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Sample records for rate model based

  1. Rate-Based Model Predictive Control of Turbofan Engine Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative model predictive control strategy is developed for control of nonlinear aircraft propulsion systems and sub-systems. At the heart of the controller is a rate-based linear parameter-varying model that propagates the state derivatives across the prediction horizon, extending prediction fidelity to transient regimes where conventional models begin to lose validity. The new control law is applied to a demanding active clearance control application, where the objectives are to tightly regulate blade tip clearances and also anticipate and avoid detrimental blade-shroud rub occurrences by optimally maintaining a predefined minimum clearance. Simulation results verify that the rate-based controller is capable of satisfying the objectives during realistic flight scenarios where both a conventional Jacobian-based model predictive control law and an unconstrained linear-quadratic optimal controller are incapable of doing so. The controller is evaluated using a variety of different actuators, illustrating the efficacy and versatility of the control approach. It is concluded that the new strategy has promise for this and other nonlinear aerospace applications that place high importance on the attainment of control objectives during transient regimes.

  2. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  3. Global Earthquake Activity Rate models based on version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kreemer, C.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Global Earthquake Activity Rate (GEAR) models have usually been based on either relative tectonic motion (fault slip rates and/or distributed strain rates), or on smoothing of seismic catalogs. However, a hybrid approach appears to perform better than either parent, at least in some retrospective tests. First, we construct a Tectonic ('T') forecast of shallow (≤ 70 km) seismicity based on global plate-boundary strain rates from version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map. Our approach is the SHIFT (Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics) method described by Bird et al. [2010, SRL], in which the character of the strain rate tensor (thrusting and/or strike-slip and/or normal) is used to select the most comparable type of plate boundary for calibration of the coupled seismogenic lithosphere thickness and corner magnitude. One difference is that activity of offshore plate boundaries is spatially smoothed using empirical half-widths [Bird & Kagan, 2004, BSSA] before conversion to seismicity. Another is that the velocity-dependence of coupling in subduction and continental-convergent boundaries [Bird et al., 2009, BSSA] is incorporated. Another forecast component is the smoothed-seismicity ('S') forecast model of [Kagan & Jackson, 1994, JGR; Kagan & Jackson, 2010, GJI], which was based on optimized smoothing of the shallow part of the GCMT catalog, years 1977-2004. Both forecasts were prepared for threshold magnitude 5.767. Then, we create hybrid forecasts by one of 3 methods: (a) taking the greater of S or T; (b) simple weighted-average of S and T; or (c) log of the forecast rate is a weighted average of the logs of S and T. In methods (b) and (c) there is one free parameter, which is the fractional contribution from S. All hybrid forecasts are normalized to the same global rate. Pseudo-prospective tests for 2005-2012 (using versions of S and T calibrated on years 1977-2004) show that many hybrid models outperform both parents (S and T), and that the optimal weight on S

  4. Nonparametric Hammerstein model based model predictive control for heart rate regulation.

    PubMed

    Su, Steven W; Huang, Shoudong; Wang, Lu; Celler, Branko G; Savkin, Andrey V; Guo, Ying; Cheng, Teddy

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel nonparametric model based model predictive control approach for the regulation of heart rate during treadmill exercise. As the model structure of human cardiovascular system is often hard to determine, nonparametric modelling is a more realistic manner to describe complex behaviours of cardiovascular system. This paper presents a new nonparametric Hammerstein model identification approach for heart rate response modelling. Based on the pseudo-random binary sequence experiment data, we decouple the identification of linear dynamic part and input nonlinearity of the Hammerstein system. Correlation analysis is applied to acquire step response of linear dynamic component. Support Vector Regression is adopted to obtain a nonparametric description of the inverse of input static nonlinearity that is utilized to form an approximate linear model of the Hammerstein system. Based on the established model, a model predictive controller under predefined speed and acceleration constraints is designed to achieve safer treadmill exercise. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm can achieve optimal heart rate tracking performance under predefined constraints.

  5. Modelling the spreading rate of controlled communicable epidemics through an entropy-based thermodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, WenBin; Wu, ZiNiu; Wang, ChunFeng; Hu, RuiFeng

    2013-11-01

    A model based on a thermodynamic approach is proposed for predicting the dynamics of communicable epidemics assumed to be governed by controlling efforts of multiple scales so that an entropy is associated with the system. All the epidemic details are factored into a single and time-dependent coefficient, the functional form of this coefficient is found through four constraints, including notably the existence of an inflexion point and a maximum. The model is solved to give a log-normal distribution for the spread rate, for which a Shannon entropy can be defined. The only parameter, that characterizes the width of the distribution function, is uniquely determined through maximizing the rate of entropy production. This entropy-based thermodynamic (EBT) model predicts the number of hospitalized cases with a reasonable accuracy for SARS in the year 2003. This EBT model can be of use for potential epidemics such as avian influenza and H7N9 in China.

  6. Mixture of a seismicity model based on the rate-and-state friction and ETAS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    Currently the ETAS model [Ogata, 1988, JASA] is considered to be a standard model of seismicity. However, because the ETAS model is a purely statistical one, the physics-based seismicity model derived from the rate-and-state friction (hereafter referred to as Dieterich model) [Dieterich, 1994, JGR] is frequently examined. However, the original version of the Dieterich model has several problems in the application to real earthquake sequences and therefore modifications have been conducted in previous studies. Iwata [2015, Pageoph] is one of such studies and shows that the Dieterich model is significantly improved as a result of the inclusion of the effect of secondary aftershocks (i.e., aftershocks caused by previous aftershocks). However, still the performance of the ETAS model is superior to that of the improved Dieterich model. For further improvement, the mixture of the Dieterich and ETAS models is examined in this study. To achieve the mixture, the seismicity rate is represented as a sum of the ETAS and Dieterich models of which weights are given as k and 1-k, respectively. This mixture model is applied to the aftershock sequences of the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Mid-Niigata sequences which have been analyzed in Iwata [2015]. Additionally, the sequence of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan 1965-1970 is also analyzed. The value of k and parameters of the ETAS and Dieterich models are estimated by means of the maximum likelihood method, and the model performances are assessed on the basis of AIC. For the two aftershock sequences, the AIC values of the ETAS model are around 3-9 smaller (i.e., better) than those of the mixture model. On the contrary, for the Matsushiro swarm, the AIC value of the mixture model is 5.8 smaller than that of the ETAS model, indicating that the mixture of the two models results in significant improvement of the seismicity model.

  7. Rate-based process modeling study of CO{sub 2} capture with aqueous monoethanolamine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.; Chen, C.C.; Plaza, J.M.; Dugas, R.; Rochelle, G.T.

    2009-10-15

    Rate-based process modeling technology has matured and is increasingly gaining acceptance over traditional equilibrium-stage modeling approaches. Recently comprehensive pilot plant data for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) solution have become available from the University of Texas at Austin. The pilot plant data cover key process variables including CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas stream, CO{sub 2} loading in lean MEA solution, liquid to gas ratio, and packing type. In this study, we model the pilot plant operation with Aspen RateSep, a second generation rate-based multistage separation unit operation model in Aspen Plus. After a brief review of rate-based modeling, thermodynamic and kinetic models for CO{sub 2} absorption with the MEA solution, and transport property models, we show excellent match of the rate-based model predictions against the comprehensive pilot plant data and we validate the superiority of the rate-based models over the traditional equilibrium-stage models. We further examine the impacts of key rate-based modeling options, i.e., film discretization options and flow model options. The rate-based model provides excellent predictive capability, and it should be very useful for design and scale-up of CO{sub 2} capture processes.

  8. A fault-based model for crustal deformation, fault slip-rates and off-fault strain rate in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Yuehua; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2016-01-01

    We invert Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity data to estimate fault slip rates in California using a fault‐based crustal deformation model with geologic constraints. The model assumes buried elastic dislocations across the region using Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast Version 3 (UCERF3) fault geometries. New GPS velocity and geologic slip‐rate data were compiled by the UCERF3 deformation working group. The result of least‐squares inversion shows that the San Andreas fault slips at 19–22  mm/yr along Santa Cruz to the North Coast, 25–28  mm/yr along the central California creeping segment to the Carrizo Plain, 20–22  mm/yr along the Mojave, and 20–24  mm/yr along the Coachella to the Imperial Valley. Modeled slip rates are 7–16  mm/yr lower than the preferred geologic rates from the central California creeping section to the San Bernardino North section. For the Bartlett Springs section, fault slip rates of 7–9  mm/yr fall within the geologic bounds but are twice the preferred geologic rates. For the central and eastern Garlock, inverted slip rates of 7.5 and 4.9  mm/yr, respectively, match closely with the geologic rates. For the western Garlock, however, our result suggests a low slip rate of 1.7  mm/yr. Along the eastern California shear zone and southern Walker Lane, our model shows a cumulative slip rate of 6.2–6.9  mm/yr across its east–west transects, which is ∼1  mm/yr increase of the geologic estimates. For the off‐coast faults of central California, from Hosgri to San Gregorio, fault slips are modeled at 1–5  mm/yr, similar to the lower geologic bounds. For the off‐fault deformation, the total moment rate amounts to 0.88×1019  N·m/yr, with fast straining regions found around the Mendocino triple junction, Transverse Ranges and Garlock fault zones, Landers and Brawley seismic zones, and farther south. The overall California moment rate is 2.76×1019

  9. Modeling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis Using a GPO-Based Adaptive Filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Yaopeng

    2016-02-06

    A novel generalized play operator-based (GPO-based) nonlinear adaptive filter is proposed to model rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity for smart actuators. In the proposed filter, the input signal vector consists of the output of a tapped delay line. GPOs with various thresholds are used to construct a nonlinear network and connected with the input signals. The output signal of the filter is composed of a linear combination of signals from the output of GPOs. The least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is used to adjust the weights of the nonlinear filter. The modeling results of four adaptive filter methods are compared: GPO-based adaptive filter, Volterra filter, backlash filter and linear adaptive filter. Moreover, a phenomenological operator-based model, the rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (RDGPI) model, is compared to the proposed adaptive filter. The various rate-dependent modeling methods are applied to model the rate-dependent hysteresis of a giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA). It is shown from the modeling results that the GPO-based adaptive filter can describe the rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinear of the GMA more accurately and effectively.

  10. Model-based control of networked distributed systems with multi-rate state feedback updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Eloy; Antsaklis, Panos

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a model-based multi-rate control technique for stabilisation of uncertain discrete-time systems that transmit information through a limited bandwidth communication network. This model-based multi-rate approach is applied to two networked architectures. First, we discuss the implementation of a centralised control system with distributed sensing capabilities and, second, we address the problem of stabilisation of networks of coupled subsystems with distributed sensors and controllers. In both cases, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the uncertain system with multi-rate model updates. Furthermore, we show that, in general, an important reduction of network bandwidth can be obtained using the multi-rate approach with respect to the single-rate implementations. Finally, an extension is provided that addresses restricted access to the communication channel.

  11. Modeling Low-Dose-Rate Effects in Irradiated Bipolar-Base Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Cirba, C.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Graves, R.J.; Michez, A.; Milanowski, R.J.; Saigne, F.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Witczak, S.C.

    1998-10-26

    A physical model is developed to quantify the contribution of oxide-trapped charge to enhanced low-dose-rate gain degradation in bipolar junction transistors. Multiple-trapping simulations show that space charge limited transport is partially responsible for low-dose-rate enhancement. At low dose rates, more holes are trapped near the silicon-oxide interface than at high dose rates, resulting in larger midgap voltage shifts at lower dose rates. The additional trapped charge near the interface may cause an exponential increase in excess base current, and a resultant decrease in current gain for some NPN bipolar technologies.

  12. Speciation rates decline through time in individual-based models of speciation and extinction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Fang, Jingyun; Pacala, Stephen W

    2013-09-01

    A well-documented pattern in the fossil record is a long-term decline in the origination rate of new taxa after diversity rebounds from a mass extinction. The mechanisms for this pattern remain elusive. In this article, we investigate the macroevolutionary predictions of an individual-based birth-death model (BDI model) where speciation and extinction rates emerge from population dynamics. We start with the simplest neutral model in which every individual has the same per capita rates of birth, death, and speciation. Although the prediction of the simplest neutral model agrees qualitatively with the fossil pattern, the predicted decline in per-species speciation rates is too fast to explain the long-term trend in fossil data. We thus consider models with variation among species in per capita rates of speciation and a suite of alternative assumptions about the heritability of speciation rate. The results show that interspecific variation in per capita speciation rate can induce differences among species in their ability to resist extinction because a low speciation rate confers a small but important demographic advantage. As a consequence, the model predicts an appropriately slow temporal decline in speciation rates, which provides a mechanistic explanation for the fossil pattern.

  13. A New Statistically based Autoconversion rate Parameterization for use in Large-Scale Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Zhang, Junhua; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2002-01-01

    The autoconversion rate is a key process for the formation of precipitation in warm clouds. In climate models, physical processes such as autoconversion rate, which are calculated from grid mean values, are biased, because they do not take subgrid variability into account. Recently, statistical cloud schemes have been introduced in large-scale models to account for partially cloud-covered grid boxes. However, these schemes do not include the in-cloud variability in their parameterizations. In this paper, a new statistically based autoconversion rate considering the in-cloud variability is introduced and tested in three cases using the Canadian Single Column Model (SCM) of the global climate model. The results show that the new autoconversion rate improves the model simulation, especially in terms of liquid water path in all three case studies.

  14. On rate-dependent mechanical model for adaptive magnetorheological elastomer base isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents research on the phenomenological model of an adaptive base isolator. The adaptive base isolator is made of field-dependent magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) which can alter its physical property under application of magnetic field. Experimental testing demonstrated that the developed MRE base isolator possesses an amazing ability to vary its stiffness under applied magnetic field. However, several challenges have been encountered when it comes modeling such novel device. For example, under a large deformation, the MRE base isolator exhibits a clear strain stiffening effect and this behavior escalates with the increasing of applied current. In addition, the MRE base isolator has also shown typical rate-dependent behavior. Following a review on mechanical models for viscos-elastic rubber devices, a novel rate-dependent model is proposed in this paper to capture the behavior of the new MRE base isolator. To develop a generalized model, the proposed model was evaluated using its performance under random displacement input and a seismic input. It shows that the proposed rate-dependent model can successfully describe the complex behavior of the device.

  15. Physically-based strength model of tantalum incorporating effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; ...

    2016-06-14

    In this work, we develop a tantalum strength model that incorporates e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to incorporate temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the model are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength model agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa.more » The proposed strength model is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength model that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.« less

  16. Physically-based strength model of tantalum incorporating effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2016-06-14

    In this work, we develop a tantalum strength model that incorporates e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to incorporate temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the model are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength model agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa. The proposed strength model is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength model that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.

  17. Global stability and attractivity of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaodan; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Wenshu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study the global stability and attractivity of the endemic equilibrium for a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. The model was introduced in Li (2015). We prove that the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if α (a parameter of this model) is sufficiently large, and is globally attractive if the transmission rate λ satisfies λ/λc ∈(1 , 2 ] , where λc is the epidemic threshold. Some numerical experiments are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  18. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-based Human Airway Models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-01-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography (MDCT)-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ*) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h0*) as h0* = 1.15 τ*0.272, R = 0.842. PMID:25869455

  19. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  20. Dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. This type of nonlinear incidence can be used to describe the psychological effect of certain diseases spread in a contact network at high infective levels. We first find a threshold value for the transmission rate. This value completely determines the dynamics of the model and interestingly, the threshold is not dependent on the functional form of the nonlinear incidence rate. Furthermore, if the transmission rate is less than or equal to the threshold value, the disease will die out. Otherwise, it will be permanent. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the theoretical results. We also consider the effect of the nonlinear incidence on the epidemic dynamics.

  1. Cooling rate estimations based on kinetic modelling of Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Onorato, P. I. K.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A finite one-dimensional kinetic model was developed to estimate the cooling rates of lunar rocks. The model takes into consideration the compositional zonation of olivine and applies Buening and Buseck (1973) data on ion diffusion in olivine. Since the 'as-solidified' profile of a given olivine is not known, a step-function, with infinite gradient, is assumed; the position of this step is based on mass balance considerations of the measured compositional profile. A minimum cooling rate would be associated with the preservation of a given gradient. The linear cooling rates of lunar rocks 12002 and 15555 were estimated by use of the olivine cooling-rate indicator to be 10 C/day and 5 C/day, respectively. These values are lower than those obtained by dynamic crystallization studies (10-20 C/day).

  2. Comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, K.C.

    1984-10-01

    An in-vitro dissolution study was conducted on two respirable oxidized depleted uranium samples. The dissolution rates generated from this study were then utilized in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group lung clearance model and a lung clearance model proposed by Cuddihy. Predictions from both models based on the dissolution rates of the amount of oxidized depleted uranium that would be cleared to blood from the pulmonary region following an inhalation exposure were compared. It was found that the predictions made by both models differed considerably. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the differences in the way each model perceives the clearance from the pulmonary region. 33 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Mechanism‐Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, DP; Hansen, M; Bagger, JI; Lund, A; Rehfeld, JF; Alskär, O; Karlsson, MO; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, FK; Bergstrand, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism‐based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin concentrations were not predictive of GBE, and an alternative model linking the nutrients amount in the upper intestine to GBE was preferred. Relative to fats, the potency on GBE was 68% for proteins and 2.3% for carbohydrates. The model predictions were robust across a broad range of nutritional content and may potentially be used to predict postprandial changes in drug absorption. PMID:28028939

  4. MRI-based anatomical model of the human head for specific absorption rate mapping

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Nikos; Angelone, Leonardo; Tulloch, Seann; Sorg, Scott; Kaiser, Jonathan; Kennedy, David

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based, high-resolution, numerical model of the head of a healthy human subject. In order to formulate the model, we performed quantitative volumetric segmentation on the human head, using T1-weighted MRI. The high spatial resolution used (1 × 1 × 1 mm3), allowed for the precise computation and visualization of a higher number of anatomical structures than provided by previous models. Furthermore, the high spatial resolution allowed us to study individual thin anatomical structures of clinical relevance not visible by the standard model currently adopted in computational bioelectromagnetics. When we computed the electromagnetic field and specific absorption rate (SAR) at 7 Tesla MRI using this high-resolution model, we were able to obtain a detailed visualization of such fine anatomical structures as the epidermis/dermis, bone structures, bone-marrow, white matter and nasal and eye structures. PMID:18985401

  5. Expectation maximization-based likelihood inference for flexible cure rate models with Weibull lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy; Pal, Suvra

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a flexible cure rate survival model has been developed by assuming the number of competing causes of the event of interest to follow the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution. This model includes some of the well-known cure rate models discussed in the literature as special cases. Data obtained from cancer clinical trials are often right censored and expectation maximization algorithm can be used in this case to efficiently estimate the model parameters based on right censored data. In this paper, we consider the competing cause scenario and assuming the time-to-event to follow the Weibull distribution, we derive the necessary steps of the expectation maximization algorithm for estimating the parameters of different cure rate survival models. The standard errors of the maximum likelihood estimates are obtained by inverting the observed information matrix. The method of inference developed here is examined by means of an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study. Finally, we illustrate the proposed methodology with a real data on cancer recurrence.

  6. Research and realization of ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dandan; Hou, Huirang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    For ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model, when the noise frequency is close to that of the desired signals (called similar-frequency noise) or the received signal amplitude is small and unstable at big flow rate, local convergence of the algorithm genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles may appear, and measurement accuracy may be affected. Therefore, an improved method energy genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles (EGACO-3cycles) is proposed to solve this problem. By judging the maximum energy position of signal, the initial parameter range of exponential model can be narrowed and then the local convergence can be avoided. Moreover, a DN100 flow rate measurement system with EGACO-3cycles method is established based on NI PCI-6110 and personal computer. A series of experiments are carried out for testing the new method and the measurement system. It is shown that local convergence doesn't appear with EGACO-3cycles method when similar-frequency noises exist and flow rate is big. Then correct time of flight can be obtained. Furthermore, through flow calibration on this system, the measurement range ratio is achieved 500:1, and the measurement accuracy is 0.5% with a low transition velocity 0.3 m/s.

  7. MRI-based strain and strain rate analysis of left ventricle: a modified hierarchical transformation model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Different from other indicators of cardiac function, such as ejection fraction and transmitral early diastolic velocity, myocardial strain is promising to capture subtle alterations that result from early diseases of the myocardium. In order to extract the left ventricle (LV) myocardial strain and strain rate from cardiac cine-MRI, a modified hierarchical transformation model was proposed. Methods A hierarchical transformation model including the global and local LV deformations was employed to analyze the strain and strain rate of the left ventricle by cine-MRI image registration. The endocardial and epicardial contour information was introduced to enhance the registration accuracy by combining the original hierarchical algorithm with an Iterative Closest Points using Invariant Features algorithm. The hierarchical model was validated by a normal volunteer first and then applied to two clinical cases (i.e., the normal volunteer and a diabetic patient) to evaluate their respective function. Results Based on the two clinical cases, by comparing the displacement fields of two selected landmarks in the normal volunteer, the proposed method showed a better performance than the original or unmodified model. Meanwhile, the comparison of the radial strain between the volunteer and patient demonstrated their apparent functional difference. Conclusions The present method could be used to estimate the LV myocardial strain and strain rate during a cardiac cycle and thus to quantify the analysis of the LV motion function. PMID:25602778

  8. Error-Rate Estimation Based on Multi-Signal Flow Graph Model and Accelerated Radiation Tests

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yueke; Xing, Kefei; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Zelong

    2016-01-01

    A method of evaluating the single-event effect soft-error vulnerability of space instruments before launched has been an active research topic in recent years. In this paper, a multi-signal flow graph model is introduced to analyze the fault diagnosis and meantime to failure (MTTF) for space instruments. A model for the system functional error rate (SFER) is proposed. In addition, an experimental method and accelerated radiation testing system for a signal processing platform based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA) is presented. Based on experimental results of different ions (O, Si, Cl, Ti) under the HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, the SFER of the signal processing platform is approximately 10−3(error/particle/cm2), while the MTTF is approximately 110.7 h. PMID:27583533

  9. Testing foetal-maternal heart rate synchronization via model-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Maik; van Leeuwen, Peter; Suhrbier, Alexander; Malberg, Hagen; Grönemeyer, Dietrich; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2009-04-13

    The investigation of foetal reaction to internal and external conditions and stimuli is an important tool in the characterization of the developing neural integration of the foetus. An interesting example of this is the study of the interrelationship between the foetal and the maternal heart rate. Recent studies have shown a certain likelihood of occasional heart rate synchronization between mother and foetus. In the case of respiratory-induced heart rate changes, the comparison with maternal surrogates suggests that the evidence for detected synchronization is largely statistical and does not result from physiological interaction. Rather, they simply reflect a stochastic, temporary stability of two independent oscillators with time-variant frequencies. We reanalysed three datasets from that study for a more local consideration. Epochs of assumed synchronization associated with short-term regulation of the foetal heart rate were selected and compared with synchronization resulting from white noise instead of the foetal signal. Using data-driven modelling analysis, it was possible to identify the consistent influence of the heartbeat duration of maternal beats preceding the foetal beats during epochs of synchronization. These maternal beats occurred approximately one maternal respiratory cycle prior to the affected foetal beat. A similar effect could not be found in the epochs without synchronization. Simulations based on the fitted models led to a higher likelihood of synchronization in the data segments with assumed foetal-maternal interaction than in the segment without such assumed interaction. We conclude that the data-driven model-based analysis can be a useful tool for the identification of synchronization.

  10. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  11. The rate equation based optical model for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Kang; Li, Haokai; Guo, Keqin; Wang, Heng; Li, Dacheng; Zhang, Wending; Mei, Ting; Chua, Soo Jin

    2017-03-01

    An optical model based on the rate equation was developed to calculate the emission spectrum of a phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode (pc-WLED) taking into consideration the phosphor weight percentage, film thickness, and optical properties of phosphor, viz. absorption spectrum, quantum efficiency spectrum and fluorescent emission spectrum. Films containing a mixture of phosphor and silicone elastomer encapsulant were investigated using this model. A linear relationship was found between the peak absorption coefficient and the phosphor weight percentage with slopes of 66.76  ±  0.52 mm‑1 and 29.66  ±  2.05 mm‑1 for a red phosphor CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ and a yellow phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, respectively. With these parameters, the model predicted emission spectra which are in good agreement with measurement, thus verifying the validity of the model. The model correctly predicts redshift and spectral width reduction of the emission peak for increasing phosphor weight percentage or film thickness, as expected from the phenomenon of photon reabsorption by the phosphors. This model does not require the use of Monte Carlo simulation and Mie theory.

  12. The relationship between afterslip and aftershocks: a study based on Coulomb-Rate-and-State models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattania, Camilla; Hainzl, Sebastian; Roth, Frank; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-05-01

    The original Coulomb stress hypothesis, as well as most physics based models of aftershock sequences, assume that aftershocks are triggered by the instantaneous coseismic stress: in other words, the stress field is treated as stationary following the mainshock. However, several lines of evidence indicate that postseismic processes may affect aftershock triggering. The cumulative seismic moment of afterslip can be a significant fraction of the coseismic moment, generating comparable stress changes; moreover, afterslip has a similar time dependence as aftershocks, suggesting that the two processes may be linked. Aftershocks themselves contribute to the redistribution of stresses, and they can trigger their own aftershocks: spatial clustering, and the success of statistical models which include secondary triggering (ETAS) suggest that, even though aftershocks typically generate stresses orders of magnitude smaller than the mainshock, they are significant on a local scale. Our goal is to study the effect of postseismically induced stresses in the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks. We focus on the two processes described above (afterslip and secondary triggering), and do not consider other phenomena such as poroelastic response and viscoelastic relaxation. We study a period of 250 days following the mainshock, for two case studies: the Parkfield, Mw=6.0 and the Tohoku, Mw=9.0 earthquakes. We model the seismic response to stress changes using the Dieterich constitutive law, derived from a population of faults governed by Rate-and-State dependent friction; we also consider uncertainties in the input stress field using a Monte Carlo technique. We find that modeling secondary triggering systematically improves model performance; afterslip has a less significant overall impact on the model, but in both cases studies we observe clusters of seismicity which, due to their location relative to the coseismic and postseismic slip, are better explained when afterslip

  13. Rate-Dependent Homogenization Based Continuum Plasticity Damage Model for Dendritic Cast Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    The overall framework of this rate-dependent HCPD model follows the structure of the anisotropic Gursen- Tvergaard-Needleman( GTN ) type elasto...with evolving porosity. The HCPD model follows the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman or GTN models framework established in [14, 15, 16, 17] that account for...this method. In [32, 33] the VCFEM model has been extended for rate-dependent elastic- viscoplastic porous ductile material. Micromechanical analysis

  14. Model-based detection of heart rate turbulence using mean shape information.

    PubMed

    Smith, Danny; Solem, Kristian; Laguna, Pablo; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Sörnmo, Leif

    2010-02-01

    A generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) statistic is proposed for detection of heart rate turbulence (HRT), where a set of Karhunen-LoEve basis functions models HRT. The detector structure is based on the extended integral pulse frequency modulation model that accounts for the presence of ectopic beats and HRT. This new test statistic takes a priori information regarding HRT shape into account, whereas our previously presented GLRT detector relied solely on the energy contained in the signal subspace. The spectral relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and HRT is investigated for the purpose of modeling HRV "noise" present during the turbulence period, the results suggesting that the white noise assumption is feasible to pursue. The performance was studied for both simulated and real data, leading to results which show that the new GLRT detector is superior to the original one as well as to the commonly used parameter turbulence slope (TS) on both types of data. Averaging ten ventricular ectopic beats, the estimated detection probability of the new detector, the previous detector, and TS were found to be 0.83, 0.35, and 0.41, respectively, when the false alarm probability was held fixed at 0.1.

  15. Modeling study of seated reach envelopes based on spherical harmonics with consideration of the difficulty ratings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhi; Ren, Jindong; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Qun; Liu, Honghao

    2017-04-01

    Reach envelopes are very useful for the design and layout of controls. In building reach envelopes, one of the key problems is to represent the reach limits accurately and conveniently. Spherical harmonics are proved to be accurate and convenient method for fitting of the reach capability envelopes. However, extensive study are required on what components of spherical harmonics are needed in fitting the envelope surfaces. For applications in the vehicle industry, an inevitable issue is to construct reach limit surfaces with consideration of the seating positions of the drivers, and it is desirable to use population envelopes rather than individual envelopes. However, it is relatively inconvenient to acquire reach envelopes via a test considering the seating positions of the drivers. In addition, the acquired envelopes are usually unsuitable for use with other vehicle models because they are dependent on the current cab packaging parameters. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct reach envelopes for real vehicle conditions based on individual capability data considering seating positions. Moreover, traditional reach envelopes provide little information regarding the assessment of reach difficulty. The application of reach envelopes will improve design quality by providing difficulty-rating information about reach operations. In this paper, using the laboratory data of seated reach with consideration of the subjective difficulty ratings, the method of modeling reach envelopes is studied based on spherical harmonics. The surface fitting using spherical harmonics is conducted for circumstances both with and without seat adjustments. For use with adjustable seat, the seating position model is introduced to re-locate the test data. The surface fitting is conducted for both population and individual reach envelopes, as well as for boundary envelopes. Comparison of the envelopes of adjustable seat and the SAE J287 control reach envelope shows that the latter

  16. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2014-01-01

    When animals have to make a number of decisions during a limited time interval, they face a fundamental problem: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible “conditions.” A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each “condition” being a “state” and the value of decision thresholds being the “actions” taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values. PMID:24904252

  17. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2014-01-01

    WHEN ANIMALS HAVE TO MAKE A NUMBER OF DECISIONS DURING A LIMITED TIME INTERVAL, THEY FACE A FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible "conditions." A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each "condition" being a "state" and the value of decision thresholds being the "actions" taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values.

  18. Evidence-Based Adequacy Model for School Funding: Success Rates in Illinois Schools that Meet Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explores the 2010 recommendation of the Educational Funding Advisory Board to consider the Evidence-Based Adequacy model of school funding in Illinois. This school funding model identifies and costs research based practices necessary in a prototypical school and sets funding levels based upon those practices. This study…

  19. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-05-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by Manning's equation to obtain a data set containing the elevations of the river beds throughout the basin. The second advancement is the provision of parameter uncertainties and, therefore, the uncertainties in the rated discharge. The third advancement concerns estimating the discharge while considering backwater effects. We analyzed the Amazon Basin using nearly one thousand series that were obtained from ENVISAT and Jason-2 altimetry for more than 100 tributaries. Discharge values and related uncertainties were obtained from the rain-discharge MGB-IPH model. We used a global optimization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Bayesian framework to determine the rating curves. The data were randomly allocated into 80% calibration and 20% validation subsets. A comparison with the validation samples produced a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of 0.68. When the MGB discharge uncertainties were less than 5%, the Ens value increased to 0.81 (mean). A comparison with the in situ discharge resulted in an Ens value of 0.71 for the validation samples (and 0.77 for calibration). The Ens values at the mouths of the rivers that experienced backwater effects significantly improved when the mean monthly slope was included in the RC. Our RCs were not mission-dependent, and the Ens value was preserved when applying ENVISAT rating curves to Jason-2 altimetry at crossovers. The cease-to-flow parameter of our RCs provided a good proxy for determining river bed elevation. This proxy was validated

  20. Modelling Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    Determination of the intentions of the test developer is fundamental to the choice of the analytical model for a rating scale. For confirmatory analysis, the developer's intentions inform the choice of the general form of the model, representing the manner in which the respondent interacts with the scale; these intentions also inform the choice of…

  1. A Micromechanics Based Constitutive Model For Brittle Failure at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, H. S.; Rosakis, A.; Sammis, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis [1] and generalized by Desh- pande and Evans [2] has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an ex- perimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evo- lution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive re- sponse. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over strain rates ranging from ˜ 10-6 to 103 s-1. Model parameters determined from from quasi-static experiments were used to predict the failure strength at higher loading rates. Agreement with experimental results was excellent.

  2. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  3. Multi-sequence H.264/AVC Rate Control Based on the Linear Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuszak, Grzegorz; Pietrasiewicz, Andrzej

    Multi-sequence video coding can distribute bit-budget among sequences to balance the qualities subject to a common limitation on the bit-rate. This paper presents the method of selection of a common quantization parameter, which is applied concurrently to each sequence. The approach takes into account ρ-domain rate-distortion models kept independently for each video sequence and builds a common model. The output buffer is verified jointly for all the sequences and drives a joint bit allocation process. The method has been verified in simulation to demonstrate its usefulness in video encoding.

  4. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Determining Corn Stover Removal Rate and Transboundary Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J. W. A.; Smith, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  5. An agent-based modeling approach for determining corn stover removal rate and transboundary effects.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J W A; Smith, C T

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  6. Satisfaction Ratings of QOLPAV: Psychometric Properties Based on the Graded Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2013-01-01

    A scale measuring quality of life (QOL) is important in adolescent research. Using the graded response model (GRM), this study evaluates the psychometric properties of the satisfaction ratings of the Quality of Life Profile Adolescent Version (QOLPAV). Data for 1,392 adolescents were used to check IRT assumptions such as unidimensionality and…

  7. Source mass eruption rate retrieved from satellite-based data using statistical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouhier, Mathieu; Guillin, Arnaud; Azzaoui, Nourddine; Eychenne, Julia; Valade, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ash clouds emitted during volcanic eruptions have long been recognized as a major hazard likely to have dramatic consequences on aircrafts, environment and people. Thus, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) around the world, whose mission is to forecast the location and concentration of ash clouds over hours to days, using volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDs). Those models use input parameters such as plume height (PH), particle size distribution (PSD), and mass eruption rate (MER), the latter being a key parameter as it directly controls the amount of ash injected into the atmosphere. The MER can be obtained rather accurately from detailed ground deposit studies, but this method does not match the operational requirements in case of a volcanic crisis. Thus, VAACs use empirical laws to determine the MER from the estimation of the plume height. In some cases, this method can be difficult to apply, either because plume height data are not available or because uncertainties related to this method are too large. We propose here an alternative method based on the utilization of satellite data to assess the MER at the source, during explosive eruptions. Satellite-based techniques allow fine ash cloud loading to be quantitatively retrieved far from the source vent. Those measurements can be carried out in a systematic and real-time fashion using geostationary satellite, in particular. We tested here the relationship likely to exist between the amount of fine ash dispersed in the atmosphere and of coarser tephra deposited on the ground. The sum of both contributions yielding an estimate of the MER. For this purpose we examined 19 eruptions (of known duration) in detail for which both (i) the amount of fine ash dispersed in the atmosphere, and (ii) the mass of tephra deposited on the ground have been estimated and published. We combined these data with contextual information that may

  8. Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Hu, Qinhong

    2015-09-28

    This study statistically analyzed a grain-size based additivity model that has been proposed to scale reaction rates and parameters from laboratory to field. The additivity model assumed that reaction properties in a sediment including surface area, reactive site concentration, reaction rate, and extent can be predicted from field-scale grain size distribution by linearly adding reaction properties for individual grain size fractions. This study focused on the statistical analysis of the additivity model with respect to reaction rate constants using multi-rate uranyl (U(VI)) surface complexation reactions in a contaminated sediment as an example. Experimental data of rate-limited U(VI) desorption in a stirred flow-cell reactor were used to estimate the statistical properties of multi-rate parameters for individual grain size fractions. The statistical properties of the rate constants for the individual grain size fractions were then used to analyze the statistical properties of the additivity model to predict rate-limited U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment, and to evaluate the relative importance of individual grain size fractions to the overall U(VI) desorption. The result indicated that the additivity model provided a good prediction of the U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. However, the rate constants were not directly scalable using the additivity model, and U(VI) desorption in individual grain size fractions have to be simulated in order to apply the additivity model. An approximate additivity model for directly scaling rate constants was subsequently proposed and evaluated. The result found that the approximate model provided a good prediction of the experimental results within statistical uncertainty. This study also found that a gravel size fraction (2-8mm), which is often ignored in modeling U(VI) sorption and desorption, is statistically significant to the U(VI) desorption in the sediment.

  9. Evaluation of Finite-Rate GasSurface Interaction Models for a Carbon Based Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Goekcen, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of finite-rate gas-surface interaction model between air and the carbon surface are studied. The first set is an engineering model with one-way chemical reactions, and the second set is a more detailed model with two-way chemical reactions. These two proposed models intend to cover the carbon surface ablation conditions including the low temperature rate-controlled oxidation, the mid-temperature diffusion-controlled oxidation, and the high temperature sublimation. The prediction of carbon surface recession is achieved by coupling a material thermal response code and a Navier-Stokes flow code. The material thermal response code used in this study is the Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal-response and Ablation Program, which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. The flow code solves the reacting full Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation method. Recession analyses of stagnation tests conducted in NASA Ames Research Center arc-jet facilities with heat fluxes ranging from 45 to 1100 wcm2 are performed and compared with data for model validation. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests is Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Additionally, computational predictions of surface recession and shape change are in good agreement with measurement for arc-jet conditions of Small Probe Reentry Investigation for Thermal Protection System Engineering.

  10. The effects of composition on glass dissolution rates: The application of four models to a data base

    SciTech Connect

    Geldart, R.W.; Kindle, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Four models have been applied to a data base to relate glass dissolution in distilled water to composition. The data base is used to compare the precisions obtained from the models in fitting actual data. The usefulness of the data base in formulating a model is also demonstrated. Two related models in which the composite or pH-adjusted free energy of hydration of the glass is the correlating parameter are compared with experimental data. In a structural model, the nonbridging oxygen content of the glasses is used to correlate glass dissolution rate to composition. In a model formulated for this report, the cation valence and the oxygen content of the glass are compared with observed dissolution rates. The models were applied to the 28-day normalized silica release at 90/sup 0/C for over 285 glass compositions with surface area to volume ratios of 10 m/sup -1/ (Materials Characterization Center MCC-1 glass durability test using distilled water). These glasses included the nonradioactive analogs of WV205 and SRL-165, as well as SRL-131, PNL 76-68, and a European glass, UK209. Predicted glass dissolution rates show similar fits to the data for all four models. The predictions of the models were also plotted for two subsets of the glasses: waste glasses and Savannah River Laboratory glasses. The model predictions fit the data for these groups much better than they fit the data for the entire set of glasses. 14 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Modeling High Rate Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal in a Vertical Flow Alum Sludge based Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, Lordwin; Zhao, Yaqian

    2014-05-01

    Increased awareness of the impacts of diffuse pollution and their intensification has pushed forward the need for the development of low-cost wastewater treatment techniques. One of such efforts is the use of novel DASC (Dewatered Alum Sludge Cakes) based constructed wetlands (CWs) for removing nutrients, organics, trace elements and other pollutants from wastewater. Understanding of the processes in CWs requires a numerical model that describes the biochemical transformation and degradation processes in subsurface vertical flow (VF) CWs. Therefore, this research focuses on the development of a process-based model for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal to achieve a stable performance by using DASC as a substrate in CWs treatment system. An object-oriented modelling tool known as "STELLA" which works based on the principle of system dynamics is used for the development of P and N model. The core objective of the modelling work is oriented towards understanding the process in DASC-based CWs and optimizes design criteria. The P and N dynamic model is developed for DASC-based CWs. The P model developed exclusively for DASC-based CW was able to simulate the effluent P concentration leaving the system satisfactorily. Moreover, the developed P dynamic model has identified the major P pathways as adsorption (72%) followed by plant uptake (20%) and microbial uptake (7%) in single-stage laboratory scale DASC-based CW. Similarly, P dynamic simulation model was developed to simulate the four-stage laboratory scale DASC-based CWs. It was found that simulated and observed values of P removal were in good agreement. The fate of P in all the four stages clearly shows that adsorption played a pivotal role in each stage of the system due to the use of the DASC as a substrate. P adsorption by wetland substrate/DASC represents 59-75% of total P reduction. Subsequently, plant uptake and microbial uptake have lesser role regarding P removal (as compared to adsorption).With regard

  12. Dynamic mechanical response and a constitutive model of Fe-based high temperature alloy at high temperatures and strain rates.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiang; Wang, Gang; Li, Jianfeng; Rong, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The effects of strain rate and temperature on the dynamic behavior of Fe-based high temperature alloy was studied. The strain rates were 0.001-12,000 s(-1), at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800 °C. A phenomenological constitutive model (Power-Law constitutive model) was proposed considering adiabatic temperature rise and accurate material thermal physical properties. During which, the effects of the specific heat capacity on the adiabatic temperature rise was studied. The constitutive model was verified to be accurate by comparison between predicted and experimental results.

  13. Innovative model-based flow rate optimization for vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an innovative approach is presented to optimize the flow rate of a 6-kW vanadium redox flow battery with realistic stack dimensions. Efficiency is derived using a multi-physics battery model and a newly proposed instantaneous efficiency determination technique. An optimization algorithm is applied to identify optimal flow rates for operation points defined by state-of-charge (SoC) and current. The proposed method is evaluated against the conventional approach of applying Faraday's first law of electrolysis, scaled to the so-called flow factor. To make a fair comparison, the flow factor is also optimized by simulating cycles with different charging/discharging currents. It is shown through the obtained results that the efficiency is increased by up to 1.2% points; in addition, discharge capacity is also increased by up to 1.0 kWh or 5.4%. Detailed loss analysis is carried out for the cycles with maximum and minimum charging/discharging currents. It is shown that the proposed method minimizes the sum of losses caused by concentration over-potential, pumping and diffusion. Furthermore, for the deployed Nafion 115 membrane, it is observed that diffusion losses increase with stack SoC. Therefore, to decrease stack SoC and lower diffusion losses, a higher flow rate during charging than during discharging is reasonable.

  14. A physically based model of temperature and strain rate dependent yield in BCC metals: Implementation into crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Carroll, Jay D.; Boyce, Brad L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop a crystal plasticity finite element model (CP-FEM) that constitutively captures the temperature and strain rate dependent flow stresses in pure BCC refractory metals. This model is based on the kink-pair theory developed by Seeger (1981) and is calibrated to available data from single crystal experiments to produce accurate and convenient constitutive laws that are implemented into a BCC crystal plasticity model. The model is then used to predict temperature and strain rate dependent yield stresses of single and polycrystal BCC refractory metals (molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten and niobium) and compared with existing experimental data. To connect to larger length scales, classical continuum-scale constitutive models are fit to the CP-FEM predictions of polycrystal yield stresses. The results produced by this model, based on kink-pair theory and with origins in dislocation mechanics, show excellent agreement with the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model for temperature and strain-rate dependent flow. This framework provides a method to bridge multiple length scales in modeling the deformation of BCC metals.

  15. An enhanced rate-based emission trading program for NOX: the Dutch model.

    PubMed

    Sholtz, A M; Van Amburg, B; Wochnick, V K

    2001-12-01

    Since 1997 government and industry in The Netherlands have been engaged in intensive policy discussions on how to design an emission trading program that would satisfy the Government's policy objectives within the national and international regulatory framework and accommodate industry's need for a flexible and cost-effective approach. Early on in the discussion the most promising solution was a rate-based approach, which dynamically allocated saleable emission credits based on a performance standard rate and actual energy used by facilities. All industrial facilities above a threshold of 20 MWth would be judged on their ability to meet this performance rate. Those "cleaner" than the standard can sell excess credits to others with an allocation that is less than their actual NOX emission. With some changes in law, such a design could be made to fit well into the national and EU legislative framework while at the same time uniquely meeting industry's requirement of flexibility toward economic growth and facility expansion. (An analysis of the legislative changes required will be given in a separate paper by Chris Dekkers.) However, the environmental outcome of such a system is not as certain as under an absolute emission cap. At the request of the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), in close cooperation with the working group of government and industry representatives introduced a number of features into the Dutch NOX program allowing full exploitation of market mechanisms while allowing intermediate adjustments in the performance standard rates. The design is geared toward meeting environmental targets without jeopardizing the trading market the program intends to create. The paper discusses the genesis of the two-tier credit system ACE helped to design, explains the differences between primary (fixed) and secondary (variable) credits, and outlines how the Dutch system is expected to

  16. Evolution of the rate of biological aging using a phenotype based computational model.

    PubMed

    Kittas, Aristotelis

    2010-10-07

    In this work I introduce a simple model to study how natural selection acts upon aging, which focuses on the viability of each individual. It is able to reproduce the Gompertz law of mortality and can make predictions about the relation between the level of mutation rates (beneficial/deleterious/neutral), age at reproductive maturity and the degree of biological aging. With no mutations, a population with low age at reproductive maturity R stabilizes at higher density values, while with mutations it reaches its maximum density, because even for large pre-reproductive periods each individual evolves to survive to maturity. Species with very short pre-reproductive periods can only tolerate a small number of detrimental mutations. The probabilities of detrimental (P(d)) or beneficial (P(b)) mutations are demonstrated to greatly affect the process. High absolute values produce peaks in the viability of the population over time. Mutations combined with low selection pressure move the system towards weaker phenotypes. For low values in the ratio P(d)/P(b), the speed at which aging occurs is almost independent of R, while higher values favor significantly species with high R. The value of R is critical to whether the population survives or dies out. The aging rate is controlled by P(d) and P(b) and the amount of the viability of each individual is modified, with neutral mutations allowing the system more "room" to evolve. The process of aging in this simple model is revealed to be fairly complex, yielding a rich variety of results.

  17. Gully recharge rates and debris flows: A combined numerical modeling and field-based investigation, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Yvonne E.; Johnson, E. A.; Chaikina, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall, snowmelt and/or other mass movements are possible triggers to initiate debris flows. In supply-limited landscapes, clastic and organic materials (together termed debris) accumulate in the gully via various geomorphic processes that occur on gully sidewalls. The conceptualization of this phenomenon has been termed the gully recharge rate, with several recent field studies measuring such rates in coastal British Columbia. In the present study, a simple numerical model is introduced to estimate debris flow volumes in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia based on debris flow recurrence intervals, gully recharge rates and factors affecting deposition of debris flow material. Debris flow volumes obtained in model runs are somewhat lower than field-based values by about half, which is a reasonable result for this exploratory study. The annual erosion rate (clastic material) for debris flows in the model run is 0.031 mm yr- 1. This value is about 0.57 × of the field-based value and is lower than the erosion rate for debris slides in Haida Gwaii of 0.1 mm yr- 1. Deposition of debris flows in the model occurs in 60% of cases due to a decrease in channel gradient, with deposition resulting from high stream junction angles being less common. Locations for initiation of debris flow deposition were situated in stream orders 3 and 4 in 60% of cases. Sensitivity analysis shows that in comparison to other model variables, recharge rate has the greatest effect on the statistics and frequency distributions of debris flow volumes and total debris flow volume (summation of all debris activity in a basin) over the study time period.

  18. The contagious nature of imprisonment: an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James

    2014-01-01

    We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible–infected–suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology. PMID:24966237

  19. The contagious nature of imprisonment: an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates.

    PubMed

    Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James

    2014-09-06

    We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible-infected-suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology.

  20. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Becher, T; Schädler, D; Weiler, N; Möller, K

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (pI), inspiration and expiration time (tI, tE) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal pI and adequate tE can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's 'optimized' settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.

  1. A model-based evaluation of sedimentary reconstructions of 10Be production rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Lewis; Plancherel, Yves; Khatiwala, Samar; Henderson, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric production of 10Be is small when solar activity and, therefore, solar magnetic field and total solar irradiance are strong. Variations in solar activity affect climate and the production of other climate-relevant isotopes, such as 14C. Solar activity is thus an important variable to constrain. Since 10Be production is clearly related to solar activity and the cycle of beryllium is simpler than that of carbon, 10Be records in ice cores have been used to reconstruct total solar irradiance variability. Unfortunately, 10Be records in ice cores are not only affected by variations in atmospheric production, but are also modulated by changes in wind patterns since spatiotemporal atmospheric 10Be gradients are quite large. In that context, sedimentary 10Be records from the abyssal ocean could be of great interest: since the residence time of 10Be in the ocean is thought to be comparable to the overturning time-scale of the ocean, spatial 10Be gradients may be relatively weaker than those in the atmosphere. Under these conditions, regional oceanic variability should only weakly affect the distribution of 10Be in the ocean and local sedimentary 10Be records are expected to represent the global average 10Be production better than 10Be measured in ice cores. We here show results from a global ocean model of 10Be that we use to investigate the spatial variability of simulated sedimentary 10Be records and test the sensitivity of the 10Be sedimentary flux to uncertainties in the circulation field and in the particle chemistry of beryllium. Our ocean model is based on the Transport Matrix method. The surface 10Be input fluxes are taken from atmospheric model simulations. Our model experiments, constrained by available dissolved 10Be data, show that there exist regions in the ocean where the sedimentary 10Be flux is relatively insensitive to changes in input patterns and magnitudes, assumed particle chemistry and flux patterns, and ocean circulation. We submit that

  2. Chemical weathering rates in deep-sea sediments: Comparison of multicomponent reactive transport models and estimates based on 234U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    Chemical weathering rates in natural systems are typically much slower than expected based on experiments and theory. There are several possible explanations. However, because it has been difficult to determine what effects in particular reduce the rates in specific settings, natural rates remain difficult to predict. Silicate-rich deep-sea sediments provide an ideal in-situ laboratory for investigating weathering rates because certain potentially important factors, such as advective transport through heterogeneous media, limitations on the availability of reactive surface area due to low porosity and/or cementation, unsaturated flow conditions, and seasonal variations in fluid flux and temperature, do not occur in this setting. Geochemical profiles from Site 984 in the North Atlantic are modeled using a multi-component reactive transport model (CRUNCH) to determine in-situ rates of plagioclase dissolution and other diagenetic processes, including sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation. Various possible processes which might contribute to slower rates in the field are considered, including the effect of mineral saturation state, secondary precipitation of clays, inhibition by dissolved aluminum, and the availability of reactive surface area. The reactive transport model includes an isotopic solid-solution formulation that tracks the isotopic composition of precipitating (calcite) and dissolving (plagioclase and calcite) phases, thus allowing the determination of plagioclase dissolution rates. The rate constants for plagioclase determined by geochemical transport modeling of major element profiles are within the same range determined from U-series calculations and suggest that natural weathering rates for this system are on the order of 10-17.5 to 10-17.7 mol/m2/sec assuming estimates of reactive surface area are correct, several orders of magnitude slower than laboratory-derived rates. The slow plagioclase rates are most likely due to the fact that

  3. Correlation of a hypoxia based tumor control model with observed local control rates in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Avanzo, Michele; Stancanello, Joseph; Franchin, Giovanni; Sartor, Giovanna; Jena, Rajesh; Drigo, Annalisa; Dassie, Andrea; Gigante, Marco; Capra, Elvira

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To extend the application of current radiation therapy (RT) based tumor control probability (TCP) models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to include the effects of hypoxia and chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: A TCP model is described based on the linear-quadratic model modified to account for repopulation, chemotherapy, heterogeneity of dose to the tumor, and hypoxia. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which parameters exert the greatest influence on the uncertainty of modeled TCP. On the basis of the sensitivity analysis, the values of specific radiobiological parameters were set to nominal values reported in the literature for NPC or head and neck tumors. The remaining radiobiological parameters were determined by fitting TCP to clinical local control data from published randomized studies using both RT and CRT. Validation of the model was performed by comparison of estimated TCP and average overall local control rate (LCR) for 45 patients treated at the institution with conventional linear-accelerator-based or helical tomotherapy based intensity-modulated RT and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the model is most sensitive to the radiosensitivity term {alpha} and the dose per fraction. The estimated values of {alpha} and OER from data fitting were 0.396 Gy{sup -1} and 1.417. The model estimate of TCP (average 90.9%, range 26.9%-99.2%) showed good correlation with the LCR (86.7%). Conclusions: The model implemented in this work provides clinicians with a useful tool to predict the success rate of treatment, optimize treatment plans, and compare the effects of multimodality therapy.

  4. Strain-rate sensitivity of foam materials: A numerical study using 3D image-based finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongle; Li, Q. M.; Withers, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    Realistic simulations are increasingly demanded to clarify the dynamic behaviour of foam materials, because, on one hand, the significant variability (e.g. 20% scatter band) of foam properties and the lack of reliable dynamic test methods for foams bring particular difficulty to accurately evaluate the strain-rate sensitivity in experiments; while on the other hand numerical models based on idealised cell structures (e.g. Kelvin and Voronoi) may not be sufficiently representative to capture the actual structural effect. To overcome these limitations, the strain-rate sensitivity of the compressive and tensile properties of closed-cell aluminium Alporas foam is investigated in this study by means of meso-scale realistic finite element (FE) simulations. The FE modelling method based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) image is introduced first, as well as its applications to foam materials. Then the compression and tension of Alporas foam at a wide variety of applied nominal strain-rates are simulated using FE model constructed from the actual cell geometry obtained from the CT image. The stain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength (collapse stress) and tensile strength (0.2% offset yield point) are evaluated when considering different cell-wall material properties. The numerical results show that the rate dependence of cell-wall material is the main cause of the strain-rate hardening of the compressive and tensile strengths at low and intermediate strain-rates. When the strain-rate is sufficiently high, shock compression is initiated, which significantly enhances the stress at the loading end and has complicated effect on the stress at the supporting end. The plastic tensile wave effect is evident at high strain-rates, but shock tension cannot develop in Alporas foam due to the softening associated with single fracture process zone occurring in tensile response. In all cases the micro inertia of individual cell walls subjected to localised deformation is found to

  5. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented.

  6. Modelling temperature-compensated physiological rates, based on the co-ordination of responses to temperature of developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Parent, B; Turc, O; Gibon, Y; Stitt, M; Tardieu, F

    2010-05-01

    Temperature fluctuates rapidly and affects all developmental and metabolic processes. This often obscures the effects of developmental trends or of other environmental conditions when temperature fluctuates naturally. A method is proposed for modelling temperature-compensated rates, based on the coordination of temperature responses of developmental processes. In a data set comprising 41 experiments in the greenhouse, growth chamber, or the field, the temperature responses in the range of 6-36 degrees C for different processes were compared in three species, maize, rice, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Germination, cell division, expansive growth rate, leaf initiation, and phenology showed coordinated temperature responses and followed common laws within each species. The activities of 10 enzymes involved in carbon metabolism exhibited monotonous exponential responses across the whole range 10-40 degrees C. Hence, the temperature dependence of developmental processes is not explained by a simple relationship to central metabolism. Temperature-compensated rates of development were calculated from the equations of response curve, by expressing rates per unit equivalent time at 20 degrees C. This resulted in stable rates when temperatures fluctuated over a large range (for which classical thermal time was inefficient), and in time courses of leaf development which were common to several experiments with different temperature scenarios.

  7. Full-band Monte Carlo model with screened pseudopotential based phonon scattering rates for a lattice with basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hoa; Hofmann, Karl R.; Paasch, Gernot

    2002-11-01

    In advanced full-band Monte Carlo (MC) models, the Nordheim approximation with a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell for a lattice with two atoms per elementary cell is still common, and in the most detailed work on silicon by Kunikiyo [et al.] [J. Appl. Phys. 74, 297 (1994)], the atomic positions in the cell have been incorrectly introduced in the phonon scattering rates. In this article the correct expressions for the phonon scattering rates based on the screened pseudopotential are formulated for the case of several atoms per unit cell. Furthermore, the simplest wave number dependent approximation is introduced, which contains an average of the cell structure factor and the acoustic and the optical deformation potentials as two parameters to be fitted. While the band structure is determined by the pseudopotential at the reciprocal lattice vectors, the phonon scattering rates are essentially determined by wave numbers below the smallest reciprocal lattice vector. Thus, in the phonon scattering rates, the pseudopotential form factor is modeled by the simple Ashcroft model potential, in contrast to the full band structure, which is calculated using a nonlocal pseudopotential scheme. The parameter in the Ashcroft model potential is determined using a method based on the equilibrium condition. For the screening of the pseudopotential form factor, the Lindhard dielectric function is used. Compared to the Nordheim approximation with a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell, the approximation results in up to 10% lower phonon scattering rates. Examples from a detailed comparison of the influence of the two deformation potentials on the electron and hole drift velocities are presented for Ge and Si at different temperatures. The results are prerequisite for a well-founded choice of the two deformation potentials as fit parameters and they provide an explanation of the differences between the two materials, the origin of the anisotropy of the drift velocities, and the origin of the dent in

  8. Improving snow process modeling with satellite-based estimation of near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Litao; Shrestha, Maheswor; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chen, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    In distributed hydrological modeling, surface air temperature (Tair) is of great importance in simulating cold region processes, while the near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) is crucial to prepare Tair (when interpolating Tair from site observations to model grids). In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) was rigorously evaluated in a typical cold, large river basin (e.g., the upper Yellow River basin), given a mean monthly NLRs. Based on the validated model, we have examined the influence of the NLR on the simulated snow processes and streamflows. We found that the NLR has a large effect on the simulated streamflows, with a maximum difference of greater than 24% among the various scenarios for NLRs considered. To supplement the insufficient number of monitoring sites for near-surface-air-temperature at developing/undeveloped mountain regions, the nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface temperature is used as an alternative to derive the approximate NLR at a finer spatial scale (e.g., at different elevation bands, different land covers, different aspects, and different snow conditions). Using satellite-based estimation of NLR, the modeling of snow processes has been greatly refined. Results show that both the determination of rainfall/snowfall and the snowpack process were significantly improved, contributing to a reduced summer evapotranspiration and thus an improved streamflow simulation.

  9. Agent-based mathematical modeling as a tool for estimating Trypanosoma cruzi vector-host contact rates.

    PubMed

    Yong, Kamuela E; Mubayi, Anuj; Kribs, Christopher M

    2015-11-01

    The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, spread by triatomine vectors, affects over 100 mammalian species throughout the Americas, including humans, in whom it causes Chagas' disease. In the U.S., only a few autochthonous cases have been documented in humans, but prevalence is high in sylvatic hosts (primarily raccoons in the southeast and woodrats in Texas). The sylvatic transmission of T. cruzi is spread by the vector species Triatoma sanguisuga and Triatoma gerstaeckeri biting their preferred hosts and thus creating multiple interacting vector-host cycles. The goal of this study is to quantify the rate of contacts between different host and vector species native to Texas using an agent-based model framework. The contact rates, which represent bites, are required to estimate transmission coefficients, which can be applied to models of infection dynamics. In addition to quantitative estimates, results confirm host irritability (in conjunction with host density) and vector starvation thresholds and dispersal as determining factors for vector density as well as host-vector contact rates.

  10. Smooth extraction of SVC fine-granular SNR scalable videos with a virtual-GOP-based rate-distortion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Gao, Wen; Zhao, Debin

    2008-01-01

    Fine-Granular SNR scalable (FGS) technologies in H.264/AVC-based scalable video coding (SVC) provide a flexible and effective foundation for scaling FGS enhancement layer (EL) to accommodate different and variable network capacities. To support smooth quality extraction of SVC FGS videos, it's important to obtain the Rate-Distortion (R-D) function of each picture or group of pictures (GOP). In this paper, firstly, we introduce the R-D analysis of SVC FGS coding in our prior work. Then, with the analysis and models, we present virtual GOP concept and a virtual-GOP-based packet scheduling algorithm is proposed to acquire the optimal packet scheduling sequence in a virtual GOP. Based on the packet scheduling algorithm and the R-D analysis of FGS EL, an effective and flexible D-R model is proposed to describe the D-R function of the virtual GOP. Then, with the R-D model of virtual GOPs, a practical non-search algorithm for smooth quality reconstruction is introduced. Compared to the quality layer method, the reconstructed video quality is improved not only objectively but also subjectively.

  11. Experimentally- and Dislocation-Based Multi-scale Modeling of Metal Plasticity Including Temperature and Rate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2005-08-01

    Excluding high-temperature creep, the plastic deformation of metals occurs by the motion of dislocations that produce slip on various slip planes in various slip directions. It is thus natural to seek to develop constitutive relations for metal plasticity, based on the concept of dislocations and their kinematics and kinetics. Such an approach has been successfully used by a number of investigators over the past several decades. More recently, however, the development of the recovery Hopkinson techniques by this writer and his coworkers at UCSD's CEAM, has provided important experimental tools to obtain reliable data on stress-strain response of variety of metals over broad ranges of strain rates and temperatures. A wealth of information has become available to guide and verify constitutive models that are proposed to describe metal plasticity. Using such data, I have been able to create a class of dislocation-based models that involve a few material constants, and seem to accurately characterize the response of a large number of metals over 10-4 to 105/s strain rates, and 77 to 1,300K temperatures.

  12. Real-time inversions for finite fault slip models and rupture geometry based on high-rate GPS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minson, Sarah E.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Gomberg, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an inversion strategy capable of using real-time high-rate GPS data to simultaneously solve for a distributed slip model and fault geometry in real time as a rupture unfolds. We employ Bayesian inference to find the optimal fault geometry and the distribution of possible slip models for that geometry using a simple analytical solution. By adopting an analytical Bayesian approach, we can solve this complex inversion problem (including calculating the uncertainties on our results) in real time. Furthermore, since the joint inversion for distributed slip and fault geometry can be computed in real time, the time required to obtain a source model of the earthquake does not depend on the computational cost. Instead, the time required is controlled by the duration of the rupture and the time required for information to propagate from the source to the receivers. We apply our modeling approach, called Bayesian Evidence-based Fault Orientation and Real-time Earthquake Slip, to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, and a simulated Hayward fault earthquake. In all three cases, the inversion recovers the magnitude, spatial distribution of slip, and fault geometry in real time. Since our inversion relies on static offsets estimated from real-time high-rate GPS data, we also present performance tests of various approaches to estimating quasi-static offsets in real time. We find that the raw high-rate time series are the best data to use for determining the moment magnitude of the event, but slightly smoothing the raw time series helps stabilize the inversion for fault geometry.

  13. Validation of the generalized model of two-phase thermosyphon loop based on experimental measurements of volumetric flow rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieliński, Henryk

    2016-09-01

    The current paper presents the experimental validation of the generalized model of the two-phase thermosyphon loop. The generalized model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condensers and the falling tube. The theoretical analysis and the experimental data have been obtained for a new designed variant. The variant refers to a thermosyphon loop with both minichannels and conventional tubes. The thermosyphon loop consists of an evaporator on the lower vertical section and a condenser on the upper vertical section. The one-dimensional homogeneous and separated two-phase flow models were used in calculations. The latest minichannel heat transfer correlations available in literature were applied. A numerical analysis of the volumetric flow rate in the steady-state has been done. The experiment was conducted on a specially designed test apparatus. Ultrapure water was used as a working fluid. The results show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the measured volumetric flow rate at steady-state.

  14. Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Hu, Qinhong

    2015-09-28

    The additivity model assumed that field-scale reaction properties in a sediment including surface area, reactive site concentration, and reaction rate can be predicted from field-scale grain-size distribution by linearly adding reaction properties estimated in laboratory for individual grain-size fractions. This study evaluated the additivity model in scaling mass transfer-limited, multi-rate uranyl (U(VI)) surface complexation reactions in a contaminated sediment. Experimental data of rate-limited U(VI) desorption in a stirred flow-cell reactor were used to estimate the statistical properties of the rate constants for individual grain-size fractions, which were then used to predict rate-limited U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. The result indicated that the additivity model with respect to the rate of U(VI) desorption provided a good prediction of U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. However, the rate constants were not directly scalable using the additivity model. An approximate additivity model for directly scaling rate constants was subsequently proposed and evaluated. The result found that the approximate model provided a good prediction of the experimental results within statistical uncertainty. This study also found that a gravel-size fraction (2 to 8 mm), which is often ignored in modeling U(VI) sorption and desorption, is statistically significant to the U(VI) desorption in the sediment.

  15. Beyond The Blueprint: Development Of Genome-Informed Trait-Based Models For Prediction Of Microbial Dynamics And Biogeochemical Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, E.; King, E.; Molins, S.; Karaoz, U.; Johnson, J. N.; Bouskill, N.; Hug, L. A.; Thomas, B. C.; Castelle, C. J.; Beller, H. R.; Banfield, J. F.; Steefel, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    In soils and sediments microorganisms perform essential ecosystem services through their roles in regulating the stability of carbon and the flux of nutrients, and the purification of water. But these are complex systems with the physical, chemical and biological components all intimately connected. Components of this complexity are gradually being uncovered and our understanding of the extent of microbial functional diversity in particular has been enhanced greatly with the development of cultivation independent approaches. However we have not moved far beyond a descriptive and correlative use of this powerful resource. As the ability to reconstruct thousands of genomes from microbial populations using metagenomic techniques gains momentum, the challenge will be to develop an understanding of how these metabolic blueprints serve to influence the fitness of organisms within these complex systems and how populations emerge and impact the physical and chemical properties of their environment. In the presentation we will discuss the development of a trait-based model of microbial activity that simulates coupled guilds of microorganisms that are parameterized including traits extracted from large-scale metagenomic data. Using a reactive transport framework we simulate the thermodynamics of coupled electron donor and acceptor reactions to predict the energy available for respiration, biomass development and exo-enzyme production. Each group within a functional guild is parameterized with a unique combination of traits governing organism fitness under dynamic environmental conditions. This presentation will address our latest developments in the estimation of trait values related to growth rate and the identification and linkage of key fitness traits associated with respiratory and fermentative pathways, macromolecule depolymerization enzymes and nitrogen fixation from metagenomic data. We are testing model sensitivity to initial microbial composition and intra

  16. Investigation of the mechanical behavior of kangaroo humeral head cartilage tissue by a porohyperelastic model based on the strain-rate-dependent permeability.

    PubMed

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Senadeera, Wijitha; Li, Tong; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-11-01

    Solid-interstitial fluid interaction, which depends on tissue permeability, is significant to the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of humeral head (shoulder) cartilage. Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to that of the human shoulder, kangaroos present a suitable animal model. Therefore, indentation experiments were conducted on kangaroo shoulder cartilage tissues from low (10(-4)/s) to moderately high (10(-2)/s) strain-rates. A porohyperelastic model was developed based on the experimental characterization; and a permeability function that takes into account the effect of strain-rate on permeability (strain-rate-dependent permeability) was introduced into the model to investigate the effect of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue response. The prediction of the model with the strain-rate-dependent permeability was compared with those of the models using constant permeability and strain-dependent permeability. Compared to the model with constant permeability, the models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability were able to better capture the experimental variation at all strain-rates (p < 0.05). Significant differences were not identified between models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability at strain-rate of 5 × 10(-3)/s (p = 0.179). However, at strain-rate of 10(-2)/s, the model with strain-rate-dependent permeability was significantly better at capturing the experimental results (p < 0.005). The findings thus revealed the significance of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue behavior at large strain-rates, which provides insights into the mechanical deformation mechanisms of cartilage tissues.

  17. Gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement through genetic-ant colony optimization based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huirang; Zheng, Dandan; Nie, Laixiao

    2015-04-01

    For gas ultrasonic flowmeters, the signals received by ultrasonic sensors are susceptible to noise interference. If signals are mingled with noise, a large error in flow measurement can be caused by triggering mistakenly using the traditional double-threshold method. To solve this problem, genetic-ant colony optimization (GACO) based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model is proposed. Furthermore, in consideration of the real-time performance of the flow measurement system, the improvement of processing only the first three cycles of the received signals rather than the whole signal is proposed. Simulation results show that the GACO algorithm has the best estimation accuracy and ant-noise ability compared with the genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, double-threshold and enveloped zero-crossing. Local convergence doesn’t appear with the GACO algorithm until -10 dB. For the GACO algorithm, the converging accuracy and converging speed and the amount of computation are further improved when using the first three cycles (called GACO-3cycles). Experimental results involving actual received signals show that the accuracy of single-gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement can reach 0.5% with GACO-3 cycles, which is better than with the double-threshold method.

  18. [Prediction model of net photosynthetic rate of ginseng under forest based on optimized parameters support vector machine].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-wei; Yu, Hai-ye; Zhang, Lei

    2011-05-01

    Using K-fold cross validation method and two support vector machine functions, four kernel functions, grid-search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, the authors constructed the support vector machine model of the best penalty parameter c and the best correlation coefficient. Using information granulation technology, the authors constructed P particle and epsilon particle about those factors affecting net photosynthetic rate, and reduced these dimensions of the determinant. P particle includes the percent of visible spectrum ingredients. Epsilon particle includes leaf temperature, scattering radiation, air temperature, and so on. It is possible to obtain the best correlation coefficient among photosynthetic effective radiation, visible spectrum and individual net photosynthetic rate by this technology. The authors constructed the training set and the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation, P particle and epsilon particle. The result shows that epsilon-SVR-RBF-genetic algorithm model, nu-SVR-linear-grid-search model and nu-SVR-RBF-genetic algorithm model obtain the correlation coefficient of up to 97% about the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation and P particle. The penalty parameter c of nu-SVR-linear-grid-search model is the minimum, so the model's generalization ability is the best. The authors forecasted the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation, P particle and epsilon particle by the model, and the correlation coefficient is up to 96%.

  19. [NDVI difference rate recognition model of deciduous broad-leaved forest based on HJ-CCD remote sensing data].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Huang, Yan; Wei, Hong-Wei

    2013-04-01

    The present paper takes Chuzhou in Anhui Province as the research area, and deciduous broad-leaved forest as the research object. Then it constructs the recognition model about deciduous broad-leaved forest was constructed using NDVI difference rate between leaf expansion and flowering and fruit-bearing, and the model was applied to HJ-CCD remote sensing image on April 1, 2012 and May 4, 2012. At last, the spatial distribution map of deciduous broad-leaved forest was extracted effectively, and the results of extraction were verified and evaluated. The result shows the validity of NDVI difference rate extraction method proposed in this paper and also verifies the applicability of using HJ-CCD data for vegetation classification and recognition.

  20. Further tests of a model-based scheme for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, W. W.; Levison, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology was demonstrated for assessing longitudinal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft on the basis of closed-loop criteria. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling quality problems that included the presence of flexible aircraft modes. Using closed-loop performance requirements derived from task analyses and pilot interviews, predictions of performance/workload tradeoffs were obtained using an analytical pilot/vehicle model. A subsequent manned simulation study yielded objective performance measures and Cooper-Harper pilot ratings that were largely consistent with each other and with analytic predictions.

  1. Dielectronic recombination rate in statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, A. V.; Leontyev, D. S.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shurigyn, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The dielectronic recombination rate of multielectron ions was calculated by means of the statistical approach. It is based on an idea of collective excitations of atomic electrons with the local plasma frequencies. These frequencies are expressed via the Thomas-Fermi model electron density distribution. The statistical approach provides fast computation of DR rates that are compared with the modern quantum mechanical calculations. The results are important for current studies of thermonuclear plasmas with the tungsten impurities.

  2. A fuzzy-logic-based model to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale mesophilic UASB reactor treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2010-10-15

    A MIMO (multiple inputs and multiple outputs) fuzzy-logic-based model was developed to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale 90-L mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating molasses wastewater. Five input variables such as volumetric organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate (R(V)), influent alkalinity, influent pH and effluent pH were fuzzified by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 134 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the centre of gravity (COG, centroid) methods were employed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two exponential non-linear regression models derived in this study. The UASB reactor showed a remarkable performance on the treatment of molasses wastewater, with an average TCOD removal efficiency of 93 (+/-3)% and an average volumetric TCOD removal rate of 6.87 (+/-3.93) kg TCOD(removed)/m(3)-day, respectively. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to non-linear regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic-based model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both biogas and methane production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98.

  3. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  4. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  5. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  6. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  7. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  8. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  9. A process-based model to estimate gas exchange and monoterpene emission rates in the mediterranean maquis - comparisons between modelled and measured fluxes at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M.; Matteucci, G.; Fares, S.; Davison, B.

    2009-02-01

    This paper concerns the application of a process-based model (MOCA, Modelling of Carbon Assessment) as an useful tool for estimating gas exchange, and integrating the empirical algorithms for calculation of monoterpene fluxes, in a Mediterranean maquis of central Italy (Castelporziano, Rome). Simulations were carried out for a range of hypothetical but realistic canopies of the evergreen Quercus ilex (holm oak), Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree) and Phillyrea latifolia. More, the dependence on total leaf area and leaf distribution of monoterpene fluxes at the canopy scale has been considered in the algorithms. Simulation of the gas exchange rates showed higher values for P. latifolia and A. unedo (2.39±0.30 and 3.12±0.27 gC m-2 d-1, respectively) with respect to Q. ilex (1.67±0.08 gC m-2 d-1) in the measuring campaign (May-June). Comparisons of the average Gross Primary Production (GPP) values with those measured by eddy covariance were well in accordance (7.98±0.20 and 6.00±1.46 gC m-2 d-1, respectively, in May-June), although some differences (of about 30%) were evident in a point-to-point comparison. These differences could be explained by considering the non uniformity of the measuring site where diurnal winds blown S-SW direction affecting thus calculations of CO2 and water fluxes. The introduction of some structural parameters in the algorithms for monoterpene calculation allowed to simulate monoterpene emission rates and fluxes which were in accord to those measured (6.50±2.25 vs. 9.39±4.5μg g-1DW h-1 for Q. ilex, and 0.63±0.207μg g-1DW h-1 vs. 0.98±0.30μg g-1DW h-1 for P. latifolia). Some constraints of the MOCA model are discussed, but it is demonstrated to be an useful tool to simulate physiological processes and BVOC fluxes in a very complicated plant distributions and environmental conditions, and necessitating also of a low number of input data.

  10. Disturbance Distance: Combining a process based ecosystem model and remote sensing data to map the vulnerability of U.S. forested ecosystems to potentially altered disturbance rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Disturbance plays a critical role in shaping the structure and function of forested ecosystems as well as the ecosystem services they provide, including but not limited to: carbon storage, biodiversity habitat, water quality and flow, and land atmosphere exchanges of energy and water. In addition, recent studies suggest that disturbance rates may increase in the future under altered climate and land use scenarios. Thus understanding how vulnerable forested ecosystems are to potential changes in disturbance rates is of high importance. This study calculated the theoretical threshold rate of disturbance for which forest ecosystems could no longer be sustained (λ*) across the Coterminous U.S. using an advanced process based ecosystem model (ED). Published rates of disturbance (λ) in 50 study sites were obtained from the North American Forest Disturbance (NAFD) program. Disturbance distance (λ* - λ) was calculated for each site by differencing the model based threshold under current climate conditions and average observed rates of disturbance over the last quarter century. Preliminary results confirm all sample forest sites have current average rates of disturbance below λ*, but there were interesting patterns in the recorded disturbance distances. In general western sites had much smaller disturbance distances, suggesting higher vulnerability to change, while eastern sites showed larger buffers. Ongoing work is being conducted to assess the vulnerability of these sites in the context of potential future changes by propagating scenarios of future climate and land-use change through the analysis.

  11. Rate control based on intermediate description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Guo, Yi; Li, Houqiang

    2010-07-01

    Video adaptation has been proved to be an efficient technique in dealing with various constraints such as bandwidth limitation and user requirement in multimedia applications. However, existing methods including Scalable Video Coding and transcoding cannot get a fine performance when bandwidth constraints exist in various scenarios particularly in realtime applications. In this paper, we propose a novel rate control scheme based on intermediate description. The proposed scheme can provide fast rate control for narrow and time-varying transmission channel in scenarios such as video streaming, video sharing and video on demand. In this scheme, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients distribution is modeled by generalized Gaussian distribution, meanwhile the parameter information of this model is stored as side information for rate control. With the stored parameter information, encoder and transcoder can achieve the target bit-rate with low complexity. Furthermore, an initial Quantization Parameter (QP) determination method is also presented to calculate a proper QP for the Instantaneous Decoding Refresh (IDR) picture. Experimental results show that compared with JVT-G012 in H.264, the proposed rate control scheme can save more than 85% encoding time and obtain the required bit-rate more precisely, meanwhile gains a performance improvement by 0.2dB averagely.

  12. A multi-species reactive transport model to estimate biogeochemical rates based on single-well push-pull test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanikumar, Mantha S.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2010-08-01

    Push-pull tests are a popular technique to investigate various aquifer properties and microbial reaction kinetics in situ. Most previous studies have interpreted push-pull test data using approximate analytical solutions to estimate (generally first-order) reaction rate coefficients. Though useful, these analytical solutions may not be able to describe important complexities in rate data. This paper reports the development of a multi-species, radial coordinate numerical model (PPTEST) that includes the effects of sorption, reaction lag time and arbitrary reaction order kinetics to estimate rates in the presence of mixing interfaces such as those created between injected "push" water and native aquifer water. The model has the ability to describe an arbitrary number of species and user-defined reaction rate expressions including Monod/Michelis-Menten kinetics. The FORTRAN code uses a finite-difference numerical model based on the advection-dispersion-reaction equation and was developed to describe the radial flow and transport during a push-pull test. The accuracy of the numerical solutions was assessed by comparing numerical results with analytical solutions and field data available in the literature. The model described the observed breakthrough data for tracers (chloride and iodide-131) and reactive components (sulfate and strontium-85) well and was found to be useful for testing hypotheses related to the complex set of processes operating near mixing interfaces.

  13. Simulating Brain Tumor Heterogeneity with a Multiscale Agent-Based Model: Linking Molecular Signatures, Phenotypes and Expansion Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Strouthos, Costas G.; Wang, Zhihui; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    We have extended our previously developed 3D multi-scale agent-based brain tumor model to simulate cancer heterogeneity and to analyze its impact across the scales of interest. While our algorithm continues to employ an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene-protein interaction network to determine the cells’ phenotype, it now adds an implicit treatment of tumor cell adhesion related to the model’s biochemical microenvironment. We simulate a simplified tumor progression pathway that leads to the emergence of five distinct glioma cell clones with different EGFR density and cell ‘search precisions’. The in silico results show that microscopic tumor heterogeneity can impact the tumor system’s multicellular growth patterns. Our findings further confirm that EGFR density results in the more aggressive clonal populations switching earlier from proliferation-dominated to a more migratory phenotype. Moreover, analyzing the dynamic molecular profile that triggers the phenotypic switch between proliferation and migration, our in silico oncogenomics data display spatial and temporal diversity in documenting the regional impact of tumorigenesis, and thus support the added value of multi-site and repeated assessments in vitro and in vivo. Potential implications from this in silico work for experimental and computational studies are discussed. PMID:20047002

  14. A New Global Geodetic Strain Rate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, C. W.; Klein, E. C.; Blewitt, G.; Shen, Z.; Wang, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Rabaute, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) effort to improve global seismic hazard models, we present a new global geodetic strain rate model. This model (GSRM v. 2) is a vast improvement on the previous model from 2004 (v. 1.2). The model is still based on a finite-element type approach and has deforming cells in between the assumed rigid plates. While v.1.2 contained ~25,000 deforming cells of 0.6° by 0.5° dimension, the new models contains >136,000 cells of 0.25° by 0.2° dimension. We redefined the geometries of the deforming zones based on the definitions of Bird (2003) and Chamot-Rooke and Rabaute (2006). We made some adjustments to the grid geometry at places where seismicity and/or GPS velocities suggested the presence of deforming areas where those previous studies did not. As a result, some plates/blocks identified by Bird (2003) we assumed to deform, and the total number of plates and blocks in GSRM v.2 is 38 (including the Bering block, which Bird (2003) did not consider). GSRM v.1.2 was based on ~5,200 GPS velocities, taken from 86 studies. The new model is based on ~17,000 GPS velocities, taken from 170 studies. The GPS velocity field consists of a 1) ~4900 velocities derived by us for CPS stations publicly available RINEX data and >3.5 years of data, 2) ~1200 velocities for China from a new analysis of all CMONOC data, and 3) velocities published in the literature or made otherwise available to us. All studies were combined into the same reference frame by a 6-parameter transformation using velocities at collocated stations. Because the goal of the project is to model the interseismic strain rate field, we model co-seismic jumps while estimating velocities, ignore periods of post-seismic deformation, and exclude time-series that reflect magmatic and anthropogenic activity. GPS velocities were used to estimate angular velocities for most of the 38 rigid plates and blocks (the rest being taken from the literature), and these were used as boundary

  15. Disturbance Distance: Using a process based ecosystem model to estimate and map potential thresholds in disturbance rates that would give rise to fundamentally altered ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, K. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.; Flanagan, S.; LePage, Y.; Sahajpal, R.

    2014-12-01

    Disturbance plays a critical role in shaping the structure and function of forested ecosystems as well as the ecosystem services they provide, including but not limited to: carbon storage, biodiversity habitat, water quality and flow, and land atmosphere exchanges of energy and water. As recent studies highlight novel disturbance regimes resulting from pollution, invasive pests and climate change, there is a need to include these alterations in predictions of future forest function and structure. The Ecosystem Demography (ED) model is a mechanistic model of forest ecosystem dynamics in which individual-based forest dynamics can be efficiently implemented over regional to global scales due to advanced scaling methods. We utilize ED to characterize the sensitivity of potential vegetation structure and function to changes in rates of density independent mortality. Disturbance rate within ED can either be altered directly or through the development of sub-models. Disturbance sub-models in ED currently include fire, land use and hurricanes. We use a tiered approach to understand the sensitivity of North American ecosystems to changes in background density independent mortality. Our first analyses were conducted at half-degree spatial resolution with a constant rate of disturbance in space and time, which was altered between runs. Annual climate was held constant at the site level and the land use and fire sub-models were turned off. Results showed an ~ 30% increase in non-forest area across the US when disturbance rates were changed from 0.6% a year to 1.2% a year and a more than 3.5 fold increase in non-forest area when disturbance rates doubled again from 1.2% to 2.4%. Continued runs altered natural background disturbance rates with the existing fire and hurricane sub models turned on as well as historic and future land use. By quantify differences between model outputs that characterize ecosystem structure and function related to the carbon cycle across the US, we

  16. Influence of the formation- and passivation rate of boron-oxygen defects for mitigating carrier-induced degradation in silicon within a hydrogen-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Hallam, Brett Abbott, Malcolm; Nampalli, Nitin; Hamer, Phill; Wenham, Stuart

    2016-02-14

    A three-state model is used to explore the influence of defect formation- and passivation rates of carrier-induced degradation related to boron-oxygen complexes in boron-doped p-type silicon solar cells within a hydrogen-based model. The model highlights that the inability to effectively mitigate carrier-induced degradation at elevated temperatures in previous studies is due to the limited availability of defects for hydrogen passivation, rather than being limited by the defect passivation rate. An acceleration of the defect formation rate is also observed to increase both the effectiveness and speed of carrier-induced degradation mitigation, whereas increases in the passivation rate do not lead to a substantial acceleration of the hydrogen passivation process. For high-throughput mitigation of such carrier-induced degradation on finished solar cell devices, two key factors were found to be required, high-injection conditions (such as by using high intensity illumination) to enable an acceleration of defect formation whilst simultaneously enabling a rapid passivation of the formed defects, and a high temperature to accelerate both defect formation and defect passivation whilst still ensuring an effective mitigation of carrier-induced degradation.

  17. ESCIMO.spread - a spreadsheet-based point snow surface energy balance model to calculate hourly snow water equivalent and melt rates for historical and changing climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, U.; Marke, T.

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the spreadsheet-based point energy balance model ESCIMO.spread which simulates the energy and mass balance as well as melt rates of a snow surface. The model makes use of hourly recordings of temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, global and longwave radiation. The effect of potential climate change on the seasonal evolution of the snow cover can be estimated by modifying the time series of observed temperature and precipitation by means of adjustable parameters. Model output is graphically visualized in hourly and daily diagrams. The results compare well with weekly measured snow water equivalent (SWE). The model is easily portable and adjustable, and runs particularly fast: hourly calculation of a one winter season is instantaneous on a standard computer. ESICMO.spread can be obtained from the authors on request (contact: ulrich.strasser@uni-graz.at).

  18. Multiplicative earthquake likelihood models incorporating strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, D. A.; Christophersen, A.; Gerstenberger, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe examine the potential for strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> variables to improve long-term earthquake likelihood <span class="hlt">models</span>. We derive a set of multiplicative hybrid earthquake likelihood <span class="hlt">models</span> in which cell <span class="hlt">rates</span> in a spatially uniform baseline <span class="hlt">model</span> are scaled using combinations of covariates derived from earthquake catalogue data, fault data, and strain-<span class="hlt">rates</span> for the New Zealand region. Three components of the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimated from GPS data over the period 1991-2011 are considered: the shear, rotational and dilatational strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are optimised for earthquakes of M 5 and greater over the period 1987-2006 and tested on earthquakes from the period 2012-2015, which is independent of the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates. The shear strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> is overall the most informative individual covariate, as indicated by Molchan error diagrams as well as multiplicative <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Most <span class="hlt">models</span> including strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> are significantly more informative than the best <span class="hlt">models</span> excluding strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> in both the fitting and testing period. A hybrid that combines the shear and dilatational strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> with a smoothed seismicity covariate is the most informative <span class="hlt">model</span> in the fitting period, and a simpler <span class="hlt">model</span> without the dilatational strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> is the most informative in the testing period. These results have implications for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and can be used to improve the background <span class="hlt">model</span> component of medium-term and short-term earthquake forecasting <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225466"><span id="translatedtitle">A flexible cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for spatially correlated survival data <span class="hlt">based</span> on generalized extreme value distribution and Gaussian process priors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Dan; Wang, Xia; Dey, Dipak K</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Our present work proposes a new survival <span class="hlt">model</span> in a Bayesian context to analyze right-censored survival data for populations with a surviving fraction, assuming that the log failure time follows a generalized extreme value distribution. Many applications require a more flexible <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of covariate information than a simple linear or parametric form for all covariate effects. It is also necessary to include the spatial variation in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, since it is sometimes unexplained by the covariates considered in the analysis. Therefore, the nonlinear covariate effects and the spatial effects are incorporated into the systematic component of our <span class="hlt">model</span>. Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a natural framework for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> potentially nonlinear relationship and have recently become extremely powerful in nonlinear regression. Our proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> adopts a semiparametric Bayesian approach by imposing a GP prior on the nonlinear structure of continuous covariate. With the consideration of data availability and computational complexity, the conditionally autoregressive distribution is placed on the region-specific frailties to handle spatial correlation. The flexibility and gains of our proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> are illustrated through analyses of simulated data examples as well as a dataset involving a colon cancer clinical trial from the state of Iowa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=java+AND+2&pg=5&id=EJ830074','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=java+AND+2&pg=5&id=EJ830074"><span id="translatedtitle">An "Emergent <span class="hlt">Model</span>" for <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herbert, Sandra; Pierce, Robyn</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Does speed provide a "<span class="hlt">model</span> for" <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in other contexts? Does JavaMathWorlds (JMW), animated simulation software, assist in the development of the "<span class="hlt">model</span> for" <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change? This project investigates the transference of understandings of <span class="hlt">rate</span> gained in a motion context to a non-motion context. Students were 27 14-15 year old students at…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ApSS...91..332W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ApSS...91..332W"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for selective tungsten LPCVD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, H.; Streiter, R.; Schulz, S. E.; Gessner, T.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>Selective chemical vapor deposition of tungsten plugs on sputtered tungsten was performed in a single-wafer cold-wall reactor using silane (SiH 4) and tungsten hexafluoride (WF 6). Extensive SEM measurements of film thickness were carried out to study the dependence of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> on various process conditions, wafer loading, and via dimensions. The results have been interpreted by numerical calculations <span class="hlt">based</span> on a simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> which is also presented. Both continuum fluid dynamics and the ballistic line-of-sight approach are used for transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> is described by an empirical <span class="hlt">rate</span> expression using coefficients fitted from experimental data. In the range 0.2 < p( SiH 4) /p( WF 6) < 0.75 , the reaction order was determined as 1.55 and -0.55 with respect to SiH 4 and WF 6, respectively. For higher partial pressure ratios the second-order <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependence on p(SiH 4) and the minus first-order dependence on p(WF 6) were confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26552111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26552111"><span id="translatedtitle">Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2016 Home Health Prospective Payment System <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Update; Home Health Value-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Purchasing <span class="hlt">Model</span>; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-11-05</p> <p>This final rule will update Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) <span class="hlt">rates</span>, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>, the national per-visit <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor under the Medicare prospective payment system for home health agencies (HHAs), effective for episodes ending on or after January 1, 2016. As required by the Affordable Care Act, this rule implements the 3rd year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This rule updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking and provides a clarification regarding the use of the "initial encounter'' seventh character applicable to certain ICD-10-CM code categories. This final rule will also finalize reductions to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment <span class="hlt">rate</span> in CY 2016, CY 2017, and CY 2018 of 0.97 percent in each year to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014. In addition, this rule implements a HH value-<span class="hlt">based</span> purchasing (HHVBP) <span class="hlt">model</span>, beginning January 1, 2016, in which all Medicare-certified HHAs in selected states will be required to participate. Finally, this rule finalizes minor changes to the home health quality reporting program and minor technical regulations text changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53g3102Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53g3102Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual Cauchy <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> for video coding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zeng, Huanqiang; Chen, Jing; Cai, Canhui</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A dual Cauchy <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed for video coding. In our approach, the coefficient distribution of the integer transform is first studied. Then, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the observation that the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> of the luminance and that of the chrominance can be well expressed by separate Cauchy functions, a dual Cauchy <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented. Furthermore, the simplified <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion formulas are deduced to reduce the computational complexity of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> without losing the accuracy. Experimental results have shown that the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is better able to approximate the actual <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion curve for various sequences with different motion activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2032B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2032B"><span id="translatedtitle">Neural network <span class="hlt">model</span> of rupture conditions for elastic material sample <span class="hlt">based</span> on measurements at static loading under different strain <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolgov, I.; Kaverzneva, T.; Kolesova, S.; Lazovskaya, T.; Stolyarov, O.; Tarkhov, D.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The article deals with the problem of predicting of the temporal elongation law of the sample under dynamic loading. The determination of tensile behavior of samples under uniaxial loading is performed by a standard tensile method. The neural network approach is applied to construct an approximate elongation-force dependence using measurement data and posterior <span class="hlt">model</span> of the dependence of rupture conditions on the neural network parameters. The considered approach can be used in the building industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ccta.conf..399W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ccta.conf..399W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Potential Geographical Distribution of bactrocera Dorsalis (Diptera: Tephrididae) in China <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Emergence <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and Arcgis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zhihong; Wu, Jiajiao; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Wan, Fanghao; Wang, Zhiling</p> <p></p> <p>Precision agriculture is an important choice for the future agriculture. It is the <span class="hlt">base</span> for precision agriculture development to change the state of small-scale farmland production and weak agricultural foundation in China gradually. Combined with the poorness of village in China, the variation of farmland and the dominance of small-scale peasant economy, this paper analyzed the adaptability of farmland landscape pattern to precision agriculture <span class="hlt">based</span> on literatures and farmland landscape survey. With the requirements of precision agricultural production, this paper put forward the standards on cultivated field scale and shape, farmland corridor structure, cultivated field matrix and farmland landscape protection in order to make farmland landscape suitable for precision agriculture and to provide references for the sustainable development of precision agriculture in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905814"><span id="translatedtitle">Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2017 Home Health Prospective Payment System <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Update; Home Health Value-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Purchasing <span class="hlt">Model</span>; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-11-03</p> <p>This final rule updates the Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>, the national per-visit <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor; effective for home health episodes of care ending on or after January 1, 2017. This rule also: Implements the last year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment <span class="hlt">rates</span>; updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking; implements the 2nd-year of a 3-year phase-in of a reduction to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (that is, nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014; finalizes changes to the methodology used to calculate payments made under the HH PPS for high-cost "outlier" episodes of care; implements changes in payment for furnishing Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) using a disposable device for patients under a home health plan of care; discusses our efforts to monitor the potential impacts of the rebasing adjustments; includes an update on subsequent research and analysis as a result of the findings from the home health study; and finalizes changes to the Home Health Value-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Purchasing (HHVBP) <span class="hlt">Model</span>, which was implemented on January 1, 2016; and updates to the Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HH QRP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138268"><span id="translatedtitle">A mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the light response of photosynthetic electron transport <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on light harvesting properties of photosynthetic pigment molecules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ye, Zi-Piao; Robakowski, Piotr; Suggett, David J</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Models</span> describing the light response of photosynthetic electron transport <span class="hlt">rate</span> (ETR) are routinely used to determine how light absorption influences energy, reducing power and yields of primary productivity; however, no single <span class="hlt">model</span> is currently able to provide insight into the fundamental processes that implicitly govern the variability of light absorption. Here we present development and application of a new mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> of ETR for photosystem II <span class="hlt">based</span> on the light harvesting (absorption and transfer to the core 'reaction centres') characteristics of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Within this <span class="hlt">model</span> a series of equations are used to describe novel biophysical and biochemical characteristics of photosynthetic pigment molecules and in turn light harvesting; specifically, the eigen-absorption cross-section and the minimum average lifetime of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited state, which describe the ability of light absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules and retention time of excitons in the excited state but are difficult to be measured directly. We applied this <span class="hlt">model</span> to a series of previously collected fluorescence data and demonstrated that our <span class="hlt">model</span> described well the light response curves of ETR, regardless of whether dynamic down-regulation of PSII occurs, for a range of photosynthetic organisms (Abies alba, Picea abies, Pinus mugo and Emiliania huxleyi). Inherent estimated parameters (e.g. maximum ETR and the saturation irradiance) by our <span class="hlt">model</span> are in very close agreement with the measured data. Overall, our mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> potentially provides novel insights into the regulation of ETR by light harvesting properties as well as dynamical down-regulation of PSII.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=4&id=EJ327424','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=4&id=EJ327424"><span id="translatedtitle">A Latent Class <span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rost, Jurgen</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A latent class <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">rating</span> data is presented which provides an alternative to the latent trait approach of analyzing test data. It is the analog of Andrich's binomial Rasch <span class="hlt">model</span> for Lazarsfeld's latent class analysis (LCA). Response probabilities for <span class="hlt">rating</span> categories follow a binomial distribution and depend on class-specific item…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741459"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Ghana: application of multivariate GARCH <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nortey, Ezekiel Nn; Ngoh, Delali D; Doku-Amponsah, Kwabena; Ofori-Boateng, Kenneth</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper was aimed at investigating the volatility and conditional relationship among inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> as well as to construct a <span class="hlt">model</span> using multivariate GARCH DCC and BEKK <span class="hlt">models</span> using Ghana data from January 1990 to December 2013. The study revealed that the cumulative depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar from 1990 to 2013 is 7,010.2% and the yearly weighted depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar for the period is 20.4%. There was evidence that, the fact that inflation <span class="hlt">rate</span> was stable, does not mean that exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> are expected to be stable. Rather, when the cedi performs well on the forex, inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> react positively and become stable in the long run. The BEKK <span class="hlt">model</span> is robust to <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and forecasting volatility of inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The DCC <span class="hlt">model</span> is robust to <span class="hlt">model</span> the conditional and unconditional correlation among inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The BEKK <span class="hlt">model</span>, which forecasted high exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> volatility for the year 2014, is very robust for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Ghana. The mean equation of the DCC <span class="hlt">model</span> is also robust to forecast inflation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Ghana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G23C..07R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G23C..07R"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodesy-<span class="hlt">based</span> estimates of loading <span class="hlt">rates</span> on faults beneath the Los Angeles basin with a new, computationally efficient method to <span class="hlt">model</span> dislocations in 3D heterogeneous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rollins, C.; Argus, D. F.; Avouac, J. P.; Landry, W.; Barbot, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>North-south compression across the Los Angeles basin is accommodated by slip on thrust faults beneath the basin that may present significant seismic hazard to Los Angeles. Previous geodesy-<span class="hlt">based</span> efforts to constrain the distributions and <span class="hlt">rates</span> of elastic strain accumulation on these faults [Argus et al 2005, 2012] have found that the elastic <span class="hlt">model</span> used has a first-order impact on the inferred distribution of locking and creep, underlining the need to accurately incorporate the laterally heterogeneous elastic structure and complex fault geometries of the Los Angeles basin into this analysis. We are using Gamra [Landry and Barbot, in prep.], a newly developed adaptive-meshing finite-difference solver, to compute elastostatic Green's functions that incorporate the full 3D regional elastic structure provided by the SCEC Community Velocity <span class="hlt">Model</span>. Among preliminary results from benchmarks, forward <span class="hlt">models</span> and inversions, we find that: 1) for a <span class="hlt">modeled</span> creep source on the edge dislocation geometry from Argus et al [2005], the use of the SCEC CVM material <span class="hlt">model</span> produces surface velocities in the hanging wall that are up to ~50% faster than those predicted in an elastic halfspace <span class="hlt">model</span>; 2) in sensitivity-modulated inversions of the Argus et al [2005] GPS velocity field for slip on the same dislocation source, the use of the CVM deepens the inferred locking depth by ≥3 km compared to an elastic halfspace <span class="hlt">model</span>; 3) when using finite-difference or finite-element <span class="hlt">models</span> with Dirichlet boundary conditions (except for the free surface) for problems of this scale, it is necessary to set the boundaries at least ~100 km away from any slip source or data point to guarantee convergence within 5% of analytical solutions (a result which may be applicable to other static dislocation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> problems and which may scale with the size of the area of interest). Here we will present finalized results from inversions of an updated GPS velocity field [Argus et al, AGU 2015] for the inferred</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26408308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26408308"><span id="translatedtitle">A Bottom-Up Whole-Body Physiologically <span class="hlt">Based</span> Pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Mechanistically Predict Tissue Distribution and the <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Subcutaneous Absorption of Therapeutic Proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gill, Katherine L; Gardner, Iain; Li, Linzhong; Jamei, Masoud</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ability to predict subcutaneous (SC) absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> and tissue distribution of therapeutic proteins (TPs) using a bottom-up approach is highly desirable early in the drug development process prior to clinical data being available. A whole-body physiologically <span class="hlt">based</span> pharmacokinetic (PBPK) <span class="hlt">model</span>, requiring only a few drug parameters, to predict plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of TPs in humans after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing has been developed. Movement of TPs between vascular and interstitial spaces was described by considering both convection and diffusion processes using a 2-pore framework. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was optimised using a variety of literature sources, such as tissue lymph/plasma concentration ratios in humans and animals, information on the percentage of dose absorbed following SC dosing via lymph in animals and data showing loss of radiolabelled IgG from the SC dosing site in humans. The resultant <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to predict t max and plasma concentration profiles for 12 TPs (molecular weight 8-150 kDa) following SC dosing. The predicted plasma concentration profiles were generally comparable to observed data. t max was predicted within 3-fold of reported values, with one third of the predictions within 0.8-1.25-fold. There was no systematic bias in simulated C max values, although a general trend for underprediction of t max was observed. No clear trend between prediction accuracy of t max and TP isoelectric point or molecular size was apparent. The mechanistic whole-body PBPK <span class="hlt">model</span> described here can be applied to predict absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> of TPs into blood and movement into target tissues following SC dosing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4220677','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4220677"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> temporal sequences of cognitive state changes <span class="hlt">based</span> on a combination of EEG-engagement, EEG-workload, and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> metrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stikic, Maja; Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Rubio, Roberto F.; Tan, Veasna; Korszen, Stephanie; Barba, Douglas; Wurzer, David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of physiological metrics such as ECG-derived heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> and EEG-derived cognitive workload and engagement as potential predictors of performance on different training tasks. An unsupervised approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on self-organizing neural network (NN) was utilized to <span class="hlt">model</span> cognitive state changes over time. The feature vector comprised EEG-engagement, EEG-workload, and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> metrics, all self-normalized to account for individual differences. During the competitive training process, a linear topology was developed where the feature vectors similar to each other activated the same NN nodes. The NN <span class="hlt">model</span> was trained and auto-validated on combat marksmanship training data from 51 participants that were required to make “deadly force decisions” in challenging combat scenarios. The trained NN <span class="hlt">model</span> was cross validated using 10-fold cross-validation. It was also validated on a golf study in which additional 22 participants were asked to complete 10 sessions of 10 putts each. Temporal sequences of the activated nodes for both studies followed the same pattern of changes, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of the approach. Most node transition changes were local, but important events typically caused significant changes in the physiological metrics, as evidenced by larger state changes. This was investigated by calculating a transition score as the sum of subsequent state transitions between the activated NN nodes. Correlation analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the transition scores and subjects' performances in both studies. This paper explored the hypothesis that temporal sequences of physiological changes comprise the discriminative patterns for performance prediction. These physiological markers could be utilized in future training improvement systems (e.g., through neurofeedback), and applied across a variety of training environments. PMID:25414629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036150&hterms=Xiaodong&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DXiaodong','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036150&hterms=Xiaodong&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DXiaodong"><span id="translatedtitle">A probability distribution <span class="hlt">model</span> for rain <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kedem, Benjamin; Pavlopoulos, Harry; Guan, Xiaodong; Short, David A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A systematic approach is suggested for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the probability distribution of rain <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Rain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, conditional on rain and averaged over a region, is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as a temporally homogeneous diffusion process with appropiate boundary conditions. The approach requires a drift coefficient-conditional average instantaneous <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change of rain intensity-as well as a diffusion coefficient-the conditional average magnitude of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of growth and decay of rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> about its drift. Under certain assumptions on the drift and diffusion coefficients compatible with rain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, a new parametric family-containing the lognormal distribution-is obtained for the continuous part of the stationary limit probability distribution. The family is fitted to tropical rainfall from Darwin and Florida, and it is found that the lognormal distribution provides adequate fits as compared with other members of the family and also with the gamma distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793c0027H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793c0027H"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibrating reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the CREST <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Handley, Caroline A.; Christie, Michael A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The CREST reactive-burn <span class="hlt">model</span> uses entropy-dependent reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> that, until now, have been manually tuned to fit shock-initiation and detonation data in hydrocode simulations. This paper describes the initial development of an automatic method for calibrating CREST reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients, using particle swarm optimisation. The automatic method is applied to EDC32, to help develop the first CREST <span class="hlt">model</span> for this conventional high explosive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044916"><span id="translatedtitle">Single crystal plasticity by <span class="hlt">modeling</span> dislocation density <span class="hlt">rate</span> behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hansen, Benjamin L; Bronkhorst, Curt; Beyerlein, Irene; Cerreta, E. K.; Dennis-Koller, Darcie</p> <p>2010-12-23</p> <p>The goal of this work is to formulate a constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for the deformation of metals over a wide range of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Damage and failure of materials frequently occurs at a variety of deformation <span class="hlt">rates</span> within the same sample. The present state of the art in single crystal constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> relies on thermally-activated <span class="hlt">models</span> which are believed to become less reliable for problems exceeding strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. This talk presents work in which we extend the applicability of the single crystal <span class="hlt">model</span> to the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> region where dislocation drag is believed to dominate. The elastic <span class="hlt">model</span> includes effects from volumetric change and pressure sensitive moduli. The plastic <span class="hlt">model</span> transitions from the low-<span class="hlt">rate</span> thermally-activated regime to the high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> drag dominated regime. The direct use of dislocation density as a state parameter gives a measurable physical mechanism to strain hardening. Dislocation densities are separated according to type and given a systematic set of interactions <span class="hlt">rates</span> adaptable by type. The form of the constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is motivated by previously published dislocation dynamics work which articulated important behaviors unique to high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> response in fcc systems. The proposed material <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporates thermal coupling. The hardening <span class="hlt">model</span> tracks the varying dislocation population with respect to each slip plane and computes the slip resistance <span class="hlt">based</span> on those values. Comparisons can be made between the responses of single crystals and polycrystals at a variety of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The material <span class="hlt">model</span> is fit to copper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121i4505I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121i4505I"><span id="translatedtitle">3D <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and characterization of a calorimetric flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensor for sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensing applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iftekhar, Ahmed Tashfin; Ho, Jenny Che-Ting; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Sweat-<span class="hlt">based</span> physiological monitoring has been intensively explored in the last decade with the hopes of developing real-time hydration monitoring devices. Although the content of sweat (electrolytes, lactate, urea, etc.) provides significant information about the physiology, it is also very important to know the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of sweat at the time of sweat content measurements because the sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> is known to alter the concentrations of sweat compounds. We developed a calorimetric <span class="hlt">based</span> flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensor using PolydimethylSiloxane that is suitable for sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> applications. Our simple approach on using temperature-<span class="hlt">based</span> flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> detection can easily be adapted to multiple sweat collection and analysis devices. Moreover, we have developed a 3D finite element analysis <span class="hlt">model</span> of the device using COMSOL Multiphysics™ and verified the flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements. The experiment investigated flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> values from 0.3 μl/min up to 2.1 ml/min, which covers the human sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> range (0.5 μl/min-10 μl/min). The 3D <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations and analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations covered an even wider range in order to understand the main physical mechanisms of the device. With a verified 3D <span class="hlt">model</span>, different environmental heat conditions could be further studied to shed light on the physiology of the sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7744E..2NY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7744E..2NY"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rate</span> control algorithm <span class="hlt">based</span> on frame complexity estimation for MVC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Tao; An, Ping; Shen, Liquan; Zhang, Zhaoyang</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rate</span> control has not been well studied for multi-view video coding (MVC). In this paper, we propose an efficient <span class="hlt">rate</span> control algorithm for MVC by improving the quadratic <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion (R-D) <span class="hlt">model</span>, which reasonably allocate bit-<span class="hlt">rate</span> among views <span class="hlt">based</span> on correlation analysis. The proposed algorithm consists of four levels for <span class="hlt">rate</span> bits control more accurately, of which the frame layer allocates bits according to frame complexity and temporal activity. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently implement bit allocation and <span class="hlt">rate</span> control according to coding parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198..270H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198..270H"><span id="translatedtitle">An ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span> with varying productivity <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harte, D. S.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We present an epidemic type aftershock sequenc (ETAS) <span class="hlt">model</span> where the offspring <span class="hlt">rates</span> vary both spatially and temporally. This is achieved by distinguishing between those space-time volumes where the interpoint space and time distances are small, and those where they are considerably larger. We also question the nature of the background component in the ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span>. Is it simply a temporal boundary correction (t = 0) or does it represent an additional tectonic process not described by the aftershock component? The form of these stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> should not be considered to be fixed. As we accumulate larger and better earthquake catalogues, GPS data, strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>, etc., we have the ability to ask more complex questions about the nature of the process. By fitting modified <span class="hlt">models</span> consistent with such questions, we should gain a better insight into the earthquake process. Hence, we consider a sequence of incrementally modified ETAS type <span class="hlt">models</span> rather than `the' ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24472588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24472588"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing AORN's new <span class="hlt">model</span> for evidence <span class="hlt">rating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spruce, Lisa; Van Wicklin, Sharon A; Hicks, Rodney W; Conner, Ramona; Dunn, Debra</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Nurses today are expected to implement evidence-<span class="hlt">based</span> practices in the perioperative setting to assess and implement practice changes. All evidence-<span class="hlt">based</span> practice begins with a question, a practice problem to address, or a needed change that is identified. To assess the question, a literature search is performed and relevant literature is identified and appraised. The types of evidence used to inform practice can be scientific research (eg, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews) or nonresearch evidence (eg, regulatory and accrediting agency requirements, professional association practice standards and guidelines, quality improvement project reports). The AORN recommended practices are a synthesis of related knowledge on a given topic, and the authorship process begins with a systematic review of the literature conducted in collaboration with a medical librarian. At least two appraisers independently evaluate the applicable literature for quality and strength by using the AORN Research Appraisal Tool and AORN Non-Research Appraisal Tool. To collectively appraise the evidence supporting particular practice recommendations, the AORN recommended practices authors have implemented a new evidence <span class="hlt">rating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> that is appropriate for research and nonresearch literature and that is relevant to the perioperative setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7562E..0XS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7562E..0XS"><span id="translatedtitle">Collagen thermal denaturation study for thermal angioplasty <span class="hlt">based</span> on modified kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span>: relation between the artery mechanical properties and collagen denaturation <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimazaki, N.; Hayashi, T.; Kunio, M.; Arai, T.</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>We have been developing the novel short-term heating angioplasty in which sufficient artery lumen-dilatation was attained with thermal softening of collagen fiber in artery wall. In the present study, we investigated on the relation between the mechanical properties of heated artery and thermal denaturation fractures of arterial collagen in ex vivo. We employed Lumry-Eyring <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate temperature- and time-dependent thermal denaturation fractures of arterial collagen fiber during heating. We made a kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of arterial collagen thermal denaturation by adjustment of K and k in this <span class="hlt">model</span>, those were the equilibrium constant of reversible denaturation and the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constant of irreversible denaturation. Meanwhile we demonstrated that the change of reduced scattering coefficient of whole artery wall during heating reflected the reversible denaturation of the collagen in artery wall. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on this phenomenon, the K was determined experimentally by backscattered light intensity measurement (at 633nm) of extracted porcine carotid artery during temperature elevation and descending (25°C-->80°C-->25°C). We employed the value of according to our earlier report in which the time-and temperature- dependent irreversible denaturation amount of the artery collagen fiber that was assessed by the artery birefringence. Then, the time- and temperature- dependent reversible (irreversible) denaturation fraction defined as the reversible ((irreversible) denatured collagen amount) / (total collagen amount) was calculated by the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Thermo-mechanical analysis of artery wall was performed to compare the arterial mechanical behaviors (softening, shrinkage) during heating with the calculated denaturation fraction with the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In any artery temperature condition in 70-80°, the irreversible denaturation fraction at which the artery thermal shrinkage started was estimated to be around 20%. On the other hand, the calculated irreversible denaturation fraction remained below</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RANDOM+AND+MATRIX+AND+THEORY&id=EJ782085','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RANDOM+AND+MATRIX+AND+THEORY&id=EJ782085"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariates of the <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Process in Hierarchical <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Multiple <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> of Test Items</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mariano, Louis T.; Junker, Brian W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>When constructed response test items are scored by more than one rater, the repeated <span class="hlt">ratings</span> allow for the consideration of individual rater bias and variability in estimating student proficiency. Several hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on item response theory have been introduced to <span class="hlt">model</span> such effects. In this article, the authors demonstrate how these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11290215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11290215"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability in healthy humans: a turbulence analogy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, D C; Hughson, R L</p> <p>2001-02-19</p> <p>Many complex systems share similar statistical characteristics. In this Letter, a turbulence analogy is proposed for the long-term heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability of healthy humans. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on such an analogy, the equivalence of an inertial range is found and a cascade <span class="hlt">model</span>, which captures the statistical properties of the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> data, is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=probabilistic+AND+prediction&pg=4&id=EJ983481','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=probabilistic+AND+prediction&pg=4&id=EJ983481"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Base-Rate</span> Neglect as a Function of <span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Probabilistic Contingency Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kutzner, Florian; Freytag, Peter; Vogel, Tobias; Fiedler, Klaus</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>When humans predict criterion events <span class="hlt">based</span> on probabilistic predictors, they often lend excessive weight to the predictor and insufficient weight to the <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the criterion event. In an operant analysis, using a matching-to-sample paradigm, Goodie and Fantino (1996) showed that humans exhibit <span class="hlt">base-rate</span> neglect when predictors are associated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..74....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..74....1B"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface ozone photolysis <span class="hlt">rate</span> trends in the Eastern Mediterranean: <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the effects of aerosols and total column ozone <span class="hlt">based</span> on Terra MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benas, N.; Mourtzanou, E.; Kouvarakis, G.; Bais, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Vardavas, I.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The surface ozone photolysis <span class="hlt">rate</span> (J(O1D)) was computed on a daily basis and on a 50 km × 50 km resolution for the 11-year period 2000-2010 at Finokalia meteorological station in Crete, Greece. A radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span> was used, with climatological data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra satellite. The area is representative of the Eastern Mediterranean, a region with high variability in aerosol loads and total column ozone. Instantaneous values of J(O1D) computed from the <span class="hlt">model</span> were validated against corresponding station measurements available during the 5-year period 2002-2006. Monthly mean values of J(O1D) during the 11-year period examined, reveal a statistically significant decreasing trend, <span class="hlt">based</span> on Terra MODIS data, which shows an overall 13% decrease. The aerosol effect on J(O1D) varies on a daily basis, depending on the aerosol load, and can exceed -10% during dust events, with a median value of -2.3% over the whole period examined. On a seasonal basis, the aerosol effect on J(O1D) follows the seasonal pattern of the aerosol load, with higher values in spring and autumn, due to the increased Saharan dust episodes during these seasons. Linear regression analysis on monthly mean values of total column ozone revealed a statistically significant increasing trend in both Finokalia and Thessaloniki stations. Total column ozone MODIS data were validated against spectroradiometric (columnar) measurements at Thessaloniki station. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of total column ozone on J(O1D) showed that a 10% variation in total ozone causes a corresponding 15-17% change in J(O1D). These results suggest that the decreasing trend in J(O1D) found in the case of Terra MODIS should be attributed mainly to the corresponding increasing trend in total column ozone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010191','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010191"><span id="translatedtitle">Rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> data <span class="hlt">base</span> development and rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> climate analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crane, Robert K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The single-year rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution data available within the archives of Consultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) Study Group 5 were compiled into a data <span class="hlt">base</span> for use in rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> climate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and for the preparation of predictions of attenuation statistics. The four year set of tip-time sequences provided by J. Goldhirsh for locations near Wallops Island were processed to compile monthly and annual distributions of rain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and of event durations for intervals above and below preset thresholds. A four-year data set of tropical rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> tip-time sequences were acquired from the NASA TRMM program for 30 gauges near Darwin, Australia. They were also processed for inclusion in the CCIR data <span class="hlt">base</span> and the expanded data <span class="hlt">base</span> for monthly observations at the University of Oklahoma. The empirical rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions (edfs) accepted for inclusion in the CCIR data <span class="hlt">base</span> were used to estimate parameters for several rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution <span class="hlt">models</span>: the lognormal <span class="hlt">model</span>, the Crane two-component <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the three parameter <span class="hlt">model</span> proposed by Moupfuma. The intent of this segment of the study is to obtain a limited set of parameters that can be mapped globally for use in rain attenuation predictions. If the form of the distribution can be established, then perhaps available climatological data can be used to estimate the parameters rather than requiring years of rain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> observations to set the parameters. The two-component <span class="hlt">model</span> provided the best fit to the Wallops Island data but the Moupfuma <span class="hlt">model</span> provided the best fit to the Darwin data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088956&hterms=heart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dheart','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088956&hterms=heart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dheart"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability by stochastic feedback</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Amaral, L. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We consider the question of how the cardiac rhythm spontaneously self-regulates and propose a new mechanism as a possible answer. We <span class="hlt">model</span> the neuroautonomic regulation of the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> as a stochastic feedback system and find that the <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully accounts for key characteristics of cardiac variability, including the 1/f power spectrum, the functional form and scaling of the distribution of variations of the interbeat intervals, and the correlations in the Fourier phases which indicate nonlinear dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413595"><span id="translatedtitle">A generic high-dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source for evaluation of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ballester, Facundo; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Granero, Domingo; Haworth, Annette; Mourtada, Firas; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Rivard, Mark J.; Siebert, Frank-André; Sloboda, Ron S.; and others</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to <span class="hlt">model-based</span> dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. Methods: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed <span class="hlt">based</span> on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic {sup 192}Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra{sup ®} Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS{sup TM}]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span> table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201){sup 3} voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069450"><span id="translatedtitle">Micromechanical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent behavior of Connective tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M</p> <p>2017-03-07</p> <p>In this paper, a constitutive and micromechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> for prediction of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent behavior of connective tissues (CTs) is presented. Connective tissues are considered as nonlinear viscoelastic material. The <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent behavior of CTs is incorporated into <span class="hlt">model</span> using the well-known quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) theory. A planar wavy representative volume element (RVE) is considered <span class="hlt">based</span> on the tissue microstructure histological evidences. The presented <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are identified <span class="hlt">based</span> on the available experiments in the literature. The presented constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> introduced to ABAQUS by means of UMAT subroutine. Results show that, monotonic uniaxial test predictions of the presented <span class="hlt">model</span> at different strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> for rat tail tendon (RTT) and human patellar tendon (HPT) are in good agreement with experimental data. Results of incremental stress-relaxation test are also presented to investigate both instantaneous and viscoelastic behavior of connective tissues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.113n1602D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.113n1602D"><span id="translatedtitle">Sphaleron <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in the Minimal Standard <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Onofrio, Michela; Rummukainen, Kari; Tranberg, Anders</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We use large-scale lattice simulations to compute the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of baryon number violating processes (the sphaleron <span class="hlt">rate</span>), the Higgs field expectation value, and the critical temperature in the standard <span class="hlt">model</span> across the electroweak phase transition temperature. While there is no true phase transition between the high-temperature symmetric phase and the low-temperature broken phase, the crossover is sharp and located at temperature Tc=(159.5±1.5) GeV. The sphaleron <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the symmetric phase (T >Tc) is Γ/T4=(18±3)αW5, and in the broken phase in the physically interesting temperature range 130 GeV <T<Tc it can be parametrized as log(Γ/T4)=(0.83±0.01)T/GeV -(147.7±1.9). The freeze-out temperature in the early Universe, where the Hubble <span class="hlt">rate</span> wins over the baryon number violation <span class="hlt">rate</span>, is T*=(131.7±2.3) GeV. These values, beyond being intrinsic properties of the standard <span class="hlt">model</span>, are relevant for, e.g., low-scale leptogenesis scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1557..455S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1557..455S"><span id="translatedtitle">Liver cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to <span class="hlt">model</span> and forecast liver cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span> in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span> was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression <span class="hlt">model</span> was used for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Thailand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881643"><span id="translatedtitle">The Piecewise Linear Reactive Flow <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vitello, P; Souers, P C</p> <p>2005-07-22</p> <p>Conclusions are: (1) Early calibrations of the Piece Wise Linear reactive flow <span class="hlt">model</span> have shown that it allows for very accurate agreement with data for a broad range of detonation wave strengths. (2) The ability to vary the <span class="hlt">rate</span> at specific pressures has shown that corner turning involves competition between the strong wave that travels roughly in a straight line and growth at low pressure of a new wave that turns corners sharply. (3) The inclusion of a low pressure de-sensitization <span class="hlt">rate</span> is essential to preserving the dead zone at large times as is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Chaos..23b3103L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Chaos..23b3103L"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond long memory in heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability: An approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on fractionally integrated autoregressive moving average time series <span class="hlt">models</span> with conditional heteroscedasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leite, Argentina; Paula Rocha, Ana; Eduarda Silva, Maria</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Heart <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Variability (HRV) series exhibit long memory and time-varying conditional variance. This work considers the Fractionally Integrated AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARFIMA) <span class="hlt">models</span> with Generalized AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH) errors. ARFIMA-GARCH <span class="hlt">models</span> may be used to capture and remove long memory and estimate the conditional volatility in 24 h HRV recordings. The ARFIMA-GARCH approach is applied to fifteen long term HRV series available at Physionet, leading to the discrimination among normal individuals, heart failure patients, and patients with atrial fibrillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3254654','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3254654"><span id="translatedtitle">What Will It Take to Eliminate Pediatric HIV? Reaching WHO Target <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Zimbabwe: A <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Perez, Freddy; Keatinge, Jo; Park, Ji-Eun; Engelsmann, Barbara; Maruva, Matthews; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Dabis, Francois; Chu, Jennifer; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Mushavi, Angela; Freedberg, Kenneth A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the “virtual elimination” of pediatric HIV: a mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk of less than 5%. We investigated uptake of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) services, infant feeding recommendations, and specific drug regimens necessary to achieve this goal in Zimbabwe. Methods and Findings We used a computer <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate a cohort of HIV-infected, pregnant/breastfeeding women (mean age, 24 y; mean CD4, 451/µl; breastfeeding duration, 12 mo). Three PMTCT regimens were evaluated: (1) single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), (2) WHO 2010 guidelines' “Option A” (zidovudine in pregnancy, infant nevirapine throughout breastfeeding for women without advanced disease, lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy for women with advanced disease), and (3) WHO “Option B” (pregnancy/breastfeeding-limited combination antiretroviral drug regimens without advanced disease; lifelong antiretroviral therapy with advanced disease). We examined four levels of PMTCT uptake (proportion of pregnant women accessing and adhering to PMTCT services): reported <span class="hlt">rates</span> in 2008 and 2009 (36% and 56%, respectively) and target goals in 2008 and 2009 (80% and 95%, respectively). The primary <span class="hlt">model</span> outcome was MTCT risk at weaning. The 2008 sdNVP-<span class="hlt">based</span> National PMTCT Program led to a projected 12-mo MTCT risk of 20.3%. Improved uptake in 2009 reduced projected risk to 18.0%. If sdNVP were replaced by more effective regimens, with 2009 (56%) uptake, estimated MTCT risk would be 14.4% (Option A) or 13.4% (Option B). Even with 95% uptake of Option A or B, projected transmission risks (6.1%–7.7%) would exceed the WHO goal of less than 5%. Only if the lowest published transmission risks were used for each drug regimen, or breastfeeding duration were shortened, would MTCT risks at 95% uptake fall below 5%. Conclusions Implementation of the WHO PMTCT guidelines must be accompanied by efforts to improve access to PMTCT services, retain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034445','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034445"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional response <span class="hlt">models</span> to estimate feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> of wading birds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Collazo, J.A.; Gilliam, J.F.; Miranda-Castro, L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Forager (predator) abundance may mediate feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> in wading birds. Yet, when <span class="hlt">modeled</span>, feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> are typically derived from the purely prey-dependent Holling Type II (HoII) functional response <span class="hlt">model</span>. Estimates of feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> are necessary to evaluate wading bird foraging strategies and their role in food webs; thus, <span class="hlt">models</span> that incorporate predator dependence warrant consideration. Here, data collected in a mangrove swamp in Puerto Rico in 1994 were reanalyzed, reporting feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> for mixed-species flocks after comparing fits of the HoII <span class="hlt">model</span>, as used in the original work, to the Beddington-DeAngelis (BD) and Crowley-Martin (CM) predator-dependent <span class="hlt">models</span>. <span class="hlt">Model</span> CM received most support (AIC c wi = 0.44), but <span class="hlt">models</span> BD and HoII were plausible alternatives (AIC c ??? 2). Results suggested that feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span> were constrained by predator abundance. Reductions in <span class="hlt">rates</span> were attributed to interference, which was consistent with the independently observed increase in aggression as flock size increased (P < 0.05). Substantial discrepancies between the CM and HoII <span class="hlt">models</span> were possible depending on flock sizes used to <span class="hlt">model</span> feeding <span class="hlt">rates</span>. However, inferences derived from the HoII <span class="hlt">model</span>, as used in the original work, were sound. While Holling's Type II and other purely prey-dependent <span class="hlt">models</span> have fostered advances in wading bird foraging ecology, evaluating <span class="hlt">models</span> that incorporate predator dependence could lead to a more adequate description of data and processes of interest. The mechanistic <span class="hlt">bases</span> used to derive <span class="hlt">models</span> used here lead to biologically interpretable results and advance understanding of wading bird foraging ecology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA343323','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA343323"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of High <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1 13 Apr 98 Final (01 Sep 94 - 31 Aug 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Analytical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of High <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Processes...20332- 8050 FROM: S. E. Jones, University Research Professor Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics University of Alabama SUBJECT: Final...Mr. Sandor Augustus and Mr. Jeffrey A. Drinkard. There are no outstanding commitments. The balance in the account, as of July 31 , 1997, was $102,916.42</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790009312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790009312"><span id="translatedtitle">Error <span class="hlt">rate</span> information in attention allocation pilot <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Faulkner, W. H.; Onstott, E. D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The Northrop urgency decision pilot <span class="hlt">model</span> was used in a command tracking task to compare the optimized performance of multiaxis attention allocation pilot <span class="hlt">models</span> whose urgency functions were (1) <span class="hlt">based</span> on tracking error alone, and (2) <span class="hlt">based</span> on both tracking error and error <span class="hlt">rate</span>. A matrix of system dynamics and command inputs was employed, to create both symmetric and asymmetric two axis compensatory tracking tasks. All tasks were single loop on each axis. Analysis showed that a <span class="hlt">model</span> that allocates control attention through nonlinear urgency functions using only error information could not achieve performance of the full <span class="hlt">model</span> whose attention shifting algorithm included both error and error <span class="hlt">rate</span> terms. Subsequent to this analysis, tracking performance predictions for the full <span class="hlt">model</span> were verified by piloted flight simulation. Complete <span class="hlt">model</span> and simulation data are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/457582','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/457582"><span id="translatedtitle">A theory of exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alekseev, A.A.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>The article examines exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for two cases: (a) when the trading partners have mutual interests and (b) when the trading partners have antogonistic interests. Exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> in world markets are determined by supply and demand for the currency of each state, and states may control the exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> of their currency by changing the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the volume of credit, and product prices in both domestic and export markets. Abstracting from issues of production and technology in different countries and also ignoring various trade, institutional, and other barriers, we consider in this article only the effect of export and import prices on the exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span>, we propose a new criterion of external trade activity: each trading partner earns a profit which is proportional to the volume of benefits enjoyed by the other partner. We consider a trading cycle that consists of four stages: (a) purchase of goods in the domestic market with the object of selling them abroad; (b) sale of the goods in foreign markets; (c) purchase of goods abroad with the object of selling them in the domestic market; (d) sale of the goods domestically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013490','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013490"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustically <span class="hlt">based</span> fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The acoustically <span class="hlt">based</span> fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> monitor permits an expectant mother to perform the fetal Non-Stress Test in her home. The potential market would include the one million U.S. pregnancies per year requiring this type of prenatal surveillance. The monitor uses polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric polymer film for the acoustic sensors, which are mounted in a seven-element array on a cummerbund. Evaluation of the sensor ouput signals utilizes a digital signal processor, which performs a linear prediction routine in real time. Clinical tests reveal that the acoustically <span class="hlt">based</span> monitor provides Non-Stress Test records which are comparable to those obtained with a commercial ultrasonic transducer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004894','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004894"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves using remotely sensed LiDAR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nathanson, Marcus; Kean, Jason W.; Grabs, Thomas J.; Seibert, Jan; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lyon, Steve W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Accurate stream discharge measurements are important for many hydrological studies. In remote locations, however, it is often difficult to obtain stream flow information because of the difficulty in making the discharge measurements necessary to define stage-discharge relationships (<span class="hlt">rating</span> curves). This study investigates the feasibility of defining <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves by using a fluid mechanics-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> constrained with topographic data from an airborne LiDAR scanning. The study was carried out for an 8m-wide channel in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden. LiDAR data were used to define channel geometry above a low flow water surface along the 90-m surveyed reach. The channel topography below the water surface was estimated using the simple assumption of a flat streambed. The roughness for the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> reach was back calculated from a single measurment of discharge. The topographic and roughness information was then used to <span class="hlt">model</span> a <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve. To isolate the potential influence of the flat bed assumption, a 'hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span>' <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve was developed on the basis of data combined from the LiDAR scan and a detailed ground survey. Whereas this hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve was in agreement with the direct measurements of discharge, the LiDAR <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve was equally in agreement with the medium and high flow measurements <span class="hlt">based</span> on confidence intervals calculated from the direct measurements. The discrepancy between the LiDAR <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve and the low flow measurements was likely due to reduced roughness associated with unresolved submerged bed topography. Scanning during periods of low flow can help minimize this deficiency. These results suggest that combined ground surveys and LiDAR scans or multifrequency LiDAR scans that see 'below' the water surface (bathymetric LiDAR) could be useful in generating data needed to run such a fluid mechanics-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. This opens a realm of possibility to remotely sense and monitor stream flows in channels in remote</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23337764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23337764"><span id="translatedtitle">The relationship between specific absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> and temperature elevation in anatomically <span class="hlt">based</span> human body <span class="hlt">models</span> for plane wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Oizumi, Takuya; Hanatani, Ryuto; Chan, Kwok Hung; Wiart, Joe</p> <p>2013-02-21</p> <p>According to the international safety guidelines/standard, the whole-body-averaged specific absorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> (Poljak et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 45 141-5) and the peak spatial average SAR are used as metrics for human protection from whole-body and localized exposures, respectively. The IEEE standard (IEEE 2006 IEEE C95.1) indicates that the upper boundary frequency, over which the whole-body-averaged SAR is deemed to be the basic restriction, has been reduced from 6 to 3 GHz, because radio-wave energy is absorbed around the body surface when the frequency is increased. However, no quantitative discussion has been provided to support this description especially from the standpoint of temperature elevation. It is of interest to investigate the maximum temperature elevation in addition to the core temperature even for a whole-body exposure. In the present study, using anatomically <span class="hlt">based</span> human <span class="hlt">models</span>, we computed the SAR and the temperature elevation for a plane-wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz, taking into account the thermoregulatory response. As the primary result, we found that the ratio of the core temperature elevation to the whole-body-averaged SAR is almost frequency independent for frequencies below a few gigahertz; the ratio decreases above this frequency. At frequencies higher than a few gigahertz, core temperature elevation for the same whole-body averaged SAR becomes lower due to heat convection from the skin to air. This lower core temperature elevation is attributable to skin temperature elevation caused by the power absorption around the body surface. Then, core temperature elevation even for whole-body averaged SAR of 4 W kg(-1) with the duration of 1 h was at most 0.8 °C, which is smaller than a threshold considered in the safety guidelines/standard. Further, the peak 10 g averaged SAR is correlated with the maximum body temperature elevations without extremities and pinna over the frequencies considered. These findings</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/94016','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/94016"><span id="translatedtitle">High strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for fiber-reinforced composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>Numerical simulations of dynamic uniaxial strain loading of fiber-reinforced composites are presented that illustrate the wide range of deformation mechanisms that can be captured using a micromechanics-<span class="hlt">based</span> homogenization technique as the material <span class="hlt">model</span> in existing continuum mechanics computer programs. Enhancements to the material <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporate high strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> plastic response, elastic nonlinearity, and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent strength degradation due to material damage, fiber debonding, and delamination. These make the <span class="hlt">model</span> relevant to designing composite structural components for crash safety, armor, and munitions applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003466','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003466"><span id="translatedtitle">A Symmetric Time-Varying Cluster <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Descent <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ray, Eric S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> of the time-varying <span class="hlt">rate</span> of descent of the Orion vehicle was developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the observed correlation between canopy projected area and drag coefficient. This initial version of the <span class="hlt">model</span> assumes cluster symmetry and only varies the vertical component of velocity. The cluster fly-out angle is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as a series of sine waves <span class="hlt">based</span> on flight test data. The projected area of each canopy is synchronized with the primary fly-out angle mode. The sudden loss of projected area during canopy collisions is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> at minimum fly-out angles, leading to brief increases in <span class="hlt">rate</span> of descent. The cluster geometry is converted to drag coefficient using empirically derived constants. A more complete <span class="hlt">model</span> is under development, which computes the aerodynamic response of each canopy to its local incidence angle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900012969','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900012969"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> high data <span class="hlt">rate</span> communication network access protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of high data <span class="hlt">rate</span> communication systems is different from the low data <span class="hlt">rate</span> systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The first was a <span class="hlt">model</span> using SIMCRIPT <span class="hlt">based</span> upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C <span class="hlt">based</span> upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third <span class="hlt">model</span> further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was also built in C. Each <span class="hlt">model</span> is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the <span class="hlt">model</span> developer because of his past familiarity. Further the <span class="hlt">models</span> were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative <span class="hlt">models</span> were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand <span class="hlt">modeling</span> complexities. Each <span class="hlt">model</span> is described along with its features and problems. The <span class="hlt">models</span> are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSP...128...21D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSP...128...21D"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Protein Production <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, J. J.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>In the process of translation, ribosomes read the genetic code on an mRNA and assemble the corresponding polypeptide chain. The ribosomes perform discrete directed motion which is well <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with open boundaries. Using Monte Carlo simulations and a simple mean-field theory, we discuss the effect of one or two "bottlenecks" (i.e., slow codons) on the production <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the final protein. Confirming and extending previous work by Chou and Lakatos, we find that the location and spacing of the slow codons can affect the production <span class="hlt">rate</span> quite dramatically. In particular, we observe a novel "edge" effect, i.e., an interaction of a single slow codon with the system boundary. We focus in detail on ribosome density profiles and provide a simple explanation for the length scale which controls the range of these interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1782e0016T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1782e0016T"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> using a <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Prediction of future mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> is crucial to insurance companies because they face longevity risks while providing retirement benefits to a population whose life expectancy is increasing. In the past literature, a time series <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied on mortality data from the United States for the years 1933 till 2000 to forecast the future mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the years 2001 till 2010. In this paper, a more dynamic approach <span class="hlt">based</span> on the multivariate time series will be proposed where the <span class="hlt">model</span> uses stochastic parameters that vary with time. The resulting prediction intervals obtained using the <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters perform better because apart from having good ability in covering the observed future mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>, they also tend to have distinctly shorter interval lengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26210432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26210432"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Video <span class="hlt">Based</span> Heart <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Jian; Rozado, David; Duenser, Andreas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Non-contact measurements of cardiac pulse can provide robust measurement of heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HR) without the annoyance of attaching electrodes to the body. In this paper we explore a novel and reliable method to carry out video-<span class="hlt">based</span> HR estimation and propose various performance improvement over existing approaches. The investigated method uses Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to detect the underlying HR signal from a mixed source signal present in the RGB channels of the image. The original ICA algorithm was implemented and several modifications were explored in order to determine which one could be optimal for accurate HR estimation. Using statistical analysis, we compared the cardiac pulse <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation from the different methods under comparison on the extracted videos to a commercially available oximeter. We found that some of these methods are quite effective and efficient in terms of improving accuracy and latency of the system. We have made the code of our algorithms openly available to the scientific community so that other researchers can explore how to integrate video-<span class="hlt">based</span> HR monitoring in novel health technology applications. We conclude by noting that recent advances in video-<span class="hlt">based</span> HR monitoring permit computers to be aware of a user's psychophysiological status in real time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A54A..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A54A..06K"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnosis of Photochemical Ozone Production <span class="hlt">Rates</span> and Limiting Factors <span class="hlt">based</span> on Observation-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Approach over East Asia: Impact of Radical Chemistry Mechanism and Ozone-Control Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanaya, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Growth of tropospheric ozone, causing health and climate impacts, is concerned over East Asia, because emissions of precursors have dramatically increased. Photochemical production <span class="hlt">rates</span> of ozone and limiting factors, primarily studied for urban locations, have been poorly assessed within a perspective of regional-scale air pollution over East Asia. We performed comprehensive observations of ozone precursors at several locations with regional representativeness and made such assessment <span class="hlt">based</span> on the observation-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach. Here, diagnosis at Fukue Island (32.75°N, 128.68°E) remotely located in western Japan (May 2009) is highlighted, where the highest 10% of hourly ozone concentrations reached 72‒118 ppb during May influenced by Asian continental outflow. The average in-situ ozone production <span class="hlt">rate</span> was estimated to be 6.8 ppb per day, suggesting that in-travel production was still active, while larger buildup must have occurred beforehand. Information on the chemical status of the air mass arriving in Japan is important, because it affects how further ozone production occurs after precursor addition from Japanese domestic emissions. The main limiting factor of ozone production was usually NOx, suggesting that domestic NOx emission control is important in reducing further ozone production and the incidence of warning issuance (>120 ppb). VOCs also increased the ozone production <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and occasionally (14% of time) became dominant. This analysis implies that the VOC reduction legislation recently enacted should be effective. The uncertainty in the radical chemistry mechanism governing ozone production had a non-negligible impact, but the main conclusion relevant to policy was not altered. When chain termination was augmented by HO2-H2O + NO/NO2 reactions and by heterogeneous loss of HO2 on aerosol particle surfaces, the daily ozone production <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreased by <24%, and the fraction of hours when the VOC-limited condition occurred varied from 14% to 13</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19700351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19700351"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> effects on the IAT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bluemke, Matthias; Fiedler, Klaus</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We investigated the influence of stimulus <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Using an East/West-German attitude-IAT, we demonstrated that both overall response speed and differential response speed underlying IAT effects depend on the relative frequencies of the stimulus categories. First, when those stimuli that are more common in reality also occurred more frequently in the stimulus list, response speed generally increased. Second, IAT effects increased when congruent blocks profited from the compatibility of frequency-<span class="hlt">based</span> response biases (i.e., frequent target stimuli and frequent valence stimuli mapped onto the same response key), whereas IAT effects decreased when incongruent trial blocks profited from response compatibility. These findings demonstrate that the stimulus context moderates the magnitude of the IAT effect. Simultaneously, they highlight the need to explore the extent to which implicit measures reflect properties of the task or the environment rather than attributes of test-takers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSR....73...32F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSR....73...32F"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">model</span> of clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation in mussels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fréchette, Marcel</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation has been <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Internal-state regulation of clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a <span class="hlt">model</span> of internal-state <span class="hlt">based</span> regulation of clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span>. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I <span class="hlt">modelled</span> blue mussel clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> and growth using a DEB <span class="hlt">model</span>. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.2071V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.2071V"><span id="translatedtitle">Time-dependent freezing <span class="hlt">rate</span> parcel <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The time-dependent freezing <span class="hlt">rate</span> (TDFR) <span class="hlt">model</span> here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period in time when the parcel remains stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles under isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to three-fold variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple <span class="hlt">model</span> framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud <span class="hlt">models</span>. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1429305V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1429305V"><span id="translatedtitle">Time-dependent freezing <span class="hlt">rate</span> parcel <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vali, G.; Snider, J. R.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The Time-Dependent Freezing <span class="hlt">Rate</span> (TDFR) <span class="hlt">model</span> here described represents the formation of ice particles by immersion freezing within an air parcel. The air parcel trajectory follows an adiabatic ascent and includes a period at time with the parcel remaining stationary at the top of its ascent. The description of the ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the air parcel is taken from laboratory experiments with cloud and precipitation samples and is assumed to represent the INP content of the cloud droplets in the parcel. Time-dependence is included to account for variations in updraft velocity and for the continued formation of ice particles at isothermal conditions. The magnitudes of these factors are assessed on the basis of laboratory measurements. Results show that both factors give rise to factors of about 3 variations in ice concentration for a realistic range of the input parameters. Refinements of the parameters specifying time-dependence and INP concentrations are needed to make the results more specific to different atmospheric aerosol types. The simple <span class="hlt">model</span> framework described in this paper can be adapted to more elaborate cloud <span class="hlt">models</span>. The results here presented can help guide decisions on whether to include a time-dependent ice nucleation scheme or a simpler singular description in <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZaMP...68...18P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZaMP...68...18P"><span id="translatedtitle">Decay <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> for quantum plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pu, Xueke; Xu, Xiuli</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we consider the quantum magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> for quantum plasmas. We prove the optimal decay <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the solution to the constant state in the whole space in the Lp-norm with 2≤ p≤ 6 and its first derivatives in L2-norm. The proof is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the optimal decay of the linearized equation and nonlinear energy estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226190&keyword=hand+AND+washing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89423320&CFTOKEN=97874739','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226190&keyword=hand+AND+washing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89423320&CFTOKEN=97874739"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeled</span> Estimates of Soil and Dust Ingestion <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Daily soil/dust ingestion <span class="hlt">rates</span> typically used in exposure and risk assessments are <span class="hlt">based</span> on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> soil and dust inge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311273','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311273"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> using CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah</p> <p>2014-06-19</p> <p>The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) <span class="hlt">model</span> is a popular one-factor <span class="hlt">model</span> for describing the spot interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector φ{sup (j)} of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the j′-th time point where j≤j′≤j+n. To <span class="hlt">model</span> the variation of φ{sup (j)}, we assume that φ{sup (j)} depends on φ{sup (j−m)}, φ{sup (j−m+1)},…, φ{sup (j−1)} and the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> r{sub j+n} at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value r{sub j+n+1} of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> at the next time point when the value r{sub j+n} of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> r{sub j+n+d} at the next d-th (d≥2) time point. The prediction intervals <span class="hlt">based</span> on the CKLS <span class="hlt">model</span> with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> when compared with those <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">model</span> with fixed parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23733005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23733005"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical inference for extinction <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on last sightings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Miguel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo; Lluch-Belda, Daniel; Lluch-Cota, Salvador E</p> <p>2013-09-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rates</span> of extinction can be estimated from sighting records and are assumed to be implicitly constant by many data analysis methods. However, historical sightings are scarce. Frequently, the only information available for inferring extinction is the date of the last sighting. In this study, we developed a probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> and a corresponding statistical inference procedure <span class="hlt">based</span> on last sightings. We applied this procedure to data on recent marine extirpations and extinctions, seeking to test the null hypothesis of a constant extinction <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We found that over the past 500 years extirpations in the ocean have been increasing but at an uncertain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, whereas a constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> of global marine extinctions is statistically plausible. The small sample sizes of marine extinction records generate such high uncertainty that different combinations of <span class="hlt">model</span> inputs can yield different outputs that fit the observed data equally well. Thus, current marine extinction trends may be idiosyncratic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..414..328E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..414..328E"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of carbon on irradiation-induced grain-boundary phosphorus segregation in reactor pressure vessel steels using first-principles-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> theory <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Onizawa, Kunio; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we incorporated the effect of carbon atoms on the irradiation-induced grain-boundary phosphorus segregation into the <span class="hlt">rate</span> theory <span class="hlt">model</span> by considering a carbon atom as a trap site of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, and simulated the grain-boundary phosphorus coverage in the reactor pressure vessel steels, A533B steels which were neutron-irradiated using the Halden reactor. As a result, by selecting the sink strength of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, the simulation reproduced the experimental grain-boundary phosphorus coverage that was measured using the scanning Auger electron microprobe analysis. It was observed that the grain-boundary phosphorus coverage does not depend on the dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> regardless of the presence of carbon atoms. Furthermore, it was confirmed that vacancies scarcely transport phosphorus atoms to grain-boundaries as compared to the transport by self-interstitial atoms and it was found that carbon atoms influence the irradiation-induced phosphorus segregation by mainly suppressing the migration of vacancies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27438964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27438964"><span id="translatedtitle">Justification of Drug Product Dissolution <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Drug Substance Particle Size Specifications <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Absorption PBPK <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for Lesinurad Immediate Release Tablets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pepin, Xavier J H; Flanagan, Talia R; Holt, David J; Eidelman, Anna; Treacy, Don; Rowlings, Colin E</p> <p>2016-09-06</p> <p>In silico absorption <span class="hlt">modeling</span> has been performed, to assess the impact of in vitro dissolution on in vivo performance for ZURAMPIC (lesinurad) tablets. The dissolution profiles of lesinurad tablets generated using the quality control method were used as an input to a GastroPlus <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate in vivo dissolution in the various parts of the GI tract and predict human exposure. A <span class="hlt">model</span> was set up, which accounts for differences of dosage form transit, dissolution, local pH in the GI tract, and fluid volumes available for dissolution. The predictive ability of the <span class="hlt">model</span> was demonstrated by confirming that it can reproduce the Cmax observed for independent clinical trial. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also indicated that drug product batches that pass the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min are anticipated to be bioequivalent to the clinical reference batch. To further explore the dissolution space, additional simulations were performed using a theoretical dissolution profile below the proposed specification. The GastroPlus <span class="hlt">modeling</span> indicates that such a batch will also be bioequivalent to standard clinical batches despite having a dissolution profile, which would fail the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min. This demonstrates that the proposed dissolution specification sits comfortably within a region of dissolution performance where bioequivalence is anticipated and is not near an edge of failure for dissolution, providing additional confidence to the proposed specifications. Finally, simulations were performed using a virtual drug substance batch with a particle size distribution at the limit of the proposed specification for particle size. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on these simulations, such a batch is also anticipated to be bioequivalent to clinical reference, demonstrating that the proposed specification limits for particle size distribution would give products bioequivalent to the pivotal clinical batches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737125"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability from pulse oximeter recordings using localized <span class="hlt">model</span> fitting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wadehn, Federico; Carnal, David; Loeliger, Hans-Andrea</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability is one of the key parameters for assessing the health status of a subject's cardiovascular system. This paper presents a local <span class="hlt">model</span> fitting algorithm used for finding single heart beats in photoplethysmogram recordings. The local fit of exponentially decaying cosines of frequencies within the physiological range is used to detect the presence of a heart beat. Using 42 subjects from the Capno<span class="hlt">Base</span> database, the average heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> error was 0.16 BPM and the standard deviation of the absolute estimation error was 0.24 BPM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1336987','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1336987"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward the Development of a Fundamentally <span class="hlt">Based</span> Chemical <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.</p> <p>2016-08-25</p> <p>Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. We present calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. Furthermore, these radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by H and Ö atoms and OH, HO<sub>2</sub>, and CH<sub>3</sub> radicals, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when OH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HO<sub>2</sub> radicals. We also determined the subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1336987-toward-development-fundamentally-based-chemical-model-cyclopentanone-high-pressure-limit-rate-constants-atom-abstraction-fuel-radical-decomposition','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1336987-toward-development-fundamentally-based-chemical-model-cyclopentanone-high-pressure-limit-rate-constants-atom-abstraction-fuel-radical-decomposition"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward the Development of a Fundamentally <span class="hlt">Based</span> Chemical <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M.; Pitz, William J.; ...</p> <p>2016-08-25</p> <p>Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. We present calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. Furthermore, these radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by H and Ö atoms and OH, HO2, and CH3 radicals, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when OH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HO2more » radicals. We also determined the subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27558073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27558073"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward the Development of a Fundamentally <span class="hlt">Based</span> Chemical <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Pitz, William J; Curran, Henry J</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. Calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data are presented for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. These radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by Ḣ and Ö atoms and ȮH, HȮ2, and ĊH3 radicals, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when ȮH is involved, but the reverse holds true for HȮ2 radicals. The subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed is also determined, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036808"><span id="translatedtitle">A generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii <span class="hlt">model</span> for characterizing the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent hysteresis of piezoelectric actuators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gan, Jinqiang; Zhang, Xianmin; Wu, Heng</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, a generalized hysteresis <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed to describe both <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii (P-I) <span class="hlt">model</span>, the developed <span class="hlt">model</span> adds a quadratic polynomial and makes other small changes. When it is used to describe <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent hysteresis, the parameters of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are constants, which can be identified by self-adaptive particle swarm optimization. The effectiveness of this <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent modified P-I <span class="hlt">model</span> is demonstrated by comparing simulation results of the developed <span class="hlt">model</span> and the classic Prandtl-Ishlinskii <span class="hlt">model</span>. Simulation results suggest that the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent modified P-I <span class="hlt">model</span> can describe hysteresis more precisely. Compared with the classical P-I <span class="hlt">model</span>, the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent modified P-I <span class="hlt">model</span> reduces <span class="hlt">modeling</span> error by more than 50%. When it is used to describe <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent hysteresis, a one-side operator is adopted and the parameters are functions with input frequency. The results of the experiments and simulations have shown that the proposed <span class="hlt">models</span> can accurately describe both <span class="hlt">rate</span>-independent and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010051282&hterms=statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstatistics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010051282&hterms=statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstatistics"><span id="translatedtitle">Sampling Errors in Monthly Rainfall Totals for TRMM and SSM/I, <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Statistics of Retrieved Rain <span class="hlt">Rates</span> and Simple <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Estimates from TRMM satellite data of monthly total rainfall over an area are subject to substantial sampling errors due to the limited number of visits to the area by the satellite during the month. Quantitative comparisons of TRMM averages with data collected by other satellites and by ground-<span class="hlt">based</span> systems require some estimate of the size of this sampling error. A method of estimating this sampling error <span class="hlt">based</span> on the actual statistics of the TRMM observations and on some <span class="hlt">modeling</span> work has been developed. "Sampling error" in TRMM monthly averages is defined here relative to the monthly total a hypothetical satellite permanently stationed above the area would have reported. "Sampling error" therefore includes contributions from the random and systematic errors introduced by the satellite remote sensing system. As part of our long-term goal of providing error estimates for each grid point accessible to the TRMM instruments, sampling error estimates for TRMM <span class="hlt">based</span> on rain retrievals from TRMM microwave (TMI) data are compared for different times of the year and different oceanic areas (to minimize changes in the statistics due to algorithmic differences over land and ocean). Changes in sampling error estimates due to changes in rain statistics due 1) to evolution of the official algorithms used to process the data, and 2) differences from other remote sensing systems such as the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1090177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1090177"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Remote Retrievals of Cumulus Entrainment <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wagner, Timothy J.; Turner, David D.; Berg, Larry K.; Krueger, Steven K.</p> <p>2013-07-26</p> <p>While fractional entrainment <span class="hlt">rates</span> for cumulus clouds have typically been derived from airborne observations, this limits the size and scope of available data sets. To increase the number of continental cumulus entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> observations available for study, an algorithm for retrieving them from ground-<span class="hlt">based</span> remote sensing observations has been developed. This algorithm, called the Entrainment <span class="hlt">Rate</span> In Cumulus Algorithm (ERICA), uses the suite of instruments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility as inputs into a Gauss-Newton optimal estimation scheme, in which an assumed guess of the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> is iteratively adjusted through intercomparison of <span class="hlt">modeled</span> liquid water path and cloud droplet effective radius to their observed counterparts. The forward <span class="hlt">model</span> in this algorithm is the Explicit Mixing Parcel <span class="hlt">Model</span> (EMPM), a cloud parcel <span class="hlt">model</span> that treats entrainment as a series of discrete entrainment events. A quantified value for measurement uncertainty is also returned as part of the retrieval. Sensitivity testing and information content analysis demonstrate the robust nature of this method for retrieving accurate observations of the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> without the drawbacks of airborne sampling. Results from a test of ERICA on three months of shallow cumulus cloud events show significant variability of the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> of clouds in a single day and from one day to the next. The mean value of 1.06 km-¹ for the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> in this dataset corresponds well with prior observations and simulations of the entrainment <span class="hlt">rate</span> in cumulus clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H13J..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H13J..04G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Equity for Alternative Water <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The rising popularity of increasing block <span class="hlt">rates</span> for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in <span class="hlt">rate</span> design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform <span class="hlt">rates</span> have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block <span class="hlt">rates</span>, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water <span class="hlt">rates</span>, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban <span class="hlt">rate</span> structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block <span class="hlt">rates</span> as contrasted to uniform <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative <span class="hlt">rate</span> proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater <span class="hlt">rates</span>. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both <span class="hlt">rate</span> systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching <span class="hlt">rate</span> structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding <span class="hlt">rate</span> structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S43C2480L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S43C2480L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Seismicity <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">rate</span> of M≥3 earthquakes in the central and eastern US increased beginning in 2009, particularly in regions such as Oklahoma and central Arkansas where fluid injection has occurred (Ellsworth et al., SSA abs, 2012; Horton, SRL, 2012). We compare <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes observed in Oklahoma, which had a low background seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> before 2009, to <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes observed in central Arkansas, which had swarms prior to the start of wastewater injection (Chiu et al., BSSA, 1984; Horton, SRL, 2012). In both cases, stochastic Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) <span class="hlt">models</span> (Ogata, JASA, 1988) and statistical tests demonstrate that the background <span class="hlt">rate</span> of independent events and the aftershock productivity must increase in 2009 in order to explain the observed increase in seismicity. Productivity is lower during the earlier tectonic swarms in Arkansas. The change in aftershock productivity may provide a way to distinguish manmade from natural earthquake <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes and could provide insights into the physical mechanisms of induced seismicity. We fit the ETAS <span class="hlt">model</span>, which is <span class="hlt">based</span> on empirical aftershock scaling laws such as Omori's Law and the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution, to a 1973-2011 USGS PDE catalog of M≥3 Oklahoma earthquakes and a 1982-2012 ANSS catalog of M≥2.2 Arkansas earthquakes. To determine whether a <span class="hlt">rate</span> increase is due to a change in background seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span>, aftershock productivity, or some combination of the two, we do the following: 1) fit the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters to the data, 2) convert origin times to transformed times (Ogata, JGR, 1992), and 3) use Runs and autocorrelation function tests to test the null hypothesis that the transformed times are drawn from a Poisson distribution with constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> (as expected when no external processes trigger earthquakes besides a constant tectonic loading <span class="hlt">rate</span>). In both cases a single set of parameters cannot fit the entire time period, suggesting that significant changes in the underlying process occurred</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..84...93H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..84...93H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> encounter <span class="hlt">rates</span> and distribution of mobile predators and prey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huse, Geir; Fiksen, Øyvind</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Marine ecosystem <span class="hlt">models</span> often contain modules for two phytoplankton compartments (flagellates and diatoms) and two zooplankton groups (micro- and mesozooplankton). The <span class="hlt">models</span> rarely include fish, not even as an agent in zooplankton mortality, which is often formulated as a constant <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This mortality <span class="hlt">rate</span> is treated as a free parameter, which can be used to tune or stabilize the <span class="hlt">model</span>. There are major gaps in our knowledge and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> capabilities of interactions at the higher trophic levels for example with regards to movement of fish at different scales, prey selection, and zooplankton responses to predators. Here, we argue that there are good reasons for making zooplankton mortality dependent on some key environmental variables known to affect the interaction strength between zooplankton and fish. In addition, since fish are highly mobile organisms, often moving in large groups, there is a need to better understand and <span class="hlt">model</span> their horizontal migration and to include this in ecosystem <span class="hlt">models</span>. We present basic <span class="hlt">models</span> for light-dependent encounters between fish and their zooplankton prey and illustrate how predator-prey interactions can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> for herring- Calanus and cod-capelin interactions using individual-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with super-individuals. In the latter two cases individual displacement is determined by movement behaviour and ocean circulation, and growth and mortality become emergent properties resulting from local encounters between predators and prey. Similarly movement behaviours emerge from simple adaptive rules or more complex <span class="hlt">models</span> where behavioural strategies are evolved using a genetic algorithm. Such <span class="hlt">models</span> are versatile and we argue that emergent mortality and growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> resulting from adaptive behaviours and key environmental forcing are essential for realistic representation of fish-zooplankton interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12157991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12157991"><span id="translatedtitle">Biplot <span class="hlt">models</span> applied to cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osmond, C</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>"A graphical method developed by Gabriel to display the rows and columns of a matrix is applied to tables of age- and period-specific cancer mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>. It is particularly useful when the pattern of age-specific <span class="hlt">rates</span> changes with time. Trends in age-specific <span class="hlt">rates</span> and changes in the age distribution are identified as projections. Three examples [from England and Wales] are given."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30.1166K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30.1166K"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen utilization <span class="hlt">rate</span> (OUR) underestimates ocean respiration: A <span class="hlt">model</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koeve, W.; Kähler, P.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We use a simple 1-D <span class="hlt">model</span> representing an isolated density surface in the ocean and 3-D global ocean biogeochemical <span class="hlt">models</span> to evaluate the concept of computing the subsurface oceanic oxygen utilization <span class="hlt">rate</span> (OUR) from the changes of apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and water age. The distribution of AOU in the ocean is not only the imprint of respiration in the ocean's interior but is strongly influenced by transport processes and eventually loss at the ocean surface. Since AOU and water age are subject to advection and diffusive mixing, it is only when they are affected both in the same way that OUR represents the correct <span class="hlt">rate</span> of oxygen consumption. This is the case only when advection prevails or with uniform respiration <span class="hlt">rates</span>, when the proportions of AOU and age are not changed by transport. In experiments with the 1-D tube <span class="hlt">model</span>, OUR underestimates respiration when maximum respiration <span class="hlt">rates</span> occur near the outcrops of isopycnals and overestimates when maxima occur far from the outcrops. Given the distribution of respiration in the ocean, i.e., elevated <span class="hlt">rates</span> near high-latitude outcrops of isopycnals and low <span class="hlt">rates</span> below the oligotrophic gyres, underestimates are the rule. Integrating these effects globally in three coupled ocean biogeochemical and circulation <span class="hlt">models</span>, we find that AOU-over-age <span class="hlt">based</span> calculations underestimate true <span class="hlt">model</span> respiration by a factor of 3. Most of this difference is observed in the upper 1000 m of the ocean with the discrepancies increasing toward the surface where OUR underestimates respiration by as much as factor of 4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4811623H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4811623H"><span id="translatedtitle">An empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> of H2O, CO2 and CO coma distributions and production <span class="hlt">rates</span> for comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko <span class="hlt">based</span> on ROSINA/DFMS measurements and AMPS-DSMC simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Kenneth C.; Altwegg, Kathrin; Bieler, Andre; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Calmonte, Ursina; Combi, Michael R.; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fougere, Nicolas; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, T. I.; Hässig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Le Roy, Léna; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Toth, Gabor; Tzou, Chia-Yu; ROSINA Team</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We have previously used results from the AMPS DSMC (Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) <span class="hlt">model</span> to create an empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the near comet water (H2O) coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In this work we create additional empirical <span class="hlt">models</span> for the coma distributions of CO2 and CO. The AMPS simulations are <span class="hlt">based</span> on ROSINA DFMS (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis, Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer) data taken over the entire timespan of the Rosetta mission. The empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> is created using AMPS DSMC results which are extracted from simulations at a range of radial distances, rotation phases and heliocentric distances. The simulation results are then averaged over a comet rotation and fitted to an empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> distribution. <span class="hlt">Model</span> coefficients are then fitted to piecewise-linear functions of heliocentric distance. The final product is an empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the coma distribution which is a function of heliocentric distance, radial distance, and sun-fixed longitude and latitude angles. The <span class="hlt">model</span> clearly mimics the behavior of water shifting production from North to South across the inbound equinox while the CO2 production is always in the South.The empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used to de-trend the spacecraft motion from the ROSINA COPS and DFMS data. The ROSINA instrument measures the neutral coma density at a single point and the measured value is influenced by the location of the spacecraft relative to the comet and the comet-sun line. Using the empirical coma <span class="hlt">model</span> we can correct for the position of the spacecraft and compute a total production <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on single point measurements. In this presentation we will present the coma production <span class="hlt">rates</span> as a function of heliocentric distance for the entire Rosetta mission.This work was supported by contracts JPL#1266313 and JPL#1266314 from the US Rosetta Project and NASA grant NNX14AG84G from the Planetary Atmospheres Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.734c2140V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.734c2140V"><span id="translatedtitle">Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Dependant Material <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Orthotropic Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vignjevic, Rade</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In manufacturing processes anisotropic metals are often exposed to the loading with high strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the range from 102 s-1 to 106 s-1 (e.g. stamping, cold spraying and explosive forming). These types of loading often involve generation and propagation of shock waves within the material. The material behaviour under such a complex loading needs to be accurately <span class="hlt">modelled</span>, in order to optimise the manufacturing process and achieve appropriate properties of the manufactured component. The presented research is related to development and validation of a thermodynamically consistent physically <span class="hlt">based</span> constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for metals under high <span class="hlt">rate</span> loading. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is capable of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> damage, failure and formation and propagation of shock waves in anisotropic metals. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has two main parts: the strength part which defines the material response to shear deformation and an equation of state (EOS) which defines the material response to isotropic volumetric deformation [1]. The constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> was implemented into the transient nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D [2] and our in house SPH code. Limited <span class="hlt">model</span> validation was performed by simulating a number of high velocity material characterisation and validation impact tests. The new damage <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed in the framework of configurational continuum mechanics and irreversible thermodynamics with internal state variables. The use of the multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient makes the <span class="hlt">model</span> applicable to arbitrary plastic and damage deformations. To account for the physical mechanisms of failure, the concept of thermally activated damage initially proposed by Tuller and Bucher [3], Klepaczko [4] was adopted as the basis for the new damage evolution <span class="hlt">model</span>. This makes the proposed damage/failure <span class="hlt">model</span> compatible with the Mechanical Threshold Strength (MTS) <span class="hlt">model</span> Follansbee and Kocks [5], 1988; Chen and Gray [6] which was used to control evolution of flow stress during plastic deformation. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20922484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20922484"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability <span class="hlt">model</span> for estimating colorectal polyp progression <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gopalappa, Chaitra; Aydogan-Cremaschi, Selen; Das, Tapas K; Orcun, Seza</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>According to the American Cancer Society, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Experts estimate that about 85% of CRCs begin as precancerous polyps, early detection and treatment of which can significantly reduce the risk of CRC. Hence, it is imperative to develop population-wide intervention strategies for early detection of polyps. Development of such strategies requires precise values of population-specific <span class="hlt">rates</span> of incidence of polyp and its progression to cancerous stage. There has been a considerable amount of research in recent years on developing screening <span class="hlt">based</span> CRC intervention strategies. However, these are not supported by population-specific mathematical estimates of progression <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This paper addresses this need by developing a probability <span class="hlt">model</span> that estimates polyp progression <span class="hlt">rates</span> considering race and family history of CRC; note that, it is ethically infeasible to obtain polyp progression <span class="hlt">rates</span> through clinical trials. We use the estimated <span class="hlt">rates</span> to simulate the progression of polyps in the population of the State of Indiana, and also the population of a clinical trial conducted in the State of Minnesota, which was obtained from literature. The results from the simulations are used to validate the probability <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..471..387L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..471..387L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and predicting historical volatility in exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> markets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lahmiri, Salim</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Volatility <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and forecasting of currency exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an important task in several business risk management tasks; including treasury risk management, derivatives pricing, and portfolio risk evaluation. The purpose of this study is to present a simple and effective approach for predicting historical volatility of currency exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The approach is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a limited set of technical indicators as inputs to the artificial neural networks (ANN). To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, it was applied to forecast US/Canada and US/Euro exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span> volatilities. The forecasting results show that our simple approach outperformed the conventional GARCH and EGARCH with different distribution assumptions, and also the hybrid GARCH and EGARCH with ANN in terms of mean absolute error, mean of squared errors, and Theil's inequality coefficient. Because of the simplicity and effectiveness of the approach, it is promising for US currency volatility prediction tasks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-26/pdf/2011-1488.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-26/pdf/2011-1488.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 4569 - Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Affiliate Restrictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-26</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Affiliate Restrictions AGENCY: Federal... proposed rulemaking, which proposed to amend its regulations governing market-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for public..., fuel procurement or resource planning may not be shared under the market- <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16245572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16245572"><span id="translatedtitle">[Calculating the intrinsic growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>: comparison of definition and <span class="hlt">model</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voronov, D A</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>It was shown that well known equation r = ln[N(t2)/N(t1)]/(t2 - t1) is the definition of the average value of intrinsic growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> of population r within any given interval of time t2-t1 and changing arbitrarity its numbers N(t). The common opinion considering the equation as suitable only for exponentially growing population was found to be incorrect. The fundamentally different approach is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the calculation of r within the framework of demographic <span class="hlt">model</span>, realized as Euler - Lotka equation or population projection matrices. However this <span class="hlt">model</span> requires simultaneous realization of several assumptions improbable for natural populations: exponential change in population size, stable age structure and maintaining constant age-dependent birth and death <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The calculation of r by definition requires the data on the dynamics of population numbers, whereas calculation on the basis of the <span class="hlt">model</span> requires the demographic tables of birth and death <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but not the population numbers. With the example of American ginseng it was shown that evalution of r by definition and <span class="hlt">model</span> approaches could produce opposite results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX21002L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX21002L"><span id="translatedtitle">Tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporating temperature, strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett; Brown, Justin; Lane, Matt</p> <p></p> <p>Tantalum is a body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory metal that is widely used in many applications in high temperature, strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and pressure environments. In this work, we propose a physically-<span class="hlt">based</span> strength <span class="hlt">model</span> for tantalum that incorporates effects of temperature, strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> and pressure. A constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for single crystal tantalum is developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on dislocation kink-pair theory, and calibrated to measurements on single crystal specimens. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to predict deformations of single- and polycrystalline tantalum. In addition, the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented into Sandia's ALEGRA solid dynamics code to predict plastic deformations of tantalum in engineering-scale applications at extreme conditions, e.g. Taylor impact tests and Z machine's high pressure ramp compression tests, and the results are compared with available experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031031','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031031"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating recharge <span class="hlt">rates</span> with analytic element <span class="hlt">models</span> and parameter estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dripps, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured <span class="hlt">base</span> flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE <span class="hlt">model</span> construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow <span class="hlt">model</span> of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual <span class="hlt">base</span> flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge <span class="hlt">rate</span> provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual <span class="hlt">base</span> flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones <span class="hlt">based</span> on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-23/pdf/2012-9655.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-23/pdf/2012-9655.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Authority and Termination of Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Tariffs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-23</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Revocation of Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Authority and Termination of Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Tariffs Docket Nos. Aleph One, Inc ER04-686-000 Alpha Domestic Power Trading, LLC... market-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> authority of the public utilities listed in the caption of that order, which had...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750025120','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750025120"><span id="translatedtitle">A simple reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for turbulent diffusion flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bangert, L. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A simple reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed for turbulent diffusion flames in which the reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> is proportional to the turbulence mixing <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> is also dependent on the mean mass fraction and the mean square fluctuation of mass fraction of each reactant. Calculations are compared with experimental data and are generally successful in predicting the measured quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335466&keyword=CHemistry&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78706387&CFTOKEN=15478990','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335466&keyword=CHemistry&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78706387&CFTOKEN=15478990"><span id="translatedtitle">Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ: Part II - Parameterization <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning Strikes and <span class="hlt">Modeled</span> Convective Precipitation <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> lightning NOX during the past dec...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075754"><span id="translatedtitle">Triple-{alpha} reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> constrained by stellar evolution <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suda, Takuma; Hirschi, Raphael; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.</p> <p>2012-11-12</p> <p>We investigate the quantitative constraint on the triple-{alpha} reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on stellar evolution theory, motivated by the recent significant revision of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> proposed by nuclear physics calculations. Targeted stellar <span class="hlt">models</span> were computed in order to investigate the impact of that <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the mass range of 0.8{<=}M/M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }{<=}25 and in the metallicity range between Z= 0 and Z= 0.02. The revised <span class="hlt">rate</span> has a significant impact on the evolution of low-and intermediate-mass stars, while its influence on the evolution of massive stars (M > 10M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }) is minimal. We find that employing the revised <span class="hlt">rate</span> suppresses helium shell flashes on AGB phase for stars in the initial mass range 0.8{<=}M/M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }{<=}6, which is contradictory to what is observed. The absence of helium shell flashes is due to the weak temperature dependence of the revised triple-{alpha} reaction cross section at the temperature involved. In our <span class="hlt">models</span>, it is suggested that the temperature dependence of the cross section should have at least {nu} > 10 at T = 1-1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}K where the cross section is proportional to T{sup {nu}}. We also derive the helium ignition curve to estimate the maximum cross section to retain the low-mass first red giants. The semi-analytically derived ignition curves suggest that the reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> should be less than {approx} 10{sup -29} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} mole{sup -2} at Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 7.8} K, which corresponds to about three orders of magnitude larger than that of the NACRE compilation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22878094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22878094"><span id="translatedtitle">The dynamics of digital dermatitis in populations of dairy cattle: <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimates of transition <span class="hlt">rates</span> and implications for control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Döpfer, Dörte; Holzhauer, Menno; Boven, Michiel van</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Five groups of dairy cows affected by digital dermatitis were subjected to five different footbath strategies and evaluated at regular 3-weekly intervals. A standard protocol was used to record five different stages of disease from early (M1), acute ulcerative (M2), healing (M3) and chronic lesions (M4) in addition to the negative stage of disease (M0). The effect of the footbathing was evaluated using mathematical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> for the transmission dynamics of infections and summarized using the reproduction ratio R(0). Sensitivity analysis for a range of parameters in the mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> showed that the speed of detecting acute lesions and the efficiency with which those lesions were treated were the key parameters which determined whether lesions became more severe or whether they healed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=202543&keyword=Child+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78760524&CFTOKEN=51472789','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=202543&keyword=Child+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78760524&CFTOKEN=51472789"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: A Revised Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> Upon Oxygen Consumption <span class="hlt">Rates</span> (Final Report, 2009)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA announced the availability of the final report, <i>Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: A Revised Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> Upon Oxygen Consumption <span class="hlt">Rates</span></i>. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation <span class="hlt">rate</span> directly from their oxygen c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23187408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23187408"><span id="translatedtitle">Noise <span class="hlt">models</span> for low counting <span class="hlt">rate</span> coherent diffraction imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Godard, Pierre; Allain, Marc; Chamard, Virginie; Rodenburg, John</p> <p>2012-11-05</p> <p>Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is a lens-less microscopy method that extracts the complex-valued exit field from intensity measurements alone. It is of particular importance for microscopy imaging with diffraction set-ups where high quality lenses are not available. The inversion scheme allowing the phase retrieval is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the use of an iterative algorithm. In this work, we address the question of the choice of the iterative process in the case of data corrupted by photon or electron shot noise. Several noise <span class="hlt">models</span> are presented and further used within two inversion strategies, the ordered subset and the scaled gradient. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on analytical and numerical analysis together with Monte-Carlo studies, we show that any physical interpretations drawn from a CDI iterative technique require a detailed understanding of the relationship between the noise <span class="hlt">model</span> and the used inversion method. We observe that iterative algorithms often assume implicitly a noise <span class="hlt">model</span>. For low counting <span class="hlt">rates</span>, each noise <span class="hlt">model</span> behaves differently. Moreover, the used optimization strategy introduces its own artefacts. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on this analysis, we develop a hybrid strategy which works efficiently in the absence of an informed initial guess. Our work emphasises issues which should be considered carefully when inverting experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5622557','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5622557"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> alternative residential peak-load electricity <span class="hlt">rate</span> structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caves, D.W.; Christensen, L.R.; Herriges, J.A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Implementation of optimal peak-load pricing schemes requires information on how customers will change their usage patterns in response to alternative <span class="hlt">rate</span> structures. The authors propose a <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework that can be employed to estimate the effects of a wide range of residential peak-load pricing schemes, including those with a maximum demand charge. The framework is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the neoclassical theory of consumer behavior and employs a flexible functional form, the generalized Leontief. Estimates are developed using data from the Wisconsin Residential Electricity Pricing Experiment. They find significant, and remarkably similar, changes in patterns of household electricity usage induced by energy-<span class="hlt">based</span> and maximum demand-<span class="hlt">based</span> peak-load pricing structures. 17 references, 5 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..33..287Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..33..287Y"><span id="translatedtitle">RMB Exchange <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Forecast Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> on BP Neural Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ye, Sun</p> <p></p> <p>RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> system has reformed since July, 2005. This article chose RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> data during a period from July, 2005 to September 2010 to establish BP neural network <span class="hlt">model</span> to forecast RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the future by using MATLAB software. The result showed that BP neural network is effective to forecast RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> and also indicated that RMB exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> will continue to appreciate in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001214"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Base</span> Flow <span class="hlt">Model</span> Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A method was developed of obtaining propulsive <span class="hlt">base</span> flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The <span class="hlt">base</span> flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> assessments of <span class="hlt">base</span> flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in <span class="hlt">base</span> thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive <span class="hlt">models</span> were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span> in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting <span class="hlt">base</span> flow validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3530G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3530G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> framework developed for managing and forecasting the El Hierro 2011-2014 unrest processes <span class="hlt">based</span> on the analysis of the seismicity and deformation data <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, Alicia; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramon</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In July 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), a volcanic unrest was detected, with significant deformations followed by increased seismicity. A submarine eruption started on 10 October 2011 and ceased on 5 March 2012, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through February 2012. However, the seismic activity did not end when the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed since. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. In all cases the seismic activity was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GNSS-GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma injection processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. A <span class="hlt">model</span> combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy released has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening. The <span class="hlt">model</span> presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V42B..02D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V42B..02D"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite <span class="hlt">Based</span> Extrusion <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for the 2006 Augustine Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Dean, K. G.; Skoog, R.; Valcic, L.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Extrusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> were calculated from polar orbiting infrared satellite data for the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska. The pixel integrated brightness temperatures from the satellite data were converted to estimates of ground temperature by making assumptions and using first hand observations about the geometry of the hot area (lava dome, flows and pyroclastic flow deposits) relative to the cold area in the kilometer scale pixels. Extrusion <span class="hlt">rate</span> is calculated by assuming that at a given temperature, a lava emits an amount of radiation proportional to its volume. On ten occasions during the activity, helicopter <span class="hlt">based</span> infrared imagers were used to validate the satellite observations. The pre-January 11 thermal activity was not significantly above background in satellite data. The first strong thermal anomalies were recorded during the first explosive phase on January 11. During successive explosive phases in January, bright thermal signals were observed, often saturating the sensors. Large areas (many km2) were observed to be warm in the satellite data, indicative of pyroclastic flows. Sometime during or after January 29, during a phase of sustained ash emission, the thermal signal became persistent, suggesting the beginning of lava effusion. The extrusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> derived from satellite data varied from 0 to nearly 7 m3/s, giving an eruption <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 2.7 m3/s. The extrusion event produced two blocky lava flows which moved down the north flank of the volcano. Extrusion occurred through at least March 15 (day 76) when a sharp drop in extrusion <span class="hlt">rate</span> and thermal signal is observed. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the derived extrusion <span class="hlt">rates</span>, it is estimated that 18 million m3 of lava was extruded during the course of the eruption. This value agreed well with photogrammetric measurements, but does not agree with volumes derived through subtraction of digital elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> post- and pre- eruption. It should be noted that the thermal approach only works for hot lavas, and does not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-24/pdf/2010-29137.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-24/pdf/2010-29137.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 72581 - Assessments, Assessment <span class="hlt">Base</span> and <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-11-24</p> <p>... event of failure.'' With the change in the assessment <span class="hlt">base</span>, the relative cost advantage of funding with... Insurance Corporation 12 CFR Part 327 Assessments, Assessment <span class="hlt">Base</span> and <span class="hlt">Rates</span>; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Assessment <span class="hlt">Base</span> and <span class="hlt">Rates</span> AGENCY:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21685348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21685348"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating a brief <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Rasch <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch <span class="hlt">model</span>), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dependence&pg=3&id=EJ1037204','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dependence&pg=3&id=EJ1037204"><span id="translatedtitle">Item Response <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Local Dependence among Multiple <span class="hlt">Ratings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ratings</span> given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. The rater bundle <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple <span class="hlt">ratings</span> given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCoAM.222...30L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCoAM.222...30L"><span id="translatedtitle">Solutions of two-factor <span class="hlt">models</span> with variable interest <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jinglu; Clemons, C. B.; Young, G. W.; Zhu, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The focus of this work is on numerical solutions to two-factor option pricing partial differential equations with variable interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Two interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, the Vasicek <span class="hlt">model</span> and the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross <span class="hlt">model</span> (CIR), are considered. Emphasis is placed on the definition and implementation of boundary conditions for different portfolio <span class="hlt">models</span>, and on appropriate truncation of the computational domain. An exact solution to the Vasicek <span class="hlt">model</span> and an exact solution for the price of bonds convertible to stock at expiration under a stochastic interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> are derived. The exact solutions are used to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation schemes. For the numerical simulations the pricing solution is analyzed as the market completeness decreases from the ideal complete level to one with higher volatility of the interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> and a slower mean-reverting environment. Simulations indicate that the CIR <span class="hlt">model</span> yields more reasonable results than the Vasicek <span class="hlt">model</span> in a less complete market.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR42A..07N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR42A..07N"><span id="translatedtitle">Friction at seismic slip <span class="hlt">rates</span>: testing thermal weakening <span class="hlt">models</span> experimentally</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, S. B.; Spagnuolo, E.; Violay, M.; Di Toro, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recent experiments systematically explore rock friction under crustal earthquake conditions (fast slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> 1<V<6 m/s and intermediate normal stress 5<σ<50 MPa) revealing that faults undergo abrupt dynamic weakening and lubrication associated to thermally triggered physico-chemical processes. We use such experimental data to test various thermal weakening <span class="hlt">models</span> (flash weakening, diffusion superplasticity, frictional melt lubrication) and to verify the direct or indirect role of temperature on friction. We show that in the absence of melting and/or pressurization, the weakening transient, the dynamic sliding friction and the restrengthening phase can be explained either by the flash weakening <span class="hlt">model</span> (Archard, 1958; Rice, 2006; Noda et al., 2009) or by a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> where the strength of the slip zone is directly controlled by an Arrhenious-like thermal dependance. In the presence of melting, which occurs quite easily in silicatic rocks under coseismic conditions, the data are well explained by the frictional melt <span class="hlt">model</span> (Nielsen et al., 2008, 2010). Frictional heating is simple to compute but requires a rather costly and inefficient convolution (even with the use of FFT) for a dynamic, extended fault simulation. Hence we desing an efficient and accurate wavenumber approximation for a solution of the temperature evolution on the fault. Finally, we propose a compact and paractical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a small number of memory variables for the implementation of thermal weakening friction in seismic fault simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rate-of-change&id=EJ810369','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rate-of-change&id=EJ810369"><span id="translatedtitle">Delineating the Average <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Change in Longitudinal <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change is a concept that has been misunderstood in the literature. This article attempts to clarify the concept and show unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of the average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in longitudinal <span class="hlt">models</span>. The slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> has at times been interpreted as if it were always the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delta&pg=3&id=EJ982111','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=delta&pg=3&id=EJ982111"><span id="translatedtitle">The Rasch <span class="hlt">Rating</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and the Disordered Threshold Controversy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adams, Raymond J.; Wu, Margaret L.; Wilson, Mark</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Rasch <span class="hlt">rating</span> (or partial credit) <span class="hlt">model</span> is a widely applied item response <span class="hlt">model</span> that is used to <span class="hlt">model</span> ordinal observed variables that are assumed to collectively reflect a common latent variable. In the application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> there is considerable controversy surrounding the assessment of fit. This controversy is most notable when the set of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519658.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519658.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Individual-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Completion <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Apprentices. Technical Paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karmel, Tom</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Low completion <span class="hlt">rates</span> for apprentices and trainees have received considerable attention recently and it has been argued that NCVER seriously understates completion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In this paper Tom Karmel uses NCVER data on recommencements to estimate individual-<span class="hlt">based</span> completion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. It is estimated that around one-quarter of trade apprentices swap…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810007741&hterms=cmdb&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcmdb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810007741&hterms=cmdb&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcmdb"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">model</span> for the burning <span class="hlt">rates</span> of composite propellants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>An analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the steady-state burning of composite solid propellants is presented. An improved burning <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is achieved by incorporating an improved AP monopropellant <span class="hlt">model</span>, a separate energy balance for the binder in which a portion of the diffusion flame is used to heat the binder, proper use of the binder regression <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and a <span class="hlt">model</span> for the combustion of the energetic binder component of CMDB propellants. Also, an improved correlation and <span class="hlt">model</span> of aluminum agglomeration is developed which properly describes compositional trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec592-510.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec592-510.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 592.510 - <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 592.510 Section 592.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Fees and Charges § 592.510 <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec592-510.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec592-510.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 592.510 - <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 592.510 Section 592.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Fees and Charges § 592.510 <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1332..289A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1332..289A"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in dynamic environments: The eigen <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>We consider the Eigen quasispecies <span class="hlt">model</span> with a dynamic environment. For an environment with sharp-peak fitness in which the most-fit sequence moves by k spin-flips each period T we find an asymptotic stationary state in which the quasispecies population changes regularly according to the regular environmental change. From this stationary state we estimate the maximum and the minimum mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a quasispecies to survive under the changing environment and calculate the optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> that maximizes the population growth. Interestingly we find that the optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span> is lower than that in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span>, and at their optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> the corresponding mean fitness in the Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span> is lower than that in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span>, suggesting that the mutation process which occurs in parallel to the replication process as in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span> gives an adaptive advantage under changing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.410a2026T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.410a2026T"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">model</span> describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tashiro, Tohru; Minagawa, Hiroe; Chiba, Michiko</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a prevalent stuff. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic <span class="hlt">model</span>. As an application, we apply this <span class="hlt">model</span> to iPod sales data, and find that this <span class="hlt">model</span> can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005327','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005327"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Large-Strain, High-<span class="hlt">Rate</span> Deformation in Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lesuer, D R; Kay, G J; LeBlanc, M M</p> <p>2001-07-20</p> <p>The large strain deformation response of 6061-T6 and Ti-6Al-4V has been evaluated over a range in strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> from 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} to over 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. The results have been used to critically evaluate the strength and damage components of the Johnson-Cook (JC) material <span class="hlt">model</span>. A new <span class="hlt">model</span> that addresses the shortcomings of the JC <span class="hlt">model</span> was then developed and evaluated. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived from the <span class="hlt">rate</span> equations that represent deformation mechanisms active during moderate and high <span class="hlt">rate</span> loading. Another <span class="hlt">model</span> that accounts for the influence of void formation on yield and flow behavior of a ductile metal (the Gurson <span class="hlt">model</span>) was also evaluated. The characteristics and predictive capabilities of these <span class="hlt">models</span> are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11736256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11736256"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite driving <span class="hlt">rates</span> in interface <span class="hlt">models</span> of Barkhausen noise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Queiroz, S L; Bahiana, M</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>We consider a single-interface <span class="hlt">model</span> for the description of Barkhausen noise in soft ferromagnetic materials. Previously, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was used only in the adiabatic regime of infinitely slow field ramping. We introduce finite driving <span class="hlt">rates</span> and analyze the scaling of event sizes and durations for different regimes of the driving <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Coexistence of intermittency, with nontrivial scaling laws, and finite-velocity interface motion is observed for high enough driving <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Power spectra show a decay approximately omega(-t), with t<2 for finite driving <span class="hlt">rates</span>, revealing the influence of the internal structure of avalanches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020517','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020517"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> manipulator control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of using <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82b1904A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82b1904A"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in dynamic environments: The Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We consider the Eigen quasispecies <span class="hlt">model</span> with a dynamic environment. For an environment with sharp-peak fitness in which the most-fit sequence moves by k spin-flips each period T we find an asymptotic stationary state in which the quasispecies population changes regularly according to the regular environmental change. From this stationary state we estimate the maximum and the minimum mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a quasispecies to survive under the changing environment and calculate the optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> that maximizes the population growth. Interestingly we find that the optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span> is lower than that in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span>, and at their optimum mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> the corresponding mean fitness in the eigenmodel is lower than that in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span>, suggesting that the mutation process which occurs in parallel to the replication process as in the Crow-Kimura <span class="hlt">model</span> gives an adaptive advantage under changing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920758','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920758"><span id="translatedtitle">Markov <span class="hlt">models</span> and the ensemble Kalman filter for estimation of sorption <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vugrin, Eric D.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Vugrin, Kay White</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium sorption of contaminants in ground water systems is examined from the perspective of sorption <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation. A previously developed Markov transition probability <span class="hlt">model</span> for solute transport is used in conjunction with a new conditional probability-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the sorption and desorption <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on breakthrough curve data. Two <span class="hlt">models</span> for prediction of spatially varying sorption and desorption <span class="hlt">rates</span> along a one-dimensional streamline are developed. These <span class="hlt">models</span> are a Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> that utilizes conditional probabilities to determine the <span class="hlt">rates</span> and an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) applied to the conditional probability method. Both approaches rely on a previously developed Markov-<span class="hlt">model</span> of mass transfer, and both <span class="hlt">models</span> assimilate the observed concentration data into the <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation at each observation time. Initial values of the <span class="hlt">rates</span> are perturbed from the true values to form ensembles of <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the ability of both estimation approaches to recover the true <span class="hlt">rates</span> is examined over three different sets of perturbations. The <span class="hlt">models</span> accurately estimate the <span class="hlt">rates</span> when the mean of the perturbations are zero, the unbiased case. For the cases containing some bias, addition of the ensemble Kalman filter is shown to improve accuracy of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation by as much as an order of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=negative+AND+rates&pg=7&id=EJ1004544','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=negative+AND+rates&pg=7&id=EJ1004544"><span id="translatedtitle">What Are Error <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Classifying Teacher and School Performance Using Value-Added <span class="hlt">Models</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article addresses likely error <span class="hlt">rates</span> for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added <span class="hlt">models</span> applied to student test score gain data. Using a realistic performance measurement system scheme <span class="hlt">based</span> on hypothesis testing, the authors develop error <span class="hlt">rate</span> formulas <span class="hlt">based</span> on ordinary least squares and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=functions+AND+models&pg=5&id=EJ1023480','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=functions+AND+models&pg=5&id=EJ1023480"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Perspective on Interpreting <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Change in Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ärlebäck, Jonas B.; Doerr, Helen M.; O'Neil, AnnMarie H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Functions provide powerful tools for describing change, but research has shown that students find difficulty in using functions to create and interpret <span class="hlt">models</span> of changing phenomena. In this study, we drew on a <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> perspective to design an instructional approach to develop students' abilities to describe and interpret <span class="hlt">rates</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..457..225B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..457..225B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model</span> analysis of the link between interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> and crashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Broga, Kristijonas M.; Viegas, Eduardo; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We analyse the effect of distinct levels of interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the stability of the financial network under our <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework. We demonstrate that banking failures are likely to emerge early on under sustained high interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and at much later stage-with higher probability-under a sustained low interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> scenario. Moreover, we demonstrate that those bank failures are of a different nature: high interest <span class="hlt">rates</span> tend to result in significantly more bankruptcies associated to credit losses whereas lack of liquidity tends to be the primary cause of failures under lower <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6081617','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6081617"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface analyses and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span> multiplicity and instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harold, M.P.; Conner, W.C.</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>Catalytic partial and complete oxidations of chemical species are a quite important class of reactions in the production of many commercial chemicals and in the elimination of environmental pollutants. This research focuses on a sub-class of oxidation reactions in which CO is a key player -- be it a reactant, intermediate, or product -- in the catalytic sequence and chemistry. The first three years of our research has followed two parallel paths which have a common destination and which together provide a framework for the proposed new research. The first path has involved the development of a combined experimental/<span class="hlt">modelling</span> and analysis methodology for constructing feasible mechanistic sequences and their corresponding kinetic <span class="hlt">models</span> of catalytic reactions that exhibit multiple <span class="hlt">rate</span> behavior. The rather well-studied Pt catalyzed CO oxidation served as the test reaction. Our approach involves the measurement of basic kinetic features (apparent reaction orders, activation energy) and multiplicity features (location of ignition and extinction points) over a wide range of conditions (catalyst temperature, total pressure, feed composition), and a kinetic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> part, in which potential reaction sequences are constructed and screened <span class="hlt">based</span> on their ability to predict the experimentally observed kinetic and multiplicity features over a wide range of conditions. The second path has involved the development of an under-utilized (in catalysis) spectroscopic technique, Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIRES), to monitor the surface of a catalyst during reaction. Main accomplishments from both studies are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+test&pg=2&id=EJ950483','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+test&pg=2&id=EJ950483"><span id="translatedtitle">The Random-Effect Generalized <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scale <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rating</span> scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale <span class="hlt">model</span> in which the threshold parameters are treated as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900014176','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900014176"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rate</span> dependent constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> for fiber reinforced polymer composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gates, Thomas S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A literature survey was conducted to assess the state-of-the-art in <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> for continuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials. Several recent <span class="hlt">models</span> which include formulations for describing plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent phenomenon such as creep and stress relaxation are outlined and compared. When appropriate, these comparisons include brief descriptions of the mathematical formulations, the test procedures required for generating material constants, and details of available data comparing test results to analytical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26041971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26041971"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the dynamical dark energy <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina</p> <p></p> <p>Dark energy <span class="hlt">models</span> with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant <span class="hlt">model</span>. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field <span class="hlt">model</span> with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter [Formula: see text] that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21379320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21379320"><span id="translatedtitle">First principles <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of nonlinear incidence <span class="hlt">rates</span> in seasonal epidemics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ponciano, José M; Capistrán, Marcos A</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> function that characterizes epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span>. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> function, which results from <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with both the classical and the LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR <span class="hlt">model</span> with both incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the <span class="hlt">model</span> with the LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our <span class="hlt">model</span> was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with classical incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS <span class="hlt">model</span> with LHD incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the <span class="hlt">models</span>' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5782512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5782512"><span id="translatedtitle">Wheeling <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on marginal-cost theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Merrill, H.M.; Erickson, B.W. )</p> <p>1989-11-01</p> <p>Knowledge of what <span class="hlt">rates</span> for wheeling electric power would be, if <span class="hlt">based</span> on marginal costs, is vital in the debate on how wheeling should be priced. This paper presents the first extensive computations of marginal costs of wheeling, and of <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on these marginal costs. Sensitivities to losses, constraints, load levels, amount of power wheeled, revenue reconciliation, etc., are examined in the context of two case studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205..509R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205..509R"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake potential and magnitude limits inferred from a geodetic strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for southern Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rong, Y.; Bird, P.; Jackson, D. D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The project Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe (SHARE), completed in 2013, presents significant improvements over previous regional seismic hazard <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts. The Global Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Map v2.1, sponsored by the Global Earthquake <span class="hlt">Model</span> Foundation and built on a large set of self-consistent geodetic GPS velocities, was released in 2014. To check the SHARE seismic source <span class="hlt">models</span> that were <span class="hlt">based</span> mainly on historical earthquakes and active fault data, we first evaluate the SHARE historical earthquake catalogues and demonstrate that the earthquake magnitudes are acceptable. Then, we construct an earthquake potential <span class="hlt">model</span> using the Global Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Map data. SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span> provided parameters from which magnitude-frequency distributions can be specified for each of 437 seismic source zones covering most of Europe. Because we are interested in proposed magnitude limits, and the original zones had insufficient data for accurate estimates, we combine zones into five groups according to SHARE's estimates of maximum magnitude. Using the strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>, we calculate tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> for each group. Next, we infer seismicity <span class="hlt">rates</span> from the tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> and compare them with historical and SHARE seismicity <span class="hlt">rates</span>. For two of the groups, the tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> are higher than the seismic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span>. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">rates</span> of large earthquakes forecast by the SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span> are lower than those inferred from tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rate</span>. In fact, the SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span> forecast higher seismicity <span class="hlt">rates</span> than the historical <span class="hlt">rates</span>, which indicate that the authors of SHARE were aware of the potentially higher seismic activities in the zones. For one group, the tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rate</span> is lower than the seismic moment <span class="hlt">rates</span> forecast by the SHARE <span class="hlt">models</span>. As a result, the <span class="hlt">rates</span> of large earthquakes in that group forecast by the SHARE <span class="hlt">model</span> are higher than those inferred from tectonic moment <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but lower than what the historical data show. For the other two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022786','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022786"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state and Coulomb failure <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.; Blanpied, M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We examine the predictions of Coulomb failure stress and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state frictional <span class="hlt">models</span>. We study the change in failure time (clock advance) Δt due to stress step perturbations (i.e., coseismic static stress increases) added to "background" stressing at a constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> (i.e., tectonic loading) at time t0. The predictability of Δt implies a predictable change in seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> r(t)/r0, testable using earthquake catalogs, where r0 is the constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> resulting from tectonic stressing. <span class="hlt">Models</span> of r(t)/r0, consistent with general properties of aftershock sequences, must predict an Omori law seismicity decay <span class="hlt">rate</span>, a sequence duration that is less than a few percent of the mainshock cycle time and a return directly to the background <span class="hlt">rate</span>. A Coulomb <span class="hlt">model</span> requires that a fault remains locked during loading, that failure occur instantaneously, and that Δt is independent of t0. These characteristics imply an instantaneous infinite seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> increase of zero duration. Numerical calculations of r(t)/r0 for different state evolution laws show that aftershocks occur on faults extremely close to failure at the mainshock origin time, that these faults must be "Coulomb-like," and that the slip evolution law can be precluded. Real aftershock population characteristics also may constrain <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state constitutive parameters; a may be lower than laboratory values, the stiffness may be high, and/or normal stress may be lower than lithostatic. We also compare Coulomb and <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state <span class="hlt">models</span> theoretically. <span class="hlt">Rate</span>-state <span class="hlt">model</span> fault behavior becomes more Coulomb-like as constitutive parameter a decreases relative to parameter b. This is because the slip initially decelerates, representing an initial healing of fault contacts. The deceleration is more pronounced for smaller a, more closely simulating a locked fault. Even when the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state Δt has Coulomb characteristics, its magnitude may differ by some constant dependent on b. In this case, a <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state <span class="hlt">model</span> behaves like a modified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002CoPhC.146..118T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002CoPhC.146..118T"><span id="translatedtitle">On reevaluation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in discrete time Hogg-Huberman <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Toshijiro; Shibata, Junko; Inoue, Masayoshi</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>The discrete time Hogg-Huberman <span class="hlt">model</span> is extended to a case with time-dependent reevaluation <span class="hlt">rate</span> at which agents using one resource decide to evaluate their resource choice. In this paper the time dependence of the reevaluation <span class="hlt">rate</span> is determined by states of the system. The dynamical behavior of the extended Hogg-Huberman <span class="hlt">model</span> is discussed. It is found that the change of fraction of agents using resource 1 is suppressed to be smaller than that in the case of constant reevaluation <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710598B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710598B"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system <span class="hlt">based</span> on renewable energy - <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> the impact of varying CO2 injection <span class="hlt">rates</span> on reservoir behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection <span class="hlt">rates</span> if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection <span class="hlt">rates</span> on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir <span class="hlt">model</span> approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir <span class="hlt">model</span> was generated. The defined yearly injection <span class="hlt">rate</span> schedule is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the long-term reservoir</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1437/g/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1437/g/"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Final A-Fault Rupture <span class="hlt">Models</span> for WGCEP/ NSHMP Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Field, Edward H.; Weldon, Ray J.; Parsons, Thomas; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Stein, Ross S.; Petersen, Mark D.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This appendix discusses how we compute the magnitude and <span class="hlt">rate</span> of earthquake ruptures for the seven Type-A faults (Elsinore, Garlock, San Jacinto, S. San Andreas, N. San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, and Calaveras) in the WGCEP/NSHMP Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> 2 (referred to as ERM 2. hereafter). By definition, Type-A faults are those that have relatively abundant paleoseismic information (e.g., mean recurrence-interval estimates). The first section below discusses segmentation-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, where ruptures are assumed be confined to one or more identifiable segments. The second section discusses an un-segmented-<span class="hlt">model</span> option, the third section discusses results and implications, and we end with a discussion of possible future improvements. General background information can be found in the main report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.6146Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.6146Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A rumor spreading <span class="hlt">model</span> with variable forgetting <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Wanlin; Gao, H. Oliver; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shuhai</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A rumor spreading <span class="hlt">model</span> with the consideration of forgetting <span class="hlt">rate</span> changing over time is examined in small-world networks. The mean-field equations are derived to describe the dynamics of rumor spreading in small-world networks. Further, numerical solutions are conducted on LiveJournal, an online social blogging platform, to better understand the performance of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results show that the forgetting <span class="hlt">rate</span> has a significant impact on the final size of rumor spreading: the larger the initial forgetting <span class="hlt">rate</span> or the faster the forgetting speed, the smaller the final size of the rumor spreading. Numerical solutions also show that the final size of rumor spreading is much larger under a variable forgetting <span class="hlt">rate</span> compared to that under a constant forgetting <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990081117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990081117"><span id="translatedtitle">Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Dependent <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Polymer Matrix Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A research program is in progress to develop strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent deformation and failure <span class="hlt">models</span> for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> impact loads. Strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent inelastic constitutive equations have been developed to <span class="hlt">model</span> the polymer matrix, and have been incorporated into a micromechanics approach to analyze polymer matrix composites. The Hashin failure criterion has been implemented within the micromechanics results to predict ply failure strengths. The deformation <span class="hlt">model</span> has been implemented within LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code. The deformation response and ply failure stresses for the representative polymer matrix composite AS4/PEEK have been predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960029144','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960029144"><span id="translatedtitle">Spray Combustion <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> with VOF and Finite-<span class="hlt">Rate</span> Chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Liaw, Paul; Wang, Ten-See</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A spray atomization and combustion <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) transport equation with finite-<span class="hlt">rate</span> chemistry <span class="hlt">model</span>. The gas-liquid interface mass, momentum and energy conservation laws are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by continuum surface force mechanisms. A new solution method is developed such that the present VOF <span class="hlt">model</span> can be applied for all-speed range flows. The objectives of the present study are: (1) to develop and verify the fractional volume-of-fluid (VOF) cell partitioning approach into a predictor-corrector algorithm to deal with multiphase (gas-liquid) free surface flow problems; (2) to implement the developed unified algorithm in a general purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, Finite Difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS), with droplet dynamics and finite-<span class="hlt">rate</span> chemistry <span class="hlt">models</span>; and (3) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach by simulating benchmark problems of jet breakup/spray atomization and combustion. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> multiphase fluid flows poses a significant challenge because a required boundary must be applied to a transient, irregular surface that is discontinuous, and the flow regimes considered can range from incompressible to highspeed compressible flows. The flow-process <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is further complicated by surface tension, interfacial heat and mass transfer, spray formation and turbulence, and their interactions. The major contribution of the present method is to combine the novel feature of the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method and the Eulerian/Lagrangian method into a unified algorithm for efficient noniterative, time-accurate calculations of multiphase free surface flows valid at all speeds. The proposed method reformulated the VOF equation to strongly couple two distinct phases (liquid and gas), and tracks droplets on a Lagrangian frame when spray <span class="hlt">model</span> is required, using a unified predictor-corrector technique to account for the non-linear linkages through the convective contributions of VOF. The discontinuities within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070032903','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070032903"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frisch, Harold P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the <span class="hlt">model</span> is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define <span class="hlt">model-based</span> systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CPM.....4..119H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CPM.....4..119H"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuum <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent granular flows in SPH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We discuss a constitutive law for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We <span class="hlt">model</span> granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029492','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029492"><span id="translatedtitle">A frictional population <span class="hlt">model</span> of seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.; Cocco, M.; Belardinelli, M.E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We study <span class="hlt">models</span> of seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes caused by the application of a static stress perturbation to a population of faults and discuss our results with respect to the <span class="hlt">model</span> proposed by Dieterich (1994). These <span class="hlt">models</span> assume distribution of nucleation sites (e.g., faults) obeying <span class="hlt">rate</span>-state frictional relations that fail at constant <span class="hlt">rate</span> under tectonic loading alone, and predicts a positive static stress step at time to will cause an immediate increased seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> that decays according to Omori's law. We show one way in which the Dieterich <span class="hlt">model</span> may be constructed from simple general idead, illustratted using numerically computed synthetic seismicity and mathematical formulation. We show that seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> change predicted by these <span class="hlt">models</span> (1) depend on the particular relationship between the clock-advanced failure and fault maturity, (2) are largest for the faults closest to failure at to, (3) depend strongly on which state evolution law faults obey, and (4) are insensitive to some types of population hetrogeneity. We also find that if individual faults fail repeatedly and populations are finite, at timescales much longer than typical aftershock durations, quiescence follows at seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> increase regardless of the specific frictional relations. For the examined <span class="hlt">models</span> the quiescence duration is comparable to the ratio of stress change to stressing <span class="hlt">rate</span> ????/??,which occurs after a time comparable to the average recurrence interval of the individual faults in the population and repeats in the absence of any new load may pertubations; this simple <span class="hlt">model</span> may partly explain observations of repeated clustering of earthquakes. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891693"><span id="translatedtitle">SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF A TPB DEGRADATION <span class="hlt">RATE</span> <span class="hlt">MODEL</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crawford, C; Tommy Edwards, T; Bill Wilmarth, B</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>A tetraphenylborate (TPB) degradation <span class="hlt">model</span> for use in aggregating Tank 48 material in Tank 50 is developed in this report. The influential factors for this <span class="hlt">model</span> are listed as the headings in the table below. A sensitivity study of the predictions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> over intervals of values for the influential factors affecting the <span class="hlt">model</span> was conducted. These intervals bound the levels of these factors expected during Tank 50 aggregations. The results from the sensitivity analysis were used to identify settings for the influential factors that yielded the largest predicted TPB degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Thus, these factor settings are considered as those that yield the ''worst-case'' scenario for TPB degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> for Tank 50 aggregation, and, as such they would define the test conditions that should be studied in a waste qualification program whose dual purpose would be the investigation of the introduction of Tank 48 material for aggregation in Tank 50 and the bounding of TPB degradation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for such aggregations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JaJAP..47.4209N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JaJAP..47.4209N"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive Estimation of Intravascular Shear <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Parameter Optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nitta, Naotaka; Takeda, Naoto</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The relationships between the intravascular wall shear stress, controlled by flow dynamics, and the progress of arteriosclerosis plaque have been clarified by various studies. Since the shear stress is determined by the viscosity coefficient and shear <span class="hlt">rate</span>, both factors must be estimated accurately. In this paper, an adaptive method for improving the accuracy of quantitative shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation was investigated. First, the parameter dependence of the estimated shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> was investigated in terms of the differential window width and the number of averaged velocity profiles <span class="hlt">based</span> on simulation and experimental data, and then the shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation was optimized. The optimized result revealed that the proposed adaptive method of shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation was effective for improving the accuracy of shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023586','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023586"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecule-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach for computing chemical-reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC <span class="hlt">model</span> reproduces measured equilibrium reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> without using any macroscopic reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new <span class="hlt">model</span> is inherently able to predict reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, the predominant <span class="hlt">model</span> for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's <span class="hlt">model</span> is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span>. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two <span class="hlt">models</span> can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Extensions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..398..264M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..398..264M"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">model</span> for scaling in firms’ size and growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metzig, Cornelia; Gordon, Mirta B.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We introduce a simple agent-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> which allows us to analyze three stylized facts: a fat-tailed size distribution of companies, a ‘tent-shaped’ growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution, the scaling relation of the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> variance with firm size, and the causality between them. This is achieved under the simple hypothesis that firms compete for a scarce quantity (either aggregate demand or workforce) which is allocated probabilistically. The <span class="hlt">model</span> allows us to relate size and growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions. We compare the results of our <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulations with other scaling relationships, and to similar <span class="hlt">models</span> and relate it to existing theory. Effects arising from binning data are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10194564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10194564"><span id="translatedtitle">Equipment management risk <span class="hlt">rating</span> system <span class="hlt">based</span> on engineering endpoints.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>James, P J</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The equipment management risk <span class="hlt">ratings</span> system outlined here offers two significant departures from current practice: risk classifications are <span class="hlt">based</span> on intrinsic device risks, and the risk <span class="hlt">rating</span> system is <span class="hlt">based</span> on engineering endpoints. Intrinsic device risks are categorized as physical, clinical and technical, and these flow from the incoming equipment assessment process. Engineering risk management is <span class="hlt">based</span> on verification of engineering endpoints such as clinical measurements or energy delivery. This practice eliminates the ambiguity associated with ranking risk in terms of physiologic and higher-level outcome endpoints such as no significant hazards, low significance, injury, or mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100020945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100020945"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Definition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rowe, Sidney E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) <span class="hlt">based</span> upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the <span class="hlt">models</span> to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840015582','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840015582"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">model</span> for reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> in turbulent reacting flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented on the effects of chemical reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The <span class="hlt">model</span> results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-<span class="hlt">rate</span> equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the <span class="hlt">model</span> was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and for additional comparisons with experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1018359Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1018359Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rates</span> and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan: an assessment using a process-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and spatially-explicit land-use change inventories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p> to other land-use types by abandoning or urbanization accompanied by substantial changes in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic carbon input to soils, could cause a greater or comparable influence on country-scale SCSC compared with changes in management of agricultural lands. A net-net <span class="hlt">based</span> accounting on SCSC showed potential influence of variations in future climate on SCSC, that highlighted importance of application of process-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for estimation of this quantity. Whereas a baseline-<span class="hlt">based</span> accounting on SCSC was shown to have robustness over variations in future climate and effectiveness to factor out direct human-induced influence on SCSC. Validation of the system's function to estimate SCSC in agricultural lands, by comparing simulation output with data from nation-wide stationary monitoring conducted during year 1979-1998, suggested that the system has an acceptable levels of validity, though only for limited range of conditions at current stage. In addition to uncertainties in estimation of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic carbon input to soils in different land-use types at large-scale, time course of SOC sequestration, supposition on land-use change pattern in future, as well as feasibility of agricultural policy planning are considered as important factors that need to be taken account in estimation on a potential of country-scale SCSC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27653965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27653965"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity on inference of phylogenetic <span class="hlt">models</span> of trait evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chira, A M; Thomas, G H</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rates</span> of trait evolution are known to vary across phylogenies; however, standard evolutionary <span class="hlt">models</span> assume a homogeneous process of trait change. These simple methods are widely applied in small-scale phylogenetic studies, whereas <span class="hlt">models</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity are not, so the prevalence and patterns of potential <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation in groups up to hundreds of species remain unclear. The extent to which trait evolution is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> accurately on a given phylogeny is also largely unknown because studies typically lack absolute <span class="hlt">model</span> fit tests. We investigated these issues by applying both <span class="hlt">rate</span>-static and variable-<span class="hlt">rates</span> methods on (i) body mass data for 88 avian clades of 10-318 species, and (ii) data simulated under a range of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-heterogeneity scenarios. Our results show that <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity is present across small-scaled avian clades, and consequently applying only standard single-process <span class="hlt">models</span> prompts inaccurate inferences about the generating evolutionary process. Specifically, these approaches underestimate <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation, and systematically mislabel temporal trends in trait evolution. Conversely, variable-<span class="hlt">rates</span> approaches have superior relative fit (they are the best <span class="hlt">model</span>) and absolute fit (they describe the data well). We show that <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes such as single internal branch variations, <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreases and early bursts are hard to detect, even by variable-<span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. We also use recently developed absolute adequacy tests to highlight misleading conclusions <span class="hlt">based</span> on relative fit alone (e.g. a consistent preference for constrained evolution when isolated terminal branch <span class="hlt">rate</span> increases are present). This work highlights the potential for robust inferences about trait evolution when fitting flexible <span class="hlt">models</span> in conjunction with tests for absolute <span class="hlt">model</span> fit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CNSNS..38...72D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CNSNS..38...72D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the intracellular pathogen-immune interaction with cure <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the <span class="hlt">model</span> considers the saturated nonlinear infection <span class="hlt">rate</span> and linear cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next <span class="hlt">model</span> considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last <span class="hlt">model</span> is an extension of the third <span class="hlt">model</span> in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four <span class="hlt">models</span> have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed <span class="hlt">models</span> show that introduction of immune response and cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth <span class="hlt">model</span> vis-a-vis other <span class="hlt">models</span>. The analytical findings of each <span class="hlt">model</span> have been exemplified by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078906"><span id="translatedtitle">Arduino-<span class="hlt">based</span> noise robust online heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Sangita; Pal, Saurabh; Mitra, Madhuchhanda</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This paper introduces a noise robust real time heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> detection system from electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An online data acquisition system is developed to collect ECG signals from human subjects. Heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> is detected using window-<span class="hlt">based</span> autocorrelation peak localisation technique. A low-cost Arduino UNO board is used to implement the complete automated process. The performance of the system is compared with PC-<span class="hlt">based</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> detection technique. Accuracy of the system is validated through simulated noisy ECG data with various levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The mean percentage error of detected heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> is found to be 0.72% for the noisy database with five different noise levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081235&hterms=Guenther&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGuenther','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000081235&hterms=Guenther&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGuenther"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmogenic Ne-21 Production <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in H-Chondrites <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Cl-36 - Ar-36 Ages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leya, I.; Graf, Th.; Nishiizumi, K.; Guenther, D.; Wieler, R.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We measured Ne-21 production <span class="hlt">rates</span> in 14 H-chondrites in good agreement with <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations. The production <span class="hlt">rates</span> are <span class="hlt">based</span> on Ne-21 concentrations measured on bulk samples or the non-magnetic fraction and Cl-36 - Ar-36 ages determined from the metal phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+dental&pg=7&id=EJ592476','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+dental&pg=7&id=EJ592476"><span id="translatedtitle">Faculty <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> as Part of a Competency-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Evaluation Clinic Grading System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chambers, David W.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Describes a quarterly <span class="hlt">rating</span> system developed to replace daily grading in a dental school with a competency-<span class="hlt">based</span> educational <span class="hlt">model</span>. Presents results from an early administration of the <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. These results, for 126 students, show excellent face validity and rater consistency and satisfy the school's standard for grade defensibility. (SLD)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28000817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28000817"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the abnormally slow infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> in mesoporous films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berli, Claudio L A; Mercuri, Magalí; Bellino, Martín G</p> <p>2017-01-18</p> <p>Mesoporous films have been shown to exhibit striking behaviors in capillary-driven infiltration experiments. The process has been shown to follow classical Lucas-Washburn dynamics, but the effective pore radius has been calculated from hydrodynamic resistance considerations to be orders of magnitude lower than measured pore dimensions. In addition, the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> has been observed to decrease with increasing pore diameter, in contrast to the expected trend for capillary-like pores. Here, we present a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> accounting for the mechanism behind these anomalous effects. We found the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> to be inversely proportional to the cubed ratio of pore to neck size. This physical scaling correctly <span class="hlt">modeled</span> both the magnitude of the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> and its variation with pore diameters, for a wide range of experimental data. The <span class="hlt">model</span> established a connection between capillary filling dynamics and nanoscale pore structure, which is of practical interest for the design and characterization of mesoporous films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20778703','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20778703"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite driving <span class="hlt">rate</span> and anisotropy effects in landslide <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piegari, E.; Cataudella, V.; Di Maio, R.; Milano, L.; Nicodemi, M.</p> <p>2006-02-15</p> <p>In order to characterize landslide frequency-size distributions and individuate hazard scenarios and their possible precursors, we investigate a cellular automaton where the effects of a finite driving <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the anisotropy are taken into account. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to reproduce observed features of landslide events, such as power-law distributions, as experimentally reported. We analyze the key role of the driving <span class="hlt">rate</span> and show that, as it is increased, a crossover from power-law to non-power-law behaviors occurs. Finally, a systematic investigation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> on varying its anisotropy factors is performed and the full diagram of its dynamical behaviors is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26931582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26931582"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability including the effect of sleep stages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> for heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that-in comparison with real data-the HRV signals obtained from our <span class="hlt">model</span> have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The <span class="hlt">model</span> described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to <span class="hlt">model</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26b3101S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26b3101S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability including the effect of sleep stages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> for heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our <span class="hlt">model</span> have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The <span class="hlt">model</span> described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to <span class="hlt">model</span> heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10117443','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10117443"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> for estimating dose equivalent <span class="hlt">rates</span> in shielding with beam spill measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frankle, S.C.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Macek, R.J.; Wilkinson, C.A.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>A comparison of 800-MeV proton beam spill measurements at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) with analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations of neutron dose equivalent <span class="hlt">rates</span> (DER) show agreement within factors of 2-3 for simple shielding geometries. The DER estimates were <span class="hlt">based</span> on a modified Moyer <span class="hlt">model</span> for transverse angles and a Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">based</span> forward angle <span class="hlt">model</span> described in the proceeding paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17708430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17708430"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservation laws and unidentifiability of <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions in biochemical <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anguelova, M; Cedersund, G; Johansson, M; Franzén, C J; Wennberg, B</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>New experimental techniques in bioscience provide us with high-quality data allowing quantitative mathematical <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Parameter estimation is often necessary and, in connection with this, it is important to know whether all parameters can be uniquely estimated from available data, (i.e. whether the <span class="hlt">model</span> is identifiable). Dealing essentially with <span class="hlt">models</span> for metabolism, we show how the assumption of an algebraic relation between concentrations may cause parameters to be unidentifiable. If a sufficient data set is available, the problem with unidentifiability arises locally in individual <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions. A general method for reparameterisation to identifiable <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions is provided, together with a Mathematica code to help with the calculations. The general results are exemplified by four well-cited <span class="hlt">models</span> for glycolysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21181056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21181056"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Models</span> of childbirth care and cesarean <span class="hlt">rates</span> in different countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patah, Luciano Eduardo Maluf; Malik, Ana Maria</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The paper reports the results of a literature review on cesarean <span class="hlt">rates</span> and <span class="hlt">models</span> of childbirth care in different countries according to their utilization of technology. There were reviewed 60 studies published between 1999 and 2010 retrieved from the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES) and ProQuest databases. The Brazilian <span class="hlt">model</span> of childbirth care relies on the physician-patient relationship, level of technology utilization and cesarean delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EJASP2011...63C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EJASP2011...63C"><span id="translatedtitle">FMO-<span class="hlt">based</span> H.264 frame layer <span class="hlt">rate</span> control for low bit <span class="hlt">rate</span> video transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cajote, Rhandley D.; Aramvith, Supavadee; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The use of flexible macroblock ordering (FMO) in H.264/AVC improves error resiliency at the expense of reduced coding efficiency with added overhead bits for slice headers and signalling. The trade-off is most severe at low bit <span class="hlt">rates</span>, where header bits occupy a significant portion of the total bit budget. To better manage the <span class="hlt">rate</span> and improve coding efficiency, we propose enhancements to the H.264/AVC frame layer <span class="hlt">rate</span> control, which take into consideration the effects of using FMO for video transmission. In this article, we propose a new header bits <span class="hlt">model</span>, an enhanced frame complexity measure, a bit allocation and a quantization parameter adjustment scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed improvements achieve better visual quality compared with the JM 9.2 frame layer <span class="hlt">rate</span> control with FMO enabled using a different number of slice groups. Using FMO as an error resilient tool with better <span class="hlt">rate</span> management is suitable in applications that have limited bandwidth and in error prone environments such as video transmission for mobile terminals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V22B..01T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V22B..01T"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the Controls on Magma Ascent <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Through Numerical <span class="hlt">Modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, M. E.; Neuberg, J. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The estimation of the magma ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span> is a key factor in predicting styles of volcanic activity and relies on the understanding of how strongly the ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span> is controlled by different magmatic parameters. The ability to link potential changes in such parameters to monitoring data is an essential step to be able to use these data as a predictive tool. We present the results of a suite of conduit flow <span class="hlt">models</span> that assess the influence of individual <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters such as the magmatic water content, temperature or bulk magma composition on the magma flow in the conduit during an extrusive dome eruption. By systematically varying these parameters we assess their relative importance to changes in ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The results indicate that potential changes to conduit geometry and excess pressure in the magma chamber are amongst the dominant controlling variables that effect ascent <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but the single most important parameter is the volatile content (assumed in this case as only water). <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> this parameter across a range of reported values causes changes in the calculated ascent velocities of up to 800%, triggering fluctuations in ascent <span class="hlt">rates</span> that span the potential threshold between effusive and explosive eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5733C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5733C"><span id="translatedtitle">A microphysical <span class="hlt">model</span> explains <span class="hlt">rate</span>-and-state friction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jianye; Spiers, Christopher J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">rate</span>-and-state friction (RSF) laws were originally developed as a phenomenological description of the frictional behavior observed in lab experiments. In previous studies, the empirical RSF laws have been extensively and quite successfully applied to fault mechanisms. However, these laws can not readily be envisioned in terms of the underlying physics. There are several critical discrepancies between seismological constraints on RSF behavior associated with earthquakes and lab-derived RSF parameters, in particular regarding the static stress drop and characteristic slip distance associated with seismic events. Moreover, lab friction studies can address only limited fault topographies, displacements, experimental durations and P-T conditions, which means that scale issues, and especially processes like dilatation and fluid-rock interaction, cannot be fully taken into account. Without a physical basis accounting for such effects, extrapolation of lab-derived RSF data to nature involves significant, often unknown uncertainties. In order to more reliably apply experimental results to natural fault zones, and notably to extrapolate lab data beyond laboratory pressure, temperature and velocity conditions, an understanding of the microphysical mechanisms governing fault frictional behavior is required. Here, following some pioneering efforts (e.g. Niemeijer and Spiers, 2007; Den Hartog and Spiers, 2014), a mechanism-<span class="hlt">based</span> microphysical <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed for describing the frictional behavior of carbonate fault gouge, assuming that the frictional behavior seen in lab experiments is controlled by competing processes of intergranular slip versus contact creep by pressure solution. The <span class="hlt">model</span> basically consists of two governing equations derived from energy/entropy balance considerations and the kinematic relations that apply to a granular fault gouge undergoing shear and dilation/compaction. These two equations can be written as ˙τ/K = Vimp- Lt[λ˙γsbps +(1- </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhy4.134...43S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhy4.134...43S"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">rate</span> constitutive <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of aluminium alloy tube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static <span class="hlt">rates</span> using an Instron test fixture and at strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High <span class="hlt">rate</span> testing was then conducted at <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..87b2342H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..87b2342H"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal pair-generation <span class="hlt">rate</span> for entanglement-<span class="hlt">based</span> quantum key distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holloway, Catherine; Doucette, John A.; Erven, Christopher; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jennewein, Thomas</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>In entanglement-<span class="hlt">based</span> quantum key distribution (QKD), the generation and detection of multiphoton modes leads to a trade-off between entanglement visibility and twofold coincidence events when maximizing the secure key <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We produce a predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> for the optimal twofold coincidence probability per coincidence window given the channel efficiency and detector dark count <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a given system. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is experimentally validated and used in simulations for QKD with satellites as well as optical fibers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvE..69c1916K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvE..69c1916K"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can reveal pathologic cardiac dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuusela, Tom</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>A simple one-dimensional Langevin-type stochastic difference equation can simulate the heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> fluctuations in a time scale from minutes to hours. The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of a deterministic nonlinear part and a stochastic part typical of Gaussian noise, and both parts can be directly determined from measured heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> data. Data from healthy subjects typically exhibit the deterministic part with two or more stable fixed points. Studies of 15 congestive heart-failure subjects reveal that the deterministic part of pathologic heart dynamics has no clear stable fixed points. Direct simulations of the stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> for normal and pathologic cases can produce statistical parameters similar to those of real subjects. Results directly indicate that pathologic situations simplify the heart-<span class="hlt">rate</span> control system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614750H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614750H"><span id="translatedtitle">Inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of radionuclide release <span class="hlt">rates</span> using gamma dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. The hazardous consequences reach out on a national and continental scale. Environmental measurements and methods to <span class="hlt">model</span> the transport and dispersion of the released radionuclides serve as a platform to assess the regional impact of nuclear accidents - both, for research purposes and, more important, to determine the immediate threat to the population. However, the assessments of the regional radionuclide activity concentrations and the individual exposure to radiation dose underlie several uncertainties. For example, the accurate <span class="hlt">model</span> representation of wet and dry deposition. One of the most significant uncertainty, however, results from the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source terms of severe nuclear accidents may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on rather rough estimates of released key radionuclides given by the operators. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. Inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> can be used to realise a feasible estimation of the source term (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). Existing point measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations are therefore combined with atmospheric transport <span class="hlt">models</span>. The release <span class="hlt">rates</span> of radionuclides at the accident site are then obtained by improving the agreement between the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> and observed concentrations (Stohl et al., 2012). The accuracy of the method and hence of the resulting source term depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec391-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec391-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 391.2 - <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 391.2 Section 391.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FEES AND CHARGES FOR INSPECTION SERVICES AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec391-2.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec391-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 391.2 - <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Base</span> time <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 391.2 Section 391.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FEES AND CHARGES FOR INSPECTION SERVICES AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=web+AND+web&pg=4&id=EJ1042994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=web+AND+web&pg=4&id=EJ1042994"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing Response <span class="hlt">Rates</span> to Web-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992FFEMS..15..825S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992FFEMS..15..825S"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> for mixed mode fracture under biaxial loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shliannikov, V. N.; Braude, N. Z.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting the crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> of an initially angled crack under biaxial loads of arbitrary direction is suggested. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a combination of both the Manson-Coffin equation for low cycle fatigue and the Paris equation for fatigue crack propagation. The <span class="hlt">model</span> takes into consideration the change in material plastic properties in the region around the crack tip due to the stress state, together with the initial orientation of the crack and also its trajectory of growth. Predictions of crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> for any mixed mode fracture is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the results of uniaxial tension experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..93.1162Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..93.1162Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying High-<span class="hlt">Rate</span> Flows <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Sequential Sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yu; Fang, Binxing; Luo, Hao</p> <p></p> <p>We consider the problem of fast identification of high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows in backbone links with possibly millions of flows. Accurate identification of high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows is important for active queue management, traffic measurement and network security such as detection of distributed denial of service attacks. It is difficult to directly identify high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows in backbone links because tracking the possible millions of flows needs correspondingly large high speed memories. To reduce the measurement overhead, the deterministic 1-out-of-k sampling technique is adopted which is also implemented in Cisco routers (NetFlow). Ideally, a high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flow identification method should have short identification time, low memory cost and processing cost. Most importantly, it should be able to specify the identification accuracy. We develop two such methods. The first method is <span class="hlt">based</span> on fixed sample size test (FSST) which is able to identify high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows with user-specified identification accuracy. However, since FSST has to record every sampled flow during the measurement period, it is not memory efficient. Therefore the second novel method <span class="hlt">based</span> on truncated sequential probability ratio test (TSPRT) is proposed. Through sequential sampling, TSPRT is able to remove the low-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows and identify the high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows at the early stage which can reduce the memory cost and identification time respectively. According to the way to determine the parameters in TSPRT, two versions of TSPRT are proposed: TSPRT-M which is suitable when low memory cost is preferred and TSPRT-T which is suitable when short identification time is preferred. The experimental results show that TSPRT requires less memory and identification time in identifying high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> flows while satisfying the accuracy requirement as compared to previously proposed methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARZ28009H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARZ28009H"><span id="translatedtitle">Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span> with general fitness functions and degradation <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Chin-Kun; Saakian, David B.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We present an exact solution of Eigen's quasispecies <span class="hlt">model</span> with a general degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> and fitness functions, including a square root decrease of fitness with increasing Hamming distance from the wild type. The found behavior of the <span class="hlt">model</span> with a degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> is analogous to a viral quasi-species under attack by the immune system of the host. Our exact solutions also revise the known results of neutral networks in quasispecies theory. To explain the existence of mutants with large Hamming distances from the wild type, we propose three different modifications of the Eigen <span class="hlt">model</span>: mutation landscape, multiple adjacent mutations, and frequency-dependent fitness in which the steady state solution shows a multi-center behavior.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000925','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000925"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of Eddy Dissipation <span class="hlt">Rates</span> from Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Model</span> Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Eddy Dissipation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> is an important metric for representing the intensity of atmospheric turbulence and is used as an input parameter for predicting the decay of aircraft wake vortices. In this study, the forecasts of eddy dissipation <span class="hlt">rates</span> obtained from the current state-of-the-art mesoscale <span class="hlt">model</span> are evaluated for terminal area applications. The Weather Research and Forecast mesoscale <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to simulate the planetary boundary layer at high horizontal and vertical mesh resolutions. The Bougeault-Lacarrer and the Mellor-Yamada-Janji schemes implemented in the Weather Research and Forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> are evaluated against data collected during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Memphis Wake Vortex Field Experiment. Comparisons with other observations are included as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1786o0007K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1786o0007K"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of simple <span class="hlt">models</span> for state-to-state and multi-temperature reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kustova, E. V.; Savelev, A. S.; Sharafutdinov, I. Z.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We propose a simple and accurate <span class="hlt">model</span> for state-specific dissociation <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients <span class="hlt">based</span> on the widely used Treanor-Marrone <span class="hlt">model</span>. It takes into account the dependence of the parameter in the Treanor-Marrone <span class="hlt">model</span> on temperature and vibrational level and can be used with arbitrary vibrational ladder. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is validated by comparisons with state-specific dissociation <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients of O2 and N2 obtained using molecular dynamics, and its good accuracy is demonstrated. Two-temperature dissociation <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients are derived averaging the state-specific non-equilibrium factors with different vibrational distributions. The two-temperature <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients are compared with those given by the empirical Park <span class="hlt">model</span> and coefficients extracted from shock-tube measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=one+AND+class+AND+pattern&id=EJ1040433','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=one+AND+class+AND+pattern&id=EJ1040433"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring Latent Class <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Growth <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Number Sense Ability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kim, Dongil; Shin, Jaehyun; Lee, Kijyung</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore latent class <span class="hlt">based</span> on growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> in number sense ability by using latent growth class <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (LGCM). LGCM is one of the noteworthy methods for identifying growth patterns of the progress monitoring within the response to intervention framework in that it enables us to analyze latent sub-groups <span class="hlt">based</span> not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953823','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953823"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting wear <span class="hlt">rates</span> in tooth enamel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borrero-Lopez, Oscar; Pajares, Antonia; Constantino, Paul J; Lawn, Brian R</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>It is hypothesized that wear of enamel is sensitive to the presence of sharp particulates in oral fluids and masticated foods. To this end, a generic <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting wear <span class="hlt">rates</span> in brittle materials is developed, with specific application to tooth enamel. Wear is assumed to result from an accumulation of elastic-plastic micro-asperity events. Integration over all such events leads to a wear <span class="hlt">rate</span> relation analogous to Archard׳s law, but with allowance for variation in asperity angle and compliance. The coefficient K in this relation quantifies the wear severity, with an arbitrary distinction between 'mild' wear (low K) and 'severe' wear (high K). Data from the literature and in-house wear-test experiments on enamel specimens in lubricant media (water, oil) with and without sharp third-body particulates (silica, diamond) are used to validate the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Measured wear <span class="hlt">rates</span> can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on contact asperity conditions, accounting for the occurrence of severe enamel removal in some human patients (bruxing). Expressions for the depth removal <span class="hlt">rate</span> and number of cycles to wear down occlusal enamel in the low-crowned tooth forms of some mammals are derived, with tooth size and enamel thickness as key variables. The role of 'hard' versus 'soft' food diets in determining evolutionary paths in different hominin species is briefly considered. A feature of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is that it does not require recourse to specific material removal mechanisms, although processes involving microplastic extrusion and microcrack coalescence are indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19363167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19363167"><span id="translatedtitle">The average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change for continuous time <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelley, Ken</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change (ARC) is a concept that has been misunderstood in the applied longitudinal data analysis literature, where the slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> is often thought of as though it were the ARC. The present article clarifies the concept of ARC and shows unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of ARC when measurement is continuous across time. It is shown that the slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> generally is not equal to the ARC. General equations are presented for two measures of discrepancy when the slope from the straight-line change <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to estimate the ARC in the case of continuous time for any <span class="hlt">model</span> linear in its parameters, and for three useful <span class="hlt">models</span> nonlinear in their parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011704"><span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> frailty <span class="hlt">models</span> with application to a root canal therapy study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yin, Guosheng</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Due to natural or artificial clustering, multivariate survival data often arise in biomedical studies, for example, a dental study involving multiple teeth from each subject. A certain proportion of subjects in the population who are not expected to experience the event of interest are considered to be "cured" or insusceptible. To <span class="hlt">model</span> correlated or clustered failure time data incorporating a surviving fraction, we propose two forms of cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> frailty <span class="hlt">models</span>. One <span class="hlt">model</span> naturally introduces frailty <span class="hlt">based</span> on biological considerations while the other is motivated from the Cox proportional hazards frailty <span class="hlt">model</span>. We formulate the likelihood functions <span class="hlt">based</span> on piecewise constant hazards and derive the full conditional distributions for Gibbs sampling in the Bayesian paradigm. As opposed to the Cox frailty <span class="hlt">model</span>, the proposed methods demonstrate great potential in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> multivariate survival data with a cure fraction. We illustrate the cure <span class="hlt">rate</span> frailty <span class="hlt">models</span> with a root canal therapy data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.2857P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.2857P"><span id="translatedtitle">Micromechanics-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Permeability Evolution in Brittle Materials at High Strain <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perol, Thibaut; Bhat, Harsha S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We develop a micromechanics-<span class="hlt">based</span> permeability evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> for brittle materials at high strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> (≥ 100 s^{-1}). Extending for undrained deformation the mechanical constitutive description of brittle solids, whose constitutive response is governed by micro-cracks, we now relate the damage-induced strains to micro-crack aperture. We then use an existing permeability <span class="hlt">model</span> to evaluate the permeability evolution. This <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts both the percolative and connected regime of permeability evolution of Westerly Granite during triaxial loading at high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This <span class="hlt">model</span> can simulate pore pressure history during earthquake coseismic dynamic ruptures under undrained conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=written+AND+expression&pg=4&id=EJ788267','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=written+AND+expression&pg=4&id=EJ788267"><span id="translatedtitle">The Technical Adequacy of Curriculum-<span class="hlt">Based</span> and <span class="hlt">Rating-Based</span> Measures of Written Expression for Elementary School Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gansle, Kristin A.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.; Noell, George H.; Resetar, Jennifer L.; Williams, Kashunda L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Five hundred thirty-eight elementary school students participated in a study designed to examine the technical characteristics of curriculum-<span class="hlt">based</span> measures (CBMs) for the assessment of writing. In addition, the study investigated <span class="hlt">rating-based</span> measures of writing using the Six Trait <span class="hlt">model</span>, an assessment instrument and writing program in use in many…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90530&keyword=Vapor+AND+pressure&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89667433&CFTOKEN=89777909','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90530&keyword=Vapor+AND+pressure&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89667433&CFTOKEN=89777909"><span id="translatedtitle">ESTIMATION OF THE <span class="hlt">RATE</span> OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM SOLVENT-<span class="hlt">BASED</span> INDOOR COATING MATERIALS <span class="hlt">BASED</span> ON PRODUCT FORMULATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Two computational methods are proposed for estimation of the emission <span class="hlt">rate</span> of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from solvent-<span class="hlt">based</span> indoor coating materials <span class="hlt">based</span> on the knowledge of product formulation. The first method utilizes two previously developed mass transfer <span class="hlt">models</span> with ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25633107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25633107"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Modellers</span>' Halting Foray into Ecological Theory: Or, What is This Thing Called 'Growth <span class="hlt">Rate</span>'?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deveau, Michael; Karsten, Richard; Teismann, Holger</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This discussion paper describes the attempt of an imagined group of non-ecologists ("<span class="hlt">Modellers</span>") to determine the population growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> from field data. The <span class="hlt">Modellers</span> wrestle with the multiple definitions of the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> available in the literature and the fact that, in their <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, it appears to be drastically <span class="hlt">model</span>-dependent, which seems to throw into question the very concept itself. Specifically, they observe that six representative <span class="hlt">models</span> used to capture the data produce growth-<span class="hlt">rate</span> values, which differ significantly. Almost ready to concede that the problem they set for themselves is ill-posed, they arrive at an alternative point of view that not only preserves the identity of the concept of the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but also helps discriminate between competing <span class="hlt">models</span> for capturing the data. This is accomplished by assessing how robustly a given <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to generate growth-<span class="hlt">rate</span> values from randomized time-series data. This leads to the proposal of an iterative approach to ecological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in which the definition of theoretical concepts (such as the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>) and <span class="hlt">model</span> selection complement each other. The paper is <span class="hlt">based</span> on high-quality field data of mites on apple trees and may be called a "data-driven opinion piece".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/1/107','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/1/107"><span id="translatedtitle">Predation <span class="hlt">rates</span> by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - Predictions from <span class="hlt">models</span> on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hansson, S.; Rudstam, L. G.; Kitchell, J.F.; Hilden, M.; Johnson, B.L.; Peppard, P.E.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We compared four different methods for estimating predation <span class="hlt">rates</span> by North Sea cod (Gadus moi hua). Three estimates, <span class="hlt">based</span> on gastric evacuation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, came from an ICES multispecies working group and the fourth from a bioenergetics <span class="hlt">model</span>. The bioenergetics <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed from a review of literature on cod physiology. The three gastric evacuation <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> produced very different prey consumption estimates for small (2 kg) fish. For most size and age classes, the bioenergetics <span class="hlt">model</span> predicted food consumption <span class="hlt">rates</span> intermediate to those predicted by the gastric evacuation <span class="hlt">models</span>. Using the standard ICES <span class="hlt">model</span> and the average population abundance and age structure for 1974-1989, annual, prey consumption by the North Sea cod population (age greater than or equal to 1) was 840 kilotons. The other two evacuation <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> produced estimates of 1020 and 1640 kilotons, respectively. The bioenergetics <span class="hlt">model</span> estimate was 1420 kilotons. The major differences between <span class="hlt">models</span> were due to consumption <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates for younger age groups of cod. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S21C..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S21C..03L"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Evolving Induced Seismicity Hazard in the Central and Eastern US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Llenos, A. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Michael, A. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Injection-induced earthquake <span class="hlt">rates</span> can vary rapidly in space and time, which presents significant challenges to traditional probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies that are <span class="hlt">based</span> on a time-independent <span class="hlt">model</span> of mainshock occurrence. To help society cope with rapidly evolving seismicity, the USGS is developing one-year hazard <span class="hlt">models</span> for areas of induced seismicity in the central and eastern US to forecast the shaking due to all earthquakes, including aftershocks which are generally omitted from hazards assessments (Petersen et al., 2015). However, the spatial and temporal variability of the earthquake <span class="hlt">rates</span> make them difficult to forecast even on time-scales as short as one year. An initial approach is to use the previous year's seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> to forecast the next year's seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span>. However, in places such as northern Oklahoma the <span class="hlt">rates</span> vary so rapidly over time that a simple linear extrapolation does not accurately forecast the future, even when the variability in the <span class="hlt">rates</span> is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with simulations <span class="hlt">based</span> on an Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) <span class="hlt">model</span> (Ogata, JASA, 1988) to account for earthquake clustering. Instead of relying on a fixed time period for <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation, we explore another way to determine when the earthquake <span class="hlt">rate</span> should be updated. This approach could also objectively identify new areas where the induced seismicity hazard <span class="hlt">model</span> should be applied. We will estimate the background seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> by optimizing a single set of ETAS aftershock triggering parameters across the most active induced seismicity zones -- Oklahoma, Guy-Greenbrier, the Raton Basin, and the Azle-Dallas-Fort Worth area -- with individual background <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameters in each zone. The full seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span>, with uncertainties, can then be estimated using ETAS simulations and changes in <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be detected by applying change point analysis in ETAS transformed time with methods already developed for Poisson processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490230"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance Invalidity <span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Among Healthy Undergraduate Research Participants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ross, Thomas P; Poston, Ashley M; Rein, Patricia A; Salvatore, Andrew N; Wills, Nathan L; York, Taylor M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Few studies have examined <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of suboptimal effort among healthy, undergraduate students recruited for neuropsychological research. An and colleagues (2012, Conducting research with non-clinical healthy undergraduates: Does effort play a role in neuropsychological test performance? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27, 849-857) reported high <span class="hlt">rates</span> of performance invalidity (30.8%-55.6%), calling into question the validity of findings generated from samples of college students. In contrast, subsequent studies have reported much lower <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> ranging from 2.6% to 12%. The present study replicated and extended previous work by examining the performance of 108 healthy undergraduates on the Dot Counting Test, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, Word Memory Test, and a brief battery of neuropsychological measures. During initial testing, 8.3% of the sample scored below cutoffs on at least one Performance Validity Test, while 3.7% were classified as invalid at Time 2 (M interval = 34.4 days). The present findings add to a growing number of studies that suggest performance invalidity <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in samples of non-clinical, healthy college students are much lower than An and colleagues initial findings. Although suboptimal effort is much less problematic than suggested by An and colleagues, recent reports as high as 12% indicate including measures of effort may be of value when using college students as participants. Methodological issues and recommendations for future research are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...741353Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...741353Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement <span class="hlt">based</span> on concave point matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Tianle; Liu, Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui; Zhou, Tong; Sun, Chengming; Zhou, Yue; Li, Xinlu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an important factor affecting rice quality. In this study, an inflection point detection-<span class="hlt">based</span> technology was applied to measure the head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> by combining a vibrator and a conveyor belt for bulk grain image acquisition. The edge center mode proportion method (ECMP) was applied for concave points matching in which concave matching and separation was performed with collaborative constraint conditions followed by rice length calculation with a minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) to identify the head rice. Finally, the head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> was calculated using the sum area of head rice to the overall coverage of rice. Results showed that bulk grain image acquisition can be realized with test equipment, and the accuracy <span class="hlt">rate</span> of separation of both indica rice and japonica rice exceeded 95%. An increase in the number of rice did not significantly affect ECMP and MER. High accuracy can be ensured with MER to calculate head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> by narrowing down its relative error between real values less than 3%. The test results show that the method is reliable as a reference for head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5269677','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5269677"><span id="translatedtitle">Head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement <span class="hlt">based</span> on concave point matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yao, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Tianle; Liu, Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui; Zhou, Tong; Sun, Chengming; Zhou, Yue; Li, Xinlu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an important factor affecting rice quality. In this study, an inflection point detection-<span class="hlt">based</span> technology was applied to measure the head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> by combining a vibrator and a conveyor belt for bulk grain image acquisition. The edge center mode proportion method (ECMP) was applied for concave points matching in which concave matching and separation was performed with collaborative constraint conditions followed by rice length calculation with a minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) to identify the head rice. Finally, the head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> was calculated using the sum area of head rice to the overall coverage of rice. Results showed that bulk grain image acquisition can be realized with test equipment, and the accuracy <span class="hlt">rate</span> of separation of both indica rice and japonica rice exceeded 95%. An increase in the number of rice did not significantly affect ECMP and MER. High accuracy can be ensured with MER to calculate head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> by narrowing down its relative error between real values less than 3%. The test results show that the method is reliable as a reference for head rice <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation studies. PMID:28128315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3306638','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3306638"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rates</span> of coalescence for common epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span> at equilibrium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koelle, Katia; Rasmussen, David A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Coalescent theory provides a mathematical framework for quantitatively interpreting gene genealogies. With the increased availability of molecular sequence data, disease ecologists now regularly apply this body of theory to viral phylogenies, most commonly in attempts to reconstruct demographic histories of infected individuals and to estimate parameters such as the basic reproduction number. However, with few exceptions, the mathematical expressions at the core of coalescent theory have not been explicitly linked to the structure of epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span>, which are commonly used to mathematically describe the transmission dynamics of a pathogen. Here, we aim to make progress towards establishing this link by presenting a general approach for deriving a <span class="hlt">model</span>'s <span class="hlt">rate</span> of coalescence under the assumption that the disease dynamics are at their endemic equilibrium. We apply this approach to four common families of epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span>: standard susceptible-infected-susceptible/susceptible-infected-recovered/susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible <span class="hlt">models</span>, <span class="hlt">models</span> with individual heterogeneity in infectivity, <span class="hlt">models</span> with an exposed but not yet infectious class and <span class="hlt">models</span> with variable distributions of the infectious period. These results improve our understanding of how epidemiological processes shape viral genealogies, as well as how these processes affect levels of viral diversity and <span class="hlt">rates</span> of genetic drift. Finally, we discuss how a subset of these coalescent <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions can be used for phylodynamic inference in non-equilibrium settings. For the ones that are limited to equilibrium conditions, we also discuss why this is the case. These results, therefore, point towards necessary future work while providing intuition on how epidemiological characteristics of the infection process impact gene genealogies. PMID:21920961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415822','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415822"><span id="translatedtitle">A master curve-mechanism <span class="hlt">based</span> approach to <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the effects of constraint, loading <span class="hlt">rate</span> and irradiation on the toughness-temperature behavior of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Odette, G.R.; Donahue, E.; Lucas, G.E.; Sheckherd, J.W.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The influence of loading <span class="hlt">rate</span> and constraint on the effective fracture toughness as a function of temperature [K{sub e}(T)] of the fusion program heat of V-4Cr-4Ti was measured using subsized, three point bend specimens. The constitutive behavior was characterized as a function of temperature and strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> using small tensile specimens. Data in the literature on this alloy was also analysed to determine the effect of irradiation on K{sub e}(T) and the energy temperature (E-T) curves measured in subsized Charpy V-notch tests. It was found that V-4Cr-4Ti undergoes {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} stress-controlled cleavage fracture below a temperature marking a sharp ductile-to-brittle transition. The transition temperature is increased by higher loading <span class="hlt">rates</span>, irradiation hardening and triaxial constraint. Shifts in a reference transition temperature due to higher loading <span class="hlt">rates</span> and irradiation can be reasonably predicted by a simple equivalent yield stress <span class="hlt">model</span>. These results also suggest that size and geometry effects, which mediate constraint, can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by combining local critical stressed area {sigma}*/A* fracture criteria with finite element method simulations of crack tip stress fields. The fundamental understanding reflected in these <span class="hlt">models</span> will be needed to develop K{sub e}(T) curves for a range of loading <span class="hlt">rates</span>, irradiation conditions, structural size scales and geometries relying (in large part) on small specimen tests. Indeed, it may be possible to develop a master K{sub e}(T) curve-shift method to account for these variables. Such reliable and flexible failure assessment methods are critical to the design and safe operation of defect tolerant vanadium structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EJASP2009...58L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EJASP2009...58L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rate</span> Distortion Analysis and Bit Allocation Scheme for Wavelet Lifting-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Multiview Image Coding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lasang, Pongsak; Kumwilaisak, Wuttipong</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>This paper studies the distortion and the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> bit allocation scheme of wavelet lifting-<span class="hlt">based</span> multiview image coding. Redundancies among image views are removed by disparity-compensated wavelet lifting (DCWL). The distortion prediction of the low-pass and high-pass subbands of each image view from the DCWL process is analyzed. The derived distortion is used with different <span class="hlt">rate</span> distortion <span class="hlt">models</span> in the bit allocation of multiview images. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> distortion <span class="hlt">models</span> including power <span class="hlt">model</span>, exponential <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the proposed combining the power and exponential <span class="hlt">models</span> are studied. The proposed <span class="hlt">rate</span> distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> exploits the accuracy of both power and exponential <span class="hlt">models</span> in a wide range of target bit <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Then, low-pass and high-pass subbands are compressed by SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) with a bit allocation solution. We verify the derived distortion and the bit allocation with several sets of multiview images. The results show that the bit allocation solution <span class="hlt">based</span> on the derived distortion and our bit allocation scheme provide closer results to those of the exhaustive search method in both allocated bits and peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). It also outperforms the uniform bit allocation and uniform bit allocation with normalized energy in the order of 1.7-2 and 0.3-1.4 dB, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPB..3041001W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPB..3041001W"><span id="translatedtitle">Queuing <span class="hlt">model</span> of a traffic bottleneck with bimodal arrival <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woelki, Marko</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the problem of tuning the density in a traffic bottleneck by reduction of the arrival <span class="hlt">rate</span> when the queue length exceeds a certain threshold, studied recently for variants of totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) and Burgers equation. In the present approach, a simple finite queuing system is considered and its contrasting “phase diagram” is derived. One can observe one jammed region, one low-density region and one region where the queue length is equilibrated around the threshold. Despite the simplicity of the <span class="hlt">model</span> the physics is in accordance with the previous approach: The density is tuned at the threshold if the exit <span class="hlt">rate</span> lies in between the two arrival <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9401019L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9401019L"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of dynamic mechanical properties of pure polycrystalline magnesium under high loading strain <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Qizhen</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Computational simulations were performed to investigate the dynamic mechanical behavior of pure polycrystalline magnesium under different high loading strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> with the values of 800, 1000, 2000, and 3600 s-1. The Johnson-Cook <span class="hlt">model</span> was utilized in the simulations <span class="hlt">based</span> on finite element <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The results showed that the simulations provided well-matched predictions of the material behavior such as the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span>-time history, the stress-strain curve, and the temperature increase. Under high loading strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>, the tested material experienced linear strain hardening at the early stage of plastic deformation, increased strain hardening at the intermediate plastic deformation region, and decreased strain hardening at the region before fracture. The strain hardening <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the studied high loading strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> cases do not vary much with the change of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17184350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17184350"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale dependence of immigration <span class="hlt">rates</span>: <span class="hlt">models</span>, metrics and data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Englund, Göran; Hambäck, Peter A</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>1. We examine the relationship between immigration <span class="hlt">rate</span> and patch area for different types of movement behaviours and detection modes. Theoretical <span class="hlt">models</span> suggest that the scale dependence of the immigration <span class="hlt">rate</span> per unit area (I/A) can be described by a power <span class="hlt">model</span> I/A = i*Area(zeta), where zeta describes the strength of the scale dependence. 2. Three types of scaling were identified. Area scaling (zeta = 0) is expected for passively dispersed organisms that have the same probability of landing anywhere in the patch. Perimeter scaling (-0.30 > zeta > -0.45) is expected when patches are detected from a very short distance and immigrants arrive over the patch boundary, whereas diameter scaling (zeta = -0.5) is expected if patches are detected from a long distance or if search is approximately linear. 3. A meta-analysis of published empirical studies of the scale dependence of immigration <span class="hlt">rates</span> in terrestrial insects suggests that butterflies show diameter scaling, aphids show area scaling, and the scaling of beetle immigration is highly variable. We conclude that the scaling of immigration <span class="hlt">rates</span> in many cases can be predicted from search behaviour and the mode of patch detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216354','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216354"><span id="translatedtitle">Refinement of the Air Force Systems Command Production <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>the recommended modified formulations. The relationship between production <span class="hlt">rate</span> and production ratio has a definite influence on the <span class="hlt">model</span>’s ability to...1984 7 36 21.954 370.00 1985 8 48 21.017 412.00 A- 3 Table A.2.8 F-15E Cost/Quantity Data Fiscal Year Lot Quntit Recurring Unit Cost LPP 1986 1 60</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b2409L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b2409L"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of distribution of infection <span class="hlt">rate</span> on epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lachiany, Menachem; Louzoun, Yoram</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A goal of many epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span> is to compute the outcome of the epidemics from the observed infected early dynamics. However, often, the total number of infected individuals at the end of the epidemics is much lower than predicted from the early dynamics. This discrepancy is argued to result from human intervention or nonlinear dynamics not incorporated in standard <span class="hlt">models</span>. We show that when variability in infection <span class="hlt">rates</span> is included in standard susciptible-infected-susceptible (SIS ) and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR ) <span class="hlt">models</span> the total number of infected individuals in the late dynamics can be orders lower than predicted from the early dynamics. This discrepancy holds for SIS and SIR <span class="hlt">models</span>, where the assumption that all individuals have the same sensitivity is eliminated. In contrast with network <span class="hlt">models</span>, fixed partnerships are not assumed. We derive a moment closure scheme capturing the distribution of sensitivities. We find that the shape of the sensitivity distribution does not affect R0 or the number of infected individuals in the early phases of the epidemics. However, a wide distribution of sensitivities reduces the total number of removed individuals in the SIR <span class="hlt">model</span> and the steady-state infected fraction in the SIS <span class="hlt">model</span>. The difference between the early and late dynamics implies that in order to extrapolate the expected effect of the epidemics from the initial phase of the epidemics, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in the average infectivity should be computed. These results are supported by a comparison of the theoretical <span class="hlt">model</span> to the Ebola epidemics and by numerical simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989822','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989822"><span id="translatedtitle">Deviatoric constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>: domain of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> validity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zocher, Marvin A</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A case is made for using an enhanced methodology in determining the parameters that appear in a deviatoric constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>. Predictability rests on our ability to solve a properly posed initial boundary value problem (IBVP), which incorporates an accurate reflection of material constitutive behavior. That reflection is provided through the constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>. Moreover, the constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is required for mathematical closure of the IBVP. Common practice in the shock physics community is to divide the Cauchy tensor into spherical and deviatoric parts, and to develop separate <span class="hlt">models</span> for spherical and deviatoric constitutive response. Our focus shall be on the Cauchy deviator and deviatoric constitutive behavior. Discussions related to the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor are reserved for another time. A number of deviatoric constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> have been developed for utilization in the solution of IBVPs that are of interest to those working in the field of shock physics, e.g. All of these <span class="hlt">models</span> are phenomenological and contain a number of parameters that must be determined in light of experimental data. The methodology employed in determining these parameters dictates the loading regime over which the <span class="hlt">model</span> can be expected to be accurate. The focus of this paper is the methodology employed in determining <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters and the consequences of that methodology as it relates to the domain of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> validity. We shall begin by describing the methodology that is typically employed. We shall discuss limitations imposed upon predictive capability by the typically employed methodology. We shall propose a modification to the typically employed methodology that significantly extends the domain of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> validity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SMaS...25f5017J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SMaS...25f5017J"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">modeling</span> on <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent ferroelectric and ferroelastic response of 1-3 piezocomposites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jayendiran, R.; Arockiarajan, A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The effect of loading <span class="hlt">rate</span> on ferroelectric and ferroelastic behavior of 1-3 piezocomposites is presented in this work. Experiments are conducted for various loading <span class="hlt">rates</span> under different loading conditions such as electrical and electromechanical to measure the <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent response of 1-3 piezocomposite compared with bulk piezoceramics. A thermodynamic <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent domain switching criteria has been proposed to predict the ferroelectric and ferroelastic behavior of homogenized 1-3 piezocomposites. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, volume fraction of six distinct uni-axial variants are used as internal variables to describe the microscopic state of the material. Plasticity <span class="hlt">based</span> kinematic hardening parameter is introduced as a function of internal variables to describe the grain boundary effects. Homogenization of 1-3 piezocomposite material properties are obtained by finite element (FE) resonator <span class="hlt">models</span> using commercially available FE tool Abaqus. To evaluate the possible modes of vibration of 1-3 piezocomposite four different configuration of FE resonators are <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. The FE resonator <span class="hlt">model</span> is validated with the impedance spectra obtained experimentally for length extensional and thickness extensional resonator <span class="hlt">models</span>. The predicted effective properties using the resonance <span class="hlt">based</span> technique are incorporated in the proposed <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent macromechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> to study the behavior of 1-3 piezocomposites. The simulated results are compared with the experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..436..658H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..436..658H"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting online <span class="hlt">ratings</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the opinion spreading process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liu, Jian-Guo</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Predicting users' online <span class="hlt">ratings</span> is always a challenge issue and has drawn lots of attention. In this paper, we present a <span class="hlt">rating</span> prediction method by combining the user opinion spreading process with the collaborative filtering algorithm, where user similarity is defined by measuring the amount of opinion a user transfers to another <span class="hlt">based</span> on the primitive user-item <span class="hlt">rating</span> matrix. The proposed method could produce a more precise <span class="hlt">rating</span> prediction for each unrated user-item pair. In addition, we introduce a tunable parameter λ to regulate the preferential diffusion relevant to the degree of both opinion sender and receiver. The numerical results for Movielens and Netflix data sets show that this algorithm has a better accuracy than the standard user-<span class="hlt">based</span> collaborative filtering algorithm using Cosine and Pearson correlation without increasing computational complexity. By tuning λ, our method could further boost the prediction accuracy when using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) as measurements. In the optimal cases, on Movielens and Netflix data sets, the corresponding algorithmic accuracy (MAE and RMSE) are improved 11.26% and 8.84%, 13.49% and 10.52% compared to the item average method, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25570787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25570787"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of wearable consumer heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> monitors <span class="hlt">based</span> on photopletysmography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parak, Jakub; Korhonen, Ilkka</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Wearable monitoring of heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HR) during physical activity and exercising allows real time control of exercise intensity and training effect. Recently, technologies <span class="hlt">based</span> on pulse plethysmography (PPG) have become available for personal health management for consumers. However, the accuracy of these monitors is poorly known which limits their application. In this study, we evaluated accuracy of two PPG <span class="hlt">based</span> (wrist i.e. Mio Alpha vs forearm i.e. Schosche Rhythm) commercially available HR monitors during exercise. 21 healthy volunteers (15 male and 6 female) completed an exercise protocol which included sitting, lying, walking, running, cycling, and some daily activities involving hand movements. HR estimation was compared against values from the reference electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation reliability scores for <;5% accuracy against reference were following: mio Alpha 77,83% and Scosche Rhytm 76,29%. The estimated results indicate that performance of devices depends on various parameters, including specified activity, sensor type and device placement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21575739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21575739"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma metabolite levels predict bird growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>: A field test of <span class="hlt">model</span> predictive ability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albano, Noelia; Masero, José A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Abad-Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Bird growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> are usually derived from nonlinear relationships between age and some morphological structure, but this procedure may be limited by several factors. To date, nothing is known about the capacity of plasma metabolite profiling to predict chick growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on laboratory-trials, we here develop predictive logistic <span class="hlt">models</span> of body mass, and tarsus and wing length growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica chicks from measurements of plasma metabolite levels at different developmental stages. The predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> obtained during the fastest growth period (at the age of 12 days) explained 65-68% of the chicks' growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>, with fasting triglyceride level explaining most of the variation in growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. At the end of pre-fledging period, β-hydroxybutyrate level was also a good predictor of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Finally, we carried out a field test to check the predictive capacity of the <span class="hlt">models</span> in two colonies of wild Gull-billed Tern, comparing field-measured and <span class="hlt">model</span>-predicted growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> between groups. Both, measured and predicted growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>, matched statistically. Plasma metabolite levels can thus be applied in comparative studies of chick growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> when semi-precocial birds can be captured only once.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554267"><span id="translatedtitle">The Relationship Between Hospital Value-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Purchasing Program Scores and Hospital Bond <span class="hlt">Ratings</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rangnekar, Anooja; Johnson, Tricia; Garman, Andrew; O'Neil, Patricia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tax-exempt hospitals and health systems often borrow long-term debt to fund capital investments. Lenders use bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span> as a standard metric to assess whether to lend funds to a hospital. Credit <span class="hlt">rating</span> agencies have historically relied on financial performance measures and a hospital's ability to service debt obligations to determine bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. With the growth in pay-for-performance-<span class="hlt">based</span> reimbursement <span class="hlt">models</span>, <span class="hlt">rating</span> agencies are expanding their hospital bond <span class="hlt">rating</span> criteria to include hospital utilization and value-<span class="hlt">based</span> purchasing (VBP) measures. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the Hospital VBP domains--Clinical Process of Care, Patient Experience of Care, Outcome, and Medicare Spending per Beneficiary (MSPB)--and hospital bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. Given the historical focus on financial performance, we hypothesized that hospital bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span> are not associated with any of the Hospital VBP domains. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitals that were <span class="hlt">rated</span> by Moody's for fiscal year 2012 and participated in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' VBP program as of January 2014 (N = 285). Of the 285 hospitals in the study, 15% had been assigned a bond <span class="hlt">rating</span> of Aa, and 46% had been assigned an A <span class="hlt">rating</span>. Using a binary logistic regression <span class="hlt">model</span>, we found an association between MSPB only and bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span>, after controlling for other VBP and financial performance scores; however, MSPB did not improve the overall predictive accuracy of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Inclusion of VBP scores in the methodology used to determine hospital bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span> is likely to affect hospital bond <span class="hlt">ratings</span> in the near term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9414E..35X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9414E..35X"><span id="translatedtitle">Heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement <span class="hlt">based</span> on face video sequence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Fang; Zhou, Qin-Wu; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xing; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Hong-jian</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new non-contact heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement method <span class="hlt">based</span> on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. With this method we can measure heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> remotely with a camera and ambient light. We collected video sequences of subjects, and detected remote PPG signals through video sequences. Remote PPG signals were analyzed with two methods, Blind Source Separation Technology (BSST) and Cross Spectral Power Technology (CSPT). BSST is a commonly used method, and CSPT is used for the first time in the study of remote PPG signals in this paper. Both of the methods can acquire heart <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but compared with BSST, CSPT has clearer physical meaning, and the computational complexity of CSPT is lower than that of BSST. Our work shows that heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> detected by CSPT method have good consistency with the heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> measured by a finger clip oximeter. With good accuracy and low computational complexity, the CSPT method has a good prospect for the application in the field of home medical devices and mobile health devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7703023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7703023"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of a statistical bootstrapping technique to calculate growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> variance for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> psychrotrophic pathogen growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schaffner, D W</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The inherent variability or 'variance' of growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements is critical to the development of accurate predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> in food microbiology. A large number of measurements are typically needed to estimate variance. To make these measurements requires a significant investment of time and effort. If a single growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> determination is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a series of independent measurements, then a statistical bootstrapping technique can be used to simulate multiple growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements from a single set of experiments. Growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> variances were calculated for three large datasets (Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Yersinia enterocolitica) from our laboratory using this technique. This analysis revealed that the population of growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements at any given condition are not normally distributed, but instead follow a distribution that is between normal and Poisson. The relationship between growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> and temperature was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by response surface <span class="hlt">models</span> using generalized linear regression. It was found that the assumed distribution (i.e. normal, Poisson, gamma or inverse normal) of the growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> influenced the prediction of each of the <span class="hlt">models</span> used. This research demonstrates the importance of variance and assumptions about the statistical distribution of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the results of predictive microbiological <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17107967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17107967"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and analysis of biochemical networks: mechanism-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> experiments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Riel, Natal A W</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Systems biology applies quantitative, mechanistic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> to study genetic networks, signal transduction pathways and metabolic networks. Mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> of biochemical networks can look very different. An important reason is that the purpose and application of a <span class="hlt">model</span> are essential for the selection of the best mathematical framework. Fundamental aspects of selecting an appropriate <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework and a strategy for <span class="hlt">model</span> building are discussed. Concepts and methods from system and control theory provide a sound basis for the further development of improved and dedicated computational tools for systems biology. Identification of the network components and <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants that are most critical to the output behaviour of the system is one of the major problems raised in systems biology. Current approaches and methods of parameter sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation are reviewed. It is shown how these methods can be applied in the design of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> experiments which iteratively yield <span class="hlt">models</span> that are decreasingly wrong and increasingly gain predictive power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ESASP.509E..64T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ESASP.509E..64T"><span id="translatedtitle">A high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> PCI-<span class="hlt">based</span> telemetry processor system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turri, R.</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>The high performances reached by the Satellite on-board telemetry generation and transmission, as consequently, will impose the design of ground facilities with higher processing capabilities at low cost to allow a good diffusion of these ground station. The equipment normally used are <span class="hlt">based</span> on complex, proprietary bus and computing architectures that prevent the systems from exploiting the continuous and rapid increasing in computing power available on market. The PCI bus systems now allow processing of high-<span class="hlt">rate</span> data streams in a standard PC-system. At the same time the Windows NT operating system supports multitasking and symmetric multiprocessing, giving the capability to process high data <span class="hlt">rate</span> signals. In addition, high-speed networking, 64 bit PCI-bus technologies and the increase in processor power and software, allow creating a system <span class="hlt">based</span> on COTS products (which in future may be easily and inexpensively upgraded). In the frame of EUCLID RTP 9.8 project, a specific work element was dedicated to develop the architecture of a system able to acquire telemetry data of up to 600 Mbps. Laben S.p.A - a Finmeccanica Company -, entrusted of this work, has designed a PCI-<span class="hlt">based</span> telemetry system making possible the communication between a satellite down-link and a wide area network at the required <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3828H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3828H"><span id="translatedtitle">Inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of radionuclide release <span class="hlt">rates</span> using gamma dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamburger, Thomas; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. Observations and dispersion <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the released radionuclides help to assess the regional impact of such nuclear accidents. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> the increase of regional radionuclide activity concentrations, which results from nuclear accidents, underlies a multiplicity of uncertainties. One of the most significant uncertainties is the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source term may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on estimates given by the operators of the nuclear power plant. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. The release <span class="hlt">rates</span> of radionuclides at the accident site can be estimated using inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). The accuracy of the method depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the used observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a relatively sparse grid and the temporal resolution of available data may be low within the order of hours or a day. Gamma dose <span class="hlt">rates</span>, on the other hand, are observed routinely on a much denser grid and higher temporal resolution and provide therefore a wider basis for inverse <span class="hlt">modelling</span> (Saunier et al., 2013). We present a new inversion approach, which combines an atmospheric dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span> and observations of radionuclide activity concentrations and gamma dose <span class="hlt">rates</span> to obtain the source term of radionuclides. We use the Lagrangian particle dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span> FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; Stohl et al., 2005) to <span class="hlt">model</span> the atmospheric transport of the released radionuclides. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980227528&hterms=nadarajah&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnadarajah','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980227528&hterms=nadarajah&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnadarajah"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the Growth <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Faces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Meirong; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p> with respect to its concentration at saturation in order to apply growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to this process. The measured growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> were then compared with the predicted ones from several dislocation and 2D nucleation growth <span class="hlt">models</span>, employing tetramer and octamer growth units in polydisperse solutions and monomer units in monodisperse solutions. For the (110) face, the calculations consistently showed that the measured growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> followed the expected <span class="hlt">model</span> relations with octamer growth units. For the (101) face, it is not possible to obtain a clear agreement between the predicted and measured growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a single growth unit as done for the (110) face. However, the calculations do indicate that the average size of the growth unit is between a tetramer and an octamer. This suggests that tetramers, octamers and other intermediate size growth units all participate in the growth process for this face. These calculations show that it is possible to <span class="hlt">model</span> the macroscopic protein crystal growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> if the molecular level processes can be account for, particularly protein aggregation processes in the bulk solution. Our recent investigations of tetragonal lysozyme crystals employing high resolution atomic force microscopy scans have further confirmed the growth of these crystals by aggregate growth units corresponding to 4(sub 3) helices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845182"><span id="translatedtitle">Correcting the optimal resampling-<span class="hlt">based</span> error <span class="hlt">rate</span> by estimating the error <span class="hlt">rate</span> of wrapper algorithms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernau, Christoph; Augustin, Thomas; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>High-dimensional binary classification tasks, for example, the classification of microarray samples into normal and cancer tissues, usually involve a tuning parameter. By reporting the performance of the best tuning parameter value only, over-optimistic prediction errors are obtained. For correcting this tuning bias, we develop a new method which is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a decomposition of the unconditional error <span class="hlt">rate</span> involving the tuning procedure, that is, we estimate the error <span class="hlt">rate</span> of wrapper algorithms as introduced in the context of internal cross-validation (ICV) by Varma and Simon (2006, BMC Bioinformatics 7, 91). Our subsampling-<span class="hlt">based</span> estimator can be written as a weighted mean of the errors obtained using the different tuning parameter values, and thus can be interpreted as a smooth version of ICV, which is the standard approach for avoiding tuning bias. In contrast to ICV, our method guarantees intuitive bounds for the corrected error. Additionally, we suggest to use bias correction methods also to address the conceptually similar method selection bias that results from the optimal choice of the classification method itself when evaluating several methods successively. We demonstrate the performance of our method on microarray and simulated data and compare it to ICV. This study suggests that our approach yields competitive estimates at a much lower computational price.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/644140','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/644140"><span id="translatedtitle">Dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span> and irradiation temperature dependence of BJT SPICE <span class="hlt">model</span> rad-parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Montagner, X.; Briand, R.; Fouillat, P.; Touboul, A.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.; Calvet, M.C.; Calvel, P.</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>A method to predict low dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> degradation of bipolar transistors using high dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span>, high temperature irradiation is evaluated, <span class="hlt">based</span> on an analysis of four new rad-parameters that are introduced in the BJT SPICE <span class="hlt">model</span>. This improved BJT <span class="hlt">model</span> describes the radiation-induced excess <span class="hlt">base</span> current with great accuracy. The low-level values of the rad-parameters are good tools for evaluating the proposed high-temperature test method because of their high sensitivity to radiation-induced degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.5555J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.5555J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> airborne concentration and deposition <span class="hlt">rate</span> of maize pollen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jarosz, Nathalie; Loubet, Benjamin; Huber, Laurent</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops has reinforced the need to quantify gene flow from crop to crop. This requires predictive tools which take into account meteorological conditions, canopy structure as well as pollen aerodynamic characteristics. A Lagrangian Stochastic (LS) <span class="hlt">model</span>, called SMOP-2D (Stochastic Mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> for Pollen dispersion and deposition in 2 Dimensions), is presented. It simulates wind dispersion of pollen by calculating individual pollen trajectories from their emission to their deposition. SMOP-2D was validated using two field experiments where airborne concentration and deposition <span class="hlt">rate</span> of pollen were measured within and downwind from different sized maize (Zea mays) plots together with micrometeorological measurements. SMOP-2D correctly simulated the shapes of the concentration profiles but generally underestimated the deposition <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the first 10 m downwind from the source. Potential explanations of this discrepancy are discussed. Incorrect parameterisation of turbulence in the transition from the crop to the surroundings is probably the most likely reason. This demonstrates that LS <span class="hlt">models</span> for particle transfer need to be coupled with air-flow <span class="hlt">models</span> under complex terrain conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..460..166A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..460..166A"><span id="translatedtitle">Crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> in core shroud horizontal welds using two <span class="hlt">models</span> for a BWR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arganis Juárez, C. R.; Hernández Callejas, R.; Medina Almazán, A. L.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>An empirical crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> correlation <span class="hlt">model</span> and a predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the slip-oxidation mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) were used to calculate the crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a BWR core shroud. In this study, the crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> was calculated by accounting for the environmental factors related to aqueous environment, neutron irradiation to high fluence and the complex residual stress conditions resulting from welding. In estimating the SCC behavior the crack growth measurements data from a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant are referred to, and the stress intensity factor vs crack depth throughout thickness is calculated using a generic weld residual stress distribution for a core shroud, with a 30% stress relaxation induced by neutron irradiation. Quantitative agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the predictions of the slip-oxidation mechanism <span class="hlt">model</span> for relatively low fluences (5 × 1024 n/m2), and the empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> predicted better the SCC growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> than the slip-oxidation <span class="hlt">model</span> for high fluences (>1 × 1025 n/m2). The relevance of the <span class="hlt">models</span> predictions for SCC growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> behavior depends on knowing the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4561764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4561764"><span id="translatedtitle">Caesarean Delivery <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Review: An Evidence-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Degani, N; Sikich, N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background In 2007, caesarean deliveries comprised 28% of all hospital deliveries in Ontario. Provincial caesarean delivery <span class="hlt">rates</span> increased with maternal age and varied by Local Health Integration Network. However, the accepted <span class="hlt">rate</span> of caesarean delivery in a low-risk maternal population remains unclear. Objectives To review the literature to assess factors that affect the likelihood of experiencing a caesarean delivery, and to examine Ontario caesarean delivery <span class="hlt">rates</span> to determine whether there is <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation across the province. Data Sources Data sources included publications from OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, as well as data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstracts Database and the Better Outcomes and Registry Network. Review Methods A mixed-methods approach was used, which included a systematic review of the literature to delineate factors associated with the likelihood of caesarean delivery and an analysis of administrative and clinical data on hospital deliveries in Ontario to determine provincial caesarean delivery <span class="hlt">rates</span>, variation in <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and reasons for variation. Results Fourteen systematic reviews assessed 14 factors affecting the likelihood of caesarean delivery; 7 factors were associated with an increased likelihood of caesarean delivery, and 2 factors were associated with a decreased likelihood. Five factors had no influence. One factor provided moderate-quality evidence supporting elective induction policies in low-risk women. The overall Ontario caesarean delivery <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a very-low-risk population was 17%, but varied significantly across Ontario hospitals. Limitations The literature review included a 5–year period and used only systematic reviews. The determination of Robson class for women is <span class="hlt">based</span> on care received in hospital only, and the low-risk population may have</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068093','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068093"><span id="translatedtitle">LS-DYNA Implementation of Polymer Matrix Composite <span class="hlt">Model</span> Under High Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xia-Hua; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A recently developed constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented into LS-DYNA as a user defined material <span class="hlt">model</span> (UMAT) to characterize the nonlinear strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent behavior of polymers. By utilizing this <span class="hlt">model</span> within a micromechanics technique <span class="hlt">based</span> on a laminate analogy, an algorithm to analyze the strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent, nonlinear deformation of a fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite is then developed as a UMAT to simulate the response of these composites under high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> impact. The <span class="hlt">models</span> are designed for shell elements in order to ensure computational efficiency. Experimental and numerical stress-strain curves are compared for two representative polymers and a representative polymer matrix composite, with the analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> predicting the experimental response reasonably well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptEn..55d0503B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptEn..55d0503B"><span id="translatedtitle">Video-<span class="hlt">rate</span> volumetric optical coherence tomography-<span class="hlt">based</span> microangiography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baran, Utku; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jingjiang; Qi, Xiaoli; Davis, Wyatt O.; Wang, Ruikang K.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Video-<span class="hlt">rate</span> volumetric optical coherence tomography (vOCT) is relatively young in the field of OCT imaging but has great potential in biomedical applications. Due to the recent development of the MHz range swept laser sources, vOCT has started to gain attention in the community. Here, we report the first in vivo video-<span class="hlt">rate</span> volumetric OCT-<span class="hlt">based</span> microangiography (vOMAG) system by integrating an 18-kHz resonant microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror with a 1.6-MHz FDML swept source operating at ˜1.3 μm wavelength. Because the MEMS scanner can offer an effective B-frame <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 36 kHz, we are able to engineer vOMAG with a video <span class="hlt">rate</span> up to 25 Hz. This system was utilized for real-time volumetric in vivo visualization of cerebral microvasculature in mice. Moreover, we monitored the blood perfusion dynamics during stimulation within mouse ear in vivo. We also discussed this system's limitations. Prospective MEMS-enabled OCT probes with a real-time volumetric functional imaging capability can have a significant impact on endoscopic imaging and image-guided surgery applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10103353','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10103353"><span id="translatedtitle">A count <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> contamination control standard for electron accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>May, R.T.; Schwahn, S.O.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Accelerators of sufficient energy and particle fluence can produce radioactivity as an unwanted byproduct. The radioactivity is typically imbedded in structural materials but may also be removable from surfaces. Many of these radionuclides decay by positron emission or electron capture; they often have long half lives and produce photons of low energy and yield making detection by standard devices difficult. The contamination control limit used throughout the US nuclear industry and the Department of Energy is 1,000 disintegrations per minute. This limit is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the detection threshold of pancake type Geiger-Mueller probes for radionuclides of relatively high radiotoxicity, such as cobalt-60. Several radionuclides of concern at a high energy electron accelerator are compared in terms of radiotoxicity with radionuclides commonly found in the nuclear industry. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on this comparison, a count-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> contamination control limit and associated measurement strategy is proposed which provides adequate detection of contamination at accelerators without an increase in risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048308"><span id="translatedtitle">Selecting and applying cesium-137 conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> to estimate soil erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> in cultivated fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Sheng; Lobb, David A; Tiessen, Kevin H D; McConkey, Brian G</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The fallout radionuclide cesium-137 ((137)Cs) has been successfully used in soil erosion studies worldwide. However, discrepancies often exist between the erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> estimated using various conversion <span class="hlt">models</span>. As a result, there is often confusion in the use of the various <span class="hlt">models</span> and in the interpretation of the data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the structural and parametrical uncertainties associated with four conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> typically used in cultivated agricultural landscapes. For the structural uncertainties, the Soil Constituent Redistribution by Erosion <span class="hlt">Model</span> (SCREM) was developed and used to simulate the redistribution of fallout (137)Cs due to tillage and water erosion along a simple two-dimensional (horizontal and vertical) transect. The SCREM-predicted (137)Cs inventories were then imported into the conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> to estimate the erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The structural uncertainties of the conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> were assessed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the comparisons between the conversion-<span class="hlt">model</span>-estimated erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> determined or used in the SCREM. For the parametrical uncertainties, test runs were conducted by varying the values of the parameters used in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the parametrical uncertainties were assessed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the responsive changes of the estimated erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Our results suggest that: (i) the performance/accuracy of the conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> was largely dependent on the relative contributions of water vs. tillage erosion; and (ii) the estimated erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> were highly sensitive to the input values of the reference (137)Cs level, particle size correction factors and tillage depth. Guidelines were proposed to aid researchers in selecting and applying the conversion <span class="hlt">models</span> under various situations common to agricultural landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.4443Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.4443Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment on the <span class="hlt">rates</span> and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan using a process-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and spatially explicit land-use change inventories - Part 2: Future potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Future potentials of the sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural lands in Japan were estimated using a simulation system we recently developed to simulate SOC stock change at country-scale under varying land-use change, climate, soil, and agricultural practices, in a spatially explicit manner. Simulation was run from 1970 to 2006 with historical inventories, and subsequently to 2020 with future scenarios of agricultural activity comprised of various agricultural policy targets advocated by the Japanese government. Furthermore, the simulation was run subsequently until 2100 while forcing no temporal changes in land-use and agricultural activity to investigate duration and course of SOC stock change at country scale. A scenario with an increased <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic carbon input to agricultural fields by intensified crop rotation in combination with the suppression of conversion of agricultural lands to other land-use types was found to have a greater reduction of CO2 emission by enhanced soil carbon sequestration, but only under a circumstance in which the converted agricultural lands will become settlements that were considered to have a relatively lower <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic carbon input. The size of relative reduction of CO2 emission in this scenario was comparable to that in another contrasting scenario (business-as-usual scenario of agricultural activity) in which a relatively lower <span class="hlt">rate</span> of organic matter input to agricultural fields was assumed in combination with an increased <span class="hlt">rate</span> of conversion of the agricultural fields to unmanaged grasslands through abandonment. Our simulation experiment clearly demonstrated that net-net-<span class="hlt">based</span> accounting on SOC stock change, defined as the differences between the emissions and removals during the commitment period and the emissions and removals during a previous period (<span class="hlt">base</span> year or <span class="hlt">base</span> period of Kyoto Protocol), can be largely influenced by variations in future climate. Whereas baseline-<span class="hlt">based</span> accounting, defined</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930008325','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930008325"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> software design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Iscoe, Neil; Liu, Zheng-Yang; Feng, Guohui; Yenne, Britt; Vansickle, Larry; Ballantyne, Michael</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Domain-specific knowledge is required to create specifications, generate code, and understand existing systems. Our approach to automating software design is <span class="hlt">based</span> on instantiating an application domain <span class="hlt">model</span> with industry-specific knowledge and then using that <span class="hlt">model</span> to achieve the operational goals of specification elicitation and verification, reverse engineering, and code generation. Although many different specification <span class="hlt">models</span> can be created from any particular domain <span class="hlt">model</span>, each specification <span class="hlt">model</span> is consistent and correct with respect to the domain <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16243414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16243414"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical distribution, migration <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison of actinium in a semi-arid environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McClellan, Y; August, R A; Gosz, J R; Gann, S; Parmenter, R R; Windsor, M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Vertical soil characterization and migration of radionuclides were investigated at four radioactively contaminated sites on Kirtland Air Force <span class="hlt">Base</span> (KAFB), New Mexico to determine the vertical downward migration of radionuclides in a semi-arid environment. The surface soils (0-15 cm) were intentionally contaminated with Brazilian sludge (containing (232)Thorium and other radionuclides) approximately 40 years ago, in order to simulate the conditions resulting from a nuclear weapons accident. Site grading consisted of manually raking or machine disking the sludge. The majority of the radioactivity was found in the top 15 cm of soil, with retention ranging from 69 to 88%. Two <span class="hlt">models</span>, a compartment diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> and leach <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, were evaluated to determine their capabilities and limitations in predicting radionuclide behavior. The migration <span class="hlt">rates</span> of actinium were calculated with the diffusion compartment and the leach <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for all sites, and ranged from 0.009 to 0.1 cm/yr increasing with depth. The migration <span class="hlt">rates</span> calculated with the leach <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> were similar to those using the diffusion compartment <span class="hlt">model</span> and did not increase with depth (0.045-0.076, 0.0 cm/yr). The research found that the physical and chemical properties governing transport processes of water and solutes in soil provide a valid radionuclide transport <span class="hlt">model</span>. The evaluation also showed that the physical <span class="hlt">model</span> has fewer limitations and may be more applicable to this environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.271...65F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.271...65F"><span id="translatedtitle">A regional approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> cliff retreat <span class="hlt">rate</span>: The Makhteshim Country, Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finzi, Yaron; Harlev, Noam</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Cliff retreat <span class="hlt">rate</span> significantly affect the evolution of landforms and cliff stability. Cliff retreat studies also provide intriguing clues regarding past geomorphic conditions and environmental changes. We hereby present a <span class="hlt">model</span> to calculate cliff retreat <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on spatial data of cliff structure and morphology. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied to numerous cliffs in the arid Makhteshim Country, Israel, and results are calibrated using published <span class="hlt">rates</span> of two local cliffs. The calculated retreat <span class="hlt">rates</span> confirm previous assertions that the crater cliffs are receding very slowly, but reveal that the <span class="hlt">rates</span> vary significantly along the cliffs (1-18 cm ky- 1). Results also provide first estimates of retreat <span class="hlt">rates</span> of other major cliffs in the region including fast retreat <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the Sede Zin cliff (300-600 cm ky- 1). The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a robust analysis to account for local cliff-talus morphology and yields <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates representative of current conditions rather than a long-term (geologic) average <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Results presented constitute important new insights into regional geomorphic processes and on the stability of specific cliff sections within the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3298426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3298426"><span id="translatedtitle">Semiparametric Stochastic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Function in Longitudinal Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions, which describe the functional <span class="hlt">rates</span> of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to <span class="hlt">model</span> these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=foundation+AND+construction&pg=4&id=EJ1008301','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=foundation+AND+construction&pg=4&id=EJ1008301"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reasoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental <span class="hlt">models</span> and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental <span class="hlt">models</span> and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196652"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability with a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jongen, Germaine J L M; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M Beatrijs; Oei, S Guid; van de Vosse, Frans N; Bovendeerd, Peter H M</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In the clinic, the cardiotocogram (CTG), the combined registration of fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> (FHR) and uterine contractions, is used to predict fetal well-being. Amongst others, fetal heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability (FHRV) is an important indicator of fetal distress. In this study we add FHRV to our previously developed CTG simulation <span class="hlt">model</span>, in order to improve its use as a research and educational tool. We implemented three sources of variability by applying either 1/f or white noise to the peripheral vascular resistance, baroreceptor output, or efferent vagal signal. Simulated FHR tracings were evaluated by visual inspection and spectral analysis. All power spectra showed a 1/f character, irrespective of noise type and source. The clinically observed peak near 0.1 Hz was only obtained by applying white noise to the different sources of variability. Similar power spectra were found when peripheral vascular resistance or baroreceptor output was used as source of variability. Sympathetic control predominantly influenced the low frequency power, while vagal control influenced both low and high frequency power. In contrast to clinical data, <span class="hlt">model</span> results did not show an increase of FHRV during FHR decelerations. Still, addition of FHRV improves the applicability of the <span class="hlt">model</span> as an educational and research tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292460"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of percolation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of stormwater from underground infiltration systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burszta-Adamiak, Ewa; Lomotowski, Janusz</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Underground or surface stormwater storage tank systems that enable the infiltration of water into the ground are basic elements used in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). So far, the design methods for such facilities have not taken into account the phenomenon of ground clogging during stormwater infiltration. Top layer sealing of the filter bed influences the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> of water into the ground. This study presents an original mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> describing changes in the infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability in the phases of filling and emptying the storage and infiltration tank systems, which enables the determination of the degree of top ground layer clogging. The input data for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> were obtained from studies conducted on experimental sites on objects constructed on a semi-technological scale. The experiment conducted has proven that the application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> developed for the phase of water infiltration enables us to estimate the degree of module clogging. However, this method is more suitable for reservoirs embedded in more permeable soils than for those located in cohesive soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/471368','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/471368"><span id="translatedtitle">Principles of <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>This report describes a <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088097','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088097"><span id="translatedtitle">Total dose and dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this work is to develop a <span class="hlt">model</span> for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are an electrical <span class="hlt">model</span> of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a <span class="hlt">model</span> that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Simulations <span class="hlt">based</span> on this <span class="hlt">model</span> are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..461..217B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..461..217B"><span id="translatedtitle">The stochastic string <span class="hlt">model</span> as a unifying theory of the term structure of interest <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bueno-Guerrero, Alberto; Moreno, Manuel; Navas, Javier F.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We present the stochastic string <span class="hlt">model</span> of Santa-Clara and Sornette (2001), as reformulated by Bueno-Guerrero et al. (2015), as a unifying theory of the continuous-time <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the term structure of interest <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We provide several new results, such as: (a) an orthogonality condition for the volatilities in the Heath, Jarrow, and Morton (1992) (HJM) <span class="hlt">model</span>, (b) the interpretation of multi-factor HJM <span class="hlt">models</span> as approximations to a full infinite-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span>, (c) a result of consistency <span class="hlt">based</span> on Hilbert spaces, and (d) a theorem for option valuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830519','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830519"><span id="translatedtitle">A Minimalistic Resource Allocation <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth <span class="hlt">Rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few <span class="hlt">models</span> giving a <span class="hlt">base</span> line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We present a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our <span class="hlt">model</span> can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the <span class="hlt">model</span> by analyzing the relationship between growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> and proteome composition for the <span class="hlt">model</span> microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms. PMID:27073913</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27073913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27073913"><span id="translatedtitle">A Minimalistic Resource Allocation <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth <span class="hlt">Rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barenholz, Uri; Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few <span class="hlt">models</span> giving a <span class="hlt">base</span> line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We present a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our <span class="hlt">model</span> can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the <span class="hlt">model</span> by analyzing the relationship between growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> and proteome composition for the <span class="hlt">model</span> microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21349880','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21349880"><span id="translatedtitle">Emission <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation through data assimilation of gamma dose measurements in a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsiouri, V; Kovalets, I; Andronopoulos, S; Bartzis, J G</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an efficient algorithm for estimating the unknown emission <span class="hlt">rate</span> of radionuclides in the atmosphere following a nuclear accident. The algorithm is <span class="hlt">based</span> on assimilation of gamma dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> measured data in a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span>. Such <span class="hlt">models</span> are used in the framework of nuclear emergency response systems (ERSs). It is shown that the algorithm is applicable in both deterministic and stochastic modes of operation of the dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span>. The method is evaluated by computational simulations of a 3-d field experiment on atmospheric dispersion of ⁴¹Ar emitted routinely from a research reactor. Available measurements of fluence <span class="hlt">rate</span> (photons flux) in air are assimilated in the Lagrangian dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span> DIPCOT and the ⁴¹Ar emission <span class="hlt">rate</span> is estimated. The statistical analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">model</span>-calculated emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> agree well with the real ones. In addition the <span class="hlt">model</span>-predicted fluence <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the locations of the sensors, which were not used in the data assimilation procedure are in better agreement with the measurements. The first evaluation results of the method presented in this study show that the method performs satisfactorily and therefore it is applicable in nuclear ERSs provided that more comprehensive validation studies will be performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InPhT..77..382B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InPhT..77..382B"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared imaging <span class="hlt">based</span> hyperventilation monitoring through respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography <span class="hlt">based</span> approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact <span class="hlt">based</span> methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image <span class="hlt">based</span> approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043127','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043127"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultra High-<span class="hlt">Rate</span> Germanium (UHRGe) <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Status Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.</p> <p>2012-06-07</p> <p>The Ultra-High <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JChPh..98.2463E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JChPh..98.2463E"><span id="translatedtitle">ZGB surface reaction <span class="hlt">model</span> with high diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, J. W.</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The diffusionless ZGB (monomer-dimer) surface reaction <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibits a discontinuous transition to a monomer-poisoned state when the fraction of monomer adsorption attempts exceeds 0.525. It has been claimed that this transition shifts to 2/3 with introduction of rapid diffusion of the monomer species, or of both species. We show this is not the case, 2/3 representing the spinodal rather than the transition point. For equal diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> of both species, we find that the transition only shifts to 0.5951±0.0002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6924318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6924318"><span id="translatedtitle">ZGB surface reaction <span class="hlt">model</span> with high diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Evans, J.W. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The diffusionless ZGB (monomer--dimer) surface reaction <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibits a discontinuous transition to a monomer-poisoned state when the fraction of monomer adsorption attempts exceeds 0.525. It has been claimed that this transition shifts to 2/3 with introduction of rapid diffusion of the monomer species, or of both species. We show this is not the case, 2/3 representing the spinodal rather than the transition point. For equal diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> of both species, we find that the transition only shifts to 0.5951[plus minus]0.0002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82e1930C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82e1930C"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition-<span class="hlt">based</span> effective chain length for prediction of protein folding <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Le; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Folding <span class="hlt">rate</span> prediction is a useful way to find the key factors affecting folding kinetics of proteins. Structural information is more or less required in the present prediction methods, which limits the application of these methods to various proteins. In this work, an “effective length” is defined solely <span class="hlt">based</span> on the composition of a protein, namely, the number of specific types of amino acids in a protein. A physical theory <span class="hlt">based</span> on a minimalist <span class="hlt">model</span> is employed to describe the relation between the folding <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the effective length of proteins. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on the resultant relationship between folding <span class="hlt">rates</span> and effective length, the optimal sets of amino acids are found through the enumeration over all possible combinations of amino acids. This optimal set achieves a high correlation (with the coefficient of 0.84) between the folding <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the optimal effective length. The features of these amino acids are consistent with our <span class="hlt">model</span> and landscape theory. Further comparisons between our effective length and other factors are carried out. The effective length is physically consistent with structure-<span class="hlt">based</span> prediction methods and has the best predictability for folding <span class="hlt">rates</span>. These results all suggest that both entropy and energetics contribute importantly to folding kinetics. The ability to accurately and efficiently predict folding <span class="hlt">rates</span> from composition enables the analysis of the kinetics for various kinds of proteins. The underlying physics in our method may be helpful to stimulate further understanding on the effects of various amino acids in folding dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328672"><span id="translatedtitle">Building a better methane generation <span class="hlt">model</span>: Validating <span class="hlt">models</span> with methane recovery <span class="hlt">rates</span> from 35 Canadian landfills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Shirley; Sawyer, Jennifer; Bonam, Rathan; Valdivia, J E</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The German EPER, TNO, Belgium, LandGEM, and Scholl Canyon <span class="hlt">models</span> for estimating methane production were compared to methane recovery <span class="hlt">rates</span> for 35 Canadian landfills, assuming that 20% of emissions were not recovered. Two different fractions of degradable organic carbon (DOC(f)) were applied in all <span class="hlt">models</span>. Most <span class="hlt">models</span> performed better when the DOC(f) was 0.5 compared to 0.77. The Belgium, Scholl Canyon, and LandGEM version 2.01 <span class="hlt">models</span> produced the best results of the existing <span class="hlt">models</span> with respective mean absolute errors compared to methane generation <span class="hlt">rates</span> (recovery <span class="hlt">rates</span> + 20%) of 91%, 71%, and 89% at 0.50 DOC(f) and 171%, 115%, and 81% at 0.77 DOC(f). The Scholl Canyon <span class="hlt">model</span> typically overestimated methane recovery <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the LandGEM version 2.01 <span class="hlt">model</span>, which modifies the Scholl Canyon <span class="hlt">model</span> by dividing waste by 10, consistently underestimated methane recovery <span class="hlt">rates</span>; this comparison suggested that modifying the divisor for waste in the Scholl Canyon <span class="hlt">model</span> between one and ten could improve its accuracy. At 0.50 DOC(f) and 0.77 DOC(f) the modified <span class="hlt">model</span> had the lowest absolute mean error when divided by 1.5 yielding 63 +/- 45% and 2.3 yielding 57 +/- 47%, respectively. These modified <span class="hlt">models</span> reduced error and variability substantially and both have a strong correlation of r = 0.92.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1615..249K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1615..249K"><span id="translatedtitle">Video <span class="hlt">rate</span> morphological processor <span class="hlt">based</span> on a redundant number representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuczborski, Wojciech; Attikiouzel, Yianni; Crebbin, Gregory A.</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a video <span class="hlt">rate</span> morphological processor for automated visual inspection of printed circuit boards, integrated circuit masks, and other complex objects. Inspection algorithms are <span class="hlt">based</span> on gray-scale mathematical morphology. Hardware complexity of the known methods of real-time implementation of gray-scale morphology--the umbra transform and the threshold decomposition--has prompted us to propose a novel technique which applied an arithmetic system without carrying propagation. After considering several arithmetic systems, a redundant number representation has been selected for implementation. Two options are analyzed here. The first is a pure signed digit number representation (SDNR) with the <span class="hlt">base</span> of 4. The second option is a combination of the <span class="hlt">base</span>-2 SDNR (to represent gray levels of images) and the conventional twos complement code (to represent gray levels of structuring elements). Operation principle of the morphological processor is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the concept of the digit level systolic array. Individual processing units and small memory elements create a pipeline. The memory elements store current image windows (kernels). All operation primitives of processing units apply a unified direction of digit processing: most significant digit first (MSDF). The implementation technology is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the field programmable gate arrays by Xilinx. This paper justified the rationality of a new approach to logic design, which is the decomposition of Boolean functions instead of Boolean minimization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26437681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26437681"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing <span class="hlt">models</span> for the prediction of hospital healthcare waste generation <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Beyene, Abebe</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>An increase in the number of health institutions, along with frequent use of disposable medical products, has contributed to the increase of healthcare waste generation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. For proper handling of healthcare waste, it is crucial to predict the amount of waste generation beforehand. Predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> can help to optimise healthcare waste management systems, set guidelines and evaluate the prevailing strategies for healthcare waste handling and disposal. However, there is no mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> developed for Ethiopian hospitals to predict healthcare waste generation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop <span class="hlt">models</span> for the prediction of a healthcare waste generation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. A longitudinal study design was used to generate long-term data on solid healthcare waste composition, generation <span class="hlt">rate</span> and develop predictive <span class="hlt">models</span>. The results revealed that the healthcare waste generation <span class="hlt">rate</span> has a strong linear correlation with the number of inpatients (R(2) = 0.965), and a weak one with the number of outpatients (R(2) = 0.424). Statistical analysis was carried out to develop <span class="hlt">models</span> for the prediction of the quantity of waste generated at each hospital (public, teaching and private). In these <span class="hlt">models</span>, the number of inpatients and outpatients were revealed to be significant factors on the quantity of waste generated. The influence of the number of inpatients and outpatients treated varies at different hospitals. Therefore, different <span class="hlt">models</span> were developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the types of hospitals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22901062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22901062"><span id="translatedtitle">Longtime behavior of one-dimensional biofilm <span class="hlt">models</span> with shear dependent detachment <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abbas, Fazal; Sudarsan, Rangarajan; Eberl, Hermann J</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We investigate the role of non shear stress and shear stressed <span class="hlt">based</span> detachment <span class="hlt">rate</span> functions for the longterm behavior of one-dimensional biofilm <span class="hlt">models</span>. We find that the particular choice of a detachment <span class="hlt">rate</span> function can affect the <span class="hlt">model</span> prediction of persistence or washout of the biofilm. Moreover, by comparing biofilms in three settings: (i) Couette flow reactors, (ii) Poiseuille flow with fixed flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> and (iii) Poiseuille flow with fixed pressure drop, we find that not only the bulk flow Reynolds number but also the particular mechanism driving the flow can play a crucial role for longterm behavior. We treat primarily the single species-case that can be analyzed with elementary ODE techniques. But we show also how the results, to some extent, can be carried over to multi-species biofilm <span class="hlt">models</span>, and to biofilm <span class="hlt">models</span> that are embedded in reactor mass balances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+rating+AND+scales&pg=7&id=EJ920587','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+rating+AND+scales&pg=7&id=EJ920587"><span id="translatedtitle">Category <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Is <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Prototypes and Not Instances: Evidence from Feedback-Dependent Context Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Petrov, Alexander A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Context effects in category <span class="hlt">rating</span> on a 7-point scale are shown to reverse direction depending on feedback. Context (skewed stimulus frequencies) was manipulated between and feedback within subjects in two experiments. The diverging predictions of prototype- and exemplar-<span class="hlt">based</span> scaling theories were tested using two representative <span class="hlt">models</span>: ANCHOR…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..89e2801F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..89e2801F"><span id="translatedtitle">Networks in financial markets <span class="hlt">based</span> on the mutual information <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiedor, Paweł</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-<span class="hlt">based</span> hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25353838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25353838"><span id="translatedtitle">Networks in financial markets <span class="hlt">based</span> on the mutual information <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fiedor, Paweł</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-<span class="hlt">based</span> hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444...95H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444...95H"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of mass exchange with dynamic Arrhenius transition <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Muradova, Aliki</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We study a nonlinear kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of mass exchange between interacting grains. The transition <span class="hlt">rates</span> follow the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy that depends dynamically on the grain mass. We show that the activation parameter can be absorbed in the initial conditions for the grain masses, and that the total mass is conserved. We obtain numerical solutions of the coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations of mass exchange for the two-grain system, and we compare them with approximate theoretical solutions in specific neighborhoods of the phase space. Using phase plane methods, we determine that the system exhibits regimes of diffusive and growth-decay (reverse diffusion) kinetics. The equilibrium states are determined by the mass equipartition and separation nullcline curves. If the transfer <span class="hlt">rates</span> are perturbed by white noise, numerical simulations show that the system maintains the diffusive and growth-decay regimes; however, the noise can reverse the sign of equilibrium mass difference. Finally, we present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of a system with many interacting grains. Diffusive and growth-decay regimes are established as well, but the approach to equilibrium is considerably slower. Potential applications of the mass exchange <span class="hlt">model</span> involve coarse-graining during sintering and wealth exchange in econophysics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48131&keyword=Hydrolysis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90546704&CFTOKEN=72274090','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48131&keyword=Hydrolysis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90546704&CFTOKEN=72274090"><span id="translatedtitle">USE OF ROUGH SETS AND SPECTRAL DATA FOR BUILDING PREDICTIVE <span class="hlt">MODELS</span> OF REACTION <span class="hlt">RATE</span> CONSTANTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting the log of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants for alkaline hydrolysis of organic esters has been developed with the use of gas-phase min-infrared library spectra and a rule-building software system <span class="hlt">based</span> on the mathematical theory of rough sets. A diverse set of 41 esters ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DMP.G7006S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DMP.G7006S"><span id="translatedtitle">High teleportation <span class="hlt">rates</span> using Rydberg-<span class="hlt">based</span> quantum repeaters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solmeyer, Neal; Quraishi, Qudsia</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Quantum networking over long distances may be achieved using repeater protocols to generate entanglement between memory nodes. Typically, long-lived memories have low entanglement generation <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Neutral atom memories can be long-lived, emit at visible wavelengths and can be collectively excited leading to directionally emitted entangled photons. Here, we propose a simplified Rydberg-<span class="hlt">based</span> quantum repeater <span class="hlt">based</span> on recent work, where we reduce the number of ground states used for entanglement generation and use only one ensemble at each node, reducing the required resources. The collective excitation allows for deterministic memory generation that is mapped into a directionally emitted photonic qubit without the use of a high finesse optical cavity. We demonstrate a protocol between multiple memories stored within a single ensemble to implement a two-qubit gate. Additionally, we predict teleportation <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 1 Hz without the use of a high finesse optical cavity, which could be increased to kHz if efficiencies are improved over the currently realized values. We plan to explore these protocols in ultra-cold ensemble of neutral 87Rb atoms and are currently building this setup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7188514','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7188514"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-dose-<span class="hlt">rate</span> extrapolation using the multistage <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Portier, C.; Hoel, D.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The distribution of the maximum likelihood estimates of virtually safe levels of exposure to environmental chemicals is derived by using large-sample theory and Monte Carlo simulation according to the Armitage-Doll multistage <span class="hlt">model</span>. Using historical dose-response we develop a set of 33 two-stage <span class="hlt">models</span> upon which we <span class="hlt">base</span> our conclusions. The large-sample distributions of the virtually safe dose are normal for cases in which the multistage-<span class="hlt">model</span> parameters have nonzero expectation, and are skewed in other cases. The large-sample theory does not provide a good approximation of the distribution observed for small bioassays when Monte Carlo simulation is used. The constrained nature of the multistage-<span class="hlt">model</span> parameters leads to bimodal distributions for small bioassays. The two modes are the direct result of estimating the linear parameter in the multistage <span class="hlt">model</span>; the lower mode results from estimating this parameter to be nonzero, and the upper mode from estimating it to be zero. The results of this research emphasize the need for incorporation of the biological theory in the <span class="hlt">model</span>-selection process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..528..408W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..528..408W"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between soil erodibility and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> in different soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Guoqiang; Fang, Qingqing; Wu, Binbin; Yang, Huicai; Xu, Zongxue</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The relationship between soil erodibility, which is hard to measure, and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> were rarely researched. Here, the soil erodibility factors (K and Ke in the USLE, Ki and K1 in the WEPP) were calculated and the infiltration <span class="hlt">rates</span> were <span class="hlt">modeled</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the designed laboratory simulation experiments and proposed infiltration <span class="hlt">model</span>, in order to build their relationship. The impacts of compost amendment on the soil erosion characteristics and relationship were also studied. Two contrasting agricultural soils (bare and cultivated fluvo-aquic soils) were used, and different poultry compost contents (control, low and high) were applied to both soils. The results indicated that the runoff <span class="hlt">rate</span>, sediment yield <span class="hlt">rate</span> and soil erodibility of the bare soil treatments were generally higher than those of the corresponding cultivated soil treatments. The application of composts generally decreased sediment yield and soil erodibility but did not always decrease runoff. The comparison of measured and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> infiltration <span class="hlt">rates</span> indicated that the <span class="hlt">model</span> represented the infiltration processes well with an N-S coefficient of 0.84 for overall treatments. Significant negative logarithmic correlations have been found between final infiltration <span class="hlt">rate</span> (FIR) and the four soil erodibility factors, and the relationship between USLE-K and FIR demonstrated the best correlation. The application of poultry composts would not influence the logarithmic relationship between FIR and soil erodibility. Our study provided a useful tool to estimate soil erodibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078087"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Respiration <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Tomato (Cultivar Roma) for Modified Atmosphere Storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kandasamy, Palani; Moitra, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Souti</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Experiments were conducted to determine the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> of tomato at 10, 20 and 30 °C using closed respiration system. Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation in the system containing tomato was monitored. Respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> was found to decrease with increasing CO2 and decreasing O2 concentration. Michaelis-Menten type <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on enzyme kinetics was evaluated using experimental data generated for predicting the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters that obtained from the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> at different O2 and CO2 concentration levels were used to fit the <span class="hlt">model</span> against the storage temperatures. The fitting was fair (R2 = 0.923 to 0.970) when the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> was expressed as O2 concentation. Since inhibition constant for CO2 concentration tended towards negetive, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was modified as a function of O2 concentration only. The modified <span class="hlt">model</span> was fitted to the experimental data and showed good agreement (R2 = 0.998) with experimentally estimated respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910011381','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910011381"><span id="translatedtitle">Rule-<span class="hlt">based</span> simulation <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nieten, Joseph L.; Seraphine, Kathleen M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Procedural <span class="hlt">modeling</span> systems, rule <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> systems, and a method for converting a procedural <span class="hlt">model</span> to a rule <span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> are described. Simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> are used to represent real time engineering systems. A real time system can be represented by a set of equations or functions connected so that they perform in the same manner as the actual system. Most <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system languages are <span class="hlt">based</span> on FORTRAN or some other procedural language. Therefore, they must be enhanced with a reaction capability. Rule <span class="hlt">based</span> systems are reactive by definition. Once the engineering system has been decomposed into a set of calculations using only basic algebraic unary operations, a knowledge network of calculations and functions can be constructed. The knowledge network required by a rule <span class="hlt">based</span> system can be generated by a knowledge acquisition tool or a source level compiler. The compiler would take an existing <span class="hlt">model</span> source file, a syntax template, and a symbol table and generate the knowledge network. Thus, existing procedural <span class="hlt">models</span> can be translated and executed by a rule <span class="hlt">based</span> system. Neural <span class="hlt">models</span> can be provide the high capacity data manipulation required by the most complex real time <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=202543&keyword=breathing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89202831&CFTOKEN=26444501','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=202543&keyword=breathing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89202831&CFTOKEN=26444501"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolically Derived human ventilation <span class="hlt">rates</span>: A revised approach <span class="hlt">based</span> upon oxygen consumption <span class="hlt">rates</span> (Final Report) 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this report is to provide a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation <span class="hlt">rate</span> directly from their oxygen consumption <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This revised approach will be used to update the ventilation <span class="hlt">rate</span> information in the Exposure Factors Handbook, which serve as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S22A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S22A..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> forecast for induced earthquakes in the central U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moschetti, M. P.; Hoover, S. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a one-year seismic hazard <span class="hlt">model</span> for induced earthquakes. Zones of induced seismicity have been defined by reviewing the current scientific literature, and by identifying unusual patterns of seismicity. We focus our calculations on earthquakes that have occurred in Oklahoma, southern Kansas and northern Texas (OK-KSS-TXN). This region has a high activity <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and has produced a large number of earthquakes for the likelihood tests. We apply likelihood tests to smoothed seismicity <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to test the ability of seismicity-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to predict the spatial distribution and absolute <span class="hlt">rate</span> of induced earthquakes. Since 2009, the OK-KSS-TXN region has experienced an over 200-fold increase in monthly activity <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Regional activity <span class="hlt">rates</span> exhibit monthly variations of up to 50 percent, as well as strong spatio-temporal variations. <span class="hlt">Models</span> were computed from 6- and 12-month sub-catalogs, dating from 2009-2014 and are tested against earthquakes that occurred in the first six months of 2015; we also test the effect of various smoothing distances (5-50 km). Likelihood results show a strong correlation between information gain and the use of seismicity from the most recent part of the earthquake catalog. Information gains from the smoothed seismicity <span class="hlt">models</span> developed from 2013 and 2014 are about five times better than the smoothed seismicity <span class="hlt">models</span> developed from the earthquakes that occurred from 2009-2012. Because we use the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-normalized formulation for the likelihood calculation, these results also imply that the spatial distribution of recent seismicity is significantly different than the seismicity occurring as recently as three years ago. Our results indicate that the one-year forecast <span class="hlt">model</span> will have the greatest information gain when it is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the prior one or two years of seismicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27258213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27258213"><span id="translatedtitle">A mesoscopic reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for shock initiation of multi-component PBX explosives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Y R; Duan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Ou, Z C; Huang, F L</p> <p>2016-11-05</p> <p>The primary goal of this research is to develop a three-term mesoscopic reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> that consists of a hot-spot ignition, a low-pressure slow burning and a high-pressure fast reaction terms for shock initiation of multi-component Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX). Thereinto, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the DZK hot-spot <span class="hlt">model</span> for a single-component PBX explosive, the hot-spot ignition term as well as its reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> is obtained through a "mixing rule" of the explosive components; new expressions for both the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term are also obtained by establishing the relationships between the reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the multi-component PBX explosive and that of its explosive components, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term of a mesoscopic reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. Furthermore, for verification, the new reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is incorporated into the DYNA2D code to simulate numerically the shock initiation process of the PBXC03 and the PBXC10 multi-component PBX explosives, and the numerical results of the pressure histories at different Lagrange locations in explosive are found to be in good agreements with previous experimental data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7246E..0RH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7246E..0RH"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavelet-<span class="hlt">based</span> Poisson <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation using the Skellam distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirakawa, Keigo; Baqai, Farhan; Wolfe, Patrick J.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Owing to the stochastic nature of discrete processes such as photon counts in imaging, real-world data measurements often exhibit heteroscedastic behavior. In particular, time series components and other measurements may frequently be assumed to be non-iid Poisson random variables, whose <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameter is proportional to the underlying signal of interest-witness literature in digital communications, signal processing, astronomy, and magnetic resonance imaging applications. In this work, we show that certain wavelet and filterbank transform coefficients corresponding to vector-valued measurements of this type are distributed as sums and differences of independent Poisson counts, taking the so-called Skellam distribution. While exact estimates rarely admit analytical forms, we present Skellam mean estimators under both frequentist and Bayes <span class="hlt">models</span>, as well as computationally efficient approximations and shrinkage rules, that may be interpreted as Poisson <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation method performed in certain wavelet/filterbank transform domains. This indicates a promising potential approach for denoising of Poisson counts in the above-mentioned applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED511026.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED511026.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Error <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Measuring Teacher and School Performance <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper addresses likely error <span class="hlt">rates</span> for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added <span class="hlt">models</span> applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes <span class="hlt">based</span> on hypothesis testing, we develop error <span class="hlt">rate</span> formulas <span class="hlt">based</span> on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1047491','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1047491"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic Development of Corrosion <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> in Iron Phosphate Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schlesinger, Mark; Brow, Richard</p> <p>2011-10-31</p> <p>A two-year research program investigated links between the thermodynamic properties of phosphate glasses and their corrosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> in different solutions. Glasses in the Na<sub>2</sub>O-CaO-P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and Na<sub>2</sub>O-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-PO<sub>5</sub> systems were prepared and characterized. These glasses were then exposed in bulk and powder form to acid (0.1M HCl), basic (0.1M KOH) and neutral (deionized water) solutions at varying exposure times and temperatures. Analysis of the solution and the glass after exposure determined the <span class="hlt">rate</span> and type of corrosion that occurred. Simultaneously, efforts were made to determine the thermodynamic properties of solid iron phosphate compounds. This included measurement of low temperature (5-300 K) heat capacities, measured at Brigham Young University; the attempted use of a Parr calorimeter to measure ambient temperature enthalpies of formation; and attempted measurement of temperature heat capacities. Only the first of the three tasks was successfully accomplished. In lieu of experimental measurement of enthalpies of formation, first-principles calculation of enthalpies of formation was performed at Missouri S&T; these results will be used in subsequent <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhD...49W3002Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhD...49W3002Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomistic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> at experimental strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> and timescales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Xin; Cao, Penghui; Tao, Weiwei; Sharma, Pradeep; Park, Harold S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> physical phenomena with atomistic fidelity and at laboratory timescales is one of the holy grails of computational materials science. Conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable the elucidation of an astonishing array of phenomena inherent in the mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. However, conventional MD, with our current computational modalities, is incapable of resolving timescales longer than microseconds (at best). In this short review article, we briefly review a recently proposed approach—the so-called autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method—that in certain instances can provide valuable information on slow timescale processes. We provide a general summary of the principles underlying the ABC approach, with emphasis on recent methodological developments enabling the study of mechanically-driven processes at slow (experimental) strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> and timescales. Specifically, we show that by combining a strong physical understanding of the underlying phenomena, kinetic Monte Carlo, transition state theory and minimum energy pathway methods, the ABC method has been found to be useful in a variety of mechanically-driven problems ranging from the prediction of creep-behavior in metals, constitutive laws for grain boundary sliding, void nucleation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, diffusion in amorphous materials to protein unfolding. Aside from reviewing the basic ideas underlying this approach, we emphasize some of the key challenges encountered in our own personal research work and suggest future research avenues for exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSemi..36f4007Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSemi..36f4007Q"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model</span> of radiation-induced gain degradation of NPN bipolar junction transistor at different dose <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qifeng, Zhao; Yiqi, Zhuang; Junlin, Bao; Wei, Hu</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Ionizing-radiation-induced current gain degradation in NPN bipolar junction transistors is due to an increase in <span class="hlt">base</span> current as a result of recombination at the surface of the device. A <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented which identifies the physical mechanism responsible for current gain degradation. The increase in surface recombination velocity due to interface states results in an increase in <span class="hlt">base</span> current. Besides, changing the surface potential along the <span class="hlt">base</span> surface induced by the oxide-trapped charges can also lead to an increased <span class="hlt">base</span> current. By combining the production mechanisms of oxide-trapped charges and interface states, this <span class="hlt">model</span> can explain the fact that the current gain degradation is more severe at a low dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> than at a high dose <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The radiations were performed in a Co60 source up to a total dose of 70 krad(Si). The low dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> was 0.1 rad(Si)/s and the high dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> was 10 rad(Si)/s. The <span class="hlt">model</span> accords well with the experimental results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61076101, 61204092).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17124802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17124802"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Rating</span> scales <span class="hlt">based</span> on the phenomenological and structural approach].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schiltz, L</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A current tendency of research in clinical psychology consists in using an integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology. This approach is especially suited to the study of the therapeutic intervention where the researcher is himself part of the situation he is investigating. As to the tools of research, the combination of the semi-structured clinical interview, of psychometric scales and projective tests has proved to be pertinent to describe the multidimensional and fluctuating reality of the therapeutic relationship and the changes induced by it in the two partners. In arts therapeutic research the investigation of the artistic production or of the free expression of people may complete the psychometric and projective tools. The concept of "expressive test" is currently being used to characterise this method. In this context, the development of <span class="hlt">rating</span> scales, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the phenomenological and structural or holistic approach allows us making the link between qualitative analysis and quantification, leading to the use of inferential statistics, providing that we remain at the nominal or ordinal level of measurement. We are explaining the principle of construction of these <span class="hlt">rating</span> scales and we are illustrating our practice with some examples drawn from studies we realized in clinical psychology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19771717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19771717"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of hate crime victimization among college students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Earleywine, Mitchell; Davison, Gerald C</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>This study uses the unmatched count technique (UCT) to estimate <span class="hlt">base</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for hate crime victimization in college students and compares the results with estimates found using conventional methods. Hate crimes, criminal acts perpetrated against individuals or members of specific stigmatized groups, intend to express condemnation, hate, disapproval, dislike, or distrust for a group. The UCT is a promising tool in the investigation of hate crime because it does not require participants to directly answer sensitive questions. This may provide more accurate responses than other methods. The UCT revealed higher estimates for a variety of serious hate crimes, including physical and sexual assault. These higher estimates provide a better feel for the level of hate crime victimization and point to the increased need for hate crime victims' assistance programs on college campuses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18613740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18613740"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and prediction of HIV in China: transmission <span class="hlt">rates</span> structured by infection ages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yican; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua; Xu, Jianqing; Ma, Zhien; Mei, Changlin; Wu, Jianhong</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>HIV transmission process involves a long incubation and infection period, and the transmission <span class="hlt">rate</span> varies greatly with infection stage. Consequently, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> analysis <span class="hlt">based</span> on the assumption of a constant transmission <span class="hlt">rate</span> during the entire infection period yields an inaccurate description of HIV transmission dynamics and long-term projections. Here we develop a general framework of mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> that takes into account this heterogeneity of transmission <span class="hlt">rate</span> and permits rigorous estimation of important parameters using a regression analysis of the twenty-year reported HIV infection data in China. Despite the large variation in this statistical data attributable to the knowledge of HIV, surveillance efforts, and uncertain events, and although the reported data counts individuals who might have been infected many years ago, our analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">model</span> structured on infection age can assist us in extracting from this data set very useful information about transmission trends and about effectiveness of various control measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.119..137S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.119..137S"><span id="translatedtitle">Regression <span class="hlt">rate</span> behaviors of HTPB-<span class="hlt">based</span> propellant combinations for hybrid rocket motor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Li, Yuelong; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to characterize the regression <span class="hlt">rate</span> behavior of hybrid rocket motor propellant combinations, using hydrogen peroxide (HP), gaseous oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) as the <span class="hlt">based</span> fuel. In order to complete this research by experiment and simulation, a hybrid rocket motor test system and a numerical simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> are established. Series of hybrid rocket motor firing tests are conducted burning different propellant combinations, and several of those are used as references for numerical simulations. The numerical simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed by combining the Navies-Stokes equations with the turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span>, one-step global reaction <span class="hlt">model</span>, and solid-gas coupling <span class="hlt">model</span>. The distribution of regression <span class="hlt">rate</span> along the axis is determined by applying simulation mode to predict the combustion process and heat transfer inside the hybrid rocket motor. The time-space averaged regression <span class="hlt">rate</span> has a good agreement between the numerical value and experimental data. The results indicate that the N2O/HTPB and GOX/HTPB propellant combinations have a higher regression <span class="hlt">rate</span>, since the enhancement effect of latter is significant due to its higher flame temperature. Furthermore, the containing of aluminum (Al) and/or ammonium perchlorate(AP) in the grain does enhance the regression <span class="hlt">rate</span>, mainly due to the more energy released inside the chamber and heat feedback to the grain surface by the aluminum combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..436...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..436...62A"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence and risk assessment for oil prices and exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> portfolios: A wavelet <span class="hlt">based</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aloui, Chaker; Jammazi, Rania</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this article, we propose a wavelet-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach to accommodate the stylized facts and complex structure of financial data, caused by frequent and abrupt changes of markets and noises. Specifically, we show how the combination of both continuous and discrete wavelet transforms with traditional financial <span class="hlt">models</span> helps improve portfolio's market risk assessment. In the empirical stage, three wavelet-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> (wavelet-EGARCH with dynamic conditional correlations, wavelet-copula, and wavelet-extreme value) are considered and applied to crude oil price and US dollar exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> data. Our findings show that the wavelet-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach provides an effective and powerful tool for detecting extreme moments and improving the accuracy of VaR and Expected Shortfall estimates of oil-exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> portfolios after noise is removed from the original data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/382793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/382793"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> vibration monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Esat, I.; Paya, B.; Badi, M.N.M.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>The principal source of vibratory excitation of gear system is the unsteady component of the relative angular motion of pair of meshing spur gears. This vibratory excitation is described by the transmission error. The transmission error present itself as a varying force at the contact point of the meshing gear teeth. The varying force is also influenced by the varying tooth stiffness due to change of orientation of teeth relative to each other, during the contact phase of each pair. Such a varying force produces both lateral and torsional excitation to the gear system. This paper presents analytical formulation of a simple two meshing spur gear system as a three mass system (18 DOF). The mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> also incorporates the analytical formulation of the tooth stiffness. The analytical results are compared with the experimental results. At this stage of analysis the procedure developed for handling the nonlinear influences of the tooth geometry is not fully implemented and the tooth stiffness taken as a constant value representing the average tooth stiffness. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results are encouraging as three main frequency obtained from FFT of the experimental results correlates very closely with the analytical results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198.1159H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198.1159H"><span id="translatedtitle">A smoothed stochastic earthquake <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> considering seismicity and fault moment release for Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Basili, R.; Danciu, L.; Giardini, D.; Wiemer, S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We present a time-independent gridded earthquake <span class="hlt">rate</span> forecast for the European region including Turkey. The spatial component of our <span class="hlt">model</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on kernel density estimation techniques, which we applied to both past earthquake locations and fault moment release on mapped crustal faults and subduction zone interfaces with assigned slip <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Our forecast relies on the assumption that the locations of past seismicity is a good guide to future seismicity, and that future large-magnitude events occur more likely in the vicinity of known faults. We show that the optimal weighted sum of the corresponding two spatial densities depends on the magnitude range considered. The kernel bandwidths and density weighting function are optimized using retrospective likelihood-<span class="hlt">based</span> forecast experiments. We computed earthquake activity <span class="hlt">rates</span> (a- and b-value) of the truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution separately for crustal and subduction seismicity <span class="hlt">based</span> on a maximum likelihood approach that considers the spatial and temporal completeness history of the catalogue. The final annual <span class="hlt">rate</span> of our forecast is purely driven by the maximum likelihood fit of activity <span class="hlt">rates</span> to the catalogue data, whereas its spatial component incorporates contributions from both earthquake and fault moment-<span class="hlt">rate</span> densities. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> constitutes one branch of the earthquake source <span class="hlt">model</span> logic tree of the 2013 European seismic hazard <span class="hlt">model</span> released by the EU-FP7 project `Seismic HAzard haRmonization in Europe' (SHARE) and contributes to the assessment of epistemic uncertainties in earthquake activity <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We performed retrospective and pseudo-prospective likelihood consistency tests to underline the reliability of our <span class="hlt">model</span> and SHARE's area source <span class="hlt">model</span> (ASM) using the testing algorithms applied in the collaboratory for the study of earthquake predictability (CSEP). We comparatively tested our <span class="hlt">model</span>'s forecasting skill against the ASM and find a statistically significant better performance for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25232050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25232050"><span id="translatedtitle">Maximizing protein translation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the non-homogeneous ribosome flow <span class="hlt">model</span>: a convex optimization approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poker, Gilad; Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir</p> <p>2014-11-06</p> <p>Translation is an important stage in gene expression. During this stage, macro-molecules called ribosomes travel along the mRNA strand linking amino acids together in a specific order to create a functioning protein. An important question, related to many biomedical disciplines, is how to maximize protein production. Indeed, translation is known to be one of the most energy-consuming processes in the cell, and it is natural to assume that evolution shaped this process so that it maximizes the protein production <span class="hlt">rate</span>. If this is indeed so then one can estimate various parameters of the translation machinery by solving an appropriate mathematical optimization problem. The same problem also arises in the context of synthetic biology, namely, re-engineer heterologous genes in order to maximize their translation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a host organism. We consider the problem of maximizing the protein production <span class="hlt">rate</span> using a computational <span class="hlt">model</span> for translation-elongation called the ribosome flow <span class="hlt">model</span> (RFM). This <span class="hlt">model</span> describes the flow of the ribosomes along an mRNA chain of length n using a set of n first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It also includes n + 1 positive parameters: the ribosomal initiation <span class="hlt">rate</span> into the mRNA chain, and n elongation <span class="hlt">rates</span> along the chain sites. We show that the steady-state translation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the RFM is a strictly concave function of its parameters. This means that the problem of maximizing the translation <span class="hlt">rate</span> under a suitable constraint always admits a unique solution, and that this solution can be determined using highly efficient algorithms for solving convex optimization problems even for large values of n. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the optimal translation <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be computed <span class="hlt">based</span> only on the optimal initiation <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the elongation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the codons near the beginning of the ORF. We discuss some applications of the theoretical results to synthetic biology, molecular evolution, and functional genomics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.687..232F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.687..232F"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> depth distribution for active faults in Central Italy using numerical <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finocchio, Debora; Barba, Salvatore; Basili, Roberto</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> is a critical parameter for describing geologic and earthquake <span class="hlt">rates</span> of known active faults. Although faults are inherently three-dimensional surfaces, the paucity of data allows for estimating only the slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> at the ground surface and often only few values for an entire fault. These values are frequently assumed as proxies or as some average of slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> at depth. Evidence of geological offset and single earthquake displacement, as well as mechanical requirements, show that fault slip varies significantly with depth. Slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> should thus vary in a presumably similar way, yet these variations are rarely considered. In this work, we tackle the determination of slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> depth distributions by applying the finite element method on a 2D vertical section, with stratification and faults, across the central Apennines, Italy. In a first step, we perform a plane-stress analysis assuming visco-elasto-plastic rheology and then search throughout a large range of values to minimize the RMS deviation between the <span class="hlt">model</span> and the interseismic GPS velocities. Using a parametric analysis, we assess the accuracy of the best <span class="hlt">model</span> and the sensitivity of its parameters. In a second step, we unlock the faults and let the <span class="hlt">model</span> simulate 10 kyr of deformation to estimate the fault long-term slip <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The overall average slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> at depth is approximately 1.1 mm/yr for normal faults and 0.2 mm/yr for thrust faults. A maximum value of about 2 mm/yr characterizes the Avezzano fault that caused the 1915, Mw 7.0 earthquake. The slip <span class="hlt">rate</span> depth distribution varies significantly from fault to fault and even between neighbouring faults, with maxima and minima located at different depths. We found uniform distributions only occasionally. We suggest that these findings can strongly influence the forecasting of cumulative earthquake depth distributions <span class="hlt">based</span> on long-term fault slip <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMIN32A..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMIN32A..02S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Guru: Knowledge <span class="hlt">Base</span> for NASA <span class="hlt">Modelers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seablom, M. S.; Wojcik, G. S.; van Aartsen, B. H.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Guru is an on-line knowledge-sharing resource for anyone involved with or interested in NASA's scientific <span class="hlt">models</span> or High End Computing (HEC) systems. Developed and maintained by the NASA's Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) and the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Guru's combined forums and knowledge <span class="hlt">base</span> for research and collaboration is becoming a repository for the accumulated expertise of NASA's scientific <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and HEC communities. All NASA <span class="hlt">modelers</span> and associates are encouraged to participate and provide knowledge about the <span class="hlt">models</span> and systems so that other users may benefit from their experience. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Guru is divided into a hierarchy of communities, each with its own set forums and knowledge <span class="hlt">base</span> documents. Current <span class="hlt">modeling</span> communities include those for space science, land and atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and oceanography. In addition, there are communities focused on NCCS systems, HEC tools and libraries, and programming and scripting languages. Anyone may view most of the content on <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Guru (available at http://modelingguru.nasa.gov/), but you must log in to post messages and subscribe to community postings. The site offers a full range of "Web 2.0" features, including discussion forums, "wiki" document generation, document uploading, RSS feeds, search tools, blogs, email notification, and "breadcrumb" links. A discussion (a.k.a. forum "thread") is used to post comments, solicit feedback, or ask questions. If marked as a question, SIVO will monitor the thread, and normally respond within a day. Discussions can include embedded images, tables, and formatting through the use of the Rich Text Editor. Also, the user can add "Tags" to their thread to facilitate later searches. The "knowledge <span class="hlt">base</span>" is comprised of documents that are used to capture and share expertise with others. The default "wiki" document lets users edit within the browser so others can easily collaborate on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060006673','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060006673"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Safety Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Joshi, Anjali; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>System safety analysis techniques are well established and are used extensively during the design of safety-critical systems. Despite this, most of the techniques are highly subjective and dependent on the skill of the practitioner. Since these analyses are usually <span class="hlt">based</span> on an informal system <span class="hlt">model</span>, it is unlikely that they will be complete, consistent, and error free. In fact, the lack of precise <span class="hlt">models</span> of the system architecture and its failure modes often forces the safety analysts to devote much of their effort to gathering architectural details about the system behavior from several sources and embedding this information in the safety artifacts such as the fault trees. This report describes <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Safety Analysis, an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system <span class="hlt">model</span> created using a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> development process. By extending the system <span class="hlt">model</span> with a fault <span class="hlt">model</span> as well as relevant portions of the physical system to be controlled, automated support can be provided for much of the safety analysis. We believe that by using a common <span class="hlt">model</span> for both system and safety engineering and automating parts of the safety analysis, we can both reduce the cost and improve the quality of the safety analysis. Here we present our vision of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> safety analysis and discuss the advantages and challenges in making this approach practical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910066015&hterms=BPM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBPM','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910066015&hterms=BPM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBPM"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison between computer-controlled and set work <span class="hlt">rate</span> exercise <span class="hlt">based</span> on target heart <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pratt, Wanda M.; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Webster, Laurie; Hayes, Judith C.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Harris, Bernard A., Jr.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Two methods are compared for observing the heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> (HR), metabolic equivalents, and time in target HR zone (defined as the target HR + or - 5 bpm) during 20 min of exercise at a prescribed intensity of the maximum working capacity. In one method, called set-work <span class="hlt">rate</span> exercise, the information from a graded exercise test is used to select a target HR and to calculate a corresponding constant work <span class="hlt">rate</span> that should induce the desired HR. In the other method, the work <span class="hlt">rate</span> is controlled by a computer algorithm to achieve and maintain a prescribed target HR. It is shown that computer-controlled exercise is an effective alternative to the traditional set work <span class="hlt">rate</span> exercise, particularly when tight control of cardiovascular responses is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HydJ...24.1171M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HydJ...24.1171M"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">model</span> structure on groundwater recharge <span class="hlt">rates</span> in climate-change impact studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moeck, Christian; Brunner, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Numerous <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches are available to provide insight into the relationship between climate change and groundwater recharge. However, several aspects of how hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> choice and structure affect recharge predictions have not been fully explored, unlike the well-established variability of climate <span class="hlt">model</span> chains—combination of global climate <span class="hlt">models</span> (GCM) and regional climate <span class="hlt">models</span> (RCM). Furthermore, the influence on predictions related to subsoil parameterization and the variability of observation data employed during calibration remain unclear. This paper compares and quantifies these different sources of uncertainty in a systematic way. The described numerical experiment is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a heterogeneous two-dimensional reference <span class="hlt">model</span>. Four simpler <span class="hlt">models</span> were calibrated against the output of the reference <span class="hlt">model</span>, and recharge predictions of both reference and simpler <span class="hlt">models</span> were compared to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">model</span> structure on climate-change impact studies. The results highlight that <span class="hlt">model</span> simplification leads to different recharge <span class="hlt">rates</span> under climate change, especially under extreme conditions, although the different <span class="hlt">models</span> performed similarly under historical climate conditions. Extreme weather conditions lead to <span class="hlt">model</span> bias in the predictions and therefore must be considered. Consequently, the chosen calibration strategy is important and, if possible, the calibration data set should include climatic extremes in order to minimise <span class="hlt">model</span> bias introduced by the calibration. The results strongly suggest that ensembles of climate projections should be coupled with ensembles of hydrogeological <span class="hlt">models</span> to produce credible predictions of future recharge and with the associated uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.1473L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.1473L"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the production <span class="hlt">rates</span> of cosmogenic nuclides on the Moon <span class="hlt">based</span> on Geant4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Dong, Wudong; Ren, Zhongzhou; Dong, Tiekuang; Xu, Aoao</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A numerical simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> is built to simulate the production of cosmogenic nuclides <span class="hlt">based</span> on Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking). Some modifications have been made for cross sections in Geant4 using the experimental data or the other proper <span class="hlt">model</span> and the contributions of all secondary particles caused by cosmic rays are included in our simulation <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our simulation results suggest a substantial contribution of the secondary charged pions to the production <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 10Be and 14C, as high as 21.04% for 10Be and 21.36% for 14C, respectively. Within one set of self-consistent parameters, the simulation results of the production <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the cosmogenic nuclides, 53Mn, 36Cl, 41Ca, 26Al, 10Be, and 14C, agree well with the measured data from Apollo 15 drill core. This <span class="hlt">model</span> provides users a validated approach to study the production of cosmogenic nuclides on the planet surface and in the meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025010','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025010"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> estimation of individual fitness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility <span class="hlt">rates</span>. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these <span class="hlt">rates</span> must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of <span class="hlt">rates</span> requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a <span class="hlt">modelled</span> relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility <span class="hlt">rates</span> and allowing for associations between these <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the individual level. We apply these <span class="hlt">models</span> to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation <span class="hlt">based</span> on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw and Caswell, 1996).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211159','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211159"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> estimation of individual fitness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility <span class="hlt">rates</span>. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these <span class="hlt">rates</span> must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of <span class="hlt">rates</span> requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a <span class="hlt">modelled</span> relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility <span class="hlt">rates</span> and allowing for associations between these <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the individual level. We apply these <span class="hlt">models</span> to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla ) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation <span class="hlt">based</span> on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw & Caswell, 1996).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvE..79f1919M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvE..79f1919M"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical solution of the Penna <span class="hlt">model</span> of biological aging with age-modified mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>In this paper we present results of numerical calculation of the Penna bit-string <span class="hlt">model</span> of biological aging, modified for the case of a -dependent mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> m(a) , where a is the parent’s age. The mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> m(a) is the probability per bit of an extra bad mutation introduced in offspring inherited genome. We assume that m(a) increases with age a . As compared with the reference case of the standard Penna <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a constant mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> m , the dynamics of the population growth shows distinct changes in age distribution of the population. Here we concentrate on mortality q(a) , a fraction of items eliminated from the population when we go from age (a) to (a+1) in simulated transition from time (t) to next time (t+1) . The experimentally observed q(a) dependence essentially follows the Gompertz exponential law for a above the minimum reproduction age. Deviation from the Gompertz law is however observed for the very old items, close to the maximal age. This effect may also result from an increase in mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> m with age a discussed in this paper. The numerical calculations are <span class="hlt">based</span> on analytical solution of the Penna <span class="hlt">model</span>, presented in a series of papers by Coe [J. B. Coe, Y. Mao, and M. E. Cates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288103 (2002)]. Results of the numerical calculations are supported by the data obtained from computer simulation <span class="hlt">based</span> on the solution by Coe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910039135&hterms=rate+law&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drate%2Blaw','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910039135&hterms=rate+law&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drate%2Blaw"><span id="translatedtitle">LQG and direct <span class="hlt">rate</span> feedback control with <span class="hlt">model</span> reduction on a flexible laboratory grid structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schamel, G. C., II; Haftka, R. T.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents experimental and theoretical comparisons of three control laws applied to a complex laboratory structure. A reduced finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> was generated for designing the control systems and then corrected <span class="hlt">based</span> on measured mode shapes and frequencies. A standard time-invariant linear quadratic regulator with state estimation was investigated first. Two simple direct <span class="hlt">rate</span> feedback control laws both guaranteeing stability were also designed using the reduced <span class="hlt">model</span>. One minimizes the maximum control force and the other minimizes the same quadratic performance index as the linear quadratic regulator. The three control laws have comparable performance indices with the direct <span class="hlt">rate</span> feedback designs having better spillover properties. Experimental results for all designs were obtained with digital implementation. It was shown that the performance of the control system designed on the basis of the corrected finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> agreed better with experimental results than the performance of the control system designed on the basis of the uncorrected <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhA..98..407H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhA..98..407H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of multi-burst mode pico-second laser ablation for improved material removal <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C.; King, Galen</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the unique phenomena occurring during the multi-burst mode picosecond (ps) laser ablation of metals through <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and experimental studies. The two-temperature <span class="hlt">model</span> (TTM) is used and expanded to calculate the ablation depth in the multi-burst mode. A nonlinear increment of ablation volume is found during the multi-burst laser ablation. The deactivation of ablated material and the application of temperature-dependent electron-phonon coupling are demonstrated to be important to provide reliable results. The simulation results <span class="hlt">based</span> on this expanded laser ablation <span class="hlt">model</span> are experimentally validated. A significant increase of ablation <span class="hlt">rate</span> is found in the multi-burst mode, compared with the single-pulse mode under the same total fluence. This numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a physical perspective into the energy transport process during multi-burst laser ablation and can be used to study the pulse-to-pulse separation time effect on the ablation <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B13A0593K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B13A0593K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Radiocesium Migration and Air Dose <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Changes in Eastern Fukushima Prefecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitamura, A.; Sakuma, K.; Kurikami, H.; Malins, A.; Okumura, M.; Itakura, M.; Yamada, S.; Machida, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Radioactive cesium that was deposited over Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant station is one of the major concerns regarding health physics today. Its migration is primarily by soil erosion and sediment transport within surface water during times of heavy rainfall and flooding. In order to predict the future distribution of radioactive cesium and resulting air dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> at any location in Fukushima, we have integrated a number of mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> covering different time and spatial scales. In this presentation we report our overall scheme of prediction starting from sediment and radioactive cesium movement and resulting long term air dose <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes. Specifically, we present simulation results of sediment movement and radioactive cesium migration using semi-empirical and physics <span class="hlt">based</span> watershed <span class="hlt">models</span>, and that of sediment and radioactive cesium behavior in a dam reservoir using one and two dimensional river simulation <span class="hlt">models</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span>'s results are compared with ongoing field monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1364..149S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1364..149S"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-contact Laser-<span class="hlt">based</span> Human Respiration <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>At present the majority of the instrumentation, used in clinical environments, to measure human respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> are <span class="hlt">based</span> on invasive and contact devices. The gold standard instrument is considered the spirometer which is largely used; it needs a direct contact and requires a collaboration by the patient. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) is an optical, non-contact measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. LDVi has already been used for the measurement of the cardiac activity and for the measurement of the chest-wall displacements. The aims of this work are to select the best measurement point on the thoracic surface for LDVi monitoring of the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> (RR) and to compare measured data with the RR valued provided by the spirometer. The measurement system is composed by a LDV system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC. Tests were made on 10 different point of the thorax for each patient. Patients population was composed by 33 subjects (17 male and 16 female). The optimal measurement point was chosen considering the maximum peak-to-peak value of the displacement measured by LDV. Before extracting RR we have used a special wavelet decomposition for better selection of the expiration peaks. A standard spirometer was used for the validation of the data. From tests it results that the optimal measurement point, namely is located on the inferior part of the thoracic region (left, front side). From our tests we have obtained a close correlation between the RR values measured by the spirometer and those measured by the proposed method: a difference of 14±211 ms on the RR value is reported for the entire population of 33 subjects. Our method allows a no-contact measurement of lungs activity (respiration period), reducing the electric and biological risks. Moreover it allows to measure in critical environment like in RMN or in burned skin where is difficult or impossible to apply electrodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24723577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24723577"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with <span class="hlt">rate</span> adaptations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-<span class="hlt">based</span> video streaming technologies enable flexible <span class="hlt">rate</span>-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for <span class="hlt">rate</span>-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-adaptive videos. To collect data for <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of <span class="hlt">rate</span> adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener <span class="hlt">model</span> has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-<span class="hlt">based</span> streaming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=286314','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=286314"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaporation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of emulsion and oil-<span class="hlt">base</span> emulsion pheromones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Knowledge of pheromone evaporation <span class="hlt">rate</span> is critical to distribute pheromone containers effectively in the forest, orchard and field. There are several factors influencing the pheromone evaporation <span class="hlt">rate</span> that include wind speed, container size and porosity, release area, temperature, humidity, pherom...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2922323','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2922323"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating glomerular filtration <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a population-<span class="hlt">based</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shankar, Anoop; Lee, Kristine E; Klein, Barbara EK; Muntner, Paul; Brazy, Peter C; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nieto, F Javier; Danforth, Lorraine G; Schubert, Carla R; Tsai, Michael Y; Klein, Ronald</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background: Glomerular filtration <span class="hlt">rate</span> (GFR)-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in population-<span class="hlt">based</span> studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample. Patients and methods: We examined a population-<span class="hlt">based</span> sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women). We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG) equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L. Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 by the MDRD equation had cystatin C levels >1.23 mg/L; their mean cystatin C level was only 1 mg/L (interquartile range, 0.9–1.2 mg/L). This finding was similar for the CG equation. For the Mayo equation, 62.8% of those patients with GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 had cystatin C levels >1.23 mg/L; their mean cystatin C level was 1.3 mg/L (interquartile range, 1.2–1.5 mg/L). The MDRD and CG equations showed a false-positive <span class="hlt">rate</span> of >10%. Discussion: We found that the MDRD and CG equations, the current standard to estimate GFR, appeared to overestimate the prevalence of CKD in a general population sample. PMID:20730018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17411805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17411805"><span id="translatedtitle">Financial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> in medicine: cash flow, basic metrics, the time value of money, discount <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and internal <span class="hlt">rate</span> of return.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lexa, Frank James; Berlin, Jonathan W</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>In this article, the authors cover tools for financial <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Commonly used time lines and cash flow diagrams are discussed. Commonly used but limited terms such as payback and breakeven are introduced. The important topics of the time value of money and discount <span class="hlt">rates</span> are introduced to lay the foundation for their use in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and in more advanced metrics such as the internal <span class="hlt">rate</span> of return. Finally, the authors broach the more sophisticated topic of net present value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..845..913M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..845..913M"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Rate</span>-Dependent Viscoelastic Damage <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matheson, E. R.; Nguyen, D. Q.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>A viscoelastic deformation and damage <span class="hlt">model</span> (VED) for solid rocket propellants has been developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on an extensive set of mechanical properties experiments. Monotonic tensile tests performed at several strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> showed <span class="hlt">rate</span> and dilatation effects. During cyclic tensile tests, hysteresis and a <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent shear modulus were observed. A tensile relaxation experiment showed significant stress decay in the sample. Taylor impact tests exhibited large dilatations without significant crack growth. Extensive modifications to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic <span class="hlt">model</span> (VEP) necessary to capture these experimental results have led to development of the VED <span class="hlt">model</span>. In particular, plasticity has been eliminated in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the multiple Maxwell viscoelastic formulation has been replaced with a time-dependent shear modulus. Furthermore, the loading and unloading behaviors of the material are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> independently. To characterize the damage and dilatation behavior, the Tensile Damage and Distention (TDD) <span class="hlt">model</span> is run in conjunction with VED. The VED <span class="hlt">model</span> is connected to a single-cell driver as well as to the CTH shock physics code. Simulations of tests show good comparisons with tensile tests and some aspects of the Taylor tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=160065&keyword=Child+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78760524&CFTOKEN=51472789','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=160065&keyword=Child+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78760524&CFTOKEN=51472789"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: A Revised Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> Upon Oxygen Consumption <span class="hlt">Rates</span> (External Review Draft)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA has released a draft report entitled, <i>Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: A Revised Approach <span class="hlt">Based</span> Upon Oxygen Consumption <span class="hlt">Rates</span></i>, for independent external peer review and public comment. NCEA published the Exposure Factors Handbook in 1997. This comprehens...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050204027','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050204027"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear Multivariable Regression <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Prediction of Eddy Dissipation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> from Available Meteorological Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>MCKissick, Burnell T. (Technical Monitor); Plassman, Gerald E.; Mall, Gerald H.; Quagliano, John R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Linear multivariable regression <span class="hlt">models</span> for predicting day and night Eddy Dissipation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> (EDR) from available meteorological data sources are defined and validated. <span class="hlt">Model</span> definition is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a combination of 1997-2000 Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) data sources, EDR from Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) deployment data, and regression variables primarily from corresponding Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS) data. <span class="hlt">Model</span> validation is accomplished through EDR predictions on a similar combination of 1994-1995 Memphis (MEM) AVOSS and ASOS data. <span class="hlt">Model</span> forms include an intercept plus a single term of fixed optimal power for each of these regression variables; 30-minute forward averaged mean and variance of near-surface wind speed and temperature, variance of wind direction, and a discrete cloud cover metric. Distinct day and night <span class="hlt">models</span>, regressing on EDR and the natural log of EDR respectively, yield best performance and avoid <span class="hlt">model</span> discontinuity over day/night data boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013018','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013018"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MODELING</span> THE <span class="hlt">RATE</span>-CONTROLLED SORPTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Grove, D.B.; Stollenwerk, K.G.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Sorption of chromium VI on the iron-oxide- and hydroxide-coated surface of alluvial material was numerically simulated with <span class="hlt">rate</span>-controlled reactions. Reaction kinetics and diffusional processes, in the form of film, pore, and particle diffusion, were simulated and compared with experimental results. The use of empirically calculated <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients for diffusion through the reacting surface was found to simulate experimental data; pore or particle diffusion is believed to be a possible <span class="hlt">rate</span>-controlling mechanism. The use of <span class="hlt">rate</span> equations to predict conservative transport and <span class="hlt">rate</span>- and local-equilibrium-controlled reactions was shown to be feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23277612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23277612"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> machine learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bishop, Christopher M</p> <p>2013-02-13</p> <p>Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact <span class="hlt">modelling</span> language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored <span class="hlt">models</span> for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative <span class="hlt">models</span>. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single <span class="hlt">modelling</span> environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical <span class="hlt">models</span>, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3538442','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3538442"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> machine learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bishop, Christopher M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact <span class="hlt">modelling</span> language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored <span class="hlt">models</span> for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative <span class="hlt">models</span>. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single <span class="hlt">modelling</span> environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical <span class="hlt">models</span>, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057745&hterms=rate+diffusion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drate%2Bdiffusion','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057745&hterms=rate+diffusion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drate%2Bdiffusion"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooling <span class="hlt">rates</span> for lunar samples determined with a diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> for phosphide exsolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hewins, R. H.; Goldstein, J. I.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> for diffusion-controlled phase growth has been applied to the exsolution of phosphide lamellae in lunar metal grains. Computer simulations reproduce observed composition profiles, and reveal the influence of cooling <span class="hlt">rate</span> on dimensional and compositional parameters of phosphide and metal. At lower cooling <span class="hlt">rates</span>, phosphide lamellae are larger and the concentration of P in the metal host close to the interface is lower. Cooling <span class="hlt">rates</span> inferred for Apollo 16 samples, <span class="hlt">based</span> on compositions and dimensions of the phosphide-metal grains, are mostly in the range 1-100 C/day. These <span class="hlt">rates</span> correspond to burial depths of 5-0.5 m for melt rocks and 3-0.3 m for breccias. This is in good agreement with thicknesses of lunar cooling units determined by other techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299472','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299472"><span id="translatedtitle">A growth inhibitory <span class="hlt">model</span> with SOx influenced effective growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> for estimation of algal biomass concentration under flue gas atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A theoretical <span class="hlt">model</span> for the prediction of biomass concentration under real flue gas emission has been developed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> considers the CO2 mass transfer <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the critical SOx concentration and its role on pH <span class="hlt">based</span> inter-conversion of bicarbonate in <span class="hlt">model</span> building. The calibration and subsequent v...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805212"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit <span class="hlt">rate</span> video-<span class="hlt">based</span> traffic monitoring systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-<span class="hlt">rate</span> is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the <span class="hlt">rate</span> control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the cerebellar-<span class="hlt">model</span>-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-<span class="hlt">rate</span> video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-<span class="hlt">rate</span> video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background <span class="hlt">model</span> through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-<span class="hlt">rate</span> video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-<span class="hlt">rate</span> video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-<span class="hlt">rate</span> video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy <span class="hlt">rates</span> that are 76</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15488932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15488932"><span id="translatedtitle">A method to estimate emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> from industrial stacks <span class="hlt">based</span> on neural networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olcese, Luis E; Toselli, Beatriz M</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>This paper presents a technique <span class="hlt">based</span> on artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate pollutant <span class="hlt">rates</span> of emission from industrial stacks, on the basis of pollutant concentrations measured on the ground. The ANN is trained on data generated by the ISCST3 <span class="hlt">model</span>, widely accepted for evaluation of dispersion of primary pollutants as a part of an environmental impact study. Simulations using theoretical values and comparison with field data are done, obtaining good results in both cases at predicting emission <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The application of this technique would allow the local environment authority to control emissions from industrial plants without need of performing direct measurements inside the plant.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960042888','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960042888"><span id="translatedtitle">Moving <span class="hlt">base</span> simulation evaluation of translational <span class="hlt">rate</span> command systems for STOVL aircraft in hover</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Using a generalized simulation <span class="hlt">model</span>, a moving-<span class="hlt">base</span> simulation of a lift-fan short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft has been conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to determine the influence of system bandwidth and phase delay on flying qualities for translational <span class="hlt">rate</span> command and vertical velocity command systems. Assessments were made for precision hover control and for landings aboard an LPH type amphibious assault ship in the presence of winds and rough seas. Results obtained define the boundaries between satisfactory and adequate flying qualities for these design features for longitudinal and lateral translational <span class="hlt">rate</span> command and for vertical velocity command.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386240','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386240"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast entropy-<span class="hlt">based</span> CABAC <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation for mode decision in HEVC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Wei-Gang; Wang, Xun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>High efficiency video coding (HEVC) seeks the best code tree configuration, the best prediction unit division and the prediction mode, by evaluating the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion functional in a recursive way and using a "try all and select the best" strategy. Further, HEVC only supports context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC), which has the disadvantage of being highly sequential and having strong data dependencies, as the entropy coder. So, the development of a fast <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation algorithm for CABAC-<span class="hlt">based</span> coding has a great practical significance for mode decision in HEVC. There are three elementary steps in CABAC encoding process: binarization, context <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, and binary arithmetic coding. Typical approaches to fast CABAC <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation simplify or eliminate the last two steps, but leave the binarization step unchanged. To maximize the reduction of computational complexity, we propose a fast entropy-<span class="hlt">based</span> CABAC <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimator in this paper. It eliminates not only the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and the coding steps, but also the binarization step. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed estimator is able to reduce the computational complexity of the mode decision in HEVC by 9-23 % with negligible PSNR loss and BD-<span class="hlt">rate</span> increment, and therefore exhibits applicability to practical HEVC encoder implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26671219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26671219"><span id="translatedtitle">On a sparse pressure-flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> condensation of rigid circulation <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schiavazzi, D E; Hsia, T Y; Marsden, A L</p> <p>2016-07-26</p> <p>Cardiovascular simulation has shown potential value in clinical decision-making, providing a framework to assess changes in hemodynamics produced by physiological and surgical alterations. State-of-the-art predictions are provided by deterministic multiscale numerical approaches coupling 3D finite element Navier Stokes simulations to lumped parameter circulation <span class="hlt">models</span> governed by ODEs. Development of next-generation stochastic multiscale <span class="hlt">models</span> whose parameters can be learned from available clinical data under uncertainty constitutes a research challenge made more difficult by the high computational cost typically associated with the solution of these <span class="hlt">models</span>. We present a methodology for constructing reduced representations that condense the behavior of 3D anatomical <span class="hlt">models</span> using outlet pressure-flow polynomial surrogates, <span class="hlt">based</span> on multiscale <span class="hlt">model</span> solutions spanning several heart cycles. Relevance vector machine regression is compared with maximum likelihood estimation, showing that sparse pressure/flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> approximations offer superior performance in producing working surrogate <span class="hlt">models</span> to be included in lumped circulation networks. Sensitivities of outlets flow <span class="hlt">rates</span> are also quantified through a Sobol׳ decomposition of their total variance encoded in the orthogonal polynomial expansion. Finally, we show that augmented lumped parameter <span class="hlt">models</span> including the proposed surrogates accurately reproduce the response of multiscale <span class="hlt">models</span> they were derived from. In particular, results are presented for <span class="hlt">models</span> of the coronary circulation with closed loop boundary conditions and the abdominal aorta with open loop boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15758207','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15758207"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy of <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation using relaxed-clock <span class="hlt">models</span> with a critical focus on the early metazoan radiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Simon Y W; Phillips, Matthew J; Drummond, Alexei J; Cooper, Alan</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>In recent years, a number of phylogenetic methods have been developed for estimating molecular <span class="hlt">rates</span> and divergence dates under <span class="hlt">models</span> that relax the molecular clock constraint by allowing <span class="hlt">rate</span> change throughout the tree. These methods are being used with increasing frequency, but there have been few studies into their accuracy. We tested the accuracy of several relaxed-clock methods (penalized likelihood and Bayesian inference using various <span class="hlt">models</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span> change) using nucleotide sequences simulated on a nine-taxon tree. When the sequences evolved with a constant <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the methods were able to infer <span class="hlt">rates</span> accurately, but estimates were more precise when a molecular clock was assumed. When the sequences evolved under a <span class="hlt">model</span> of auto-correlated <span class="hlt">rate</span> change, <span class="hlt">rates</span> were accurately estimated using penalized likelihood and by Bayesian inference using lognormal and exponential <span class="hlt">models</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span> change, while other <span class="hlt">models</span> did not perform as well. When the sequences evolved under a <span class="hlt">model</span> of uncorrelated <span class="hlt">rate</span> change, only Bayesian inference using an exponential <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> performed well. Collectively, the results provide a strong recommendation for using the exponential <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span> change if a conservative approach to divergence time estimation is required. A case study is presented in which we use a simulation-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach to examine the hypothesis of elevated <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the Cambrian period, and it is found that these high <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates might be an artifact of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation method. If this bias is present, then the ages of metazoan divergences would be systematically underestimated. The results of this study have implications for studies of molecular <span class="hlt">rates</span> and divergence dates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SpWea..14..819R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SpWea..14..819R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rating</span> global magnetosphere <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations through statistical data-<span class="hlt">model</span> comparisons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ridley, A. J.; De Zeeuw, D. L.; Rastätter, L.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Community Coordinated <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Center (CCMC) was created in 2000 to allow researchers to remotely run simulations and explore the results through online tools. Since that time, over 10,000 simulations have been conducted at CCMC through their runs-on-request service. Many of those simulations have been event studies using global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) <span class="hlt">models</span> of the magnetosphere. All of these simulations are available to the general public to explore and utilize. Many of these simulations have had virtual satellites flown through the <span class="hlt">model</span> to extract the simulation results at the satellite location as a function of time. This study used 662 of these magnetospheric simulations, with a total of 2503 satellite traces, to statistically compare the magnetic field simulated by <span class="hlt">models</span> to the satellite data. <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> for each satellite trace were created by comparing the root-mean-square error of the trace with all of the other traces for the given satellite and magnetic field component. The 1-5 <span class="hlt">ratings</span>, with 5 being the best quality run, are termed "stars." From these star <span class="hlt">ratings</span>, a few conclusions were made: (1) Simulations tend to have a lower <span class="hlt">rating</span> for higher levels of activity; (2) there was a clear bias in the Bz component of the simulations at geosynchronous orbit, implying that the <span class="hlt">models</span> were challenged in simulating the inner magnetospheric dynamics correctly; and (3) the highest performing <span class="hlt">model</span> included a coupled ring current <span class="hlt">model</span>, which was about 0.15 stars better on average than the same <span class="hlt">model</span> without the ring current <span class="hlt">model</span> coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1179683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1179683"><span id="translatedtitle">Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for Saltstone Disposal Unit <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Flach, G. P.</p> <p>2015-05-12</p> <p>Recent Special Analysis <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation <span class="hlt">rates</span> estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis <span class="hlt">base</span> cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.131..418M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.131..418M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of atmospheric OH reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> using newly developed variable distance weighted zero order connectivity index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markelj, Jernej; Pompe, Matevž</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A new variable distance weighted zero order connectivity index was used for development of structure-activity relationship for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> reactivity of OH radical with alkanes and non-conjugated alkenes in the atmosphere. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the assumptions that the total reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be obtained by summing all partial reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> and that all reaction sites are interrelated by influencing each other. The results suggest that these assumptions are justified. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was compared with the EPA implemented <span class="hlt">model</span> in the studied application domain and showed superior prediction capabilities. Further, optimized values of the weights that were used in our <span class="hlt">model</span> permit some insight into mechanisms that govern the reaction OH + alkane/alkene. The most important conclusion is that the branching degree of the forming radical seems to play a major role in site specific reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Relative qualitative structural interpretation is possible, e.g. allylic site is suggested to be much more reactive than even tertiary sp3 carbon. Novel <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software MACI, which was developed in our lab and is now available for research purposes, was used for calculations. Various variable topological indices that are again starting to be recognized because of their great potentials in simplicity, fast calculations, very good correlations and structural information, were implemented in the program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23665296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23665296"><span id="translatedtitle">The scaling of contact <span class="hlt">rates</span> with population density for the infectious disease <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Hao; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Contact <span class="hlt">rates</span> and patterns among individuals in a geographic area drive transmission of directly-transmitted pathogens, making it essential to understand and estimate contacts for simulation of disease dynamics. Under the uniform mixing assumption, one of two mechanisms is typically used to describe the relation between contact <span class="hlt">rate</span> and population density: density-dependent or frequency-dependent. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on existing evidence of population threshold and human mobility patterns, we formulated a spatial contact <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe the appropriate form of transmission with initial growth at low density and saturation at higher density. We show that the two mechanisms are extreme cases that do not capture real population movement across all scales. Empirical data of human and wildlife diseases indicate that a nonlinear function may work better when looking at the full spectrum of densities. This estimation can be applied to large areas with population mixing in general activities. For crowds with unusually large densities (e.g., transportation terminals, stadiums, or mass gatherings), the lack of organized social contact structure deviates the physical contacts towards a special case of the spatial contact <span class="hlt">model</span> - the dynamics of kinetic gas molecule collision. In this case, an ideal gas <span class="hlt">model</span> with van der Waals correction fits well; existing movement observation data and the contact <span class="hlt">rate</span> between individuals is estimated using kinetic theory. A complete picture of contact <span class="hlt">rate</span> scaling with population density may help clarify the definition of transmission <span class="hlt">rates</span> in heterogeneous, large-scale spatial systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129524','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129524"><span id="translatedtitle">A Dynamic Feedback <span class="hlt">Model</span> for High Repetition <span class="hlt">Rate</span> LINAC-Driven FELS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mellado Munoz, M.; Doolittle, L.; Emma, P.; Huang, G.; Ratti, A.; Serrano, C.; Byrd, J. M.</p> <p>2012-05-20</p> <p>One of the concepts for the next generation of linacdriven FELs is a CW superconducting linac driving an electron beam with MHz repetition <span class="hlt">rates</span>. One of the challenges for next generation FELs is improve the stability of the xray pulses by improving the shot-to-shot stability of the energy, charge, peak current, and timing jitter of the electron beam. A high repetition <span class="hlt">rate</span> FEL with a CW linac presents an opportunity to use a variety of broadband feedbacks to stabilize the beam parameters. To understand the performance of such a feedback system, we are developing a dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the machine with a focus on the longitudinal beam properties. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is being developed as an extension of the LITrack code and includes the dynamics of the beam-cavity interaction, RF feedback, beam-<span class="hlt">based</span> feedback, and multibunch effects. In this paper, we present a detailed description of this <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151836"><span id="translatedtitle">Does overall reinforcer <span class="hlt">rate</span> affect discrimination of time-<span class="hlt">based</span> contingencies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Blumhardt, Luca; Elliffe, Douglas</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Overall reinforcer <span class="hlt">rate</span> appears to affect choice. The mechanism for such an effect is uncertain, but may relate to reinforcer <span class="hlt">rate</span> changing the discrimination of the relation between stimuli and reinforcers. We assessed whether a quantitative <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a stimulus-control approach could be used to account for the effects of overall reinforcer <span class="hlt">rate</span> on choice under changing time-<span class="hlt">based</span> contingencies. On a two-key concurrent schedule, the likely availability of a reinforcer reversed when a fixed time had elapsed since the last reinforcer, and the overall reinforcer <span class="hlt">rate</span> was varied across conditions. Changes in the overall reinforcer <span class="hlt">rate</span> produced a change in response bias, and some indication of a change in discrimination. These changes in bias and discrimination always occurred quickly, usually within the first session of a condition. The stimulus-control approach provided an excellent account of the data, suggesting that changes in overall reinforcer <span class="hlt">rate</span> affect choice because they alter the frequency of reinforcers obtained at different times, or in different stimulus contexts, and thus change the discriminated relation between stimuli and reinforcers. These findings support the notion that temporal and spatial discriminations can be understood in terms of discrimination of reinforcers across time and space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.453...87R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.453...87R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> relative frost weathering <span class="hlt">rates</span> at geomorphic scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rempel, Alan W.; Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p> amplitudes, with a broad maximum centered on a mean annual temperature near the threshold required for crack growth. Warmer mean annual temperatures lead to less damage because of the reduction in time during which it is cold enough for cracking, whereas colder mean annual temperatures are accompanied by reduced water supply due to the temperature dependence of permeability. All of the controlling parameters in our <span class="hlt">model</span> are tied explicitly to physical properties that can in principle be measured independently, which suggests promise for informing geomorphic interpretations of the role of frost weathering in evolving landforms and determining erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24367654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24367654"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and directional variation of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Arabidopsis root apex: a <span class="hlt">modelling</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakielski, Jerzy; Lipowczan, Marcin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Growth and cellular organization of the Arabidopsis root apex are investigated in various aspects, but still little is known about spatial and directional variation of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> in very apical part of the apex, especially in 3D. The present paper aims to fill this gap with the aid of a computer <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the growth tensor method. The root apex with a typical shape and cellular pattern is considered. Previously, on the basis of two types of empirical data: the published velocity profile along the root axis and dimensions of cell packets formed in the lateral part of the root cap, the displacement velocity field for the root apex was determined. Here this field is adopted to calculate the linear growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> in different points and directions. The results are interpreted taking principal growth directions into account. The root apex manifests a significant anisotropy of the linear growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The directional preferences depend on a position within the root apex. In the root proper the <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the periclinal direction predominates everywhere, while in the root cap the predominating direction varies with distance from the quiescent centre. The rhizodermis is distinguished from the neighbouring tissues (cortex, root cap) by relatively high contribution of the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the anticlinal direction. The degree of growth anisotropy calculated for planes defined by principal growth directions and exemplary cell walls may be as high as 25. The changes in the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation are <span class="hlt">modelled</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PJMPE..16...67Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PJMPE..16...67Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating mental fatigue <span class="hlt">based</span> on electroencephalogram and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1424475T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1424475T"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of satellite-derived photolysis <span class="hlt">rates</span> and NOx emissions on Texas ozone <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, W.; Cohan, D. S.; Pour-Biazar, A.; Lamsal, L. N.; White, A.; Xiao, X.; Zhou, W.; Henderson, B. H.; Lash, B.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Uncertain photolysis <span class="hlt">rates</span> and emission inventory impair the accuracy of state-level ozone (O3) regulatory <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Past studies have separately used satellite-observed clouds to correct the <span class="hlt">model</span>-predicted photolysis <span class="hlt">rates</span>, or satellite-constrained top-down NOx emissions to identify and reduce uncertainties in bottom-up NOx emissions. However, the joint application of multiple satellite-derived <span class="hlt">model</span> inputs to improve O3 State Implementation Plan (SIP) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> has rarely been explored. In this study, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations of clouds are applied to derive the photolysis <span class="hlt">rates</span>, replacing those used in Texas SIP <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. This changes <span class="hlt">modeled</span> O3 concentrations by up to 80 ppb and improves O3 simulations by reducing <span class="hlt">modeled</span> normalized mean bias (NMB) and normalized mean error (NME) by up to 0.1. A sector-<span class="hlt">based</span> discrete Kalman filter (DKF) inversion approach is incorporated with the Comprehensive Air Quality <span class="hlt">Model</span> with extensions (CAMx)-Decoupled Direct Method (DDM) <span class="hlt">model</span> to adjust Texas NOx emissions using a high resolution Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 product. The discrepancy between OMI and CAMx NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) is further reduced by increasing <span class="hlt">modeled</span> NOx lifetime and adding an artificial amount of NO2 in the upper troposphere. The sector-<span class="hlt">based</span> DKF inversion tends to scale down area and non-road NOx emissions by 50%, leading to a 2-5 ppb decrease in ground 8 h O3 predictions. <span class="hlt">Model</span> performance in simulating ground NO2 and O3 are improved using inverted NOx emissions, with 0.25 and 0.04 reductions in NMBs and 0.13 and 0.04 reductions in NMEs, respectively. Using both GOES-derived photolysis <span class="hlt">rates</span> and OMI-constrained NOx emissions together reduces <span class="hlt">modeled</span> NMB and NME by 0.05 and increases the <span class="hlt">model</span> correlation with ground measurement in O3 simulations and makes O3 more sensitive to NOx emissions in the O3 non-attainment areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13A1483R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13A1483R"><span id="translatedtitle">Sketch-<span class="hlt">based</span> geologic <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rood, M. P.; Jackson, M.; Hampson, G.; Brazil, E. V.; de Carvalho, F.; Coda, C.; Sousa, M. C.; Zhang, Z.; Geiger, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional (2D) maps and cross-sections, and 3D conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span>, are fundamental tools for understanding, communicating and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> geology. Yet geologists lack dedicated and intuitive tools that allow rapid creation of such figures and <span class="hlt">models</span>. Standard drawing packages produce only 2D figures that are not suitable for quantitative analysis. Geologic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> packages can produce 3D <span class="hlt">models</span> and are widely used in the groundwater and petroleum communities, but are often slow and non-intuitive to use, requiring the creation of a grid early in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> workflow and the use of geostatistical methods to populate the grid blocks with geologic information. We present an alternative approach to rapidly create figures and <span class="hlt">models</span> using sketch-<span class="hlt">based</span> interface and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> (SBIM). We leverage methods widely adopted in other industries to prototype complex geometries and designs. The SBIM tool contains built-in geologic rules that constrain how sketched lines and surfaces interact. These rules are <span class="hlt">based</span> on the logic of superposition and cross-cutting relationships that follow from rock-forming processes, including deposition, deformation, intrusion and modification by diagenesis or metamorphism. The approach allows rapid creation of multiple, geologically realistic, figures and <span class="hlt">models</span> in 2D and 3D using a simple, intuitive interface. The user can sketch in plan- or cross-section view. Geologic rules are used to extrapolate sketched lines in real time to create 3D surfaces. Quantitative analysis can be carried our directly on the <span class="hlt">models</span>. Alternatively, they can be output as simple figures or imported directly into other <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools. The software runs on a tablet PC and can be used in a variety of settings including the office, classroom and field. The speed and ease of use of SBIM enables multiple interpretations to be developed from limited data, uncertainty to be readily appraised, and figures and <span class="hlt">models</span> to be rapidly updated to incorporate new data or concepts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 778.413 - Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. 778... § 778.413 Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. The guaranty of pay must be “<span class="hlt">based</span> on... in such a situation would not, obviously, be <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in the contract....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 778.413 - Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. 778... § 778.413 Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. The guaranty of pay must be “<span class="hlt">based</span> on... in such a situation would not, obviously, be <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in the contract....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 778.413 - Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. 778... § 778.413 Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. The guaranty of pay must be “<span class="hlt">based</span> on... in such a situation would not, obviously, be <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in the contract....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 778.413 - Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. 778... § 778.413 Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. The guaranty of pay must be “<span class="hlt">based</span> on... in such a situation would not, obviously, be <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in the contract....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol3-sec778-413.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 778.413 - Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. 778... § 778.413 Guaranty must be <span class="hlt">based</span> on <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in contract. The guaranty of pay must be “<span class="hlt">based</span> on... in such a situation would not, obviously, be <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">rates</span> specified in the contract....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050192390','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050192390"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinearity and Strain-<span class="hlt">Rate</span> Dependence in the Deformation Response of Polymer Matrix Composites <span class="hlt">Modeled</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Robert K.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>There has been no accurate procedure for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the high-speed impact of composite materials, but such an analytical capability will be required in designing reliable lightweight engine-containment systems. The majority of the <span class="hlt">models</span> in use assume a linear elastic material response that does not vary with strain <span class="hlt">rate</span>. However, for containment systems, polymer matrix composites incorporating ductile polymers are likely to be used. For such a material, the deformation response is likely to be nonlinear and to vary with strain <span class="hlt">rate</span>. An analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field that incorporates both of these features. A set of constitutive equations that was originally developed to analyze the viscoplastic deformation of metals (Ramaswamy-Stouffer equations) was modified to simulate the nonlinear, <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent deformation of polymers. Specifically, the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the inelastic response, which can be significant in polymers, were accounted for by a modification of the definition of the effective stress. The constitutive equations were then incorporated into a composite micromechanics <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the mechanics of materials theory. This theory predicts the deformation response of a composite material from the properties and behavior of the individual constituents. In this manner, the nonlinear, <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent deformation response of a polymer matrix composite can be predicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJNAO...6..775K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJNAO...6..775K"><span id="translatedtitle">Availability analysis of subsea blowout preventer using Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> considering demand <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Sunghee; Chung, Soyeon; Yang, Youngsoon</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Availabilities of subsea Blowout Preventers (BOP) in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (GoM OCS) is investigated using a Markov method. An updated β factor <span class="hlt">model</span> by SINTEF is used for common-cause failures in multiple redundant systems. Coefficient values of failure <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> are derived using the β factor <span class="hlt">model</span> of the PDS (reliability of computer-<span class="hlt">based</span> safety systems, Norwegian acronym) method. The blind shear ram preventer system of the subsea BOP components considers a demand <span class="hlt">rate</span> to reflect reality more. Markov <span class="hlt">models</span> considering the demand <span class="hlt">rate</span> for one or two components are introduced. Two data sets are compared at the GoM OCS. The results show that three or four pipe ram preventers give similar availabilities, but redundant blind shear ram preventers or annular preventers enhance the availability of the subsea BOP. Also control systems (PODs) and connectors are contributable components to improve the availability of the subsea BOPs <span class="hlt">based</span> on sensitivity analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23715084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23715084"><span id="translatedtitle">A review of air exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for air pollution exposure assessments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Breen, Michael S; Schultz, Bradley D; Sohn, Michael D; Long, Thomas; Langstaff, John; Williams, Ronald; Isaacs, Kristin; Meng, Qing Yu; Stallings, Casson; Smith, Luther</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange <span class="hlt">rate</span> (AER) for various buildings where people spend their time. The AER, which is the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pollutants and for removal of indoor-emitted air pollutants. This paper presents an overview and critical analysis of the scientific literature on empirical and physically <span class="hlt">based</span> AER <span class="hlt">models</span> for residential and commercial buildings; the <span class="hlt">models</span> highlighted here are feasible for exposure assessments as extensive inputs are not required. <span class="hlt">Models</span> are included for the three types of airflows that can occur across building envelopes: leakage, natural ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. Guidance is provided to select the preferable AER <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on available data, desired temporal resolution, types of airflows, and types of buildings included in the exposure assessment. For exposure assessments with some limited building leakage or AER measurements, strategies are described to reduce AER <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty. This review will facilitate the selection of AER <span class="hlt">models</span> in support of air pollution exposure assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490821','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490821"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesoscopic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of DNA denaturation <span class="hlt">rates</span>: Sequence dependence and experimental comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dahlen, Oda Erp, Titus S. van</p> <p>2015-06-21</p> <p>Using rare event simulation techniques, we calculated DNA denaturation <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants for a range of sequences and temperatures for the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois (PBD) <span class="hlt">model</span> with two different parameter sets. We studied a larger variety of sequences compared to previous studies that only consider DNA homopolymers and DNA sequences containing an equal amount of weak AT- and strong GC-<span class="hlt">base</span> pairs. Our results show that, contrary to previous findings, an even distribution of the strong GC-<span class="hlt">base</span> pairs does not always result in the fastest possible denaturation. In addition, we applied an adaptation of the PBD <span class="hlt">model</span> to study hairpin denaturation for which experimental data are available. This is the first quantitative study in which dynamical results from the mesoscopic PBD <span class="hlt">model</span> have been compared with experiments. Our results show that present parameterized <span class="hlt">models</span>, although giving good results regarding thermodynamic properties, overestimate denaturation <span class="hlt">rates</span> by orders of magnitude. We believe that our dynamical approach is, therefore, an important tool for verifying DNA <span class="hlt">models</span> and for developing next generation <span class="hlt">models</span> that have higher predictive power than present ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27635054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27635054"><span id="translatedtitle">Low <span class="hlt">Base</span>-Substitution Mutation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in the Germline Genome of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, Hongan; Winter, David J; Chang, Allan Y-C; Sung, Way; Wu, Steven H; Balboa, Mariel; Azevedo, Ricardo B R; Cartwright, Reed A; Lynch, Michael; Zufall, Rebecca A</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation and is, therefore, central to evolutionary change. Previous work on Paramecium tetraurelia found an unusually low germline <span class="hlt">base</span>-substitution mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in this ciliate. Here, we tested the generality of this result among ciliates using Tetrahymena thermophila. We sequenced the genomes of 10 lines of T. thermophila that had each undergone approximately 1,000 generations of mutation accumulation (MA). We applied an existing mutation-calling pipeline and developed a new probabilistic mutation detection approach that directly <span class="hlt">models</span> the design of an MA experiment and accommodates the noise introduced by mismapped reads. Our probabilistic mutation-calling method provides a straightforward way of estimating the number of sites at which a mutation could have been called if one was present, providing the denominator for our mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculations. From these methods, we find that T. thermophila has a germline <span class="hlt">base</span>-substitution mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 7.61 × 10 (-)  (12) per-site, per cell division, which is consistent with the low <span class="hlt">base</span>-substitution mutation <span class="hlt">rate</span> in P. tetraurelia Over the course of the evolution experiment, genomic exclusion lines derived from the MA lines experienced a fitness decline that cannot be accounted for by germline <span class="hlt">base</span>-substitution mutations alone, suggesting that other genetic or epigenetic factors must be involved. Because selection can only operate to reduce mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> upon the "visible" mutational load, asexual reproduction with a transcriptionally silent germline may allow ciliates to evolve extremely low germline mutation <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gr&pg=4&id=EJ929840','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gr&pg=4&id=EJ929840"><span id="translatedtitle">The Gifted <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Age, Gender, and Race</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is <span class="hlt">based</span> on a multidimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4684705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4684705"><span id="translatedtitle">In Vitro Validation of Endovascular Doppler-derived Flow <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in <span class="hlt">Models</span> of the Cerebral Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McGah, P M; Nerva, J D; Morton, R P; Barbour, M C; Levitt, M R; Mourad, P D; Kim, L J; Aliseda, A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study presents validation of endovascular Doppler velocimetry-<span class="hlt">based</span> volumetric flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements conducted in a pulsatile flow loop simulating conditions in both the internal carotid and basilar artery. In vitro <span class="hlt">models</span> of cerebral vessels, each containing an aneurysm, were fabricated from patient anatomies extracted from 3D rotational angiography. Flow velocity measurements were collected with three different experimental techniques: an endovascular Doppler wire, Particle Image Velocimetry, and a time-resolved ultrasonic flow meter. Womersley’s theory of pulsatile flow in a cylindrical vessel was used to compute time-resolved volumetric flow <span class="hlt">rates</span> from the endovascular Doppler velocity. The volumetric flow <span class="hlt">rates</span> computed from the Doppler measurements were compared to those from the Particle Image Velocimetry profile measurements, and the direct measurements from the ultrasonic flow meter. The study establishes confidence intervals for any systematic or random errors associated with the wire-derived flow <span class="hlt">rates</span> as benchmarked to the other two modalities. There is an approximately 10% random error in the Doppler-derived peak and time-averaged flow <span class="hlt">rates</span>. There is a measurable uniform bias, about 15% too low, in the time-averaged Doppler-derived flow <span class="hlt">rates</span>. There is also a small proportional bias in the peak systolic Doppler-derived flow <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Potential sources of error are also discussed. PMID:26450643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvC..78b5805N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvC..78b5805N"><span id="translatedtitle">Matching of experimental and statistical-<span class="hlt">model</span> thermonuclear reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> at high temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newton, J. R.; Longland, R.; Iliadis, C.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>We address the problem of extrapolating experimental thermonuclear reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> toward high stellar temperatures (T>1 GK) by using statistical <span class="hlt">model</span> (Hauser-Feshbach) results. Reliable reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> at such temperatures are required for studies of advanced stellar burning stages, supernovae, and x-ray bursts. Generally accepted methods are <span class="hlt">based</span> on the concept of a Gamow peak. We follow recent ideas that emphasized the fundamental shortcomings of the Gamow peak concept for narrow resonances at high stellar temperatures. Our new method defines the effective thermonuclear energy range (ETER) by using the 8th, 50th, and 92nd percentiles of the cumulative distribution of fractional resonant reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> contributions. This definition is unambiguous and has a straightforward probability interpretation. The ETER is used to define a temperature at which Hauser-Feshbach <span class="hlt">rates</span> can be matched to experimental <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This matching temperature is usually much higher compared to previous estimates that employed the Gamow peak concept. We suggest that an increased matching temperature provides more reliable extrapolated reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> since Hauser-Feshbach results are more trustwhorthy the higher the temperature. Our ideas are applied to 21 (p,γ), (p,α), and (α,γ) reactions on A=20-40 target nuclei. For many of the cases studied here, our extrapolated reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> at high temperatures differ significantly from those obtained using the Gamow peak concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237009','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237009"><span id="translatedtitle">High Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Deformation <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 2; Composite Micromechanical <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> is described which allows for the analysis of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to <span class="hlt">model</span> the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA540330','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA540330"><span id="translatedtitle">Solid Propellant Burn <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Modifiers <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Reactive Nanocomposite Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-26</p> <p>increase in the burn <span class="hlt">rate</span> over a broad range of pressures achieved with replacement of only 5 % of aluminum in aluminized propellant with new...current high performance aluminized HTPB propellants. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...<span class="hlt">rate</span> over a broad range of pressures achieved with replacement of only 5 % of aluminum in aluminized propellant with new materials. Furthermore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..84n4414A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..84n4414A"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrafast magnetization dynamics <span class="hlt">rates</span> within the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atxitia, U.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Ultrafast laser-induced magnetization dynamics is analyzed in terms of the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch (LLB) equation for different values of spin S. Within the LLB <span class="hlt">model</span> the ultrafast demagnetization time (τM) and the transverse damping (α⊥) are parametrized by the intrinsic coupling-to-the-bath parameter λ, defined by the microscopic spin-flip <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We show that the LLB <span class="hlt">model</span> is equivalent to a recently introduced M3TM <span class="hlt">model</span> [B. Koopmans , Nature Mat.1476-112210.1038/nmat2593 9, 259 (2010)] with S=1/2 within the assumption that the intrinsic scattering mechanism is the phonon-mediated Elliott-Yafet scattering. As a result, for this process λ is proportional to the ratio between the nonequilibrium phonon and electron temperatures, in contrast to previous <span class="hlt">models</span> with λ=const. We investigate the influence of the finite spin number and the scattering <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameter λ on the ultrafast magnetization dynamics. The differences in the demagnetization time scale in transition metals and Gd are attributed to the fact that this parameter is almost two orders of magnitude smaller in the latter case. The relation between the femtosecond demagnetization <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the perpendicular picosecond-nanosecond damping, provided by the LLB theory, is checked <span class="hlt">based</span> on the available experimental data. A good agreement is obtained for Ni, Co, and Gd, providing validation of the LLB <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203766','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203766"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the strain-<span class="hlt">rate</span> damage <span class="hlt">model</span> to simplified and statistical predictions of IGSCC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garud, Y.S.; McIlree, A.R.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 in the nuclear reactor water environments continues to be a failure mechanism of significance, not only in the steam generator tubing of many plants but also in other locations of the coolant system in general, as is clear from the recent incidence of cracks in pressurizer nozzles and sleeves, control rod drive (CRDM) nozzles, etc. The importance of strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> in describing and predicting the IGSCC response was incorporated into an engineering <span class="hlt">model</span> presented previously by the authors. In this paper the authors present additional characteristics of the <span class="hlt">model</span> identified in the more recent work, particularly dealing with the crack growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> response and the sensitivity of IGSCC to different material conditions. Recent observations included in the paper show that the IGSCC is predominantly driven by mechanical factors. The strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> basis provides certain unique predictions and insights into the IGSCC behavior; these are explored with some numerical results and comparisons with field observations. A simplified relation is proposed for the case of fixed stress condition <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">model</span> characteristics, and the corresponding <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are derived for four material conditions. Application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to probabilistic evaluation is illustrated for time to circumferential through-wall failure in the expansion transition location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26714848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26714848"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> changes in glucose and glycerol <span class="hlt">rates</span> of appearance when true basal <span class="hlt">rates</span> of appearance cannot be readily determined.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pyle, Laura; Bergman, Bryan C; Nadeau, Kristen J; Cree-Green, Melanie</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Advancing diabetes care requires accurate physiological assessments. Hyperinsulinemic clamps with stable isotope tracers can simultaneously measure insulin's ability to suppress lipolysis and hepatic glucose release. Traditionally, these methods require an assessment of basal glucose and glycerol <span class="hlt">rate</span> of appearance (Ra). Basal Ra is challenging to measure in insulin-dependent diabetes, where exogenous insulin required to maintain normoglycemia can raise peripheral insulin concentrations sufficiently to suppress basal Ra. Thus we identified two alternative statistical approaches to describe changes in glucose and glycerol Ra that are less reliant on basal assessments. Sixteen youths (4 type 1 diabetic, 4 type 2 diabetic, 4 lean controls, and 4 obese nondiabetic) underwent a four-phase ("basal" and 10, 16, and 80 mU·m(2)·min(-1)) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with glucose and glycerol tracers. Glucose and glycerol Ra were calculated per phase. A statistical method, the standard two-stage (STS) algorithm, was applied to the individual log insulin vs. Ra curves to calculate a single predicted Ra value. A population-<span class="hlt">based</span> mixed-effects <span class="hlt">model</span> (MEM) compared the group average Ra with log insulin curves and described individual deviations from group means and was used to calculate individual predicted Ra. Both <span class="hlt">models</span> were applied to the participant data, and predicted Ras at the mean insulin concentration per phase (10 for glycerol, 16 for glucose) were calculated, with good agreement between observed and predicted values. In our data set, the MEM was better able to detect group differences. Both STS and MEM can <span class="hlt">model</span> lipolysis and endogenous glucose release in insulin-dependent states when basal Ra cannot be accurately measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030112671','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030112671"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the High Strain <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent deformation and failure <span class="hlt">models</span> for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to <span class="hlt">model</span> the nonlinear, strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span> (from quasi-static to high strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials <span class="hlt">based</span> micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18160660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18160660"><span id="translatedtitle">A rabbit ventricular action potential <span class="hlt">model</span> replicating cardiac dynamics at rapid heart <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahajan, Aman; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Sato, Daisuke; Baher, Ali; Olcese, Riccardo; Xie, Lai-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jim; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Restrepo, Juan G; Karma, Alain; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N</p> <p>2008-01-15</p> <p>Mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the cardiac action potential has proven to be a powerful tool for illuminating various aspects of cardiac function, including cardiac arrhythmias. However, no currently available detailed action potential <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately reproduces the dynamics of the cardiac action potential and intracellular calcium (Ca(i)) cycling at rapid heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> relevant to ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. The aim of this study was to develop such a <span class="hlt">model</span>. Using an existing rabbit ventricular action potential <span class="hlt">model</span>, we modified the L-type calcium (Ca) current (I(Ca,L)) and Ca(i) cycling formulations <span class="hlt">based</span> on new experimental patch-clamp data obtained in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, using the perforated patch configuration at 35-37 degrees C. Incorporating a minimal seven-state Markovian <span class="hlt">model</span> of I(Ca,L) that reproduced Ca- and voltage-dependent kinetics in combination with our previously published dynamic Ca(i) cycling <span class="hlt">model</span>, the new <span class="hlt">model</span> replicates experimentally observed action potential duration and Ca(i) transient alternans at rapid heart <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and accurately reproduces experimental action potential duration restitution curves obtained by either dynamic or S1S2 pacing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2157228','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2157228"><span id="translatedtitle">A Rabbit Ventricular Action Potential <span class="hlt">Model</span> Replicating Cardiac Dynamics at Rapid Heart <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mahajan, Aman; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Sato, Daisuke; Baher, Ali; Olcese, Riccardo; Xie, Lai-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jim; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the cardiac action potential has proven to be a powerful tool for illuminating various aspects of cardiac function, including cardiac arrhythmias. However, no currently available detailed action potential <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately reproduces the dynamics of the cardiac action potential and intracellular calcium (Cai) cycling at rapid heart <span class="hlt">rates</span> relevant to ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. The aim of this study was to develop such a <span class="hlt">model</span>. Using an existing rabbit ventricular action potential <span class="hlt">model</span>, we modified the L-type calcium (Ca) current (ICa,L) and Cai cycling formulations <span class="hlt">based</span> on new experimental patch-clamp data obtained in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, using the perforated patch configuration at 35–37°C. Incorporating a minimal seven-state Markovian <span class="hlt">model</span> of ICa,L that reproduced Ca- and voltage-dependent kinetics in combination with our previously published dynamic Cai cycling <span class="hlt">model</span>, the new <span class="hlt">model</span> replicates experimentally observed action potential duration and Cai transient alternans at rapid heart <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and accurately reproduces experimental action potential duration restitution curves obtained by either dynamic or S1S2 pacing. PMID:18160660</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51D0315K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51D0315K"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome Informed Trait-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Trait-<span class="hlt">based</span> approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem <span class="hlt">models</span>. Trait-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem <span class="hlt">modeling</span> perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., <span class="hlt">based</span> on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize <span class="hlt">models</span> that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this <span class="hlt">model</span> to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict <span class="hlt">rates</span> of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJSyS..46..438T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJSyS..46..438T"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuzzy portfolio <span class="hlt">model</span> with fuzzy-input return <span class="hlt">rates</span> and fuzzy-output proportions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsaur, Ruey-Chyn</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In the finance market, a short-term investment strategy is usually applied in portfolio selection in order to reduce investment risk; however, the economy is uncertain and the investment period is short. Further, an investor has incomplete information for selecting a portfolio with crisp proportions for each chosen security. In this paper we present a new method of constructing fuzzy portfolio <span class="hlt">model</span> for the parameters of fuzzy-input return <span class="hlt">rates</span> and fuzzy-output proportions, <span class="hlt">based</span> on possibilistic mean-standard deviation <span class="hlt">models</span>. Furthermore, we consider both excess or shortage of investment in different economic periods by using fuzzy constraint for the sum of the fuzzy proportions, and we also refer to risks of securities investment and vagueness of incomplete information during the period of depression economics for the portfolio selection. Finally, we present a numerical example of a portfolio selection problem to illustrate the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> and a sensitivity analysis is realised <span class="hlt">based</span> on the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9809915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9809915"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting key malaria transmission factors, biting and entomological inoculation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, using <span class="hlt">modelled</span> soil moisture in Kenya.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patz, J A; Strzepek, K; Lele, S; Hedden, M; Greene, S; Noden, B; Hay, S I; Kalkstein, L; Beier, J C</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>While malaria transmission varies seasonally, large inter-annual heterogeneity of malaria incidence occurs. Variability in entomological parameters, biting <span class="hlt">rates</span> and entomological inoculation <span class="hlt">rates</span> (EIR) have been strongly associated with attack <span class="hlt">rates</span> in children. The goal of this study was to assess the weather's impact on weekly biting and EIR in the endemic area of Kisian, Kenya. Entomological data collected by the U.S. Army from March 1986 through June 1988 at Kisian, Kenya was analysed with concurrent weather data from nearby Kisumu airport. A soil moisture <span class="hlt">model</span> of surface-water availability was used to combine multiple weather parameters with landcover and soil features to improve disease prediction. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> soil moisture substantially improved prediction of biting <span class="hlt">rates</span> compared to rainfall; soil moisture lagged two weeks explained up to 45% of An. gambiae biting variability, compared to 8% for raw precipitation. For An. funestus, soil moisture explained 32% variability, peaking after a 4-week lag. The interspecies difference in response to soil moisture was significant (P < 0.00001). A satellite normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) of the study site yielded a similar correlation (r = 0.42 An. gambiae). <span class="hlt">Modelled</span> soil moisture accounted for up to 56% variability of An. gambiae EIR, peaking at a lag of six weeks. The relationship between temperature and An. gambiae biting <span class="hlt">rates</span> was less robust; maximum temperature r2 = -0.20, and minimum temperature r2 = 0.12 after lagging one week. Benefits of hydrological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> are compared to raw weather parameters and to satellite NDVI. These findings can improve both current malaria risk assessments and those <span class="hlt">based</span> on El Niño forecasts or global climate change <span class="hlt">model</span> projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25736464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25736464"><span id="translatedtitle">A kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> for estimating net photosynthetic <span class="hlt">rates</span> of cos lettuce leaves under pulsed light.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jishi, Tomohiro; Matsuda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Time-averaged net photosynthetic <span class="hlt">rate</span> (P n) under pulsed light (PL) is known to be affected by the PL frequency and duty ratio, even though the time-averaged photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) is unchanged. This phenomenon can be explained by considering that photosynthetic intermediates (PIs) are pooled during light periods and then consumed by partial photosynthetic reactions during dark periods. In this study, we developed a kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate P n of cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves under PL <span class="hlt">based</span> on the dynamics of the amount of pooled PIs. The <span class="hlt">model</span> inputs are average PPFD, duty ratio, and frequency; the output is P n. The <span class="hlt">rates</span> of both PI accumulation and consumption at a given moment are assumed to be dependent on the amount of pooled PIs at that point. Required <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters and three explanatory variables (average PPFD, frequency, and duty ratio) were determined for the simulation using P n values under PL <span class="hlt">based</span> on several combinations of the three variables. The <span class="hlt">model</span> simulation for various PL levels with a wide range of time-averaged PPFDs, frequencies, and duty ratios further demonstrated that P n under PL with high frequencies and duty ratios was comparable to, but did not exceed, P n under continuous light, and also showed that P n under PL decreased as either frequency or duty ratio was decreased. The developed <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used to estimate P n under various light environments where PPFD changes cyclically.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412368V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412368V"><span id="translatedtitle">A supply-<span class="hlt">based</span> concentration <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve to predict total phosphorus concentrations in the Rhine River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van der Perk, M.; Vogels, M. F. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Concentration <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves are useful for the analysis of the response of sediment or solute concentrations to changes in stream discharge or for the interpolation of infrequent concentration measurements in time with discharge as auxiliary variable, for example to estimate annual sediment or solute loads. A known limitation of <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves is that their performance is generally poor, which can be partly attributed to the fact that <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve methods neglect the hysteresis effects in the concentration response to changes in discharge. To enhance the performance of <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve <span class="hlt">models</span>, they should account for these hysteresis effects. Here, we present a supply-<span class="hlt">based</span> concentration <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve for total phosphorus concentrations in the Rhine River, the Netherlands, which does account for the above hysteresis effects. The supply-<span class="hlt">based</span> concentration <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve has four components: 1) The traditional power law <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve of the form C = a Qb where C is the phosphorus concentration [M L-3], Qis the river discharge [L T-1], and a and b are constants [-]; 2) A long-term linear trend; 3) A seasonal trend of the form C(t) = Acos [2π(t - Tk)/T] where A is the concentration amplitude [M L-3], t is the time (T), Tk is the phase shift (T), and T is the period [T] (365.25 d). 4) A discharge dependent supply or loss term of the form C = -ΔS/(QΔt), where S is the phosphorus stock [M]. The phosphorus stock was assumed to increase linearly during periods of deposition, i.e. the discharge is below a critical discharge. If the discharge is greater than the critical discharge during a sufficiently long period (> 16 days), the decrease in phosphorus stock was assumed to be proportional to the excess discharge above the critical discharge. For <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterization and calibration, we used the daily Aqualarm data of total phosphorus concentrations and the Waterbase data of water discharge measured daily by Rijkswaterstaat (Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648385','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648385"><span id="translatedtitle">Deducing acidification <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on short-term time series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lui, Hon-Kit; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We show that, statistically, the simple linear regression (SLR)-determined <span class="hlt">rate</span> of temporal change in seawater pH (βpH), the so-called acidification <span class="hlt">rate</span>, can be expressed as a linear combination of a constant (the estimated <span class="hlt">rate</span> of temporal change in pH) and SLR-determined <span class="hlt">rates</span> of temporal changes in other variables (deviation largely due to various sampling distributions), despite complications due to different observation durations and temporal sampling distributions. Observations show that five time series data sets worldwide, with observation times from 9 to 23 years, have yielded βpH values that vary from 1.61 × 10−3 to −2.5 × 10−3 pH unit yr−1. After correcting for the deviation, these data now all yield an acidification <span class="hlt">rate</span> similar to what is expected under the air-sea CO2 equilibrium (−1.6 × 10−3 ~ −1.8 × 10−3 pH unit yr−1). Although long-term time series stations may have evenly distributed datasets, shorter time series may suffer large errors which are correctable by this method. PMID:26143749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43M..04L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43M..04L"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling airborne laser scanning and acoustic Doppler current profiler data to <span class="hlt">model</span> stream <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lam, N.; Lyon, S. W.; Kean, J. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve enables the translation of water depth into discharge through a reference cross section. Errors in estimating stream channel geometry can therefore result in increased discharge uncertainty. This study investigates coupling national-scale airborne laser scanning (ALS) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) bathymetric survey data for generating stream <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves. Specifically, stream channel geometries were generated from coupled ALS and ADCP scanning data collected for a well-monitored site located in northern Sweden. These data were used to define the hydraulic geometry required by a physically-<span class="hlt">based</span> 1-D hydraulic <span class="hlt">model</span>. The results of our study demonstrate that the effects of potential scanning data errors on the <span class="hlt">model</span> generated <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve were less than the uncertainties due to stream gauging measurements and empirical <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve fitting. Further analysis of the ALS data showed that an overestimation of the streambank elevation (the main scanning data error) was primarily due to vegetation that could be adjusted for through a root-mean-square-error bias correction. We consider these findings encouraging as hydrometric agencies can potentially leverage national-scale ALS and ADCP instrumentation to reduce the cost and effort required for maintaining and establish <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves at gauging stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EJASP2010..258Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EJASP2010..258Z"><span id="translatedtitle">On Optimizing H. 264/AVC <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Control by Improving R-D <span class="hlt">Model</span> and Incorporating HVS Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Zhongjie; Wang, Yuer; Bai, Yongqiang; Jiang, Gangyi</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The state-of-the-art JVT-G012 <span class="hlt">rate</span> control algorithm of H.264 is improved from two aspects. First, the quadratic <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion (R-D) <span class="hlt">model</span> is modified <span class="hlt">based</span> on both empirical observations and theoretical analysis. Second, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the existing physiological and psychological research findings of human vision, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> control algorithm is optimized by incorporating the main characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) such as contrast sensitivity, multichannel theory, and masking effect. Experiments are conducted, and experimental results show that the improved algorithm can simultaneously enhance the overall subjective visual quality and improve the <span class="hlt">rate</span> control precision effectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23542953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23542953"><span id="translatedtitle">Perceptual quality-regulable video coding system with region-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> control scheme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Guan-Lin; Fu, Yu-Jie; Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Chien, Shao-Yi</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we discuss a region-<span class="hlt">based</span> perceptual quality-regulable H.264 video encoder system that we developed. The ability to adjust the quality of specific regions of a source video to a predefined level of quality is an essential technique for region-<span class="hlt">based</span> video applications. We use the structural similarity index as the quality metric for distortion-quantization <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and develop a bit allocation and <span class="hlt">rate</span> control scheme for enhancing regional perceptual quality. Exploiting the relationship between the reconstructed macroblock and the best predicted macroblock from mode decision, a novel quantization parameter prediction method is built and used to achieve the target video quality of the processed macroblock. Experimental results show that the system <span class="hlt">model</span> has only 0.013 quality error in average. Moreover, the proposed region-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> control system can encode video well under a bitrate constraint with a 0.1% bitrate error in average. For the situation of the low bitrate constraint, the proposed system can encode video with a 0.5% bit error <span class="hlt">rate</span> in average and enhance the quality of the target regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26938837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26938837"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated Prediction of Catalytic Mechanism and <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Law Using Graph-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Reaction Path Sampling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Habershon, Scott</p> <p>2016-04-12</p> <p>In a recent article [ J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 143 , 094106 ], we introduced a novel graph-<span class="hlt">based</span> sampling scheme which can be used to generate chemical reaction paths in many-atom systems in an efficient and highly automated manner. The main goal of this work is to demonstrate how this approach, when combined with direct kinetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, can be used to determine the mechanism and phenomenological <span class="hlt">rate</span> law of a complex catalytic cycle, namely cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation of ethene. Our graph-<span class="hlt">based</span> sampling scheme generates 31 unique chemical products and 32 unique chemical reaction pathways; these sampled structures and reaction paths enable automated construction of a kinetic network <span class="hlt">model</span> of the catalytic system when combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of free energies and resultant transition-state theory <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants. Direct simulations of this kinetic network across a range of initial reactant concentrations enables determination of both the reaction mechanism and the associated <span class="hlt">rate</span> law in an automated fashion, without the need for either presupposing a mechanism or making steady-state approximations in kinetic analysis. Most importantly, we find that the reaction mechanism which emerges from these simulations is exactly that originally proposed by Heck and Breslow; furthermore, the simulated <span class="hlt">rate</span> law is also consistent with previous experimental and computational studies, exhibiting a complex dependence on carbon monoxide pressure. While the inherent errors of using DFT simulations to <span class="hlt">model</span> chemical reactivity limit the quantitative accuracy of our calculated <span class="hlt">rates</span>, this work confirms that our automated simulation strategy enables direct analysis of catalytic mechanisms from first principles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936491','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936491"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiocarbon <span class="hlt">Based</span> Ages and Growth <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L</p> <p>2006-01-13</p> <p>The radial growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18942773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18942773"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Neisseria meningitidis B metabolism at different specific growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baart, Gino J E; Willemsen, Marieke; Khatami, Elnaz; de Haan, Alex; Zomer, Bert; Beuvery, E Coen; Tramper, Johannes; Martens, Dirk E</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen that can infect diverse sites within the human host. The major diseases caused by N. meningitidis are responsible for death and disability, especially in young infants. At the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI) a vaccine against serogroup B organisms is currently being developed. This study describes the influence of the growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> of N. meningitidis on its macro-molecular composition and its metabolic activity and was determined in chemostat cultures. In the applied range of growth <span class="hlt">rates</span>, no significant changes in RNA content and protein content with growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> were observed in N. meningitidis. The DNA content in N. meningitidis was somewhat higher at the highest applied growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide content in N. meningitidis changed with growth <span class="hlt">rate</span> but no specific trends were observed. The cellular fatty acid composition and the amino acid composition did not change significantly with growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Additionally, it was found that the PorA content in outer membrane vesicles was significantly lower at the highest growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The metabolic fluxes at various growth <span class="hlt">rates</span> were calculated using flux balance analysis. Errors in fluxes were calculated using Monte Carlo Simulation and the reliability of the calculated flux distribution could be indicated, which has not been reported for this type of analysis. The yield of biomass on substrate (Y(x/s)) and the maintenance coefficient (m(s)) were determined as 0.44 (+/-0.04) g g(-1) and 0.04 (+/-0.02) g g(-1) h(-1), respectively. The growth associated energy requirement (Y(x/ATP)) and the non-growth associated ATP requirement for maintenance (m(ATP)) were estimated as 0.13 (+/-0.04) mol mol(-1) and 0.43 (+/-0.14) mol mol(-1) h(-1), respectively. It was found that the split ratio between the Entner-Doudoroff and the pentose phosphate pathway, the sole glucose utilizing pathways in N. meningitidis, had a minor effect on ATP formation <span class="hlt">rate</span> but a major</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872675','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872675"><span id="translatedtitle">High removal <span class="hlt">rate</span> laser-<span class="hlt">based</span> coating removal system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley</p> <p>1999-11-16</p> <p>A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal <span class="hlt">rate</span> as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition <span class="hlt">rate</span> laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4352380','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4352380"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily Mood <span class="hlt">Ratings</span> via Text Message as a Proxy for Clinic <span class="hlt">Based</span> Depression Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen; Leykin, Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Mobile and automated technologies are increasingly becoming integrated into mental healthcare and assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine how automated daily mood <span class="hlt">ratings</span> are related to the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9), a standard measure in the screening and tracking of depression symptoms. Results There was a significant relationship between daily mood scores and one-week average mood scores and PHQ-9 scores controlling for linear change in depression scores. PHQ9 scores were not related to the average of two week mood <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. This study also constructed <span class="hlt">models</span> using variance, maximum, and minimum values of mood <span class="hlt">ratings</span> in the preceding week and two-week periods as predictors of PHQ-9. None of these variables significantly predicted PHQ-9 scores when controlling for daily mood <span class="hlt">ratings</span> and the corresponding averages for each period. Limitations This study only assessed patients who were in treatment for depression therefore do not account for the relationship between text message mood <span class="hlt">ratings</span> for those who are not depressed. The sample was also predominantly Spanish speaking and low-income making generalizability to other populations uncertain. Conclusions Our results show that automatic text message <span class="hlt">based</span> mood <span class="hlt">ratings</span> can be a clinically useful proxy for the PHQ9. Importantly, this approach avoids the limitations of the PHQ9 administration, which include length and a higher requirement for literacy. PMID:25679202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP51E3568L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP51E3568L"><span id="translatedtitle">A Bayesian Hierarchical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Scheme for Estimating Erosion <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Under Current Climate Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lowman, L.; Barros, A. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of surface erosion processes is inherently difficult because of the four-dimensional nature of the problem and the multiple temporal and spatial scales that govern individual mechanisms. Landscapes are modified via surface and fluvial erosion and exhumation, each of which takes place over a range of time scales. Traditional field measurements of erosion/exhumation <span class="hlt">rates</span> are scale dependent, often valid for a single point-wise location or averaging over large aerial extents and periods with intense and mild erosion. We present a method of remotely estimating erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> using a Bayesian hierarchical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> upon the stream power erosion law (SPEL). A Bayesian approach allows for estimating erosion <span class="hlt">rates</span> using the deterministic relationship given by the SPEL and data on channel slopes and precipitation at the basin and sub-basin scale. The spatial scale associated with this framework is the elevation class, where each class is characterized by distinct morphologic behavior observed through different modes in the distribution of basin outlet elevations. Interestingly, the distributions of first-order outlets are similar in shape and extent to the distribution of precipitation events (i.e. individual storms) over a 14-year period between 1998-2011. We demonstrate an application of the Bayesian hierarchical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework for five basins and one intermontane basin located in the central Andes between 5S and 20S. Using remotely sensed data of current annual precipitation <span class="hlt">rates</span> from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and topography from a high resolution (3 arc-seconds) digital elevation map (DEM), our erosion <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates are consistent with decadal-scale estimates <span class="hlt">based</span> on landslide mapping and sediment flux observations and 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than most millennial and million year timescale estimates from thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.5307C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.5307C"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity study of forecasted aftershock seismicity <span class="hlt">based</span> on Coulomb stress calculation and <span class="hlt">rate</span>- and state-dependent frictional response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cocco, M.; Hainzl, S.; Catalli, F.; Enescu, B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Woessner, J.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We use the Dieterich (1994) physics-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach to simulate the spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity caused by stress changes applied to an infinite population of nucleating patches <span class="hlt">modeled</span> through a <span class="hlt">rate</span>- and state-dependent friction law. According to this <span class="hlt">model</span>, seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes depend on the amplitude of stress perturbation, the physical constitutive properties of faults (represented by the parameter Aσ), the stressing <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and the background seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the study area. In order to apply this <span class="hlt">model</span> in a predictive manner, we need to understand the impact of physical <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters and the correlations between them. First, we discuss different definitions of the reference seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span> and show their impact on the computed <span class="hlt">rate</span> of earthquake production for the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence as a case study. Furthermore, we demonstrate that all <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are strongly correlated for physical and statistical reasons. We discuss this correlation, emphasizing that the estimations of the background seismicity <span class="hlt">rate</span>, stressing <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and Aσ are strongly correlated to reproduce the observed aftershock productivity. Our analytically derived relation demonstrates the impact of these <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters on the Omori-like aftershock decay: the c value and the productivity of the Omori law, implying a p value smaller than or equal to 1. Finally, we discuss an optimal strategy to constrain <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters for near-real-time forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24992246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24992246"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of stopping rules for computerized adaptive screening measures using the <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leroux, Audrey J; Dodd, Barbara G</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The current study evaluates three stopping rules for computerized adaptive testing (CAT): the predicted standard error reduction (PSER), the fixed-length, and the minimum SE using Andrich's <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale <span class="hlt">model</span> with a survey to identify at-risk students. PSER attempts to reduce the number of items administered and increase measurement precision of the trait. Several variables are manipulated, such as trait distribution and item pool size, in order to evaluate how these conditions interact and potentially help improve the correct classification of students. The findings indicate that the PSER stopping rule may be preferred when wanting to correctly diagnose or classify students at-risk and at the same time alleviate test burden for those taking screening measures <span class="hlt">based</span> on the <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale <span class="hlt">model</span> with smaller item pools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptMa..48...12C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptMa..48...12C"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the polymerisation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a low-toxicity diacetone acrylamide-<span class="hlt">based</span> holographic photopolymer using Raman spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cody, D.; Mihaylova, E.; O'Neill, L.; Naydenova, I.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The polymerisation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a low-toxicity Diacetone Acrylamide (DA)-<span class="hlt">based</span> photopolymer has been measured for the first time using Raman spectroscopy. A value for the polymerisation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 0.020 s-1 has been obtained for the DA photopolymer by <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the polymerisation reaction dynamics as a stretched exponential or Kohlrausch decay function. This is significantly lower than the polymerisation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 0.100 s-1 measured for the well known Acrylamide (AA)-<span class="hlt">based</span> photopolymer composition. The effect of the additive glycerol on the polymerisation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the DA-<span class="hlt">based</span> photopolymer has also been investigated. The inclusion of glycerol is observed to increase the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of polymerisation of the DA photopolymer by up to 60%. It is also observed that the polymerisation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the DA photopolymer is less dependent on the recording intensity when glycerol is present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......103P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......103P"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictive Finite <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Oxygen-Carbon Interactions at High Temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poovathingal, Savio</p> <p></p> <p>An oxidation <span class="hlt">model</span> for carbon surfaces is developed to predict ablation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for carbon heat shields used in hypersonic vehicles. Unlike existing empirical <span class="hlt">models</span>, the approach used here was to probe gas-surface interactions individually and then <span class="hlt">based</span> on an understanding of the relevant fundamental processes, build a predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> that would be accurate over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, and even microstructures. Initially, molecular dynamics was used to understand the oxidation processes on the surface. The molecular dynamics simulations were compared to molecular beam experiments and good qualitative agreement was observed. The simulations reproduced cylindrical pitting observed in the experiments where oxidation was rapid and primarily occurred around a defect. However, the studies were limited to small systems at low temperatures and could simulate time scales only of the order of nanoseconds. Molecular beam experiments at high surface temperature indicated that a majority of surface reaction products were produced through thermal mechanisms. Since the reactions were thermal, they occurred over long time scales which were computationally prohibitive for molecular dynamics to simulate. The experiments provided detailed dynamical data on the scattering of O, O2, CO, and CO2 and it was found that the data from molecular beam experiments could be used directly to build a <span class="hlt">model</span>. The data was initially used to deduce surface reaction probabilities at 800 K. The reaction probabilities were then incorporated into the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Simulations were performed where the microstructure was resolved and dissociated oxygen convected and diffused towards it. For a gas-surface temperature of 800 K, it was found that despite CO being the dominant surface reaction product, a gas-phase reaction forms significant CO2 within the microstructure region. It was also found that surface area did not play any role in concentration of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091354"><span id="translatedtitle">Global stability for delay SIR and SEIR epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span> with nonlinear incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Gang; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Ma, Wanbiao; Wei, Daijun</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, <span class="hlt">based</span> on SIR and SEIR epidemic <span class="hlt">models</span> with a general nonlinear incidence <span class="hlt">rate</span>, we incorporate time delays into the ordinary differential equation <span class="hlt">models</span>. In particular, we consider two delay differential equation <span class="hlt">models</span> in which delays are caused (i) by the latency of the infection in a vector, and (ii) by the latent period in an infected host. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and using the Lyapunov-LaSalle invariance principle, we prove the global stability of the endemic equilibrium and the disease-free equilibrium for time delays of any length in each <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our results show that the global properties of equilibria also only depend on the basic reproductive number and that the latent period in a vector does not affect the stability, but the latent period in an infected host plays a positive role to control disease development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58..921M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58..921M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> climate effects on hip fracture <span class="hlt">rate</span> by the multivariate GARCH <span class="hlt">model</span> in Montreal region, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Modarres, Reza; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Vanasse, Alain; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Gosselin, Pierre</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Changes in extreme meteorological variables and the demographic shift towards an older population have made it important to investigate the association of climate variables and hip fracture by advanced methods in order to determine the climate variables that most affect hip fracture incidence. The nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous variable-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARMA X-GARCH) and multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) time series approaches were applied to investigate the nonlinear association between hip fracture <span class="hlt">rate</span> in female and male patients aged 40-74 and 75+ years and climate variables in the period of 1993-2004, in Montreal, Canada. The <span class="hlt">models</span> describe 50-56 % of daily variation in hip fracture <span class="hlt">rate</span> and identify snow depth, air temperature, day length and air pressure as the influencing variables on the time-varying mean and variance of the hip fracture <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The conditional covariance between climate variables and hip fracture <span class="hlt">rate</span> is increasing exponentially, showing that the effect of climate variables on hip fracture <span class="hlt">rate</span> is most acute when <span class="hlt">rates</span> are high and climate conditions are at their worst. In Montreal, climate variables, particularly snow depth and air temperature, appear to be important predictors of hip fracture incidence. The association of climate variables and hip fracture does not seem to change linearly with time, but increases exponentially under harsh climate conditions. The results of this study can be used to provide an adaptive climate-related public health program and ti guide allocation of services for avoiding hip fracture risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4639701','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4639701"><span id="translatedtitle">Philosophy of the Spike: <span class="hlt">Rate-Based</span> vs. Spike-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Theories of the Brain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brette, Romain</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Does the brain use a firing <span class="hlt">rate</span> code or a spike timing code? Considering this controversial question from an epistemological perspective, I argue that progress has been hampered by its problematic phrasing. It takes the perspective of an external observer looking at whether those two observables vary with stimuli, and thereby misses the relevant question: which one has a causal role in neural activity? When rephrased in a more meaningful way, the <span class="hlt">rate-based</span> view appears as an ad hoc methodological postulate, one that is practical but with virtually no empirical or theoretical support. PMID:26617496</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720019475','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720019475"><span id="translatedtitle">A liquid cooled garment temperature controller <span class="hlt">based</span> on sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chambers, A. B.; Blackaby, J. R.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>An automatic controller for liquid cooled space suits is reported that utilizes human sweat <span class="hlt">rate</span> as the primary input signal. The controller is so designed that the coolant inlet temperature is inversely proportional to the subject's latent heat loss as evidenced by evaporative water loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SOIL....2..433A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SOIL....2..433A"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous quantification of depolymerization and mineralization <span class="hlt">rates</span> by a novel 15N tracing <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andresen, Louise C.; Björsne, Anna-Karin; Bodé, Samuel; Klemedtsson, Leif; Boeckx, Pascal; Rütting, Tobias</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The depolymerization of soil organic matter, such as proteins and (oligo-)peptides, into monomers (e.g. amino acids) is currently considered to be the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-limiting step for nitrogen (N) availability in terrestrial ecosystems. The mineralization of free amino acids (FAAs), liberated by the depolymerization of peptides, is an important fraction of the total mineralization of organic N. Hence, the accurate assessment of peptide depolymerization and FAA mineralization <span class="hlt">rates</span> is important in order to gain a better process-<span class="hlt">based</span> understanding of the soil N cycle. In this paper, we present an extended numerical 15N tracing <span class="hlt">model</span> Ntrace, which incorporates the FAA pool and related N processes in order to provide a more robust and simultaneous quantification of depolymerization and gross mineralization <span class="hlt">rates</span> of FAAs and soil organic N. We discuss analytical and numerical approaches for two forest soils, suggest improvements of the experimental work for future studies, and conclude that (i) when about half of all depolymerized peptide N is directly mineralized, FAA mineralization can be as important a <span class="hlt">rate</span>-limiting step for total gross N mineralization as peptide depolymerization <span class="hlt">rate</span>; (ii) gross FAA mineralization and FAA immobilization <span class="hlt">rates</span> can be used to develop FAA use efficiency (NUEFAA), which can reveal microbial N or carbon (C) limitation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1148..467T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1148..467T"><span id="translatedtitle">Financial Distress Prediction Using Discrete-time Hazard <span class="hlt">Model</span> and <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Transition Matrix Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, Bi-Huei; Chang, Chih-Huei</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Previous studies used constant cut-off indicator to distinguish distressed firms from non-distressed ones in the one-stage prediction <span class="hlt">models</span>. However, distressed cut-off indicator must shift according to economic prosperity, rather than remains fixed all the time. This study focuses on Taiwanese listed firms and develops financial distress prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> upon the two-stage method. First, this study employs the firm-specific financial ratio and market factors to measure the probability of financial distress <span class="hlt">based</span> on the discrete-time hazard <span class="hlt">models</span>. Second, this paper further focuses on macroeconomic factors and applies <span class="hlt">rating</span> transition matrix approach to determine the distressed cut-off indicator. The prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> are developed by using the training sample from 1987 to 2004, and their levels of accuracy are compared with the test sample from 2005 to 2007. As for the one-stage prediction <span class="hlt">model</span>, the <span class="hlt">model</span> in incorporation with macroeconomic factors does not perform better than that without macroeconomic factors. This suggests that the accuracy is not improved for one-stage <span class="hlt">models</span> which pool the firm-specific and macroeconomic factors together. In regards to the two stage <span class="hlt">models</span>, the negative credit cycle index implies the worse economic status during the test period, so the distressed cut-off point is adjusted to increase <span class="hlt">based</span> on such negative credit cycle index. After the two-stage <span class="hlt">models</span> employ such adjusted cut-off point to discriminate the distressed firms from non-distressed ones, their error of misclassification becomes lower than that of one-stage ones. The two-stage <span class="hlt">models</span> presented in this paper have incremental usefulness in predicting financial distress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JPhy4.110...63H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JPhy4.110...63H"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuum damage <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for ductile metals under high strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Husson, C.; Ahzi, S.; Daridon, L.; Courtine, T.</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>The accuracy of the computational investigation on the response of ductile materials under dynamic condition depends on the capability of the constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> in accounting for strain <span class="hlt">rate</span>, temperature and microstructural effects. In this work, we propose a damage evolution law, valid for a wide range of strain <span class="hlt">rates</span>, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the theory of continuum damage mechanics (CDM). This <span class="hlt">model</span> implicitly accounts for the three stages of damage: the nucleation, the growth and the coalescence. This non-linear isotropic CDM <span class="hlt">model</span> for ductile damage is developed by assuming the existence of a new ductile damage dissipation potential. The proposed damage law is coupled with an evolution law for the flow stress. Like in the mechanical threshold stress (M.T.S.) <span class="hlt">model</span>, the flow stress is decomposed as the sum of an athermal component and a temperature and strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent component. Results from our motel are in agreement with the existing experimental results for stress-strain behavior and damage evolution in oxygen-free high-conducting (OFHC) copper under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4071227','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4071227"><span id="translatedtitle">What Explains Usage of Mobile Physician-<span class="hlt">Rating</span> Apps? Results From a Web-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Questionnaire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Terlutter, Ralf; Röttl, Johanna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Consumers are increasingly accessing health-related information via mobile devices. Recently, several apps to <span class="hlt">rate</span> and locate physicians have been released in the United States and Germany. However, knowledge about what kinds of variables explain usage of mobile physician-<span class="hlt">rating</span> apps is still lacking. Objective This study analyzes factors influencing the adoption of and willingness to pay for mobile physician-<span class="hlt">rating</span> apps. A structural equation <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Technology Acceptance <span class="hlt">Model</span> and the literature on health-related information searches and usage of mobile apps. Relationships in the <span class="hlt">model</span> were analyzed for moderating effects of physician-<span class="hlt">rating</span> website (PRW) usage. Methods A total of 1006 randomly selected German patients who had visited a general practitioner at least once in the 3 months before the beginning of the survey were randomly selected and surveyed. A total of 958 usable questionnaires were analyzed by partial least squares path <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and moderator analyses. Results The suggested <span class="hlt">model</span> yielded a high <span class="hlt">model</span> fit. We found that perceived ease of use (PEOU) of the Internet to gain health-related information, the sociodemographic variables age and gender, and the psychographic variables digital literacy, feelings about the Internet and other Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> applications in general, patients’ value of health-related knowledgeability, as well as the information-seeking behavior variables regarding the amount of daily private Internet use for health-related information, frequency of using apps for health-related information in the past, and attitude toward PRWs significantly affected the adoption of mobile physician-<span class="hlt">rating</span> apps. The sociodemographic variable age, but not gender, and the psychographic variables feelings about the Internet and other Web-<span class="hlt">based</span> applications in general and patients’ value of health-related knowledgeability, but not digital literacy, were significant predictors of willingness to pay. Frequency of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=american+AND+presidential+AND+election&pg=3&id=ED526000','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=american+AND+presidential+AND+election&pg=3&id=ED526000"><span id="translatedtitle">An Item Response Unfolding <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Graphic <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liu, Ying</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The graphic <span class="hlt">rating</span> scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23016977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23016977"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterochrony in somitogenesis <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a <span class="hlt">model</span> marsupial, Monodelphis domestica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keyte, Anna; Smith, Kathleen K</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Marsupial newborns are highly altricial and also show a wide array of shifts in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> or timing of developmental events so that certain neonatal structures are quite mature. One particularly notable feature is the steep gradient in development along the anterior-posterior axis such that anterior structures are generally well developed relative to posterior ones. Here, we study somitogenesis in the marsupial, Monodelphis domestica, and document two heterochronies that may be important in generating the unusual body plan of the newborn marsupial. First, we demonstrate a 4-fold change in somitogenesis <span class="hlt">rate</span> along the anterior-posterior axis, which appears to be due to somitogenesis slowing posteriorly. Second, we show that somitogenesis, particularly in the cervical region, initiates earlier in Monodelphis relative to other developmental events in the embryo. The early initiation of somitogenesis may contribute to the early development of the cervical region and forelimbs. Other elements of somitogenesis appear to be conserved. When compared to mouse, we see similar expression of genes involved in the clock and wavefront, and genes of the Wnt, Notch, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways also cycle in Monodelphis. Further, we could not discern differences in somite maturation <span class="hlt">rate</span> along the anterior-posterior axis in Monodelphis, and thus <span class="hlt">rate</span> of maturation of the somites does not appear to contribute to the steep anterior-posterior gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65582&keyword=management+AND+school&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89707472&CFTOKEN=77605137','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65582&keyword=management+AND+school&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89707472&CFTOKEN=77605137"><span id="translatedtitle">MICROBIAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION <span class="hlt">RATES</span> AND EXPOSURE <span class="hlt">MODEL</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> from inoculated agar plate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22995822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22995822"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> of cycad cones' thermogenic temperature responses: inverse calorimetry to estimate metabolic heating <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roemer, R B; Booth, D; Bhavsar, A A; Walter, G H; Terry, L I</p> <p>2012-12-21</p> <p>A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on conservation of energy has been developed and used to simulate the temperature responses of cones of the Australian cycads Macrozamia lucida and Macrozamia. macleayi during their daily thermogenic cycle. These cones generate diel midday thermogenic temperature increases as large as 12 °C above ambient during their approximately two week pollination period. The cone temperature response <span class="hlt">model</span> is shown to accurately predict the cones' temperatures over multiple days as <span class="hlt">based</span> on simulations of experimental results from 28 thermogenic events from 3 different cones, each simulated for either 9 or 10 sequential days. The verified <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used as the foundation of a new, parameter estimation <span class="hlt">based</span> technique (termed inverse calorimetry) that estimates the cones' daily metabolic heating <span class="hlt">rates</span> from temperature measurements alone. The inverse calorimetry technique's predictions of the major features of the cones' thermogenic metabolism compare favorably with the estimates from conventional respirometry (indirect calorimetry). Because the new technique uses only temperature measurements, and does not require measurements of oxygen consumption, it provides a simple, inexpensive and portable complement to conventional respirometry for estimating metabolic heating <span class="hlt">rates</span>. It thus provides an additional tool to facilitate field and laboratory investigations of the bio-physics of thermogenic plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ECSS...52...33B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ECSS...52...33B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Oxygen Dynamics in an Intermittently Stratified Estuary: Estimation of Process <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Using Field Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borsuk, M. E.; Stow, C. A.; Luettich, R. A.; Paerl, H. W.; Pinckney, J. L.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between bottom water dissolved oxygen concentration, vertical stratification, and temperature was investigated for the Neuse River estuary, North Carolina, a shallow, intermittently-mixed estuary using approximately 10 years of weekly/biweekly, mid-channel data. A generalized additive <span class="hlt">model</span> (GAM) was used to initially explore the major relationships among observed variables. The results of this statistical <span class="hlt">model</span> guided the specification of a process-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of oxygen dynamics that is consistent with theory yet simple enough to be parameterized using available field data. The nonlinear optimization procedure employed allows for the direct estimation of microbial oxygen consumption and physical reoxygenation <span class="hlt">rates</span>, including the effects of temperature and vertical stratification. These estimated <span class="hlt">rates</span> may better represent aggregate system behaviour than closed chamber measurements made in the laboratory and in situ. The resulting <span class="hlt">model</span> describes 79% of the variation in dissolved oxygen concentration and is robust when compared across separate locations and time periods. <span class="hlt">Model</span> predictions suggest that the spatial extent and duration of hypoxia in the bottom waters of the Neuse are controlled by the balance between the net oxygen depletion <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the frequency of vertical mixing events. During cool months, oxygen consumption <span class="hlt">rates</span> remain low enough to keep oxygen concentration well above levels of concern even under extended periods of stratification. A concentration below 4 mg l -1is only expected under extended periods without vertical mixing when bottom water temperature exceeds 15 °C, while a concentration below 2 mg l -1is only expected when water temperature exceeds 20 °C. To incorporate the effects of parameter uncertainty, <span class="hlt">model</span> error, and natural variability on <span class="hlt">model</span> prediction, we used Monte Carlo simulation to generate distributions for the predicted number of days of hypoxia during the summer season. The expected number of days with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2492..893R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2492..893R"><span id="translatedtitle">Neural network <span class="hlt">based</span> feature extraction scheme for heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raymond, Ben; Nandagopal, Doraisamy; Mazumdar, Jagan; Taverner, D.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>Neural networks are extensively used in solving a wide range of pattern recognition problems in signal processing. The accuracy of pattern recognition depends to a large extent on the quality of the features extracted from the signal. We present a neural network capable of extracting the autoregressive parameters of a cardiac signal known as hear <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability (HRV). Frequency specific oscillations in the HRV signal represent heart <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulatory activity and hence cardiovascular function. Continual monitoring and tracking of the HRV data over a period of time will provide valuable diagnostic information. We give an example of the network applied to a short HRV signal and demonstrate the tracking performance of the network with a single sinusoid embedded in white noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMAE33B0341B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMAE33B0341B"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation of Lightning Flash <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Parameterizations <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Observations of Colorado Storms during DC3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basarab, B.; Fuchs, B.; Rutledge, S. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Predicting lightning activity in thunderstorms is important in order to accurately quantify the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) by lightning (LNOx). Lightning is an important global source of NOx, and since NOx is a chemical precursor to ozone, the climatological impacts of LNOx could be significant. Many cloud-resolving <span class="hlt">models</span> rely on parameterizations to predict lightning and LNOx since the processes leading to charge separation and lightning discharge are not yet fully understood. This study evaluates predicted flash <span class="hlt">rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on existing lightning parameterizations against flash <span class="hlt">rates</span> observed for Colorado storms during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3). Evaluating lightning parameterizations against storm observations is a useful way to possibly improve the prediction of flash <span class="hlt">rates</span> and LNOx in <span class="hlt">models</span>. Additionally, since convective storms that form in the eastern plains of Colorado can be different thermodynamically and electrically from storms in other regions, it is useful to test existing parameterizations against observations from these storms. We present an analysis of the dynamics, microphysics, and lightning characteristics of two case studies, severe storms that developed on 6 and 7 June 2012. This analysis includes dual-Doppler derived horizontal and vertical velocities, a hydrometeor identification <span class="hlt">based</span> on polarimetric radar variables using the CSU-CHILL radar, and insight into the charge structure using observations from the northern Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). Flash <span class="hlt">rates</span> were inferred from the LMA data using a flash counting algorithm. We have calculated various microphysical and dynamical parameters for these storms that have been used in empirical flash <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameterizations. In particular, maximum vertical velocity has been used to predict flash <span class="hlt">rates</span> in some cloud-resolving chemistry simulations. We diagnose flash <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the 6 and 7 June storms using this parameterization and compare</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1718l0003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1718l0003S"><span id="translatedtitle">Infant breathing <span class="hlt">rate</span> counter <span class="hlt">based</span> on variable resistor for pneumonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing <span class="hlt">rate</span> is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing <span class="hlt">rate</span> counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing <span class="hlt">rate</span> counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054082','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054082"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> tomographic reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Chambers, David H; Lehman, Sean K; Goodman, Dennis M</p> <p>2012-06-26</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach to estimating wall positions for a building is developed and tested using simulated data. It borrows two techniques from geophysical inversion problems, layer stripping and stacking, and combines them with a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation algorithm that minimizes the mean-square error between the predicted signal and the data. The technique is designed to process multiple looks from an ultra wideband radar array. The processed signal is time-gated and each section processed to detect the presence of a wall and estimate its position, thickness, and material parameters. The floor plan of a building is determined by moving the array around the outside of the building. In this paper we describe how the stacking and layer stripping algorithms are combined and show the results from a simple numerical example of three parallel walls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHyd..428...32P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHyd..428...32P"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating topography, hydrology and rock structure in weathering <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of spring watersheds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pacheco, Fernando A. L.; Van der Weijden, Cornelis H.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>SummaryWeathering <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> designed for watersheds combine chemical data of discharging waters with morphologic and hydrologic parameters of the catchments. At the spring watershed scale, evaluation of morphologic parameters is subjective due to difficulties in conceiving the catchment geometry. Besides, when springs emerge from crystalline massifs, rock structure must be accounted in formulas describing the area of minerals exposed to the percolating fluids, for a realistic evaluation of the <span class="hlt">rates</span>. These particular features are not included in the available approaches and for that reason a new <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed, coined THROW <span class="hlt">model</span>. This is a lumped approach that integrates (T)opography, (H)ydrology, (RO)ck structure and (W)eathering in a single algorithm. The study area comprises several stream watersheds and spring sites of the Vouga River basin (northern Portugal), shaped on granites. Firstly, the THROW <span class="hlt">model</span> couples a terrain <span class="hlt">modeling</span> analysis with hydrologic <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on discharge <span class="hlt">rates</span>, to determine hydraulic conductivities (K), effective porosities (ne) and annual recharges (Vr) at the stream watershed scale. Subsequently, these parameters are used in a water balance <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate concomitant groundwater travel times (t). The mean K [(4.7 ± 3.2) × 10-7 m s-1] and ne [(2.0 ± 1.3) × 10-2] values are adopted as proxies for the spring watersheds and a firm regression equation is defined between time and stream watershed area (A). Secondly, two more runs of terrain <span class="hlt">modeling</span> analysis are executed to extrapolate morphologic parameters for the spring watersheds. The first run hinges on scaling properties of the drainage networks, known as Horton laws, and is used to scale watershed areas across stream orders (i). The scaling function is described by another regression equation. The second run evaluates the order of a spring watershed, defined as equivalent order (ieq) and equated to the mean order of the surrounding stream watersheds. Having</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP31A0801W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP31A0801W"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Curves: Time Series <span class="hlt">Models</span> for in-Stream Turbidity Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, L.; Mukundan, R.; Zion, M.; Pierson, D. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) manages New York City's water supply, which is comprised of over 20 reservoirs and supplies over 1 billion gallons of water per day to more than 9 million customers. DEP's "West of Hudson" reservoirs located in the Catskill Mountains are unfiltered per a renewable filtration avoidance determination granted by the EPA. While water quality is usually pristine, high volume storm events occasionally cause the reservoirs to become highly turbid. A logical strategy for turbidity control is to temporarily remove the turbid reservoirs from service. While effective in limiting delivery of turbid water and reducing the need for in-reservoir alum flocculation, this strategy runs the risk of negatively impacting water supply reliability. Thus, it is advantageous for DEP to understand how long a particular turbidity event will affect their system. In order to understand the duration, intensity and total load of a turbidity event, predictions of future in-stream turbidity values are important. Traditionally, turbidity predictions have been carried out by applying streamflow observations/forecasts to a flow-turbidity <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve. However, predictions from <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves are often inaccurate due to inter- and intra-event variability in flow-turbidity relationships. Predictions can be improved by applying an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) time series <span class="hlt">model</span> in combination with a traditional <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve. Since 2003, DEP and the Upstate Freshwater Institute have compiled a relatively consistent set of 15-minute turbidity observations at various locations on Esopus Creek above Ashokan Reservoir. Using daily averages of this data and streamflow observations at nearby USGS gauges, flow-turbidity <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves were developed via linear regression. Time series analysis revealed that the linear regression residuals may be represented using an ARMA(1,2) process. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on this information, flow-turbidity regressions with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20038725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20038725"><span id="translatedtitle">Does childhood cancer affect parental divorce <span class="hlt">rates</span>? A population-<span class="hlt">based</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Syse, Astri; Loge, Jon H; Lyngstad, Torkild H</p> <p>2010-02-10</p> <p>PURPOSE Cancer in children may profoundly affect parents' personal relationships in terms of psychological stress and an increased care burden. This could hypothetically elevate divorce <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Few studies on divorce occurrence exist, so the effect of childhood cancers on parental divorce <span class="hlt">rates</span> was explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the entire Norwegian married population, age 17 to 69 years, with children age 0 to 20 years in 1974 to 2001 (N = 977,928 couples) were retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, the Directorate of Taxes, and population censuses. Divorce <span class="hlt">rates</span> for 4,590 couples who were parenting a child with cancer were compared with those of otherwise similar couples by discrete-time hazard regression <span class="hlt">models</span>. Results Cancer in a child was not associated with an increased risk of parental divorce overall. An increased divorce <span class="hlt">rate</span> was observed with Wilms tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.52) but not with any of the other common childhood cancers. The child's age at diagnosis, time elapsed from diagnosis, and death from cancer did not influence divorce <span class="hlt">rates</span> significantly. Increased divorce <span class="hlt">rates</span> were observed for couples in whom the mothers had an education greater than high school level (OR, 1.16); the risk was particularly high shortly after diagnosis, for CNS cancers and Wilms tumors, for couples with children 0 to 9 years of age at diagnosis, and after a child's death. CONCLUSION This large, registry-<span class="hlt">based</span> study shows that cancer in children is not associated with an increased parental divorce <span class="hlt">rate</span>, except with Wilms tumors. Couples in whom the wife is highly educated appear to face increased divorce <span class="hlt">rates</span> after a child's cancer, and this may warrant additional study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP23A1279H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP23A1279H"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation <span class="hlt">Based</span> Geomagnetic Field <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holschneider, M.; Mauerberger, S.; Lesur, V.; Baerenzung, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a new method for determining geomagnetic field <span class="hlt">models</span>. It is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the construction of an a priori correlation structure derived from our knowledge about characteristic length scales and sources of the geomagnetic field. The magnetic field measurements are then seen as correlated random variables too and the inversion process amounts to compute the a posteriori correlation structure using Bayes theorem. We show how this technique allows the statistical separation of the various field contributions and the assessment of their uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3723P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3723P"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of evaporation <span class="hlt">based</span> on copulas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pham, Minh Tu; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Verhoest, Niko</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Evapotranspiration is an important process in the water cycle that represents a considerable amount of moisture lost through evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration from plants in a watershed. Therefore, an accurate estimate of evapotranspiration <span class="hlt">rates</span> is necessary, along with precipitation data, for running hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span>. Often, daily reference evapotranspiration is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Penman, Priestley-Taylor or Hargraeves equation. However, each of these <span class="hlt">models</span> requires extensive input data, such as daily mean temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation. Yet, in design studies, such data is unavailable in case stochastically generated time series of precipitation are used to force a hydrologic <span class="hlt">model</span>. In the latter case, an alternative <span class="hlt">model</span> approach is needed that allows for generating evapotranspiration data that are consistent with the accompanying precipitation data. This contribution presents such an approach in which the statistical dependence between evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation is described by three- and four-dimensional vine copulas. <span class="hlt">Based</span> on a case study of 72 years of evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation data, observed in Uccle, Belgium, it was found that canonical vine copulas (C-Vines) in which bivariate Frank copulas are employed perform very well in preserving the dependencies between variables. While 4-dimensional C-Vine copulas performed best in simulating time series of evapotranspiration, a 3-dimensional C-Vine copula (relating evapotranspiration, daily precipitation depth and temperature) still allows for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> evapotranspiration, though with larger error statistics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311909&keyword=wind&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78747417&CFTOKEN=63844535','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311909&keyword=wind&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78747417&CFTOKEN=63844535"><span id="translatedtitle">Exposure <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Residential Air Exchange <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for NEXUS Participants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Individuals (EMI) to improv...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308482&keyword=Exchange+AND+rate+AND+effects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78280996&CFTOKEN=76953179','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308482&keyword=Exchange+AND+rate+AND+effects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78280996&CFTOKEN=76953179"><span id="translatedtitle">Exposure <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Residential Air Exchange <span class="hlt">Rates</span> for NEXUS Participants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Individuals (EMI) to improv...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18262939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18262939"><span id="translatedtitle">Distortion-<span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for entropy-coded lattice vector quantization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raffy, P; Antonini, M; Barlaud, M</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The increasing demand for real-time applications requires the use of variable-<span class="hlt">rate</span> quantizers having good performance in the low bit <span class="hlt">rate</span> domain. In order to minimize the complexity of quantization, as well as maintaining a reasonably high PSNR ratio, we propose to use an entropy-coded lattice vector quantizer (ECLVQ). These quantizers have proven to outperform the well-known EZW algorithm's performance in terms of <span class="hlt">rate</span>-distortion tradeoff. In this paper, we focus our attention on the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the mean squared error (MSE) distortion and the prefix code <span class="hlt">rate</span> for ECLVQ. First, we generalize the distortion <span class="hlt">model</span> of Jeong and Gibson (1993) on fixed-<span class="hlt">rate</span> cubic quantizers to lattices under a high <span class="hlt">rate</span> assumption. Second, we derive new <span class="hlt">rate</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for ECLVQ, efficient at low bit <span class="hlt">rates</span> without any high <span class="hlt">rate</span> assumptions. Simulation results prove the precision of our <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27805588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27805588"><span id="translatedtitle">A High Performance Impedance-<span class="hlt">based</span> Platform for Evaporation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chou, Wei-Lung; Lee, Pee-Yew; Chen, Cheng-You; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Sheng</p> <p>2016-10-17</p> <p>This paper describes the method of a novel impedance-<span class="hlt">based</span> platform for the detection of the evaporation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> compound hyaluronic acid was employed here for demonstration purposes. Multiple evaporation tests on the <span class="hlt">model</span> compound as a humectant with various concentrations in solutions were conducted for comparison purposes. A conventional weight loss approach is known as the most straightforward, but time-consuming, measurement technique for evaporation <span class="hlt">rate</span> detection. Yet, a clear disadvantage is that a large volume of sample is required and multiple sample tests cannot be conducted at the same time. For the first time in literature, an electrical impedance sensing chip is successfully applied to a real-time evaporation investigation in a time sharing, continuous and automatic manner. Moreover, as little as 0.5 ml of test samples is required in this impedance-<span class="hlt">based</span> apparatus, and a large impedance variation is demonstrated among various dilute solutions. The proposed high-sensitivity and fast-response impedance sensing system is found to outperform a conventional weight loss approach in terms of evaporation <span class="hlt">rate</span> detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S21C..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S21C..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing the Parameters of the <span class="hlt">Rate</span>-and-State Constitutive Law in an Earthquake Clustering <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Console, R.; Murru, M.; Catalli, F.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The phenomenon of earthquake clustering, i.e. the increase of occurrence probability for seismic events close in space and time to other previous earthquakes, has been <span class="hlt">modeled</span> both by statistical and physical processes. From a statistical viewpoint, the so-called epidemic <span class="hlt">model</span> (ETAS) introduced by Ogata in 1988 and its variations have become fairly well known in the seismological community. Tests on real seismicity and comparison with a plain time-independent Poissonian <span class="hlt">model</span> through likelihood-<span class="hlt">based</span> methods have reliably proved their validity. On the other hand, in the last decade many papers have been published on the so-called Coulomb stress change principle, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the theory of elasticity, showing qualitatively that an increase of the Coulomb stress in a given area is usually associated with an increase of seismic activity. More specifically, the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-and-state theory developed by Dieterich in the `90s has been able to give a physical justification to the phenomenon known as Omori law. According to this law, a mainshock is followed by a series of aftershocks whose frequency decreases in time as an inverse power law. In this study we give an outline of the above mentioned stochastic and physical <span class="hlt">models</span>, and build up an approach by which these <span class="hlt">models</span> can be merged in a single algorithm and statistically tested. The application to the seismicity of Japan from 1970 to 2003 shows that the new <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporating the physical concept of the <span class="hlt">rate</span>-and-state theory performs even better of the purely stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> with a smaller number of free parameters</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..909..253N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..909..253N"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Shear <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Temperature on Rheological Properties of Vegetable <span class="hlt">Based</span> Oil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nik, W. B. Wan; Giap, S. G. Eng; Senin, H. B.; Bulat, K. H. Ku</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Petroleum oil has been the raw material for over 90% of hydraulic fluid. Limitations of this <span class="hlt">base</span> material in the aspect of non-renewable, not environmental friendly and its sustainability in the future have prompted a search for more stable and environmentally friendly alternatives. This article presents rheological aspects of hydraulic fluid derived from bio-<span class="hlt">based</span> material when used as hydraulic fluid. Palm oil with F10 additive is found to be most shearstable. Various empirical <span class="hlt">models</span> such as modified Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley and Arrhenius-type-relationship are used to evaluate the rheological data. The influence of shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> and temperature on the variation of viscosity is clearly observed but temperature has more significant influence. Interpretations of rheological <span class="hlt">models</span> indicate that crop oils belong to pseudo-plastic category. The effect of oil degradation in the aspect of physical property on viscosity is also evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5104953','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5104953"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Long-Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Crop Rotation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puntel, Laila A.; Sawyer, John E.; Barker, Daniel W.; Dietzel, Ranae; Poffenbarger, Hanna; Castellano, Michael J.; Moore, Kenneth J.; Thorburn, Peter; Archontoulis, Sotirios V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer <span class="hlt">rates</span> for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N <span class="hlt">rate</span> (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer <span class="hlt">rates</span> (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha-1) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify <span class="hlt">model</span> prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop <span class="hlt">model-based</span> techniques in estimating optimal N <span class="hlt">rate</span> for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated <span class="hlt">model</span> to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the <span class="hlt">model</span> simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration), which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration). For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-year mean differences in EONR’s were within the historical N <span class="hlt">rate</span> error range (40–50 kg N ha-1). However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. <span class="hlt">Model</span> analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching) with precipitation. We concluded that long-term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the <span class="hlt">model</span> can add value toward</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27891133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27891133"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Long-Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Crop Rotation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puntel, Laila A; Sawyer, John E; Barker, Daniel W; Dietzel, Ranae; Poffenbarger, Hanna; Castellano, Michael J; Moore, Kenneth J; Thorburn, Peter; Archontoulis, Sotirios V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer <span class="hlt">rates</span> for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N <span class="hlt">rate</span> (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer <span class="hlt">rates</span> (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify <span class="hlt">model</span> prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop <span class="hlt">model-based</span> techniques in estimating optimal N <span class="hlt">rate</span> for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated <span class="hlt">model</span> to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the <span class="hlt">model</span> simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration), which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration). For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-year mean differences in EONR's were within the historical N <span class="hlt">rate</span> error range (40-50 kg N ha(-1)). However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. <span class="hlt">Model</span> analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching) with precipitation. We concluded that long-term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the <span class="hlt">model</span> can add value toward</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA114096','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA114096"><span id="translatedtitle">1980 CRC Fuel <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Program: Road Octane Performance in 1980 <span class="hlt">Model</span> Cars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>CRC Report No. 520 /198o CRC FUEL <span class="hlt">RATING</span> PROGRAM: ROAD OCTANE PERFORMANCE IN 1980 <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> CARS July 1981 C-3 .. % COORDINATING RESEARCH COUNCIL INC...30346 (404) 396-3400 1980 CRC FUEL <span class="hlt">RATING</span> PROGRAM: ROAD OCTANE PERFORMANCE IN 1980 <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> CARS (CRC Project No. CM-124-80) IN FORMULATING AND...Test Cars ......................................... 3 C. Road <span class="hlt">Rating</span> Technique.............................. 3 D. Data Analysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20840901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20840901"><span id="translatedtitle">Regularized background adaptation: a novel learning <span class="hlt">rate</span> control scheme for gaussian mixture <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Horng-Horng; Chuang, Jen-Hui; Liu, Tyng-Luh</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>To <span class="hlt">model</span> a scene for background subtraction, Gaussian mixture <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (GMM) is a popular choice for its capability of adaptation to background variations. However, GMM often suffers from a tradeoff between robustness to background changes and sensitivity to foreground abnormalities and is inefficient in managing the tradeoff for various surveillance scenarios. By reviewing the formulations of GMM, we identify that such a tradeoff can be easily controlled by adaptive adjustments of the GMM's learning <span class="hlt">rates</span> for image pixels at different locations and of distinct properties. A new <span class="hlt">rate</span> control scheme <span class="hlt">based</span> on high-level feedback is then developed to provide better regularization of background adaptation for GMM and to help resolving the tradeoff. Additionally, to handle lighting variations that change too fast to be caught by GMM, a heuristic rooting in frame difference is proposed to assist the proposed <span class="hlt">rate</span> control scheme for reducing false foreground alarms. Experiments show the proposed learning <span class="hlt">rate</span> control scheme, together with the heuristic for adaptation of over-quick lighting change, gives better performance than conventional GMM approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27912019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27912019"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic N-occupancy <span class="hlt">models</span>: estimating demographic <span class="hlt">rates</span> and local abundance from detection-nondetection data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rossman, Sam; Yackulic, Charles B; Saunders, Sarah P; Reid, Janice; Davis, Ray; Zipkin, Elise F</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Occupancy <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is a widely used analytical technique for assessing species distributions and range dynamics. However, occupancy analyses frequently ignore variation in abundance of occupied sites, even though site abundances affect many of the parameters being estimated (e.g., extinction, colonization, detection probability). We introduce a new <span class="hlt">model</span> ("dynamic N-occupancy") capable of providing accurate estimates of local abundance, population gains (reproduction/immigration), and apparent survival probabilities while accounting for imperfect detection using only detection/nondetection data. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> utilizes heterogeneity in detection <span class="hlt">based</span> on variations in site abundances to estimate latent demographic <span class="hlt">rates</span> via a dynamic N-mixture <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework. We validate our <span class="hlt">model</span> using simulations across a wide range of values and examine the data requirements, including the number of years and survey sites needed, for unbiased and precise estimation of parameters. We apply our <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in abundances of barred owls (Strix varia) within a recently invaded region in Oregon (USA). Estimates of apparent survival and population gains are consistent with those from a nearby radio-tracking study and elucidate how barred owl abundances have increased dramatically over time. The dynamic N-occupancy <span class="hlt">model</span> greatly improves inferences on individual-level population processes from occupancy data by explicitly <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the latent population structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5302816','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5302816"><span id="translatedtitle">A mesoscopic stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> for the specific consumption <span class="hlt">rate</span> in substrate-limited microbial growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The specific consumption <span class="hlt">rate</span> of substrate, as well as the associated specific growth <span class="hlt">rate</span>, is an essential parameter in the mathematical description of substrate-limited microbial growth. In this paper we develop a completely new kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of substrate transport, <span class="hlt">based</span> on recent knowledge on the structural biology of transport proteins, which correctly describes very accurate experimental results at near-zero substrate concentration values found in the literature, where the widespread Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">model</span> fails. Additionally, our <span class="hlt">model</span> converges asymptotically to Michaelis-Menten predictions as substrate concentration increases. Instead of the single active site enzymatic reaction of Michaelis-Menten type, the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> assumes a multi-site kinetics, simplified as an apparent all-or-none mechanism for the transport, which is controlled by means of the local substrate concentration in the close vicinity of the transport protein. Besides, the <span class="hlt">model</span> also assumes that this local concentration is not equal to the mean substrate concentration experimentally determined in the culture medium. Instead, we propose that it fluctuates with a mostly exponential distribution of Weibull type. PMID:28187189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CNSNS..14.2462C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CNSNS..14.2462C"><span id="translatedtitle">Residential water demand <span class="hlt">model</span> under block <span class="hlt">rate</span> pricing: A case study of Beijing, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, H.; Yang, Z. F.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>In many cities, the inconsistency between water supply and water demand has become a critical problem because of deteriorating water shortage and increasing water demand. Uniform price of residential water cannot promote the efficient water allocation. In China, block water price will be put into practice in the future, but the outcome of such regulation measure is unpredictable without theory support. In this paper, the residential water is classified by the volume of water usage <span class="hlt">based</span> on economic rules and block water is considered as different kinds of goods. A <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on extended linear expenditure system (ELES) is constructed to simulate the relationship between block water price and water demand, which provide theoretical support for the decision-makers. Finally, the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to simulate residential water demand under block <span class="hlt">rate</span> pricing in Beijing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22098640','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22098640"><span id="translatedtitle">Moving from gamma passing <span class="hlt">rates</span> to patient DVH-<span class="hlt">based</span> QA metrics in pretreatment dose QA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhen, Heming; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Tome, Wolfgang A.</p> <p>2011-10-15</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this work is to explore the usefulness of the gamma passing <span class="hlt">rate</span> metric for per-patient, pretreatment dose QA and to validate a novel patient-dose/DVH-<span class="hlt">based</span> method and its accuracy and correlation. Specifically, correlations between: (1) gamma passing <span class="hlt">rates</span> for three 3D dosimeter detector geometries vs clinically relevant patient DVH-<span class="hlt">based</span> metrics; (2) Gamma passing <span class="hlt">rates</span> of whole patient dose grids vs DVH-<span class="hlt">based</span> metrics, (3) gamma passing <span class="hlt">rates</span> filtered by region of interest (ROI) vs DVH-<span class="hlt">based</span> metrics, and (4) the capability of a novel software algorithm that estimates corrected patient Dose-DVH <span class="hlt">based</span> on conventional phan-tom QA data are analyzed. Methods: Ninety six unique ''imperfect'' step-and-shoot IMRT plans were generated by applying four different types of errors on 24 clinical Head/Neck patients. The 3D patient doses as well as the dose to a cylindrical QA phantom were then recalculated using an error-free beam <span class="hlt">model</span> to serve as a simulated measurement for comparison. Resulting deviations to the planned vs simulated measured DVH-<span class="hlt">based</span> metrics were generated, as were gamma passing <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a variety of difference/distance criteria covering: dose-in-phantom comparisons and dose-in-patient comparisons, with the in-patient results calculated both over the whole grid and per-ROI volume. Finally, patient dose and DVH were predicted using the conventional per-beam planar data as input into a commercial ''planned dose perturbation'' (PDP) algorithm, and the results of these predicted DVH-<span class="hlt">based</span> metrics were compared to the known values. Results: A range of weak to moderate correlations were found between clinically relevant patient DVH metrics (CTV-D95, parotid D{sub mean}, spinal cord D1cc, and larynx D{sub mean}) and both 3D detector and 3D patient gamma passing <span class="hlt">rate</span> (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm) for dose-in-phantom along with dose-in-patient for both whole patient volume and filtered per-ROI. There was considerable scatter in the gamma passing <span class="hlt">rate</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830026097','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830026097"><span id="translatedtitle">Constitutive <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Compressible Plastic Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rajendran, A. M.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The need for describing materials under time or cycle dependent loading conditions has been emphasized in recent years by several investigators. In response to the need, various constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> describing the nonlinear behavior of materials under creep, fatigue, or other complex loading conditions were developed. The developed <span class="hlt">models</span> for describing the fully dense (non-porous) materials were mostly <span class="hlt">based</span> on uncoupled plasticity theory. The improved characterization of materials provides a better understanding of the structual response under complex loading conditions. The pesent studies demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">rate</span> or time dependency of the response of a porous aggregate can be incorporated into the nonlinear constitutive behavior of a porous solid by appropriately <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the incompressible matrix behavior. It is also sown that the yield function which wads determined by a continuum mechanics approach must be verified by appropriate experiments on void containing sintered materials in order to obtain meaningful numbers for the constants that appear in the yield function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4599861','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4599861"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing <span class="hlt">Rate</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> with Bayesian Inference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by sequential firing <span class="hlt">rate</span> patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new <span class="hlt">model</span> can be understood as an ‘intelligent coincidence detector’, which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the <span class="hlt">model</span> explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the <span class="hlt">model</span> proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Critically, by using the <span class="hlt">model</span>, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818142P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818142P"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifiability of altimetry-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve parameters in function of river morphological parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paris, Adrien; André Garambois, Pierre; Calmant, Stéphane; Paiva, Rodrigo; Walter, Collischonn; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frédérique; Monnier, Jérôme</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Estimating river discharge for ungauged river reaches from satellite measurements is not straightforward given the nonlinearity of flow behavior with respect to measurable and non measurable hydraulic parameters. As a matter of facts, current satellite datasets do not give access to key parameters such as river bed topography and roughness. A unique set of almost one thousand altimetry-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rating</span> curves was built by fit of ENVISAT and Jason-2 water stages with discharges obtained from the MGB-IPH rainfall-runoff <span class="hlt">model</span> in the Amazon basin. These <span class="hlt">rated</span> discharges were successfully validated towards simulated discharges (Ens = 0.70) and in-situ discharges (Ens = 0.71) and are not mission-dependent. The <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve writes Q = a(Z-Z0)b*sqrt(S), with Z the water surface elevation and S its slope gained from satellite altimetry, a and b power law coefficient and exponent and Z0 the river bed elevation such as Q(Z0) = 0. For several river reaches in the Amazon basin where ADCP measurements are available, the Z0 values are fairly well validated with a relative error lower than 10%. The present contribution aims at relating the identifiability and the physical meaning of a, b and Z0given various hydraulic and geomorphologic conditions. Synthetic river bathymetries sampling a wide range of rivers and inflow discharges are used to perform twin experiments. A shallow water <span class="hlt">model</span> is run for generating synthetic satellite observations, and then <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve parameters are determined for each river section thanks to a MCMC algorithm. Thanks to twin experiments, it is shown that <span class="hlt">rating</span> curve formulation with water surface slope, i.e. closer from Manning equation form, improves parameter identifiability. The compensation between parameters is limited, especially for reaches with little water surface variability. <span class="hlt">Rating</span> curve parameters are analyzed for riffle and pools for small to large rivers, different river slopes and cross section shapes. It is shown that the river bed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR41B..05P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR41B..05P"><span id="translatedtitle">Micromechanics <span class="hlt">based</span> permeability evolution in brittle materials at high strain <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perol, T.; Bhat, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We develop a micro-mechanics <span class="hlt">based</span> permeability evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> for brittle materials that are strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensitive. Extending the mechanical constitutive description of brittle solids, whose constitutive response is governed by micro-cracks, developed by Bhat et al. (2012) we now relate the damage related strains (plastic strains) to calculate the evolution of micro-crack aperture. We then use the permeability <span class="hlt">model</span> developed by Gueguen and Dienes (1989) and Simpson et al. (2001) to evaluate the permeability evolution. Permeability evolution computed using this <span class="hlt">model</span> is shown to be in very good agreement with experimental results. Pore pressure evolution in a damaged medium, due to waste water injection for example, is then computed and we show that spatially variable permeability plays a major role in determining the pore pressure excess in the surrounding medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8620D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8620D"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating terrain <span class="hlt">based</span> criteria for snow avalanche exposure <span class="hlt">ratings</span> using GIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delparte, Donna; Jamieson, Bruce; Waters, Nigel</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Snow avalanche terrain in backcountry regions of Canada is increasingly being assessed <span class="hlt">based</span> upon the Avalanche Terrain Exposure Scale (ATES). ATES is a terrain <span class="hlt">based</span> classification introduced in 2004 by Parks Canada to identify "simple", "challenging" and "complex" backcountry areas. The ATES <span class="hlt">rating</span> system has been applied to well over 200 backcountry routes, has been used in guidebooks, trailhead signs and maps and is part of the trip planning component of the AVALUATOR™, a simple decision-support tool for backcountry users. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers a means to <span class="hlt">model</span> and visualize terrain <span class="hlt">based</span> criteria through the use of digital elevation <span class="hlt">model</span> (DEM) and land cover data. Primary topographic variables such as slope, aspect and curvature are easily derived from a DEM and are compatible with the equivalent evaluation criteria in ATES. Other components of the ATES classification are difficult to extract from a DEM as they are not strictly terrain <span class="hlt">based</span>. An overview is provided of the terrain variables that can be generated from DEM and land cover data; criteria from ATES which are not clearly terrain <span class="hlt">based</span> are identified for further study or revision. The second component of this investigation was the development of an algorithm for inputting suitable ATES criteria into a GIS, thereby mimicking the process avalanche experts use when applying the ATES classification to snow avalanche terrain. GIS <span class="hlt">based</span> classifications were compared to existing expert assessments for validity. The advantage of automating the ATES classification process through GIS is to assist avalanche experts with categorizing and mapping remote backcountry terrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.4663W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.4663W"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of CALPUFF and ISCST3 <span class="hlt">models</span> for predicting downwind odor and source emission <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lingjuan; Parker, David B.; Parnell, Calvin B.; Lacey, Ronald E.; Shaw, Bryan W.</p> <p></p> <p>CALPUFF <span class="hlt">model</span> and ISCST3 Gaussian dispersion <span class="hlt">models</span> were evaluated for predicting downwind odor concentrations and back-calculating area source odor emission <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The comparison between the predicted and field-sampled downwind concentrations indicates that the CALPUFF <span class="hlt">model</span> could fairly well predict average downwind odor concentrations. However, ISCST3 tended to under predict downwind odor concentrations as compared to the measured concentrations. Both the CALPUFF and ISCST3 <span class="hlt">models</span> failed to predict peak odor concentrations using the constant average emission <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Odor emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> obtained by back-calculating fluxes using CALPUFF and ISC <span class="hlt">models</span> with the same field measurements of downwind odor concentrations are significantly different. It indicates that back-calculated emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> are <span class="hlt">model</span> specific. The <span class="hlt">modeled</span> emission <span class="hlt">rates</span> tended to be higher than flux chamber source sampling results. The flux chamber protocol may under-estimate odor emission <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6814906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6814906"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Model</span> for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production <span class="hlt">rates</span> of cosmogenic nuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is <span class="hlt">based</span> on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production <span class="hlt">rates</span> of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production <span class="hlt">rates</span> for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm/sup -2/. Although the <span class="hlt">model</span> has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production <span class="hlt">rates</span> for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNuM..473..197S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNuM..473..197S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> irradiation creep of graphite using <span class="hlt">rate</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Apu; Eapen, Jacob; Raj, Anant; Murty, K. L.; Burchell, T. D.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We have examined irradiation induced creep of graphite in the framework of transition state <span class="hlt">rate</span> theory. Experimental data for two grades of nuclear graphite (H-337 and AGOT) have been analyzed to determine the stress exponent (n) and activation energy (Q) for plastic flow under irradiation. We show that the mean activation energy lies between 0.14 and 0.32 eV with a mean stress-exponent of 1.0 ± 0.2. A stress exponent of unity and the unusually low activation energies strongly indicate a diffusive defect transport mechanism for neutron doses in the range of 3-4 × 1022 n/cm2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014896"><span id="translatedtitle">Sodium toxicity in methanogenic systems: <span class="hlt">Rates</span> and <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yerkes, D.W.; Speece, R.E.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, the mechanisms of sodium toxicity in methane producing anaerobic wastewater treatment systems are explored. Kinetic parameters for acetate uptake and sodium inhibition are determined. Methanosarcina enrichment cultures were used to determine a sodium inhibition constant, K{sub i}, of 295 mM. Methanosarcina showed complete acclimation to 500 mM Na{sup +} within 120 days. It is demonstrated that anaerobic systems have the ability to adapt over several weeks to very high concentrations of sodium, although the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of methane production is slowed dramatically.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=elementary+AND+number+AND+theory+AND+applications&pg=3&id=ED528580','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=elementary+AND+number+AND+theory+AND+applications&pg=3&id=ED528580"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison of <span class="hlt">Model</span>-Data Fit for Parametric and Nonparametric Item Response Theory <span class="hlt">Models</span> Using Ordinal-Level <span class="hlt">Ratings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dyehouse, Melissa A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study compared the <span class="hlt">model</span>-data fit of a parametric item response theory (PIRT) <span class="hlt">model</span> to a nonparametric item response theory (NIRT) <span class="hlt">model</span> to determine the best-fitting <span class="hlt">model</span> for use with ordinal-level alternate assessment <span class="hlt">ratings</span>. The PIRT Generalized Graded Unfolding <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GGUM) was compared to the NIRT Mokken <span class="hlt">model</span>. Chi-square statistics…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol6-part567-appC.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol6-part567-appC.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 567, App. C Appendix C to Part 567—Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements—Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol1-part167-appC.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol1-part167-appC.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 167 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 167, App. C Appendix C to Part 167—Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements—Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol6-part567-appC.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol6-part567-appC.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 567, App. C Appendix C to Part 567—Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements—Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title12-vol5-part567-appC.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title12-vol5-part567-appC.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 567, App. C Appendix C to Part 567—Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements—Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol1-part167-appC.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol1-part167-appC.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements-Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span> and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 167 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 167, App. C Appendix C to Part 167—Risk-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Capital Requirements—Internal-<span class="hlt">Ratings-Based</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4762744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4762744"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors influencing variation in physician adenoma detection <span class="hlt">rates</span>: a theory-<span class="hlt">based</span> approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Atkins, Louise; Hunkeler, Enid M.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Michie, Susan; Lee, Jeffrey K.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Zauber, Ann G.; Levin, Theodore R.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Corley, Douglas A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background & Aims Interventions to improve physician adenoma detection <span class="hlt">rates</span> for colonoscopy have generally not been successful and there are little data on the factors contributing to variation that may be appropriate targets for intervention. We sought to identify factors that may influence variation in detection <span class="hlt">rates</span> using theory-<span class="hlt">based</span> tools for understanding behavior. Methods We separately studied gastroenterologists and endoscopy nurses at three Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers to identify potentially modifiable factors relevant to physician adenoma detection <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability using structured group interviews (focus groups) and theory-<span class="hlt">based</span> tools for understanding behavior and eliciting behavior change: the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation behavior <span class="hlt">model</span>; the Theoretical Domains Framework; and the Behavior Change Wheel. Results Nine factors potentially associated with detection <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability were identified, including six related to capability (uncertainty about which types of polyps to remove; style of endoscopy team leadership; compromised ability to focus during an examination due to distractions; examination technique during withdrawal; difficulty detecting certain types of adenomas; and examiner fatigue and pain), two related to opportunity (perceived pressure due to the number of examinations expected per shift and social pressure to finish examinations before scheduled breaks or the end of a shift), and one related to motivation (valuing a meticulous examination as the top priority). Examples of potential intervention strategies are provided. Conclusions Using theory-<span class="hlt">based</span> tools, this study identified several novel and potentially modifiable factors relating to capability, opportunity, and motivation that may contribute to adenoma detection <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability and be appropriate targets for future intervention trials. PMID:26366787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24961214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24961214"><span id="translatedtitle">A medical cloud-<span class="hlt">based</span> platform for respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement and hierarchical classification of breath disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fekr, Atena Roshan; Janidarmian, Majid; Radecka, Katarzyna; Zilic, Zeljko</p> <p>2014-06-24</p> <p>The measurement of human respiratory signals is crucial in cyberbiological systems. A disordered breathing pattern can be the first symptom of different physiological, mechanical, or psychological dysfunctions. Therefore, a real-time monitoring of the respiration patterns, as well as respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> is a critical need in medical applications. There are several methods for respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement. However, despite their accuracy, these methods are expensive and could not be integrated in a body sensor network. In this work, we present a real-time cloud-<span class="hlt">based</span> platform for both monitoring the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> and breath pattern classification, remotely. The proposed system is designed particularly for patients with breathing problems (e.g., respiratory complications after surgery) or sleep disorders. Our system includes calibrated accelerometer sensor, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and cloud-computing <span class="hlt">model</span>. We also suggest a procedure to improve the accuracy of respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> for patients at rest positions. The overall error in the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation is obtained 0.53% considering SPR-BTA spirometer as the reference. Five types of respiration disorders, Bradapnea, Tachypnea, Cheyn-stokes, Kaussmal, and Biot's breathing are classified <span class="hlt">based</span> on hierarchical Support Vector Machine (SVM) with seven different features. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed classification while it is individualized to every subject (case 1) as well as considering all subjects (case 2). Since the selection of kernel function is a key factor to decide SVM's performance, in this paper three different kernel functions are evaluated. The experiments are conducted with 11 subjects and the average accuracy of 94.52% for case 1 and the accuracy of 81.29% for case 2 are achieved <span class="hlt">based</span> on Radial Basis Function (RBF). Finally, a performance evaluation has been done for normal and impaired subjects considering sensitivity, specificity and G-mean parameters of different kernel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118343','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118343"><span id="translatedtitle">A Medical Cloud-<span class="hlt">Based</span> Platform for Respiration <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Measurement and Hierarchical Classification of Breath Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fekr, Atena Roshan; Janidarmian, Majid; Radecka, Katarzyna; Zilic, Zeljko</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The measurement of human respiratory signals is crucial in cyberbiological systems. A disordered breathing pattern can be the first symptom of different physiological, mechanical, or psychological dysfunctions. Therefore, a real-time monitoring of the respiration patterns, as well as respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> is a critical need in medical applications. There are several methods for respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement. However, despite their accuracy, these methods are expensive and could not be integrated in a body sensor network. In this work, we present a real-time cloud-<span class="hlt">based</span> platform for both monitoring the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> and breath pattern classification, remotely. The proposed system is designed particularly for patients with breathing problems (e.g., respiratory complications after surgery) or sleep disorders. Our system includes calibrated accelerometer sensor, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and cloud-computing <span class="hlt">model</span>. We also suggest a procedure to improve the accuracy of respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> for patients at rest positions. The overall error in the respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span> calculation is obtained 0.53% considering SPR-BTA spirometer as the reference. Five types of respiration disorders, Bradapnea, Tachypnea, Cheyn-stokes, Kaussmal, and Biot's breathing are classified <span class="hlt">based</span> on hierarchical Support Vector Machine (SVM) with seven different features. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed classification while it is individualized to every subject (case 1) as well as considering all subjects (case 2). Since the selection of kernel function is a key factor to decide SVM's performance, in this paper three different kernel functions are evaluated. The experiments are conducted with 11 subjects and the average accuracy of 94.52% for case 1 and the accuracy of 81.29% for case 2 are achieved <span class="hlt">based</span> on Radial Basis Function (RBF). Finally, a performance evaluation has been done for normal and impaired subjects considering sensitivity, specificity and G-mean parameters of different kernel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25358159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25358159"><span id="translatedtitle">[Testing of germination <span class="hlt">rate</span> of hybrid rice seeds <span class="hlt">based</span> on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Germination <span class="hlt">rate</span> of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination <span class="hlt">rate</span> of hybrid rice seeds <span class="hlt">based</span> on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination <span class="hlt">rate</span> of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression <span class="hlt">model</span> was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of <span class="hlt">models</span> was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of <span class="hlt">models</span> was also compared. Optimal <span class="hlt">model</span> was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination <span class="hlt">rate</span> is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315257','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315257"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a pheromone elution <span class="hlt">rate</span> physical <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A first principle <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach is applied to available data describing the elution of semiochemicals from pheromone dispensers. These data include field data for 27 products developed by several manufacturers, including homemade devices, as well as laboratory data collected on three semiochemi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17677409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17677409"><span id="translatedtitle">Inferring Markov chains: Bayesian estimation, <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison, entropy <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and out-of-class <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Strelioff, Christopher C; Crutchfield, James P; Hübler, Alfred W</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Markov chains are a natural and well understood tool for describing one-dimensional patterns in time or space. We show how to infer kth order Markov chains, for arbitrary k , from finite data by applying Bayesian methods to both parameter estimation and <span class="hlt">model</span>-order selection. Extending existing results for multinomial <span class="hlt">models</span> of discrete data, we connect inference to statistical mechanics through information-theoretic (type theory) techniques. We establish a direct relationship between Bayesian evidence and the partition function which allows for straightforward calculation of the expectation and variance of the conditional relative entropy and the source entropy <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Finally, we introduce a method that uses finite data-size scaling with <span class="hlt">model</span>-order comparison to infer the structure of out-of-class processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJFr...62..355B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJFr...62..355B"><span id="translatedtitle">R-curve <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">rate</span> and size effects in quasibrittle fracture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bazant, Zdenek P.; Jirasek, Milan</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>The equivalent linear elastic fracture <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on an R-curve (a curve characterizing the variation of the critical energy release <span class="hlt">rate</span> with the crack propagation length) is generalized to describe both the <span class="hlt">rate</span> effect and size effect observed in concrete, rock or other quasibrittle materials. It is assumed that the crack propagation velocity depends on the ratio of the stress intensity factor to its critical value <span class="hlt">based</span> on the R-curve and that this dependence has the form of a power function with an exponent much larger than 1. The shape of the R-curve is determined as the envelope of the fracture equilibrium curves corresponding to the maximum load values for geometrically similar specimens of different sizes. The creep in the bulk of a concrete specimen must be taken into account, which is done by replacing the elastic constants in the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) formulas with a linear viscoelastic operator in time (for rocks, which do not creep, this is omitted). The experimental observation that the brittleness of concrete increases as the loading <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreases (i.e. the response shifts in the size effect plot closer to LEFM) can be approximately described by assuming that stress relaxation causes the effective process zone length in the R-curve expression to decrease with a decreasing loading <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Another power function is used to describe this. Good fits of test data for which the times to peak range from 1 sec to 250000 sec are demonstrated. Furthermore, the theory also describes the recently conducted relaxation tests, as well as the recently observed response to a sudden change of loading <span class="hlt">rate</span> (both increase and decrease), and particularly the fact that a sufficient <span class="hlt">rate</span> increase in the post-peak range can produce a load-displacement response of positive slope leading to a second peak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">44 CFR 61.12 - <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND <span class="hlt">RATES</span> § 61.12 <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">44 CFR 61.12 - <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND <span class="hlt">RATES</span> § 61.12 <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">44 CFR 61.12 - <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND <span class="hlt">RATES</span> § 61.12 <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">44 CFR 61.12 - <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND <span class="hlt">RATES</span> § 61.12 <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title44-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title44-vol1-sec61-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">44 CFR 61.12 - <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND <span class="hlt">RATES</span> § 61.12 <span class="hlt">Rates</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on a flood protection system...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-03/pdf/2011-2346.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-03/pdf/2011-2346.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Filing...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-03</p> <p>...-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-<span class="hlt">Based</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Filing... the above-referenced proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-<span class="hlt">based</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> authority, with an accompanying <span class="hlt">rate</span> tariff, noting that such application includes a request for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4804295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4804295"><span id="translatedtitle">Strengthened PAN-<span class="hlt">based</span> carbon fibers obtained by slow heating <span class="hlt">rate</span> carbonization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Min-A; Jang, Dawon; Tejima, Syogo; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Hwan Chul; Lee, Sungho; Endo, Morinobu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Large efforts have been made over the last 40 years to increase the mechanical strength of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-<span class="hlt">based</span> carbon fibers (CFs) using a variety of chemical or physical protocols. In this paper, we report a new method to increase CFs mechanical strength using a slow heating <span class="hlt">rate</span> during the carbonization process. This new approach increases both the carbon sp3 bonding and the number of nitrogen atoms with quaternary bonding in the hexagonal carbon network. Theoretical calculations support a crosslinking <span class="hlt">model</span> promoted by the interstitial carbon atoms located in the graphitic interlayer spaces. The improvement in mechanical performance by a controlled crosslinking between the carbon hexagonal layers of the PAN <span class="hlt">based</span> CFs is a new concept that can contribute further in the tailoring of CFs performance <span class="hlt">based</span> on the understanding of their microstructure down to the atomic scale. PMID:27004752</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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