. We apply our modeling approach, called Bayesian Evidence-based Fault Orientation and Real-time Earthquake Slip, to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, and a simulated Hayward fault earthquake. In all three cases, the inversion recovers the magnitude, spatial distribution of slip, and fault geometry in real time. Since our inversion relies on static offsets estimated from real-time high-rate GPS data, we also present performance tests of various approaches to estimating quasi-static offsets in real time. We find that the raw high-rate time series are the best data to use for determining the moment magnitude of the event, but slightly smoothing the raw time series helps stabilize the inversion for fault geometry.

  10. Validation of the generalized model of two-phase thermosyphon loop based on experimental measurements of volumetric flow rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieliński, Henryk

    2016-09-01

    The current paper presents the experimental validation of the generalized model of the two-phase thermosyphon loop. The generalized model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condensers and the falling tube. The theoretical analysis and the experimental data have been obtained for a new designed variant. The variant refers to a thermosyphon loop with both minichannels and conventional tubes. The thermosyphon loop consists of an evaporator on the lower vertical section and a condenser on the upper vertical section. The one-dimensional homogeneous and separated two-phase flow models were used in calculations. The latest minichannel heat transfer correlations available in literature were applied. A numerical analysis of the volumetric flow rate in the steady-state has been done. The experiment was conducted on a specially designed test apparatus. Ultrapure water was used as a working fluid. The results show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the measured volumetric flow rate at steady-state.

  11. Monitoring, modeling, and management: why base avian management on vital rates and how should it be done?

    Treesearch

    David F. DeSante; M. Philip Nott; Danielle R. Kaschube

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that effective management of landbirds should be based on assessing and monitoring their vital rates (primary demographic parameters) as well as population trends. This is because environmental stressors and management actions affect vital rates directly and usually without time lags, and because monitoring vital rates provides a) information on...

  12. Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Hu, Qinhong

    2015-09-28

    The additivity model assumed that field-scale reaction properties in a sediment including surface area, reactive site concentration, and reaction rate can be predicted from field-scale grain-size distribution by linearly adding reaction properties estimated in laboratory for individual grain-size fractions. This study evaluated the additivity model in scaling mass transfer-limited, multi-rate uranyl (U(VI)) surface complexation reactions in a contaminated sediment. Experimental data of rate-limited U(VI) desorption in a stirred flow-cell reactor were used to estimate the statistical properties of the rate constants for individual grain-size fractions, which were then used to predict rate-limited U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. The result indicated that the additivity model with respect to the rate of U(VI) desorption provided a good prediction of U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. However, the rate constants were not directly scalable using the additivity model. An approximate additivity model for directly scaling rate constants was subsequently proposed and evaluated. The result found that the approximate model provided a good prediction of the experimental results within statistical uncertainty. This study also found that a gravel-size fraction (2 to 8 mm), which is often ignored in modeling U(VI) sorption and desorption, is statistically significant to the U(VI) desorption in the sediment.

  13. Success rate evaluation of clinical governance implementation in teaching hospitals in Kerman (Iran) based on nine steps of Karsh's model.

    PubMed

    Vali, Leila; Mastaneh, Zahra; Mouseli, Ali; Kardanmoghadam, Vida; Kamali, Sodabeh

    2017-07-01

    One of the ways to improve the quality of services in the health system is through clinical governance. This method aims to create a framework for clinical services providers to be accountable in return for continuing improvement of quality and maintaining standards of services. To evaluate the success rate of clinical governance implementation in Kerman teaching hospitals based on 9 steps of Karsh's Model. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 94 people including chief executive officers (CEOs), nursing managers, clinical governance managers and experts, head nurses and nurses. The required data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire containing 38 questions with three-point Likert Scale (good, moderate, and weak). The Karsh's Model consists of nine steps including top management commitment to change, accountability for change, creating a structured approach for change, training, pilot implementation, communication, feedback, simulation, and end-user participation. Data analysis using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was done by SPSS software version 16. About 81.9 % of respondents were female and 74.5 have a Bachelor of Nursing (BN) degree. In general, the status of clinical governance implementation in studied hospitals based on 9 steps of the model was 44 % (moderate). A significant relationship was observed among accountability and organizational position (p=0.0012) and field of study (p=0.000). Also, there were significant relationships between structure-based approach and organizational position (p=0.007), communication and demographic characteristics (p=0.000), and end-user participation with organizational position (p=0.03). Clinical governance should be implemented by correct needs assessment and participation of all stakeholders, to ensure its enforcement in practice, and to enhance the quality of services.

  14. The Effects of Base Rate, Selection Ratio, Sample Size, and Reliability of Predictors on Predictive Efficiency Indices Associated with Logistic Regression Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.; Leitner, Dennis W.

    While it is imperative that attempts be made to assess the predictive accuracy of any prediction model, traditional measures of predictive accuracy have been criticized as suffering from "the base rate problem." The base rate refers to the relative frequency of occurrence of the event being studied in the population of interest, and the…

  15. Beyond The Blueprint: Development Of Genome-Informed Trait-Based Models For Prediction Of Microbial Dynamics And Biogeochemical Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, E.; King, E.; Molins, S.; Karaoz, U.; Johnson, J. N.; Bouskill, N.; Hug, L. A.; Thomas, B. C.; Castelle, C. J.; Beller, H. R.; Banfield, J. F.; Steefel, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    In soils and sediments microorganisms perform essential ecosystem services through their roles in regulating the stability of carbon and the flux of nutrients, and the purification of water. But these are complex systems with the physical, chemical and biological components all intimately connected. Components of this complexity are gradually being uncovered and our understanding of the extent of microbial functional diversity in particular has been enhanced greatly with the development of cultivation independent approaches. However we have not moved far beyond a descriptive and correlative use of this powerful resource. As the ability to reconstruct thousands of genomes from microbial populations using metagenomic techniques gains momentum, the challenge will be to develop an understanding of how these metabolic blueprints serve to influence the fitness of organisms within these complex systems and how populations emerge and impact the physical and chemical properties of their environment. In the presentation we will discuss the development of a trait-based model of microbial activity that simulates coupled guilds of microorganisms that are parameterized including traits extracted from large-scale metagenomic data. Using a reactive transport framework we simulate the thermodynamics of coupled electron donor and acceptor reactions to predict the energy available for respiration, biomass development and exo-enzyme production. Each group within a functional guild is parameterized with a unique combination of traits governing organism fitness under dynamic environmental conditions. This presentation will address our latest developments in the estimation of trait values related to growth rate and the identification and linkage of key fitness traits associated with respiratory and fermentative pathways, macromolecule depolymerization enzymes and nitrogen fixation from metagenomic data. We are testing model sensitivity to initial microbial composition and intra

  16. A model for wafer scale variation of material removal rate in chemical mechanical polishing based on viscoelastic pad deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guanghui; Chandra, Abhijit

    2002-10-01

    It is well known that within-wafer nonuniformity (WIWNU) due to the variation in material removal rate (MRR) in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) significantly affects the yield of good dies. The process control for a batch CMP operation is further complicated by wafer-to-wafer nonuniformity (WTWNU) caused by MRR decay when a number of wafers are polished with the same unconditioned pad. Accordingly, the present work focuses on modeling the WIWNU and WTWNU in CMP processes. Various material removal models suggest that the MRR is strongly influenced by the interface pressure. It is also well known that the viscoelastic properties of the pad play an important role in CMP. In the present work, an analytical expression for pressure distribution (and its associated MRR) at the wafer-pad interface for a viscoelastic pad is developed. It is observed that under constant load, which is typical during main polishing in CMP, the spatial distribution of the interface pressure profile may change with time from edge-slow to edge-fast, depending on the combination of wafer curvature, down pressure, and pad properties. For constant displacement operations, the pressure profile retains its edge-slow or edge-fast characteristics over time. The analytical model predictions of MRR based on viscoelastic pad properties also correlate very well to existing experimental observations of MRR decay when an unconditioned pad is used to polish a number of wafers. Based on these observations, it may be conjectured that the viscoelastic material properties of the pad play a primary role in causing the observed MRR decay. The analytical results obtained in the present work can also provide an estimation of evolution of thickness removal distribution over the entire wafer. This may be used for determining the optimum thickness of the overburden material and its polishing time, and for effective control of CMP processes.

  17. A physico-chemical properties based model for estimating evaporation and absorption rates of perfumes from skin.

    PubMed

    Kasting, G B; Saiyasombati, P

    2001-02-01

    Because of their potential for inducing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) if used improperly, perfumes are carefully assessed for dermal safety prior to incorporation into cosmetic products. Exposure assessment for these materials often involves the conservative assumption of 100% absorption of each component. This report describes an improved method to estimate the absorption and evaporation of perfume ingredients from skin, based on their physico-chemical properties. The effect of environmental variables such as temperature and wind velocity can be accounted for in a logical way. This was accomplished using a first-order kinetic approach expected to be applicable for small doses applied to skin. Skin penetration rate was calculated as a fraction of the maximum flux estimated from the compound's lipid solubility, S(lip) (represented by the product of octanol/water partition coefficient, K(octt), and water solubility, S(w)), and molecular weight, MW. Evaporation rates were estimated from a modified Henry's Law approach with a stagnant boundary layer whose thickness is a function of surface airflow, v. At a given value of v, evaporation rate was assumed proportional to the ratio P(vp)/S(lip), where P(vp) is the vapour pressure of the ingredient at skin temperature, T. The model predicts a relationship for total evaporation from skin of the form %evap = 100x/(k+x) where x = P(vp)MW(2.7)/(K(oct)S(w)) and k is a parameter which depends only on v and T. Comparison with published data on perfume evaporation from human skin in vivo showed good agreement between theory and experiment for two closely related perfume mixtures (r(2) = 0.52-0.74, s = 12-14%, n = 10). Thus, the method would seem to have a good prospect of providing skin absorption estimates suitable for use in exposure assessment and improved understanding of dose-related contact allergy.

  18. Investigation of the mechanical behavior of kangaroo humeral head cartilage tissue by a porohyperelastic model based on the strain-rate-dependent permeability.

    PubMed

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Senadeera, Wijitha; Li, Tong; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-11-01

    Solid-interstitial fluid interaction, which depends on tissue permeability, is significant to the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of humeral head (shoulder) cartilage. Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to that of the human shoulder, kangaroos present a suitable animal model. Therefore, indentation experiments were conducted on kangaroo shoulder cartilage tissues from low (10(-4)/s) to moderately high (10(-2)/s) strain-rates. A porohyperelastic model was developed based on the experimental characterization; and a permeability function that takes into account the effect of strain-rate on permeability (strain-rate-dependent permeability) was introduced into the model to investigate the effect of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue response. The prediction of the model with the strain-rate-dependent permeability was compared with those of the models using constant permeability and strain-dependent permeability. Compared to the model with constant permeability, the models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability were able to better capture the experimental variation at all strain-rates (p < 0.05). Significant differences were not identified between models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability at strain-rate of 5 × 10(-3)/s (p = 0.179). However, at strain-rate of 10(-2)/s, the model with strain-rate-dependent permeability was significantly better at capturing the experimental results (p < 0.005). The findings thus revealed the significance of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue behavior at large strain-rates, which provides insights into the mechanical deformation mechanisms of cartilage tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement through genetic-ant colony optimization based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huirang; Zheng, Dandan; Nie, Laixiao

    2015-04-01

    For gas ultrasonic flowmeters, the signals received by ultrasonic sensors are susceptible to noise interference. If signals are mingled with noise, a large error in flow measurement can be caused by triggering mistakenly using the traditional double-threshold method. To solve this problem, genetic-ant colony optimization (GACO) based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model is proposed. Furthermore, in consideration of the real-time performance of the flow measurement system, the improvement of processing only the first three cycles of the received signals rather than the whole signal is proposed. Simulation results show that the GACO algorithm has the best estimation accuracy and ant-noise ability compared with the genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, double-threshold and enveloped zero-crossing. Local convergence doesn’t appear with the GACO algorithm until -10 dB. For the GACO algorithm, the converging accuracy and converging speed and the amount of computation are further improved when using the first three cycles (called GACO-3cycles). Experimental results involving actual received signals show that the accuracy of single-gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement can reach 0.5% with GACO-3 cycles, which is better than with the double-threshold method.

  20. [Prediction model of net photosynthetic rate of ginseng under forest based on optimized parameters support vector machine].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-wei; Yu, Hai-ye; Zhang, Lei

    2011-05-01

    Using K-fold cross validation method and two support vector machine functions, four kernel functions, grid-search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, the authors constructed the support vector machine model of the best penalty parameter c and the best correlation coefficient. Using information granulation technology, the authors constructed P particle and epsilon particle about those factors affecting net photosynthetic rate, and reduced these dimensions of the determinant. P particle includes the percent of visible spectrum ingredients. Epsilon particle includes leaf temperature, scattering radiation, air temperature, and so on. It is possible to obtain the best correlation coefficient among photosynthetic effective radiation, visible spectrum and individual net photosynthetic rate by this technology. The authors constructed the training set and the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation, P particle and epsilon particle. The result shows that epsilon-SVR-RBF-genetic algorithm model, nu-SVR-linear-grid-search model and nu-SVR-RBF-genetic algorithm model obtain the correlation coefficient of up to 97% about the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation and P particle. The penalty parameter c of nu-SVR-linear-grid-search model is the minimum, so the model's generalization ability is the best. The authors forecasted the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation, P particle and epsilon particle by the model, and the correlation coefficient is up to 96%.

  1. An Extension to the Constructivist Coding Hypothesis as a Learning Model for Selective Feedback when the Base Rate Is High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Stewart, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Elwin, Juslin, Olsson, and Enkvist (2007) and Henriksson, Elwin, and Juslin (2010) offered the constructivist coding hypothesis to describe how people code the outcomes of their decisions when availability of feedback is conditional on the decision. They provided empirical evidence only for the 0.5 base rate condition. This commentary argues that…

  2. Evidential Impact of Base Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-15

    Darley - Latane study did not affect subjects’ predictions of the behavior of an individual participant in the study, who was observed in a brief filmed...that the situation of the Darley - Latane study is not conducive to helping behavior. Whether an extreme base rate is attributed to an accident of

  3. Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of chitosan/hydroxyapatite biocomposites based on a novel bilayer rate-controlling model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing-Xiao; Ran, Jia-Bing; Chen, Si; Shen, Xin-Yu; Tong, Hua

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare sophisticated biomaterials using a biomimetic approach, a deeper understanding of biomineralization is needed. Of particular importance is the control and regulation of the mineralization process. In this study, a novel bilayer rate-controlling model was designed to investigate the factors potentially influencing mineralization. In the absence of a rate-controlling layer, nano-scale hydroxyapatite (HA) crystallites exhibited a spherical morphology, whereas, in the presence of a rate-controlling layer, HA crystallites were homogeneously dispersed and spindle-like in structure. The mineralization rate had a significant effect on controlling the morphology of crystals. Furthermore, in vitro tests demonstrated that the reaction layer containing spindle-like HA crystallites possessed superior biological properties. These results suggest that a slow mineralization rate is required for controlling the morphology of inorganic crystallites, and consumption by the rate-controlling layer ensured that the ammonia concentration remained low. This study demonstrates that a biomimetic approach can be used to prepare novel biomaterials containing HA crystallites that have different morphologies and biological properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [NDVI difference rate recognition model of deciduous broad-leaved forest based on HJ-CCD remote sensing data].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Huang, Yan; Wei, Hong-Wei

    2013-04-01

    The present paper takes Chuzhou in Anhui Province as the research area, and deciduous broad-leaved forest as the research object. Then it constructs the recognition model about deciduous broad-leaved forest was constructed using NDVI difference rate between leaf expansion and flowering and fruit-bearing, and the model was applied to HJ-CCD remote sensing image on April 1, 2012 and May 4, 2012. At last, the spatial distribution map of deciduous broad-leaved forest was extracted effectively, and the results of extraction were verified and evaluated. The result shows the validity of NDVI difference rate extraction method proposed in this paper and also verifies the applicability of using HJ-CCD data for vegetation classification and recognition.

  5. Statistical modelling of forest fire danger rating based on meteorological, topographical and fuel factors in the Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, M.; Yoon, S.; Jang, K.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Most of fires were human-caused fires in Korea, but meteorological factors are also big contributors to fire behavior and its spread. Thus, meteorological factors as well as social factors were considered in the fire danger rating systems. This study aims to develop an advanced Korean Forest Fire Danger Rating System (KFFDRS) using weather data of automatic mountain meteorology observation systems(AMOSs) to support forest fire prevention strategy in South Korea. The KFFDRS consists of three, 10-scale indices: daily weather index (DWI), fuel model index (FMI), and topography model index (TMI). DWI represents the meteorological characteristics, such as humidity (relative and effective), temperature and wind speed, and we integrated nine logistic regression models of the past into one national model. One integrated national model is [1+exp{2.706+(0.088×maximum temperature)-(0.055×relative humidity)-(0.023×effective humidity)-(0.104×mean wind speed)}-1]-1 and all weather variables significantly (p<0.01) affected the probability of forest fire occurrence in the overall regions. The predictive value of the model is 71.7 percent. Also we estimated accuracy of forest fire occurrences in case of pre or post-fusion of mountain weather data with 55 random sampling in forest fire event days. One integrated national model showed 10% high accuracy than nine logistic regression models when it is applied fused mountain weather data. These findings would be necessary for the policy makers in the Republic of Korea for the prevention of forest fires.

  6. Prediction of pure water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L.

    1995-02-22

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip.

  7. Further tests of a model-based scheme for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, W. W.; Levison, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology was demonstrated for assessing longitudinal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft on the basis of closed-loop criteria. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling quality problems that included the presence of flexible aircraft modes. Using closed-loop performance requirements derived from task analyses and pilot interviews, predictions of performance/workload tradeoffs were obtained using an analytical pilot/vehicle model. A subsequent manned simulation study yielded objective performance measures and Cooper-Harper pilot ratings that were largely consistent with each other and with analytic predictions.

  8. A study of the thermoregulatory characteristics of a liquid-cooled garment with automatic temperature control based on sweat rate: Experimental investigation and biothermal man-model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A. B.; Blackaby, J. R.; Miles, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental results for three subjects walking on a treadmill at exercise rates of up to 590 watts showed that thermal comfort could be maintained in a liquid cooled garment by using an automatic temperature controller based on sweat rate. The addition of head- and neck-cooling to an Apollo type liquid cooled garment increased its effectiveness and resulted in greater subjective comfort. The biothermal model of man developed in the second portion of the study utilized heat rates and exchange coefficients based on the experimental data, and included the cooling provisions of a liquid-cooled garment with automatic temperature control based on sweat rate. Simulation results were good approximations of the experimental results.

  9. A fuzzy-logic-based model to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale mesophilic UASB reactor treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2010-10-15

    A MIMO (multiple inputs and multiple outputs) fuzzy-logic-based model was developed to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale 90-L mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating molasses wastewater. Five input variables such as volumetric organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate (R(V)), influent alkalinity, influent pH and effluent pH were fuzzified by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 134 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the centre of gravity (COG, centroid) methods were employed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two exponential non-linear regression models derived in this study. The UASB reactor showed a remarkable performance on the treatment of molasses wastewater, with an average TCOD removal efficiency of 93 (+/-3)% and an average volumetric TCOD removal rate of 6.87 (+/-3.93) kg TCOD(removed)/m(3)-day, respectively. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to non-linear regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic-based model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both biogas and methane production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98.

  10. Model-based intensification of a fed-batch microbial process for the maximization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production rate.

    PubMed

    Penloglou, Giannis; Vasileiadou, Athina; Chatzidoukas, Christos; Kiparissides, Costas

    2017-08-01

    An integrated metabolic-polymerization-macroscopic model, describing the microbial production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Azohydromonas lata bacteria, was developed and validated using a comprehensive series of experimental measurements. The model accounted for biomass growth, biopolymer accumulation, carbon and nitrogen sources utilization, oxygen mass transfer and uptake rates and average molecular weights of the accumulated PHB, produced under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions. Model predictions were in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The validated model was subsequently utilized to calculate optimal operating conditions and feeding policies for maximizing PHB productivity for desired PHB molecular properties. More specifically, two optimal fed-batch strategies were calculated and experimentally tested: (1) a nitrogen-limited fed-batch policy and (2) a nitrogen sufficient one. The calculated optimal operating policies resulted in a maximum PHB content (94% g/g) in the cultivated bacteria and a biopolymer productivity of 4.2 g/(l h), respectively. Moreover, it was demonstrated that different PHB grades with weight average molecular weights of up to 1513 kg/mol could be produced via the optimal selection of bioprocess operating conditions.

  11. Dielectronic recombination rate in statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, A. V.; Leontyev, D. S.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shurigyn, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The dielectronic recombination rate of multielectron ions was calculated by means of the statistical approach. It is based on an idea of collective excitations of atomic electrons with the local plasma frequencies. These frequencies are expressed via the Thomas-Fermi model electron density distribution. The statistical approach provides fast computation of DR rates that are compared with the modern quantum mechanical calculations. The results are important for current studies of thermonuclear plasmas with the tungsten impurities.

  12. Dielectronic recombination rate in statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, A. V.; Leontyev, D. S.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shurigyn, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The dielectronic recombination rate of multielectron ions was calculated by means of the statistical approach. It is based on an idea of collective excitations of atomic electrons with the local plasma frequencies. These frequencies are expressed via the Thomas-Fermi model electron density distribution. The statistical approach provides fast computation of DR rates that are compared with the modern quantum mechanical calculations. The results are important for current studies of thermonuclear plasmas with the tungsten impurities.

  13. Machine learning and linear regression models to predict catchment-level base cation weathering rates across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povak, Nicholas A.; Hessburg, Paul F.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Salter, R. Brion; Cosby, Bernard J.

    2014-04-01

    Accurate estimates of soil mineral weathering are required for regional critical load (CL) modeling to identify ecosystems at risk of the deleterious effects from acidification. Within a correlative modeling framework, we used modeled catchment-level base cation weathering (BCw) as the response variable to identify key environmental correlates and predict a continuous map of BCw within the southern Appalachian Mountain region. More than 50 initial candidate predictor variables were submitted to a variety of conventional and machine learning regression models. Predictors included aspects of the underlying geology, soils, geomorphology, climate, topographic context, and acidic deposition rates. Low BCw rates were predicted in catchments with low precipitation, siliceous lithology, low soil clay, nitrogen and organic matter contents, and relatively high levels of canopy cover in mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types. Machine learning approaches, particularly random forest modeling, significantly improved model prediction of catchment-level BCw rates over traditional linear regression, with higher model accuracy and lower error rates. Our results confirmed findings from other studies, but also identified several influential climatic predictor variables, interactions, and nonlinearities among the predictors. Results reported here will be used to support regional sulfur critical loads modeling to identify areas impacted by industrially derived atmospheric S inputs. These methods are readily adapted to other regions where accurate CL estimates are required over broad spatial extents to inform policy and management decisions.

  14. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  15. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  16. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  17. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  18. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  19. A process-based model to estimate gas exchange and monoterpene emission rates in the mediterranean maquis - comparisons between modelled and measured fluxes at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M.; Matteucci, G.; Fares, S.; Davison, B.

    2009-02-01

    This paper concerns the application of a process-based model (MOCA, Modelling of Carbon Assessment) as an useful tool for estimating gas exchange, and integrating the empirical algorithms for calculation of monoterpene fluxes, in a Mediterranean maquis of central Italy (Castelporziano, Rome). Simulations were carried out for a range of hypothetical but realistic canopies of the evergreen Quercus ilex (holm oak), Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree) and Phillyrea latifolia. More, the dependence on total leaf area and leaf distribution of monoterpene fluxes at the canopy scale has been considered in the algorithms. Simulation of the gas exchange rates showed higher values for P. latifolia and A. unedo (2.39±0.30 and 3.12±0.27 gC m-2 d-1, respectively) with respect to Q. ilex (1.67±0.08 gC m-2 d-1) in the measuring campaign (May-June). Comparisons of the average Gross Primary Production (GPP) values with those measured by eddy covariance were well in accordance (7.98±0.20 and 6.00±1.46 gC m-2 d-1, respectively, in May-June), although some differences (of about 30%) were evident in a point-to-point comparison. These differences could be explained by considering the non uniformity of the measuring site where diurnal winds blown S-SW direction affecting thus calculations of CO2 and water fluxes. The introduction of some structural parameters in the algorithms for monoterpene calculation allowed to simulate monoterpene emission rates and fluxes which were in accord to those measured (6.50±2.25 vs. 9.39±4.5μg g-1DW h-1 for Q. ilex, and 0.63±0.207μg g-1DW h-1 vs. 0.98±0.30μg g-1DW h-1 for P. latifolia). Some constraints of the MOCA model are discussed, but it is demonstrated to be an useful tool to simulate physiological processes and BVOC fluxes in a very complicated plant distributions and environmental conditions, and necessitating also of a low number of input data.

  20. Disturbance Distance: Combining a process based ecosystem model and remote sensing data to map the vulnerability of U.S. forested ecosystems to potentially altered disturbance rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Disturbance plays a critical role in shaping the structure and function of forested ecosystems as well as the ecosystem services they provide, including but not limited to: carbon storage, biodiversity habitat, water quality and flow, and land atmosphere exchanges of energy and water. In addition, recent studies suggest that disturbance rates may increase in the future under altered climate and land use scenarios. Thus understanding how vulnerable forested ecosystems are to potential changes in disturbance rates is of high importance. This study calculated the theoretical threshold rate of disturbance for which forest ecosystems could no longer be sustained (λ*) across the Coterminous U.S. using an advanced process based ecosystem model (ED). Published rates of disturbance (λ) in 50 study sites were obtained from the North American Forest Disturbance (NAFD) program. Disturbance distance (λ* - λ) was calculated for each site by differencing the model based threshold under current climate conditions and average observed rates of disturbance over the last quarter century. Preliminary results confirm all sample forest sites have current average rates of disturbance below λ*, but there were interesting patterns in the recorded disturbance distances. In general western sites had much smaller disturbance distances, suggesting higher vulnerability to change, while eastern sites showed larger buffers. Ongoing work is being conducted to assess the vulnerability of these sites in the context of potential future changes by propagating scenarios of future climate and land-use change through the analysis.

  1. [A model-based meta-analysis to compare urate-lowering response rate of febuxostat and allopurinol in gout patient].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tian-Yan; Lu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to compare the urate-lowering response rate of febuxostat and allopurinol in gout patient using a model-based meta-analysis. The literature search identified 22 clinical trials of gout with a total of 43 unique treatment arms that met our inclusion criteria, and a total of 6 365 gout patients were included in the study. The response rates of allopuriol and febuxostat were characterized by Tmax model and Emax model respectively, and the effect of baseline serum uric acid (sUA) and patient type on the drug effect was tested. The results showed that allopurinol can reach an average maximum response rate of 50.8% while febuxostat can reach a 100% response rate within a very short time, and the ED50 was 34.3 mg. Covariate analysis revealed that baseline sUA has a negative effect on response rate of allopurinol, and a positive effect on the predicted ED50 of febuxostat. For patients who had shown inadequate response to prior allopurinol treatment, the average response rate was about half that of the allopurinol responder patients.

  2. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  3. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  4. Isovolumic pressure-to-early rapid filling decay rate relation: model-based derivation and validation via simultaneous catheterization echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Chung, Charles S; Ajo, David M; Kovács, Sándor J

    2006-02-01

    Transmitral Doppler echocardiography is the preferred method of noninvasive diastolic function assessment. Correlations between catheterization-based measures of isovolumic relaxation (IVR) and transmitral, early rapid filling (Doppler E-wave)-derived parameters have been observed, but no model-based, causal explanation has been offered. IVR has also been characterized in terms of its duration as IVR time (IVRT) and by tau, the time-constant of IVR, by approximating the terminal left ventricular IVR pressure contour as Pt= Pinfinity + P(o)e(-t/tau), where Pt is the continuity of pressure, Pinfinity and Po are constants, t is time, and tau is the time constant of IVR. To characterize the relation between IVR and early rapid filling more fully, simultaneous (micromanometric) left ventricular pressure and transmitral Doppler E-wave data from 25 subjects undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and having normal physiology were analyzed. The time constant tau was determined from the dP/dt vs. P (phase) plane and, simultaneous Doppler E-waves provided global indexes of chamber viscosity/relaxation (c), chamber stiffness (k), and load (xo). We hypothesize that temporal continuity of pressure decay at mitral valve opening and physiological constraints permit the algebraic derivation of linear relations relating 1/tau to both peak atrioventricular pressure gradient (kxo) and E-wave-derived viscosity/relaxation (c) but does not support a similar, causal (linear) relation between deceleration time and tau or IVRT. Both predicted linear relations were observed: kxo to 1/tau (r = 0.71) and viscosity/relaxation to 1/tau (r = 0.71). Similarly, as anticipated, only a weak linear correlation between deceleration time and IVRT or tau was observed (r = 0.41). The observed in vivo relationship provides insight into the isovolumic mechanism of relaxation and the changing-volume mechanism of early rapid filling via a link of the respective relaxation properties.

  5. Construction of the prediction model between pressure and flow rate for pulsating flows based on the Greenfield-Fry model concerning wave dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sejong; Jin, Jonghan; Cho, Wan-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Wave dispersion is the key feature in understanding pulsating flows in a rigid circular pipe with small diameter. The wave dispersion makes flow signals distorted in the pulsating flows by boundary conditions due to pipe surface. Detailed description of this phenomenon can make the Greenfield-Fry model more practical. This model describes the relationship between the pressure gradient and the flow rate in the rigid circular pipe. Because pressure gradient measurement requires more than two pressure transducers, it would become more practical if only one pressure transducer is needed by applying the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis. This implies that only one pressure transducer is satisfactory for predicting flow signals with the Greenfield-Fry model. By applying the frequency variant convection velocity to consider the wave dispersion, the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis can relate the pressure signals with the flow signals according to the Greenfield-Fry model. In this study, the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis is reformulated into a simpler functional form with the frequency variant convection velocity in a zero-dimensional model with the Newtonian fluid, uniform, laminar, axially and one-dimensional pulsatile flow assumption. An experiment with a blood flow simulator is exemplified to demonstrate its usefulness to predict the flow signals from the pressure signals with the Greenfield-Fry model. Moreover, the three-element Windkessel model is compared to emphasize the importance of the physical model derived from the Navier-Stokes equation, such as the Greenfield-Fry model for the pulsating flows.

  6. A multi-species reactive transport model to estimate biogeochemical rates based on single-well push-pull test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanikumar, Mantha S.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2010-08-01

    Push-pull tests are a popular technique to investigate various aquifer properties and microbial reaction kinetics in situ. Most previous studies have interpreted push-pull test data using approximate analytical solutions to estimate (generally first-order) reaction rate coefficients. Though useful, these analytical solutions may not be able to describe important complexities in rate data. This paper reports the development of a multi-species, radial coordinate numerical model (PPTEST) that includes the effects of sorption, reaction lag time and arbitrary reaction order kinetics to estimate rates in the presence of mixing interfaces such as those created between injected "push" water and native aquifer water. The model has the ability to describe an arbitrary number of species and user-defined reaction rate expressions including Monod/Michelis-Menten kinetics. The FORTRAN code uses a finite-difference numerical model based on the advection-dispersion-reaction equation and was developed to describe the radial flow and transport during a push-pull test. The accuracy of the numerical solutions was assessed by comparing numerical results with analytical solutions and field data available in the literature. The model described the observed breakthrough data for tracers (chloride and iodide-131) and reactive components (sulfate and strontium-85) well and was found to be useful for testing hypotheses related to the complex set of processes operating near mixing interfaces.

  7. Simulating Brain Tumor Heterogeneity with a Multiscale Agent-Based Model: Linking Molecular Signatures, Phenotypes and Expansion Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Strouthos, Costas G.; Wang, Zhihui; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    We have extended our previously developed 3D multi-scale agent-based brain tumor model to simulate cancer heterogeneity and to analyze its impact across the scales of interest. While our algorithm continues to employ an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene-protein interaction network to determine the cells’ phenotype, it now adds an implicit treatment of tumor cell adhesion related to the model’s biochemical microenvironment. We simulate a simplified tumor progression pathway that leads to the emergence of five distinct glioma cell clones with different EGFR density and cell ‘search precisions’. The in silico results show that microscopic tumor heterogeneity can impact the tumor system’s multicellular growth patterns. Our findings further confirm that EGFR density results in the more aggressive clonal populations switching earlier from proliferation-dominated to a more migratory phenotype. Moreover, analyzing the dynamic molecular profile that triggers the phenotypic switch between proliferation and migration, our in silico oncogenomics data display spatial and temporal diversity in documenting the regional impact of tumorigenesis, and thus support the added value of multi-site and repeated assessments in vitro and in vivo. Potential implications from this in silico work for experimental and computational studies are discussed. PMID:20047002

  8. Rate control based on intermediate description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Guo, Yi; Li, Houqiang

    2010-07-01

    Video adaptation has been proved to be an efficient technique in dealing with various constraints such as bandwidth limitation and user requirement in multimedia applications. However, existing methods including Scalable Video Coding and transcoding cannot get a fine performance when bandwidth constraints exist in various scenarios particularly in realtime applications. In this paper, we propose a novel rate control scheme based on intermediate description. The proposed scheme can provide fast rate control for narrow and time-varying transmission channel in scenarios such as video streaming, video sharing and video on demand. In this scheme, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients distribution is modeled by generalized Gaussian distribution, meanwhile the parameter information of this model is stored as side information for rate control. With the stored parameter information, encoder and transcoder can achieve the target bit-rate with low complexity. Furthermore, an initial Quantization Parameter (QP) determination method is also presented to calculate a proper QP for the Instantaneous Decoding Refresh (IDR) picture. Experimental results show that compared with JVT-G012 in H.264, the proposed rate control scheme can save more than 85% encoding time and obtain the required bit-rate more precisely, meanwhile gains a performance improvement by 0.2dB averagely.

  9. Rate process models for thermal welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Scott A.; Pearson, S. D.

    1997-06-01

    Laser tissue welding is a thermal process for binding tow tissues together. Optical and thermal models exist to calculate the temperatures of laser irradiated tissues. However, a rate process model is required to relate the time-temperature history to a weld strength. This paper proposes a first-order rate process model based on contraction during heating. The entropy and enthalpy associated with contraction of porcine intestine in a water bath was measured and used to calculate the fraction of altered molecules for both water bath and laser welding. Intestine was welded to intestine in a water bath at 60-80 degrees C for seven minutes. Pulsed laser welding used 10-30 pulses and an exogenous chromophore. The yield strengths of the welds were measured and found to roughly correlate with the fraction of altered molecules estimated for both the water bath and laser welds.

  10. A regression method for modelling geometric rates.

    PubMed

    Bottai, Matteo

    2015-09-18

    The occurrence of an event of interest over time is often summarized by the incidence rate, defined as the average number of events per person-time. This type of rate applies to events that may occur repeatedly over time on any given subject, such as infections, and Poisson regression represents a natural regression method for modelling the effect of covariates on it. However, for events that can occur only once, such as death, the geometric rate may be a better summary measure. The geometric rate has long been utilized in demography for studying the growth of populations and in finance to compute compound interest on capital. This type of rate, however, is virtually unknown to medical research. This may be partly a consequence of the lack of a regression method for it. This paper describes a regression method for modelling the effect of covariates on the geometric rate. The described method is based on applying quantile regression to a transform of the time-to-event variable. The proposed method is used to analyze mortality in a randomized clinical trial and in an observational epidemiological study.

  11. Disturbance Distance: Using a process based ecosystem model to estimate and map potential thresholds in disturbance rates that would give rise to fundamentally altered ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, K. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.; Flanagan, S.; LePage, Y.; Sahajpal, R.

    2014-12-01

    Disturbance plays a critical role in shaping the structure and function of forested ecosystems as well as the ecosystem services they provide, including but not limited to: carbon storage, biodiversity habitat, water quality and flow, and land atmosphere exchanges of energy and water. As recent studies highlight novel disturbance regimes resulting from pollution, invasive pests and climate change, there is a need to include these alterations in predictions of future forest function and structure. The Ecosystem Demography (ED) model is a mechanistic model of forest ecosystem dynamics in which individual-based forest dynamics can be efficiently implemented over regional to global scales due to advanced scaling methods. We utilize ED to characterize the sensitivity of potential vegetation structure and function to changes in rates of density independent mortality. Disturbance rate within ED can either be altered directly or through the development of sub-models. Disturbance sub-models in ED currently include fire, land use and hurricanes. We use a tiered approach to understand the sensitivity of North American ecosystems to changes in background density independent mortality. Our first analyses were conducted at half-degree spatial resolution with a constant rate of disturbance in space and time, which was altered between runs. Annual climate was held constant at the site level and the land use and fire sub-models were turned off. Results showed an ~ 30% increase in non-forest area across the US when disturbance rates were changed from 0.6% a year to 1.2% a year and a more than 3.5 fold increase in non-forest area when disturbance rates doubled again from 1.2% to 2.4%. Continued runs altered natural background disturbance rates with the existing fire and hurricane sub models turned on as well as historic and future land use. By quantify differences between model outputs that characterize ecosystem structure and function related to the carbon cycle across the US, we

  12. Influence of the formation- and passivation rate of boron-oxygen defects for mitigating carrier-induced degradation in silicon within a hydrogen-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Hallam, Brett Abbott, Malcolm; Nampalli, Nitin; Hamer, Phill; Wenham, Stuart

    2016-02-14

    A three-state model is used to explore the influence of defect formation- and passivation rates of carrier-induced degradation related to boron-oxygen complexes in boron-doped p-type silicon solar cells within a hydrogen-based model. The model highlights that the inability to effectively mitigate carrier-induced degradation at elevated temperatures in previous studies is due to the limited availability of defects for hydrogen passivation, rather than being limited by the defect passivation rate. An acceleration of the defect formation rate is also observed to increase both the effectiveness and speed of carrier-induced degradation mitigation, whereas increases in the passivation rate do not lead to a substantial acceleration of the hydrogen passivation process. For high-throughput mitigation of such carrier-induced degradation on finished solar cell devices, two key factors were found to be required, high-injection conditions (such as by using high intensity illumination) to enable an acceleration of defect formation whilst simultaneously enabling a rapid passivation of the formed defects, and a high temperature to accelerate both defect formation and defect passivation whilst still ensuring an effective mitigation of carrier-induced degradation.

  13. A New Global Geodetic Strain Rate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, C. W.; Klein, E. C.; Blewitt, G.; Shen, Z.; Wang, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Rabaute, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) effort to improve global seismic hazard models, we present a new global geodetic strain rate model. This model (GSRM v. 2) is a vast improvement on the previous model from 2004 (v. 1.2). The model is still based on a finite-element type approach and has deforming cells in between the assumed rigid plates. While v.1.2 contained ~25,000 deforming cells of 0.6° by 0.5° dimension, the new models contains >136,000 cells of 0.25° by 0.2° dimension. We redefined the geometries of the deforming zones based on the definitions of Bird (2003) and Chamot-Rooke and Rabaute (2006). We made some adjustments to the grid geometry at places where seismicity and/or GPS velocities suggested the presence of deforming areas where those previous studies did not. As a result, some plates/blocks identified by Bird (2003) we assumed to deform, and the total number of plates and blocks in GSRM v.2 is 38 (including the Bering block, which Bird (2003) did not consider). GSRM v.1.2 was based on ~5,200 GPS velocities, taken from 86 studies. The new model is based on ~17,000 GPS velocities, taken from 170 studies. The GPS velocity field consists of a 1) ~4900 velocities derived by us for CPS stations publicly available RINEX data and >3.5 years of data, 2) ~1200 velocities for China from a new analysis of all CMONOC data, and 3) velocities published in the literature or made otherwise available to us. All studies were combined into the same reference frame by a 6-parameter transformation using velocities at collocated stations. Because the goal of the project is to model the interseismic strain rate field, we model co-seismic jumps while estimating velocities, ignore periods of post-seismic deformation, and exclude time-series that reflect magmatic and anthropogenic activity. GPS velocities were used to estimate angular velocities for most of the 38 rigid plates and blocks (the rest being taken from the literature), and these were used as boundary

  14. ESCIMO.spread - a spreadsheet-based point snow surface energy balance model to calculate hourly snow water equivalent and melt rates for historical and changing climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, U.; Marke, T.

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the spreadsheet-based point energy balance model ESCIMO.spread which simulates the energy and mass balance as well as melt rates of a snow surface. The model makes use of hourly recordings of temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, global and longwave radiation. The effect of potential climate change on the seasonal evolution of the snow cover can be estimated by modifying the time series of observed temperature and precipitation by means of adjustable parameters. Model output is graphically visualized in hourly and daily diagrams. The results compare well with weekly measured snow water equivalent (SWE). The model is easily portable and adjustable, and runs particularly fast: hourly calculation of a one winter season is instantaneous on a standard computer. ESICMO.spread can be obtained from the authors on request (contact: ulrich.strasser@uni-graz.at).

  15. Improvement of specific growth rate of Pichia pastoris for effective porcine interferon-α production with an on-line model-based glycerol feeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jian-Rong; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Jin, Hu; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2012-02-01

    Effective expression of porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) with recombinant Pichia pastoris was conducted in a bench-scale fermentor. The influence of the glycerol feeding strategy on the specific growth rate and protein production was investigated. The traditional DO-stat feeding strategy led to very low cell growth rate resulting in low dry cell weight (DCW) of about 90 g/L during the subsequent induction phase. The previously reported Artificial Neural Network Pattern Recognition (ANNPR) model-based glycerol feeding strategy improved the cell density to 120 g DCW/L, while the specific growth rate decreased from 0.15 to 0.18 to 0.03-0.08 h(-1) during the last 10 h of the glycerol feeding stage leading to a variation of the porcine interferon-α production, as the glycerol feeding scheme had a significant effect on the induction phase. This problem was resolved by an improved ANNPR model-based feeding strategy to maintain the specific growth rate above 0.11 h(-1). With this feeding strategy, the pIFN-α concentration reached a level of 1.43 g/L, more than 1.5-fold higher than that obtained with the previously adopted feeding strategy. Our results showed that increasing the specific growth rate favored the target protein production and the glycerol feeding methods directly influenced the induction stage. Consequently, higher cell density and specific growth rate as well as effective porcine interferon-α production have been achieved by our novel glycerol feeding strategy.

  16. A flexible cure rate model for spatially correlated survival data based on generalized extreme value distribution and Gaussian process priors.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xia; Dey, Dipak K

    2016-09-01

    Our present work proposes a new survival model in a Bayesian context to analyze right-censored survival data for populations with a surviving fraction, assuming that the log failure time follows a generalized extreme value distribution. Many applications require a more flexible modeling of covariate information than a simple linear or parametric form for all covariate effects. It is also necessary to include the spatial variation in the model, since it is sometimes unexplained by the covariates considered in the analysis. Therefore, the nonlinear covariate effects and the spatial effects are incorporated into the systematic component of our model. Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a natural framework for modeling potentially nonlinear relationship and have recently become extremely powerful in nonlinear regression. Our proposed model adopts a semiparametric Bayesian approach by imposing a GP prior on the nonlinear structure of continuous covariate. With the consideration of data availability and computational complexity, the conditionally autoregressive distribution is placed on the region-specific frailties to handle spatial correlation. The flexibility and gains of our proposed model are illustrated through analyses of simulated data examples as well as a dataset involving a colon cancer clinical trial from the state of Iowa.

  17. Multiplicative earthquake likelihood models incorporating strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, D. A.; Christophersen, A.; Gerstenberger, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe examine the potential for strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> variables to improve long-term earthquake likelihood <span class="hlt">models</span>. We derive a set of multiplicative hybrid earthquake likelihood <span class="hlt">models</span> in which cell <span class="hlt">rates</span> in a spatially uniform baseline <span class="hlt">model</span> are scaled using combinations of covariates derived from earthquake catalogue data, fault data, and strain-<span class="hlt">rates</span> for the New Zealand region. Three components of the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimated from GPS data over the period 1991-2011 are considered: the shear, rotational and dilatational strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are optimised for earthquakes of M 5 and greater over the period 1987-2006 and tested on earthquakes from the period 2012-2015, which is independent of the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates. The shear strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> is overall the most informative individual covariate, as indicated by Molchan error diagrams as well as multiplicative <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Most <span class="hlt">models</span> including strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> are significantly more informative than the best <span class="hlt">models</span> excluding strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> in both the fitting and testing period. A hybrid that combines the shear and dilatational strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> with a smoothed seismicity covariate is the most informative <span class="hlt">model</span> in the fitting period, and a simpler <span class="hlt">model</span> without the dilatational strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> is the most informative in the testing period. These results have implications for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and can be used to improve the background <span class="hlt">model</span> component of medium-term and short-term earthquake forecasting <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26552111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26552111"><span>Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2016 Home Health Prospective Payment System <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Update; Home Health Value-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Purchasing <span class="hlt">Model</span>; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-11-05</p> <p>This final rule will update Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) <span class="hlt">rates</span>, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>, the national per-visit <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor under the Medicare prospective payment system for home health agencies (HHAs), effective for episodes ending on or after January 1, 2016. As required by the Affordable Care Act, this rule implements the 3rd year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This rule updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking and provides a clarification regarding the use of the "initial encounter'' seventh character applicable to certain ICD-10-CM code categories. This final rule will also finalize reductions to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment <span class="hlt">rate</span> in CY 2016, CY 2017, and CY 2018 of 0.97 percent in each year to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014. In addition, this rule implements a HH value-<span class="hlt">based</span> purchasing (HHVBP) <span class="hlt">model</span>, beginning January 1, 2016, in which all Medicare-certified HHAs in selected states will be required to participate. Finally, this rule finalizes minor changes to the home health quality reporting program and minor technical regulations text changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2032B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2032B"><span>Neural network <span class="hlt">model</span> of rupture conditions for elastic material sample <span class="hlt">based</span> on measurements at static loading under different strain <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolgov, I.; Kaverzneva, T.; Kolesova, S.; Lazovskaya, T.; Stolyarov, O.; Tarkhov, D.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The article deals with the problem of predicting of the temporal elongation law of the sample under dynamic loading. The determination of tensile behavior of samples under uniaxial loading is performed by a standard tensile method. The neural network approach is applied to construct an approximate elongation-force dependence using measurement data and posterior <span class="hlt">model</span> of the dependence of rupture conditions on the neural network parameters. The considered approach can be used in the building industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ccta.conf..399W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ccta.conf..399W"><span>The Potential Geographical Distribution of bactrocera Dorsalis (Diptera: Tephrididae) in China <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Emergence <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and Arcgis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zhihong; Wu, Jiajiao; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Wan, Fanghao; Wang, Zhiling</p> <p></p> <p>Precision agriculture is an important choice for the future agriculture. It is the <span class="hlt">base</span> for precision agriculture development to change the state of small-scale farmland production and weak agricultural foundation in China gradually. Combined with the poorness of village in China, the variation of farmland and the dominance of small-scale peasant economy, this paper analyzed the adaptability of farmland landscape pattern to precision agriculture <span class="hlt">based</span> on literatures and farmland landscape survey. With the requirements of precision agricultural production, this paper put forward the standards on cultivated field scale and shape, farmland corridor structure, cultivated field matrix and farmland landscape protection in order to make farmland landscape suitable for precision agriculture and to provide references for the sustainable development of precision agriculture in China.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ApSS...91..332W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ApSS...91..332W"><span>Growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for selective tungsten LPCVD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, H.; Streiter, R.; Schulz, S. E.; Gessner, T.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>Selective chemical vapor deposition of tungsten plugs on sputtered tungsten was performed in a single-wafer cold-wall reactor using silane (SiH 4) and tungsten hexafluoride (WF 6). Extensive SEM measurements of film thickness were carried out to study the dependence of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> on various process conditions, wafer loading, and via dimensions. The results have been interpreted by numerical calculations <span class="hlt">based</span> on a simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> which is also presented. Both continuum fluid dynamics and the ballistic line-of-sight approach are used for transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> is described by an empirical <span class="hlt">rate</span> expression using coefficients fitted from experimental data. In the range 0.2 < p( SiH 4) /p( WF 6) < 0.75 , the reaction order was determined as 1.55 and -0.55 with respect to SiH 4 and WF 6, respectively. For higher partial pressure ratios the second-order <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependence on p(SiH 4) and the minus first-order dependence on p(WF 6) were confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..474...32S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..474...32S"><span>Biological evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> with conditional mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saakian, David B.; Ghazaryan, Makar; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We consider an evolution <span class="hlt">model</span>, in which the mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> depend on the structure of population: the mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> from lower populated sequences to higher populated sequences are reduced. We have applied the Hamilton-Jacobi equation method to solve the <span class="hlt">model</span> and calculate the mean fitness. We have found that the modulated mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, directed to increase the mean fitness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=java+AND+2&pg=5&id=EJ830074','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=java+AND+2&pg=5&id=EJ830074"><span>An "Emergent <span class="hlt">Model</span>" for <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herbert, Sandra; Pierce, Robyn</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Does speed provide a "<span class="hlt">model</span> for" <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in other contexts? Does JavaMathWorlds (JMW), animated simulation software, assist in the development of the "<span class="hlt">model</span> for" <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change? This project investigates the transference of understandings of <span class="hlt">rate</span> gained in a motion context to a non-motion context. Students were 27 14-15 year old students at…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53g3102Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53g3102Z"><span>Dual Cauchy <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> for video coding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zeng, Huanqiang; Chen, Jing; Cai, Canhui</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A dual Cauchy <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed for video coding. In our approach, the coefficient distribution of the integer transform is first studied. Then, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the observation that the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> of the luminance and that of the chrominance can be well expressed by separate Cauchy functions, a dual Cauchy <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented. Furthermore, the simplified <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion formulas are deduced to reduce the computational complexity of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> without losing the accuracy. Experimental results have shown that the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is better able to approximate the actual <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion curve for various sequences with different motion activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905814"><span>Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2017 Home Health Prospective Payment System <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Update; Home Health Value-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Purchasing <span class="hlt">Model</span>; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-11-03</p> <p>This final rule updates the Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>, the national per-visit <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor; effective for home health episodes of care ending on or after January 1, 2017. This rule also: Implements the last year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>; updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking; implements the 2nd-year of a 3-year phase-in of a reduction to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (that is, nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014; finalizes changes to the methodology used to calculate payments made under the HH PPS for high-cost "outlier" episodes of care; implements changes in payment for furnishing Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) using a disposable device for patients under a home health plan of care; discusses our efforts to monitor the potential impacts of the rebasing adjustments; includes an update on subsequent research and analysis as a result of the findings from the home health study; and finalizes changes to the Home Health Value-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Purchasing (HHVBP) <span class="hlt">Model</span>, which was implemented on January 1, 2016; and updates to the Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HH QRP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407883"><span>VR closure <span class="hlt">rates</span> for two vocational <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fraser, Virginia V; Jones, Amanda M; Frounfelker, Rochelle; Harding, Brian; Hardin, Teresa; Bond, Gary R</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) <span class="hlt">model</span> of supported employment is an evidence-<span class="hlt">based</span> practice for individuals with psychiatric disabilities. To be financially viable, IPS programs require funding from the state-federal vocational rehabilitation (VR) system. However, some observers have questioned the compatibility of IPS and the VR system. Using a randomized controlled trial comparing IPS to a well-established vocational program called the Diversified Placement Approach (DPA), we examined <span class="hlt">rates</span> of VR sponsorship and successful VR closures. We also describe the establishment of an active collaboration between a psychiatric rehabilitation agency and the state VR system to facilitate rapid VR sponsorship for IPS clients. Both IPS and DPA achieved a 44% <span class="hlt">rate</span> of VR Status 26 closure when considering all clients entering the study. IPS and DPA averaged similar amount of time to achieve VR sponsorship. Time from vocational program entry to Status 26 was 51 days longer on average for IPS. Even though several IPS principles seem to run counter to VR practices, such as zero exclusion and rapid job search, we found IPS closure <span class="hlt">rates</span> comparable to those for DPA, a vocational <span class="hlt">model</span> that screens for readiness, provides prevocational preparation, and extensively uses agency-run businesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138268"><span>A mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the light response of photosynthetic electron transport <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on light harvesting properties of photosynthetic pigment molecules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ye, Zi-Piao; Robakowski, Piotr; Suggett, David J</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Models</span> describing the light response of photosynthetic electron transport <span class="hlt">rate</span> (ETR) are routinely used to determine how light absorption influences energy, reducing power and yields of primary productivity; however, no single <span class="hlt">model</span> is currently able to provide insight into the fundamental processes that implicitly govern the variability of light absorption. Here we present development and application of a new mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> of ETR for photosystem II <span class="hlt">based</span> on the light harvesting (absorption and transfer to the core 'reaction centres') characteristics of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Within this <span class="hlt">model</span> a series of equations are used to describe novel biophysical and biochemical characteristics of photosynthetic pigment molecules and in turn light harvesting; specifically, the eigen-absorption cross-section and the minimum average lifetime of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited state, which describe the ability of light absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules and retention time of excitons in the excited state but are difficult to be measured directly. We applied this <span class="hlt">model</span> to a series of previously collected fluorescence data and demonstrated that our <span class="hlt">model</span> described well the light response curves of ETR, regardless of whether dynamic down-regulation of PSII occurs, for a range of photosynthetic organisms (Abies alba, Picea abies, Pinus mugo and Emiliania huxleyi). Inherent estimated parameters (e.g. maximum ETR and the saturation irradiance) by our <span class="hlt">model</span> are in very close agreement with the measured data. Overall, our mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> potentially provides novel insights into the regulation of ETR by light harvesting properties as well as dynamical down-regulation of PSII.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G23C..07R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G23C..07R"><span>Geodesy-<span class="hlt">based</span> estimates of loading <span class="hlt">rates</span> on faults beneath the Los Angeles basin with a new, computationally efficient method to <span class="hlt">model</span> dislocations in 3D heterogeneous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rollins, C.; Argus, D. F.; Avouac, J. P.; Landry, W.; Barbot, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>North-south compression across the Los Angeles basin is accommodated by slip on thrust faults beneath the basin that may present significant seismic hazard to Los Angeles. Previous geodesy-<span class="hlt">based</span> efforts to constrain the distributions and <span class="hlt">rates</span> of elastic strain accumulation on these faults [Argus et al 2005, 2012] have found that the elastic <span class="hlt">model</span> used has a first-order impact on the inferred distribution of locking and creep, underlining the need to accurately incorporate the laterally heterogeneous elastic structure and complex fault geometries of the Los Angeles basin into this analysis. We are using Gamra [Landry and Barbot, in prep.], a newly developed adaptive-meshing finite-difference solver, to compute elastostatic Green's functions that incorporate the full 3D regional elastic structure provided by the SCEC Community Velocity <span class="hlt">Model</span>. Among preliminary results from benchmarks, forward <span class="hlt">models</span> and inversions, we find that: 1) for a <span class="hlt">modeled</span> creep source on the edge dislocation geometry from Argus et al [2005], the use of the SCEC CVM material <span class="hlt">model</span> produces surface velocities in the hanging wall that are up to ~50% faster than those predicted in an elastic halfspace <span class="hlt">model</span>; 2) in sensitivity-modulated inversions of the Argus et al [2005] GPS velocity field for slip on the same dislocation source, the use of the CVM deepens the inferred locking depth by ≥3 km compared to an elastic halfspace <span class="hlt">model</span>; 3) when using finite-difference or finite-element <span class="hlt">models</span> with Dirichlet boundary conditions (except for the free surface) for problems of this scale, it is necessary to set the boundaries at least ~100 km away from any slip source or data point to guarantee convergence within 5% of analytical solutions (a result which may be applicable to other static dislocation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> problems and which may scale with the size of the area of interest). Here we will present finalized results from inversions of an updated GPS velocity field [Argus et al, AGU 2015] for the inferred</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=4&id=EJ327424','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=4&id=EJ327424"><span>A Latent Class <span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rost, Jurgen</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A latent class <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">rating</span> data is presented which provides an alternative to the latent trait approach of analyzing test data. It is the analog of Andrich's binomial Rasch <span class="hlt">model</span> for Lazarsfeld's latent class analysis (LCA). Response probabilities for <span class="hlt">rating</span> categories follow a binomial distribution and depend on class-specific item…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040776','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040776"><span>SEE <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Estimation: <span class="hlt">Model</span> Complexity and Data Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ladbury, Ray</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Statistical Methods outlined in [Ladbury, TNS20071 can be generalized for Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Calculation Methods Two Monte Carlo Approaches: a) <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on vendor-supplied (or reverse-engineered) <span class="hlt">model</span> SEE testing and statistical analysis performed to validate <span class="hlt">model</span>; b) <span class="hlt">Rate</span> calculated <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">model</span> fit to SEE data Statistical analysis very similar to case for CREME96. Information Theory allows simultaneous consideration of multiple <span class="hlt">models</span> with different complexities: a) <span class="hlt">Model</span> with lowest AIC usually has greatest predictive power; b) <span class="hlt">Model</span> averaging using AIC weights may give better performance if several <span class="hlt">models</span> have similar good performance; and c) <span class="hlt">Rates</span> can be bounded for a given confidence level over multiple <span class="hlt">models</span>, as well as over the parameter space of a <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26408308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26408308"><span>A Bottom-Up Whole-Body Physiologically <span class="hlt">Based</span> Pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Mechanistically Predict Tissue Distribution and the <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Subcutaneous Absorption of Therapeutic Proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gill, Katherine L; Gardner, Iain; Li, Linzhong; Jamei, Masoud</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ability to predict subcutaneous (SC) absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> and tissue distribution of therapeutic proteins (TPs) using a bottom-up approach is highly desirable early in the drug development process prior to clinical data being available. A whole-body physiologically <span class="hlt">based</span> pharmacokinetic (PBPK) <span class="hlt">model</span>, requiring only a few drug parameters, to predict plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of TPs in humans after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing has been developed. Movement of TPs between vascular and interstitial spaces was described by considering both convection and diffusion processes using a 2-pore framework. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was optimised using a variety of literature sources, such as tissue lymph/plasma concentration ratios in humans and animals, information on the percentage of dose absorbed following SC dosing via lymph in animals and data showing loss of radiolabelled IgG from the SC dosing site in humans. The resultant <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to predict t max and plasma concentration profiles for 12 TPs (molecular weight 8-150 kDa) following SC dosing. The predicted plasma concentration profiles were generally comparable to observed data. t max was predicted within 3-fold of reported values, with one third of the predictions within 0.8-1.25-fold. There was no systematic bias in simulated C max values, although a general trend for underprediction of t max was observed. No clear trend between prediction accuracy of t max and TP isoelectric point or molecular size was apparent. The mechanistic whole-body PBPK <span class="hlt">model</span> described here can be applied to predict absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> of TPs into blood and movement into target tissues following SC dosing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bases+AND+data+AND+management&pg=3&id=EJ831493','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bases+AND+data+AND+management&pg=3&id=EJ831493"><span><span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span>, Contingencies, and Prediction Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kareev, Yaakov; Fiedler, Klaus; Avrahami, Judith</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A skew in the <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of upcoming events can often provide a better cue for accurate predictions than a contingency between signals and events. The authors study prediction behavior and test people's sensitivity to both <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and contingency; they also examine people's ability to compare the benefits of both for prediction. They formalize…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671243','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671243"><span>Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Using a Physiologically <span class="hlt">Based</span> Pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">Model</span> (PBPK)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Loccisano, Anne E.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration <span class="hlt">rate</span> (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives We used a physiologically <span class="hlt">based</span> pharmacokinetic (PBPK) <span class="hlt">model</span> of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS–birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods We modified a PBPK <span class="hlt">model</span> to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: –3.40, –2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: –8.46, –5.80); results <span class="hlt">based</span> on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR–birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: –21.66, –7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: –8.92, –1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Conclusion Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy. Citation Verner MA, Loccisano AE, Morken NH, Yoon M, Wu H, Mc</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741459"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Ghana: application of multivariate GARCH <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nortey, Ezekiel Nn; Ngoh, Delali D; Doku-Amponsah, Kwabena; Ofori-Boateng, Kenneth</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper was aimed at investigating the volatility and conditional relationship among inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> as well as to construct a <span class="hlt">model</span> using multivariate GARCH DCC and BEKK <span class="hlt">models</span> using Ghana data from January 1990 to December 2013. The study revealed that the cumulative depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar from 1990 to 2013 is 7,010.2% and the yearly weighted depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar for the period is 20.4%. There was evidence that, the fact that inflation <span class="hlt">rate</span> was stable, does not mean that exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> are expected to be stable. Rather, when the cedi performs well on the forex, inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> react positively and become stable in the long run. The BEKK <span class="hlt">model</span> is robust to <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and forecasting volatility of inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The DCC <span class="hlt">model</span> is robust to <span class="hlt">model</span> the conditional and unconditional correlation among inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The BEKK <span class="hlt">model</span>, which forecasted high exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> volatility for the year 2014, is very robust for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Ghana. The mean equation of the DCC <span class="hlt">model</span> is also robust to forecast inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Ghana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5587002','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5587002"><span>Success <span class="hlt">rate</span> evaluation of clinical governance implementation in teaching hospitals in Kerman (Iran) <span class="hlt">based</span> on nine steps of Karsh’s <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vali, Leila; Mastaneh, Zahra; Mouseli, Ali; Kardanmoghadam, Vida; Kamali, Sodabeh</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background One of the ways to improve the quality of services in the health system is through clinical governance. This method aims to create a framework for clinical services providers to be accountable in return for continuing improvement of quality and maintaining standards of services. Objective To evaluate the success <span class="hlt">rate</span> of clinical governance implementation in Kerman teaching hospitals <span class="hlt">based</span> on 9 steps of Karsh’s <span class="hlt">Model</span>. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 94 people including chief executive officers (CEOs), nursing managers, clinical governance managers and experts, head nurses and nurses. The required data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire containing 38 questions with three-point Likert Scale (good, moderate, and weak). The Karsh’s <span class="hlt">Model</span> consists of nine steps including top management commitment to change, accountability for change, creating a structured approach for change, training, pilot implementation, communication, feedback, simulation, and end-user participation. Data analysis using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was done by SPSS software version 16. Results About 81.9 % of respondents were female and 74.5 have a Bachelor of Nursing (BN) degree. In general, the status of clinical governance implementation in studied hospitals <span class="hlt">based</span> on 9 steps of the <span class="hlt">model</span> was 44 % (moderate). A significant relationship was observed among accountability and organizational position (p=0.0012) and field of study (p=0.000). Also, there were significant relationships between structure-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach and organizational position (p=0.007), communication and demographic characteristics (p=0.000), and end-user participation with organizational position (p=0.03). Conclusion Clinical governance should be implemented by correct needs assessment and participation of all stakeholders, to ensure its enforcement in practice, and to enhance the quality of services. PMID:28894544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414629"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> temporal sequences of cognitive state changes <span class="hlt">based</span> on a combination of EEG-engagement, EEG-workload, and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> metrics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stikic, Maja; Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J; Rubio, Roberto F; Tan, Veasna; Korszen, Stephanie; Barba, Douglas; Wurzer, David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of physiological metrics such as ECG-derived heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> and EEG-derived cognitive workload and engagement as potential predictors of performance on different training tasks. An unsupervised approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on self-organizing neural network (NN) was utilized to <span class="hlt">model</span> cognitive state changes over time. The feature vector comprised EEG-engagement, EEG-workload, and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> metrics, all self-normalized to account for individual differences. During the competitive training process, a linear topology was developed where the feature vectors similar to each other activated the same NN nodes. The NN <span class="hlt">model</span> was trained and auto-validated on combat marksmanship training data from 51 participants that were required to make "deadly force decisions" in challenging combat scenarios. The trained NN <span class="hlt">model</span> was cross validated using 10-fold cross-validation. It was also validated on a golf study in which additional 22 participants were asked to complete 10 sessions of 10 putts each. Temporal sequences of the activated nodes for both studies followed the same pattern of changes, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of the approach. Most node transition changes were local, but important events typically caused significant changes in the physiological metrics, as evidenced by larger state changes. This was investigated by calculating a transition score as the sum of subsequent state transitions between the activated NN nodes. Correlation analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the transition scores and subjects' performances in both studies. This paper explored the hypothesis that temporal sequences of physiological changes comprise the discriminative patterns for performance prediction. These physiological markers could be utilized in future training improvement systems (e.g., through neurofeedback), and applied across a variety of training environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4220677','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4220677"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> temporal sequences of cognitive state changes <span class="hlt">based</span> on a combination of EEG-engagement, EEG-workload, and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> metrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stikic, Maja; Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Rubio, Roberto F.; Tan, Veasna; Korszen, Stephanie; Barba, Douglas; Wurzer, David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of physiological metrics such as ECG-derived heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> and EEG-derived cognitive workload and engagement as potential predictors of performance on different training tasks. An unsupervised approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on self-organizing neural network (NN) was utilized to <span class="hlt">model</span> cognitive state changes over time. The feature vector comprised EEG-engagement, EEG-workload, and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> metrics, all self-normalized to account for individual differences. During the competitive training process, a linear topology was developed where the feature vectors similar to each other activated the same NN nodes. The NN <span class="hlt">model</span> was trained and auto-validated on combat marksmanship training data from 51 participants that were required to make “deadly force decisions” in challenging combat scenarios. The trained NN <span class="hlt">model</span> was cross validated using 10-fold cross-validation. It was also validated on a golf study in which additional 22 participants were asked to complete 10 sessions of 10 putts each. Temporal sequences of the activated nodes for both studies followed the same pattern of changes, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of the approach. Most node transition changes were local, but important events typically caused significant changes in the physiological metrics, as evidenced by larger state changes. This was investigated by calculating a transition score as the sum of subsequent state transitions between the activated NN nodes. Correlation analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the transition scores and subjects' performances in both studies. This paper explored the hypothesis that temporal sequences of physiological changes comprise the discriminative patterns for performance prediction. These physiological markers could be utilized in future training improvement systems (e.g., through neurofeedback), and applied across a variety of training environments. PMID:25414629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036150&hterms=Xiaodong&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DXiaodong','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036150&hterms=Xiaodong&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DXiaodong"><span>A probability distribution <span class="hlt">model</span> for rain <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kedem, Benjamin; Pavlopoulos, Harry; Guan, Xiaodong; Short, David A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A systematic approach is suggested for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the probability distribution of rain <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Rain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, conditional on rain and averaged over a region, is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as a temporally homogeneous diffusion process with appropiate boundary conditions. The approach requires a drift coefficient-conditional average instantaneous <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change of rain intensity-as well as a diffusion coefficient-the conditional average magnitude of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of growth and decay of rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> about its drift. Under certain assumptions on the drift and diffusion coefficients compatible with rain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, a new parametric family-containing the lognormal distribution-is obtained for the continuous part of the stationary limit probability distribution. The family is fitted to tropical rainfall from Darwin and Florida, and it is found that the lognormal distribution provides adequate fits as compared with other members of the family and also with the gamma distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230202"><span>Minority Utility <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Design Assessment <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poyer, David A.; Butler, John G.</p> <p>2003-01-20</p> <p>Econometric <span class="hlt">model</span> simulates consumer demand response to various user-supplied, two-part tariff electricity <span class="hlt">rate</span> designs and assesses their economic welfare impact on black, hispanic, poor and majority households.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793c0027H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793c0027H"><span>Calibrating reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the CREST <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Handley, Caroline A.; Christie, Michael A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The CREST reactive-burn <span class="hlt">model</span> uses entropy-dependent reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> that, until now, have been manually tuned to fit shock-initiation and detonation data in hydrocode simulations. This paper describes the initial development of an automatic method for calibrating CREST reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients, using particle swarm optimisation. The automatic method is applied to EDC32, to help develop the first CREST <span class="hlt">model</span> for this conventional high explosive.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19422751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19422751"><span>Techniques for managing behaviour in pediatric dentistry: comparative study of live <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and tell-show-do <span class="hlt">based</span> on children's heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> during treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farhat-McHayleh, Nada; Harfouche, Alice; Souaid, Philippe</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Tell-show-do is the most popular technique for managing children"s behaviour in dentists" offices. Live <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is used less frequently, despite the satisfactory results obtained in studies conducted during the 1980s. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these 2 techniques on children"s heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> during dental treatments, heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> being the simplest biological parameter to measure and an increase in heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> being the most common physiologic indicator of anxiety and fear. For this randomized, controlled, parallel-group single-centre clinical trial, children 5 to 9 years of age presenting for the first time to the Saint Joseph University dental care centre in Beirut, Lebanon, were divided into 3 groups: those in groups A and B were prepared for dental treatment by means of live <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, the mother serving as the <span class="hlt">model</span> for children in group A and the father as the <span class="hlt">model</span> for children in group B. The children in group C were prepared by a pediatric dentist using the tell-show-do method. Each child"s heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> was monitored during treatment, which consisted of an oral examination and cleaning. A total of 155 children met the study criteria and participated in the study. Children who received live <span class="hlt">modelling</span> with the mother as <span class="hlt">model</span> had lower heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> than those who received live <span class="hlt">modelling</span> with the father as <span class="hlt">model</span> and those who were prepared by the tell-show-do method (p < 0.01). The <span class="hlt">model</span> used for live <span class="hlt">modelling</span> (father or mother) and the child"s age were determining factors in the results obtained. Live <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is a technique worth practising in pediatric dentistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044916"><span>Single crystal plasticity by <span class="hlt">modeling</span> dislocation density <span class="hlt">rate</span> behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hansen, Benjamin L; Bronkhorst, Curt; Beyerlein, Irene; Cerreta, E. K.; Dennis-Koller, Darcie</p> <p>2010-12-23</p> <p>The goal of this work is to formulate a constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for the deformation of metals over a wide range of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Damage and failure of materials frequently occurs at a variety of deformation <span class="hlt">rates</span> within the same sample. The present state of the art in single crystal constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> relies on thermally-activated <span class="hlt">models</span> which are believed to become less reliable for problems exceeding strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. This talk presents work in which we extend the applicability of the single crystal <span class="hlt">model</span> to the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> region where dislocation drag is believed to dominate. The elastic <span class="hlt">model</span> includes effects from volumetric change and pressure sensitive moduli. The plastic <span class="hlt">model</span> transitions from the low-<span class="hlt">rate</span> thermally-activated regime to the high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> drag dominated regime. The direct use of dislocation density as a state parameter gives a measurable physical mechanism to strain hardening. Dislocation densities are separated according to type and given a systematic set of interactions <span class="hlt">rates</span> adaptable by type. The form of the constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is motivated by previously published dislocation dynamics work which articulated important behaviors unique to high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> response in fcc systems. The proposed material <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporates thermal coupling. The hardening <span class="hlt">model</span> tracks the varying dislocation population with respect to each slip plane and computes the slip resistance <span class="hlt">based</span> on those values. Comparisons can be made between the responses of single crystals and polycrystals at a variety of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The material <span class="hlt">model</span> is fit to copper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121i4505I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121i4505I"><span>3D <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and characterization of a calorimetric flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensor for sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensing applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iftekhar, Ahmed Tashfin; Ho, Jenny Che-Ting; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Sweat-<span class="hlt">based</span> physiological monitoring has been intensively explored in the last decade with the hopes of developing real-time hydration monitoring devices. Although the content of sweat (electrolytes, lactate, urea, etc.) provides significant information about the physiology, it is also very important to know the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of sweat at the time of sweat content measurements because the sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> is known to alter the concentrations of sweat compounds. We developed a calorimetric <span class="hlt">based</span> flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensor using PolydimethylSiloxane that is suitable for sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> applications. Our simple approach on using temperature-<span class="hlt">based</span> flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> detection can easily be adapted to multiple sweat collection and analysis devices. Moreover, we have developed a 3D finite element analysis <span class="hlt">model</span> of the device using COMSOL Multiphysics™ and verified the flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements. The experiment investigated flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> values from 0.3 μl/min up to 2.1 ml/min, which covers the human sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> range (0.5 μl/min-10 μl/min). The 3D <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations and analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations covered an even wider range in order to understand the main physical mechanisms of the device. With a verified 3D <span class="hlt">model</span>, different environmental heat conditions could be further studied to shed light on the physiology of the sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7562E..0XS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7562E..0XS"><span>Collagen thermal denaturation study for thermal angioplasty <span class="hlt">based</span> on modified kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span>: relation between the artery mechanical properties and collagen denaturation <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimazaki, N.; Hayashi, T.; Kunio, M.; Arai, T.</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>We have been developing the novel short-term heating angioplasty in which sufficient artery lumen-dilatation was attained with thermal softening of collagen fiber in artery wall. In the present study, we investigated on the relation between the mechanical properties of heated artery and thermal denaturation fractures of arterial collagen in ex vivo. We employed Lumry-Eyring <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate temperature- and time-dependent thermal denaturation fractures of arterial collagen fiber during heating. We made a kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of arterial collagen thermal denaturation by adjustment of K and k in this <span class="hlt">model</span>, those were the equilibrium constant of reversible denaturation and the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constant of irreversible denaturation. Meanwhile we demonstrated that the change of reduced scattering coefficient of whole artery wall during heating reflected the reversible denaturation of the collagen in artery wall. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on this phenomenon, the K was determined experimentally by backscattered light intensity measurement (at 633nm) of extracted porcine carotid artery during temperature elevation and descending (25°C-->80°C-->25°C). We employed the value of according to our earlier report in which the time-and temperature- dependent irreversible denaturation amount of the artery collagen fiber that was assessed by the artery birefringence. Then, the time- and temperature- dependent reversible (irreversible) denaturation fraction defined as the reversible ((irreversible) denatured collagen amount) / (total collagen amount) was calculated by the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Thermo-mechanical analysis of artery wall was performed to compare the arterial mechanical behaviors (softening, shrinkage) during heating with the calculated denaturation fraction with the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In any artery temperature condition in 70-80°, the irreversible denaturation fraction at which the artery thermal shrinkage started was estimated to be around 20%. On the other hand, the calculated irreversible denaturation fraction remained below</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/47559','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/47559"><span>Machine learning and linear regression <span class="hlt">models</span> to predict catchment-level <span class="hlt">base</span> cation weathering <span class="hlt">rates</span> across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Nicholas A. Povak; Paul F. Hessburg; Todd C. McDonnell; Keith M. Reynolds; Timothy J. Sullivan; R. Brion Salter; Bernard J. Crosby</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of soil mineral weathering are required for regional critical load (CL) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to identify ecosystems at risk of the deleterious effects from acidification. Within a correlative <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework, we used <span class="hlt">modeled</span> catchment-level <span class="hlt">base</span> cation weathering (BCw) as the response variable to identify key environmental correlates and predict a continuous...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198..270H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198..270H"><span>An ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span> with varying productivity <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harte, D. S.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We present an epidemic type aftershock sequenc (ETAS) <span class="hlt">model</span> where the offspring <span class="hlt">rates</span> vary both spatially and temporally. This is achieved by distinguishing between those space-time volumes where the interpoint space and time distances are small, and those where they are considerably larger. We also question the nature of the background component in the ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span>. Is it simply a temporal boundary correction (t = 0) or does it represent an additional tectonic process not described by the aftershock component? The form of these stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> should not be considered to be fixed. As we accumulate larger and better earthquake catalogues, GPS data, strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>, etc., we have the ability to ask more complex questions about the nature of the process. By fitting modified <span class="hlt">models</span> consistent with such questions, we should gain a better insight into the earthquake process. Hence, we consider a sequence of incrementally modified ETAS type <span class="hlt">models</span> rather than `the' ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24472588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24472588"><span>Introducing AORN's new <span class="hlt">model</span> for evidence <span class="hlt">rating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spruce, Lisa; Van Wicklin, Sharon A; Hicks, Rodney W; Conner, Ramona; Dunn, Debra</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Nurses today are expected to implement evidence-<span class="hlt">based</span> practices in the perioperative setting to assess and implement practice changes. All evidence-<span class="hlt">based</span> practice begins with a question, a practice problem to address, or a needed change that is identified. To assess the question, a literature search is performed and relevant literature is identified and appraised. The types of evidence used to inform practice can be scientific research (eg, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews) or nonresearch evidence (eg, regulatory and accrediting agency requirements, professional association practice standards and guidelines, quality improvement project reports). The AORN recommended practices are a synthesis of related knowledge on a given topic, and the authorship process begins with a systematic review of the literature conducted in collaboration with a medical librarian. At least two appraisers independently evaluate the applicable literature for quality and strength by using the AORN Research Appraisal Tool and AORN Non-Research Appraisal Tool. To collectively appraise the evidence supporting particular practice recommendations, the AORN recommended practices authors have implemented a new evidence <span class="hlt">rating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> that is appropriate for research and nonresearch literature and that is relevant to the perioperative setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7744E..2NY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7744E..2NY"><span><span class="hlt">Rate</span> control algorithm <span class="hlt">based</span> on frame complexity estimation for MVC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Tao; An, Ping; Shen, Liquan; Zhang, Zhaoyang</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rate</span> control has not been well studied for multi-view video coding (MVC). In this paper, we propose an efficient <span class="hlt">rate</span> control algorithm for MVC by improving the quadratic <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion (R-D) <span class="hlt">model</span>, which reasonably allocate bit-<span class="hlt">rate</span> among views <span class="hlt">based</span> on correlation analysis. The proposed algorithm consists of four levels for <span class="hlt">rate</span> bits control more accurately, of which the frame layer allocates bits according to frame complexity and temporal activity. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently implement bit allocation and <span class="hlt">rate</span> control according to coding parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RaSc...31..281M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RaSc...31..281M"><span>Physical-mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the dynamics of rain attenuation <span class="hlt">based</span> on rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> time series and a two-layer vertical structure of precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matricciani, Emilio</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>We have developed and discussed the theory and applications of a physical-mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the dynamics of rain attenuation and have tested it as a rain attenuation prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> in slant paths. Other parameters, however, such as fade durations and <span class="hlt">rates</span> of change of fades, can be calculated. The main physical input is the 1-min rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> time series of a site, which is converted to a rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> space series along horizontal or slant paths by using an estimate of the storm translation speed v method known as "synthetic storm technique." However, the long-term predictions are found to be insensitive to v. The vertical structure of precipitation is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with two layers. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was tested against the probability distributions of rain long-term 11.6-GHz attenuation collected at the three Italian stations (Fucino, Gera Lario, and Spino d'Adda) during the SIRIO propagation experiment (13 years of data) for which concurrent rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> time series are available. In the outage probability range 10-1 to 5×10-3% defined the prediction error ɛ = ( Ap - Am) / Am (where Am and Ap are respectively, the measured and predicted rain attenuations, dB), <ɛ> = -10.6%, σ=7.6% and rms=13%. Compared to nine other well-known prediction methods, the present <span class="hlt">model</span> surmounts all of them in the three sites tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RANDOM+AND+MATRIX+AND+THEORY&id=EJ782085','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RANDOM+AND+MATRIX+AND+THEORY&id=EJ782085"><span>Covariates of the <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Process in Hierarchical <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Multiple <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> of Test Items</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mariano, Louis T.; Junker, Brian W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>When constructed response test items are scored by more than one rater, the repeated <span class="hlt">ratings</span> allow for the consideration of individual rater bias and variability in estimating student proficiency. Several hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on item response theory have been introduced to <span class="hlt">model</span> such effects. In this article, the authors demonstrate how these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=random+AND+matrix+AND+theory&id=EJ782085','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=random+AND+matrix+AND+theory&id=EJ782085"><span>Covariates of the <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Process in Hierarchical <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Multiple <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> of Test Items</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mariano, Louis T.; Junker, Brian W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>When constructed response test items are scored by more than one rater, the repeated <span class="hlt">ratings</span> allow for the consideration of individual rater bias and variability in estimating student proficiency. Several hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on item response theory have been introduced to <span class="hlt">model</span> such effects. In this article, the authors demonstrate how these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..74....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..74....1B"><span>Surface ozone photolysis <span class="hlt">rate</span> trends in the Eastern Mediterranean: <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the effects of aerosols and total column ozone <span class="hlt">based</span> on Terra MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benas, N.; Mourtzanou, E.; Kouvarakis, G.; Bais, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Vardavas, I.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The surface ozone photolysis <span class="hlt">rate</span> (J(O1D)) was computed on a daily basis and on a 50 km × 50 km resolution for the 11-year period 2000-2010 at Finokalia meteorological station in Crete, Greece. A radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span> was used, with climatological data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra satellite. The area is representative of the Eastern Mediterranean, a region with high variability in aerosol loads and total column ozone. Instantaneous values of J(O1D) computed from the <span class="hlt">model</span> were validated against corresponding station measurements available during the 5-year period 2002-2006. Monthly mean values of J(O1D) during the 11-year period examined, reveal a statistically significant decreasing trend, <span class="hlt">based</span> on Terra MODIS data, which shows an overall 13% decrease. The aerosol effect on J(O1D) varies on a daily basis, depending on the aerosol load, and can exceed -10% during dust events, with a median value of -2.3% over the whole period examined. On a seasonal basis, the aerosol effect on J(O1D) follows the seasonal pattern of the aerosol load, with higher values in spring and autumn, due to the increased Saharan dust episodes during these seasons. Linear regression analysis on monthly mean values of total column ozone revealed a statistically significant increasing trend in both Finokalia and Thessaloniki stations. Total column ozone MODIS data were validated against spectroradiometric (columnar) measurements at Thessaloniki station. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of total column ozone on J(O1D) showed that a 10% variation in total ozone causes a corresponding 15-17% change in J(O1D). These results suggest that the decreasing trend in J(O1D) found in the case of Terra MODIS should be attributed mainly to the corresponding increasing trend in total column ozone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3598205','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3598205"><span>Validation of a transparent decision <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">rate</span> drug interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Multiple databases provide <span class="hlt">ratings</span> of drug-drug interactions. The <span class="hlt">ratings</span> are often <span class="hlt">based</span> on different criteria and lack background information on the decision making process. User acceptance of <span class="hlt">rating</span> systems could be improved by providing a transparent decision path for each category. Methods We <span class="hlt">rated</span> 200 randomly selected potential drug-drug interactions by a transparent decision <span class="hlt">model</span> developed by our team. The cases were generated from ward round observations and physicians’ queries from an outpatient setting. We compared our <span class="hlt">ratings</span> to those assigned by a senior clinical pharmacologist and by a standard interaction database, and thus validated the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results The decision <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">rated</span> consistently with the standard database and the pharmacologist in 94 and 156 cases, respectively. In two cases the <span class="hlt">model</span> decision required correction. Following removal of systematic <span class="hlt">model</span> construction differences, the DM was fully consistent with other <span class="hlt">rating</span> systems. Conclusion The decision <span class="hlt">model</span> reproducibly <span class="hlt">rates</span> interactions and elucidates systematic differences. We propose to supply validated decision paths alongside the interaction <span class="hlt">rating</span> to improve comprehensibility and to enable physicians to interpret the <span class="hlt">ratings</span> in a clinical context. PMID:22950884</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11290215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11290215"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability in healthy humans: a turbulence analogy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, D C; Hughson, R L</p> <p>2001-02-19</p> <p>Many complex systems share similar statistical characteristics. In this Letter, a turbulence analogy is proposed for the long-term heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability of healthy humans. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on such an analogy, the equivalence of an inertial range is found and a cascade <span class="hlt">model</span>, which captures the statistical properties of the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> data, is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvL..86.1650L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvL..86.1650L"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Heart <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Variability in Healthy Humans: A Turbulence Analogy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, D. C.; Hughson, R. L.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>Many complex systems share similar statistical characteristics. In this Letter, a turbulence analogy is proposed for the long-term heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability of healthy humans. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on such an analogy, the equivalence of an inertial range is found and a cascade <span class="hlt">model</span>, which captures the statistical properties of the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> data, is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26127057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26127057"><span>A generic high-dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> (192)Ir brachytherapy source for evaluation of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ballester, Facundo; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Granero, Domingo; Haworth, Annette; Mourtada, Firas; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis; Rivard, Mark J; Siebert, Frank-André; Sloboda, Ron S; Smith, Ryan L; Thomson, Rowan M; Verhaegen, Frank; Vijande, Javier; Ma, Yunzhi; Beaulieu, Luc</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to <span class="hlt">model-based</span> dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HDR) (192)Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. A hypothetical, generic HDR (192)Ir source was designed <span class="hlt">based</span> on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic (192)Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra(®) Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS™ ]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span> table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201)(3) voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR (192)Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by different investigators. MC results were then</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413595"><span>A generic high-dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source for evaluation of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ballester, Facundo; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Granero, Domingo; Haworth, Annette; Mourtada, Firas; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Rivard, Mark J.; Siebert, Frank-André; Sloboda, Ron S.; and others</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to <span class="hlt">model-based</span> dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. Methods: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed <span class="hlt">based</span> on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic {sup 192}Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra{sup ®} Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS{sup TM}]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span> table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201){sup 3} voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=probabilistic+AND+prediction&pg=4&id=EJ983481','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=probabilistic+AND+prediction&pg=4&id=EJ983481"><span><span class="hlt">Base-Rate</span> Neglect as a Function of <span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Probabilistic Contingency Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kutzner, Florian; Freytag, Peter; Vogel, Tobias; Fiedler, Klaus</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>When humans predict criterion events <span class="hlt">based</span> on probabilistic predictors, they often lend excessive weight to the predictor and insufficient weight to the <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the criterion event. In an operant analysis, using a matching-to-sample paradigm, Goodie and Fantino (1996) showed that humans exhibit <span class="hlt">base-rate</span> neglect when predictors are associated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=add+AND+event&pg=3&id=EJ983481','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=add+AND+event&pg=3&id=EJ983481"><span><span class="hlt">Base-Rate</span> Neglect as a Function of <span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Probabilistic Contingency Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kutzner, Florian; Freytag, Peter; Vogel, Tobias; Fiedler, Klaus</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>When humans predict criterion events <span class="hlt">based</span> on probabilistic predictors, they often lend excessive weight to the predictor and insufficient weight to the <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the criterion event. In an operant analysis, using a matching-to-sample paradigm, Goodie and Fantino (1996) showed that humans exhibit <span class="hlt">base-rate</span> neglect when predictors are associated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0137C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0137C"><span>A Trait-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Understanding <span class="hlt">Rates</span>, Patterns, and Ecological Consequences of Microbial Nitrogen Fixation in High-Latitude Terrestrial Ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Y.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Bouskill, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Nitrogen limitation constrains primary productivity in high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems. In these ecosystems, Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) fix the majority of nitrogen and are therefore the dominant nitrogen source to the surrounding soil. Understanding the distribution of nitrogen fixing microorganisms and the constraints on the <span class="hlt">rate</span> at which nitrogen is fixed is important for reducing uncertainty in predictions of carbon-climate feedbacks. However, few <span class="hlt">models</span> take into account the environmental, ecological, and energetic constraints on nitrogen fixation. Here we present and discuss a <span class="hlt">model</span> representing the spatial distribution and activity of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing microorganisms. We represent a number of functional guilds with different traits associated with resource acquisition (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and molybdenum) and environmental optima (e.g., light, moisture, and temperature). The <span class="hlt">model</span> spatially resolves the distribution of nitrogen-fixers or non-nitrogen-fixers across nutrient gradients and demonstrates seasonality in fixation <span class="hlt">rates</span>. An important aspect of the structure of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is the inclusion of resource acquisition investments that strongly constrains the distribution of BSCs and impacts the <span class="hlt">rates</span> of nitrogen fixation at the ecosystem level. Reducing the uncertainty associated with predictions of the fate of high-latitude soil carbon fluxes will require a mechanistic understanding of the nitrogen cycle under a changing climate. This <span class="hlt">model</span> can significantly contribute to that goal.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088956&hterms=Heart+Rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHeart%2BRate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088956&hterms=Heart+Rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHeart%2BRate"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability by stochastic feedback</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Amaral, L. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We consider the question of how the cardiac rhythm spontaneously self-regulates and propose a new mechanism as a possible answer. We <span class="hlt">model</span> the neuroautonomic regulation of the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> as a stochastic feedback system and find that the <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully accounts for key characteristics of cardiac variability, including the 1/f power spectrum, the functional form and scaling of the distribution of variations of the interbeat intervals, and the correlations in the Fourier phases which indicate nonlinear dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088956&hterms=heart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dheart','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088956&hterms=heart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dheart"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability by stochastic feedback</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Amaral, L. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We consider the question of how the cardiac rhythm spontaneously self-regulates and propose a new mechanism as a possible answer. We <span class="hlt">model</span> the neuroautonomic regulation of the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> as a stochastic feedback system and find that the <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully accounts for key characteristics of cardiac variability, including the 1/f power spectrum, the functional form and scaling of the distribution of variations of the interbeat intervals, and the correlations in the Fourier phases which indicate nonlinear dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010191','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010191"><span>Rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> data <span class="hlt">base</span> development and rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> climate analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crane, Robert K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The single-year rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution data available within the archives of Consultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) Study Group 5 were compiled into a data <span class="hlt">base</span> for use in rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> climate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and for the preparation of predictions of attenuation statistics. The four year set of tip-time sequences provided by J. Goldhirsh for locations near Wallops Island were processed to compile monthly and annual distributions of rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and of event durations for intervals above and below preset thresholds. A four-year data set of tropical rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> tip-time sequences were acquired from the NASA TRMM program for 30 gauges near Darwin, Australia. They were also processed for inclusion in the CCIR data <span class="hlt">base</span> and the expanded data <span class="hlt">base</span> for monthly observations at the University of Oklahoma. The empirical rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions (edfs) accepted for inclusion in the CCIR data <span class="hlt">base</span> were used to estimate parameters for several rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution <span class="hlt">models</span>: the lognormal <span class="hlt">model</span>, the Crane two-component <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the three parameter <span class="hlt">model</span> proposed by Moupfuma. The intent of this segment of the study is to obtain a limited set of parameters that can be mapped globally for use in rain attenuation predictions. If the form of the distribution can be established, then perhaps available climatological data can be used to estimate the parameters rather than requiring years of rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> observations to set the parameters. The two-component <span class="hlt">model</span> provided the best fit to the Wallops Island data but the Moupfuma <span class="hlt">model</span> provided the best fit to the Darwin data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069450"><span>Micromechanical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent behavior of Connective tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M</p> <p>2017-03-07</p> <p>In this paper, a constitutive and micromechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> for prediction of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent behavior of connective tissues (CTs) is presented. Connective tissues are considered as nonlinear viscoelastic material. The <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent behavior of CTs is incorporated into <span class="hlt">model</span> using the well-known quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) theory. A planar wavy representative volume element (RVE) is considered <span class="hlt">based</span> on the tissue microstructure histological evidences. The presented <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are identified <span class="hlt">based</span> on the available experiments in the literature. The presented constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> introduced to ABAQUS by means of UMAT subroutine. Results show that, monotonic uniaxial test predictions of the presented <span class="hlt">model</span> at different strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> for rat tail tendon (RTT) and human patellar tendon (HPT) are in good agreement with experimental data. Results of incremental stress-relaxation test are also presented to investigate both instantaneous and viscoelastic behavior of connective tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.113n1602D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.113n1602D"><span>Sphaleron <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in the Minimal Standard <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Onofrio, Michela; Rummukainen, Kari; Tranberg, Anders</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We use large-scale lattice simulations to compute the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of baryon number violating processes (the sphaleron <span class="hlt">rate</span>), the Higgs field expectation value, and the critical temperature in the standard <span class="hlt">model</span> across the electroweak phase transition temperature. While there is no true phase transition between the high-temperature symmetric phase and the low-temperature broken phase, the crossover is sharp and located at temperature Tc=(159.5±1.5) GeV. The sphaleron <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the symmetric phase (T >Tc) is Γ/T4=(18±3)αW5, and in the broken phase in the physically interesting temperature range 130 GeV <T<Tc it can be parametrized as log(Γ/T4)=(0.83±0.01)T/GeV -(147.7±1.9). The freeze-out temperature in the early Universe, where the Hubble <span class="hlt">rate</span> wins over the baryon number violation <span class="hlt">rate</span>, is T*=(131.7±2.3) GeV. These values, beyond being intrinsic properties of the standard <span class="hlt">model</span>, are relevant for, e.g., low-scale leptogenesis scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420594"><span>Analysis of specific absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> and current density in biological tissues surrounding energy transmission transformer for an artificial heart: using magnetic resonance imaging-<span class="hlt">based</span> human body <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Higaki, Naoya; Shiba, Kenji</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The transcutaneous energy transmission system used for artificial hearts is a transmission system that uses electromagnetic induction. Use of the TETS improves quality of life and reduces the risk of infection caused by percutaneous connections. This article reports the changes in the electromagnetic effects of TETS that influence a human body when the locations of the air-core coils of the transcutaneous transformer are changed. The specific absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> and current density in a <span class="hlt">model</span> consisting of a human trunk that included 24 different organs are analyzed using an electromagnetic simulator. The air-core coils are located on the pectoralis major muscle near the collarbone in <span class="hlt">model</span> 1, whereas they are located on the axillary region of the serratus anterior muscle, which overlies the rib in <span class="hlt">model</span> 2. The maximum current densities in <span class="hlt">models</span> 1 and 2 are 5.2 A/m(2) and 6.1 A/m(2), respectively. The current density observed in <span class="hlt">model</span> 2 slightly exceeds the limiting value prescribed by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). When the volumes of biological tissues whose current densities exceed the limiting value of current density for general public exposure are compared, the volume in <span class="hlt">model</span> 2 (156.1 cm(3)) is found to be larger than that in <span class="hlt">model</span> 1 (93.7 cm(3)). Hence, it is speculated that the presence of the ribs caused an increase in the current density. Therefore, it is concluded that <span class="hlt">model</span> 1 satisfies the ICNIRP standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22612630','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22612630"><span>Optimization of Cooling Water Flow <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in Nuclear and Thermal Power Plants <span class="hlt">Based</span> on a Mathematical <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Cooling Systems{sup 1}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murav’ev, V. P. Kochetkov, A. V.; Glazova, E. G.</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> and algorithms are proposed for automatic calculation of the optimum flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> of cooling water in nuclear and thermal power plants with cooling systems of arbitrary complexity. An unlimited number of configuration and design variants are assumed with the possibility of obtaining a result for any computational time interval, from monthly to hourly. The structural solutions corresponding to an optimum cooling water flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be used for subsequent engineering-economic evaluation of the best cooling system variant. The computerized mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> and algorithms make it possible to determine the availability and degree of structural changes for the cooling system in all stages of the life cycle of a plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1557..455S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1557..455S"><span>Liver cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to <span class="hlt">model</span> and forecast liver cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span> in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span> was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression <span class="hlt">model</span> was used for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Thailand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Chaos..23b3103L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Chaos..23b3103L"><span>Beyond long memory in heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability: An approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on fractionally integrated autoregressive moving average time series <span class="hlt">models</span> with conditional heteroscedasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leite, Argentina; Paula Rocha, Ana; Eduarda Silva, Maria</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Heart <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Variability (HRV) series exhibit long memory and time-varying conditional variance. This work considers the Fractionally Integrated AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARFIMA) <span class="hlt">models</span> with Generalized AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH) errors. ARFIMA-GARCH <span class="hlt">models</span> may be used to capture and remove long memory and estimate the conditional volatility in 24 h HRV recordings. The ARFIMA-GARCH approach is applied to fifteen long term HRV series available at Physionet, leading to the discrimination among normal individuals, heart failure patients, and patients with atrial fibrillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3254654','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3254654"><span>What Will It Take to Eliminate Pediatric HIV? Reaching WHO Target <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Zimbabwe: A <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Perez, Freddy; Keatinge, Jo; Park, Ji-Eun; Engelsmann, Barbara; Maruva, Matthews; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Dabis, Francois; Chu, Jennifer; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Mushavi, Angela; Freedberg, Kenneth A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the “virtual elimination” of pediatric HIV: a mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk of less than 5%. We investigated uptake of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) services, infant feeding recommendations, and specific drug regimens necessary to achieve this goal in Zimbabwe. Methods and Findings We used a computer <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate a cohort of HIV-infected, pregnant/breastfeeding women (mean age, 24 y; mean CD4, 451/µl; breastfeeding duration, 12 mo). Three PMTCT regimens were evaluated: (1) single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), (2) WHO 2010 guidelines' “Option A” (zidovudine in pregnancy, infant nevirapine throughout breastfeeding for women without advanced disease, lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy for women with advanced disease), and (3) WHO “Option B” (pregnancy/breastfeeding-limited combination antiretroviral drug regimens without advanced disease; lifelong antiretroviral therapy with advanced disease). We examined four levels of PMTCT uptake (proportion of pregnant women accessing and adhering to PMTCT services): reported <span class="hlt">rates</span> in 2008 and 2009 (36% and 56%, respectively) and target goals in 2008 and 2009 (80% and 95%, respectively). The primary <span class="hlt">model</span> outcome was MTCT risk at weaning. The 2008 sdNVP-<span class="hlt">based</span> National PMTCT Program led to a projected 12-mo MTCT risk of 20.3%. Improved uptake in 2009 reduced projected risk to 18.0%. If sdNVP were replaced by more effective regimens, with 2009 (56%) uptake, estimated MTCT risk would be 14.4% (Option A) or 13.4% (Option B). Even with 95% uptake of Option A or B, projected transmission risks (6.1%–7.7%) would exceed the WHO goal of less than 5%. Only if the lowest published transmission risks were used for each drug regimen, or breastfeeding duration were shortened, would MTCT risks at 95% uptake fall below 5%. Conclusions Implementation of the WHO PMTCT guidelines must be accompanied by efforts to improve access to PMTCT services, retain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253579"><span>What will it take to eliminate pediatric HIV? Reaching WHO target <span class="hlt">rates</span> of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Zimbabwe: a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ciaranello, Andrea L; Perez, Freddy; Keatinge, Jo; Park, Ji-Eun; Engelsmann, Barbara; Maruva, Matthews; Walensky, Rochelle P; Dabis, Francois; Chu, Jennifer; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Mushavi, Angela; Freedberg, Kenneth A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the "virtual elimination" of pediatric HIV: a mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk of less than 5%. We investigated uptake of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) services, infant feeding recommendations, and specific drug regimens necessary to achieve this goal in Zimbabwe. We used a computer <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate a cohort of HIV-infected, pregnant/breastfeeding women (mean age, 24 y; mean CD4, 451/µl; breastfeeding duration, 12 mo). Three PMTCT regimens were evaluated: (1) single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), (2) WHO 2010 guidelines' "Option A" (zidovudine in pregnancy, infant nevirapine throughout breastfeeding for women without advanced disease, lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy for women with advanced disease), and (3) WHO "Option B" (pregnancy/breastfeeding-limited combination antiretroviral drug regimens without advanced disease; lifelong antiretroviral therapy with advanced disease). We examined four levels of PMTCT uptake (proportion of pregnant women accessing and adhering to PMTCT services): reported <span class="hlt">rates</span> in 2008 and 2009 (36% and 56%, respectively) and target goals in 2008 and 2009 (80% and 95%, respectively). The primary <span class="hlt">model</span> outcome was MTCT risk at weaning. The 2008 sdNVP-<span class="hlt">based</span> National PMTCT Program led to a projected 12-mo MTCT risk of 20.3%. Improved uptake in 2009 reduced projected risk to 18.0%. If sdNVP were replaced by more effective regimens, with 2009 (56%) uptake, estimated MTCT risk would be 14.4% (Option A) or 13.4% (Option B). Even with 95% uptake of Option A or B, projected transmission risks (6.1%-7.7%) would exceed the WHO goal of less than 5%. Only if the lowest published transmission risks were used for each drug regimen, or breastfeeding duration were shortened, would MTCT risks at 95% uptake fall below 5%. Implementation of the WHO PMTCT guidelines must be accompanied by efforts to improve access to PMTCT services, retain women in care, and support medication adherence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881643"><span>The Piecewise Linear Reactive Flow <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vitello, P; Souers, P C</p> <p>2005-07-22</p> <p>Conclusions are: (1) Early calibrations of the Piece Wise Linear reactive flow <span class="hlt">model</span> have shown that it allows for very accurate agreement with data for a broad range of detonation wave strengths. (2) The ability to vary the <span class="hlt">rate</span> at specific pressures has shown that corner turning involves competition between the strong wave that travels roughly in a straight line and growth at low pressure of a new wave that turns corners sharply. (3) The inclusion of a low pressure de-sensitization <span class="hlt">rate</span> is essential to preserving the dead zone at large times as is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19620448','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19620448"><span>Probability of reduced renal function after contrast-enhanced CT: a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on serum creatinine level, patient age, and estimated glomerular filtration <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herts, Brian R; Schneider, Erika; Obuchowski, Nancy; Poggio, Emilio; Jain, Anil; Baker, Mark E</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The objectives of our study were to develop a <span class="hlt">model</span> to predict the probability of reduced renal function after outpatient contrast-enhanced CT (CECT)--<span class="hlt">based</span> on patient age, sex, and race and on serum creatinine level before CT or directly <span class="hlt">based</span> on estimated glomerular filtration <span class="hlt">rate</span> (GFR) before CT--and to determine the relationship between patients with changes in creatinine level that characterize contrast-induced nephropathy and patients with reduced GFR after CECT. Of 5,187 outpatients who underwent CECT, 963 (18.6%) had serum creatinine levels obtained within 6 months before and 4 days after CECT. The estimated GFR was calculated before and after CT using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Pre-CT serum creatinine level, age, race, sex, and pre-CT estimated GFR were tested using multiple-variable logistic regression <span class="hlt">models</span> to determine the probability of having an estimated GFR of < 60 and < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) after CECT. Two thirds of the patients were used to create and one third to test the <span class="hlt">models</span>. We also determined discordance between patients who met standard definitions of contrast-induced nephropathy and those with a reduced estimated GFR after CECT. Significant (p < 0.002) predictors for a post-CT estimated GFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were age, race, sex, pre-CT serum creatinine level, and pre-CT estimated GFR. Sex, serum creatinine level, and pre-CT estimated GFR were significant factors (p < 0.001) for predicting a post-CT estimated GFR of < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The probability is [exp(y) / (1 + exp(y))], where y = 6.21 - (0.10 x pre-CT estimated GFR) for an estimated GFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and y = 3.66 - (0.087 x pre-CT estimated GFR) for an estimated GFR of < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). A discrepancy between those who met contrast-induced nephropathy criteria by creatinine changes and those with a post-CT estimated GFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was detected in 208 of the 963 patients (21.6%). The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC24A..07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC24A..07M"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Permafrost Degradation and their Impact on Ecosystems across Alaska and Northwest Canada using the Process-<span class="hlt">based</span> Permafrost Dynamics <span class="hlt">Model</span> GIPL as a Component of the Integrated Ecosystem <span class="hlt">Model</span> (IEM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marchenko, S. S.; Genet, H.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Breen, A. L.; McGuire, A. D.; Rupp, S. T.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Bolton, W. R.; Walsh, J. E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Permafrost temperature has increased in most locations in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic during the past 30-40 years. The typical increase in permafrost temperature is 1-3°C. The process-<span class="hlt">based</span> permafrost dynamics <span class="hlt">model</span> GIPL developed in the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab, and which is the permafrost module of the Integrated Ecosystem <span class="hlt">Model</span> (IEM) has been using to quantify the nature and <span class="hlt">rate</span> of permafrost degradation and its impact on ecosystems, infrastructure, CO2 and CH4fluxes and net C storage following permafrost thaw across Alaska and Northwest Canada. The IEM project is a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary effort aimed at understanding potential landscape, habitat and ecosystem change across the IEM domain. The IEM project also aims to tie three scientific <span class="hlt">models</span> together Terrestrial Ecosystem <span class="hlt">Model</span> (TEM), the ALFRESCO (ALaska FRame-<span class="hlt">based</span> EcoSystem Code) and GIPL so that they exchange data at run-time. The <span class="hlt">models</span> produce forecasts of future fire, vegetation, organic matter, permafrost and hydrology regimes. The climate forcing data are <span class="hlt">based</span> on the historical CRU3.1 data set for the retrospective analysis period (1901-2009) and the CMIP3 CCCMA-CGCM3.1 and MPI-ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate <span class="hlt">models</span> for the future period (2009-2100). All data sets were downscaled to a 1 km resolution, using a differencing methodology (i.e., a delta method) and the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes <span class="hlt">Model</span> (PRISM) climatology. We estimated the dynamics of permafrost temperature, active layer thickness, area occupied by permafrost, and volume of thawed soils across the IEM domain. The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results indicate how different types of ecosystems affect the thermal state of permafrost and its stability. Although the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of soil warming and permafrost degradation in peatland areas are slower than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034445','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034445"><span>Functional response <span class="hlt">models</span> to estimate feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> of wading birds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Collazo, J.A.; Gilliam, J.F.; Miranda-Castro, L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Forager (predator) abundance may mediate feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> in wading birds. Yet, when <span class="hlt">modeled</span>, feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> are typically derived from the purely prey-dependent Holling Type II (HoII) functional response <span class="hlt">model</span>. Estimates of feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> are necessary to evaluate wading bird foraging strategies and their role in food webs; thus, <span class="hlt">models</span> that incorporate predator dependence warrant consideration. Here, data collected in a mangrove swamp in Puerto Rico in 1994 were reanalyzed, reporting feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> for mixed-species flocks after comparing fits of the HoII <span class="hlt">model</span>, as used in the original work, to the Beddington-DeAngelis (BD) and Crowley-Martin (CM) predator-dependent <span class="hlt">models</span>. <span class="hlt">Model</span> CM received most support (AIC c wi = 0.44), but <span class="hlt">models</span> BD and HoII were plausible alternatives (AIC c ??? 2). Results suggested that feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> were constrained by predator abundance. Reductions in <span class="hlt">rates</span> were attributed to interference, which was consistent with the independently observed increase in aggression as flock size increased (P < 0.05). Substantial discrepancies between the CM and HoII <span class="hlt">models</span> were possible depending on flock sizes used to <span class="hlt">model</span> feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span>. However, inferences derived from the HoII <span class="hlt">model</span>, as used in the original work, were sound. While Holling's Type II and other purely prey-dependent <span class="hlt">models</span> have fostered advances in wading bird foraging ecology, evaluating <span class="hlt">models</span> that incorporate predator dependence could lead to a more adequate description of data and processes of interest. The mechanistic <span class="hlt">bases</span> used to derive <span class="hlt">models</span> used here lead to biologically interpretable results and advance understanding of wading bird foraging ecology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA343323','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA343323"><span>Analytical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of High <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1 13 Apr 98 Final (01 Sep 94 - 31 Aug 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Analytical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of High <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Processes...20332- 8050 FROM: S. E. Jones, University Research Professor Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics University of Alabama SUBJECT: Final...Mr. Sandor Augustus and Mr. Jeffrey A. Drinkard. There are no outstanding commitments. The balance in the account, as of July 31 , 1997, was $102,916.42</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013490','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013490"><span>Acoustically <span class="hlt">based</span> fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The acoustically <span class="hlt">based</span> fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> monitor permits an expectant mother to perform the fetal Non-Stress Test in her home. The potential market would include the one million U.S. pregnancies per year requiring this type of prenatal surveillance. The monitor uses polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric polymer film for the acoustic sensors, which are mounted in a seven-element array on a cummerbund. Evaluation of the sensor ouput signals utilizes a digital signal processor, which performs a linear prediction routine in real time. Clinical tests reveal that the acoustically <span class="hlt">based</span> monitor provides Non-Stress Test records which are comparable to those obtained with a commercial ultrasonic transducer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790009312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790009312"><span>Error <span class="hlt">rate</span> information in attention allocation pilot <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Faulkner, W. H.; Onstott, E. D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The Northrop urgency decision pilot <span class="hlt">model</span> was used in a command tracking task to compare the optimized performance of multiaxis attention allocation pilot <span class="hlt">models</span> whose urgency functions were (1) <span class="hlt">based</span> on tracking error alone, and (2) <span class="hlt">based</span> on both tracking error and error <span class="hlt">rate</span>. A matrix of system dynamics and command inputs was employed, to create both symmetric and asymmetric two axis compensatory tracking tasks. All tasks were single loop on each axis. Analysis showed that a <span class="hlt">model</span> that allocates control attention through nonlinear urgency functions using only error information could not achieve performance of the full <span class="hlt">model</span> whose attention shifting algorithm included both error and error <span class="hlt">rate</span> terms. Subsequent to this analysis, tracking performance predictions for the full <span class="hlt">model</span> were verified by piloted flight simulation. Complete <span class="hlt">model</span> and simulation data are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/457582','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/457582"><span>A theory of exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alekseev, A.A.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>The article examines exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for two cases: (a) when the trading partners have mutual interests and (b) when the trading partners have antogonistic interests. Exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> in world markets are determined by supply and demand for the currency of each state, and states may control the exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> of their currency by changing the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the volume of credit, and product prices in both domestic and export markets. Abstracting from issues of production and technology in different countries and also ignoring various trade, institutional, and other barriers, we consider in this article only the effect of export and import prices on the exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span>, we propose a new criterion of external trade activity: each trading partner earns a profit which is proportional to the volume of benefits enjoyed by the other partner. We consider a trading cycle that consists of four stages: (a) purchase of goods in the domestic market with the object of selling them abroad; (b) sale of the goods in foreign markets; (c) purchase of goods abroad with the object of selling them in the domestic market; (d) sale of the goods domestically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23337764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23337764"><span>The relationship between specific absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> and temperature elevation in anatomically <span class="hlt">based</span> human body <span class="hlt">models</span> for plane wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Oizumi, Takuya; Hanatani, Ryuto; Chan, Kwok Hung; Wiart, Joe</p> <p>2013-02-21</p> <p>According to the international safety guidelines/standard, the whole-body-averaged specific absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> (Poljak et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 45 141-5) and the peak spatial average SAR are used as metrics for human protection from whole-body and localized exposures, respectively. The IEEE standard (IEEE 2006 IEEE C95.1) indicates that the upper boundary frequency, over which the whole-body-averaged SAR is deemed to be the basic restriction, has been reduced from 6 to 3 GHz, because radio-wave energy is absorbed around the body surface when the frequency is increased. However, no quantitative discussion has been provided to support this description especially from the standpoint of temperature elevation. It is of interest to investigate the maximum temperature elevation in addition to the core temperature even for a whole-body exposure. In the present study, using anatomically <span class="hlt">based</span> human <span class="hlt">models</span>, we computed the SAR and the temperature elevation for a plane-wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz, taking into account the thermoregulatory response. As the primary result, we found that the ratio of the core temperature elevation to the whole-body-averaged SAR is almost frequency independent for frequencies below a few gigahertz; the ratio decreases above this frequency. At frequencies higher than a few gigahertz, core temperature elevation for the same whole-body averaged SAR becomes lower due to heat convection from the skin to air. This lower core temperature elevation is attributable to skin temperature elevation caused by the power absorption around the body surface. Then, core temperature elevation even for whole-body averaged SAR of 4 W kg(-1) with the duration of 1 h was at most 0.8 °C, which is smaller than a threshold considered in the safety guidelines/standard. Further, the peak 10 g averaged SAR is correlated with the maximum body temperature elevations without extremities and pinna over the frequencies considered. These findings</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004894','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004894"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves using remotely sensed LiDAR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nathanson, Marcus; Kean, Jason W.; Grabs, Thomas J.; Seibert, Jan; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lyon, Steve W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Accurate stream discharge measurements are important for many hydrological studies. In remote locations, however, it is often difficult to obtain stream flow information because of the difficulty in making the discharge measurements necessary to define stage-discharge relationships (<span class="hlt">rating</span> curves). This study investigates the feasibility of defining <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves by using a fluid mechanics-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> constrained with topographic data from an airborne LiDAR scanning. The study was carried out for an 8m-wide channel in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden. LiDAR data were used to define channel geometry above a low flow water surface along the 90-m surveyed reach. The channel topography below the water surface was estimated using the simple assumption of a flat streambed. The roughness for the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> reach was back calculated from a single measurment of discharge. The topographic and roughness information was then used to <span class="hlt">model</span> a <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve. To isolate the potential influence of the flat bed assumption, a 'hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span>' <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve was developed on the basis of data combined from the LiDAR scan and a detailed ground survey. Whereas this hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve was in agreement with the direct measurements of discharge, the LiDAR <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve was equally in agreement with the medium and high flow measurements <span class="hlt">based</span> on confidence intervals calculated from the direct measurements. The discrepancy between the LiDAR <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve and the low flow measurements was likely due to reduced roughness associated with unresolved submerged bed topography. Scanning during periods of low flow can help minimize this deficiency. These results suggest that combined ground surveys and LiDAR scans or multifrequency LiDAR scans that see 'below' the water surface (bathymetric LiDAR) could be useful in generating data needed to run such a fluid mechanics-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. This opens a realm of possibility to remotely sense and monitor stream flows in channels in remote</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4375574','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4375574"><span>High persistence <span class="hlt">rate</span> of hepatitis B virus in a hydrodynamic injection-<span class="hlt">based</span> transfection <span class="hlt">model</span> in C3H/HeN mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peng, Xiu-Hua; Ren, Xiao-Nan; Chen, Li-Xiang; Shi, Bi-Sheng; Xu, Chun-Hua; Fang, Zhong; Liu, Xue; Chen, Jie-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Hu, Yun-Wen; Zhou, Xiao-Hui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To optimize the viral persistence <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a hydrodynamic injection (HI) <span class="hlt">based</span> hepatitis B virus (HBV) transfection mouse <span class="hlt">model</span>. METHODS: (1) 5-6-wk-old male C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice were hydrodynamically injected with 10 μg endotoxin-free pAAV/HBV1.2 plasmid DNA via the tail vein. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA, both in the serum and liver, were detected at different time points post HI by ELISA, immunohistochemical staining or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR); (2) male C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice, either hydrodynamically injected mice at 10 wk post HI or naïve mice, were all immunized subcutaneously with 5 μg HBsAg formulated in complete Freund’s adjuvant three times at a 2-wk interval. Two weeks after the final immunization, splenocytes were isolated for T cell function analysis by ELISPOT assay; and (3) five weeks post HI, C3H/HeN mice were intragastrically administered 0.1 mg/kg entecavir once a day for 14 d, or were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mg/kg interferon (IFN)-α twice a week for 2 wk, or were treated with PBS as controls. The sera were collected and assayed for HBV DNA on days 0, 7 and 14 after drug treatment. RESULTS: (1) Approximately 90% (22/25) of the injected C3H/HeN mice were still HBsAg-positive at 46 wk post HI, whereas HBsAg in C57BL/6 mice were completely cleared at 24 wk. Serum levels of HBeAg in C3H/HeN mice were higher than those in C57BL/6 mice from 4 wk to 46 wk. HBV DNA levels in the hydrodynamically injected C3H/HeN mice were higher than those in the C57BL/6 mice, both in the serum (from 4 wk to 46 wk) and in the liver (detected at 8 wk and 46 wk post HI). Histology showed that hepatitis B core antigen and HBsAg were expressed longer in the liver of C3H/HeN mice than in C57BL/6; (2) HBsAg specific T cell responses after HBsAg vaccination in hydrodynamically injected C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice, or naive control mice were detected by ELISPOT assay. After stimulation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28722180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28722180"><span>A generic TG-186 shielded applicator for commissioning <span class="hlt">model-based</span> dose calculation algorithms for high-dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span> (192) Ir brachytherapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Yunzhi; Vijande, Javier; Ballester, Facundo; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Granero, Domingo; Haworth, Annette; Mourtada, Firas; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis; Rivard, Mark J; Siebert, Frank André; Sloboda, Ron S; Smith, Ryan; Chamberland, Marc J P; Thomson, Rowan M; Verhaegen, Frank; Beaulieu, Luc</p> <p>2017-07-19</p> <p>A joint working group was created by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the Australasian Brachytherapy Group (ABG) with the charge, among others, to develop a set of well-defined test case plans and perform <span class="hlt">model-based</span> dose calculation algorithms (MBDCA) dose calculations and comparisons. Its main goal is to facilitate a smooth transition from the AAPM Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) dose calculation formalism, widely being used in clinical practice for brachytherapy, to the one proposed by Task Group No. 186 (TG-186) for MBDCAs. To do so, in this work a hypothetical, generic high-dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HDR) (192) Ir shielded applicator has been designed and benchmarked. A generic HDR (192) Ir shielded applicator was designed <span class="hlt">based</span> on three commercially available gynecological applicators as well as a virtual cubic water phantom that can be imported into any DICOM-RT compatible treatment planning system (TPS). The absorbed dose distribution around the applicator with the TG-186 (192) Ir source located at one dwell position at its center was computed using two commercial TPSs incorporating MBDCAs (Oncentra(®) Brachy with Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine, ACE(™) , and BrachyVision ACUROS(™) ) and state-of-the-art Monte Carlo (MC) codes, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, egs_brachy, Geant4, MCNP6, and Penelope2008. TPS-<span class="hlt">based</span> volumetric dose distributions for the previously reported "source centered in water" and "source displaced" test cases, and the new "source centered in applicator" test case, were analyzed here using the MCNP6 dose distribution as a reference. Volumetric dose comparisons of TPS results against results for the other MC codes were also performed. Distributions of local and global dose difference ratios are reported. The local dose differences among MC codes are comparable to the statistical uncertainties of the reference datasets for the "source centered in water" and "source</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A54A..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A54A..06K"><span>Diagnosis of Photochemical Ozone Production <span class="hlt">Rates</span> and Limiting Factors <span class="hlt">based</span> on Observation-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Approach over East Asia: Impact of Radical Chemistry Mechanism and Ozone-Control Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanaya, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Growth of tropospheric ozone, causing health and climate impacts, is concerned over East Asia, because emissions of precursors have dramatically increased. Photochemical production <span class="hlt">rates</span> of ozone and limiting factors, primarily studied for urban locations, have been poorly assessed within a perspective of regional-scale air pollution over East Asia. We performed comprehensive observations of ozone precursors at several locations with regional representativeness and made such assessment <span class="hlt">based</span> on the observation-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach. Here, diagnosis at Fukue Island (32.75°N, 128.68°E) remotely located in western Japan (May 2009) is highlighted, where the highest 10% of hourly ozone concentrations reached 72‒118 ppb during May influenced by Asian continental outflow. The average in-situ ozone production <span class="hlt">rate</span> was estimated to be 6.8 ppb per day, suggesting that in-travel production was still active, while larger buildup must have occurred beforehand. Information on the chemical status of the air mass arriving in Japan is important, because it affects how further ozone production occurs after precursor addition from Japanese domestic emissions. The main limiting factor of ozone production was usually NOx, suggesting that domestic NOx emission control is important in reducing further ozone production and the incidence of warning issuance (>120 ppb). VOCs also increased the ozone production <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and occasionally (14% of time) became dominant. This analysis implies that the VOC reduction legislation recently enacted should be effective. The uncertainty in the radical chemistry mechanism governing ozone production had a non-negligible impact, but the main conclusion relevant to policy was not altered. When chain termination was augmented by HO2-H2O + NO/NO2 reactions and by heterogeneous loss of HO2 on aerosol particle surfaces, the daily ozone production <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreased by <24%, and the fraction of hours when the VOC-limited condition occurred varied from 14% to 13</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/94016','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/94016"><span>High strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for fiber-reinforced composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>Numerical simulations of dynamic uniaxial strain loading of fiber-reinforced composites are presented that illustrate the wide range of deformation mechanisms that can be captured using a micromechanics-<span class="hlt">based</span> homogenization technique as the material <span class="hlt">model</span> in existing continuum mechanics computer programs. Enhancements to the material <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporate high strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> plastic response, elastic nonlinearity, and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent strength degradation due to material damage, fiber debonding, and delamination. These make the <span class="hlt">model</span> relevant to designing composite structural components for crash safety, armor, and munitions applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900012969','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900012969"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> high data <span class="hlt">rate</span> communication network access protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of high data <span class="hlt">rate</span> communication systems is different from the low data <span class="hlt">rate</span> systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The first was a <span class="hlt">model</span> using SIMCRIPT <span class="hlt">based</span> upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C <span class="hlt">based</span> upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third <span class="hlt">model</span> further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was also built in C. Each <span class="hlt">model</span> is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the <span class="hlt">model</span> developer because of his past familiarity. Further the <span class="hlt">models</span> were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative <span class="hlt">models</span> were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand <span class="hlt">modeling</span> complexities. Each <span class="hlt">model</span> is described along with its features and problems. The <span class="hlt">models</span> are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003466','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003466"><span>A Symmetric Time-Varying Cluster <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Descent <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ray, Eric S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> of the time-varying <span class="hlt">rate</span> of descent of the Orion vehicle was developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the observed correlation between canopy projected area and drag coefficient. This initial version of the <span class="hlt">model</span> assumes cluster symmetry and only varies the vertical component of velocity. The cluster fly-out angle is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as a series of sine waves <span class="hlt">based</span> on flight test data. The projected area of each canopy is synchronized with the primary fly-out angle mode. The sudden loss of projected area during canopy collisions is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> at minimum fly-out angles, leading to brief increases in <span class="hlt">rate</span> of descent. The cluster geometry is converted to drag coefficient using empirically derived constants. A more complete <span class="hlt">model</span> is under development, which computes the aerodynamic response of each canopy to its local incidence angle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSP...128...21D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSP...128...21D"><span>Towards a <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Protein Production <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, J. J.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>In the process of translation, ribosomes read the genetic code on an mRNA and assemble the corresponding polypeptide chain. The ribosomes perform discrete directed motion which is well <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with open boundaries. Using Monte Carlo simulations and a simple mean-field theory, we discuss the effect of one or two "bottlenecks" (i.e., slow codons) on the production <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the final protein. Confirming and extending previous work by Chou and Lakatos, we find that the location and spacing of the slow codons can affect the production <span class="hlt">rate</span> quite dramatically. In particular, we observe a novel "edge" effect, i.e., an interaction of a single slow codon with the system boundary. We focus in detail on ribosome density profiles and provide a simple explanation for the length scale which controls the range of these interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26210432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26210432"><span>Improving Video <span class="hlt">Based</span> Heart <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Jian; Rozado, David; Duenser, Andreas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Non-contact measurements of cardiac pulse can provide robust measurement of heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HR) without the annoyance of attaching electrodes to the body. In this paper we explore a novel and reliable method to carry out video-<span class="hlt">based</span> HR estimation and propose various performance improvement over existing approaches. The investigated method uses Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to detect the underlying HR signal from a mixed source signal present in the RGB channels of the image. The original ICA algorithm was implemented and several modifications were explored in order to determine which one could be optimal for accurate HR estimation. Using statistical analysis, we compared the cardiac pulse <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation from the different methods under comparison on the extracted videos to a commercially available oximeter. We found that some of these methods are quite effective and efficient in terms of improving accuracy and latency of the system. We have made the code of our algorithms openly available to the scientific community so that other researchers can explore how to integrate video-<span class="hlt">based</span> HR monitoring in novel health technology applications. We conclude by noting that recent advances in video-<span class="hlt">based</span> HR monitoring permit computers to be aware of a user's psychophysiological status in real time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1782e0016T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1782e0016T"><span>Prediction of mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> using a <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Prediction of future mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> is crucial to insurance companies because they face longevity risks while providing retirement benefits to a population whose life expectancy is increasing. In the past literature, a time series <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied on mortality data from the United States for the years 1933 till 2000 to forecast the future mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the years 2001 till 2010. In this paper, a more dynamic approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on the multivariate time series will be proposed where the <span class="hlt">model</span> uses stochastic parameters that vary with time. The resulting prediction intervals obtained using the <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters perform better because apart from having good ability in covering the observed future mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>, they also tend to have distinctly shorter interval lengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19700351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19700351"><span><span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> effects on the IAT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bluemke, Matthias; Fiedler, Klaus</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We investigated the influence of stimulus <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Using an East/West-German attitude-IAT, we demonstrated that both overall response speed and differential response speed underlying IAT effects depend on the relative frequencies of the stimulus categories. First, when those stimuli that are more common in reality also occurred more frequently in the stimulus list, response speed generally increased. Second, IAT effects increased when congruent blocks profited from the compatibility of frequency-<span class="hlt">based</span> response biases (i.e., frequent target stimuli and frequent valence stimuli mapped onto the same response key), whereas IAT effects decreased when incongruent trial blocks profited from response compatibility. These findings demonstrate that the stimulus context moderates the magnitude of the IAT effect. Simultaneously, they highlight the need to explore the extent to which implicit measures reflect properties of the task or the environment rather than attributes of test-takers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.2071V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.2071V"><span>Time-dependent freezing <span class="hlt">rate</span> parcel <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The time-dependent freezing <span class="hlt">rate</span> (TDFR) <span class="hlt">model</span> here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period in time when the parcel remains stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles under isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to three-fold variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple <span class="hlt">model</span> framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud <span class="hlt">models</span>. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1429305V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1429305V"><span>Time-dependent freezing <span class="hlt">rate</span> parcel <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The Time-Dependent Freezing <span class="hlt">Rate</span> (TDFR) <span class="hlt">model</span> here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period at time with the parcel remaining stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time-dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles at isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to factors of about 3 variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time-dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple <span class="hlt">model</span> framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud <span class="hlt">models</span>. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226190&keyword=sensitive+AND+skin&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226190&keyword=sensitive+AND+skin&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Modeled</span> Estimates of Soil and Dust Ingestion <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Daily soil/dust ingestion <span class="hlt">rates</span> typically used in exposure and risk assessments are <span class="hlt">based</span> on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> soil and dust inge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZaMP...68...18P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZaMP...68...18P"><span>Decay <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> for quantum plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pu, Xueke; Xu, Xiuli</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we consider the quantum magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> for quantum plasmas. We prove the optimal decay <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the solution to the constant state in the whole space in the Lp-norm with 2≤ p≤ 6 and its first derivatives in L2-norm. The proof is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the optimal decay of the linearized equation and nonlinear energy estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226190&keyword=hand+AND+washing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89423320&CFTOKEN=97874739','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226190&keyword=hand+AND+washing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89423320&CFTOKEN=97874739"><span><span class="hlt">Modeled</span> Estimates of Soil and Dust Ingestion <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Daily soil/dust ingestion <span class="hlt">rates</span> typically used in exposure and risk assessments are <span class="hlt">based</span> on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> soil and dust inge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSR....73...32F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSR....73...32F"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> of clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation in mussels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fréchette, Marcel</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation has been <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Internal-state regulation of clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a <span class="hlt">model</span> of internal-state <span class="hlt">based</span> regulation of clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span>. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I <span class="hlt">modelled</span> blue mussel clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> and growth using a DEB <span class="hlt">model</span>. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..414..328E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..414..328E"><span>Effect of carbon on irradiation-induced grain-boundary phosphorus segregation in reactor pressure vessel steels using first-principles-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> theory <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Onizawa, Kunio; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we incorporated the effect of carbon atoms on the irradiation-induced grain-boundary phosphorus segregation into the <span class="hlt">rate</span> theory <span class="hlt">model</span> by considering a carbon atom as a trap site of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, and simulated the grain-boundary phosphorus coverage in the reactor pressure vessel steels, A533B steels which were neutron-irradiated using the Halden reactor. As a result, by selecting the sink strength of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, the simulation reproduced the experimental grain-boundary phosphorus coverage that was measured using the scanning Auger electron microprobe analysis. It was observed that the grain-boundary phosphorus coverage does not depend on the dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> regardless of the presence of carbon atoms. Furthermore, it was confirmed that vacancies scarcely transport phosphorus atoms to grain-boundaries as compared to the transport by self-interstitial atoms and it was found that carbon atoms influence the irradiation-induced phosphorus segregation by mainly suppressing the migration of vacancies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27438964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27438964"><span>Justification of Drug Product Dissolution <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Drug Substance Particle Size Specifications <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Absorption PBPK <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for Lesinurad Immediate Release Tablets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pepin, Xavier J H; Flanagan, Talia R; Holt, David J; Eidelman, Anna; Treacy, Don; Rowlings, Colin E</p> <p>2016-09-06</p> <p>In silico absorption <span class="hlt">modeling</span> has been performed, to assess the impact of in vitro dissolution on in vivo performance for ZURAMPIC (lesinurad) tablets. The dissolution profiles of lesinurad tablets generated using the quality control method were used as an input to a GastroPlus <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate in vivo dissolution in the various parts of the GI tract and predict human exposure. A <span class="hlt">model</span> was set up, which accounts for differences of dosage form transit, dissolution, local pH in the GI tract, and fluid volumes available for dissolution. The predictive ability of the <span class="hlt">model</span> was demonstrated by confirming that it can reproduce the Cmax observed for independent clinical trial. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also indicated that drug product batches that pass the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min are anticipated to be bioequivalent to the clinical reference batch. To further explore the dissolution space, additional simulations were performed using a theoretical dissolution profile below the proposed specification. The GastroPlus <span class="hlt">modeling</span> indicates that such a batch will also be bioequivalent to standard clinical batches despite having a dissolution profile, which would fail the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min. This demonstrates that the proposed dissolution specification sits comfortably within a region of dissolution performance where bioequivalence is anticipated and is not near an edge of failure for dissolution, providing additional confidence to the proposed specifications. Finally, simulations were performed using a virtual drug substance batch with a particle size distribution at the limit of the proposed specification for particle size. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on these simulations, such a batch is also anticipated to be bioequivalent to clinical reference, demonstrating that the proposed specification limits for particle size distribution would give products bioequivalent to the pivotal clinical batches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1602..467Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1602..467Y"><span>Prediction of interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> using CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) <span class="hlt">model</span> is a popular one-factor <span class="hlt">model</span> for describing the spot interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector φ(j) of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the j'-th time point where j≤j'≤j+n. To <span class="hlt">model</span> the variation of φ(j), we assume that φ(j) depends on φ(j-m), φ(j-m+1),…, φ(j-1) and the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> rj+n at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value rj+n+1 of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> at the next time point when the value rj+n of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> rj+n+d at the next d-th (d≥2) time point. The prediction intervals <span class="hlt">based</span> on the CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> when compared with those <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">model</span> with fixed parameters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311273','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311273"><span>Prediction of interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> using CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah</p> <p>2014-06-19</p> <p>The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) <span class="hlt">model</span> is a popular one-factor <span class="hlt">model</span> for describing the spot interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector φ{sup (j)} of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the j′-th time point where j≤j′≤j+n. To <span class="hlt">model</span> the variation of φ{sup (j)}, we assume that φ{sup (j)} depends on φ{sup (j−m)}, φ{sup (j−m+1)},…, φ{sup (j−1)} and the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> r{sub j+n} at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value r{sub j+n+1} of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> at the next time point when the value r{sub j+n} of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> r{sub j+n+d} at the next d-th (d≥2) time point. The prediction intervals <span class="hlt">based</span> on the CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> when compared with those <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">model</span> with fixed parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23733005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23733005"><span>Statistical inference for extinction <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on last sightings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Miguel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo; Lluch-Belda, Daniel; Lluch-Cota, Salvador E</p> <p>2013-09-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rates</span> of extinction can be estimated from sighting records and are assumed to be implicitly constant by many data analysis methods. However, historical sightings are scarce. Frequently, the only information available for inferring extinction is the date of the last sighting. In this study, we developed a probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> and a corresponding statistical inference procedure <span class="hlt">based</span> on last sightings. We applied this procedure to data on recent marine extirpations and extinctions, seeking to test the null hypothesis of a constant extinction <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We found that over the past 500 years extirpations in the ocean have been increasing but at an uncertain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, whereas a constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> of global marine extinctions is statistically plausible. The small sample sizes of marine extinction records generate such high uncertainty that different combinations of <span class="hlt">model</span> inputs can yield different outputs that fit the observed data equally well. Thus, current marine extinction trends may be idiosyncratic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1336987-toward-development-fundamentally-based-chemical-model-cyclopentanone-high-pressure-limit-rate-constants-atom-abstraction-fuel-radical-decomposition','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1336987-toward-development-fundamentally-based-chemical-model-cyclopentanone-high-pressure-limit-rate-constants-atom-abstraction-fuel-radical-decomposition"><span>Toward the Development of a Fundamentally <span class="hlt">Based</span> Chemical <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M.; Pitz, William J.; ...</p> <p>2016-08-25</p> <p>Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. We present calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. Furthermore, these radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by H and Ö atoms and OH, HO2, and CH3 radicals, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when OH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HO2more » radicals. We also determined the subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1336987','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1336987"><span>Toward the Development of a Fundamentally <span class="hlt">Based</span> Chemical <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.</p> <p>2016-08-25</p> <p>Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. We present calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. Furthermore, these radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by H and Ö atoms and OH, HO<sub>2</sub>, and CH<sub>3</sub> radicals, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when OH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HO<sub>2</sub> radicals. We also determined the subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27558073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27558073"><span>Toward the Development of a Fundamentally <span class="hlt">Based</span> Chemical <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Pitz, William J; Curran, Henry J</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. Calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data are presented for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. These radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by Ḣ and Ö atoms and ȮH, HȮ2, and ĊH3 radicals, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when ȮH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HȮ2 radicals. The subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed is also determined, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1336987','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1336987"><span>Toward the Development of a Fundamentally <span class="hlt">Based</span> Chemical <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.</p> <p>2016-08-25</p> <p>Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. We present calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. Furthermore, these radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by H and Ö atoms and OH, HO<sub>2</sub>, and CH<sub>3</sub> radicals, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when OH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HO<sub>2</sub> radicals. We also determined the subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010051282&hterms=sampling+methods&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsampling%2Bmethods','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010051282&hterms=sampling+methods&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsampling%2Bmethods"><span>Sampling Errors in Monthly Rainfall Totals for TRMM and SSM/I, <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Statistics of Retrieved Rain <span class="hlt">Rates</span> and Simple <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Estimates from TRMM satellite data of monthly total rainfall over an area are subject to substantial sampling errors due to the limited number of visits to the area by the satellite during the month. Quantitative comparisons of TRMM averages with data collected by other satellites and by ground-<span class="hlt">based</span> systems require some estimate of the size of this sampling error. A method of estimating this sampling error <span class="hlt">based</span> on the actual statistics of the TRMM observations and on some <span class="hlt">modeling</span> work has been developed. "Sampling error" in TRMM monthly averages is defined here relative to the monthly total a hypothetical satellite permanently stationed above the area would have reported. "Sampling error" therefore includes contributions from the random and systematic errors introduced by the satellite remote sensing system. As part of our long-term goal of providing error estimates for each grid point accessible to the TRMM instruments, sampling error estimates for TRMM <span class="hlt">based</span> on rain retrievals from TRMM microwave (TMI) data are compared for different times of the year and different oceanic areas (to minimize changes in the statistics due to algorithmic differences over land and ocean). Changes in sampling error estimates due to changes in rain statistics due 1) to evolution of the official algorithms used to process the data, and 2) differences from other remote sensing systems such as the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010051282&hterms=statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstatistics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010051282&hterms=statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstatistics"><span>Sampling Errors in Monthly Rainfall Totals for TRMM and SSM/I, <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Statistics of Retrieved Rain <span class="hlt">Rates</span> and Simple <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Estimates from TRMM satellite data of monthly total rainfall over an area are subject to substantial sampling errors due to the limited number of visits to the area by the satellite during the month. Quantitative comparisons of TRMM averages with data collected by other satellites and by ground-<span class="hlt">based</span> systems require some estimate of the size of this sampling error. A method of estimating this sampling error <span class="hlt">based</span> on the actual statistics of the TRMM observations and on some <span class="hlt">modeling</span> work has been developed. "Sampling error" in TRMM monthly averages is defined here relative to the monthly total a hypothetical satellite permanently stationed above the area would have reported. "Sampling error" therefore includes contributions from the random and systematic errors introduced by the satellite remote sensing system. As part of our long-term goal of providing error estimates for each grid point accessible to the TRMM instruments, sampling error estimates for TRMM <span class="hlt">based</span> on rain retrievals from TRMM microwave (TMI) data are compared for different times of the year and different oceanic areas (to minimize changes in the statistics due to algorithmic differences over land and ocean). Changes in sampling error estimates due to changes in rain statistics due 1) to evolution of the official algorithms used to process the data, and 2) differences from other remote sensing systems such as the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737125"><span>Estimation of heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability from pulse oximeter recordings using localized <span class="hlt">model</span> fitting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wadehn, Federico; Carnal, David; Loeliger, Hans-Andrea</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability is one of the key parameters for assessing the health status of a subject's cardiovascular system. This paper presents a local <span class="hlt">model</span> fitting algorithm used for finding single heart beats in photoplethysmogram recordings. The local fit of exponentially decaying cosines of frequencies within the physiological range is used to detect the presence of a heart beat. Using 42 subjects from the Capno<span class="hlt">Base</span> database, the average heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> error was 0.16 BPM and the standard deviation of the absolute estimation error was 0.24 BPM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036808"><span>A generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii <span class="hlt">model</span> for characterizing the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent hysteresis of piezoelectric actuators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gan, Jinqiang; Zhang, Xianmin; Wu, Heng</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, a generalized hysteresis <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed to describe both <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii (P-I) <span class="hlt">model</span>, the developed <span class="hlt">model</span> adds a quadratic polynomial and makes other small changes. When it is used to describe <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent hysteresis, the parameters of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are constants, which can be identified by self-adaptive particle swarm optimization. The effectiveness of this <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent modified P-I <span class="hlt">model</span> is demonstrated by comparing simulation results of the developed <span class="hlt">model</span> and the classic Prandtl-Ishlinskii <span class="hlt">model</span>. Simulation results suggest that the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent modified P-I <span class="hlt">model</span> can describe hysteresis more precisely. Compared with the classical P-I <span class="hlt">model</span>, the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent modified P-I <span class="hlt">model</span> reduces <span class="hlt">modeling</span> error by more than 50%. When it is used to describe <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent hysteresis, a one-side operator is adopted and the parameters are functions with input frequency. The results of the experiments and simulations have shown that the proposed <span class="hlt">models</span> can accurately describe both <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28830852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28830852"><span>Web-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Physician <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> for California Physicians on Probation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murphy, Gregory P; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Gaither, Thomas W; Chumnarnsongkhroh, Thanabhudee; Washington, Samuel L; Breyer, Benjamin N</p> <p>2017-08-22</p> <p> Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> physician <span class="hlt">ratings</span> systems are a popular tool to help patients evaluate physicians. Websites help patients find information regarding physician licensure, office hours, and disciplinary records along with <span class="hlt">ratings</span> and reviews. Whether higher patient <span class="hlt">ratings</span> are associated with higher quality of care is unclear.  The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of physician probation on consumer <span class="hlt">ratings</span> by comparing website <span class="hlt">ratings</span> between doctors on probation against matched controls.  A retrospective review of data from the Medical Board of California for physicians placed on probation from December 1989 to September 2015 was performed. Violations were categorized into nine types. Nonprobation controls were matched by zip code and specialty with probation cases in a 2:1 ratio using the California Department of Consumer Affairs website. Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> reviews were recorded from vitals.com, healthgrades.com, and ratemds.com (<span class="hlt">ratings</span> range from 1-5).  A total of 410 physicians were placed on probation for 866 violations. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) number of <span class="hlt">ratings</span> per doctor was 5.2 (7.8) for cases and 4 (6.3) for controls (P=.003). The mean <span class="hlt">rating</span> for physicians on probation was 3.7 (1.6) compared with 4.0 (1.0) for controls when all three <span class="hlt">rating</span> websites were pooled (P<.001). Violations for medical documentation, incompetence, prescription negligence, and fraud were found to have statistically significant lower <span class="hlt">rating</span> scores. Conversely, scores for professionalism, drugs or alcohol, crime, sexual misconduct, and personal illness were similar between cases and controls. In a univariate analysis, probation was found to be associated with lower <span class="hlt">rating</span>, odds ratio=1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2). This association was not significant in a multivariate <span class="hlt">model</span> when we included age and gender.  Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> physician <span class="hlt">ratings</span> were lower for doctors on probation indicating that patients may perceive a difference. Despite these statistical findings, the absolute</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1090177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1090177"><span>Ground-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Remote Retrievals of Cumulus Entrainment <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wagner, Timothy J.; Turner, David D.; Berg, Larry K.; Krueger, Steven K.</p> <p>2013-07-26</p> <p>While fractional entrainment <span class="hlt">rates</span> for cumulus clouds have typically been derived from airborne observations, this limits the size and scope of available data sets. To increase the number of continental cumulus entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> observations available for study, an algorithm for retrieving them from ground-<span class="hlt">based</span> remote sensing observations has been developed. This algorithm, called the Entrainment <span class="hlt">Rate</span> In Cumulus Algorithm (ERICA), uses the suite of instruments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility as inputs into a Gauss-Newton optimal estimation scheme, in which an assumed guess of the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> is iteratively adjusted through intercomparison of <span class="hlt">modeled</span> liquid water path and cloud droplet effective radius to their observed counterparts. The forward <span class="hlt">model</span> in this algorithm is the Explicit Mixing Parcel <span class="hlt">Model</span> (EMPM), a cloud parcel <span class="hlt">model</span> that treats entrainment as a series of discrete entrainment events. A quantified value for measurement uncertainty is also returned as part of the retrieval. Sensitivity testing and information content analysis demonstrate the robust nature of this method for retrieving accurate observations of the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> without the drawbacks of airborne sampling. Results from a test of ERICA on three months of shallow cumulus cloud events show significant variability of the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> of clouds in a single day and from one day to the next. The mean value of 1.06 km-¹ for the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> in this dataset corresponds well with prior observations and simulations of the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> in cumulus clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1863.0054C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1863.0054C"><span>Simulation of heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability <span class="hlt">model</span> in a network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cascaval, Radu C.; D'Apice, Ciro; D'Arienzo, Maria Pia</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We consider a 1-D <span class="hlt">model</span> for the simulation of the blood flow in the cardiovascular system. As inflow condition we consider a <span class="hlt">model</span> for the aortic valve. The opening and closing of the valve is dynamically determined by the pressure difference between the left ventricular and aortic pressures. At the outflow we impose a peripheral resistance <span class="hlt">model</span>. To approximate the solution we use a numerical scheme <span class="hlt">based</span> on the discontinuous Galerkin method. We also considering a variation in heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> and terminal reflection coefficient due to monitoring of the pressure in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28285064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28285064"><span>Patient perceptions of a pharmacy star <span class="hlt">rating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warholak, Terri L; Patel, Mira; Rosenthal, Meagen; West-Strum, Donna; Ettienne, Earl B; Nunlee-Bland, Gail; Nau, David; Hincapie, Ana L</p> <p></p> <p>To identify patients' understanding of what constitutes a "quality pharmacy" and to obtain their feedback regarding the development and use of the pharmacy star <span class="hlt">rating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, a pharmacy-specific aggregate performance score <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Medicare Star <span class="hlt">Rating</span>. Prospective cross-sectional study. Focus groups were conducted in Arizona, California, Mississippi, Maryland, and the District of Columbia, and one-on-one interviews were conducted in Indiana. Eligible patients were required to routinely use a community pharmacy. Consumer insights on their experiences with their pharmacies and their input on the pharmacy star <span class="hlt">rating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> were attained. Key themes from the focus groups and interviews were obtained through the use of qualitative data analyses. Forty-nine subjects from 5 states and DC participated in 6 focus groups and 4 one-on-one interviews. Eighty-eight percent of participants reported currently taking at least 1 medication, and 87% reported having at least 1 health condition. The 7 themes identified during qualitative analysis included patient care, relational factors for choosing a pharmacy, physical factors for choosing a pharmacy, factors related to use of the pharmacy star <span class="hlt">rating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, reliability of the pharmacy star <span class="hlt">rating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, trust in pharmacists, and measures of pharmacy quality. Most participants agreed that the <span class="hlt">ratings</span> would be useful and could aid in selecting a pharmacy, especially if they were moving to a new place or if they were dissatisfied with their current pharmacy. Pharmacy quality measures are new to patients. Therefore, training and education will need to be provided to patients, as pharmacies begin to offer additional clinical services, such as medication therapy management and diabetes education. The use of the pharmacy star <span class="hlt">rating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was dependent on the participants' situation when choosing a pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H13J..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H13J..04G"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Equity for Alternative Water <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The rising popularity of increasing block <span class="hlt">rates</span> for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in <span class="hlt">rate</span> design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform <span class="hlt">rates</span> have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block <span class="hlt">rates</span>, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water <span class="hlt">rates</span>, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban <span class="hlt">rate</span> structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block <span class="hlt">rates</span> as contrasted to uniform <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative <span class="hlt">rate</span> proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater <span class="hlt">rates</span>. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both <span class="hlt">rate</span> systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching <span class="hlt">rate</span> structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding <span class="hlt">rate</span> structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S43C2480L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S43C2480L"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Seismicity <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">rate</span> of M≥3 earthquakes in the central and eastern US increased beginning in 2009, particularly in regions such as Oklahoma and central Arkansas where fluid injection has occurred (Ellsworth et al., SSA abs, 2012; Horton, SRL, 2012). We compare <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes observed in Oklahoma, which had a low background seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> before 2009, to <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes observed in central Arkansas, which had swarms prior to the start of wastewater injection (Chiu et al., BSSA, 1984; Horton, SRL, 2012). In both cases, stochastic Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) <span class="hlt">models</span> (Ogata, JASA, 1988) and statistical tests demonstrate that the background <span class="hlt">rate</span> of independent events and the aftershock productivity must increase in 2009 in order to explain the observed increase in seismicity. Productivity is lower during the earlier tectonic swarms in Arkansas. The change in aftershock productivity may provide a way to distinguish manmade from natural earthquake <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes and could provide insights into the physical mechanisms of induced seismicity. We fit the ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span>, which is <span class="hlt">based</span> on empirical aftershock scaling laws such as Omori's Law and the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution, to a 1973-2011 USGS PDE catalog of M≥3 Oklahoma earthquakes and a 1982-2012 ANSS catalog of M≥2.2 Arkansas earthquakes. To determine whether a <span class="hlt">rate</span> increase is due to a change in background seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span>, aftershock productivity, or some combination of the two, we do the following: 1) fit the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters to the data, 2) convert origin times to transformed times (Ogata, JGR, 1992), and 3) use Runs and autocorrelation function tests to test the null hypothesis that the transformed times are drawn from a Poisson distribution with constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> (as expected when no external processes trigger earthquakes besides a constant tectonic loading <span class="hlt">rate</span>). In both cases a single set of parameters cannot fit the entire time period, suggesting that significant changes in the underlying process occurred</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..84...93H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..84...93H"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> encounter <span class="hlt">rates</span> and distribution of mobile predators and prey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huse, Geir; Fiksen, Øyvind</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Marine ecosystem <span class="hlt">models</span> often contain modules for two phytoplankton compartments (flagellates and diatoms) and two zooplankton groups (micro- and mesozooplankton). The <span class="hlt">models</span> rarely include fish, not even as an agent in zooplankton mortality, which is often formulated as a constant <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span> is treated as a free parameter, which can be used to tune or stabilize the <span class="hlt">model</span>. There are major gaps in our knowledge and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> capabilities of interactions at the higher trophic levels for example with regards to movement of fish at different scales, prey selection, and zooplankton responses to predators. Here, we argue that there are good reasons for making zooplankton mortality dependent on some key environmental variables known to affect the interaction strength between zooplankton and fish. In addition, since fish are highly mobile organisms, often moving in large groups, there is a need to better understand and <span class="hlt">model</span> their horizontal migration and to include this in ecosystem <span class="hlt">models</span>. We present basic <span class="hlt">models</span> for light-dependent encounters between fish and their zooplankton prey and illustrate how predator-prey interactions can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> for herring- Calanus and cod-capelin interactions using individual-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with super-individuals. In the latter two cases individual displacement is determined by movement behaviour and ocean circulation, and growth and mortality become emergent properties resulting from local encounters between predators and prey. Similarly movement behaviours emerge from simple adaptive rules or more complex <span class="hlt">models</span> where behavioural strategies are evolved using a genetic algorithm. Such <span class="hlt">models</span> are versatile and we argue that emergent mortality and growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> resulting from adaptive behaviours and key environmental forcing are essential for realistic representation of fish-zooplankton interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4811623H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4811623H"><span>An empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> of H2O, CO2 and CO coma distributions and production <span class="hlt">rates</span> for comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko <span class="hlt">based</span> on ROSINA/DFMS measurements and AMPS-DSMC simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Kenneth C.; Altwegg, Kathrin; Bieler, Andre; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Calmonte, Ursina; Combi, Michael R.; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fougere, Nicolas; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, T. I.; Hässig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Le Roy, Léna; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Toth, Gabor; Tzou, Chia-Yu; ROSINA Team</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We have previously used results from the AMPS DSMC (Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) <span class="hlt">model</span> to create an empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the near comet water (H2O) coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In this work we create additional empirical <span class="hlt">models</span> for the coma distributions of CO2 and CO. The AMPS simulations are <span class="hlt">based</span> on ROSINA DFMS (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis, Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer) data taken over the entire timespan of the Rosetta mission. The empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> is created using AMPS DSMC results which are extracted from simulations at a range of radial distances, rotation phases and heliocentric distances. The simulation results are then averaged over a comet rotation and fitted to an empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> distribution. <span class="hlt">Model</span> coefficients are then fitted to piecewise-linear functions of heliocentric distance. The final product is an empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the coma distribution which is a function of heliocentric distance, radial distance, and sun-fixed longitude and latitude angles. The <span class="hlt">model</span> clearly mimics the behavior of water shifting production from North to South across the inbound equinox while the CO2 production is always in the South.The empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used to de-trend the spacecraft motion from the ROSINA COPS and DFMS data. The ROSINA instrument measures the neutral coma density at a single point and the measured value is influenced by the location of the spacecraft relative to the comet and the comet-sun line. Using the empirical coma <span class="hlt">model</span> we can correct for the position of the spacecraft and compute a total production <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on single point measurements. In this presentation we will present the coma production <span class="hlt">rates</span> as a function of heliocentric distance for the entire Rosetta mission.This work was supported by contracts JPL#1266313 and JPL#1266314 from the US Rosetta Project and NASA grant NNX14AG84G from the Planetary Atmospheres Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12157991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12157991"><span>Biplot <span class="hlt">models</span> applied to cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osmond, C</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>"A graphical method developed by Gabriel to display the rows and columns of a matrix is applied to tables of age- and period-specific cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>. It is particularly useful when the pattern of age-specific <span class="hlt">rates</span> changes with time. Trends in age-specific <span class="hlt">rates</span> and changes in the age distribution are identified as projections. Three examples [from England and Wales] are given."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30.1166K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30.1166K"><span>Oxygen utilization <span class="hlt">rate</span> (OUR) underestimates ocean respiration: A <span class="hlt">model</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koeve, W.; Kähler, P.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We use a simple 1-D <span class="hlt">model</span> representing an isolated density surface in the ocean and 3-D global ocean biogeochemical <span class="hlt">models</span> to evaluate the concept of computing the subsurface oceanic oxygen utilization <span class="hlt">rate</span> (OUR) from the changes of apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and water age. The distribution of AOU in the ocean is not only the imprint of respiration in the ocean's interior but is strongly influenced by transport processes and eventually loss at the ocean surface. Since AOU and water age are subject to advection and diffusive mixing, it is only when they are affected both in the same way that OUR represents the correct <span class="hlt">rate</span> of oxygen consumption. This is the case only when advection prevails or with uniform respiration <span class="hlt">rates</span>, when the proportions of AOU and age are not changed by transport. In experiments with the 1-D tube <span class="hlt">model</span>, OUR underestimates respiration when maximum respiration <span class="hlt">rates</span> occur near the outcrops of isopycnals and overestimates when maxima occur far from the outcrops. Given the distribution of respiration in the ocean, i.e., elevated <span class="hlt">rates</span> near high-latitude outcrops of isopycnals and low <span class="hlt">rates</span> below the oligotrophic gyres, underestimates are the rule. Integrating these effects globally in three coupled ocean biogeochemical and circulation <span class="hlt">models</span>, we find that AOU-over-age <span class="hlt">based</span> calculations underestimate true <span class="hlt">model</span> respiration by a factor of 3. Most of this difference is observed in the upper 1000 m of the ocean with the discrepancies increasing toward the surface where OUR underestimates respiration by as much as factor of 4.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/3565337','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/3565337"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> estimates of annual survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> are preferable to observed maximum lifespan statistics for use in comparative life-history studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Krementz, D.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of longevity are available for many animals, and are commonly used in comparative life-history analyses. We suggest that annual survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> is more appropriate life history parameter for most comparative life history analyses. Observed maximum longevities were not correlated with the annual survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates and appear to be unstable over time. We recommend that observed maximum lifespans not be used in life history analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.734c2140V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.734c2140V"><span>Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Dependant Material <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Orthotropic Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vignjevic, Rade</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In manufacturing processes anisotropic metals are often exposed to the loading with high strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the range from 102 s-1 to 106 s-1 (e.g. stamping, cold spraying and explosive forming). These types of loading often involve generation and propagation of shock waves within the material. The material behaviour under such a complex loading needs to be accurately <span class="hlt">modelled</span>, in order to optimise the manufacturing process and achieve appropriate properties of the manufactured component. The presented research is related to development and validation of a thermodynamically consistent physically <span class="hlt">based</span> constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for metals under high <span class="hlt">rate</span> loading. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is capable of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> damage, failure and formation and propagation of shock waves in anisotropic metals. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has two main parts: the strength part which defines the material response to shear deformation and an equation of state (EOS) which defines the material response to isotropic volumetric deformation [1]. The constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> was implemented into the transient nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D [2] and our in house SPH code. Limited <span class="hlt">model</span> validation was performed by simulating a number of high velocity material characterisation and validation impact tests. The new damage <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed in the framework of configurational continuum mechanics and irreversible thermodynamics with internal state variables. The use of the multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient makes the <span class="hlt">model</span> applicable to arbitrary plastic and damage deformations. To account for the physical mechanisms of failure, the concept of thermally activated damage initially proposed by Tuller and Bucher [3], Klepaczko [4] was adopted as the basis for the new damage evolution <span class="hlt">model</span>. This makes the proposed damage/failure <span class="hlt">model</span> compatible with the Mechanical Threshold Strength (MTS) <span class="hlt">model</span> Follansbee and Kocks [5], 1988; Chen and Gray [6] which was used to control evolution of flow stress during plastic deformation. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20922484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20922484"><span>Probability <span class="hlt">model</span> for estimating colorectal polyp progression <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gopalappa, Chaitra; Aydogan-Cremaschi, Selen; Das, Tapas K; Orcun, Seza</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>According to the American Cancer Society, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Experts estimate that about 85% of CRCs begin as precancerous polyps, early detection and treatment of which can significantly reduce the risk of CRC. Hence, it is imperative to develop population-wide intervention strategies for early detection of polyps. Development of such strategies requires precise values of population-specific <span class="hlt">rates</span> of incidence of polyp and its progression to cancerous stage. There has been a considerable amount of research in recent years on developing screening <span class="hlt">based</span> CRC intervention strategies. However, these are not supported by population-specific mathematical estimates of progression <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This paper addresses this need by developing a probability <span class="hlt">model</span> that estimates polyp progression <span class="hlt">rates</span> considering race and family history of CRC; note that, it is ethically infeasible to obtain polyp progression <span class="hlt">rates</span> through clinical trials. We use the estimated <span class="hlt">rates</span> to simulate the progression of polyps in the population of the State of Indiana, and also the population of a clinical trial conducted in the State of Minnesota, which was obtained from literature. The results from the simulations are used to validate the probability <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21070374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21070374"><span><span class="hlt">Modeled</span> infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions for U.S. housing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Persily, A; Musser, A; Emmerich, S J</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A set of 209 dwellings that represent 80% of U.S. housing stock is used to generate frequency distributions of residential infiltration <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The set of homes is <span class="hlt">based</span> on an analysis of the 1997 U.S. Department of Energy's Residential Energy Consumption Survey, which documents numerous housing characteristics including type, floor area, number of rooms, type of heating system, foundation type, and year of construction. The infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions are developed using the multizone network airflow <span class="hlt">model</span>, CONTAM (CONTAMW 2.4 User Guide and Program Documentation, NISTIR 7251. National Institute of Standards and Technology.). In this work, 19 cities are selected to represent U.S. climatic conditions, and CONTAM simulations are performed for each of the 209 houses in these cities to calculate building air change <span class="hlt">rates</span> for each hour over a year. Frequency distributions are then developed and presented nationally as well as <span class="hlt">based</span> on house type and region. These distributions will support indoor air quality, exposure, and energy analyses <span class="hlt">based</span> on a truly representative collection of U.S. homes, which has previously not been possible. In addition, the methodology employed can be extended to other countries and other collections of buildings. For U.S.-specific analyses, these homes and their <span class="hlt">models</span>, can be extended to include occupants, contaminant sources, and other building features to allow a wide range of studies to address other ventilation and indoor air quality issues. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..471..387L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..471..387L"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and predicting historical volatility in exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> markets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lahmiri, Salim</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Volatility <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and forecasting of currency exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an important task in several business risk management tasks; including treasury risk management, derivatives pricing, and portfolio risk evaluation. The purpose of this study is to present a simple and effective approach for predicting historical volatility of currency exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The approach is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a limited set of technical indicators as inputs to the artificial neural networks (ANN). To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, it was applied to forecast US/Canada and US/Euro exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> volatilities. The forecasting results show that our simple approach outperformed the conventional GARCH and EGARCH with different distribution assumptions, and also the hybrid GARCH and EGARCH with ANN in terms of mean absolute error, mean of squared errors, and Theil's inequality coefficient. Because of the simplicity and effectiveness of the approach, it is promising for US currency volatility prediction tasks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-26/pdf/2011-1488.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-26/pdf/2011-1488.pdf"><span>76 FR 4569 - Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Affiliate Restrictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-26</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Affiliate Restrictions AGENCY: Federal... proposed rulemaking, which proposed to amend its regulations governing market-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for public..., fuel procurement or resource planning may not be shared under the market- <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> affiliate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001214"><span><span class="hlt">Base</span> Flow <span class="hlt">Model</span> Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A method was developed of obtaining propulsive <span class="hlt">base</span> flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The <span class="hlt">base</span> flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> assessments of <span class="hlt">base</span> flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in <span class="hlt">base</span> thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive <span class="hlt">models</span> were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span> in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting <span class="hlt">base</span> flow validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28752421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28752421"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> a SI epidemic with stochastic transmission: hyperbolic incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Christen, Alejandra; Maulén-Yañez, M Angélica; González-Olivares, Eduardo; Curé, Michel</p> <p>2017-07-27</p> <p>In this paper a stochastic susceptible-infectious (SI) epidemic <span class="hlt">model</span> is analysed, which is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">model</span> proposed by Roberts and Saha (Appl Math Lett 12: 37-41, 1999), considering a hyperbolic type nonlinear incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Assuming the proportion of infected population varies with time, our new <span class="hlt">model</span> is described by an ordinary differential equation, which is analogous to the equation that describes the double Allee effect. The limit of the solution of this equation (deterministic <span class="hlt">model</span>) is found when time tends to infinity. Then, the asymptotic behaviour of a stochastic fluctuation due to the environmental variation in the coefficient of disease transmission is studied. Thus a stochastic differential equation (SDE) is obtained and the existence of a unique solution is proved. Moreover, the SDE is analysed through the associated Fokker-Planck equation to obtain the invariant measure when the proportion of the infected population reaches steady state. An explicit expression for invariant measure is found and we study some of its properties. The long time behaviour of deterministic and stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> are compared by simulations. According to our knowledge this incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> has not been previously used for this type of epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OEng....7...12M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OEng....7...12M"><span>Regression <span class="hlt">Models</span> and Fuzzy Logic Prediction of TBM Penetration <span class="hlt">Rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Minh, Vu Trieu; Katushin, Dmitri; Antonov, Maksim; Veinthal, Renno</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents statistical analyses of rock engineering properties and the measured penetration <span class="hlt">rate</span> of tunnel boring machine (TBM) <span class="hlt">based</span> on the data of an actual project. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of rock engineering properties including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), rock brittleness index (BI), the distance between planes of weakness (DPW), and the alpha angle (Alpha) between the tunnel axis and the planes of weakness on the TBM <span class="hlt">rate</span> of penetration (ROP). Four (4) statistical regression <span class="hlt">models</span> (two linear and two nonlinear) are built to predict the ROP of TBM. Finally a fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed as an alternative method and compared to the four statistical regression <span class="hlt">models</span>. Results show that the fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">model</span> provides better estimations and can be applied to predict the TBM performance. The R-squared value (R2) of the fuzzy logic <span class="hlt">model</span> scores the highest value of 0.714 over the second runner-up of 0.667 from the multiple variables nonlinear regression <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16245572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16245572"><span>[Calculating the intrinsic growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>: comparison of definition and <span class="hlt">model</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voronov, D A</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>It was shown that well known equation r = ln[N(t2)/N(t1)]/(t2 - t1) is the definition of the average value of intrinsic growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> of population r within any given interval of time t2-t1 and changing arbitrarity its numbers N(t). The common opinion considering the equation as suitable only for exponentially growing population was found to be incorrect. The fundamentally different approach is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the calculation of r within the framework of demographic <span class="hlt">model</span>, realized as Euler - Lotka equation or population projection matrices. However this <span class="hlt">model</span> requires simultaneous realization of several assumptions improbable for natural populations: exponential change in population size, stable age structure and maintaining constant age-dependent birth and death <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The calculation of r by definition requires the data on the dynamics of population numbers, whereas calculation on the basis of the <span class="hlt">model</span> requires the demographic tables of birth and death <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but not the population numbers. With the example of American ginseng it was shown that evalution of r by definition and <span class="hlt">model</span> approaches could produce opposite results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25577800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25577800"><span>Development of an absorbance-<span class="hlt">based</span> response <span class="hlt">model</span> for monitoring the growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Arcobacter butzleri as a function of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, the growth of Arcobacter butzleri in poultry was evaluated as a function of storage temperature (5, 22.5, and 40°C), pH (5, 7, and 9), and NaCl concentration (0, 4, and 8%). A predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed using the absorbance-<span class="hlt">based</span> response surface methodology to describe the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The primary <span class="hlt">model</span> was obtained to predict a growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> with a good fit (R2≥0.95), and the secondary <span class="hlt">model</span> was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis and calculated as follows: Growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>=-2.267274-0.024181 (Temp)+0.6459384 (pH)+0.1926227 (NaCl)+0.0024661 (Temp×pH)-0.001312 (Temp×NaCl)-0.018802 (pH×NaCl)+0.000467 (Temp2)-0.041711 (pH2)- 0.007426 (NaCl2). Our data showed that the growth of A. butzleri can be completely inhibited at a pH of 5 (in the absence of NaCl, at 5°C) and at a pH of 9 (in the presence of 8% NaCl, at 5°C). The surface response <span class="hlt">model</span> was statistically significant, with P<0.0001, as evident from the Fisher F test and from coefficient determination (R2, 0.95). This <span class="hlt">model</span> was also verified by the bias factor (Bf, 0.839), accuracy factor (Af, 1.343), and mean square error (MSE, 0.0138). The newly developed secondary <span class="hlt">models</span> of growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> for A. butzleri could possibly be incorporated into a tertiary <span class="hlt">modeling</span> program such as Pathogen <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA]) and Food Micro <span class="hlt">Model</span> (in the United Kingdom). As a result, they could be used to predict the growth kinetics of A. butzleri as a function of a combination of environmental factors. Ultimately, the developed <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used to reduce A. butzleri in poultry production, processing, and distribution, thereby enhancing food safety. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.164...50E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.164...50E"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> and exposures from outdoor cooking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. <span class="hlt">Models</span> that estimate emissions <span class="hlt">rates</span> from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health <span class="hlt">based</span> exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion <span class="hlt">models</span>. Mean emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">modeled</span> for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the <span class="hlt">models</span> estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions <span class="hlt">rates</span> from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX21002L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX21002L"><span>Tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporating temperature, strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett; Brown, Justin; Lane, Matt</p> <p></p> <p>Tantalum is a body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory metal that is widely used in many applications in high temperature, strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and pressure environments. In this work, we propose a physically-<span class="hlt">based</span> strength <span class="hlt">model</span> for tantalum that incorporates effects of temperature, strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and pressure. A constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for single crystal tantalum is developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on dislocation kink-pair theory, and calibrated to measurements on single crystal specimens. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to predict deformations of single- and polycrystalline tantalum. In addition, the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented into Sandia's ALEGRA solid dynamics code to predict plastic deformations of tantalum in engineering-scale applications at extreme conditions, e.g. Taylor impact tests and Z machine's high pressure ramp compression tests, and the results are compared with available experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335466&keyword=space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335466&keyword=space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ: Part II - Parameterization <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning Strikes and <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> Convective Precipitation <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> lightning NOX during the past dec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335466&keyword=lighting&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91049195&CFTOKEN=52107039','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335466&keyword=lighting&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91049195&CFTOKEN=52107039"><span>Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ: Part II - Parameterization <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning Strikes and <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> Convective Precipitation <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> lightning NOX during the past dec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031031','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031031"><span>Estimating recharge <span class="hlt">rates</span> with analytic element <span class="hlt">models</span> and parameter estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dripps, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured <span class="hlt">base</span> flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE <span class="hlt">model</span> construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow <span class="hlt">model</span> of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual <span class="hlt">base</span> flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge <span class="hlt">rate</span> provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual <span class="hlt">base</span> flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones <span class="hlt">based</span> on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-23/pdf/2012-9655.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-23/pdf/2012-9655.pdf"><span>77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Authority and Termination of Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Tariffs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-23</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Revocation of Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Authority and Termination of Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Tariffs Docket Nos. Aleph One, Inc ER04-686-000 Alpha Domestic Power Trading, LLC... market-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> authority of the public utilities listed in the caption of that order, which had failed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684441','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684441"><span>Lifespan <span class="hlt">based</span> indirect response <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruixo, Juan Jose Perez</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the field of hematology, several mechanism-<span class="hlt">based</span> pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> have been developed to understand the dynamics of several blood cell populations under different clinical conditions while accounting for the essential underlying principles of pharmacology, physiology and pathology. In general, a population of blood cells is basically controlled by two processes: the cell production and cell loss. The assumption that each cell exits the population when its lifespan expires implies that the cell loss <span class="hlt">rate</span> is equal to the cell production <span class="hlt">rate</span> delayed by the lifespan and justifies the use of delayed differential equations for compartmental <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. This review is focused on lifespan <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on delayed differential equations and presents the structure and properties of the basic lifespan indirect response (LIDR) <span class="hlt">models</span> for drugs affecting cell production or cell lifespan distribution. The LIDR <span class="hlt">models</span> for drugs affecting the precursor cell production or decreasing the precursor cell population are also presented and their properties are discussed. The interpretation of transit compartment <span class="hlt">models</span> as LIDR <span class="hlt">models</span> is reviewed as the basis for introducing a new LIDR for drugs affecting the cell lifespan distribution. Finally, the applications and limitations of the LIDR <span class="hlt">models</span> are discussed. PMID:22212685</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91j6002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91j6002B"><span>Glueball decay <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brünner, Frederic; Parganlija, Denis; Rebhan, Anton</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We revisit and extend previous calculations of glueball decay <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the Sakai-Sugimoto <span class="hlt">model</span>, a holographic top-down approach for QCD with chiral quarks <span class="hlt">based</span> on D 8 -D 8 ¯ probe branes in Witten's holographic <span class="hlt">model</span> of nonsupersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The <span class="hlt">rates</span> for decays into two pions, two vector mesons, four pions, and the strongly suppressed decay into four π0 are worked out quantitatively, using a range of the 't Hooft coupling which closely reproduces the decay <span class="hlt">rate</span> of ρ and ω mesons and also leads to a gluon condensate consistent with QCD sum rule calculations. The lowest holographic glueball, which arises from a rather exotic polarization of gravitons in the supergravity background, turns out to have a significantly lower mass and larger width than the two widely discussed glueball candidates f0(1500 ) and f0(1710 ) . The lowest nonexotic and predominantly dilatonic scalar mode, which has a mass of 1487 MeV in the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto <span class="hlt">model</span>, instead provides a narrow glueball state, and we conjecture that only this nonexotic mode should be identified with a scalar glueball component of f0(1500 ) or f0(1710 ). Moreover the decay pattern of the tensor glueball is determined, which is found to have a comparatively broad total width when its mass is adjusted to around or above 2 GeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3530G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3530G"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> framework developed for managing and forecasting the El Hierro 2011-2014 unrest processes <span class="hlt">based</span> on the analysis of the seismicity and deformation data <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, Alicia; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramon</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In July 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), a volcanic unrest was detected, with significant deformations followed by increased seismicity. A submarine eruption started on 10 October 2011 and ceased on 5 March 2012, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through February 2012. However, the seismic activity did not end when the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed since. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. In all cases the seismic activity was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GNSS-GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma injection processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. A <span class="hlt">model</span> combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy released has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening. The <span class="hlt">model</span> presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750025120','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750025120"><span>A simple reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for turbulent diffusion flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bangert, L. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A simple reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed for turbulent diffusion flames in which the reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> is proportional to the turbulence mixing <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> is also dependent on the mean mass fraction and the mean square fluctuation of mass fraction of each reactant. Calculations are compared with experimental data and are generally successful in predicting the measured quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075754"><span>Triple-{alpha} reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> constrained by stellar evolution <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suda, Takuma; Hirschi, Raphael; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.</p> <p>2012-11-12</p> <p>We investigate the quantitative constraint on the triple-{alpha} reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on stellar evolution theory, motivated by the recent significant revision of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> proposed by nuclear physics calculations. Targeted stellar <span class="hlt">models</span> were computed in order to investigate the impact of that <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the mass range of 0.8{<=}M/M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }{<=}25 and in the metallicity range between Z= 0 and Z= 0.02. The revised <span class="hlt">rate</span> has a significant impact on the evolution of low-and intermediate-mass stars, while its influence on the evolution of massive stars (M > 10M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }) is minimal. We find that employing the revised <span class="hlt">rate</span> suppresses helium shell flashes on AGB phase for stars in the initial mass range 0.8{<=}M/M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }{<=}6, which is contradictory to what is observed. The absence of helium shell flashes is due to the weak temperature dependence of the revised triple-{alpha} reaction cross section at the temperature involved. In our <span class="hlt">models</span>, it is suggested that the temperature dependence of the cross section should have at least {nu} > 10 at T = 1-1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}K where the cross section is proportional to T{sup {nu}}. We also derive the helium ignition curve to estimate the maximum cross section to retain the low-mass first red giants. The semi-analytically derived ignition curves suggest that the reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> should be less than {approx} 10{sup -29} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} mole{sup -2} at Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 7.8} K, which corresponds to about three orders of magnitude larger than that of the NACRE compilation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23187408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23187408"><span>Noise <span class="hlt">models</span> for low counting <span class="hlt">rate</span> coherent diffraction imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Godard, Pierre; Allain, Marc; Chamard, Virginie; Rodenburg, John</p> <p>2012-11-05</p> <p>Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is a lens-less microscopy method that extracts the complex-valued exit field from intensity measurements alone. It is of particular importance for microscopy imaging with diffraction set-ups where high quality lenses are not available. The inversion scheme allowing the phase retrieval is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the use of an iterative algorithm. In this work, we address the question of the choice of the iterative process in the case of data corrupted by photon or electron shot noise. Several noise <span class="hlt">models</span> are presented and further used within two inversion strategies, the ordered subset and the scaled gradient. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on analytical and numerical analysis together with Monte-Carlo studies, we show that any physical interpretations drawn from a CDI iterative technique require a detailed understanding of the relationship between the noise <span class="hlt">model</span> and the used inversion method. We observe that iterative algorithms often assume implicitly a noise <span class="hlt">model</span>. For low counting <span class="hlt">rates</span>, each noise <span class="hlt">model</span> behaves differently. Moreover, the used optimization strategy introduces its own artefacts. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on this analysis, we develop a hybrid strategy which works efficiently in the absence of an informed initial guess. Our work emphasises issues which should be considered carefully when inverting experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5622557','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5622557"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> alternative residential peak-load electricity <span class="hlt">rate</span> structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caves, D.W.; Christensen, L.R.; Herriges, J.A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Implementation of optimal peak-load pricing schemes requires information on how customers will change their usage patterns in response to alternative <span class="hlt">rate</span> structures. The authors propose a <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework that can be employed to estimate the effects of a wide range of residential peak-load pricing schemes, including those with a maximum demand charge. The framework is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the neoclassical theory of consumer behavior and employs a flexible functional form, the generalized Leontief. Estimates are developed using data from the Wisconsin Residential Electricity Pricing Experiment. They find significant, and remarkably similar, changes in patterns of household electricity usage induced by energy-<span class="hlt">based</span> and maximum demand-<span class="hlt">based</span> peak-load pricing structures. 17 references, 5 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6994','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6994"><span>Temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of vascular cambium cell mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Matthew B. Dickinson; Edward A. Johnson</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We use two <span class="hlt">rate</span>-process <span class="hlt">models</span> to describe cell mortality at elevated temperatures as a means of understanding vascular cambium cell death during surface fires. In the <span class="hlt">models</span>, cell death is caused by irreversible damage to cellular molecules that occurs at <span class="hlt">rates</span> that increase exponentially with temperature. The <span class="hlt">models</span> differ in whether cells show cumulative effects of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21685348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21685348"><span>Creating a brief <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Rasch <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch <span class="hlt">model</span>), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=202543&keyword=nutrition&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=202543&keyword=nutrition&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: A Revised Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> Upon Oxygen Consumption <span class="hlt">Rates</span> (Final Report, 2009)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA announced the availability of the final report, <i>Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: A Revised Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> Upon Oxygen Consumption <span class="hlt">Rates</span></i>. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation <span class="hlt">rate</span> directly from their oxygen c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=202543&keyword=Food&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91082891&CFTOKEN=44102429','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=202543&keyword=Food&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91082891&CFTOKEN=44102429"><span>Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: A Revised Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> Upon Oxygen Consumption <span class="hlt">Rates</span> (Final Report, 2009)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA announced the availability of the final report, <i>Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: A Revised Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> Upon Oxygen Consumption <span class="hlt">Rates</span></i>. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation <span class="hlt">rate</span> directly from their oxygen c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V42B..02D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V42B..02D"><span>Satellite <span class="hlt">Based</span> Extrusion <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for the 2006 Augustine Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Dean, K. G.; Skoog, R.; Valcic, L.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Extrusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> were calculated from polar orbiting infrared satellite data for the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska. The pixel integrated brightness temperatures from the satellite data were converted to estimates of ground temperature by making assumptions and using first hand observations about the geometry of the hot area (lava dome, flows and pyroclastic flow deposits) relative to the cold area in the kilometer scale pixels. Extrusion <span class="hlt">rate</span> is calculated by assuming that at a given temperature, a lava emits an amount of radiation proportional to its volume. On ten occasions during the activity, helicopter <span class="hlt">based</span> infrared imagers were used to validate the satellite observations. The pre-January 11 thermal activity was not significantly above background in satellite data. The first strong thermal anomalies were recorded during the first explosive phase on January 11. During successive explosive phases in January, bright thermal signals were observed, often saturating the sensors. Large areas (many km2) were observed to be warm in the satellite data, indicative of pyroclastic flows. Sometime during or after January 29, during a phase of sustained ash emission, the thermal signal became persistent, suggesting the beginning of lava effusion. The extrusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> derived from satellite data varied from 0 to nearly 7 m3/s, giving an eruption <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 2.7 m3/s. The extrusion event produced two blocky lava flows which moved down the north flank of the volcano. Extrusion occurred through at least March 15 (day 76) when a sharp drop in extrusion <span class="hlt">rate</span> and thermal signal is observed. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the derived extrusion <span class="hlt">rates</span>, it is estimated that 18 million m3 of lava was extruded during the course of the eruption. This value agreed well with photogrammetric measurements, but does not agree with volumes derived through subtraction of digital elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> post- and pre- eruption. It should be noted that the thermal approach only works for hot lavas, and does not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..33..287Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..33..287Y"><span>RMB Exchange <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Forecast Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> on BP Neural Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ye, Sun</p> <p></p> <p>RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> system has reformed since July, 2005. This article chose RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> data during a period from July, 2005 to September 2010 to establish BP neural network <span class="hlt">model</span> to forecast RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the future by using MATLAB software. The result showed that BP neural network is effective to forecast RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> and also indicated that RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> will continue to appreciate in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15089383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15089383"><span>Comparison of field theory <span class="hlt">models</span> of interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> with market data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baaquie, Belal E; Srikant, Marakani</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We calibrate and test various variants of field theory <span class="hlt">models</span> of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> with data from Eurodollar futures. <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on psychological factors are seen to provide the best fit to the market. We make a <span class="hlt">model</span> independent determination of the volatility function of the forward <span class="hlt">rates</span> from market data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713265T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713265T"><span>Eruption <span class="hlt">rates</span> in explosive eruptions: Ground truth and <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Durig, Tobias; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Larsen, Gudrún; Óladóttir, Bergrún A.; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Oddsson, Björn; Björnsson, Halldór; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther R.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Estimations of eruption <span class="hlt">rates</span> in explosive eruptions are difficult and error margins are invariably high. In small to moderate sized eruptions effects of wind on plume height can be large and in larger eruptions observations are often difficult due to masking of source by low cloud, pyroclastic density currents and monitoring system saturation. Several medium-sized explosive eruptions in recent years have been an important in sparking off intense research on e.g. atmosphere-plume interaction and associated effects of wind on plume height. Other methods that do not rely on plume height are e.g. infrared satellite monitoring of atmospheric loading of fine tephra, infrasound, analysis of video recordings from vents, and it has been suggested that co-eruptive tilt-meter deformation data can predict eruption intensity. The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and Grímsvötn in 2011 provided a wealth of data that potentially can be of use in developing constraints of eruption <span class="hlt">rates</span> in explosive eruptions. A key parameter in all such comparisons between <span class="hlt">models</span> and data is as detailed knowledge as possible on tephra fallout. For both Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn intensive field efforts took place to map out the deposits during and immediately after the eruptions. The resulting maps cover both individual phases as well as total fallout. Comparison of these data with plume-<span class="hlt">based</span> and other <span class="hlt">models</span> of mass discharge <span class="hlt">rates</span> is presently work in progress. A desirable future aim is near real time estimates of mass eruption <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> several of the parameters mentioned above. This type of work is currently ongoing within the framework of the EU-funded supersite project FUTUREVOLC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750020306','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750020306"><span>Program documentation: Surface heating <span class="hlt">rate</span> of thin skin <span class="hlt">models</span> (THNSKN)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcbryde, J. D.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Program THNSKN computes the mean heating <span class="hlt">rate</span> at a maximum of 100 locations on the surface of thin skin transient heating <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Output is printed in tabular form and consists of time history tabulation of temperatures, average temperatures, heat loss without conduction correction, mean heating <span class="hlt">rate</span>, least squares heating <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and the percent standard error of the least squares heating <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The input tape used is produced by the program EHTS03.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4056..235E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4056..235E"><span>Audio coding <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rate</span> distortion and perceptual optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erne, Markus; Moschytz, George</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>The time-frequency tiling, bit allocation and the quantizer of most perceptual coding algorithms is either fixed or controlled by a perceptual mode. The large variety of existing audio signals, each exhibiting different coding requirements due to their different temporal and spectral fine-structure suggests to use a signal-adaptive algorithm. The framework which is described in this is paper makes use of a signal-adaptive wavelet filterbank which allows to switch any node of the wavelet-packet tree individually. Therefore each subband can have an individual time- segmentation and the overall time-frequency tiling can be adapted to the signal using optimization techniques. A <span class="hlt">rate</span>- distortion optimality can be defined which will minimize the distortion for a given <span class="hlt">rate</span> in every subband, <span class="hlt">based</span> on a perceptual <span class="hlt">model</span>. Due to the additivity of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> and distortion measure over disjoint covers of the input signal, an overall cost function including the switching cost for the filterbank switching can be defined. By the use of dynamic programming techniques, the wavelet-packet tree can be pruned <span class="hlt">base</span> don a top-down or bottom-up 'split-merge' decision in every node of the wavelet-tree. Additionally we can profit form temporal masking due to the fact that each subband can have an individual segmentation in time without introducing time domain artifacts such as pre-echo distortion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JKPS...69.1286C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JKPS...69.1286C"><span>Evaluation of the temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency and the light-extraction efficiency in a GaN-<span class="hlt">based</span> blue light-emitting diode by using a <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Young-Hwan; Ryu, Guen-Hwan; Ryu, Han-Youl</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of a GaN-<span class="hlt">based</span> blue light-emitting diode (LED) are evaluated separately in the temperature range between 20 to 80 °C. The theoretical IQE <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the carrier <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation of semiconductors is applied to determine the IQE and the LEE separately from a measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) versus current relation for the LED sample. While the peak EQE of the measured sample decreases by 3.2 % as the temperature increases from 20 to 80 °C, it is found that the peak IQE decreases by 4.5 % and the LEE increases by 1.5 %.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020517','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020517"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> manipulator control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of using <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9401080M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9401080M"><span>A <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent Hosford-Coulomb <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting ductile fracture at high strain <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marcadet, Stephane J.; Roth, Christian C.; Erice, Borja; Mohr, Dirk</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Hosford-Coulomb <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporates the important effect of the Lode angle parameter in addition to the stress triaxiality to predict the initiation of ductile fracture. A strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent extension of the Hosford-Coulomb <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented to describe the results from low, intermediate and high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> fracture experiments on advanced high strength steels (DP590 and TRIP780). The <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions agree well with the experimental observation of an increase in ductility as function of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> for stress states ranging from uniaxial to equi-biaxial tension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28495568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28495568"><span>Quantitative Analyses of the Influence of Parameters Governing <span class="hlt">Rate</span>-Determining Process of Hepatic Elimination of Drugs on the Magnitudes of Drug-Drug Interactions via Hepatic OATPs and CYP3A Using Physiologically <span class="hlt">Based</span> Pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshikado, Takashi; Maeda, Kazuya; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Ken-Ichi; Sugiyama, Yuichi</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Physiologically <span class="hlt">based</span> pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">models</span> were constructed for hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrates (bosentan, repaglinide, clarithromycin, and simeprevir), a CYP3A probe substrate (midazolam), and selective inhibitors for OATPs (rifampicin) and CYP3A (itraconazole), although the role of OATPs in the hepatic uptake of clarithromycin is unclear. The pharmacokinetic data were obtained from our previous clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) study. Parameters optimized from clinical PK data were confirmed to reproduce their blood concentrations in control phase. DDIs with rifampicin and itraconazole were simulated using in vivo Rdif (ratio of diffusional uptake to active uptake) and β (the fraction of the sum of intrinsic clearances for metabolism and biliary excretion in all possible itineraries of intracellular drugs including basolateral efflux) estimated by static analyses <span class="hlt">based</span> on the extended clearance concept, in vivo inhibition constant (Ki) for hepatic OATPs reported previously, and in vivo Ki for CYP3A determined from DDI data with midazolam and itraconazole. Sensitivity analyses showed the magnitudes of DDIs largely depended on Rdif and β. In conclusion, our approach using physiologically <span class="hlt">based</span> pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> showed that the rational estimation of parameters governing <span class="hlt">rate</span>-determining process of hepatic elimination is critical to accurately predict DDI magnitudes involving OATPs/CYP3A inhibition. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR42A..07N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR42A..07N"><span>Friction at seismic slip <span class="hlt">rates</span>: testing thermal weakening <span class="hlt">models</span> experimentally</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, S. B.; Spagnuolo, E.; Violay, M.; Di Toro, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recent experiments systematically explore rock friction under crustal earthquake conditions (fast slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> 1<V<6 m/s and intermediate normal stress 5<σ<50 MPa) revealing that faults undergo abrupt dynamic weakening and lubrication associated to thermally triggered physico-chemical processes. We use such experimental data to test various thermal weakening <span class="hlt">models</span> (flash weakening, diffusion superplasticity, frictional melt lubrication) and to verify the direct or indirect role of temperature on friction. We show that in the absence of melting and/or pressurization, the weakening transient, the dynamic sliding friction and the restrengthening phase can be explained either by the flash weakening <span class="hlt">model</span> (Archard, 1958; Rice, 2006; Noda et al., 2009) or by a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> where the strength of the slip zone is directly controlled by an Arrhenious-like thermal dependance. In the presence of melting, which occurs quite easily in silicatic rocks under coseismic conditions, the data are well explained by the frictional melt <span class="hlt">model</span> (Nielsen et al., 2008, 2010). Frictional heating is simple to compute but requires a rather costly and inefficient convolution (even with the use of FFT) for a dynamic, extended fault simulation. Hence we desing an efficient and accurate wavenumber approximation for a solution of the temperature evolution on the fault. Finally, we propose a compact and paractical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a small number of memory variables for the implementation of thermal weakening friction in seismic fault simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dependence&pg=3&id=EJ1037204','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dependence&pg=3&id=EJ1037204"><span>Item Response <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Local Dependence among Multiple <span class="hlt">Ratings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ratings</span> given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. The rater bundle <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple <span class="hlt">ratings</span> given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bug&pg=5&id=EJ1037204','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bug&pg=5&id=EJ1037204"><span>Item Response <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Local Dependence among Multiple <span class="hlt">Ratings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ratings</span> given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. The rater bundle <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple <span class="hlt">ratings</span> given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delta&pg=3&id=EJ982111','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delta&pg=3&id=EJ982111"><span>The Rasch <span class="hlt">Rating</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and the Disordered Threshold Controversy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adams, Raymond J.; Wu, Margaret L.; Wilson, Mark</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Rasch <span class="hlt">rating</span> (or partial credit) <span class="hlt">model</span> is a widely applied item response <span class="hlt">model</span> that is used to <span class="hlt">model</span> ordinal observed variables that are assumed to collectively reflect a common latent variable. In the application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> there is considerable controversy surrounding the assessment of fit. This controversy is most notable when the set of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCoAM.222...30L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCoAM.222...30L"><span>Solutions of two-factor <span class="hlt">models</span> with variable interest <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jinglu; Clemons, C. B.; Young, G. W.; Zhu, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The focus of this work is on numerical solutions to two-factor option pricing partial differential equations with variable interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Two interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, the Vasicek <span class="hlt">model</span> and the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross <span class="hlt">model</span> (CIR), are considered. Emphasis is placed on the definition and implementation of boundary conditions for different portfolio <span class="hlt">models</span>, and on appropriate truncation of the computational domain. An exact solution to the Vasicek <span class="hlt">model</span> and an exact solution for the price of bonds convertible to stock at expiration under a stochastic interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> are derived. The exact solutions are used to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation schemes. For the numerical simulations the pricing solution is analyzed as the market completeness decreases from the ideal complete level to one with higher volatility of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> and a slower mean-reverting environment. Simulations indicate that the CIR <span class="hlt">model</span> yields more reasonable results than the Vasicek <span class="hlt">model</span> in a less complete market.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rate-of-change&id=EJ810369','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rate-of-change&id=EJ810369"><span>Delineating the Average <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Change in Longitudinal <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change is a concept that has been misunderstood in the literature. This article attempts to clarify the concept and show unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of the average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in longitudinal <span class="hlt">models</span>. The slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> has at times been interpreted as if it were always the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Maxwell+AND+equation&pg=4&id=EJ810369','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Maxwell+AND+equation&pg=4&id=EJ810369"><span>Delineating the Average <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Change in Longitudinal <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change is a concept that has been misunderstood in the literature. This article attempts to clarify the concept and show unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of the average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in longitudinal <span class="hlt">models</span>. The slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> has at times been interpreted as if it were always the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519658.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519658.pdf"><span>Individual-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Completion <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Apprentices. Technical Paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karmel, Tom</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Low completion <span class="hlt">rates</span> for apprentices and trainees have received considerable attention recently and it has been argued that NCVER seriously understates completion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In this paper Tom Karmel uses NCVER data on recommencements to estimate individual-<span class="hlt">based</span> completion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. It is estimated that around one-quarter of trade apprentices swap…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AIPC..309..993S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AIPC..309..993S"><span>A <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for molybdenum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinberg, Daniel J.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The Steinberg-Guinan-Lund <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> has been successfully applied to molybdenum. The <span class="hlt">model</span> reproduces yield strength vs strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> and temperature data and also successfully simulates <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent phenomena, such as shock-smearing, precursor decay, and precursor on reshock, as observed in one-dimensional gas-gun experiments. The spall strength of molybdenum was determined to be 1.5 GPa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810007741&hterms=cmdb&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcmdb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810007741&hterms=cmdb&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcmdb"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for the burning <span class="hlt">rates</span> of composite propellants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>An analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the steady-state burning of composite solid propellants is presented. An improved burning <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is achieved by incorporating an improved AP monopropellant <span class="hlt">model</span>, a separate energy balance for the binder in which a portion of the diffusion flame is used to heat the binder, proper use of the binder regression <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and a <span class="hlt">model</span> for the combustion of the energetic binder component of CMDB propellants. Also, an improved correlation and <span class="hlt">model</span> of aluminum agglomeration is developed which properly describes compositional trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec592-510.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec592-510.pdf"><span>9 CFR 592.510 - <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 592.510 Section 592.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Fees and Charges § 592.510 <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec592-510.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec592-510.pdf"><span>9 CFR 592.510 - <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 592.510 Section 592.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Fees and Charges § 592.510 <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1332..289A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1332..289A"><span>Optimal mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in dynamic environments: The eigen <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>We consider the Eigen quasispecies <span class="hlt">model</span> with a dynamic environment. For an environment with sharp-peak fitness in which the most-fit sequence moves by k spin-flips each period T we find an asymptotic stationary state in which the quasispecies population changes regularly according to the regular environmental change. From this stationary state we estimate the maximum and the minimum mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a quasispecies to survive under the changing environment and calculate the optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> that maximizes the population growth. Interestingly we find that the optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span> is lower than that in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span>, and at their optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> the corresponding mean fitness in the Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span> is lower than that in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span>, suggesting that the mutation process which occurs in parallel to the replication process as in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span> gives an adaptive advantage under changing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITC..91.1623K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITC..91.1623K"><span>A Token-Bucket <span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Control Algorithm with Maximum and Minimum <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Han Seok; Park, Eun-Chan; Heo, Seo Weon</p> <p></p> <p>We propose a token-bucket <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> control algorithm that satisfies both maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">rate</span> constraints with computational complexity of O(1). The proposed algorithm allocates the remaining bandwidth in a strict priority queuing manner to the flows with different priorities and in a weighted fair queuing manner to the flows within the same priority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20415522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20415522"><span>Skull <span class="hlt">base</span> tumor <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gragnaniello, Cristian; Nader, Remi; van Doormaal, Tristan; Kamel, Mahmoud; Voormolen, Eduard H J; Lasio, Giovanni; Aboud, Emad; Regli, Luca; Tulleken, Cornelius A F; Al-Mefty, Ossama</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Resident duty-hours restrictions have now been instituted in many countries worldwide. Shortened training times and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship <span class="hlt">model</span> of training. The development of educational <span class="hlt">models</span> for brain anatomy is a fascinating innovation allowing neurosurgeons to train without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period. The authors describe the use of Stratathane resin ST-504 polymer (SRSP), which is inserted at different intracranial locations to closely mimic meningiomas and other pathological entities of the skull <span class="hlt">base</span>, in a cadaveric <span class="hlt">model</span>, for use in neurosurgical training. Silicone-injected and pressurized cadaveric heads were used for studying the SRSP <span class="hlt">model</span>. The SRSP presents unique intrinsic metamorphic characteristics: liquid at first, it expands and foams when injected into the desired area of the brain, forming a solid tumorlike structure. The authors injected SRSP via different passages that did not influence routes used for the surgical approach for resection of the simulated lesion. For example, SRSP injection routes included endonasal transsphenoidal or transoral approaches if lesions were to be removed through standard skull <span class="hlt">base</span> approach, or, alternatively, SRSP was injected via a cranial approach if the removal was planned to be via the transsphenoidal or transoral route. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was set in place in 3 countries (US, Italy, and The Netherlands), and a pool of 13 physicians from 4 different institutions (all surgeons and surgeons in training) participated in evaluating it and provided feedback. All 13 evaluating physicians had overall positive impressions of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The overall score on 9 components evaluated--including comparison between the tumor <span class="hlt">model</span> and real tumor cases, perioperative requirements, general impression, and applicability--was 88% (100% being the best possible</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA632027','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA632027"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Improvement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University ,Software Engineering...Institute (SEI),Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.410a2026T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.410a2026T"><span>New <span class="hlt">model</span> describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tashiro, Tohru; Minagawa, Hiroe; Chiba, Michiko</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a prevalent stuff. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic <span class="hlt">model</span>. As an application, we apply this <span class="hlt">model</span> to iPod sales data, and find that this <span class="hlt">model</span> can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005327','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005327"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Large-Strain, High-<span class="hlt">Rate</span> Deformation in Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lesuer, D R; Kay, G J; LeBlanc, M M</p> <p>2001-07-20</p> <p>The large strain deformation response of 6061-T6 and Ti-6Al-4V has been evaluated over a range in strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> from 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} to over 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. The results have been used to critically evaluate the strength and damage components of the Johnson-Cook (JC) material <span class="hlt">model</span>. A new <span class="hlt">model</span> that addresses the shortcomings of the JC <span class="hlt">model</span> was then developed and evaluated. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived from the <span class="hlt">rate</span> equations that represent deformation mechanisms active during moderate and high <span class="hlt">rate</span> loading. Another <span class="hlt">model</span> that accounts for the influence of void formation on yield and flow behavior of a ductile metal (the Gurson <span class="hlt">model</span>) was also evaluated. The characteristics and predictive capabilities of these <span class="hlt">models</span> are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070032903','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070032903"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frisch, Harold P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the <span class="hlt">model</span> is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define <span class="hlt">model-based</span> systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11736256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11736256"><span>Finite driving <span class="hlt">rates</span> in interface <span class="hlt">models</span> of Barkhausen noise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Queiroz, S L; Bahiana, M</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>We consider a single-interface <span class="hlt">model</span> for the description of Barkhausen noise in soft ferromagnetic materials. Previously, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was used only in the adiabatic regime of infinitely slow field ramping. We introduce finite driving <span class="hlt">rates</span> and analyze the scaling of event sizes and durations for different regimes of the driving <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Coexistence of intermittency, with nontrivial scaling laws, and finite-velocity interface motion is observed for high enough driving <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Power spectra show a decay approximately omega(-t), with t<2 for finite driving <span class="hlt">rates</span>, revealing the influence of the internal structure of avalanches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82b1904A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82b1904A"><span>Optimal mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in dynamic environments: The Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We consider the Eigen quasispecies <span class="hlt">model</span> with a dynamic environment. For an environment with sharp-peak fitness in which the most-fit sequence moves by k spin-flips each period T we find an asymptotic stationary state in which the quasispecies population changes regularly according to the regular environmental change. From this stationary state we estimate the maximum and the minimum mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a quasispecies to survive under the changing environment and calculate the optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> that maximizes the population growth. Interestingly we find that the optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span> is lower than that in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span>, and at their optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> the corresponding mean fitness in the eigenmodel is lower than that in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span>, suggesting that the mutation process which occurs in parallel to the replication process as in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span> gives an adaptive advantage under changing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=functions+AND+models&pg=5&id=EJ1023480','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=functions+AND+models&pg=5&id=EJ1023480"><span>A <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Perspective on Interpreting <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Change in Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ärlebäck, Jonas B.; Doerr, Helen M.; O'Neil, AnnMarie H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Functions provide powerful tools for describing change, but research has shown that students find difficulty in using functions to create and interpret <span class="hlt">models</span> of changing phenomena. In this study, we drew on a <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> perspective to design an instructional approach to develop students' abilities to describe and interpret <span class="hlt">rates</span> of…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=decay&pg=5&id=EJ1023480','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=decay&pg=5&id=EJ1023480"><span>A <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Perspective on Interpreting <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Change in Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ärlebäck, Jonas B.; Doerr, Helen M.; O'Neil, AnnMarie H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Functions provide powerful tools for describing change, but research has shown that students find difficulty in using functions to create and interpret <span class="hlt">models</span> of changing phenomena. In this study, we drew on a <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> perspective to design an instructional approach to develop students' abilities to describe and interpret <span class="hlt">rates</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920758','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920758"><span>Markov <span class="hlt">models</span> and the ensemble Kalman filter for estimation of sorption <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vugrin, Eric D.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Vugrin, Kay White</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium sorption of contaminants in ground water systems is examined from the perspective of sorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation. A previously developed Markov transition probability <span class="hlt">model</span> for solute transport is used in conjunction with a new conditional probability-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the sorption and desorption <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on breakthrough curve data. Two <span class="hlt">models</span> for prediction of spatially varying sorption and desorption <span class="hlt">rates</span> along a one-dimensional streamline are developed. These <span class="hlt">models</span> are a Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> that utilizes conditional probabilities to determine the <span class="hlt">rates</span> and an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) applied to the conditional probability method. Both approaches rely on a previously developed Markov-<span class="hlt">model</span> of mass transfer, and both <span class="hlt">models</span> assimilate the observed concentration data into the <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation at each observation time. Initial values of the <span class="hlt">rates</span> are perturbed from the true values to form ensembles of <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the ability of both estimation approaches to recover the true <span class="hlt">rates</span> is examined over three different sets of perturbations. The <span class="hlt">models</span> accurately estimate the <span class="hlt">rates</span> when the mean of the perturbations are zero, the unbiased case. For the cases containing some bias, addition of the ensemble Kalman filter is shown to improve accuracy of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation by as much as an order of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bayes+AND+statistic&pg=4&id=EJ1004544','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bayes+AND+statistic&pg=4&id=EJ1004544"><span>What Are Error <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Classifying Teacher and School Performance Using Value-Added <span class="hlt">Models</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article addresses likely error <span class="hlt">rates</span> for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added <span class="hlt">models</span> applied to student test score gain data. Using a realistic performance measurement system scheme <span class="hlt">based</span> on hypothesis testing, the authors develop error <span class="hlt">rate</span> formulas <span class="hlt">based</span> on ordinary least squares and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=negative+AND+rates&pg=7&id=EJ1004544','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=negative+AND+rates&pg=7&id=EJ1004544"><span>What Are Error <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Classifying Teacher and School Performance Using Value-Added <span class="hlt">Models</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article addresses likely error <span class="hlt">rates</span> for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added <span class="hlt">models</span> applied to student test score gain data. Using a realistic performance measurement system scheme <span class="hlt">based</span> on hypothesis testing, the authors develop error <span class="hlt">rate</span> formulas <span class="hlt">based</span> on ordinary least squares and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22238856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22238856"><span>Prejudiced attitude measurement using the Rasch <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scale <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rojas Tejada, Antonio J; Lozano Rojas, Oscar M; Navas Luque, Marisol; Pérez Moreno, Pedro J</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>There have been two basic approaches for the study of minority group prejudice against the majority: to adapt instruments from the majority group, and to use qualitative techniques by analyzing the content of the discourse of the groups involved. Neither of these procedures solves the problem of measuring intergroup attitudes of majorities and minorities in interaction. This study shows the result of a prejudice scale which was developed to measure the attitude of both the minority and majority groups. Prejudice is conceived as an attitude which requires the beliefs or opinions about the out-group, the emotions it elicits, and the behavior or intentional behavior toward it to be known for its evaluation. The innovation in this work is that the psychometric development of the scale was <span class="hlt">based</span> on the item response theory, and more specifically, the <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..457..225B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..457..225B"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> analysis of the link between interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> and crashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Broga, Kristijonas M.; Viegas, Eduardo; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We analyse the effect of distinct levels of interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the stability of the financial network under our <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework. We demonstrate that banking failures are likely to emerge early on under sustained high interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and at much later stage-with higher probability-under a sustained low interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> scenario. Moreover, we demonstrate that those bank failures are of a different nature: high interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> tend to result in significantly more bankruptcies associated to credit losses whereas lack of liquidity tends to be the primary cause of failures under lower <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6081617','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6081617"><span>Surface analyses and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span> multiplicity and instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harold, M.P.; Conner, W.C.</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>Catalytic partial and complete oxidations of chemical species are a quite important class of reactions in the production of many commercial chemicals and in the elimination of environmental pollutants. This research focuses on a sub-class of oxidation reactions in which CO is a key player -- be it a reactant, intermediate, or product -- in the catalytic sequence and chemistry. The first three years of our research has followed two parallel paths which have a common destination and which together provide a framework for the proposed new research. The first path has involved the development of a combined experimental/<span class="hlt">modelling</span> and analysis methodology for constructing feasible mechanistic sequences and their corresponding kinetic <span class="hlt">models</span> of catalytic reactions that exhibit multiple <span class="hlt">rate</span> behavior. The rather well-studied Pt catalyzed CO oxidation served as the test reaction. Our approach involves the measurement of basic kinetic features (apparent reaction orders, activation energy) and multiplicity features (location of ignition and extinction points) over a wide range of conditions (catalyst temperature, total pressure, feed composition), and a kinetic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> part, in which potential reaction sequences are constructed and screened <span class="hlt">based</span> on their ability to predict the experimentally observed kinetic and multiplicity features over a wide range of conditions. The second path has involved the development of an under-utilized (in catalysis) spectroscopic technique, Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIRES), to monitor the surface of a catalyst during reaction. Main accomplishments from both studies are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540772.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540772.pdf"><span>Teachers' Characteristics and <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> for Evidence-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Behavioral Interventions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy; Herman, Keith</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The vast majority of schools today are not prepared to support children's social behavior needs. One challenge is that teachers may not be knowledgeable of evidence-<span class="hlt">based</span> practices that can be utilized with children. This study explored teachers' agreement <span class="hlt">ratings</span> for evidence-<span class="hlt">based</span> and nonevidence-<span class="hlt">based</span> behavior management practices for children…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100020945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100020945"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Definition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rowe, Sidney E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) <span class="hlt">based</span> upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the <span class="hlt">models</span> to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24253151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24253151"><span>A pancreaticoduodenectomy risk <span class="hlt">model</span> derived from 8575 cases from a national single-race population (Japanese) using a web-<span class="hlt">based</span> data entry system: the 30-day and in-hospital mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> for pancreaticoduodenectomy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kimura, Wataru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Hirai, Ichiro; Kenjo, Akira; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Baba, Hideo; Tomita, Naohiro; Nakagoe, Tohru; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>To create a mortality risk <span class="hlt">model</span> after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) using a Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> national database system. PD is a major gastroenterological surgery with relatively high mortality. Many studies have reported factors to analyze short-term outcomes. After initiation of National Clinical Database, approximately 1.2 million surgical cases from more than 3500 Japanese hospitals were collected through a Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> data entry system. After data cleanup, 8575 PD patients (mean age, 68.2 years) recorded in 2011 from 1167 hospitals were analyzed using variables and definitions almost identical to those of American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The 30-day postoperative and in-hospital mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> were 1.2% and 2.8% (103 and 239 patients), respectively. Thirteen significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified: age, respiratory distress, activities of daily living within 30 days before surgery, angina, weight loss of more than 10%, American Society of Anesthesiologists class of greater than 3, Brinkman index of more than 400, body mass index of more than 25 kg/m, white blood cell count of more than 11,000 cells per microliter, platelet count of less than 120,000 per microliter, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio of more than 1.1, activated partial thromboplastin time of more than 40 seconds, and serum creatinine levels of more than 3.0 mg/dL. Five variables, including male sex, emergency surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bleeding disorders, and serum urea nitrogen levels of less than 8.0 mg/dL, were independent variables in the 30-day mortality group. The overall PD complication <span class="hlt">rate</span> was 40.0%. Grade B and C pancreatic fistulas in the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula occurred in 13.2% cases. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> for pancreatic cancer were significantly lower than those for nonpancreatic cancer. We conducted the reported risk stratification study for PD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21039709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21039709"><span><span class="hlt">Modeled</span> estimates of soil and dust ingestion <span class="hlt">rates</span> for children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozkaynak, Halûk; Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie G; Glen, Graham; Smith, Luther</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Daily soil/dust ingestion <span class="hlt">rates</span> typically used in exposure and risk assessments are <span class="hlt">based</span> on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> soil and dust ingestion via hand and object mouthing of children, using EPA's SHEDS <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results for children 3 to <6 years old show that mean and 95th percentile total ingestion of soil and dust values are 68 and 224 mg/day, respectively; mean from soil ingestion, hand-to-mouth dust ingestion, and object-to-mouth dust ingestion are 41 mg/day, 20 mg/day, and 7 mg/day, respectively. In general, hand-to-mouth soil ingestion was the most important pathway, followed by hand-to-mouth dust ingestion, then object-to-mouth dust ingestion. The variability results are most sensitive to inputs on surface loadings, soil-skin adherence, hand mouthing frequency, and hand washing frequency. The predicted total soil and dust ingestion fits a lognormal distribution with geometric mean = 35.7 and geometric standard deviation = 3.3. There are two uncertainty distributions, one below the 20th percentile and the other above. <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> uncertainties ranged within a factor of 3-30. Mean <span class="hlt">modeled</span> estimates for soil and dust ingestion are consistent with past information but lower than the central values recommended in the 2008 EPA Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook. This new <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach, which predicts soil and dust ingestion by pathway, source type, population group, geographic location, and other factors, offers a better characterization of exposures relevant to health risk assessments as compared to using a single value. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26041971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26041971"><span>Growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the dynamical dark energy <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina</p> <p></p> <p>Dark energy <span class="hlt">models</span> with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant <span class="hlt">model</span>. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field <span class="hlt">model</span> with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter [Formula: see text] that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710598B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710598B"><span>Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system <span class="hlt">based</span> on renewable energy - <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> the impact of varying CO2 injection <span class="hlt">rates</span> on reservoir behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection <span class="hlt">rates</span> if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection <span class="hlt">rates</span> on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir <span class="hlt">model</span> approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir <span class="hlt">model</span> was generated. The defined yearly injection <span class="hlt">rate</span> schedule is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the long-term reservoir</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+test&pg=2&id=EJ950483','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+test&pg=2&id=EJ950483"><span>The Random-Effect Generalized <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scale <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rating</span> scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale <span class="hlt">model</span> in which the threshold parameters are treated as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+test&pg=2&id=EJ950483','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+test&pg=2&id=EJ950483"><span>The Random-Effect Generalized <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scale <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rating</span> scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale <span class="hlt">model</span> in which the threshold parameters are treated as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhyA..269...61G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhyA..269...61G"><span>American option pricing in Gauss-Markov interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galluccio, Stefano</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>In the context of Gaussian non-homogeneous interest-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, we study the problem of American bond option pricing. In particular, we show how to efficiently compute the exercise boundary in these <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to decompose the price as a sum of a European option and an American premium. Generalizations to coupon-bearing bonds and jump-diffusion processes for the interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900014176','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900014176"><span><span class="hlt">Rate</span> dependent constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> for fiber reinforced polymer composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gates, Thomas S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A literature survey was conducted to assess the state-of-the-art in <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> for continuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials. Several recent <span class="hlt">models</span> which include formulations for describing plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent phenomenon such as creep and stress relaxation are outlined and compared. When appropriate, these comparisons include brief descriptions of the mathematical formulations, the test procedures required for generating material constants, and details of available data comparing test results to analytical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSMTE..09..005B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSMTE..09..005B"><span>A voter <span class="hlt">model</span> with time dependent flip <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baxter, G. J.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We introduce time variation in the flip <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the voter <span class="hlt">model</span>. This type of generalization may be applied to other diffusion-like <span class="hlt">models</span> in which interaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the microscopic level may change with time, for example in <span class="hlt">models</span> of language change, allowing the representation of changes in speakers' learning <span class="hlt">rates</span> over their lifetime. The mean time taken to reach consensus varies in a nontrivial way with the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change of the flip <span class="hlt">rates</span>, varying between bounds given by the mean consensus times for static homogeneous (the original voter <span class="hlt">model</span>) and static heterogeneous flip <span class="hlt">rates</span>. By considering the mean time between interactions for each agent, we derive excellent estimates of the mean consensus times and exit probabilities for any timescale of flip <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation. The scaling of consensus times with population size on complex networks is correctly predicted, and is as would be expected for the ordinary voter <span class="hlt">model</span>. Heterogeneity in the initial distribution of opinions has a strong effect, considerably reducing the mean time to consensus, while increasing the probability of survival of the opinion which initially occupies the most slowly changing agents. The mean times taken to reach consensus for different states are very different. An opinion originally held by the fastest changing agents has a smaller chance of succeeding, and takes much longer to do so than an evenly distributed opinion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA506199','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA506199"><span>Aluminum Burn <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Modifiers <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Reactive Nanocomposite Powders (Preprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-02-05</p> <p>Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Aluminum Burn <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Modifiers <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Reactive Nanocomposite ...For publication in Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics . 14. ABSTRACT Aluminum powders have long been used as additives in propellants, pyrotechnics ...and explosives. Aluminum has a high enthalpy of combustion but relatively low burn <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Addition of reactive nanocomposite powders can increase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=depression+AND+Geriatric&pg=3&id=EJ452596','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=depression+AND+Geriatric&pg=3&id=EJ452596"><span>Development of an Interview-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Geriatric Depression <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Developed interview-<span class="hlt">based</span> Geriatric Depression <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21379320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21379320"><span>First principles <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of nonlinear incidence <span class="hlt">rates</span> in seasonal epidemics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ponciano, José M; Capistrán, Marcos A</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> function that characterizes epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span>. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> function, which results from <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with both the classical and the LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR <span class="hlt">model</span> with both incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the <span class="hlt">model</span> with the LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our <span class="hlt">model</span> was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with classical incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the <span class="hlt">models</span>' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040644','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040644"><span>First Principles <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Nonlinear Incidence <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Seasonal Epidemics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> function that characterizes epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span>. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> function, which results from <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with both the classical and the LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR <span class="hlt">model</span> with both incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the <span class="hlt">model</span> with the LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our <span class="hlt">model</span> was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with classical incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the <span class="hlt">models</span>' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics. PMID:21379320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17031499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17031499"><span>A semiparametric additive <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for recurrent event data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schaubel, Douglas E; Zeng, Donglin; Cai, Jianwen</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Recurrent event data often arise in biomedical studies, with examples including hospitalizations, infections, and treatment failures. In observational studies, it is often of interest to estimate the effects of covariates on the marginal recurrent event <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The majority of existing <span class="hlt">rate</span> regression methods assume multiplicative covariate effects. We propose a semiparametric <span class="hlt">model</span> for the marginal recurrent event <span class="hlt">rate</span>, wherein the covariates are assumed to add to the unspecified baseline <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Covariate effects are summarized by <span class="hlt">rate</span> differences, meaning that the absolute effect on the <span class="hlt">rate</span> function can be determined from the regression coefficient alone. We describe modifications of the proposed method to accommodate a terminating event (e.g., death). Proposed estimators of the regression parameters and baseline <span class="hlt">rate</span> are shown to be consistent and asymptotically Gaussian. Simulation studies demonstrate that the asymptotic approximations are accurate in finite samples. The proposed methods are applied to a state-wide kidney transplant data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22....1A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22....1A"><span>A Simultaneous Equation Demand <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Block <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agthe, Donald E.; Billings, R. Bruce; Dobra, John L.; Raffiee, Kambiz</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the problem of simultaneous-equations bias in estimation of the water demand function under an increasing block <span class="hlt">rate</span> structure. The Hausman specification test is used to detect the presence of simultaneous-equations bias arising from correlation of the price measures with the regression error term in the results of a previously published study of water demand in Tucson, Arizona. An alternative simultaneous equation <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed for estimating the elasticity of demand in the presence of block <span class="hlt">rate</span> pricing structures and availability of service charges. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to reestimate the price and <span class="hlt">rate</span> premium elasticities of demand in Tucson, Arizona for both the usual long-run static <span class="hlt">model</span> and for a simple short-run demand <span class="hlt">model</span>. The results from these simultaneous equation <span class="hlt">models</span> are consistent with a priori expectations and are unbiased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5782512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5782512"><span>Wheeling <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on marginal-cost theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Merrill, H.M.; Erickson, B.W. )</p> <p>1989-11-01</p> <p>Knowledge of what <span class="hlt">rates</span> for wheeling electric power would be, if <span class="hlt">based</span> on marginal costs, is vital in the debate on how wheeling should be priced. This paper presents the first extensive computations of marginal costs of wheeling, and of <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on these marginal costs. Sensitivities to losses, constraints, load levels, amount of power wheeled, revenue reconciliation, etc., are examined in the context of two case studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJMPC..19.1555Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJMPC..19.1555Z"><span>The Wealth Distribution <span class="hlt">Model</span> with the Kickback <span class="hlt">Rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yujie; He, Mingfeng</p> <p></p> <p>We define an asset exchange <span class="hlt">model</span> by adding the kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span> to the trade, and discuss the Gini index with different kickback <span class="hlt">rates</span>. It is found that for every kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the related Gini index tends to be steady; thus, the kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span> — Gini index curve may be obtained. Furthermore, it is shown that the Gini index decreases when the kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span> increases, so that the fair degree of social wealth distribution gets better. The Gini index reaches a minimum when the kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span> is 0.58, and then it increases, as the accretion of the kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span> destroys the fair degree of social wealth distribution. However, in all situations, the Gini index with kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span> is less than the one without kickback. This means that the introduction of kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span> is favorable to the raising of the fair degree of wealth distribution. We also define a moral index similar to the Gini index to weigh the differences of social moral level, and find that the differences of social moral level increase with time for the <span class="hlt">model</span> with kickback <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22680547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22680547"><span>Equivalence of interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and lattice gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pirjol, Dan</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We consider the class of short <span class="hlt">rate</span> interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for which the short <span class="hlt">rate</span> is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These <span class="hlt">models</span> include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski <span class="hlt">models</span> in the terminal measure. We show that such interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t(1),t(2))=-Cov[x(t(1)),x(t(2))]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski <span class="hlt">model</span> with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas <span class="hlt">model</span> considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-α(e(-γ|x-y|)-e(-γ(x+y))). An explicit solution for the <span class="hlt">model</span> is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the <span class="hlt">model</span> has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy <span class="hlt">model</span> in the terminal measure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549042"><span>Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">rates</span> derived from satellite-<span class="hlt">based</span> chlorophyll concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Behrenfeld, M.J.; Falkowski, P.G.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We assembled a dataset of C-<span class="hlt">based</span> productivity measurements to understand the critical variables required for accurate assessment of daily depth-integrated phytoplankton carbon fixation (PP{sub eu}) from measurements of sea surface pigment concentrations (C{sub sat}). From this dataset, we developed a light-dependent, depth-resolved <span class="hlt">model</span> for carbon fixation (VGPM) that partitions environmental factors affecting primary production into those that influence the relative vertical distribution of primary production (P{sub z}) and those that control the optimal assimilation efficiency of the productivity profile (P{sub opt}{sup B}). The VGPM accounted for 79% of the observed variability in P{sub z} and 86% of the variability in PP{sub eu} by using measured values of P{sub opt}{sup B}. Our results indicate that the accuracy of productivity algorithms in estimating PP{sub eu} is dependent primarily upon the ability to accurately represent variability in P{sub opt}{sup B}. We developed a temperature-dependent P{sub opt}{sup B} <span class="hlt">model</span> that was used in conjunction with monthly climatological images of C{sub sat}, sea surface temperature, and cloud-corrected estimates of surface irradiance to calculate a global annual phytoplankton carbon fixation (PP{sub annu}) <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 43.5 Pg C yr{sup {minus}1}. The geographical distribution of PP{sub annu} was distinctly different than results from previous <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our results illustrate the importance of focusing P{sub opt}{sup B} <span class="hlt">model</span> development on temporal and spatial, rather than the vertical, variability. 87 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1437/g/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1437/g/"><span>Development of Final A-Fault Rupture <span class="hlt">Models</span> for WGCEP/ NSHMP Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Field, Edward H.; Weldon, Ray J.; Parsons, Thomas; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Stein, Ross S.; Petersen, Mark D.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This appendix discusses how we compute the magnitude and <span class="hlt">rate</span> of earthquake ruptures for the seven Type-A faults (Elsinore, Garlock, San Jacinto, S. San Andreas, N. San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, and Calaveras) in the WGCEP/NSHMP Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> 2 (referred to as ERM 2. hereafter). By definition, Type-A faults are those that have relatively abundant paleoseismic information (e.g., mean recurrence-interval estimates). The first section below discusses segmentation-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, where ruptures are assumed be confined to one or more identifiable segments. The second section discusses an un-segmented-<span class="hlt">model</span> option, the third section discusses results and implications, and we end with a discussion of possible future improvements. General background information can be found in the main report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022786','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022786"><span>On <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state and Coulomb failure <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.; Blanpied, M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We examine the predictions of Coulomb failure stress and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state frictional <span class="hlt">models</span>. We study the change in failure time (clock advance) Δt due to stress step perturbations (i.e., coseismic static stress increases) added to "background" stressing at a constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> (i.e., tectonic loading) at time t0. The predictability of Δt implies a predictable change in seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> r(t)/r0, testable using earthquake catalogs, where r0 is the constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> resulting from tectonic stressing. <span class="hlt">Models</span> of r(t)/r0, consistent with general properties of aftershock sequences, must predict an Omori law seismicity decay <span class="hlt">rate</span>, a sequence duration that is less than a few percent of the mainshock cycle time and a return directly to the background <span class="hlt">rate</span>. A Coulomb <span class="hlt">model</span> requires that a fault remains locked during loading, that failure occur instantaneously, and that Δt is independent of t0. These characteristics imply an instantaneous infinite seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> increase of zero duration. Numerical calculations of r(t)/r0 for different state evolution laws show that aftershocks occur on faults extremely close to failure at the mainshock origin time, that these faults must be "Coulomb-like," and that the slip evolution law can be precluded. Real aftershock population characteristics also may constrain <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state constitutive parameters; a may be lower than laboratory values, the stiffness may be high, and/or normal stress may be lower than lithostatic. We also compare Coulomb and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state <span class="hlt">models</span> theoretically. <span class="hlt">Rate</span>-state <span class="hlt">model</span> fault behavior becomes more Coulomb-like as constitutive parameter a decreases relative to parameter b. This is because the slip initially decelerates, representing an initial healing of fault contacts. The deceleration is more pronounced for smaller a, more closely simulating a locked fault. Even when the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state Δt has Coulomb characteristics, its magnitude may differ by some constant dependent on b. In this case, a <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state <span class="hlt">model</span> behaves like a modified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002CoPhC.146..118T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002CoPhC.146..118T"><span>On reevaluation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in discrete time Hogg-Huberman <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Toshijiro; Shibata, Junko; Inoue, Masayoshi</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>The discrete time Hogg-Huberman <span class="hlt">model</span> is extended to a case with time-dependent reevaluation <span class="hlt">rate</span> at which agents using one resource decide to evaluate their resource choice. In this paper the time dependence of the reevaluation <span class="hlt">rate</span> is determined by states of the system. The dynamical behavior of the extended Hogg-Huberman <span class="hlt">model</span> is discussed. It is found that the change of fraction of agents using resource 1 is suppressed to be smaller than that in the case of constant reevaluation <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205..509R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205..509R"><span>Earthquake potential and magnitude limits inferred from a geodetic strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for southern Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rong, Y.; Bird, P.; Jackson, D. D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The project Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe (SHARE), completed in 2013, presents significant improvements over previous regional seismic hazard <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts. The Global Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Map v2.1, sponsored by the Global Earthquake <span class="hlt">Model</span> Foundation and built on a large set of self-consistent geodetic GPS velocities, was released in 2014. To check the SHARE seismic source <span class="hlt">models</span> that were <span class="hlt">based</span> mainly on historical earthquakes and active fault data, we first evaluate the SHARE historical earthquake catalogues and demonstrate that the earthquake magnitudes are acceptable. Then, we construct an earthquake potential <span class="hlt">model</span> using the Global Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Map data. SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span> provided parameters from which magnitude-frequency distributions can be specified for each of 437 seismic source zones covering most of Europe. Because we are interested in proposed magnitude limits, and the original zones had insufficient data for accurate estimates, we combine zones into five groups according to SHARE's estimates of maximum magnitude. Using the strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>, we calculate tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> for each group. Next, we infer seismicity <span class="hlt">rates</span> from the tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> and compare them with historical and SHARE seismicity <span class="hlt">rates</span>. For two of the groups, the tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> are higher than the seismic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span>. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">rates</span> of large earthquakes forecast by the SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span> are lower than those inferred from tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rate</span>. In fact, the SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span> forecast higher seismicity <span class="hlt">rates</span> than the historical <span class="hlt">rates</span>, which indicate that the authors of SHARE were aware of the potentially higher seismic activities in the zones. For one group, the tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rate</span> is lower than the seismic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> forecast by the SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span>. As a result, the <span class="hlt">rates</span> of large earthquakes in that group forecast by the SHARE <span class="hlt">model</span> are higher than those inferred from tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but lower than what the historical data show. For the other two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960029144','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960029144"><span>Spray Combustion <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> with VOF and Finite-<span class="hlt">Rate</span> Chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Liaw, Paul; Wang, Ten-See</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A spray atomization and combustion <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) transport equation with finite-<span class="hlt">rate</span> chemistry <span class="hlt">model</span>. The gas-liquid interface mass, momentum and energy conservation laws are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by continuum surface force mechanisms. A new solution method is developed such that the present VOF <span class="hlt">model</span> can be applied for all-speed range flows. The objectives of the present study are: (1) to develop and verify the fractional volume-of-fluid (VOF) cell partitioning approach into a predictor-corrector algorithm to deal with multiphase (gas-liquid) free surface flow problems; (2) to implement the developed unified algorithm in a general purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, Finite Difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS), with droplet dynamics and finite-<span class="hlt">rate</span> chemistry <span class="hlt">models</span>; and (3) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach by simulating benchmark problems of jet breakup/spray atomization and combustion. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> multiphase fluid flows poses a significant challenge because a required boundary must be applied to a transient, irregular surface that is discontinuous, and the flow regimes considered can range from incompressible to highspeed compressible flows. The flow-process <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is further complicated by surface tension, interfacial heat and mass transfer, spray formation and turbulence, and their interactions. The major contribution of the present method is to combine the novel feature of the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method and the Eulerian/Lagrangian method into a unified algorithm for efficient noniterative, time-accurate calculations of multiphase free surface flows valid at all speeds. The proposed method reformulated the VOF equation to strongly couple two distinct phases (liquid and gas), and tracks droplets on a Lagrangian frame when spray <span class="hlt">model</span> is required, using a unified predictor-corrector technique to account for the non-linear linkages through the convective contributions of VOF. The discontinuities within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6186776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6186776"><span>Mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of melting <span class="hlt">rates</span> for submerged arc welding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chandel, R.S.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>The effects of welding current, arc voltage, wire diameter, electrode extension (EE), electrode polarity, power source type and flux classification on melting <span class="hlt">rates</span> (MR) have been evaluated for the submerged arc welding process. The results show that for a given heat input, greater melting <span class="hlt">rates</span> are obtained when higher current, longer electrode extension, smaller diameter electrodes and electrode negative polarity are used. Arc voltage, power source type and flux classification do not have any significant influence on melting <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> to correlate process variables and melting <span class="hlt">rates</span> have been computed from the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990081117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990081117"><span>Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Dependent <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Polymer Matrix Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A research program is in progress to develop strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent deformation and failure <span class="hlt">models</span> for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> impact loads. Strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent inelastic constitutive equations have been developed to <span class="hlt">model</span> the polymer matrix, and have been incorporated into a micromechanics approach to analyze polymer matrix composites. The Hashin failure criterion has been implemented within the micromechanics results to predict ply failure strengths. The deformation <span class="hlt">model</span> has been implemented within LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code. The deformation response and ply failure stresses for the representative polymer matrix composite AS4/PEEK have been predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alumni+AND+satisfaction&pg=7&id=EJ262532','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alumni+AND+satisfaction&pg=7&id=EJ262532"><span>An Alumni Oriented Approach to Sport Management Curriculum Design Using Performance <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> and a Regression <span class="hlt">Model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ulrich, David; Parkhouse, Bonnie L.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An alumni-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed as an alternative to sports management curriculum design procedures. The <span class="hlt">model</span> relies on the assessment of curriculum by sport management alumni and uses performance <span class="hlt">ratings</span> of employers and measures of satisfaction by alumni in a regression <span class="hlt">model</span> to identify curriculum leading to increased work performance and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CPM.....4..119H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CPM.....4..119H"><span>Continuum <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent granular flows in SPH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We discuss a constitutive law for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We <span class="hlt">model</span> granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029492','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029492"><span>A frictional population <span class="hlt">model</span> of seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.; Cocco, M.; Belardinelli, M.E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We study <span class="hlt">models</span> of seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes caused by the application of a static stress perturbation to a population of faults and discuss our results with respect to the <span class="hlt">model</span> proposed by Dieterich (1994). These <span class="hlt">models</span> assume distribution of nucleation sites (e.g., faults) obeying <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state frictional relations that fail at constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> under tectonic loading alone, and predicts a positive static stress step at time to will cause an immediate increased seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> that decays according to Omori's law. We show one way in which the Dieterich <span class="hlt">model</span> may be constructed from simple general idead, illustratted using numerically computed synthetic seismicity and mathematical formulation. We show that seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> change predicted by these <span class="hlt">models</span> (1) depend on the particular relationship between the clock-advanced failure and fault maturity, (2) are largest for the faults closest to failure at to, (3) depend strongly on which state evolution law faults obey, and (4) are insensitive to some types of population hetrogeneity. We also find that if individual faults fail repeatedly and populations are finite, at timescales much longer than typical aftershock durations, quiescence follows at seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> increase regardless of the specific frictional relations. For the examined <span class="hlt">models</span> the quiescence duration is comparable to the ratio of stress change to stressing <span class="hlt">rate</span> ????/??,which occurs after a time comparable to the average recurrence interval of the individual faults in the population and repeats in the absence of any new load may pertubations; this simple <span class="hlt">model</span> may partly explain observations of repeated clustering of earthquakes. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891693"><span>SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF A TPB DEGRADATION <span class="hlt">RATE</span> <span class="hlt">MODEL</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crawford, C; Tommy Edwards, T; Bill Wilmarth, B</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>A tetraphenylborate (TPB) degradation <span class="hlt">model</span> for use in aggregating Tank 48 material in Tank 50 is developed in this report. The influential factors for this <span class="hlt">model</span> are listed as the headings in the table below. A sensitivity study of the predictions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> over intervals of values for the influential factors affecting the <span class="hlt">model</span> was conducted. These intervals bound the levels of these factors expected during Tank 50 aggregations. The results from the sensitivity analysis were used to identify settings for the influential factors that yielded the largest predicted TPB degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Thus, these factor settings are considered as those that yield the ''worst-case'' scenario for TPB degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> for Tank 50 aggregation, and, as such they would define the test conditions that should be studied in a waste qualification program whose dual purpose would be the investigation of the introduction of Tank 48 material for aggregation in Tank 50 and the bounding of TPB degradation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for such aggregations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JaJAP..47.4209N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JaJAP..47.4209N"><span>Adaptive Estimation of Intravascular Shear <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Parameter Optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nitta, Naotaka; Takeda, Naoto</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The relationships between the intravascular wall shear stress, controlled by flow dynamics, and the progress of arteriosclerosis plaque have been clarified by various studies. Since the shear stress is determined by the viscosity coefficient and shear <span class="hlt">rate</span>, both factors must be estimated accurately. In this paper, an adaptive method for improving the accuracy of quantitative shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation was investigated. First, the parameter dependence of the estimated shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> was investigated in terms of the differential window width and the number of averaged velocity profiles <span class="hlt">based</span> on simulation and experimental data, and then the shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation was optimized. The optimized result revealed that the proposed adaptive method of shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation was effective for improving the accuracy of shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023586','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023586"><span>Molecule-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach for computing chemical-reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC <span class="hlt">model</span> reproduces measured equilibrium reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> without using any macroscopic reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new <span class="hlt">model</span> is inherently able to predict reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, the predominant <span class="hlt">model</span> for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's <span class="hlt">model</span> is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span>. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two <span class="hlt">models</span> can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Extensions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1018359Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1018359Y"><span><span class="hlt">Rates</span> and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan: an assessment using a process-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and spatially-explicit land-use change inventories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p> to other land-use types by abandoning or urbanization accompanied by substantial changes in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic carbon input to soils, could cause a greater or comparable influence on country-scale SCSC compared with changes in management of agricultural lands. A net-net <span class="hlt">based</span> accounting on SCSC showed potential influence of variations in future climate on SCSC, that highlighted importance of application of process-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for estimation of this quantity. Whereas a baseline-<span class="hlt">based</span> accounting on SCSC was shown to have robustness over variations in future climate and effectiveness to factor out direct human-induced influence on SCSC. Validation of the system's function to estimate SCSC in agricultural lands, by comparing simulation output with data from nation-wide stationary monitoring conducted during year 1979-1998, suggested that the system has an acceptable levels of validity, though only for limited range of conditions at current stage. In addition to uncertainties in estimation of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic carbon input to soils in different land-use types at large-scale, time course of SOC sequestration, supposition on land-use change pattern in future, as well as feasibility of agricultural policy planning are considered as important factors that need to be taken account in estimation on a potential of country-scale SCSC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10194564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10194564"><span>Equipment management risk <span class="hlt">rating</span> system <span class="hlt">based</span> on engineering endpoints.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>James, P J</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The equipment management risk <span class="hlt">ratings</span> system outlined here offers two significant departures from current practice: risk classifications are <span class="hlt">based</span> on intrinsic device risks, and the risk <span class="hlt">rating</span> system is <span class="hlt">based</span> on engineering endpoints. Intrinsic device risks are categorized as physical, clinical and technical, and these flow from the incoming equipment assessment process. Engineering risk management is <span class="hlt">based</span> on verification of engineering endpoints such as clinical measurements or energy delivery. This practice eliminates the ambiguity associated with ranking risk in terms of physiologic and higher-level outcome endpoints such as no significant hazards, low significance, injury, or mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..398..264M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..398..264M"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for scaling in firms’ size and growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metzig, Cornelia; Gordon, Mirta B.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We introduce a simple agent-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> which allows us to analyze three stylized facts: a fat-tailed size distribution of companies, a ‘tent-shaped’ growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution, the scaling relation of the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> variance with firm size, and the causality between them. This is achieved under the simple hypothesis that firms compete for a scarce quantity (either aggregate demand or workforce) which is allocated probabilistically. The <span class="hlt">model</span> allows us to relate size and growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions. We compare the results of our <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulations with other scaling relationships, and to similar <span class="hlt">models</span> and relate it to existing theory. Effects arising from binning data are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1830h0002P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1830h0002P"><span>Prediction of future credit <span class="hlt">rating</span> using a non-Markovian <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Gan Chew; Hin, Pooi Ah; Haur, Ng Kok</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The matrix of transition probabilities between <span class="hlt">rating</span> classes is a popular approach for predicting the future credit <span class="hlt">rating</span>. This paper instead attempts to predict the future credit <span class="hlt">rating</span> using a non-Markovian <span class="hlt">model</span>. The prediction is done via the probability of the future credit <span class="hlt">rating</span> given the <span class="hlt">ratings</span> in the present and previous quarters. The estimation of the conditional probability of future credit <span class="hlt">rating</span> is carried out by means of simulation after fitting the data with a multivariate power-normal distribution. The results <span class="hlt">based</span> on the quarterly credit <span class="hlt">ratings</span> of ten companies over 15 years taken from the database of the Taiwan Economic Journal indicate the need of extending the Markovian <span class="hlt">model</span> to the non-Markovian <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840015582','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840015582"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> in turbulent reacting flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented on the effects of chemical reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The <span class="hlt">model</span> results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the <span class="hlt">model</span> was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and for additional comparisons with experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/919528','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/919528"><span>Removal <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Magnetorheological Finishing of Glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; WIlson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.</p> <p>2007-11-14</p> <p>Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic subaperture polishing process. The process uses a magntorheological (MR) fluid that consists of micrometer-sized, spherical, magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) particles, nonmagnetic polishing abrasives, water, and stabilizers. Material removal occurs when the CI and nonmagnetic polishing abrasives shear material off the surface being polished. We introduce a new MRF material removal <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for glass. This <span class="hlt">model</span> contains terms for the near surface mechanical properties of glass, drag force, polishing abrasive size and concentration, chemical durability of the glass, MR fluid pH, and the glass composition. We introduce quantitative chemical predictors for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, into an MRF removal <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. We validate individual terms in our <span class="hlt">model</span> separately and then combine all of the terms to show the whole MRF material removal <span class="hlt">model</span> compared with experimental data. All of our experimental data were obtained using nanodiamond MR fluids and a set of six optical glasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatGe..10..478S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatGe..10..478S"><span>Causes of differences in <span class="hlt">model</span> and satellite tropospheric warming <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santer, Benjamin D.; Fyfe, John C.; Pallotta, Giuliana; Flato, Gregory M.; Meehl, Gerald A.; England, Matthew H.; Hawkins, Ed; Mann, Michael E.; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Bonfils, Céline; Cvijanovic, Ivana; Mears, Carl; Wentz, Frank J.; Po-Chedley, Stephen; Fu, Qiang; Zou, Cheng-Zhi</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In the early twenty-first century, satellite-derived tropospheric warming trends were generally smaller than trends estimated from a large multi-<span class="hlt">model</span> ensemble. Because observations and coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations do not have the same phasing of natural internal variability, such decadal differences in simulated and observed warming <span class="hlt">rates</span> invariably occur. Here we analyse global-mean tropospheric temperatures from satellites and climate <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations to examine whether warming <span class="hlt">rate</span> differences over the satellite era can be explained by internal climate variability alone. We find that in the last two decades of the twentieth century, differences between <span class="hlt">modelled</span> and observed tropospheric temperature trends are broadly consistent with internal variability. Over most of the early twenty-first century, however, <span class="hlt">model</span> tropospheric warming is substantially larger than observed; warming <span class="hlt">rate</span> differences are generally outside the range of trends arising from internal variability. The probability that multi-decadal internal variability fully explains the asymmetry between the late twentieth and early twenty-first century results is low (between zero and about 9%). It is also unlikely that this asymmetry is due to the combined effects of internal variability and a <span class="hlt">model</span> error in climate sensitivity. We conclude that <span class="hlt">model</span> overestimation of tropospheric warming in the early twenty-first century is partly due to systematic deficiencies in some of the post-2000 external forcings used in the <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25716798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25716798"><span>Closed form <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of evolutionary <span class="hlt">rates</span> by exponential Brownian functionals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Privault, Nicolas; Guindon, Stéphane</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Accurate estimation of species divergence times from the analysis of genetic sequences relies on probabilistic <span class="hlt">models</span> of evolution of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of molecular evolution. Importantly, while these <span class="hlt">models</span> describe the sample paths of the substitution <span class="hlt">rates</span> along a phylogenetic tree, only the (random) average <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be estimated on each edge. For mathematical convenience, the stochastic nature of these averages is generally ignored. In this article we derive the probabilistic distribution of the average substitution <span class="hlt">rate</span> assuming a geometric Brownian motion for the sample paths, and we investigate the corresponding error bounds via numerical simulations. In particular we confirm the validity of the gamma approximation proposed in Guindon (Syst Biol 62(1):22-34, 2013) for "small" values of the autocorrelation parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CNSNS..38...72D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CNSNS..38...72D"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the intracellular pathogen-immune interaction with cure <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the <span class="hlt">model</span> considers the saturated nonlinear infection <span class="hlt">rate</span> and linear cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next <span class="hlt">model</span> considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last <span class="hlt">model</span> is an extension of the third <span class="hlt">model</span> in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four <span class="hlt">models</span> have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed <span class="hlt">models</span> show that introduction of immune response and cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth <span class="hlt">model</span> vis-a-vis other <span class="hlt">models</span>. The analytical findings of each <span class="hlt">model</span> have been exemplified by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078906"><span>Arduino-<span class="hlt">based</span> noise robust online heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Sangita; Pal, Saurabh; Mitra, Madhuchhanda</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This paper introduces a noise robust real time heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> detection system from electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An online data acquisition system is developed to collect ECG signals from human subjects. Heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> is detected using window-<span class="hlt">based</span> autocorrelation peak localisation technique. A low-cost Arduino UNO board is used to implement the complete automated process. The performance of the system is compared with PC-<span class="hlt">based</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> detection technique. Accuracy of the system is validated through simulated noisy ECG data with various levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The mean percentage error of detected heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> is found to be 0.72% for the noisy database with five different noise levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28000817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28000817"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the abnormally slow infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> in mesoporous films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berli, Claudio L A; Mercuri, Magalí; Bellino, Martín G</p> <p>2017-01-18</p> <p>Mesoporous films have been shown to exhibit striking behaviors in capillary-driven infiltration experiments. The process has been shown to follow classical Lucas-Washburn dynamics, but the effective pore radius has been calculated from hydrodynamic resistance considerations to be orders of magnitude lower than measured pore dimensions. In addition, the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> has been observed to decrease with increasing pore diameter, in contrast to the expected trend for capillary-like pores. Here, we present a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> accounting for the mechanism behind these anomalous effects. We found the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> to be inversely proportional to the cubed ratio of pore to neck size. This physical scaling correctly <span class="hlt">modeled</span> both the magnitude of the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> and its variation with pore diameters, for a wide range of experimental data. The <span class="hlt">model</span> established a connection between capillary filling dynamics and nanoscale pore structure, which is of practical interest for the design and characterization of mesoporous films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081235&hterms=Graf&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGraf%2BD','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081235&hterms=Graf&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGraf%2BD"><span>Cosmogenic Ne-21 Production <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in H-Chondrites <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Cl-36 - Ar-36 Ages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leya, I.; Graf, Th.; Nishiizumi, K.; Guenther, D.; Wieler, R.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We measured Ne-21 production <span class="hlt">rates</span> in 14 H-chondrites in good agreement with <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations. The production <span class="hlt">rates</span> are <span class="hlt">based</span> on Ne-21 concentrations measured on bulk samples or the non-magnetic fraction and Cl-36 - Ar-36 ages determined from the metal phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081235&hterms=Guenther&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGuenther','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081235&hterms=Guenther&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGuenther"><span>Cosmogenic Ne-21 Production <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in H-Chondrites <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Cl-36 - Ar-36 Ages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leya, I.; Graf, Th.; Nishiizumi, K.; Guenther, D.; Wieler, R.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We measured Ne-21 production <span class="hlt">rates</span> in 14 H-chondrites in good agreement with <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations. The production <span class="hlt">rates</span> are <span class="hlt">based</span> on Ne-21 concentrations measured on bulk samples or the non-magnetic fraction and Cl-36 - Ar-36 ages determined from the metal phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+dental&pg=7&id=EJ592476','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+dental&pg=7&id=EJ592476"><span>Faculty <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> as Part of a Competency-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Evaluation Clinic Grading System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chambers, David W.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Describes a quarterly <span class="hlt">rating</span> system developed to replace daily grading in a dental school with a competency-<span class="hlt">based</span> educational <span class="hlt">model</span>. Presents results from an early administration of the <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. These results, for 126 students, show excellent face validity and rater consistency and satisfy the school's standard for grade defensibility. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27653965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27653965"><span>The impact of <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity on inference of phylogenetic <span class="hlt">models</span> of trait evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chira, A M; Thomas, G H</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rates</span> of trait evolution are known to vary across phylogenies; however, standard evolutionary <span class="hlt">models</span> assume a homogeneous process of trait change. These simple methods are widely applied in small-scale phylogenetic studies, whereas <span class="hlt">models</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity are not, so the prevalence and patterns of potential <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation in groups up to hundreds of species remain unclear. The extent to which trait evolution is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> accurately on a given phylogeny is also largely unknown because studies typically lack absolute <span class="hlt">model</span> fit tests. We investigated these issues by applying both <span class="hlt">rate</span>-static and variable-<span class="hlt">rates</span> methods on (i) body mass data for 88 avian clades of 10-318 species, and (ii) data simulated under a range of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-heterogeneity scenarios. Our results show that <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity is present across small-scaled avian clades, and consequently applying only standard single-process <span class="hlt">models</span> prompts inaccurate inferences about the generating evolutionary process. Specifically, these approaches underestimate <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation, and systematically mislabel temporal trends in trait evolution. Conversely, variable-<span class="hlt">rates</span> approaches have superior relative fit (they are the best <span class="hlt">model</span>) and absolute fit (they describe the data well). We show that <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes such as single internal branch variations, <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreases and early bursts are hard to detect, even by variable-<span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. We also use recently developed absolute adequacy tests to highlight misleading conclusions <span class="hlt">based</span> on relative fit alone (e.g. a consistent preference for constrained evolution when isolated terminal branch <span class="hlt">rate</span> increases are present). This work highlights the potential for robust inferences about trait evolution when fitting flexible <span class="hlt">models</span> in conjunction with tests for absolute <span class="hlt">model</span> fit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvE..72d1904K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvE..72d1904K"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> for complex heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> dynamics in health and diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotani, Kiyoshi; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Stanley, H. Eugene; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>A physiologically motivated, dynamical <span class="hlt">model</span> of cardiovascular autonomic regulation is shown to be capable of generating long-range correlated and multifractal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Virtual disease simulations are carried out systematically to account for the disease-induced relative dysfunction of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic branches of the autonomic control. Statistical agreement of the simulation results with those of real life data is reached, suggesting the possible use of the <span class="hlt">model</span> as a state-of-the-art basis for further understanding of the physiological correlates of complex heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20778703','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20778703"><span>Finite driving <span class="hlt">rate</span> and anisotropy effects in landslide <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piegari, E.; Cataudella, V.; Di Maio, R.; Milano, L.; Nicodemi, M.</p> <p>2006-02-15</p> <p>In order to characterize landslide frequency-size distributions and individuate hazard scenarios and their possible precursors, we investigate a cellular automaton where the effects of a finite driving <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the anisotropy are taken into account. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to reproduce observed features of landslide events, such as power-law distributions, as experimentally reported. We analyze the key role of the driving <span class="hlt">rate</span> and show that, as it is increased, a crossover from power-law to non-power-law behaviors occurs. Finally, a systematic investigation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> on varying its anisotropy factors is performed and the full diagram of its dynamical behaviors is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26b3101S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26b3101S"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability including the effect of sleep stages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> for heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our <span class="hlt">model</span> have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The <span class="hlt">model</span> described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to <span class="hlt">model</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26931582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26931582"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability including the effect of sleep stages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> for heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that-in comparison with real data-the HRV signals obtained from our <span class="hlt">model</span> have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The <span class="hlt">model</span> described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to <span class="hlt">model</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10117443','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10117443"><span>A comparison of analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> for estimating dose equivalent <span class="hlt">rates</span> in shielding with beam spill measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frankle, S.C.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Macek, R.J.; Wilkinson, C.A.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>A comparison of 800-MeV proton beam spill measurements at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) with analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations of neutron dose equivalent <span class="hlt">rates</span> (DER) show agreement within factors of 2-3 for simple shielding geometries. The DER estimates were <span class="hlt">based</span> on a modified Moyer <span class="hlt">model</span> for transverse angles and a Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">based</span> forward angle <span class="hlt">model</span> described in the proceeding paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24848209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24848209"><span>Accuracy of hospital standardized mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>: effects of <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kipnis, Patricia; Liu, Vincent; Escobar, Gabriel J</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Risk-adjusted mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> are commonly used in quality report cards to compare hospital performance. The risk adjustment depends on <span class="hlt">models</span> that are assessed for goodness-of-fit using various discrimination and calibration measures. However, the relationship between <span class="hlt">model</span> fit and the accuracy of hospital comparisons is not well characterized. To evaluate the impact of imperfect <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration (miscalibration) on the accuracy of hospital comparisons. We constructed Monte Carlo simulations where a risk-adjustment <span class="hlt">model</span> is used in a population with a different mortality distribution than in the original <span class="hlt">model</span>. We estimated the power of calibration metrics to detect miscalibration. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of a hospital comparisons method under different imperfect <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration scenarios using an empirical method. The U-statistics showed the highest power to detect intercept and slope deviations in the calibration curve, followed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow, and the calibration intercept and slope tests. The specificity decreased with increased intercept and slope deviations and with hospital size. The effect of an imperfect <span class="hlt">model</span> fit on sensitivity is a function of the true standardized mortality ratio, the underlying mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span>, sample size, and observed intercept and slope deviations. Poorly performing hospitals can appear as good performers and vice versa, depending on the deviation magnitude and direction. Deviations from perfect <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration have a direct impact on the accuracy of hospital comparisons. Publishing the calibration intercept and slope of risk-adjustment <span class="hlt">models</span> would allow the users to monitor their performance against the true standard population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17708430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17708430"><span>Conservation laws and unidentifiability of <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions in biochemical <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anguelova, M; Cedersund, G; Johansson, M; Franzén, C J; Wennberg, B</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>New experimental techniques in bioscience provide us with high-quality data allowing quantitative mathematical <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Parameter estimation is often necessary and, in connection with this, it is important to know whether all parameters can be uniquely estimated from available data, (i.e. whether the <span class="hlt">model</span> is identifiable). Dealing essentially with <span class="hlt">models</span> for metabolism, we show how the assumption of an algebraic relation between concentrations may cause parameters to be unidentifiable. If a sufficient data set is available, the problem with unidentifiability arises locally in individual <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions. A general method for reparameterisation to identifiable <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions is provided, together with a Mathematica code to help with the calculations. The general results are exemplified by four well-cited <span class="hlt">models</span> for glycolysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21181056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21181056"><span><span class="hlt">Models</span> of childbirth care and cesarean <span class="hlt">rates</span> in different countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patah, Luciano Eduardo Maluf; Malik, Ana Maria</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The paper reports the results of a literature review on cesarean <span class="hlt">rates</span> and <span class="hlt">models</span> of childbirth care in different countries according to their utilization of technology. There were reviewed 60 studies published between 1999 and 2010 retrieved from the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES) and ProQuest databases. The Brazilian <span class="hlt">model</span> of childbirth care relies on the physician-patient relationship, level of technology utilization and cesarean delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5733C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5733C"><span>A microphysical <span class="hlt">model</span> explains <span class="hlt">rate</span>-and-state friction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jianye; Spiers, Christopher J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">rate</span>-and-state friction (RSF) laws were originally developed as a phenomenological description of the frictional behavior observed in lab experiments. In previous studies, the empirical RSF laws have been extensively and quite successfully applied to fault mechanisms. However, these laws can not readily be envisioned in terms of the underlying physics. There are several critical discrepancies between seismological constraints on RSF behavior associated with earthquakes and lab-derived RSF parameters, in particular regarding the static stress drop and characteristic slip distance associated with seismic events. Moreover, lab friction studies can address only limited fault topographies, displacements, experimental durations and P-T conditions, which means that scale issues, and especially processes like dilatation and fluid-rock interaction, cannot be fully taken into account. Without a physical basis accounting for such effects, extrapolation of lab-derived RSF data to nature involves significant, often unknown uncertainties. In order to more reliably apply experimental results to natural fault zones, and notably to extrapolate lab data beyond laboratory pressure, temperature and velocity conditions, an understanding of the microphysical mechanisms governing fault frictional behavior is required. Here, following some pioneering efforts (e.g. Niemeijer and Spiers, 2007; Den Hartog and Spiers, 2014), a mechanism-<span class="hlt">based</span> microphysical <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed for describing the frictional behavior of carbonate fault gouge, assuming that the frictional behavior seen in lab experiments is controlled by competing processes of intergranular slip versus contact creep by pressure solution. The <span class="hlt">model</span> basically consists of two governing equations derived from energy/entropy balance considerations and the kinematic relations that apply to a granular fault gouge undergoing shear and dilation/compaction. These two equations can be written as ˙τ/K = Vimp- Lt[λ˙γsbps +(1- </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V22B..01T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V22B..01T"><span>Evaluating the Controls on Magma Ascent <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Through Numerical <span class="hlt">Modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, M. E.; Neuberg, J. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The estimation of the magma ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span> is a key factor in predicting styles of volcanic activity and relies on the understanding of how strongly the ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span> is controlled by different magmatic parameters. The ability to link potential changes in such parameters to monitoring data is an essential step to be able to use these data as a predictive tool. We present the results of a suite of conduit flow <span class="hlt">models</span> that assess the influence of individual <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters such as the magmatic water content, temperature or bulk magma composition on the magma flow in the conduit during an extrusive dome eruption. By systematically varying these parameters we assess their relative importance to changes in ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The results indicate that potential changes to conduit geometry and excess pressure in the magma chamber are amongst the dominant controlling variables that effect ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but the single most important parameter is the volatile content (assumed in this case as only water). <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> this parameter across a range of reported values causes changes in the calculated ascent velocities of up to 800%, triggering fluctuations in ascent <span class="hlt">rates</span> that span the potential threshold between effusive and explosive eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EJASP2011...63C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EJASP2011...63C"><span>FMO-<span class="hlt">based</span> H.264 frame layer <span class="hlt">rate</span> control for low bit <span class="hlt">rate</span> video transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cajote, Rhandley D.; Aramvith, Supavadee; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The use of flexible macroblock ordering (FMO) in H.264/AVC improves error resiliency at the expense of reduced coding efficiency with added overhead bits for slice headers and signalling. The trade-off is most severe at low bit <span class="hlt">rates</span>, where header bits occupy a significant portion of the total bit budget. To better manage the <span class="hlt">rate</span> and improve coding efficiency, we propose enhancements to the H.264/AVC frame layer <span class="hlt">rate</span> control, which take into consideration the effects of using FMO for video transmission. In this article, we propose a new header bits <span class="hlt">model</span>, an enhanced frame complexity measure, a bit allocation and a quantization parameter adjustment scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed improvements achieve better visual quality compared with the JM 9.2 frame layer <span class="hlt">rate</span> control with FMO enabled using a different number of slice groups. Using FMO as an error resilient tool with better <span class="hlt">rate</span> management is suitable in applications that have limited bandwidth and in error prone environments such as video transmission for mobile terminals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhy4.134...43S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhy4.134...43S"><span>High <span class="hlt">rate</span> constitutive <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of aluminium alloy tube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static <span class="hlt">rates</span> using an Instron test fixture and at strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High <span class="hlt">rate</span> testing was then conducted at <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..87b2342H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..87b2342H"><span>Optimal pair-generation <span class="hlt">rate</span> for entanglement-<span class="hlt">based</span> quantum key distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holloway, Catherine; Doucette, John A.; Erven, Christopher; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jennewein, Thomas</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>In entanglement-<span class="hlt">based</span> quantum key distribution (QKD), the generation and detection of multiphoton modes leads to a trade-off between entanglement visibility and twofold coincidence events when maximizing the secure key <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We produce a predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> for the optimal twofold coincidence probability per coincidence window given the channel efficiency and detector dark count <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a given system. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is experimentally validated and used in simulations for QKD with satellites as well as optical fibers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1490051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1490051"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the variability of firing <span class="hlt">rate</span> of retinal ganglion cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levine, M W</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Impulse trains simulating the maintained discharges of retinal ganglion cells were generated by digital realizations of the integrate-and-fire <span class="hlt">model</span>. If the mean <span class="hlt">rate</span> were set by a "bias" level added to "noise," the variability of firing would be related to the mean firing <span class="hlt">rate</span> as an inverse square root law; the maintained discharges of retinal ganglion cells deviate systematically from such a relationship. A more realistic relationship can be obtained if the integrate-and-fire mechanism is "leaky"; with this refinement, the integrate-and-fire <span class="hlt">model</span> captures the essential features of the data. However, the <span class="hlt">model</span> shows that the distribution of intervals is insensitive to that of the underlying variability. The leakage time constant, threshold, and distribution of the noise are confounded, rendering the <span class="hlt">model</span> unspecifiable. Another aspect of variability is presented by the variance of responses to repeated discrete stimuli. The variance of response <span class="hlt">rate</span> increases with the mean response amplitude; the nature of that relationship depends on the duration of the periods in which the response is sampled. These results have defied explanation. But if it is assumed that variability depends on mean <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the way observed for maintained discharges, the variability of responses to abrupt changes in lighting can be predicted from the observed mean responses. The parameters that provide the best fits for the variability of responses also provide a reasonable fit to the variability of maintained discharges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1863k0002G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1863k0002G"><span>Renormalized reaction and relaxation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for harmonic oscillator <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorbachev, Yuriy E.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The thermal dissociation process is considered within the method of solving the kinetic equations for spatially inhomogeneous reactive gas mixtures developed in the previous papers. For harmonic oscillator <span class="hlt">model</span> explicit expressions for reaction and relaxation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the renormalized form are derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvE..69c1916K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvE..69c1916K"><span>Stochastic heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can reveal pathologic cardiac dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuusela, Tom</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>A simple one-dimensional Langevin-type stochastic difference equation can simulate the heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> fluctuations in a time scale from minutes to hours. The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of a deterministic nonlinear part and a stochastic part typical of Gaussian noise, and both parts can be directly determined from measured heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> data. Data from healthy subjects typically exhibit the deterministic part with two or more stable fixed points. Studies of 15 congestive heart-failure subjects reveal that the deterministic part of pathologic heart dynamics has no clear stable fixed points. Direct simulations of the stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> for normal and pathologic cases can produce statistical parameters similar to those of real subjects. Results directly indicate that pathologic situations simplify the heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> control system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhyD..126..160I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhyD..126..160I"><span>A simple <span class="hlt">model</span> of asymmetric quasi-species: network sustained by emergent high mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iwasaki, Yuishi; Yonezawa, Fumiko</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>A simple <span class="hlt">model</span> of adaptive mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> is studied to understand asymmetric adaptive systems. In the <span class="hlt">model</span>, two sources of asymmetries are introduced. One is a spin-glass-type energy function and gives an asymmetry of the fitness landscape. The other is the variable mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> associated with each gene and gives an asymmetry of the transition probabilities. A control parameter is a selection pressure rather than a mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We find that the <span class="hlt">model</span> shows three results: (i) High mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> emerge in the iterative Darwinian selection process. (ii) Detailed balance is satisfied in the diverse system sustained by the emergent high mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span>. (iii) A transition from the positive Darwinian selection (ordered state) to the nearly neutral selection (disordered state) takes place as the selection pressure decreases. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on these results, we study the asymmetric network sustained by emergent high mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510680T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510680T"><span>Predicting changes in volcanic activity through <span class="hlt">modelling</span> magma ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Mark; Neuberg, Jurgen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>It is a simple fact that changes in volcanic activity happen and in retrospect they are easy to spot, the dissimilar eruption dynamics between an effusive and explosive event are not hard to miss. However to be able to predict such changes is a much more complicated process. To cause altering styles of activity we know that some part or combination of parts within the system must vary with time, as if there is no physical change within the system, why would the change in eruptive activity occur? What is unknown is which parts or how big a change is needed. We present the results of a suite of conduit flow <span class="hlt">models</span> that aim to answer these questions by assessing the influence of individual <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters such as the dissolved water content or magma temperature. By altering these variables in a systematic manner we measure the effect of the changes by observing the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We use the ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span> as we believe it is a very important indicator that can control the style of eruptive activity. In particular, we found that the sensitivity of the ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span> to small changes in <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters surprising. Linking these changes to observable monitoring data in a way that these data could be used as a predictive tool is the ultimate goal of this work. We will show that changes in ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be estimated by a particular type of seismicity. Low frequency seismicity, thought to be caused by the brittle failure of melt is often linked with the movement of magma within a conduit. We show that acceleration in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of low frequency seismicity can correspond to an increase in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of magma movement and be used as an indicator for potential changes in eruptive activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103968"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensitivity of exercise transient responses to limb motion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamashiro, Stanley M; Kato, Takahide</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Transient responses of ventilation (V̇e) to limb motion can exhibit predictive characteristics. In response to a change in limb motion, a rapid change in V̇e is commonly observed with characteristics different than during a change in workload. This rapid change has been attributed to a feed-forward or adaptive response. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> sensitivity was explored as a specific hypothesis to explain predictive V̇e responses to limb motion. A simple <span class="hlt">model</span> assuming an additive feed-forward summation of V̇e proportional to the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change of limb motion was studied. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was able to successfully account for the adaptive phase correction observed during human sinusoidal changes in limb motion. Adaptation of <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensitivity might also explain the reduction of the fast component of V̇e responses previously reported following sudden exercise termination. Adaptation of the fast component of V̇e response could occur by reduction of <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensitivity. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> sensitivity of limb motion was predicted by the <span class="hlt">model</span> to reduce the phase delay between limb motion and V̇e response without changing the steady-state response to exercise load. In this way, V̇e can respond more quickly to an exercise change without interfering with overall feedback control. The asymmetry between responses to an incremental and decremental ramp change in exercise can also be accounted for by the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> sensitivity leads to predicted behavior, which resembles responses observed in exercise tied to expiratory reserve volume. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614750H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614750H"><span>Inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of radionuclide release <span class="hlt">rates</span> using gamma dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. The hazardous consequences reach out on a national and continental scale. Environmental measurements and methods to <span class="hlt">model</span> the transport and dispersion of the released radionuclides serve as a platform to assess the regional impact of nuclear accidents - both, for research purposes and, more important, to determine the immediate threat to the population. However, the assessments of the regional radionuclide activity concentrations and the individual exposure to radiation dose underlie several uncertainties. For example, the accurate <span class="hlt">model</span> representation of wet and dry deposition. One of the most significant uncertainty, however, results from the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source terms of severe nuclear accidents may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on rather rough estimates of released key radionuclides given by the operators. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. Inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> can be used to realise a feasible estimation of the source term (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). Existing point measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations are therefore combined with atmospheric transport <span class="hlt">models</span>. The release <span class="hlt">rates</span> of radionuclides at the accident site are then obtained by improving the agreement between the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> and observed concentrations (Stohl et al., 2012). The accuracy of the method and hence of the resulting source term depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+change+AND+review&pg=3&id=EJ1042994','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+change+AND+review&pg=3&id=EJ1042994"><span>Increasing Response <span class="hlt">Rates</span> to Web-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352565.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352565.pdf"><span>Gender and the Utilization of <span class="hlt">Base-Rate</span> Information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heckman, Timothy G.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The present investigation employed Kahneman and Tversky's (1973) "Cab Problem" and the "Shuttle Problem" (a modified version of the former) in two separate experiments to further examine the impact of several variables on the utilization of <span class="hlt">base-rate</span> information, and to what extent gender is related to the utilization of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec391-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec391-2.pdf"><span>9 CFR 391.2 - <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 391.2 Section 391.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FEES AND CHARGES FOR INSPECTION SERVICES AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec391-2.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec391-2.pdf"><span>9 CFR 391.2 - <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 391.2 Section 391.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FEES AND CHARGES FOR INSPECTION SERVICES AND...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=web+AND+web&pg=4&id=EJ1042994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=web+AND+web&pg=4&id=EJ1042994"><span>Increasing Response <span class="hlt">Rates</span> to Web-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15089384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15089384"><span>Finite hedging in field theory <span class="hlt">models</span> of interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baaquie, Belal E; Srikant, Marakani</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We use path integrals to calculate hedge parameters and efficacy of hedging in a quantum field theory generalization of the Heath, Jarrow, and Morton [Robert Jarrow, David Heath, and Andrew Morton, Econometrica 60, 77 (1992)] term structure <span class="hlt">model</span>, which parsimoniously describes the evolution of imperfectly correlated forward <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We calculate, within the <span class="hlt">model</span> specification, the effectiveness of hedging over finite periods of time, and obtain the limiting case of instantaneous hedging. We use empirical estimates for the parameters of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to show that a low-dimensional hedge portfolio is quite effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..93.1162Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..93.1162Z"><span>Identifying High-<span class="hlt">Rate</span> Flows <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Sequential Sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yu; Fang, Binxing; Luo, Hao</p> <p></p> <p>We consider the problem of fast identification of high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows in backbone links with possibly millions of flows. Accurate identification of high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows is important for active queue management, traffic measurement and network security such as detection of distributed denial of service attacks. It is difficult to directly identify high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows in backbone links because tracking the possible millions of flows needs correspondingly large high speed memories. To reduce the measurement overhead, the deterministic 1-out-of-k sampling technique is adopted which is also implemented in Cisco routers (NetFlow). Ideally, a high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flow identification method should have short identification time, low memory cost and processing cost. Most importantly, it should be able to specify the identification accuracy. We develop two such methods. The first method is <span class="hlt">based</span> on fixed sample size test (FSST) which is able to identify high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows with user-specified identification accuracy. However, since FSST has to record every sampled flow during the measurement period, it is not memory efficient. Therefore the second novel method <span class="hlt">based</span> on truncated sequential probability ratio test (TSPRT) is proposed. Through sequential sampling, TSPRT is able to remove the low-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows and identify the high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows at the early stage which can reduce the memory cost and identification time respectively. According to the way to determine the parameters in TSPRT, two versions of TSPRT are proposed: TSPRT-M which is suitable when low memory cost is preferred and TSPRT-T which is suitable when short identification time is preferred. The experimental results show that TSPRT requires less memory and identification time in identifying high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows while satisfying the accuracy requirement as compared to previously proposed methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992FFEMS..15..825S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992FFEMS..15..825S"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> for mixed mode fracture under biaxial loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shliannikov, V. N.; Braude, N. Z.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting the crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> of an initially angled crack under biaxial loads of arbitrary direction is suggested. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a combination of both the Manson-Coffin equation for low cycle fatigue and the Paris equation for fatigue crack propagation. The <span class="hlt">model</span> takes into consideration the change in material plastic properties in the region around the crack tip due to the stress state, together with the initial orientation of the crack and also its trajectory of growth. Predictions of crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> for any mixed mode fracture is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the results of uniaxial tension experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17107967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17107967"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and analysis of biochemical networks: mechanism-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> experiments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Riel, Natal A W</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Systems biology applies quantitative, mechanistic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> to study genetic networks, signal transduction pathways and metabolic networks. Mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> of biochemical networks can look very different. An important reason is that the purpose and application of a <span class="hlt">model</span> are essential for the selection of the best mathematical framework. Fundamental aspects of selecting an appropriate <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework and a strategy for <span class="hlt">model</span> building are discussed. Concepts and methods from system and control theory provide a sound basis for the further development of improved and dedicated computational tools for systems biology. Identification of the network components and <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants that are most critical to the output behaviour of the system is one of the major problems raised in systems biology. Current approaches and methods of parameter sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation are reviewed. It is shown how these methods can be applied in the design of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> experiments which iteratively yield <span class="hlt">models</span> that are decreasingly wrong and increasingly gain predictive power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARZ28009H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARZ28009H"><span>Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span> with general fitness functions and degradation <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Chin-Kun; Saakian, David B.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We present an exact solution of Eigen's quasispecies <span class="hlt">model</span> with a general degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> and fitness functions, including a square root decrease of fitness with increasing Hamming distance from the wild type. The found behavior of the <span class="hlt">model</span> with a degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> is analogous to a viral quasi-species under attack by the immune system of the host. Our exact solutions also revise the known results of neutral networks in quasispecies theory. To explain the existence of mutants with large Hamming distances from the wild type, we propose three different modifications of the Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span>: mutation landscape, multiple adjacent mutations, and frequency-dependent fitness in which the steady state solution shows a multi-center behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000925','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000925"><span>Estimation of Eddy Dissipation <span class="hlt">Rates</span> from Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Model</span> Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Eddy Dissipation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> is an important metric for representing the intensity of atmospheric turbulence and is used as an input parameter for predicting the decay of aircraft wake vortices. In this study, the forecasts of eddy dissipation <span class="hlt">rates</span> obtained from the current state-of-the-art mesoscale <span class="hlt">model</span> are evaluated for terminal area applications. The Weather Research and Forecast mesoscale <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to simulate the planetary boundary layer at high horizontal and vertical mesh resolutions. The Bougeault-Lacarrer and the Mellor-Yamada-Janji schemes implemented in the Weather Research and Forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> are evaluated against data collected during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Memphis Wake Vortex Field Experiment. Comparisons with other observations are included as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H21K..02V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H21K..02V"><span>Markov <span class="hlt">Models</span> and the Ensemble Kalman Filter for Estimation of Sorption <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vugrin, E. D.; McKenna, S. A.; White Vugrin, K.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium sorption of contaminants in ground water systems is examined from the perspective of sorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation. A previously developed Markov transition probability <span class="hlt">model</span> for solute transport is used in conjunction with a new conditional probability-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the sorption and desorption <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on breakthrough curve data. Two <span class="hlt">models</span> for prediction of spatially varying sorption and desorption <span class="hlt">rates</span> along a one-dimensional streamline are developed. These <span class="hlt">models</span> are a Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> that utilizes conditional probabilities to determine the <span class="hlt">rates</span> and an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) applied to the conditional probability method. Both approaches rely on a previously developed Markov-<span class="hlt">model</span> of mass transfer, and both <span class="hlt">models</span> assimilate the observed concentration data into the <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation at each observation time. Initial values of the <span class="hlt">rates</span> are perturbed from the true values to form ensembles of <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the ability of both estimation approaches to recover the true <span class="hlt">rates</span> is examined over three different sets of perturbations. The <span class="hlt">models</span> accurately estimate the <span class="hlt">rates</span> when the mean of the perturbations are zero, the unbiased case. For the cases containing some bias, addition of the ensemble Kalman filter is shown to improve accuracy of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation by as much as an order of magnitude. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299533','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299533"><span>A mechanistic detachment <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> to predict soil erodibility due to fluvial and seepage forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The erosion <span class="hlt">rate</span> of cohesive soils is typically computed using an excess shear stress <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the applied fluvial shear stress. However, no mechanistic approaches are available for incorporating additional forces such as localized groundwater seepage forces into the excess shear stress <span class="hlt">model</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=intervention+AND+Asia&pg=7&id=EJ1040433','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=intervention+AND+Asia&pg=7&id=EJ1040433"><span>Exploring Latent Class <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Growth <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Number Sense Ability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kim, Dongil; Shin, Jaehyun; Lee, Kijyung</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore latent class <span class="hlt">based</span> on growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> in number sense ability by using latent growth class <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (LGCM). LGCM is one of the noteworthy methods for identifying growth patterns of the progress monitoring within the response to intervention framework in that it enables us to analyze latent sub-groups <span class="hlt">based</span> not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=one+AND+class+AND+pattern&id=EJ1040433','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=one+AND+class+AND+pattern&id=EJ1040433"><span>Exploring Latent Class <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Growth <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Number Sense Ability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kim, Dongil; Shin, Jaehyun; Lee, Kijyung</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore latent class <span class="hlt">based</span> on growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> in number sense ability by using latent growth class <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (LGCM). LGCM is one of the noteworthy methods for identifying growth patterns of the progress monitoring within the response to intervention framework in that it enables us to analyze latent sub-groups <span class="hlt">based</span> not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25888346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25888346"><span>Exploring physician specialist response <span class="hlt">rates</span> to web-<span class="hlt">based</span> surveys.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Quan, Hude; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Noseworthy, Tom; Beck, Cynthia A; Dixon, Elijah; Samuel, Susan; Ghali, William A; Sykes, Lindsay L; Jetté, Nathalie</p> <p>2015-04-09</p> <p>Survey research in healthcare is an important tool to collect information about healthcare delivery, service use and overall issues relating to quality of care. Unfortunately, physicians are often a group with low survey response <span class="hlt">rates</span> and little research has looked at response <span class="hlt">rates</span> among physician specialists. For these reasons, the purpose of this project was to explore survey response <span class="hlt">rates</span> among physician specialists in a large metropolitan Canadian city. As part of a larger project to look at physician payment plans, an online survey about medical billing practices was distributed to 904 physicians from various medical specialties. The primary method for physicians to complete the survey was via the Internet using a well-known and established survey company (www.surveymonkey.com). Multiple methods were used to encourage survey response such as individual personalized email invitations, multiple reminders, and a draw for three gift certificate prizes were used to increase response <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Descriptive statistics were used to assess response <span class="hlt">rates</span> and reasons for non-response. Overall survey response <span class="hlt">rate</span> was 35.0%. Response <span class="hlt">rates</span> varied by specialty: Neurology/neurosurgery (46.6%); internal medicine (42.9%); general surgery (29.6%); pediatrics (29.2%); and psychiatry (27.1%). Non-respondents listed lack of time/survey burden as the main reason for not responding to our survey. Our survey results provide a look into the challenges of collecting healthcare research where response <span class="hlt">rates</span> to surveys are often low. The findings presented here should help researchers in planning future survey <span class="hlt">based</span> studies. Findings from this study and others suggest smaller monetary incentives for each individual may be a more appropriate way to increase response <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1786o0007K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1786o0007K"><span>Improvement of simple <span class="hlt">models</span> for state-to-state and multi-temperature reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kustova, E. V.; Savelev, A. S.; Sharafutdinov, I. Z.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We propose a simple and accurate <span class="hlt">model</span> for state-specific dissociation <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients <span class="hlt">based</span> on the widely used Treanor-Marrone <span class="hlt">model</span>. It takes into account the dependence of the parameter in the Treanor-Marrone <span class="hlt">model</span> on temperature and vibrational level and can be used with arbitrary vibrational ladder. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is validated by comparisons with state-specific dissociation <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients of O2 and N2 obtained using molecular dynamics, and its good accuracy is demonstrated. Two-temperature dissociation <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients are derived averaging the state-specific non-equilibrium factors with different vibrational distributions. The two-temperature <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients are compared with those given by the empirical Park <span class="hlt">model</span> and coefficients extracted from shock-tube measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90530&keyword=Vapor+AND+pressure&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89667433&CFTOKEN=89777909','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90530&keyword=Vapor+AND+pressure&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89667433&CFTOKEN=89777909"><span>ESTIMATION OF THE <span class="hlt">RATE</span> OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM SOLVENT-<span class="hlt">BASED</span> INDOOR COATING MATERIALS <span class="hlt">BASED</span> ON PRODUCT FORMULATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Two computational methods are proposed for estimation of the emission <span class="hlt">rate</span> of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from solvent-<span class="hlt">based</span> indoor coating materials <span class="hlt">based</span> on the knowledge of product formulation. The first method utilizes two previously developed mass transfer <span class="hlt">models</span> with ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=written+AND+expression&pg=4&id=EJ788267','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=written+AND+expression&pg=4&id=EJ788267"><span>The Technical Adequacy of Curriculum-<span class="hlt">Based</span> and <span class="hlt">Rating-Based</span> Measures of Written Expression for Elementary School Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gansle, Kristin A.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.; Noell, George H.; Resetar, Jennifer L.; Williams, Kashunda L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Five hundred thirty-eight elementary school students participated in a study designed to examine the technical characteristics of curriculum-<span class="hlt">based</span> measures (CBMs) for the assessment of writing. In addition, the study investigated <span class="hlt">rating-based</span> measures of writing using the Six Trait <span class="hlt">model</span>, an assessment instrument and writing program in use in many…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19363167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19363167"><span>The average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change for continuous time <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelley, Ken</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change (ARC) is a concept that has been misunderstood in the applied longitudinal data analysis literature, where the slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> is often thought of as though it were the ARC. The present article clarifies the concept of ARC and shows unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of ARC when measurement is continuous across time. It is shown that the slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> generally is not equal to the ARC. General equations are presented for two measures of discrepancy when the slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to estimate the ARC in the case of continuous time for any <span class="hlt">model</span> linear in its parameters, and for three useful <span class="hlt">models</span> nonlinear in their parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28333706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28333706"><span>Video-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Physiologic Monitoring During an Acute Hypoxic Challenge: Heart <span class="hlt">Rate</span>, Respiratory <span class="hlt">Rate</span>, and Oxygen Saturation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Addison, Paul S; Jacquel, Dominique; Foo, David M H; Antunes, André; Borg, Ulf R</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The physiologic information contained in the video photoplethysmogram is well documented. However, extracting this information during challenging conditions requires new analysis techniques to capture and process the video image streams to extract clinically useful physiologic parameters. We hypothesized that heart <span class="hlt">rate</span>, respiratory <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and oxygen saturation trending can be evaluated accurately from video information during acute hypoxia. Video footage was acquired from multiple desaturation episodes during a porcine <span class="hlt">model</span> of acute hypoxia using a standard visible light camera. A novel in-house algorithm was used to extract photoplethysmographic cardiac pulse and respiratory information from the video image streams and process it to extract a continuously reported video-<span class="hlt">based</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HRvid), respiratory <span class="hlt">rate</span> (RRvid), and oxygen saturation (SvidO2). This information was then compared with HR and oxygen saturation references from commercial pulse oximetry and the known <span class="hlt">rate</span> of respiration from the ventilator. Eighty-eight minutes of data were acquired during 16 hypoxic episodes in 8 animals. A linear mixed-effects regression showed excellent responses relative to a nonhypoxic reference signal with slopes of 0.976 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.973-0.979) for HRvid; 1.135 (95% CI, 1.101-1.168) for RRvid, and 0.913 (95% CI, 0.905-0.920) for video-<span class="hlt">based</span> oxygen saturation. These results were obtained while maintaining continuous uninterrupted vital sign monitoring for the entire study period. Video-<span class="hlt">based</span> monitoring of HR, RR, and oxygen saturation may be performed with reasonable accuracy during acute hypoxic conditions in an anesthetized porcine hypoxia <span class="hlt">model</span> using standard visible light camera equipment. However, the study was conducted during relatively low motion. A better understanding of the effect of motion and the effect of ambient light on the video photoplethysmogram may help refine this monitoring technology for use in the clinical environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.2857P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.2857P"><span>Micromechanics-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Permeability Evolution in Brittle Materials at High Strain <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perol, Thibaut; Bhat, Harsha S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We develop a micromechanics-<span class="hlt">based</span> permeability evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> for brittle materials at high strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> (≥ 100 s^{-1}). Extending for undrained deformation the mechanical constitutive description of brittle solids, whose constitutive response is governed by micro-cracks, we now relate the damage-induced strains to micro-crack aperture. We then use an existing permeability <span class="hlt">model</span> to evaluate the permeability evolution. This <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts both the percolative and connected regime of permeability evolution of Westerly Granite during triaxial loading at high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This <span class="hlt">model</span> can simulate pore pressure history during earthquake coseismic dynamic ruptures under undrained conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011704"><span>Bayesian cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> frailty <span class="hlt">models</span> with application to a root canal therapy study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yin, Guosheng</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Due to natural or artificial clustering, multivariate survival data often arise in biomedical studies, for example, a dental study involving multiple teeth from each subject. A certain proportion of subjects in the population who are not expected to experience the event of interest are considered to be "cured" or insusceptible. To <span class="hlt">model</span> correlated or clustered failure time data incorporating a surviving fraction, we propose two forms of cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> frailty <span class="hlt">models</span>. One <span class="hlt">model</span> naturally introduces frailty <span class="hlt">based</span> on biological considerations while the other is motivated from the Cox proportional hazards frailty <span class="hlt">model</span>. We formulate the likelihood functions <span class="hlt">based</span> on piecewise constant hazards and derive the full conditional distributions for Gibbs sampling in the Bayesian paradigm. As opposed to the Cox frailty <span class="hlt">model</span>, the proposed methods demonstrate great potential in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> multivariate survival data with a cure fraction. We illustrate the cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> frailty <span class="hlt">models</span> with a root canal therapy data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415822','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415822"><span>A master curve-mechanism <span class="hlt">based</span> approach to <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the effects of constraint, loading <span class="hlt">rate</span> and irradiation on the toughness-temperature behavior of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Odette, G.R.; Donahue, E.; Lucas, G.E.; Sheckherd, J.W.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The influence of loading <span class="hlt">rate</span> and constraint on the effective fracture toughness as a function of temperature [K{sub e}(T)] of the fusion program heat of V-4Cr-4Ti was measured using subsized, three point bend specimens. The constitutive behavior was characterized as a function of temperature and strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> using small tensile specimens. Data in the literature on this alloy was also analysed to determine the effect of irradiation on K{sub e}(T) and the energy temperature (E-T) curves measured in subsized Charpy V-notch tests. It was found that V-4Cr-4Ti undergoes {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} stress-controlled cleavage fracture below a temperature marking a sharp ductile-to-brittle transition. The transition temperature is increased by higher loading <span class="hlt">rates</span>, irradiation hardening and triaxial constraint. Shifts in a reference transition temperature due to higher loading <span class="hlt">rates</span> and irradiation can be reasonably predicted by a simple equivalent yield stress <span class="hlt">model</span>. These results also suggest that size and geometry effects, which mediate constraint, can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by combining local critical stressed area {sigma}*/A* fracture criteria with finite element method simulations of crack tip stress fields. The fundamental understanding reflected in these <span class="hlt">models</span> will be needed to develop K{sub e}(T) curves for a range of loading <span class="hlt">rates</span>, irradiation conditions, structural size scales and geometries relying (in large part) on small specimen tests. Indeed, it may be possible to develop a master K{sub e}(T) curve-shift method to account for these variables. Such reliable and flexible failure assessment methods are critical to the design and safe operation of defect tolerant vanadium structures.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490230"><span>Performance Invalidity <span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Among Healthy Undergraduate Research Participants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ross, Thomas P; Poston, Ashley M; Rein, Patricia A; Salvatore, Andrew N; Wills, Nathan L; York, Taylor M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Few studies have examined <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of suboptimal effort among healthy, undergraduate students recruited for neuropsychological research. An and colleagues (2012, Conducting research with non-clinical healthy undergraduates: Does effort play a role in neuropsychological test performance? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27, 849-857) reported high <span class="hlt">rates</span> of performance invalidity (30.8%-55.6%), calling into question the validity of findings generated from samples of college students. In contrast, subsequent studies have reported much lower <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> ranging from 2.6% to 12%. The present study replicated and extended previous work by examining the performance of 108 healthy undergraduates on the Dot Counting Test, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, Word Memory Test, and a brief battery of neuropsychological measures. During initial testing, 8.3% of the sample scored below cutoffs on at least one Performance Validity Test, while 3.7% were classified as invalid at Time 2 (M interval = 34.4 days). The present findings add to a growing number of studies that suggest performance invalidity <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in samples of non-clinical, healthy college students are much lower than An and colleagues initial findings. Although suboptimal effort is much less problematic than suggested by An and colleagues, recent reports as high as 12% indicate including measures of effort may be of value when using college students as participants. Methodological issues and recommendations for future research are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5591657','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5591657"><span>The fusion <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the transmission resonance <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jaendel, M. )</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>Resonant transmission of deuterons through a chain of target deuterons in a metal matrix has been suggested as an explanation for the cold fusion phenomena. In this paper the fusion <span class="hlt">rate</span> in such transmission resonance <span class="hlt">models</span> is estimated, and the basic physical constraints are discussed. The dominating contribution to the fusion yield is found to come from metastable states. The fusion <span class="hlt">rate</span> is well described by the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin approximation and appears to be much too small to explain the experimental anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930008325','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930008325"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> software design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Iscoe, Neil; Liu, Zheng-Yang; Feng, Guohui; Yenne, Britt; Vansickle, Larry; Ballantyne, Michael</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Domain-specific knowledge is required to create specifications, generate code, and understand existing systems. Our approach to automating software design is <span class="hlt">based</span> on instantiating an application domain <span class="hlt">model</span> with industry-specific knowledge and then using that <span class="hlt">model</span> to achieve the operational goals of specification elicitation and verification, reverse engineering, and code generation. Although many different specification <span class="hlt">models</span> can be created from any particular domain <span class="hlt">model</span>, each specification <span class="hlt">model</span> is consistent and correct with respect to the domain <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capabilities+AND+Basic&pg=4&id=EJ1008301','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capabilities+AND+Basic&pg=4&id=EJ1008301"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reasoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental <span class="hlt">models</span> and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental <span class="hlt">models</span> and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=foundation+AND+construction&pg=4&id=EJ1008301','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=foundation+AND+construction&pg=4&id=EJ1008301"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reasoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental <span class="hlt">models</span> and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental <span class="hlt">models</span> and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...741353Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...741353Y"><span>Head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement <span class="hlt">based</span> on concave point matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Tianle; Liu, Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui; Zhou, Tong; Sun, Chengming; Zhou, Yue; Li, Xinlu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an important factor affecting rice quality. In this study, an inflection point detection-<span class="hlt">based</span> technology was applied to measure the head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> by combining a vibrator and a conveyor belt for bulk grain image acquisition. The edge center mode proportion method (ECMP) was applied for concave points matching in which concave matching and separation was performed with collaborative constraint conditions followed by rice length calculation with a minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) to identify the head rice. Finally, the head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> was calculated using the sum area of head rice to the overall coverage of rice. Results showed that bulk grain image acquisition can be realized with test equipment, and the accuracy <span class="hlt">rate</span> of separation of both indica rice and japonica rice exceeded 95%. An increase in the number of rice did not significantly affect ECMP and MER. High accuracy can be ensured with MER to calculate head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> by narrowing down its relative error between real values less than 3%. The test results show that the method is reliable as a reference for head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5269677','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5269677"><span>Head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement <span class="hlt">based</span> on concave point matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yao, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Tianle; Liu, Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui; Zhou, Tong; Sun, Chengming; Zhou, Yue; Li, Xinlu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an important factor affecting rice quality. In this study, an inflection point detection-<span class="hlt">based</span> technology was applied to measure the head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> by combining a vibrator and a conveyor belt for bulk grain image acquisition. The edge center mode proportion method (ECMP) was applied for concave points matching in which concave matching and separation was performed with collaborative constraint conditions followed by rice length calculation with a minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) to identify the head rice. Finally, the head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> was calculated using the sum area of head rice to the overall coverage of rice. Results showed that bulk grain image acquisition can be realized with test equipment, and the accuracy <span class="hlt">rate</span> of separation of both indica rice and japonica rice exceeded 95%. An increase in the number of rice did not significantly affect ECMP and MER. High accuracy can be ensured with MER to calculate head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> by narrowing down its relative error between real values less than 3%. The test results show that the method is reliable as a reference for head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation studies. PMID:28128315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3306638','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3306638"><span><span class="hlt">Rates</span> of coalescence for common epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span> at equilibrium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koelle, Katia; Rasmussen, David A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Coalescent theory provides a mathematical framework for quantitatively interpreting gene genealogies. With the increased availability of molecular sequence data, disease ecologists now regularly apply this body of theory to viral phylogenies, most commonly in attempts to reconstruct demographic histories of infected individuals and to estimate parameters such as the basic reproduction number. However, with few exceptions, the mathematical expressions at the core of coalescent theory have not been explicitly linked to the structure of epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span>, which are commonly used to mathematically describe the transmission dynamics of a pathogen. Here, we aim to make progress towards establishing this link by presenting a general approach for deriving a <span class="hlt">model</span>'s <span class="hlt">rate</span> of coalescence under the assumption that the disease dynamics are at their endemic equilibrium. We apply this approach to four common families of epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span>: standard susceptible-infected-susceptible/susceptible-infected-recovered/susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible <span class="hlt">models</span>, <span class="hlt">models</span> with individual heterogeneity in infectivity, <span class="hlt">models</span> with an exposed but not yet infectious class and <span class="hlt">models</span> with variable distributions of the infectious period. These results improve our understanding of how epidemiological processes shape viral genealogies, as well as how these processes affect levels of viral diversity and <span class="hlt">rates</span> of genetic drift. Finally, we discuss how a subset of these coalescent <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions can be used for phylodynamic inference in non-equilibrium settings. For the ones that are limited to equilibrium conditions, we also discuss why this is the case. These results, therefore, point towards necessary future work while providing intuition on how epidemiological characteristics of the infection process impact gene genealogies. PMID:21920961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4853217','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4853217"><span>A <span class="hlt">rate</span> insensitive linear viscoelastic <span class="hlt">model</span> for soft tissues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei; Chen, Henry Y.; Kassab, Ghassan S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that many biological soft tissues behave as viscoelastic materials with hysteresis curves being nearly independent of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> when loading frequency is varied over a large range. In this work, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> insensitive feature of biological materials is taken into account by a generalized Maxwell <span class="hlt">model</span>. To minimize the number of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, it is assumed that the characteristic frequencies of Maxwell elements form a geometric series. As a result, the <span class="hlt">model</span> is characterized by five material constants: μ0, τ, m, ρ and β, where μ0 is the relaxed elastic modulus, τ the characteristic relaxation time, m the number of Maxwell elements, ρ the gap between characteristic frequencies, and β = μ1/μ0 with μ1 being the elastic modulus of the Maxwell body that has relaxation time τ. The physical basis of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is motivated by the microstructural architecture of typical soft tissues. The novel <span class="hlt">model</span> shows excellent fit of relaxation data on the canine aorta and captures the salient features of vascular viscoelasticity with significantly fewer <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. PMID:17512585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25633107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25633107"><span>The <span class="hlt">Modellers</span>' Halting Foray into Ecological Theory: Or, What is This Thing Called 'Growth <span class="hlt">Rate</span>'?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deveau, Michael; Karsten, Richard; Teismann, Holger</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This discussion paper describes the attempt of an imagined group of non-ecologists ("<span class="hlt">Modellers</span>") to determine the population growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> from field data. The <span class="hlt">Modellers</span> wrestle with the multiple definitions of the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> available in the literature and the fact that, in their <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, it appears to be drastically <span class="hlt">model</span>-dependent, which seems to throw into question the very concept itself. Specifically, they observe that six representative <span class="hlt">models</span> used to capture the data produce growth-<span class="hlt">rate</span> values, which differ significantly. Almost ready to concede that the problem they set for themselves is ill-posed, they arrive at an alternative point of view that not only preserves the identity of the concept of the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but also helps discriminate between competing <span class="hlt">models</span> for capturing the data. This is accomplished by assessing how robustly a given <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to generate growth-<span class="hlt">rate</span> values from randomized time-series data. This leads to the proposal of an iterative approach to ecological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in which the definition of theoretical concepts (such as the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>) and <span class="hlt">model</span> selection complement each other. The paper is <span class="hlt">based</span> on high-quality field data of mites on apple trees and may be called a "data-driven opinion piece".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/1/107','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/1/107"><span>Predation <span class="hlt">rates</span> by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - Predictions from <span class="hlt">models</span> on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hansson, S.; Rudstam, L. G.; Kitchell, J.F.; Hilden, M.; Johnson, B.L.; Peppard, P.E.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We compared four different methods for estimating predation <span class="hlt">rates</span> by North Sea cod (Gadus moi hua). Three estimates, <span class="hlt">based</span> on gastric evacuation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, came from an ICES multispecies working group and the fourth from a bioenergetics <span class="hlt">model</span>. The bioenergetics <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed from a review of literature on cod physiology. The three gastric evacuation <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> produced very different prey consumption estimates for small (2 kg) fish. For most size and age classes, the bioenergetics <span class="hlt">model</span> predicted food consumption <span class="hlt">rates</span> intermediate to those predicted by the gastric evacuation <span class="hlt">models</span>. Using the standard ICES <span class="hlt">model</span> and the average population abundance and age structure for 1974-1989, annual, prey consumption by the North Sea cod population (age greater than or equal to 1) was 840 kilotons. The other two evacuation <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> produced estimates of 1020 and 1640 kilotons, respectively. The bioenergetics <span class="hlt">model</span> estimate was 1420 kilotons. The major differences between <span class="hlt">models</span> were due to consumption <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates for younger age groups of cod. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S21C..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S21C..03L"><span>Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Evolving Induced Seismicity Hazard in the Central and Eastern US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Llenos, A. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Michael, A. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Injection-induced earthquake <span class="hlt">rates</span> can vary rapidly in space and time, which presents significant challenges to traditional probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies that are <span class="hlt">based</span> on a time-independent <span class="hlt">model</span> of mainshock occurrence. To help society cope with rapidly evolving seismicity, the USGS is developing one-year hazard <span class="hlt">models</span> for areas of induced seismicity in the central and eastern US to forecast the shaking due to all earthquakes, including aftershocks which are generally omitted from hazards assessments (Petersen et al., 2015). However, the spatial and temporal variability of the earthquake <span class="hlt">rates</span> make them difficult to forecast even on time-scales as short as one year. An initial approach is to use the previous year's seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> to forecast the next year's seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span>. However, in places such as northern Oklahoma the <span class="hlt">rates</span> vary so rapidly over time that a simple linear extrapolation does not accurately forecast the future, even when the variability in the <span class="hlt">rates</span> is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with simulations <span class="hlt">based</span> on an Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) <span class="hlt">model</span> (Ogata, JASA, 1988) to account for earthquake clustering. Instead of relying on a fixed time period for <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation, we explore another way to determine when the earthquake <span class="hlt">rate</span> should be updated. This approach could also objectively identify new areas where the induced seismicity hazard <span class="hlt">model</span> should be applied. We will estimate the background seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> by optimizing a single set of ETAS aftershock triggering parameters across the most active induced seismicity zones -- Oklahoma, Guy-Greenbrier, the Raton Basin, and the Azle-Dallas-Fort Worth area -- with individual background <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameters in each zone. The full seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span>, with uncertainties, can then be estimated using ETAS simulations and changes in <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be detected by applying change point analysis in ETAS transformed time with methods already developed for Poisson processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.294..146M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.294..146M"><span>A watershed scale spatially-distributed <span class="hlt">model</span> for streambank erosion <span class="hlt">rate</span> driven by channel curvature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMillan, Mitchell; Hu, Zhiyong</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Streambank erosion is a major source of fluvial sediment, but few large-scale, spatially distributed <span class="hlt">models</span> exist to quantify streambank erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We introduce a spatially distributed <span class="hlt">model</span> for streambank erosion applicable to sinuous, single-thread channels. We argue that such a <span class="hlt">model</span> can adequately characterize streambank erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span>, measured at the outsides of bends over a 2-year time period, throughout a large region. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the widely-used excess-velocity equation and comprised three components: a physics-<span class="hlt">based</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span>, a large-scale 1-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> of average monthly discharge, and an empirical bank erodibility parameterization. The hydrodynamic submodel requires inputs of channel centerline, slope, width, depth, friction factor, and a scour factor A; the large-scale watershed submodel utilizes watershed-averaged monthly outputs of the Noah-2.8 land surface <span class="hlt">model</span>; bank erodibility is <span class="hlt">based</span> on tree cover and bank height as proxies for root density. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was calibrated with erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> measured in sand-bed streams throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. The calibrated <span class="hlt">model</span> outperforms a purely empirical <span class="hlt">model</span>, as well as a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> only on excess velocity, illustrating the utility of combining a physics-<span class="hlt">based</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> with an empirical bank erodibility relationship. The <span class="hlt">model</span> could be improved by incorporating spatial variability in channel roughness and the hydrodynamic scour factor, which are here assumed constant. A reach-scale application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is illustrated on ∼1 km of a medium-sized, mixed forest-pasture stream, where the <span class="hlt">model</span> identifies streambank erosion hotspots on forested and non-forested bends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/471368','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/471368"><span>Principles of <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>This report describes a <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EJASP2009...58L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EJASP2009...58L"><span><span class="hlt">Rate</span> Distortion Analysis and Bit Allocation Scheme for Wavelet Lifting-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Multiview Image Coding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lasang, Pongsak; Kumwilaisak, Wuttipong</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>This paper studies the distortion and the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> bit allocation scheme of wavelet lifting-<span class="hlt">based</span> multiview image coding. Redundancies among image views are removed by disparity-compensated wavelet lifting (DCWL). The distortion prediction of the low-pass and high-pass subbands of each image view from the DCWL process is analyzed. The derived distortion is used with different <span class="hlt">rate</span> distortion <span class="hlt">models</span> in the bit allocation of multiview images. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> distortion <span class="hlt">models</span> including power <span class="hlt">model</span>, exponential <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the proposed combining the power and exponential <span class="hlt">models</span> are studied. The proposed <span class="hlt">rate</span> distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> exploits the accuracy of both power and exponential <span class="hlt">models</span> in a wide range of target bit <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Then, low-pass and high-pass subbands are compressed by SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) with a bit allocation solution. We verify the derived distortion and the bit allocation with several sets of multiview images. The results show that the bit allocation solution <span class="hlt">based</span> on the derived distortion and our bit allocation scheme provide closer results to those of the exhaustive search method in both allocated bits and peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). It also outperforms the uniform bit allocation and uniform bit allocation with normalized energy in the order of 1.7-2 and 0.3-1.4 dB, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24950531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24950531"><span>Examining <span class="hlt">rating</span> scales using Rasch and Mokken <span class="hlt">models</span> for rater-mediated assessments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wind, Stephanie A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A variety of methods for evaluating the psychometric quality of rater-mediated assessments have been proposed, including rater effects <span class="hlt">based</span> on latent trait <span class="hlt">models</span> (e.g., Engelhard, 2013; Wolfe, 2009). Although information about rater effects contributes to the interpretation and use of rater-assigned scores, it is also important to consider <span class="hlt">ratings</span> in terms of the structure of the <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale on which scores are assigned. Further, concern with the validity of rater-assigned scores necessitates investigation of these quality control indices within student subgroups, such as gender, language, and race/ethnicity groups. Using a set of guidelines for evaluating the interpretation and use of <span class="hlt">rating</span> scales adapted from Linacre (1999, 2004), this study demonstrates methods that can be used to examine <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale functioning within and across student subgroups with indicators from Rasch measurement theory (Rasch, 1960) and Mokken scale analysis (Mokken, 1971). Specifically, this study illustrates indices of <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale effectiveness <span class="hlt">based</span> on Rasch <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">models</span> adapted from Mokken scaling, and considers whether the two approaches to evaluating the interpretation and use of <span class="hlt">rating</span> scales lead to comparable conclusions within the context of a large-scale rater-mediated writing assessment. Major findings suggest that indices of <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale effectiveness <span class="hlt">based</span> on a parametric and nonparametric approach provide related, but slightly different, information about the structure of <span class="hlt">rating</span> scales. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPB..3041001W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPB..3041001W"><span>Queuing <span class="hlt">model</span> of a traffic bottleneck with bimodal arrival <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woelki, Marko</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the problem of tuning the density in a traffic bottleneck by reduction of the arrival <span class="hlt">rate</span> when the queue length exceeds a certain threshold, studied recently for variants of totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) and Burgers equation. In the present approach, a simple finite queuing system is considered and its contrasting “phase diagram” is derived. One can observe one jammed region, one low-density region and one region where the queue length is equilibrated around the threshold. Despite the simplicity of the <span class="hlt">model</span> the physics is in accordance with the previous approach: The density is tuned at the threshold if the exit <span class="hlt">rate</span> lies in between the two arrival <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003InvPr..19..265G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003InvPr..19..265G"><span>Selecting Bayesian priors for stochastic <span class="hlt">rates</span> using extended functional <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibson, Gavin J.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>We propose an extension to the functional <span class="hlt">modelling</span> methods described by Dawid and Stone (1982 Ann. Stat. 10 1119-38) that leads naturally to a method for selecting vague parameter priors for Bayesian analyses involving stochastic population <span class="hlt">models</span>. Motivated by applications from quantum optics and epidemiology, we focus on analysing observed sequences of event times obeying a non-homogeneous Poisson process, although the techniques are more widely applicable. The extended functional <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approach is illustrated for the particular case of Bayesian estimation of the death <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the immigration-death <span class="hlt">model</span> from observation of the death times only. It is shown that the prior selected naturally leads to a well defined posterior density for parameters and avoids some undesirable pathologies reported by Gibson and Renshaw (2001a Inverse Problems 17 455-66, 2001b Stat. Comput. 11 347-58) for the case of exponential priors. Some limitations of the approach are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591128"><span>Moisture desorption <span class="hlt">rates</span> from TATB formulations: experiments and kinetic <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glascoe, Elizabeth A; Dinh, Long N; Small, Ward; Overturf, George E</p> <p>2012-06-07</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">rate</span> of water desorption from PBX-9502, a formulation containing 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), is measured using temperature-programmed desorption and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using conventional kinetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methods. The results of these studies show two stages of moisture release. At lower temperatures, the release is likely assisted by thermal expansion of the TATB and melting of the Kel-F binder. At higher temperatures, a considerable amount of water is released and is attributed to sublimation of the TATB, which exposes new surfaces for water desorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b2409L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b2409L"><span>Effects of distribution of infection <span class="hlt">rate</span> on epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lachiany, Menachem; Louzoun, Yoram</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A goal of many epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span> is to compute the outcome of the epidemics from the observed infected early dynamics. However, often, the total number of infected individuals at the end of the epidemics is much lower than predicted from the early dynamics. This discrepancy is argued to result from human intervention or nonlinear dynamics not incorporated in standard <span class="hlt">models</span>. We show that when variability in infection <span class="hlt">rates</span> is included in standard susciptible-infected-susceptible (SIS ) and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR ) <span class="hlt">models</span> the total number of infected individuals in the late dynamics can be orders lower than predicted from the early dynamics. This discrepancy holds for SIS and SIR <span class="hlt">models</span>, where the assumption that all individuals have the same sensitivity is eliminated. In contrast with network <span class="hlt">models</span>, fixed partnerships are not assumed. We derive a moment closure scheme capturing the distribution of sensitivities. We find that the shape of the sensitivity distribution does not affect R0 or the number of infected individuals in the early phases of the epidemics. However, a wide distribution of sensitivities reduces the total number of removed individuals in the SIR <span class="hlt">model</span> and the steady-state infected fraction in the SIS <span class="hlt">model</span>. The difference between the early and late dynamics implies that in order to extrapolate the expected effect of the epidemics from the initial phase of the epidemics, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in the average infectivity should be computed. These results are supported by a comparison of the theoretical <span class="hlt">model</span> to the Ebola epidemics and by numerical simulation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989822','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989822"><span>Deviatoric constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>: domain of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> validity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zocher, Marvin A</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A case is made for using an enhanced methodology in determining the parameters that appear in a deviatoric constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>. Predictability rests on our ability to solve a properly posed initial boundary value problem (IBVP), which incorporates an accurate reflection of material constitutive behavior. That reflection is provided through the constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>. Moreover, the constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is required for mathematical closure of the IBVP. Common practice in the shock physics community is to divide the Cauchy tensor into spherical and deviatoric parts, and to develop separate <span class="hlt">models</span> for spherical and deviatoric constitutive response. Our focus shall be on the Cauchy deviator and deviatoric constitutive behavior. Discussions related to the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor are reserved for another time. A number of deviatoric constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> have been developed for utilization in the solution of IBVPs that are of interest to those working in the field of shock physics, e.g. All of these <span class="hlt">models</span> are phenomenological and contain a number of parameters that must be determined in light of experimental data. The methodology employed in determining these parameters dictates the loading regime over which the <span class="hlt">model</span> can be expected to be accurate. The focus of this paper is the methodology employed in determining <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters and the consequences of that methodology as it relates to the domain of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> validity. We shall begin by describing the methodology that is typically employed. We shall discuss limitations imposed upon predictive capability by the typically employed methodology. We shall propose a modification to the typically employed methodology that significantly extends the domain of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> validity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17184350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17184350"><span>Scale dependence of immigration <span class="hlt">rates</span>: <span class="hlt">models</span>, metrics and data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Englund, Göran; Hambäck, Peter A</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>1. We examine the relationship between immigration <span class="hlt">rate</span> and patch area for different types of movement behaviours and detection modes. Theoretical <span class="hlt">models</span> suggest that the scale dependence of the immigration <span class="hlt">rate</span> per unit area (I/A) can be described by a power <span class="hlt">model</span> I/A = i*Area(zeta), where zeta describes the strength of the scale dependence. 2. Three types of scaling were identified. Area scaling (zeta = 0) is expected for passively dispersed organisms that have the same probability of landing anywhere in the patch. Perimeter scaling (-0.30 > zeta > -0.45) is expected when patches are detected from a very short distance and immigrants arrive over the patch boundary, whereas diameter scaling (zeta = -0.5) is expected if patches are detected from a long distance or if search is approximately linear. 3. A meta-analysis of published empirical studies of the scale dependence of immigration <span class="hlt">rates</span> in terrestrial insects suggests that butterflies show diameter scaling, aphids show area scaling, and the scaling of beetle immigration is highly variable. We conclude that the scaling of immigration <span class="hlt">rates</span> in many cases can be predicted from search behaviour and the mode of patch detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25570787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25570787"><span>Evaluation of wearable consumer heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> monitors <span class="hlt">based</span> on photopletysmography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parak, Jakub; Korhonen, Ilkka</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Wearable monitoring of heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HR) during physical activity and exercising allows real time control of exercise intensity and training effect. Recently, technologies <span class="hlt">based</span> on pulse plethysmography (PPG) have become available for personal health management for consumers. However, the accuracy of these monitors is poorly known which limits their application. In this study, we evaluated accuracy of two PPG <span class="hlt">based</span> (wrist i.e. Mio Alpha vs forearm i.e. Schosche Rhythm) commercially available HR monitors during exercise. 21 healthy volunteers (15 male and 6 female) completed an exercise protocol which included sitting, lying, walking, running, cycling, and some daily activities involving hand movements. HR estimation was compared against values from the reference electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation reliability scores for <;5% accuracy against reference were following: mio Alpha 77,83% and Scosche Rhytm 76,29%. The estimated results indicate that performance of devices depends on various parameters, including specified activity, sensor type and device placement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28902319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28902319"><span>[Performance <span class="hlt">based</span> regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding <span class="hlt">rates</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cobo-Armijo, Fernanda; Charvel, Sofía; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The decreasing breastfeeding <span class="hlt">rate</span> in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance <span class="hlt">Based</span> Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance <span class="hlt">based</span> regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation's target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..436..658H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..436..658H"><span>Predicting online <span class="hlt">ratings</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the opinion spreading process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liu, Jian-Guo</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Predicting users' online <span class="hlt">ratings</span> is always a challenge issue and has drawn lots of attention. In this paper, we present a <span class="hlt">rating</span> prediction method by combining the user opinion spreading process with the collaborative filtering algorithm, where user similarity is defined by measuring the amount of opinion a user transfers to another <span class="hlt">based</span> on the primitive user-item <span class="hlt">rating</span> matrix. The proposed method could produce a more precise <span class="hlt">rating</span> prediction for each unrated user-item pair. In addition, we introduce a tunable parameter λ to regulate the preferential diffusion relevant to the degree of both opinion sender and receiver. The numerical results for Movielens and Netflix data sets show that this algorithm has a better accuracy than the standard user-<span class="hlt">based</span> collaborative filtering algorithm using Cosine and Pearson correlation without increasing computational complexity. By tuning λ, our method could further boost the prediction accuracy when using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) as measurements. In the optimal cases, on Movielens and Netflix data sets, the corresponding algorithmic accuracy (MAE and RMSE) are improved 11.26% and 8.84%, 13.49% and 10.52% compared to the item average method, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216354','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216354"><span>Refinement of the Air Force Systems Command Production <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>the recommended modified formulations. The relationship between production <span class="hlt">rate</span> and production ratio has a definite influence on the <span class="hlt">model</span>’s ability to...1984 7 36 21.954 370.00 1985 8 48 21.017 412.00 A- 3 Table A.2.8 F-15E Cost/Quantity Data Fiscal Year Lot Quntit Recurring Unit Cost LPP 1986 1 60</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9401019L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9401019L"><span>Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of dynamic mechanical properties of pure polycrystalline magnesium under high loading strain <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Qizhen</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Computational simulations were performed to investigate the dynamic mechanical behavior of pure polycrystalline magnesium under different high loading strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> with the values of 800, 1000, 2000, and 3600 s-1. The Johnson-Cook <span class="hlt">model</span> was utilized in the simulations <span class="hlt">based</span> on finite element <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The results showed that the simulations provided well-matched predictions of the material behavior such as the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span>-time history, the stress-strain curve, and the temperature increase. Under high loading strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>, the tested material experienced linear strain hardening at the early stage of plastic deformation, increased strain hardening at the intermediate plastic deformation region, and decreased strain hardening at the region before fracture. The strain hardening <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the studied high loading strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> cases do not vary much with the change of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10589400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10589400"><span>Projections of population-<span class="hlt">based</span> twinning <span class="hlt">rates</span> through the year 2100.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oleszczuk, J J; Keith, D M; Keith, L G; Rayburn, W F</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>To present the first compilation of population-<span class="hlt">based</span> twinning <span class="hlt">rates</span> published after the year 1990 and to project population-<span class="hlt">based</span> twinning <span class="hlt">rates</span> through the year 2100. We searched the Internet-<span class="hlt">based</span> MEDLINE database for articles published after 1990 in which population-<span class="hlt">based</span> twinning <span class="hlt">rates</span> were described. We used population-<span class="hlt">based</span> data from national statistical authorities from Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Norway, Singapore and Sweden, published by Y. Imaizumi in a recent article. U.S. figures were <span class="hlt">based</span> on data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Annual growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> of twinning were calculated and graphed, making the assumption that these <span class="hlt">rates</span> would remain constant throughout the next century. Our report presents the most recent population-<span class="hlt">based</span> twinning <span class="hlt">rates</span>. When projected through the year 2015, twinning <span class="hlt">rates</span> reach figures that could best be described as derived from a Jules Verne novel: Sweden, in this <span class="hlt">model</span>, would have four times more twin than singleton births. We strongly suggest that physicians reexamine their patterns of prescribing ovulation-inducing agents, which carry a greatly increased risk of multiple pregnancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SMaS...25f5017J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SMaS...25f5017J"><span>Nonlinear <span class="hlt">modeling</span> on <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent ferroelectric and ferroelastic response of 1-3 piezocomposites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jayendiran, R.; Arockiarajan, A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The effect of loading <span class="hlt">rate</span> on ferroelectric and ferroelastic behavior of 1-3 piezocomposites is presented in this work. Experiments are conducted for various loading <span class="hlt">rates</span> under different loading conditions such as electrical and electromechanical to measure the <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent response of 1-3 piezocomposite compared with bulk piezoceramics. A thermodynamic <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent domain switching criteria has been proposed to predict the ferroelectric and ferroelastic behavior of homogenized 1-3 piezocomposites. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, volume fraction of six distinct uni-axial variants are used as internal variables to describe the microscopic state of the material. Plasticity <span class="hlt">based</span> kinematic hardening parameter is introduced as a function of internal variables to describe the grain boundary effects. Homogenization of 1-3 piezocomposite material properties are obtained by finite element (FE) resonator <span class="hlt">models</span> using commercially available FE tool Abaqus. To evaluate the possible modes of vibration of 1-3 piezocomposite four different configuration of FE resonators are <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. The FE resonator <span class="hlt">model</span> is validated with the impedance spectra obtained experimentally for length extensional and thickness extensional resonator <span class="hlt">models</span>. The predicted effective properties using the resonance <span class="hlt">based</span> technique are incorporated in the proposed <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent macromechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> to study the behavior of 1-3 piezocomposites. The simulated results are compared with the experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1373692-equivalent-dissipation-rate-model-capturing-history-effects-non-premixed-flames','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1373692-equivalent-dissipation-rate-model-capturing-history-effects-non-premixed-flames"><span>An equivalent dissipation <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for capturing history effects in non-premixed flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Kundu, Prithwish; Echekki, Tarek; Pei, Yuanjiang; ...</p> <p>2016-11-11</p> <p>The effects of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> history on turbulent flames have been studied in the. past decades with 1D counter flow diffusion flame (CFDF) configurations subjected to oscillating strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In this work, these unsteady effects are studied for complex hydrocarbon fuel surrogates at engine relevant conditions with unsteady strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> experienced by flamelets in a typical spray flame. Tabulated combustion <span class="hlt">models</span> are <span class="hlt">based</span> on a steady scalar dissipation <span class="hlt">rate</span> (SDR) assumption and hence cannot capture these unsteady strain effects; even though they can capture the unsteady chemistry. In this work, 1D CFDF with varying strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> are simulated using twomore » different <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches: steady SDR assumption and unsteady flamelet <span class="hlt">model</span>. Comparative studies show that the history effects due to unsteady SDR are directly proportional to the temporal gradient of the SDR. A new equivalent SDR <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the history of a flamelet is proposed. An averaging procedure is constructed such that the most recent histories are given higher weights. This equivalent SDR is then used with the steady SDR assumption in 1D flamelets. Results show a good agreement between tabulated flamelet solution and the unsteady flamelet results. This equivalent SDR concept is further implemented and compared against 3D spray flames (Engine Combustion Network Spray A). Tabulated <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on steady SDR assumption under-predict autoignition and flame lift-off when compared with an unsteady Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) <span class="hlt">model</span>. However, equivalent SDR <span class="hlt">model</span> coupled with the tabulated <span class="hlt">model</span> predicted autoignition and flame lift-off very close to those reported by the RIF <span class="hlt">model</span>. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is further validated for a range of injection pressures for Spray A flames. As a result, the new <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework now enables tabulated <span class="hlt">models</span> with significantly lower computational cost to account for unsteady history effects.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1373692','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1373692"><span>An equivalent dissipation <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for capturing history effects in non-premixed flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kundu, Prithwish; Echekki, Tarek; Pei, Yuanjiang; Som, Sibendu</p> <p>2016-11-11</p> <p>The effects of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> history on turbulent flames have been studied in the. past decades with 1D counter flow diffusion flame (CFDF) configurations subjected to oscillating strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In this work, these unsteady effects are studied for complex hydrocarbon fuel surrogates at engine relevant conditions with unsteady strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> experienced by flamelets in a typical spray flame. Tabulated combustion <span class="hlt">models</span> are <span class="hlt">based</span> on a steady scalar dissipation <span class="hlt">rate</span> (SDR) assumption and hence cannot capture these unsteady strain effects; even though they can capture the unsteady chemistry. In this work, 1D CFDF with varying strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> are simulated using two different <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches: steady SDR assumption and unsteady flamelet <span class="hlt">model</span>. Comparative studies show that the history effects due to unsteady SDR are directly proportional to the temporal gradient of the SDR. A new equivalent SDR <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the history of a flamelet is proposed. An averaging procedure is constructed such that the most recent histories are given higher weights. This equivalent SDR is then used with the steady SDR assumption in 1D flamelets. Results show a good agreement between tabulated flamelet solution and the unsteady flamelet results. This equivalent SDR concept is further implemented and compared against 3D spray flames (Engine Combustion Network Spray A). Tabulated <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on steady SDR assumption under-predict autoignition and flame lift-off when compared with an unsteady Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) <span class="hlt">model</span>. However, equivalent SDR <span class="hlt">model</span> coupled with the tabulated <span class="hlt">model</span> predicted autoignition and flame lift-off very close to those reported by the RIF <span class="hlt">model</span>. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is further validated for a range of injection pressures for Spray A flames. As a result, the new <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework now enables tabulated <span class="hlt">models</span> with significantly lower computational cost to account for unsteady history effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA540330','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA540330"><span>Solid Propellant Burn <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Modifiers <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Reactive Nanocomposite Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-26</p> <p>Burn <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Modifiers <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Reactive Nanocomposite Powders. Propellants Explosives and Pyrotechnics , 35, pp. 260 – 267 (2010) 8. Badiola, C...of Structural Refinement and Composition in Al-MoO3 Nanocomposites Prepared by Arrested Reactive Milling. Propellants Explosives and Pyrotechnics , 31...Reactive Nanocomposite Materials Prepared by Arrested Reactive Milling 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) E.L. Dreizin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9414E..35X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9414E..35X"><span>Heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement <span class="hlt">based</span> on face video sequence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Fang; Zhou, Qin-Wu; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xing; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Hong-jian</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new non-contact heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement method <span class="hlt">based</span> on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. With this method we can measure heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> remotely with a camera and ambient light. We collected video sequences of subjects, and detected remote PPG signals through video sequences. Remote PPG signals were analyzed with two methods, Blind Source Separation Technology (BSST) and Cross Spectral Power Technology (CSPT). BSST is a commonly used method, and CSPT is used for the first time in the study of remote PPG signals in this paper. Both of the methods can acquire heart <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but compared with BSST, CSPT has clearer physical meaning, and the computational complexity of CSPT is lower than that of BSST. Our work shows that heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> detected by CSPT method have good consistency with the heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> measured by a finger clip oximeter. With good accuracy and low computational complexity, the CSPT method has a good prospect for the application in the field of home medical devices and mobile health devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ESASP.509E..64T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ESASP.509E..64T"><span>A high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> PCI-<span class="hlt">based</span> telemetry processor system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turri, R.</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>The high performances reached by the Satellite on-board telemetry generation and transmission, as consequently, will impose the design of ground facilities with higher processing capabilities at low cost to allow a good diffusion of these ground station. The equipment normally used are <span class="hlt">based</span> on complex, proprietary bus and computing architectures that prevent the systems from exploiting the continuous and rapid increasing in computing power available on market. The PCI bus systems now allow processing of high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> data streams in a standard PC-system. At the same time the Windows NT operating system supports multitasking and symmetric multiprocessing, giving the capability to process high data <span class="hlt">rate</span> signals. In addition, high-speed networking, 64 bit PCI-bus technologies and the increase in processor power and software, allow creating a system <span class="hlt">based</span> on COTS products (which in future may be easily and inexpensively upgraded). In the frame of EUCLID RTP 9.8 project, a specific work element was dedicated to develop the architecture of a system able to acquire telemetry data of up to 600 Mbps. Laben S.p.A - a Finmeccanica Company -, entrusted of this work, has designed a PCI-<span class="hlt">based</span> telemetry system making possible the communication between a satellite down-link and a wide area network at the required <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870036136&hterms=tb&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870036136&hterms=tb&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtb"><span>A cloud <span class="hlt">model</span>-radiative <span class="hlt">model</span> combination for determining microwave TB-rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Szejwach, Gerard; Adler, Robert F.; Jobard, Esabelle; Mack, Robert A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The development of a cloud <span class="hlt">model</span>-radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span> combination for computing average brightness temperature, T(B), is discussed. The cloud <span class="hlt">model</span> and radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span> used in this study are described. The relations between rain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, cloud and rain water, cloud and precipitation ice, and upwelling radiance are investigated. The effects of the rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> relations on T(B) under different climatological conditions are examined. The <span class="hlt">model</span>-derived T(B) results are compared to the 92 and 183 GHz aircraft observations of Hakkarinen and Adler (1984, 1986) and the radar-estimated rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Hakkarinen and Adler (1986); good correlation between the data is detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554267"><span>The Relationship Between Hospital Value-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Purchasing Program Scores and Hospital Bond <span class="hlt">Ratings</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rangnekar, Anooja; Johnson, Tricia; Garman, Andrew; O'Neil, Patricia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tax-exempt hospitals and health systems often borrow long-term debt to fund capital investments. Lenders use bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span> as a standard metric to assess whether to lend funds to a hospital. Credit <span class="hlt">rating</span> agencies have historically relied on financial performance measures and a hospital's ability to service debt obligations to determine bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. With the growth in pay-for-performance-<span class="hlt">based</span> reimbursement <span class="hlt">models</span>, <span class="hlt">rating</span> agencies are expanding their hospital bond <span class="hlt">rating</span> criteria to include hospital utilization and value-<span class="hlt">based</span> purchasing (VBP) measures. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the Hospital VBP domains--Clinical Process of Care, Patient Experience of Care, Outcome, and Medicare Spending per Beneficiary (MSPB)--and hospital bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. Given the historical focus on financial performance, we hypothesized that hospital bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span> are not associated with any of the Hospital VBP domains. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitals that were <span class="hlt">rated</span> by Moody's for fiscal year 2012 and participated in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' VBP program as of January 2014 (N = 285). Of the 285 hospitals in the study, 15% had been assigned a bond <span class="hlt">rating</span> of Aa, and 46% had been assigned an A <span class="hlt">rating</span>. Using a binary logistic regression <span class="hlt">model</span>, we found an association between MSPB only and bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span>, after controlling for other VBP and financial performance scores; however, MSPB did not improve the overall predictive accuracy of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Inclusion of VBP scores in the methodology used to determine hospital bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span> is likely to affect hospital bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span> in the near term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21575739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21575739"><span>Plasma metabolite levels predict bird growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>: A field test of <span class="hlt">model</span> predictive ability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albano, Noelia; Masero, José A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Abad-Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Bird growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> are usually derived from nonlinear relationships between age and some morphological structure, but this procedure may be limited by several factors. To date, nothing is known about the capacity of plasma metabolite profiling to predict chick growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on laboratory-trials, we here develop predictive logistic <span class="hlt">models</span> of body mass, and tarsus and wing length growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica chicks from measurements of plasma metabolite levels at different developmental stages. The predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> obtained during the fastest growth period (at the age of 12 days) explained 65-68% of the chicks' growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>, with fasting triglyceride level explaining most of the variation in growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. At the end of pre-fledging period, β-hydroxybutyrate level was also a good predictor of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Finally, we carried out a field test to check the predictive capacity of the <span class="hlt">models</span> in two colonies of wild Gull-billed Tern, comparing field-measured and <span class="hlt">model</span>-predicted growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> between groups. Both, measured and predicted growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>, matched statistically. Plasma metabolite levels can thus be applied in comparative studies of chick growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> when semi-precocial birds can be captured only once.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7703023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7703023"><span>Application of a statistical bootstrapping technique to calculate growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> variance for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> psychrotrophic pathogen growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schaffner, D W</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The inherent variability or 'variance' of growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements is critical to the development of accurate predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> in food microbiology. A large number of measurements are typically needed to estimate variance. To make these measurements requires a significant investment of time and effort. If a single growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> determination is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a series of independent measurements, then a statistical bootstrapping technique can be used to simulate multiple growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements from a single set of experiments. Growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> variances were calculated for three large datasets (Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Yersinia enterocolitica) from our laboratory using this technique. This analysis revealed that the population of growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements at any given condition are not normally distributed, but instead follow a distribution that is between normal and Poisson. The relationship between growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> and temperature was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by response surface <span class="hlt">models</span> using generalized linear regression. It was found that the assumed distribution (i.e. normal, Poisson, gamma or inverse normal) of the growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> influenced the prediction of each of the <span class="hlt">models</span> used. This research demonstrates the importance of variance and assumptions about the statistical distribution of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the results of predictive microbiological <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3828H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3828H"><span>Inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of radionuclide release <span class="hlt">rates</span> using gamma dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamburger, Thomas; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. Observations and dispersion <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the released radionuclides help to assess the regional impact of such nuclear accidents. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> the increase of regional radionuclide activity concentrations, which results from nuclear accidents, underlies a multiplicity of uncertainties. One of the most significant uncertainties is the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source term may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on estimates given by the operators of the nuclear power plant. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. The release <span class="hlt">rates</span> of radionuclides at the accident site can be estimated using inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). The accuracy of the method depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the used observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a relatively sparse grid and the temporal resolution of available data may be low within the order of hours or a day. Gamma dose <span class="hlt">rates</span>, on the other hand, are observed routinely on a much denser grid and higher temporal resolution and provide therefore a wider basis for inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> (Saunier et al., 2013). We present a new inversion approach, which combines an atmospheric dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span> and observations of radionuclide activity concentrations and gamma dose <span class="hlt">rates</span> to obtain the source term of radionuclides. We use the Lagrangian particle dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span> FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; Stohl et al., 2005) to <span class="hlt">model</span> the atmospheric transport of the released radionuclides. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980227528&hterms=nadarajah&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnadarajah','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980227528&hterms=nadarajah&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnadarajah"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the Growth <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Faces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Meirong; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p> with respect to its concentration at saturation in order to apply growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to this process. The measured growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> were then compared with the predicted ones from several dislocation and 2D nucleation growth <span class="hlt">models</span>, employing tetramer and octamer growth units in polydisperse solutions and monomer units in monodisperse solutions. For the (110) face, the calculations consistently showed that the measured growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> followed the expected <span class="hlt">model</span> relations with octamer growth units. For the (101) face, it is not possible to obtain a clear agreement between the predicted and measured growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a single growth unit as done for the (110) face. However, the calculations do indicate that the average size of the growth unit is between a tetramer and an octamer. This suggests that tetramers, octamers and other intermediate size growth units all participate in the growth process for this face. These calculations show that it is possible to <span class="hlt">model</span> the macroscopic protein crystal growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> if the molecular level processes can be account for, particularly protein aggregation processes in the bulk solution. Our recent investigations of tetragonal lysozyme crystals employing high resolution atomic force microscopy scans have further confirmed the growth of these crystals by aggregate growth units corresponding to 4(sub 3) helices.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.5555J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.5555J"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> airborne concentration and deposition <span class="hlt">rate</span> of maize pollen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jarosz, Nathalie; Loubet, Benjamin; Huber, Laurent</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops has reinforced the need to quantify gene flow from crop to crop. This requires predictive tools which take into account meteorological conditions, canopy structure as well as pollen aerodynamic characteristics. A Lagrangian Stochastic (LS) <span class="hlt">model</span>, called SMOP-2D (Stochastic Mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> for Pollen dispersion and deposition in 2 Dimensions), is presented. It simulates wind dispersion of pollen by calculating individual pollen trajectories from their emission to their deposition. SMOP-2D was validated using two field experiments where airborne concentration and deposition <span class="hlt">rate</span> of pollen were measured within and downwind from different sized maize (Zea mays) plots together with micrometeorological measurements. SMOP-2D correctly simulated the shapes of the concentration profiles but generally underestimated the deposition <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the first 10 m downwind from the source. Potential explanations of this discrepancy are discussed. Incorrect parameterisation of turbulence in the transition from the crop to the surroundings is probably the most likely reason. This demonstrates that LS <span class="hlt">models</span> for particle transfer need to be coupled with air-flow <span class="hlt">models</span> under complex terrain conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845182"><span>Correcting the optimal resampling-<span class="hlt">based</span> error <span class="hlt">rate</span> by estimating the error <span class="hlt">rate</span> of wrapper algorithms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernau, Christoph; Augustin, Thomas; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>High-dimensional binary classification tasks, for example, the classification of microarray samples into normal and cancer tissues, usually involve a tuning parameter. By reporting the performance of the best tuning parameter value only, over-optimistic prediction errors are obtained. For correcting this tuning bias, we develop a new method which is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a decomposition of the unconditional error <span class="hlt">rate</span> involving the tuning procedure, that is, we estimate the error <span class="hlt">rate</span> of wrapper algorithms as introduced in the context of internal cross-validation (ICV) by Varma and Simon (2006, BMC Bioinformatics 7, 91). Our subsampling-<span class="hlt">based</span> estimator can be written as a weighted mean of the errors obtained using the different tuning parameter values, and thus can be interpreted as a smooth version of ICV, which is the standard approach for avoiding tuning bias. In contrast to ICV, our method guarantees intuitive bounds for the corrected error. Additionally, we suggest to use bias correction methods also to address the conceptually similar method selection bias that results from the optimal choice of the classification method itself when evaluating several methods successively. We demonstrate the performance of our method on microarray and simulated data and compare it to ICV. This study suggests that our approach yields competitive estimates at a much lower computational price.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953823','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953823"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting wear <span class="hlt">rates</span> in tooth enamel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borrero-Lopez, Oscar; Pajares, Antonia; Constantino, Paul J; Lawn, Brian R</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>It is hypothesized that wear of enamel is sensitive to the presence of sharp particulates in oral fluids and masticated foods. To this end, a generic <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting wear <span class="hlt">rates</span> in brittle materials is developed, with specific application to tooth enamel. Wear is assumed to result from an accumulation of elastic-plastic micro-asperity events. Integration over all such events leads to a wear <span class="hlt">rate</span> relation analogous to Archard׳s law, but with allowance for variation in asperity angle and compliance. The coefficient K in this relation quantifies the wear severity, with an arbitrary distinction between 'mild' wear (low K) and 'severe' wear (high K). Data from the literature and in-house wear-test experiments on enamel specimens in lubricant media (water, oil) with and without sharp third-body particulates (silica, diamond) are used to validate the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Measured wear <span class="hlt">rates</span> can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on contact asperity conditions, accounting for the occurrence of severe enamel removal in some human patients (bruxing). Expressions for the depth removal <span class="hlt">rate</span> and number of cycles to wear down occlusal enamel in the low-crowned tooth forms of some mammals are derived, with tooth size and enamel thickness as key variables. The role of 'hard' versus 'soft' food diets in determining evolutionary paths in different hominin species is briefly considered. A feature of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is that it does not require recourse to specific material removal mechanisms, although processes involving microplastic extrusion and microcrack coalescence are indicated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/644140','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/644140"><span>Dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span> and irradiation temperature dependence of BJT SPICE <span class="hlt">model</span> rad-parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Montagner, X.; Briand, R.; Fouillat, P.; Touboul, A.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.; Calvet, M.C.; Calvel, P.</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>A method to predict low dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> degradation of bipolar transistors using high dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span>, high temperature irradiation is evaluated, <span class="hlt">based</span> on an analysis of four new rad-parameters that are introduced in the BJT SPICE <span class="hlt">model</span>. This improved BJT <span class="hlt">model</span> describes the radiation-induced excess <span class="hlt">base</span> current with great accuracy. The low-level values of the rad-parameters are good tools for evaluating the proposed high-temperature test method because of their high sensitivity to radiation-induced degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910011381','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910011381"><span>Rule-<span class="hlt">based</span> simulation <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nieten, Joseph L.; Seraphine, Kathleen M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Procedural <span class="hlt">modeling</span> systems, rule <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> systems, and a method for converting a procedural <span class="hlt">model</span> to a rule <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> are described. Simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> are used to represent real time engineering systems. A real time system can be represented by a set of equations or functions connected so that they perform in the same manner as the actual system. Most <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system languages are <span class="hlt">based</span> on FORTRAN or some other procedural language. Therefore, they must be enhanced with a reaction capability. Rule <span class="hlt">based</span> systems are reactive by definition. Once the engineering system has been decomposed into a set of calculations using only basic algebraic unary operations, a knowledge network of calculations and functions can be constructed. The knowledge network required by a rule <span class="hlt">based</span> system can be generated by a knowledge acquisition tool or a source level compiler. The compiler would take an existing <span class="hlt">model</span> source file, a syntax template, and a symbol table and generate the knowledge network. Thus, existing procedural <span class="hlt">models</span> can be translated and executed by a rule <span class="hlt">based</span> system. Neural <span class="hlt">models</span> can be provide the high capacity data manipulation required by the most complex real time <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.4443Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.4443Y"><span>Assessment on the <span class="hlt">rates</span> and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan using a process-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and spatially explicit land-use change inventories - Part 2: Future potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Future potentials of the sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural lands in Japan were estimated using a simulation system we recently developed to simulate SOC stock change at country-scale under varying land-use change, climate, soil, and agricultural practices, in a spatially explicit manner. Simulation was run from 1970 to 2006 with historical inventories, and subsequently to 2020 with future scenarios of agricultural activity comprised of various agricultural policy targets advocated by the Japanese government. Furthermore, the simulation was run subsequently until 2100 while forcing no temporal changes in land-use and agricultural activity to investigate duration and course of SOC stock change at country scale. A scenario with an increased <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic carbon input to agricultural fields by intensified crop rotation in combination with the suppression of conversion of agricultural lands to other land-use types was found to have a greater reduction of CO2 emission by enhanced soil carbon sequestration, but only under a circumstance in which the converted agricultural lands will become settlements that were considered to have a relatively lower <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic carbon input. The size of relative reduction of CO2 emission in this scenario was comparable to that in another contrasting scenario (business-as-usual scenario of agricultural activity) in which a relatively lower <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic matter input to agricultural fields was assumed in combination with an increased <span class="hlt">rate</span> of conversion of the agricultural fields to unmanaged grasslands through abandonment. Our simulation experiment clearly demonstrated that net-net-<span class="hlt">based</span> accounting on SOC stock change, defined as the differences between the emissions and removals during the commitment period and the emissions and removals during a previous period (<span class="hlt">base</span> year or <span class="hlt">base</span> period of Kyoto Protocol), can be largely influenced by variations in future climate. Whereas baseline-<span class="hlt">based</span> accounting, defined</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4561764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4561764"><span>Caesarean Delivery <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Review: An Evidence-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Degani, N; Sikich, N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background In 2007, caesarean deliveries comprised 28% of all hospital deliveries in Ontario. Provincial caesarean delivery <span class="hlt">rates</span> increased with maternal age and varied by Local Health Integration Network. However, the accepted <span class="hlt">rate</span> of caesarean delivery in a low-risk maternal population remains unclear. Objectives To review the literature to assess factors that affect the likelihood of experiencing a caesarean delivery, and to examine Ontario caesarean delivery <span class="hlt">rates</span> to determine whether there is <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation across the province. Data Sources Data sources included publications from OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, as well as data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstracts Database and the Better Outcomes and Registry Network. Review Methods A mixed-methods approach was used, which included a systematic review of the literature to delineate factors associated with the likelihood of caesarean delivery and an analysis of administrative and clinical data on hospital deliveries in Ontario to determine provincial caesarean delivery <span class="hlt">rates</span>, variation in <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and reasons for variation. Results Fourteen systematic reviews assessed 14 factors affecting the likelihood of caesarean delivery; 7 factors were associated with an increased likelihood of caesarean delivery, and 2 factors were associated with a decreased likelihood. Five factors had no influence. One factor provided moderate-quality evidence supporting elective induction policies in low-risk women. The overall Ontario caesarean delivery <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a very-low-risk population was 17%, but varied significantly across Ontario hospitals. Limitations The literature review included a 5–year period and used only systematic reviews. The determination of Robson class for women is <span class="hlt">based</span> on care received in hospital only, and the low-risk population may have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..460..166A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..460..166A"><span>Crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> in core shroud horizontal welds using two <span class="hlt">models</span> for a BWR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arganis Juárez, C. R.; Hernández Callejas, R.; Medina Almazán, A. L.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>An empirical crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> correlation <span class="hlt">model</span> and a predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the slip-oxidation mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) were used to calculate the crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a BWR core shroud. In this study, the crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> was calculated by accounting for the environmental factors related to aqueous environment, neutron irradiation to high fluence and the complex residual stress conditions resulting from welding. In estimating the SCC behavior the crack growth measurements data from a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant are referred to, and the stress intensity factor vs crack depth throughout thickness is calculated using a generic weld residual stress distribution for a core shroud, with a 30% stress relaxation induced by neutron irradiation. Quantitative agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the predictions of the slip-oxidation mechanism <span class="hlt">model</span> for relatively low fluences (5 × 1024 n/m2), and the empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> predicted better the SCC growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> than the slip-oxidation <span class="hlt">model</span> for high fluences (>1 × 1025 n/m2). The relevance of the <span class="hlt">models</span> predictions for SCC growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> behavior depends on knowing the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AIPC..309..721E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AIPC..309..721E"><span>High strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of ceramics and ceramic composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espinosa, H. D.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> response of an AlN/AlN/Al composite manufactured by Lanxide Armor Products, Inc., has been studied through normal and pressure-shear plate impact experiments. Differences in the measured shear resistance, as a function of the impact configuration, motivated the examination of the material response by means of a microcracking multiple-plane <span class="hlt">model</span> and a continuum elasto-viscoplastic constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>. Numerical simulations of the normal impact experiments do not support microcracking as the dominant inelastic mechanism. By contrast, an elasto-viscoplastic description of the material behavior predicts the main features of the normal stress history and the thickness dependence of the Hugoniot elastic limit. Nonetheless, the elasto-viscoplastic <span class="hlt">model</span> cannot reproduce both the normal and pressure-shear experiments with a single set of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. The inadequacy of the continuum elasto-viscoplastic <span class="hlt">model</span> seems to result from the isotropic assumption embodied in its formulation. The shear resistance measured in the pressure-shear experiments is adequately predicted by a microcracking multiple-plane <span class="hlt">model</span>. The agreement seems to hinge in the continuous shearing of the material on a micro-localized fashion, i.e. only one orientation becomes dominant and controls the inelastic shear deformation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This event does not occur in the normal impact configuration, in which the amount of inelasticity is primarily controlled by the elastic compressibility of the material. These findings explain the higher sensitivity to damage and microplasticity observed in the pressure-shear configuration, as well as the softer material response recorded in this configuration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068093','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068093"><span>LS-DYNA Implementation of Polymer Matrix Composite <span class="hlt">Model</span> Under High Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xia-Hua; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A recently developed constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented into LS-DYNA as a user defined material <span class="hlt">model</span> (UMAT) to characterize the nonlinear strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent behavior of polymers. By utilizing this <span class="hlt">model</span> within a micromechanics technique <span class="hlt">based</span> on a laminate analogy, an algorithm to analyze the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent, nonlinear deformation of a fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite is then developed as a UMAT to simulate the response of these composites under high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> impact. The <span class="hlt">models</span> are designed for shell elements in order to ensure computational efficiency. Experimental and numerical stress-strain curves are compared for two representative polymers and a representative polymer matrix composite, with the analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> predicting the experimental response reasonably well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10103353','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10103353"><span>A count <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> contamination control standard for electron accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>May, R.T.; Schwahn, S.O.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Accelerators of sufficient energy and particle fluence can produce radioactivity as an unwanted byproduct. The radioactivity is typically imbedded in structural materials but may also be removable from surfaces. Many of these radionuclides decay by positron emission or electron capture; they often have long half lives and produce photons of low energy and yield making detection by standard devices difficult. The contamination control limit used throughout the US nuclear industry and the Department of Energy is 1,000 disintegrations per minute. This limit is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the detection threshold of pancake type Geiger-Mueller probes for radionuclides of relatively high radiotoxicity, such as cobalt-60. Several radionuclides of concern at a high energy electron accelerator are compared in terms of radiotoxicity with radionuclides commonly found in the nuclear industry. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on this comparison, a count-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> contamination control limit and associated measurement strategy is proposed which provides adequate detection of contamination at accelerators without an increase in risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MTDM..tmp...33W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MTDM..tmp...33W"><span>A thermovisco-hyperelastic constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> of HTPB propellant with damage at intermediate strain <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhejun; Qiang, Hongfu; Wang, Tiejun; Wang, Guang; Hou, Xiao</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The uniaxial compressive tests at different temperatures (223-298 K) and strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> ( 0.40-63 s^{-1}) are reported to study the properties of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant at intermediate strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>, using a new INSTRON testing machine. The experimental results indicate that the compressive properties (mechanical properties and damage) of HTPB propellant are remarkably affected by temperature and strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and display significant nonlinear material behaviors at large strains under all the test conditions. Continuously decreasing temperature and increasing strain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the characteristics of stress-strain curves and damage for HTPB propellant are more complex and are significantly different from that at room temperature or at lower strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. A new constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed to describe the compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant at room temperature and intermediate strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> by simply coupling the effect of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> into the conventional hyperelastic <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant and the nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive theories, a new thermovisco-hyperelastic constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> with damage was proposed to predict the stress responses of the propellant at low temperatures and intermediate strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In this new <span class="hlt">model</span>, the damage is related to the viscoelastic properties of the propellant. Meanwhile, the effect of temperature on the hyperelastic properties, viscoelastic properties and damage are all considered by the macroscopical method. The constitutive parameters in the proposed constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> were identified by the genetic algorithm (GA)-<span class="hlt">based</span> optimization method. By comparing the predicted and experimental results, it can be found that the developed constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> can correctly describe the uniaxial compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant at intermediate strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> and different temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptEn..55d0503B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptEn..55d0503B"><span>Video-<span class="hlt">rate</span> volumetric optical coherence tomography-<span class="hlt">based</span> microangiography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baran, Utku; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jingjiang; Qi, Xiaoli; Davis, Wyatt O.; Wang, Ruikang K.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Video-<span class="hlt">rate</span> volumetric optical coherence tomography (vOCT) is relatively young in the field of OCT imaging but has great potential in biomedical applications. Due to the recent development of the MHz range swept laser sources, vOCT has started to gain attention in the community. Here, we report the first in vivo video-<span class="hlt">rate</span> volumetric OCT-<span class="hlt">based</span> microangiography (vOMAG) system by integrating an 18-kHz resonant microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror with a 1.6-MHz FDML swept source operating at ˜1.3 μm wavelength. Because the MEMS scanner can offer an effective B-frame <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 36 kHz, we are able to engineer vOMAG with a video <span class="hlt">rate</span> up to 25 Hz. This system was utilized for real-time volumetric in vivo visualization of cerebral microvasculature in mice. Moreover, we monitored the blood perfusion dynamics during stimulation within mouse ear in vivo. We also discussed this system's limitations. Prospective MEMS-enabled OCT probes with a real-time volumetric functional imaging capability can have a significant impact on endoscopic imaging and image-guided surgery applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DNP.EA023C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DNP.EA023C"><span><span class="hlt">Rate</span> Capability in Bakelite <span class="hlt">Based</span> Resistive Plate Chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Candocia, Max</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Bakelite-<span class="hlt">based</span> resistive plate chambers (RPCs) are particle detectors commonly used in muon trigger systems for high-energy physics experiments. Bakelite RPCs combine fast response, sufficient position resolution and low cost, and they can be operated at instantaneous background <span class="hlt">rates</span> up to about 1.5 kHz/cm2. Current and future collider experiments will demand operation of trigger RPCs under background <span class="hlt">rates</span> higher than what is currently achieved. The <span class="hlt">rate</span> capability is related to the bulk and surface conductivities of the Bakelite material used for the plates bordering the active gas volume in the RPCs. The inner surface of present Bakelite RPCs used at the LHC and RHIC is coated with linseed oil, lowering the surface resistivity of the raw Bakelite. Methods of increasing the surface conductivity of Bakelite sheets via dispersion of carbon blacks in linseed oil are being developed. Performance tests of prototype RPCs are carried out in a test stand that utilizes cosmic ray muons and radioactive 55Fe sources. In this presentation different dispersion methods and the <span class="hlt">rate</span> capability of the resulting prototype RPCs will be compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28933716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28933716"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">Rated</span> Accuracy of <span class="hlt">Rating</span> of Perceived Exertion-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Load Prescription in Powerlifters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Helms, Eric R; Brown, Scott R; Cross, Matt R; Storey, Adam; Cronin, John; Zourdos, Michael C</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Helms, ER, Brown, SR, Cross, MR, Storey, A, Cronin, J, and Zourdos, MC. Self-<span class="hlt">rated</span> accuracy of <span class="hlt">rating</span> of perceived exertion-<span class="hlt">based</span> load prescription in powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2938-2943, 2017-This study assessed male (n = 9) and female (n = 3) powerlifters' (18-49 years) ability to select loads using the repetitions in reserve-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> of perceived exertion (RPE) scale for a single set for squat, bench press, and deadlift. Subjects trained 3× per week. For 3 weeks on nonconsecutive days in the weekly order of hypertrophy (8 repetitions at 8 RPE), power (2 repetitions at 8 RPE), and strength (3 repetitions at 9 RPE), using subject-selected loads intended to match the target RPE. Bench press and squat were performed every session and deadlift during strength and power only. Mean absolute RPE differences (|reported RPE-target RPE|) ranged from 0.22-0.44, with a mean of 0.33 ± 0.28 RPE. There were no significant RPE differences within lifts between sessions for squat or deadlift. However, bench press was closer to the target RPE for strength (0.15 ± 0.42 RPE) vs. power (-0.21 ± 0.35 RPE, p = 0.05). There were no significant differences within session between lifts for power and strength. However, bench press was closer (0.14 ± 0.44 RPE) to the target RPE than squat (-0.19 ± 0.21 RPE) during hypertrophy (p = 0.02). Squat power was closer to the target RPE in week 3 (0.08 ± 0.29 RPE) vs. 1 (-0.46 ± 0.69 RPE, p = 0.03). It seems that powerlifters can accurately select loads to reach a prescribed RPE. However, accuracy for 8-repetition sets at 8 RPE may be better for bench press compared with squat. <span class="hlt">Rating</span> squat power-type training may take 3 weeks to reach peak accuracy. Finally, bench press RPE accuracy seems better closer rather than further from failure (i.e., 3-repetition 9 RPE sets vs. 2-repetition 8 RPE sets).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048308"><span>Selecting and applying cesium-137 conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> to estimate soil erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> in cultivated fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Sheng; Lobb, David A; Tiessen, Kevin H D; McConkey, Brian G</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The fallout radionuclide cesium-137 ((137)Cs) has been successfully used in soil erosion studies worldwide. However, discrepancies often exist between the erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> estimated using various conversion <span class="hlt">models</span>. As a result, there is often confusion in the use of the various <span class="hlt">models</span> and in the interpretation of the data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the structural and parametrical uncertainties associated with four conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> typically used in cultivated agricultural landscapes. For the structural uncertainties, the Soil Constituent Redistribution by Erosion <span class="hlt">Model</span> (SCREM) was developed and used to simulate the redistribution of fallout (137)Cs due to tillage and water erosion along a simple two-dimensional (horizontal and vertical) transect. The SCREM-predicted (137)Cs inventories were then imported into the conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> to estimate the erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The structural uncertainties of the conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> were assessed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the comparisons between the conversion-<span class="hlt">model</span>-estimated erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> determined or used in the SCREM. For the parametrical uncertainties, test runs were conducted by varying the values of the parameters used in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the parametrical uncertainties were assessed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the responsive changes of the estimated erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Our results suggest that: (i) the performance/accuracy of the conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> was largely dependent on the relative contributions of water vs. tillage erosion; and (ii) the estimated erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> were highly sensitive to the input values of the reference (137)Cs level, particle size correction factors and tillage depth. Guidelines were proposed to aid researchers in selecting and applying the conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> under various situations common to agricultural landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JCoPh.231.3871M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JCoPh.231.3871M"><span>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">models</span> and uncertainty quantification for the ionization reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> of atomic Nitrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miki, K.; Panesi, M.; Prudencio, E. E.; Prudhomme, S.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The objective in this paper is to analyze some stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> for estimating the ionization reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> constant of atomic Nitrogen (N + e- → N+ + 2e-). Parameters of the <span class="hlt">models</span> are identified by means of Bayesian inference using spatially resolved absolute radiance data obtained from the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) wind-tunnel. The proposed methodology accounts for uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters as well as physical <span class="hlt">model</span> inadequacies, providing estimates of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constant that reflect both types of uncertainties. We present four different probabilistic <span class="hlt">models</span> by varying the error structure (either additive or multiplicative) and by choosing different descriptions of the statistical correlation among data points. In order to assess the validity of our methodology, we first present some calibration results obtained with manufactured data and then proceed by using experimental data collected at EAST experimental facility. In order to simulate the radiative signature emitted in the shock-heated air plasma, we use a one-dimensional flow solver with Park's two-temperature <span class="hlt">model</span> that simulates non-equilibrium effects. We also discuss the implications of the choice of the stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> on the estimation of the reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> and its uncertainties. Our analysis shows that the stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on correlated multiplicative errors are the most plausible <span class="hlt">models</span> among the four <span class="hlt">models</span> proposed in this study. The <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the atomic Nitrogen ionization is found to be (6.2 ± 3.3) × 1011 cm3 mol-1 s-1 at 10,000 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16243414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16243414"><span>Vertical distribution, migration <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison of actinium in a semi-arid environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McClellan, Y; August, R A; Gosz, J R; Gann, S; Parmenter, R R; Windsor, M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Vertical soil characterization and migration of radionuclides were investigated at four radioactively contaminated sites on Kirtland Air Force <span class="hlt">Base</span> (KAFB), New Mexico to determine the vertical downward migration of radionuclides in a semi-arid environment. The surface soils (0-15 cm) were intentionally contaminated with Brazilian sludge (containing (232)Thorium and other radionuclides) approximately 40 years ago, in order to simulate the conditions resulting from a nuclear weapons accident. Site grading consisted of manually raking or machine disking the sludge. The majority of the radioactivity was found in the top 15 cm of soil, with retention ranging from 69 to 88%. Two <span class="hlt">models</span>, a compartment diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> and leach <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, were evaluated to determine their capabilities and limitations in predicting radionuclide behavior. The migration <span class="hlt">rates</span> of actinium were calculated with the diffusion compartment and the leach <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for all sites, and ranged from 0.009 to 0.1 cm/yr increasing with depth. The migration <span class="hlt">rates</span> calculated with the leach <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> were similar to those using the diffusion compartment <span class="hlt">model</span> and did not increase with depth (0.045-0.076, 0.0 cm/yr). The research found that the physical and chemical properties governing transport processes of water and solutes in soil provide a valid radionuclide transport <span class="hlt">model</span>. The evaluation also showed that the physical <span class="hlt">model</span> has fewer limitations and may be more applicable to this environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.890a2128I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.890a2128I"><span>Forecasting the mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> using Lee-Carter <span class="hlt">model</span> and Heligman-Pollard <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ibrahim, R. I.; Ngataman, N.; Abrisam, W. N. A. Wan Mohd</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Improvement in life expectancies has driven further declines in mortality. The sustained reduction in mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> and its systematic underestimation has been attracting the significant interest of researchers in recent years because of its potential impact on population size and structure, social security systems, and (from an actuarial perspective) the life insurance and pensions industry worldwide. Among all forecasting methods, the Lee-Carter <span class="hlt">model</span> has been widely accepted by the actuarial community and Heligman-Pollard <span class="hlt">model</span> has been widely used by researchers in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and forecasting future mortality. Therefore, this paper only focuses on Lee-Carter <span class="hlt">model</span> and Heligman-Pollard <span class="hlt">model</span>. The main objective of this paper is to investigate how accurately these two <span class="hlt">models</span> will perform using Malaysian data. Since these <span class="hlt">models</span> involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 8.0 (MATLAB 8.0) software will be used to estimate the parameters of the <span class="hlt">models</span>. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) procedure is applied to acquire the forecasted parameters for both <span class="hlt">models</span> as the forecasted mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> are obtained by using all the values of forecasted parameters. To investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecasted results will be compared against actual data of mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The results indicate that both <span class="hlt">models</span> provide better results for male population. However, for the elderly female population, Heligman-Pollard <span class="hlt">model</span> seems to underestimate to the mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> while Lee-Carter <span class="hlt">model</span> seems to overestimate to the mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524782"><span>[Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart <span class="hlt">Rate</span>, Respiration <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Detection System <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Smartphone of Android Operating System].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart <span class="hlt">rate</span>, respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> monitoring system <span class="hlt">based</span> on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3298426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3298426"><span>Semiparametric Stochastic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Function in Longitudinal Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions, which describe the functional <span class="hlt">rates</span> of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to <span class="hlt">model</span> these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196652"><span>Simulation of fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability with a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jongen, Germaine J L M; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M Beatrijs; Oei, S Guid; van de Vosse, Frans N; Bovendeerd, Peter H M</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In the clinic, the cardiotocogram (CTG), the combined registration of fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> (FHR) and uterine contractions, is used to predict fetal well-being. Amongst others, fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability (FHRV) is an important indicator of fetal distress. In this study we add FHRV to our previously developed CTG simulation <span class="hlt">model</span>, in order to improve its use as a research and educational tool. We implemented three sources of variability by applying either 1/f or white noise to the peripheral vascular resistance, baroreceptor output, or efferent vagal signal. Simulated FHR tracings were evaluated by visual inspection and spectral analysis. All power spectra showed a 1/f character, irrespective of noise type and source. The clinically observed peak near 0.1 Hz was only obtained by applying white noise to the different sources of variability. Similar power spectra were found when peripheral vascular resistance or baroreceptor output was used as source of variability. Sympathetic control predominantly influenced the low frequency power, while vagal control influenced both low and high frequency power. In contrast to clinical data, <span class="hlt">model</span> results did not show an increase of FHRV during FHR decelerations. Still, addition of FHRV improves the applicability of the <span class="hlt">model</span> as an educational and research tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292460"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of percolation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of stormwater from underground infiltration systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burszta-Adamiak, Ewa; Lomotowski, Janusz</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Underground or surface stormwater storage tank systems that enable the infiltration of water into the ground are basic elements used in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). So far, the design methods for such facilities have not taken into account the phenomenon of ground clogging during stormwater infiltration. Top layer sealing of the filter bed influences the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> of water into the ground. This study presents an original mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> describing changes in the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability in the phases of filling and emptying the storage and infiltration tank systems, which enables the determination of the degree of top ground layer clogging. The input data for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> were obtained from studies conducted on experimental sites on objects constructed on a semi-technological scale. The experiment conducted has proven that the application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> developed for the phase of water infiltration enables us to estimate the degree of module clogging. However, this method is more suitable for reservoirs embedded in more permeable soils than for those located in cohesive soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..461..217B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..461..217B"><span>The stochastic string <span class="hlt">model</span> as a unifying theory of the term structure of interest <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bueno-Guerrero, Alberto; Moreno, Manuel; Navas, Javier F.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We present the stochastic string <span class="hlt">model</span> of Santa-Clara and Sornette (2001), as reformulated by Bueno-Guerrero et al. (2015), as a unifying theory of the continuous-time <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the term structure of interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We provide several new results, such as: (a) an orthogonality condition for the volatilities in the Heath, Jarrow, and Morton (1992) (HJM) <span class="hlt">model</span>, (b) the interpretation of multi-factor HJM <span class="hlt">models</span> as approximations to a full infinite-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span>, (c) a result of consistency <span class="hlt">based</span> on Hilbert spaces, and (d) a theorem for option valuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088097','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088097"><span>Total dose and dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this work is to develop a <span class="hlt">model</span> for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are an electrical <span class="hlt">model</span> of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a <span class="hlt">model</span> that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Simulations <span class="hlt">based</span> on this <span class="hlt">model</span> are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InPhT..77..382B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InPhT..77..382B"><span>Infrared imaging <span class="hlt">based</span> hyperventilation monitoring through respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography <span class="hlt">based</span> approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact <span class="hlt">based</span> methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image <span class="hlt">based</span> approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.271...65F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.271...65F"><span>A regional approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> cliff retreat <span class="hlt">rate</span>: The Makhteshim Country, Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finzi, Yaron; Harlev, Noam</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Cliff retreat <span class="hlt">rate</span> significantly affect the evolution of landforms and cliff stability. Cliff retreat studies also provide intriguing clues regarding past geomorphic conditions and environmental changes. We hereby present a <span class="hlt">model</span> to calculate cliff retreat <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on spatial data of cliff structure and morphology. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied to numerous cliffs in the arid Makhteshim Country, Israel, and results are calibrated using published <span class="hlt">rates</span> of two local cliffs. The calculated retreat <span class="hlt">rates</span> confirm previous assertions that the crater cliffs are receding very slowly, but reveal that the <span class="hlt">rates</span> vary significantly along the cliffs (1-18 cm ky- 1). Results also provide first estimates of retreat <span class="hlt">rates</span> of other major cliffs in the region including fast retreat <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the Sede Zin cliff (300-600 cm ky- 1). The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a robust analysis to account for local cliff-talus morphology and yields <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates representative of current conditions rather than a long-term (geologic) average <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Results presented constitute important new insights into regional geomorphic processes and on the stability of specific cliff sections within the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3824089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3824089"><span>On conductance-<span class="hlt">based</span> neural field <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pinotsis, Dimitris A.; Leite, Marco; Friston, Karl J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This technical note introduces a conductance-<span class="hlt">based</span> neural field <span class="hlt">model</span> that combines biologically realistic synaptic dynamics—<span class="hlt">based</span> on transmembrane currents—with neural field equations, describing the propagation of spikes over the cortical surface. This <span class="hlt">model</span> allows for fairly realistic inter-and intra-laminar intrinsic connections that underlie spatiotemporal neuronal dynamics. We focus on the response functions of expected neuronal states (such as depolarization) that generate observed electrophysiological signals (like LFP recordings and EEG). These response functions characterize the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s transfer functions and implicit spectral responses to (uncorrelated) input. Our main finding is that both the evoked responses (impulse response functions) and induced responses (transfer functions) show qualitative differences depending upon whether one uses a neural mass or field <span class="hlt">model</span>. Furthermore, there are differences between the equivalent convolution and conductance <span class="hlt">models</span>. Overall, all <span class="hlt">models</span> reproduce a characteristic increase in frequency, when inhibition was increased by increasing the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants of inhibitory populations. However, convolution and conductance-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> showed qualitatively different changes in power, with convolution <span class="hlt">models</span> showing decreases with increasing inhibition, while conductance <span class="hlt">models</span> show the opposite effect. These differences suggest that conductance <span class="hlt">based</span> field <span class="hlt">models</span> may be important in empirical studies of cortical gain control or pharmacological manipulations. PMID:24273508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609666"><span>Initial-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> method for estimating the maximum heterotrophic growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameter (μHmax).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fall, C; Hooijmans, C M; Esparza-Soto, M; Olguin, M T; Bâ, K M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Currently, the method most used for measuring the maximum specific growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> (μ(Hmax)) of heterotrophic biomass is by respirometry, using growth batch tests performed at high food/microorganism ratio. No other technique has been suggested, although the former approach was criticized for providing kinetic constants that could be unrepresentative of the original biomass. An alternative method (seed-increments) is proposed, which relies on measuring the initial <span class="hlt">rates</span> of respiration (r(O2)(_ini)) at different seeding levels, in a single batch, and in the presence of excess readily biodegradable substrate (S(S)). The ASM1-<span class="hlt">based</span> underlying equations were developed, which showed that μ(Hmax) could be estimated through the slope of the linear function of r(O2)(_ini)·(V(WW)+v(ML)) vs v(ML) (volume of mixed liquor inoculum); V(WW) represent the wastewater volume added. The procedure was tested, being easy to apply; the postulated linearity was constantly observed and the method is claimed to measure the characteristics of the biomass of interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21349880','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21349880"><span>Emission <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation through data assimilation of gamma dose measurements in a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsiouri, V; Kovalets, I; Andronopoulos, S; Bartzis, J G</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an efficient algorithm for estimating the unknown emission <span class="hlt">rate</span> of radionuclides in the atmosphere following a nuclear accident. The algorithm is <span class="hlt">based</span> on assimilation of gamma dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> measured data in a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span>. Such <span class="hlt">models</span> are used in the framework of nuclear emergency response systems (ERSs). It is shown that the algorithm is applicable in both deterministic and stochastic modes of operation of the dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span>. The method is evaluated by computational simulations of a 3-d field experiment on atmospheric dispersion of ⁴¹Ar emitted routinely from a research reactor. Available measurements of fluence <span class="hlt">rate</span> (photons flux) in air are assimilated in the Lagrangian dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span> DIPCOT and the ⁴¹Ar emission <span class="hlt">rate</span> is estimated. The statistical analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">model</span>-calculated emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> agree well with the real ones. In addition the <span class="hlt">model</span>-predicted fluence <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the locations of the sensors, which were not used in the data assimilation procedure are in better agreement with the measurements. The first evaluation results of the method presented in this study show that the method performs satisfactorily and therefore it is applicable in nuclear ERSs provided that more comprehensive validation studies will be performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JChPh..98.2463E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JChPh..98.2463E"><span>ZGB surface reaction <span class="hlt">model</span> with high diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, J. W.</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The diffusionless ZGB (monomer-dimer) surface reaction <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibits a discontinuous transition to a monomer-poisoned state when the fraction of monomer adsorption attempts exceeds 0.525. It has been claimed that this transition shifts to 2/3 with introduction of rapid diffusion of the monomer species, or of both species. We show this is not the case, 2/3 representing the spinodal rather than the transition point. For equal diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> of both species, we find that the transition only shifts to 0.5951±0.0002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6924318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6924318"><span>ZGB surface reaction <span class="hlt">model</span> with high diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Evans, J.W. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The diffusionless ZGB (monomer--dimer) surface reaction <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibits a discontinuous transition to a monomer-poisoned state when the fraction of monomer adsorption attempts exceeds 0.525. It has been claimed that this transition shifts to 2/3 with introduction of rapid diffusion of the monomer species, or of both species. We show this is not the case, 2/3 representing the spinodal rather than the transition point. For equal diffusion <sp