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Sample records for rate modulation rate

  1. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  2. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 3: Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on rate is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy system. This…

  3. H2-blocker modulates heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Ooie, T; Saikawa, T; Hara, M; Ono, H; Seike, M; Sakata, T

    1999-01-01

    The use of H2-blockers in the treatment of patients with peptic ulcer has become popular. However, this treatment has adverse cardiovascular effects. The aim of this study was to investigate proarrhythmic rhythm and autonomic nervous activity by analyzing heart rate variability in patients treated with omeprazole, ranitidine, and plaunotol. Nineteen patients (mean age 67.5 +/- 2.7 years) with active gastric ulcer were treated with omeprazole (20 mg/day) for 8 weeks, then ranitidine (300 mg/day) for the next 4 months, and finally plaunotol (240 mg/day). At each stage of the treatment, Holter electrocardiography was performed, and heart rate variability and arrhythmias analyzed. Heart rate variability yielded power in the low- (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency components (0.15-0.4 Hz). Although both ranitidine and omeprazole induced little change in cardiac rhythm, the high-frequency power was higher (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs 8.6 +/- 0.6 ms, P < 0.05) and the ratio of low-to-high frequency power was lower (1.41 +/-0.10 vs 1.59 +/- 0.09. P < 0.05) during ranitidine than during plaunotol treatment. Cosinor analysis of heart rate variability revealed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency power during omeprazole compared with during ranitidine and plaunotol treatment. Ranitidine modulated high-frequency power which may be related to the adverse cardiovascular effects of H2-blocker.

  4. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L.; Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  5. Invariance of firing rate and field potential dynamics to stimulus modulation rate in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Roy; Nir, Yuval; Harel, Michal; Arieli, Amos; Malach, Rafael; Fried, Itzhak

    2011-08-01

    The effect of stimulus modulation rate on the underlying neural activity in human auditory cortex is not clear. Human studies (using both invasive and noninvasive techniques) have demonstrated that at the population level, auditory cortex follows stimulus envelope. Here we examined the effect of stimulus modulation rate by using a rare opportunity to record both spiking activity and local field potentials (LFP) in auditory cortex of patients during repeated presentations of an audio-visual movie clip presented at normal, double, and quadruple speeds. Mean firing rate during evoked activity remained the same across speeds and the temporal response profile of firing rate modulations at increased stimulus speeds was a linearly scaled version of the response during slower speeds. Additionally, stimulus induced power modulation of local field potentials in the high gamma band (64-128 Hz) exhibited similar temporal scaling as the neuronal firing rate modulations. Our data confirm and extend previous studies in humans and anesthetized animals, supporting a model in which both firing rate, and high-gamma LFP power modulations in auditory cortex follow the temporal envelope of the stimulus across different modulation rates.

  6. SOPHIA CPV module round robin: Power rating at CSOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefer, Gerald; Steiner, Marc; Baudrit, Mathieu; Dominguez, César; Antón, Igancio; Nuñez, Ruben; Roca, Franco; Pugliatti, Paola Maria; Stefano, Agnese Di; Kenny, Robert; Morabito, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module measurement round robin has been initiated. The round robin includes measurements of four CPV modules at seven different test laboratories located in Europe. IV curves of the modules are measured with different measurement equipment under various climatic conditions. The aim of this activity is to perform at each site a rating of the modules at concentrator standard operating conditions CSOC according to IEC 62670-1. The outcome of the round robin is intended for direct feedback to the current draft standard IEC 62670-3 "Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Performance Testing - Performance Measurements and Power Rating". The paper discusses initial results from the first three partners that have already finished the measurements up to now.

  7. Photovoltaic module energy rating procedure. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.M.; Newmiller, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes testing and computation procedures used to generate a photovoltaic Module Energy Rating (MER). The MER consists of 10 estimates of the amount of energy a single module of a particular type (make and model) will produce in one day. Module energy values are calculated for each of five different sets of weather conditions (defined by location and date) and two load types. Because reproduction of these exact testing conditions in the field or laboratory is not feasible, limited testing and modeling procedures and assumptions are specified.

  8. Detection and rate discrimination of amplitude modulation in electrical hearing.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Monita; Oberzut, Cherish

    2011-09-01

    Three experiments were designed to examine temporal envelope processing by cochlear implant (CI) listeners. In experiment 1, the hypothesis that listeners' modulation sensitivity would in part determine their ability to discriminate between temporal modulation rates was examined. Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) obtained in an amplitude modulation detection (AMD) task were compared to threshold functions obtained in an amplitude modulation rate discrimination (AMRD) task. Statistically significant nonlinear correlations were observed between the two measures. In experiment 2, results of loudness-balancing showed small increases in the loudness of modulated over unmodulated stimuli beyond a modulation depth of 16%. Results of experiment 3 indicated small but statistically significant effects of level-roving on the overall gain of the TMTF, but no impact of level-roving on the average shape of the TMTF across subjects. This suggested that level-roving simply increased the task difficulty for most listeners, but did not indicate increased use of intensity cues under more challenging conditions. Data obtained with one subject, however, suggested that the most sensitive listeners may derive some benefit from intensity cues in these tasks. Overall, results indicated that intensity cues did not play an important role in temporal envelope processing by the average CI listener.

  9. Symbol rate identification for auxiliary amplitude modulation optical signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junyu; Dong, Zhi; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we creatively propose and demonstrate a method for symbol rate identification (SRI) of auxiliary amplitude modulation (AAM) optical signal based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling (ADTS) and average magnitude difference function (AMDF). The method can accurately estimate symbol rate and has large transmission impairments tolerance. Furthermore, it can be realized in the digital signal processor (DSP) with low logical resources because of multiplication-free. In order to improve the accuracy of SRI, the peak to valley ratio (PTVR) of AMDF is introduced into our method for blind chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation. The results of the numerical simulations show that the overall maximum SRI error is smaller 0.079% for return-to-zero (RZ) on-off keying (OOK), RZ differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), RZ differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) and RZ 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with 50% duty cycles.

  10. Contact rate modulates foraging efficiency in leaf cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Bouchebti, S; Ferrere, S; Vittori, K; Latil, G; Dussutour, A; Fourcassié, V

    2015-12-21

    Lane segregation is rarely observed in animals that move in bidirectional flows. Consequently, these animals generally experience a high rate of head-on collisions during their journeys. Although these collisions have a cost (each collision induces a delay resulting in a decrease of individual speed), they could also have a benefit by promoting information transfer between individuals. Here we explore the impact of head-on collisions in leaf-cutting ants moving on foraging trails by artificially decreasing the rate of head-on collisions between individuals. We show that head-on collisions do not influence the rate of recruitment in these ants but do influence foraging efficiency, i.e. the proportion of ants returning to the nest with a leaf fragment. Surprisingly, both unladen and laden ants returning to the nest participate in the modulation of foraging efficiency: foraging efficiency decreases when the rate of contacts with both nestbound laden or unladen ants decreases. These results suggest that outgoing ants are able to collect information from inbound ants even when these latter do not carry any leaf fragment and that this information can influence their foraging decisions when reaching the end of the trail.

  11. Contact rate modulates foraging efficiency in leaf cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Bouchebti, S.; Ferrere, S.; Vittori, K.; Latil, G.; Dussutour, A.; Fourcassié, V.

    2015-01-01

    Lane segregation is rarely observed in animals that move in bidirectional flows. Consequently, these animals generally experience a high rate of head-on collisions during their journeys. Although these collisions have a cost (each collision induces a delay resulting in a decrease of individual speed), they could also have a benefit by promoting information transfer between individuals. Here we explore the impact of head-on collisions in leaf-cutting ants moving on foraging trails by artificially decreasing the rate of head-on collisions between individuals. We show that head-on collisions do not influence the rate of recruitment in these ants but do influence foraging efficiency, i.e. the proportion of ants returning to the nest with a leaf fragment. Surprisingly, both unladen and laden ants returning to the nest participate in the modulation of foraging efficiency: foraging efficiency decreases when the rate of contacts with both nestbound laden or unladen ants decreases. These results suggest that outgoing ants are able to collect information from inbound ants even when these latter do not carry any leaf fragment and that this information can influence their foraging decisions when reaching the end of the trail. PMID:26686557

  12. Respiratory modulation and baroreflex control of heart rate in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheyden, Bart; Couckuyt, Kurt; Liu, Jiexin; Aubert, Andre

    During everyday life, gravity constantly stresses the human circulation by diminishing venous return in the upright position. This induces baroreflex-mediated cardiovascular adjustments that are aimed to prevent the blood pressure from falling. In weightlessness, gravitational pressure gradients do not arise in the circulation so that baroreflex function remains chronically unchallenged. This may contribute to the development of post spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory modulation and baroreflex control of heart rate after a week of weightlessness in space. We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular control in space will be similar to the baseline supine condition on Earth. We studied nine male cosmonauts during seven different space missions aboard the ISS (age 40 - 52 yrs, height 1.69 - 1.85 m, weight 67 - 90 kg). Data collection was performed between 30 and 45 days before launch in the standing and supine positions, and after 8 days in space. Cosmonauts were carefully trained to perform in-flight data collection by themselves. They were instructed to pace their breathing to a fixed rate of 12 breaths per minute (0.2 Hz) for a total duration of 3 minutes. The electrocardiogram and beat-by-beat finger arterial blood pressure were recorded at 1-kHz sample rate. Respiratory rate was evaluated using an abdominal pressure sensor. We used power spectral analysis to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as well as the low-frequency (0.04 - 0.15 Hz) powers of spontaneous oscillations in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was estimated in the time domain using cross-correlation analysis. As expected, there was a rise in heart rate upon assuming the standing position before space- flight (59 ± 6 to 79 ± 11 beats per min; p ¡ 0.001). This was accompanied by an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (84 ± 6 to 93 ± 6 mmHg; p ¡ 0.001). Standing up further induced a marked

  13. Zonal Flow Growth Rates: Modulational Instability vs Statistical Steady States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krommes, J. A.; Kolesnikov, R. A.

    2002-11-01

    The nonlinear growth rate of zonal flows has been the subject of various investigations. The calculations can be grouped into two major classes: those based on modulational instability of a fixed pump wave;(L. Chen et al., Phys. Plasmas 7), 3129 (2000); P. N. Guzdar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 015001 (2001); C. N. Lashmore-Davies et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5121 (2001). and those employing statistical formalism to describe a self-consistent, energy-conserving steady state.(J. A. Krommes and C.--B. Kim, Phys. Rev. E 62), 8508 (2000), and references therein. The results from these two approaches do not necessarily agree either in their dependence on parameters like the plasma pressure β, on the threshold for instability, or even, in some cases, on the sign. The reasons for such disagreements are isolated, and it is shown to what extent the steady-state statistical approach can be reconciled with a generic modulational instability calculation. Generalizations of the statistical formalism to the multifield systems appropriate for finite β are described. Specific calculations based on model systems are used to illustrate the general arguments.

  14. High count rate gamma camera with independent modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2015-11-01

    Advances in nuclear medical imaging are based on the improvements of the detector's performance. Generally the research is focussed on the spatial resolution improvement. However, another important parameter is the acquisition time that can significantly affect performance in some clinical investigation (e.g. first-pass cardiac studies). At present, there are several clinical imaging systems which are able to solve these diagnostic requirements, such as the D-SPECT Cardiac Imaging System (Spectrum Dynamics) or the Nucline Cardiodesk Medical Imaging System (Mediso). Actually, these solutions are organ-specific dedicated systems, while it would be preferable having general purpose planar detectors with high counting rate. Our group has recently introduced the use of scintillation matrices whose size is equal to the overall area of a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) in order to design a modular gamma camera. This study allowed optimising the overall pixel identification by improving and controlling the light collection efficiency of each PSPMT. Although we achieved a solution for the problems about the dead area at the junction of the PSPMTs when they are set side by side. In this paper, we propose a modular gamma camera design as the basis to build large area detectors. The modular detector design allows us to achieve better counting performance. In this approach, each module that is made of one or more PSPMTs, can actually acquire data independently and simultaneously, increasing the overall detection efficiency. To verify the improvement in count rate capability we have built two detectors with a field of view of 5 × 5cm2, by using four R8900-C12 PSPMTs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.). Each PSPMT was coupled to a dedicated discrete scintillation structure designed to obtain a good homogeneity, high imaging performance and high efficiency. One of the detectors was designed as a standard gamma camera, while the other was composed by four independent

  15. Radiation Hardened, Modulator ASIC for High Data Rate Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCallister, Ron; Putnam, Robert; Andro, Monty; Fujikawa, Gene

    2000-01-01

    Satellite-based telecommunication services are challenged by the need to generate down-link power levels adequate to support high quality (BER approx. equals 10(exp 12)) links required for modem broadband data services. Bandwidth-efficient Nyquist signaling, using low values of excess bandwidth (alpha), can exhibit large peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) values. High PAPR values necessitate high-power amplifier (HPA) backoff greater than the PAPR, resulting in unacceptably low HPA efficiency. Given the high cost of on-board prime power, this inefficiency represents both an economical burden, and a constraint on the rates and quality of data services supportable from satellite platforms. Constant-envelope signals offer improved power-efficiency, but only by imposing a severe bandwidth-efficiency penalty. This paper describes a radiation- hardened modulator which can improve satellite-based broadband data services by combining the bandwidth-efficiency of low-alpha Nyquist signals with high power-efficiency (negligible HPA backoff).

  16. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  17. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts) induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine), which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  18. Modulation recognition for variable-rate QAM schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1995-12-01

    For some applications such as mobile communication or transmission of multimedia data, it is desirable to use modems with variable constellation schemes to adapt to the fast changing channel to accommodate a wide range of data transmission rates, bit error rates and data types. In this research we are interested in designing receivers which can identify the QAM constellation schemes from the received signal with an unknown reference phase. The problem is modeled as an M-ary hypothesis test with each hypothesis corresponding to one of the M possible constellation schemes. We show the performance of BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-PSK, V.29-7200 bps, V.29-9600 bps, 16-QAM, 32-QAM, 64-QAM, 128-QAM, and 256-QAM classifiers in numerical experiments.

  19. Encoding of frequency-modulation (FM) rates in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-12-14

    Frequency-modulated sounds play an important role in our daily social life. However, it currently remains unclear whether frequency modulation rates affect neural activity in the human auditory cortex. In the present study, using magnetoencephalography, we investigated the auditory evoked N1m and sustained field responses elicited by temporally repeated and superimposed frequency-modulated sweeps that were matched in the spectral domain, but differed in frequency modulation rates (1, 4, 16, and 64 octaves per sec). The results obtained demonstrated that the higher rate frequency-modulated sweeps elicited the smaller N1m and the larger sustained field responses. Frequency modulation rate had a significant impact on the human brain responses, thereby providing a key for disentangling a series of natural frequency-modulated sounds such as speech and music.

  20. Encoding of frequency-modulation (FM) rates in human auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Frequency-modulated sounds play an important role in our daily social life. However, it currently remains unclear whether frequency modulation rates affect neural activity in the human auditory cortex. In the present study, using magnetoencephalography, we investigated the auditory evoked N1m and sustained field responses elicited by temporally repeated and superimposed frequency-modulated sweeps that were matched in the spectral domain, but differed in frequency modulation rates (1, 4, 16, and 64 octaves per sec). The results obtained demonstrated that the higher rate frequency-modulated sweeps elicited the smaller N1m and the larger sustained field responses. Frequency modulation rate had a significant impact on the human brain responses, thereby providing a key for disentangling a series of natural frequency-modulated sounds such as speech and music. PMID:26656920

  1. Detection of frequency modulation by hearing-impaired listeners: Effects of carrier frequency, modulation rate, and added amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian C. J.; Skrodzka, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that the detection of frequency modulation (FM) of sinusoidal carriers can be mediated by two mechanisms: a place mechanism based on FM-induced amplitude modulation (AM) in the excitation pattern, and a temporal mechanism based on phase-locking in the auditory nerve. The temporal mechanism appears to be ``sluggish'' and does not play a role for FM rates above about 10 Hz. It also does not play a role for high carrier frequencies (above about 5 kHz). This experiment examined FM detection in three young subjects with normal hearing and four elderly subjects with cochlear hearing loss. Carrier frequencies were 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz and modulation rates were 2, 5, 10, and 20 Hz. FM detection thresholds were measured both in the absence of AM, and with AM of a fixed depth (m=0.33) added in both intervals of a forced-choice trial. The added AM was intended to disrupt cues based on FM-induced AM in the excitation pattern. Generally, the hearing-impaired subjects performed markedly more poorly than the normal-hearing subjects. For the normal-hearing subjects, the disruptive effect of the AM tended to increase with increasing modulation rate, for carrier frequencies below 6 kHz, as found previously by Moore and Sek [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2320-2331 (1996)]. For the hearing-impaired subjects, the disruptive effective of the AM was generally larger than for the normal-hearing subjects, and the magnitude of the disruption did not consistently increase with increasing modulation rate. The results suggest that cochlear hearing impairment adversely affects both temporal and excitation pattern mechanisms of FM detection.

  2. Quantum crossover of the switching rate of a modulated oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peano, Vittorio; Guo, Lingzhen; Marthaler, Michael; Dykman, Mark; Schoen, Gerd

    2012-02-01

    Experiments with Josephson bifurcation amplifiers have reached the regime where switching between coexisting stable vibrational states is due to quantum fluctuations. In switching the oscillator goes over the effective dynamical barrier that separates the states. It was found earlier that, for small damping, the barrier height calculated for T->0 is smaller than for T=0. Respectively, the switching rates calculated in these two limits are exponentially different, the effect of fragility. If other parameters are fixed, both barrier heights are proportional to the number of bound quantum states localized mostly in the basin of attraction of the corresponding stable state. Here we show that for large but finite values of the number of states the T=0 solution is stabilized. For some temperature Tc there occurs a sharp crossover to the finite-temperature regime. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical results.[4pt] [1] Vijay et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. (2009)[0pt] [2] M. Dykman et al., JETP (1988)[0pt] [3] M. Marthaler et al, PRA (2005)

  3. Ionospheric Modulation of Venus Express Lightning Detection Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Richard A.; Russell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Tielong

    2015-11-01

    Venus Express completed its nearly 9 year campaign at Earth’s sister planet in late 2014. During this period the onboard fluxgate magnetometer collected data up to 64 Hz in frequency while near periapsis. This is the expected frequency range for lightning-generated whistler-mode waves at Venus, between the local electron and ion gyrofrequencies. These waves are right-hand circularly polarized and are guided by the local magnetic field. When the Venusian ionopause is low enough in altitude to reside in the collisional region, the interplanetary magnetic field can get carried down with the ions and magnetize the lower ionosphere. As the field travels towards the terminator it gains a radial component, enabling whistlers to reach higher altitudes and be detected by the spacecraft. The mission covered almost an entire solar cycle and frequently observed a magnetized ionosphere during the solar minimum phase when the ionosphere was weak due to reduced incident EUV. Detection was most common at 250 km altitude where the waves travel more slowly due to reduced ionospheric density. In response they increase in amplitude in order to conserve magnetic energy flux. Here, we examine the changes in the ionospheric properties associated with the evolution of the solar cycle and the rate of detection of these lightning-generated signals.

  4. Combinatorial FSK modulation for power-efficient high-rate communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Paul K.; Budinger, James M.; Vanderaar, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    Deep-space and satellite communications systems must be capable of conveying high-rate data accurately with low transmitter power, often through dispersive channels. A class of noncoherent Combinatorial Frequency Shift Keying (CFSK) modulation schemes is investigated which address these needs. The bit error rate performance of this class of modulation formats is analyzed and compared to the more traditional modulation types. Candidate modulator, demodulator, and digital signal processing (DSP) hardware structures are examined in detail. System-level issues are also discussed.

  5. A long lifetime, low error rate RRAM design with self-repair module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiqiang, You; Fei, Hu; Liming, Huang; Peng, Liu; Jishun, Kuang; Shiying, Li

    2016-11-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the promising candidates for future universal memory. However, it suffers from serious error rate and endurance problems. Therefore, exploring a technical solution is greatly demanded to enhance endurance and reduce error rate. In this paper, we propose a reliable RRAM architecture that includes two reliability modules: error correction code (ECC) and self-repair modules. The ECC module is used to detect errors and decrease error rate. The self-repair module, which is proposed for the first time for RRAM, can get the information of error bits and repair wear-out cells by a repair voltage. Simulation results show that the proposed architecture can achieve lowest error rate and longest lifetime compared to previous reliable designs. Project supported by the New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-12-0165) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61472123, 61272396).

  6. The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

  7. Use of Pyranometers to Estimate PV Module Degradation Rates in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    Vignola, Frank; Peterson, Josh; Kessler, Rich; Mavromatakis, Fotis; Dooraghi, Mike; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-11-21

    Methodology is described that uses relative measurements to estimate the degradation rates of PV modules in the field. The importance of calibration and cleaning is discussed. The number of years of field measurements needed to measure degradation rates with data from the field is cut in half using relative comparisons.

  8. Use of Pyranometers to Estimate PV Module Degradation Rates in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Vignola, Frank; Peterson, Josh; Kessler, Rich; Mavromatakis, Fotis; Dooraghi, Mike; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology that uses relative measurements to estimate the degradation rates of PV modules in the field. The importance of calibration and cleaning is illustrated. The number of years of field measurements needed to measure degradation rates with data from the field is cut in half using relative comparisons.

  9. Use of Pyranometers to Estimate PV Module Degradation Rates in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    Vignola, Frank; Peterson, Josh; Kessler, Rich; Mavromatakis, Fotis; Dooraghi, Mike; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-06-05

    This poster provides an overview of a methodology that uses relative measurements to estimate the degradation rates of PV modules in the field. The importance of calibration and cleaning is illustrated. The number of years of field measurements needed to measure degradation rates with data from the field is cut in half using relative comparisons.

  10. A Self Rating Scale as a Pre and Post Assessment Tool for Use with Instructional Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotts, Sandra Harris

    This article describes a self rating pre- and post-assessment instrument that has been developed at the Central Michigan University (CMU). Nine instructional modules have been developed and are being used in science methods courses at CMU. Each module focuses on an identified area of competency for elementary science teachers and contains a…

  11. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  12. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  13. Modulation of Tenoxicam release from hydrophilic matrix: modulator membrane versus rate-controlling membrane.

    PubMed

    El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the preparation of two layered device comprising of tenoxicam containing layer and a drug free membrane layer based on Geomatrix Technology. Our device based on bilaminated films which produced by a casting/solvent evaporation technique. The drug-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) layer was covered by drug free membrane layer composed of a mixture of different ratios of HPMC and ethyl cellulose (EC). The prepared devices were evaluated for thickness, weight, drug content uniformity, water absorption capacity and in-vitro drug release. The films were also evaluated for appearance, smoothness and transparency. The influence of drug free membrane layer composition and thickness on the drug release pattern was studied on 12 devices (D1 to D12). The results indicate that, the release of drug from HPMC matrixes without the drug free membrane layer was fast and follows diffusion controlled mechanism. The release of drug from the devices D1, D4, D9 and D12 follow the same mechanism, while the release of drug from other devices become linear with time (zero order) and extended for long time especially when thickness and the ratio of EC was increased in the drug free membrane layer. From this study it is concluded that, changing the geometry of drug layer by addition of drug free membrane layer and changing its composition and thickness plays an important role in determining whether the drug free membrane layer is rate-controlling or modulator membrane. Hence it can facilitate the development of different pharmaceutical products with different release pattern.

  14. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, C. J.; Powers, R. K.; Rymer, W. Z.; Suresh, N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P < 0.001) and control (1.1 ± 1.0 s; P = 0.005) muscles. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the higher-threshold unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing. PMID:24572092

  15. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Mottram, C J; Heckman, C J; Powers, R K; Rymer, W Z; Suresh, N L

    2014-05-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P < 0.001) and control (1.1 ± 1.0 s; P = 0.005) muscles. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the higher-threshold unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing.

  16. Sensitivity to temporal modulation rate and spectral bandwidth in the human auditory system: MEG evidence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yadong; Ding, Nai; Ahmar, Nayef; Xiang, Juanjuan; Poeppel, David; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2012-04-01

    Slow acoustic modulations below 20 Hz, of varying bandwidths, are dominant components of speech and many other natural sounds. The dynamic neural representations of these modulations are difficult to study through noninvasive neural-recording methods, however, because of the omnipresent background of slow neural oscillations throughout the brain. We recorded the auditory steady-state responses (aSSR) to slow amplitude modulations (AM) from 14 human subjects using magnetoencephalography. The responses to five AM rates (1.5, 3.5, 7.5, 15.5, and 31.5 Hz) and four types of carrier (pure tone and 1/3-, 2-, and 5-octave pink noise) were investigated. The phase-locked aSSR was detected reliably in all conditions. The response power generally decreases with increasing modulation rate, and the response latency is between 100 and 150 ms for all but the highest rates. Response properties depend only weakly on the bandwidth. Analysis of the complex-valued aSSR magnetic fields in the Fourier domain reveals several neural sources with different response phases. These neural sources of the aSSR, when approximated by a single equivalent current dipole (ECD), are distinct from and medial to the ECD location of the N1m response. These results demonstrate that the globally synchronized activity in the human auditory cortex is phase locked to slow temporal modulations below 30 Hz, and the neural sensitivity decreases with an increasing AM rate, with relative insensitivity to bandwidth.

  17. Role of climate and vegetation density in modulating denudation rates in the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olen, Stephanie M.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation has long been hypothesized to influence the nature and rates of surface processes. We test the possible impact of vegetation and climate on denudation rates at orogen scale by taking advantage of a pronounced along-strike gradient in rainfall and vegetation density in the Himalaya. We combine 12 new 10Be denudation rates from the Sutlej Valley and 123 published denudation rates from fluvially-dominated catchments in the Himalaya with remotely-sensed measures of vegetation density and rainfall metrics, and with tectonic and lithologic constraints. In addition, we perform topographic analyses to assess the contribution of vegetation and climate in modulating denudation rates along strike. We observe variations in denudation rates and the relationship between denudation and topography along strike that are most strongly controlled by local rainfall amount and vegetation density, and cannot be explained by along-strike differences in tectonics or lithology. A W-E along-strike decrease in denudation rate variability positively correlates with the seasonality of vegetation density (R = 0.95, p < 0.05), and negatively correlates with mean vegetation density (R = - 0.84, p < 0.05). Vegetation density modulates the topographic response to changing denudation rates, such that the functional relationship between denudation rate and topographic steepness becomes increasingly linear as vegetation density increases. We suggest that while tectonic processes locally control the pattern of denudation rates across strike of the Himalaya (i.e., S-N), along strike of the orogen (i.e., E-W) climate exerts a measurable influence on how denudation rates scatter around long-term, tectonically-controlled erosion, and on the functional relationship between topography and denudation.

  18. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Bartsch, Ronny P; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave).

  19. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F.; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave). PMID:27826247

  20. Evaluation and Field Assessment of Bifacial Photovoltaic Module Power Rating Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, Chris; MacAlpine, Sara; Marion, Bill; Toor, Fatima; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Stein, Joshua S.

    2016-11-21

    1-sun power ratings for bifacial modules are currently undefined. This is partly because there is no standard definition of rear irradiance given 1000 Wm-2 on the front. Using field measurements and simulations, we evaluate multiple deployment scenarios for bifacial modules and provide details on the amount of irradiance that could be expected. A simplified case that represents a single module deployed under conditions consistent with existing 1-sun irradiance standards leads to a bifacial reference condition of 1000 Wm-2 Gfront and 130-140 Wm-2 Grear. For fielded systems of bifacial modules, Grear magnitude and spatial uniformity will be affected by self-shade from adjacent modules, varied ground cover, and ground-clearance height. A standard measurement procedure for bifacial modules is also currently undefined. A proposed international standard is under development, which provides the motivation for this work. Here, we compare outdoor field measurements of bifacial modules with irradiance on both sides with proposed indoor test methods where irradiance is only applied to one side at a time. The indoor method has multiple advantages, including controlled and repeatable irradiance and thermal environment, along with allowing the use of conventional single-sided flash test equipment. The comparison results are promising, showing that the indoor and outdoor methods agree within 1%-2% for multiple rear-irradiance conditions and bifacial module types.

  1. Evaluation and Field Assessment of Bifacial Photovoltaic Module Power Rating Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, Chris; MacAlpine, Sara; Marion, Bill; Toor, Fatima; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Stein, Joshua S.

    2016-06-16

    1-sun power ratings for bifacial modules are currently undefined. This is partly because there is no standard definition of rear irradiance given 1000 Wm-2 on the front. Using field measurements and simulations, we evaluate multiple deployment scenarios for bifacial modules and provide details on the amount of irradiance that could be expected. A simplified case that represents a single module deployed under conditions consistent with existing 1-sun irradiance standards leads to a bifacial reference condition of 1000 Wm-2 Gfront and 130-140 Wm-2 Grear. For fielded systems of bifacial modules, Grear magnitude and spatial uniformity will be affected by self-shade from adjacent modules, varied ground cover, and ground-clearance height. A standard measurement procedure for bifacial modules is also currently undefined. A proposed international standard is under development, which provides the motivation for this work. Here, we compare outdoor field measurements of bifacial modules with irradiance on both sides with proposed indoor test methods where irradiance is only applied to one side at a time. The indoor method has multiple advantages, including controlled and repeatable irradiance and thermal environment, along with allowing the use of conventional single-sided flash test equipment. The comparison results are promising, showing that the indoor and outdoor methods agree within 1%-2% for multiple rear-irradiance conditions and bifacial module types.

  2. CK2 activity is modulated by growth rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Tripodi, Farida; Cirulli, Claudia; Reghellin, Veronica; Marin, Oriano; Brambilla, Luca; Schiappelli, Maria Patrizia; Porro, Danilo; Vanoni, Marco; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} CK2 subunits are nuclear both in glucose and in ethanol growing yeast cells. {yields} CK2 activity is modulated in S. cerevisiae. {yields} CK2 activity is higher in conditions supporting higher growth rates. {yields} V{sub max} is higher in faster growing cells, while K{sub m} is not affected. -- Abstract: CK2 is a highly conserved protein kinase controlling different cellular processes. It shows a higher activity in proliferating mammalian cells, in various types of cancer cell lines and tumors. The findings presented herein provide the first evidence of an in vivo modulation of CK2 activity, dependent on growth rate, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In fact, CK2 activity, assayed on nuclear extracts, is shown to increase in exponential growing batch cultures at faster growth rate, while localization of catalytic and regulatory subunits is not nutritionally modulated. Differences in intracellular CK2 activity of glucose- and ethanol-grown cells appear to depend on both increase in molecule number and k{sub cat}. Also in chemostat cultures nuclear CK2 activity is higher in faster growing cells providing the first unequivocal demonstration that growth rate itself can affect CK2 activity in a eukaryotic organism.

  3. Search for Event Rate Modulation in XENON100 Electronic Recoil Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Anthony, M.; Arazi, L.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Hasterok, C.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kaminsky, B.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Le Calloch, M.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lyashenko, A.; Macmullin, S.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pakarha, P.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Wall, R.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Zhang, Y.; Xenon Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We have searched for periodic variations of the electronic recoil event rate in the (2-6) keV energy range recorded between February 2011 and March 2012 with the XENON100 detector, adding up to 224.6 live days in total. Following a detailed study to establish the stability of the detector and its background contributions during this run, we performed an unbinned profile likelihood analysis to identify any periodicity up to 500 days. We find a global significance of less than 1 σ for all periods, suggesting no statistically significant modulation in the data. While the local significance for an annual modulation is 2.8 σ , the analysis of a multiple-scatter control sample and the phase of the modulation disfavor a dark matter interpretation. The DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation interpreted as a dark matter signature with axial-vector coupling of weakly interacting massive particles to electrons is excluded at 4.8 σ .

  4. The radiobiological effect of intra-fraction dose-rate modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewes, J. M.; Suchowerska, N.; Jackson, M.; Zhang, M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2008-07-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) achieves optimal dose conformity to the tumor through the use of spatially and temporally modulated radiation fields. In particular, average dose rate and instantaneous dose rate (pulse amplitude) are highly variable within a single IMRT fraction. In this study we isolate these variables and determine their impact on cell survival. Survival was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Two cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were examined: melanoma (MM576) and non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460). The survival fraction was observed to be independent of instantaneous dose rate. A statistically significant trend to increased survival was observed as the average dose rate was decreased, for a constant total dose. The results are relevant to IMRT practice, where average treatment times can be significantly extended to allow for movement of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Our in vitro study adds to the pool of theoretical evidence for the consequences of protracted treatments. We find that extended delivery times can substantially increase the cell survival. This also suggests that regional variation in the dose-rate history across a tumor, which is inherent to IMRT, will affect radiation dose efficacy.

  5. Reinforcement magnitude modulation of rate dependent effects in pigeons and rats.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Lamb, R J

    2011-08-01

    Response rate can influence the behavioral effects of many drugs. Reinforcement magnitude may also influence drug effects. Further, reinforcement magnitude can influence rate-dependent effects. For example, in an earlier report, we showed that rate-dependent effects of two antidepressants depended on reinforcement magnitude. The ability of reinforcement magnitude to interact with rate-dependency has not been well characterized. It is not known whether our previous results are specific to antidepressants or generalize to other drug classes. Here, we further examine rate-magnitude interactions by studying effects of two stimulants (d-amphetamine [0.32-5.6 mg/kg] and cocaine [0.32-10 mg/kg]) and two sedatives (chlordiazepoxide [1.78-32 mg/kg] and pentobarbital [1.0-17.8 mg/kg]) in pigeons responding under a 3-component multiple fixed-interval (FI) 300-s schedule maintained by 2-, 4-, or 8-s of food access. We also examine the effects of d-amphetamine [0.32-3.2 mg/kg] and pentobarbital [1.8-10 mg/kg] in rats responding under a similar multiple FI300-s schedule maintained by 2- or 10- food pellet (45 mg) delivery. In pigeons, cocaine and, to a lesser extent, chlordiazepoxide exerted rate-dependent effects that were diminished by increasing durations of food access. The relationship was less apparent for pentobarbital, and not present for d-amphetamine. In rats, rate-dependent effects of pentobarbital and d-amphetamine were not modulated by reinforcement magnitude. In conclusion, some drugs appear to exert rate-dependent effect which are diminished when reinforcement magnitude is relatively high. Subsequent analysis of the rate-dependency data suggest the effects of reinforcement magnitude may be due to a diminution of drug-induced increases in low-rate behavior that occurs early in the fixed-interval.

  6. Spaceflight Ka-Band High-Rate Radiation-Hard Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaso, Jeffery M.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses the creation of a Ka-band modulator developed specifically for the NASA/GSFC Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This flight design consists of a high-bandwidth, Quadriphase Shift Keying (QPSK) vector modulator with radiation-hardened, high-rate driver circuitry that receives I and Q channel data. The radiationhard design enables SDO fs Ka-band communications downlink system to transmit 130 Mbps (300 Msps after data encoding) of science instrument data to the ground system continuously throughout the mission fs minimum life of five years. The low error vector magnitude (EVM) of the modulator lowers the implementation loss of the transmitter in which it is used, thereby increasing the overall communication system link margin. The modulator comprises a component within the SDO transmitter, and meets the following specifications over a 0 to 40 C operational temperature range: QPSK/OQPSK modulator, 300-Msps symbol rate, 26.5-GHz center frequency, error vector magnitude less than or equal to 10 percent rms, and compliance with the NTIA (National Telecommunications and Information Administration) spectral mask.

  7. Digitally modulated bit error rate measurement system for microwave component evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Budinger, James M.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a unique capability for evaluation of the microwave components of a digital communication system. This digitally modulated bit-error-rate (BER) measurement system (DMBERMS) features a continuous data digital BER test set, a data processor, a serial minimum shift keying (SMSK) modem, noise generation, and computer automation. Application of the DMBERMS has provided useful information for the evaluation of existing microwave components and of design goals for future components. The design and applications of this system for digitally modulated BER measurements are discussed.

  8. Search for Periodic Rate Variations in XENON100 and Comparison with DAMA/LIBRA Annual Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qing; Xenon Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Three Scientific runs of XENON100 data accumulated from January 2010 to January 2014 are analyzed to search for electronic recoil event rate modulation signatures. An improved understanding of the detector stability and background has been achieved in this updated analysis. A profile likelihood method, which incorporates the improved detector stability and background model, is used to search for periodical signatures in the XENON100 electronic recoil events. The new results of these studies and a comparison with the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation will be presented. We gratefully acknowledge continued support for the XENON Dark Matter program from the National Science Foundation.

  9. Rate dependency of beta-adrenergic modulation of repolarizing currents in the guinea-pig ventricle.

    PubMed

    Rocchetti, M; Freli, V; Perego, V; Altomare, C; Mostacciuolo, G; Zaza, A

    2006-07-01

    Beta-adrenergic stimulation modulates ventricular currents and sinus cycle length (CL). We investigated how changes in CL affect the current induced by isoprenaline (Iso) during the action potential (AP) of guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Action-potential clamp was applied at CLs of 250 and 1000 ms to measure: (1) the net current induced by 0.1 microm Iso (I(Iso)); (2) the L-type Ca2+ current I(CaL) and slow delayed rectifier current I(Ks) components of I(Iso) (I(IsoCa) and I(IsoK)), identified as the Iso-induced current sensitive to nifedipine and HMR1556, respectively; and (3) I(Iso) persisting after inhibition of both I(Ca) and I(Ks) (I(isoR)). The pause dependency of I(Ks) and its modulation were evaluated in voltage-clamp experiments. The rate dependency of the duration of the action potential at 90% repolarization (APD90) and its modulation by isoprenaline were tested in current-clamp experiments. At a CL of 250 ms I(Iso) was inward during initial repolarization and reversed at 59% of APD90. At a CL of 1000 ms I(Iso) became mostly inward in all cells. Switching to shorter CL did not change I(IsoCa) and I(IsoK) amplitudes, but moved their peak amplitudes to earlier repolarization; I(IsoR) was independent of CL. Acceleration of I(IsoK) at shorter CL was based on faster pause dependency of I(Ks) activation rate. The 'restitution' of activation rates was modulated by isoprenaline. The APD90-CL relation was rotated anticlockwise by isoprenaline and crossed the control curve at a CL of 150 ms (400 beats min(-1)). We conclude that: (1) isoprenaline induced markedly different current profiles according to pacing rate, involving CL-dependent I(Ca) and I(Ks) modulation; (2) the effect of isoprenaline on APD90 was CL dependent, and negligible during tachycardia; and (3) during sympathetic activation, repolarization stability may involve matched modulation of sinus rate and repolarizing currents.

  10. Modulation of microsaccade rate by task difficulty revealed through between- and within-trial comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Yan, Hongmei; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2015-03-04

    Microsaccades (MSs) are small eye movements that occur during attempted visual fixation. While most studies concerning MSs focus on their roles in visual processing, some also suggest that the MS rate can be modulated by the amount of mental exertion involved in nonvisual processing. The current study focused on the effects of task difficulty on MS rate in a nonvisual mental arithmetic task. Experiment 1 revealed a general inverse relationship between MS rate and subjective task difficulty. During Experiment 2, three task phases with different requirements were identified: during calculation (between stimulus presentation and response), postcalculation (after reporting an answer), and a control condition (undergoing a matching sequence of events without the need to make a calculation). MS rate was observed to approximately double from the during-calculation phase to the postcalculation phase, and was significantly higher in the control condition compared to postcalculation. Only during calculation was the MS rate generally decreased with greater task difficulty. Our results suggest that the nonvisual cognitive processing can suppress MS rate, and that the extent of such suppression is related to the task difficulty.

  11. The modulation rate transfer function of a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Wahlberg, Magnus; Damsgaard Hansen, Janni

    2013-02-01

    During echolocation, toothed whales produce ultrasonic clicks at extremely rapid rates and listen for the returning echoes. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) duration was evaluated in terms of latency between single peaks: 5.5 ms (from peak I to VII), 3.4 ms (I-VI), and 1.4 ms (II-IV). In comparison to the killer whale and the bottlenose dolphin, the ABR of the harbour porpoise has shorter intervals between the peaks and consequently a shorter ABR duration. This indicates that the ABR duration and peak latencies are possibly related to the relative size of the auditory structures of the central nervous system and thus to the animal's size. The ABR to a sinusoidal amplitude modulated stimulus at 125 kHz (sensitivity threshold 63 dB re 1 μPa rms) was evaluated to determine the modulation rate transfer function of a harbour porpoise. The ABR showed distinct envelope following responses up to a modulation rate of 1,900 Hz. The corresponding calculated equivalent rectangular duration of 263 μs indicates a good temporal resolution in the harbour porpoise auditory system similar to the one for the bottlenose dolphin. The results explain how the harbour porpoise can follow clicks and echoes during echolocation with very short inter click intervals.

  12. All-optical phase modulated format conversion for high transmission rates based on fiber nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Vanessa C.; Drummond, Miguel V.; Nogueira, Rogério N.

    2013-11-01

    Advanced modulation formats are an emerging area since they allow reducing the symbol rate while encoding more bits per symbol. This allows higher spectral efficiencies. In addition, we can achieve higher data rates using lower-speed equipment like in all-optical format conversion systems, an important step for the development of systems with high transmission rates. In this paper we study the impact of some impairments found in all-optical advanced format conversions based on cross phase modulation (XPM) on a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), nonlinear fiber length and group velocity dispersion (GVD), and analyze its performance based on error vector magnitude (EVM) for different bitrate transmissions. This simulation study is applied on earlier proposed phase modulated format conversion where n nonreturn-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) channels at 10 Gb/s are converted into a return-to-zero m phase shift keying (RZ-mPSK) at 20Gb/s. We extend the work with simulations and show the results for n NRZ-OOK channels at 20Gb/s, 40 Gb/s and 50Gb/s to RZ-PSK at 40Gb/s, 80 Gb/s and 100Gb/s, respectively.

  13. Inter-island optical link demonstration using high-data-rate pulse-position modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, Michael; Arnold, Felix; Thieme, Björn

    2014-03-01

    The growing data-rate demand on satellite communication systems has led to the increased interest in optical space communication solutions for uplinks and downlinks between satellites and ground stations. As one example for applications that benefit from higher data-rates offered by optical links, RUAG Space studied an uplink scenario from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to a Geostationary Orbit (GEO), under the European Space Agency project formally known as "Optical Communications Transceiver for Atmospheric Links" (OCTAL). Particularly suitable for optical links through turbulent atmospheres are robust Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) schemes. Communication electronics using a Multi-Pulse PPM (MPPM) scheme have been developed, increasing the data-rate compared to traditional PPM at a constant peak-to-average ratio while allowing a widely configurable data-rate range. The communication system was tested together with a newly developed receiver and transmitter at a wavelength of 1055nm in a field test campaign on the Canary Islands, where the transmitter telescope was located on La Palma while the receiver was installed within the ESA Optical Ground Station on Tenerife. The nearly horizontal link between the two islands with a link distance of 142km allowed validation of relevant system performances under stringent atmospheric conditions. A data-rate of more than 360Mbps could be demonstrated using MPPM, while nearly 220Mbps could be achieved with traditional PPM, well exceeding the targeted data-rate of the studied UAV-to-GEO scenario. Following an introduction on the applied MPPM schemes, the architecture of the test setup is described, different modulation schemes are compared and the test results of this Inter-Island Test Campaign performed in October 2012 are presented.

  14. Serial-Turbo-Trellis-Coded Modulation with Rate-1 Inner Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    Serially concatenated turbo codes have been proposed to satisfy requirements for low bit- and word-error rates and for low (in comparison with related previous codes) complexity of coding and decoding algorithms and thus low complexity of coding and decoding circuitry. These codes are applicable to such high-level modulations as octonary phase-shift keying (8PSK) and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM); the signal product obtained by applying one of these codes to one of these modulations is denoted, generally, as serially concatenated trellis-coded modulation (SCTCM). These codes could be particularly beneficial for communication systems that must be designed and operated subject to limitations on bandwidth and power. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of this development. Trellis-coded modulation (TCM) is now a well-established technique in digital communications. A turbo code combines binary component codes (which typically include trellis codes) with interleaving. A turbo code of the type that has been studied prior to this development is composed of parallel concatenated convolutional codes (PCCCs) implemented by two or more constituent systematic encoders joined through one or more interleavers. The input information bits feed the first encoder and, after having been scrambled by the interleaver, enter the second encoder. A code word of a parallel concatenated code consists of the input bits to the first encoder followed by the parity check bits of both encoders. The suboptimal iterative decoding structure for such a code is modular, and consists of a set of concatenated decoding modules one for each constituent code connected through an interleaver identical to the one in the encoder side. Each decoder performs weighted soft decoding of the input sequence. PCCCs yield very large coding gains at the cost of a reduction in the data rate and/or an increase in bandwidth.

  15. Sensitivity to temporal modulation rate and spectral bandwidth in the human auditory system: fMRI evidence.

    PubMed

    Overath, Tobias; Zhang, Yue; Sanes, Dan H; Poeppel, David

    2012-04-01

    Hierarchical models of auditory processing often posit that optimal stimuli, i.e., those eliciting a maximal neural response, will increase in bandwidth and decrease in modulation rate as one ascends the auditory neuraxis. Here, we tested how bandwidth and modulation rate interact at several loci along the human central auditory pathway using functional MRI in a cardiac-gated, sparse acquisition design. Participants listened passively to both narrowband (NB) and broadband (BB) carriers (1/4- or 4-octave pink noise), which were jittered about a mean sinusoidal amplitude modulation rate of 0, 3, 29, or 57 Hz. The jittering was introduced to minimize stimulus-specific adaptation. The results revealed a clear difference between spectral bandwidth and temporal modulation rate: sensitivity to bandwidth (BB > NB) decreased from subcortical structures to nonprimary auditory cortex, whereas sensitivity to slow modulation rates was largest in nonprimary auditory cortex and largely absent in subcortical structures. Furthermore, there was no parametric interaction between bandwidth and modulation rate. These results challenge simple hierarchical models, in that BB stimuli evoked stronger responses in primary auditory cortex (and subcortical structures) rather than nonprimary cortex. Furthermore, the strong preference for slow modulation rates in nonprimary cortex demonstrates the compelling global sensitivity of auditory cortex to modulation rates that are dominant in the principal signals that we process, e.g., speech.

  16. Search for Electronic Recoil Event Rate Modulation with 4 Years of XENON100 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Franco, D.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, N.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Wang, H.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xenon Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We report on a search for electronic recoil event rate modulation signatures in the XENON100 data accumulated over a period of 4 yr, from January 2010 to January 2014. A profile likelihood method, which incorporates the stability of the XENON100 detector and the known electronic recoil background model, is used to quantify the significance of periodicity in the time distribution of events. There is a weak modulation signature at a period of 43 1-14+16 day in the low energy region of (2.0-5.8) keV in the single scatter event sample, with a global significance of 1.9 σ ; however, no other more significant modulation is observed. The significance of an annual modulation signature drops from 2.8 σ , from a previous analysis of a subset of this data, to 1.8 σ with all data combined. Single scatter events in the low energy region are thus used to exclude the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation as being due to dark matter electron interactions via axial vector coupling at 5.7 σ .

  17. Search for Electronic Recoil Event Rate Modulation with 4 Years of XENON100 Data.

    PubMed

    Aprile, E; Aalbers, J; Agostini, F; Alfonsi, M; Amaro, F D; Anthony, M; Arneodo, F; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berger, T; Breur, P A; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Bütikofer, L; Calvén, J; Cardoso, J M R; Cervantes, M; Cichon, D; Coderre, D; Colijn, A P; Conrad, J; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; de Perio, P; Di Gangi, P; Di Giovanni, A; Diglio, S; Eurin, G; Fei, J; Ferella, A D; Fieguth, A; Franco, D; Fulgione, W; Gallo Rosso, A; Galloway, M; Gao, F; Garbini, M; Geis, C; Goetzke, L W; Greene, Z; Grignon, C; Hasterok, C; Hogenbirk, E; Itay, R; Kaminsky, B; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Lin, Q; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Manfredini, A; Maris, I; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Masbou, J; Massoli, F V; Masson, D; Mayani, D; Messina, M; Micheneau, K; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Murra, M; Naganoma, J; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Pakarha, P; Pelssers, B; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Pienaar, J; Pizzella, V; Piro, M-C; Plante, G; Priel, N; Rauch, L; Reichard, S; Reuter, C; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Rupp, N; Dos Santos, J M F; Sartorelli, G; Scheibelhut, M; Schindler, S; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Scotto Lavina, L; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Silva, M; Simgen, H; Sivers, M V; Stein, A; Thers, D; Tiseni, A; Trinchero, G; Tunnell, C; Wang, H; Wei, Y; Weinheimer, C; Wulf, J; Ye, J; Zhang, Y

    2017-03-10

    We report on a search for electronic recoil event rate modulation signatures in the XENON100 data accumulated over a period of 4 yr, from January 2010 to January 2014. A profile likelihood method, which incorporates the stability of the XENON100 detector and the known electronic recoil background model, is used to quantify the significance of periodicity in the time distribution of events. There is a weak modulation signature at a period of 431_{-14}^{+16} day in the low energy region of (2.0-5.8) keV in the single scatter event sample, with a global significance of 1.9σ; however, no other more significant modulation is observed. The significance of an annual modulation signature drops from 2.8σ, from a previous analysis of a subset of this data, to 1.8σ with all data combined. Single scatter events in the low energy region are thus used to exclude the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation as being due to dark matter electron interactions via axial vector coupling at 5.7σ.

  18. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed.

  19. Feasibility study of volumetric modulated arc therapy with constant dose rate for endometrial cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ruijie; Wang, Junjie; Xu, Feng; Li, Hua; Zhang, Xile

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility, efficiency, and delivery accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy with constant dose rate (VMAT-CDR) for whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) of endometrial cancer. The nine-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), VMAT with variable dose-rate (VMAT-VDR), and VMAT-CDR plans were created for 9 patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs), and normal tissue (NT) were compared. The monitor units (MUs) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated. For each VMAT-CDR plan, a dry run was performed to assess the dosimetric accuracy with MatriXX from IBA. Compared with IMRT, the VMAT-CDR plans delivered a slightly greater V{sub 20} of the bowel, bladder, pelvis bone, and NT, but significantly decreased the dose to the high-dose region of the rectum and pelvis bone. The MUs decreased from 1105 with IMRT to 628 with VMAT-CDR. The delivery time also decreased from 9.5 to 3.2 minutes. The average gamma pass rate was 95.6% at the 3%/3 mm criteria with MatriXX pretreatment verification for 9 patients. VMAT-CDR can achieve comparable plan quality with significant shorter delivery time and smaller number of MUs compared with IMRT for patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. It can be accurately delivered and be an alternative to IMRT on the linear accelerator without VDR capability.

  20. Mean body temperature does not modulate eccrine sweat rate during upright tilt.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thad E; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G

    2005-04-01

    Conflicting reports exist about the role of baroreflexes in efferent control of eccrine sweat rate. These conflicting reports may be due to differing mean body temperatures between studies. The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that mean body temperature modulates the effect of head-up tilt on sweat rate and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA). To address this question, mean body temperature (0.9.internal temperature + 0.1.mean skin temperature), SSNA (microneurography of peroneal nerve, n = 8), and sweat rate (from an area innervated by the peroneal nerve and from two forearm sites, one perfused with neostigmine to augment sweating at lower mean body temperatures and the second with the vehicle, n = 12) were measured in 13 subjects during multiple 30 degrees head-up tilts during whole body heating. At the end of the heat stress, mean body temperature (36.8 +/- 0.1 to 38.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C) and sweat rate at all sites were significantly elevated. No significant correlations were observed between mean body temperature and the change in SSNA during head-up tilt (r = 0.07; P = 0.62), sweating within the innervated area (r = 0.06; P = 0.56), sweating at the neostigmine treated site (r = 0.04; P = 0.69), or sweating at the control site (r = 0.01; P = 0.94). Also, for each tilt throughout the heat stress, there were no significant differences in sweat rate (final tilt sweat rates were 0.69 +/- 0.11 and 0.68 +/- 0.11 mg.cm(-2).min(-1) within the innervated area; 1.04 +/- 0.16 and 1.06 +/- 0.16 mg.cm(-2).min(-1) at the neostigmine-treated site; and 0.85 +/- 0.15 and 0.85 +/- 0.15 mg.cm(-2).min(-1) at the control site, for supine and tilt, respectively). Hence, these data indicate that mean body temperature does not modulate eccrine sweat rate during baroreceptor unloading induced via 30 degrees head-up tilt.

  1. 60-GHz integrated-circuit high data rate quadriphase shift keying exciter and modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grote, A.; Chang, K.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated-circuit quadriphase shift keying (QPSK) exciter and modulator have demonstrated excellent performance directly modulating a carrier frequency of 60 GHz with an output phase error of less than 3 degrees and maximum amplitude error of 0.5 dB. The circuit consists of a 60-GHz Gunn VCO phase-locked to a low-frequency reference source, a 4th subharmonic mixer, and a QPSK modlator packaged into a small volume of 1.8 x 2.5 x 0.35 in. The use of microstrip has the advantages of small size, light-weight, and low-cost fabrication. The unit has the potential for multigigabit data rate applications.

  2. A Pipelined IP Address Lookup Module for 100 Gbps Line Rates and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuchert, Domenic; Hauger, Simon

    New Internet services and technologies call for higher packet switching capacities in the core network. Thus, a performance bottleneck arises at the backbone routers, as forwarding of Internet Protocol (IP) packets requires to search the most specific entry in a forwarding table that contains up to several hundred thousand address prefixes. The Tree Bitmap algorithm provides a well-balanced solution in respect of storage needs as well as of search and update complexity. In this paper, we present a pipelined lookup module based on this algorithm, which allows for an easy adaption to diverse protocol and hardware constraints. We determined the pipelining degree required to achieve the throughput for a 100 Gbps router line card by analyzing a representative sub-unit for various configured sizes. The module supports IPv4 and IPv6 configurations providing this throughput, as we determined the performance of our design to achieve a processing rate of 178 million packets per second.

  3. High repetition rate optical switch using an electroabsorption modulator in TOAD configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Li; Yang, Yanfu; Lou, Caiyun; Gao, Yizhi

    2007-07-01

    A novel optical switch featured with high repetition rate, short switching window width, and high contrast ratio is proposed and demonstrated for the first time by placing an electroabsorption modulator (EAM) in a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) configuration. The feasibility and main characteristics of the switch are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. With this EAM-based TOAD, an error-free return-to-zero signal wavelength conversion with 0.62 dB power penalty at 20 Gbit/s is demonstrated.

  4. Perceptual-center modeling is affected by including acoustic rate-of-change modulations.

    PubMed

    Harsin, C A

    1997-02-01

    This study investigated the acoustic correlates of perceptual centers (p-centers) in CV and VC syllables and developed an acoustic p-center model. In Part 1, listeners located syllables' p-centers by a method-of-adjustment procedure. The CV syllables contained the consonants /s/,/r/,/n/,/t/,/d/,/k/, and /g/; the VCs, the consonants /s/,/r/, and /n/. The vowel in all syllables was /a/. The results of this experiment replicated and extended previous findings regarding the effects of phonetic variation on p-centers. In Part 2, a digital signal processing procedure was used to acoustically model p-center perception. Each stimulus was passed through a six-band digital filter, and the outputs were processed to derive low-frequency modulation components. These components were weighted according to a perceived modulation magnitude function and recombined to create six psychoacoustic envelopes containing modulation energies from 3 to 47 Hz. In this analysis, p-centers were found to be highly correlated with the time-weighted function of the rate-of-change in the psychoacoustic envelopes, multiplied by the psychoacoustic envelope magnitude increment. The results were interpreted as suggesting (1) the probable role of low-frequency energy modulations in p-center perception, and (2) the presence of perceptual processes that integrate multiple articulatory events into a single syllabic event.

  5. Rate of oxidative modification of cytochrome c by hydrogen peroxide is modulated by Hofmeister anions.

    PubMed

    Tomášková, Nataša; Varinská, Lenka; Sedlák, Erik

    2010-09-01

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) and other heme proteins are oxidatively modified in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cyt c modification has been monitored by several spectral probes by absorption spectroscopy (at wavelengths 410 nm, 530 nm), and circular dichroism (222, 268, 288 and 417 nm). Kinetics monitored with these spectral probes indicates that the oxidative modification of cyt c: i) proceeds in the order: heme --> aromatic amino acids --> secondary structure, and ii) the rate of the oxidative modification is proportional to the protein flexibility. The flexibility of cyt c was modulated by anions of Hofmeister series (sulfate, chloride, perchlorate) (Varhac et al. 2009). A minimalist scheme of the interaction of cyt c with hydrogen peroxide can be described by two steps: 1) interaction of hydrogen peroxide with heme iron forming the postulated ferryl intermediate, 2a) oxidation of another molecule of hydrogen peroxide and 2b) parallel oxidation of close amino acid residue(s) and/or heme. The catalase activity of cyt c is independent from the presence of Hofmeister anions, which indicates that both steps (1 and 2a) in the catalase reaction are independent from the flexibility of the heme region of the protein matrix. On the other hand, the flexibility of the polypeptide chain of the protein modulates the rate of parallel oxidative modification of the heme and amino acid residues.

  6. Augmenting data rate performance for higher order modulation in triangular index profile multicore fiber interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Jitendra K.; Priye, Vishnu; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A triangular profile multicore fiber (MCF) optical interconnect (OI) is investigated to augment performance that typically degrades at high data rates for higher order modulation in a short reach transmission system. Firstly, probability density functions (PDFs) variation with inter-core crosstalk is calculated for 8-core MCF OI with different index profile in the core and it was observed that the triangular profile MCF OI is the most crosstalk tolerant. Next, symbol error probability (SEP) for higher order quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal due to inter-core crosstalk is analytically obtained and their dependence on typical characteristic parameters are examined. Further, numerical simulations are carried out to compare the error performance of QPSK for step index and triangular index MCF OI by generating eye diagram at 40 Gbps per channel. Finally, it is shown that MCF OI with triangular index profile supporting QPSK has double spectral efficiency with tolerable trade off in SEP as compared with those of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) at high data rates which is scalable up to 5 Tbps.

  7. Increasing the information rates of optical communications via coded modulation: a study of transceiver performance

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Robert; Alvarado, Alex; Lavery, Domaniç; Bayvel, Polina

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibre underpins the global communications infrastructure and has experienced an astonishing evolution over the past four decades, with current commercial systems transmitting data rates in excess of 10 Tb/s over a single fibre core. The continuation of this dramatic growth in throughput has become constrained due to a power dependent nonlinear distortion arising from a phenomenon known as the Kerr effect. The mitigation of fibre nonlinearities is an area of intense research. However, even in the absence of nonlinear distortion, the practical limit on the transmission throughput of a single fibre core is dominated by the finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) afforded by current state-of-the-art coherent optical transceivers. Therefore, the key to maximising the number of information bits that can be reliably transmitted over a fibre channel hinges on the simultaneous optimisation of the modulation format and code rate, based on the SNR achieved at the receiver. In this work, we use an information theoretic approach based on the mutual information and the generalised mutual information to characterise a state-of-the-art dual polarisation m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation transceiver and subsequently apply this methodology to a 15-carrier super-channel to achieve the highest throughput (1.125 Tb/s) ever recorded using a single coherent receiver. PMID:26864633

  8. Experimental study on trace chemical contaminant generation rates of human metabolism in spacecraft crew module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihua, Guo; Xinxing, He; Guoxin, Xu; Xin, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Trace chemical contaminants generated by human metabolism is a major source of contamination in spacecraft crew module. In this research, types and generation rates of pollutants from human metabolism were determined in the Chinese diets. Expired air, skin gas, and sweat of 20 subjects were analyzed at different exercise states in a simulated module. The exercise states were designed according to the basic activities in the orbit of astronauts. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of contaminants generated by human metabolic were performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometer. Sixteen chemical compounds from metabolic sources were found. With the increase in physical load, the concentrations of chemical compounds from human skin and expired air correspondingly increased. The species and the offgassing rates of pollutants from human metabolism are different among the Chinese, Americans and the Russians due to differences in ethnicity and dietary customs. This research provides data to aid in the design, development and operation of China's long duration space mission.

  9. The cellular growth rate controls overall mRNA turnover, and modulates either transcription or degradation rates of particular gene regulons

    PubMed Central

    García-Martínez, José; Delgado-Ramos, Lidia; Ayala, Guillermo; Pelechano, Vicent; Medina, Daniel A.; Carrasco, Fany; González, Ramón; Andrés-León, Eduardo; Steinmetz, Lars; Warringer, Jonas; Chávez, Sebastián; Pérez-Ortín, José E.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed 80 different genomic experiments, and found a positive correlation between both RNA polymerase II transcription and mRNA degradation with growth rates in yeast. Thus, in spite of the marked variation in mRNA turnover, the total mRNA concentration remained approximately constant. Some genes, however, regulated their mRNA concentration by uncoupling mRNA stability from the transcription rate. Ribosome-related genes modulated their transcription rates to increase mRNA levels under fast growth. In contrast, mitochondria-related and stress-induced genes lowered mRNA levels by reducing mRNA stability or the transcription rate, respectively. We also detected these regulations within the heterogeneity of a wild-type cell population growing in optimal conditions. The transcriptomic analysis of sorted microcolonies confirmed that the growth rate dictates alternative expression programs by modulating transcription and mRNA decay. The regulation of overall mRNA turnover keeps a constant ratio between mRNA decay and the dilution of [mRNA] caused by cellular growth. This regulation minimizes the indiscriminate transmission of mRNAs from mother to daughter cells, and favors the response capacity of the latter to physiological signals and environmental changes. We also conclude that, by uncoupling mRNA synthesis from decay, cells control the mRNA abundance of those gene regulons that characterize fast and slow growth. PMID:26717982

  10. The cellular growth rate controls overall mRNA turnover, and modulates either transcription or degradation rates of particular gene regulons.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, José; Delgado-Ramos, Lidia; Ayala, Guillermo; Pelechano, Vicent; Medina, Daniel A; Carrasco, Fany; González, Ramón; Andrés-León, Eduardo; Steinmetz, Lars; Warringer, Jonas; Chávez, Sebastián; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2016-05-05

    We analyzed 80 different genomic experiments, and found a positive correlation between both RNA polymerase II transcription and mRNA degradation with growth rates in yeast. Thus, in spite of the marked variation in mRNA turnover, the total mRNA concentration remained approximately constant. Some genes, however, regulated their mRNA concentration by uncoupling mRNA stability from the transcription rate. Ribosome-related genes modulated their transcription rates to increase mRNA levels under fast growth. In contrast, mitochondria-related and stress-induced genes lowered mRNA levels by reducing mRNA stability or the transcription rate, respectively. We also detected these regulations within the heterogeneity of a wild-type cell population growing in optimal conditions. The transcriptomic analysis of sorted microcolonies confirmed that the growth rate dictates alternative expression programs by modulating transcription and mRNA decay.The regulation of overall mRNA turnover keeps a constant ratio between mRNA decay and the dilution of [mRNA] caused by cellular growth. This regulation minimizes the indiscriminate transmission of mRNAs from mother to daughter cells, and favors the response capacity of the latter to physiological signals and environmental changes. We also conclude that, by uncoupling mRNA synthesis from decay, cells control the mRNA abundance of those gene regulons that characterize fast and slow growth.

  11. Hypnotizability-dependent modulation of the changes in heart rate control induced by upright stance.

    PubMed

    Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Balocchi, Rita; Scattina, Eliana; Manzoni, Diego; Bruschini, Luca; Ghelarducci, Brunello; Varanini, Maurizio

    2008-03-28

    Subjects with high (Highs) and low (Lows) susceptibility to hypnosis show differences in the sensory-motor integration for postural control and in the cardiovascular response to stress and experimental pain. Aim of the experiment was to assess whether the cardiac response to gravity-related stimulation depending on changes in the body position were different in the two groups. Thus, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in sitting and upright position in Highs and Lows. Position-related HRV changes were studied in the time (statistical indexes, Poincaré Plot) and frequency (spectral analysis) domain. Results indicated that upright stance was associated with similar changes in heart rate and different modulation of HRV in the two groups. The association of time and frequency domain analyses allowed hypothesizing different control mechanisms as responsible for the cardiac response to upright stance in Highs and Lows, likely due to a different role of the Very Low Frequency (VLF) spectral component of HRV in the two groups. The results are in line with previous findings indicating a natural protection of Highs against cardiovascular events and suggest that the Highs' cardiac function might be less impaired by microgravity than the Lows' one.

  12. Packet error rate analysis of OOK, DPIM, and PPM modulation schemes for ground-to-satellite laser uplink communications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yijun; Tao, Kunyu; Song, Yiwei; Fu, Sen

    2014-03-01

    Performance of on-off keying (OOK), digital pulse interval modulation (DPIM), and pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes are researched for ground-to-satellite laser uplink communications. Packet error rates of these modulation systems are compared, with consideration of the combined effect of intensity fluctuation and beam wander. Based on the numerical results, performances of different modulation systems are discussed. Optimum divergence angle and transmitted beam radius of different modulation systems are indicated and the relations of the transmitted laser power to them are analyzed. This work can be helpful for modulation scheme selection and system design in ground-to-satellite laser uplink communications.

  13. Theta, beta and gamma rate modulations in the developing auditory system.

    PubMed

    Vanvooren, Sophie; Hofmann, Michael; Poelmans, Hanne; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-09-01

    In the brain, the temporal analysis of many important auditory features relies on the synchronized firing of neurons to the auditory input rhythm. These so-called neural oscillations play a crucial role in sensory and cognitive processing and deviances in oscillatory activity have shown to be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Given the importance of neural auditory oscillations in normal and impaired sensory and cognitive functioning, there has been growing interest in their developmental trajectory from early childhood on. In the present study, neural auditory processing was investigated in typically developing young children (n = 40) and adults (n = 27). In all participants, auditory evoked theta, beta and gamma responses were recorded. The results of this study show maturational differences between children and adults in neural auditory processing at cortical as well as at brainstem level. Neural background noise at cortical level was shown to be higher in children compared to adults. In addition, higher theta response amplitudes were measured in children compared to adults. For beta and gamma rate modulations, different processing asymmetry patterns were observed between both age groups. The mean response phase was also shown to differ significantly between children and adults for all rates. Results suggest that cortical auditory processing of beta develops from a general processing pattern into a more specialized asymmetric processing preference over age. Moreover, the results indicate an enhancement of bilateral representation of monaural sound input at brainstem with age. A dissimilar efficiency of auditory signal transmission from brainstem to cortex along the auditory pathway between children and adults is suggested. These developmental differences might be due to both functional experience-dependent as well as anatomical changes. The findings of the present study offer important information about maturational differences between children

  14. Brain Correlates of Autonomic Modulation: Combining Heart Rate Variability with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali; Conti, Giulia; Makris, Nikos; Brown, Emery N.; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    The central autonomic network (CAN) has been described in animal models but has been difficult to elucidate in humans. Potential confounds include physiological noise artifacts affecting brainstem neuroimaging data, and difficulty in deriving non-invasive continuous assessments of autonomic modulation. We have developed and implemented a new method which relates cardiac-gated fMRI timeseries with continuous-time heart rate variability (HRV) to estimate central autonomic processing. As many autonomic structures of interest are in brain regions strongly affected by cardiogenic pulsatility, we chose to cardiac-gate our fMRI acquisition to increase sensitivity. Cardiac-gating introduces T1-variability, which was corrected by transforming fMRI data to a fixed TR using a previously published method (Guimaraes et al. 1998). The electrocardiogram was analyzed with a novel point process adaptive-filter algorithm for computation of the high-frequency (HF) index, reflecting the time-varying dynamics of efferent cardiovagal modulation. Central command of cardiovagal outflow was inferred by using the HF timeseries resampled at as a regressor to the fMRI data. A grip task was used to perturb the autonomic nervous system. Our combined HRV-fMRI approach demonstrated HF correlation with fMRI activity in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, parabrachial nucleus/locus ceruleus, periaqueductal gray, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior insular, and middle temporal cortices. While some regions consistent with central cardiovagal control in animal models gave corroborative evidence for our methodology, other mostly higher cortical or limbic-related brain regions may be unique to humans. Our approach should be optimized and applied to study the human brain correlates of autonomic modulation for various stimuli in both physiological and pathological states. PMID:18524629

  15. 7x 40 Gb/s base-rate RZ all-optical broadcasting utilizing an electroabsorption modulator.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Chi, N; Yvind, K; Christiansen, L; Oxenløwe, L; Mørk, J; Jeppesen, P; Hanberg, J

    2004-02-09

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical broadcasting through simultaneous 7 x 40 Gb/s base-rate wavelength conversion in RZ format based on cross absorption modulation in an electroabsorption modulator. In this experiment the original intensity-modulated information is successfully duplicated onto seven wavelengths that comply with the ITU-T proposal. The advantages of the proposed wavelength conversion scheme are also discussed.

  16. Dietary protein modulates circadian changes in core body temperature and metabolic rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miki, Takanori; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2008-02-01

    We assessed the contribution of dietary protein to circadian changes in core body temperature (Tb) and metabolic rate in freely moving rats. Daily changes in rat intraperitoneal temperature, locomotor activity (LMA), whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured before and during 4 days of consuming a 20% protein diet (20% P), a protein-free diet (0% P), or a pair-fed 20% P diet (20% P-R). Changes in Tb did not significantly differ between the 20% P and 20% P-R groups throughout the study. The Tb in the 0% P group remained elevated during the dark (D) phase throughout the study, but VO2, VCO2, and LMA increased late in the study when compared with the 20% P-R group almost in accordance with elevated Tb. By contrast, during the light (L) phase in the 0% P group, Tb became elevated early in the study and thereafter declined with a tendency to accompany significantly lower VO2 and VCO2 when compared with the 20% P group, but not the 20% P-R group. The respiratory quotient (RQ) in the 0% P group declined throughout the D phase and during the early L phase. By contrast, RQ in the 20% P-R group consistently decreased from the late D phase to the end of the L phase. Our findings suggest that dietary protein contributes to the maintenance of daily oscillations in Tb with modulating metabolic rates during the D phase. However, the underlying mechanisms of Tb control during the L phase remain obscure.

  17. Disease-control rates following intensity-modulated radiation therapy for small primary oropharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Garden, Adam S. . E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org; Morrison, William H.; Wong, P.-F.; Tung, Sam S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Dong Lei; Mason, Brian M.S.; Perkins, George H.; Ang, K. Kian

    2007-02-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to achieve favorable disease-control rates while minimizing parotid gland doses in patients treated for small primary tumors of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified all patients who received IMRT as treatment for a small (<4 cm) primary tumor of the oropharynx between October 2000 and June 2002. Tumor characteristics, IMRT parameters, and patient outcomes were assessed. Results: Fifty-one patients met the criteria for our study. All patients had treatment to gross disease with margin (CTV1), and all but 1 had treatment to the bilateral necks. The most common treatment schedule (39 patients) was a once-daily fractionation of prescribed doses of 63-66 Gy to the CTV1 and 54 Gy to subclinical sites, delivered in 30 fractions. Twenty-one patients (40%) had gastrostomy tubes placed during therapy; in 4 patients, the tube remained in place for more than 6 months after completion of IMRT. The median follow-up was 45 months. The 2-year actuarial locoregional control, recurrence-free, and overall survival rates were 94%, 88%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that treatment with IMRT results in favorable locoregional control of small primary oropharynx tumors. IMRT did not appear to have a more favorable acute toxicity profile in this group with respect to the use of a feeding tube; however, the mean dose of radiation delivered to the parotid gland by IMRT was decreased, because 95% of patients had a mean dose of <30 Gy to at least one gland.

  18. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J

    2015-11-01

    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P<0.05) and HF and total power were higher (P<0.05) in ExFHA than in eumenorrhoeic women. In all groups, LBNP decreased (P<0.05) SBP, HF and total power and increased (P<0.05) HR and LF/HF ratio. However, HF and total power remained higher (P<0.05) and HR, SBP and LF/HF ratio remained lower (P<0.05) in ExFHA than in eumenorrhoeic women, in whom measures did not differ (P>0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (P<0.05) with HF. In conclusion, ExFHA women demonstrate augmented vagal yet unchanged sympathetic HR modulation, both at rest and during orthostatic stress. Although the role of oestrogen deficiency is unclear, these findings are in contrast with studies reporting decreased HRV in hypoestrogenic post-menopausal women.

  19. Chaos-induced modulation of reliability boosts output firing rate in downstream cortical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiesinga, P. H.

    2004-03-01

    The reproducibility of neural spike train responses to an identical stimulus across different presentations (trials) has been studied extensively. Reliability, the degree of reproducibility of spike trains, was found to depend in part on the amplitude and frequency content of the stimulus [J. Hunter and J. Milton, J. Neurophysiol. 90, 387 (2003)]. The responses across different trials can sometimes be interpreted as the response of an ensemble of similar neurons to a single stimulus presentation. How does the reliability of the activity of neural ensembles affect information transmission between different cortical areas? We studied a model neural system consisting of two ensembles of neurons with Hodgkin-Huxley-type channels. The first ensemble was driven by an injected sinusoidal current that oscillated in the gamma-frequency range (40 Hz) and its output spike trains in turn drove the second ensemble by fast excitatory synaptic potentials with short term depression. We determined the relationship between the reliability of the first ensemble and the response of the second ensemble. In our paradigm the neurons in the first ensemble were initially in a chaotic state with unreliable and imprecise spike trains. The neurons became entrained to the oscillation and responded reliably when the stimulus power was increased by less than 10%. The firing rate of the first ensemble increased by 30%, whereas that of the second ensemble could increase by an order of magnitude. We also determined the response of the second ensemble when its input spike trains, which had non-Poisson statistics, were replaced by an equivalent ensemble of Poisson spike trains. The resulting output spike trains were significantly different from the original response, as assessed by the metric introduced by Victor and Purpura [J. Neurophysiol. 76, 1310 (1996)]. These results are a proof of principle that weak temporal modulations in the power of gamma-frequency oscillations in a given cortical area

  20. Nectar intake rate is modulated by changes in sucking pump activity according to colony starvation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Josens, Roxana

    2008-05-01

    Dynamics of fluid feeding has been deeply studied in insects. However, the ability to vary the nectar-intake rate depending only on the carbohydrate deprivation has been clearly demonstrated only in Camponotus mus ants. When insect morphometry and fluid properties remain constant, changes in intake rate could only be attributed to variations in sucking pump activity. Previous records of the electrical activity generated during feeding in C. mus have revealed two different signal patterns: the regular (RP, frequencies: 2-5 Hz) and the irregular (IP, frequencies: 7-12 Hz). This work studies the mechanism underlying food intake-rate modulation in ants by analysing whether these patterns are involved. Behaviour and electrical activity generated by ants at different starvation levels were analysed during feeding on sucrose solutions. Ants were able to modulate the intake rate for a variety of sucrose concentrations (10, 40 and 60%w/w). The IP only occurred for 60% of solutions and its presence did not affect the intake rate. However, during the RP generated under the starved state, we found frequencies up to 7.5 Hz. RP frequencies positively correlated with the intake-rate for all sucrose concentrations. Hence, intake-rate modulation according to sugar deprivation is mainly achieved by the ant's ability to vary the pumping frequency.

  1. Integration of variable-rate OWC with OFDM-PON for hybrid optical access based on adaptive envelope modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Zhong, Wen-De; Wu, Dehao

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate an integrated optical wireless communication (OWC) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system for hybrid wired and wireless optical access, based on an adaptive envelope modulation technique. Both the outdoor and indoor wireless communications are considered in the integrated system. The data for wired access is carried by a conventional OFDM signal, while the data for wireless access is carried by an M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM) signal which is modulated onto the envelope of a phase-modulated OFDM signal. By adaptively modulating the wireless M-PAM signal onto the envelope of the wired phase-modulated constant envelope OFDM (CE-OFDM) signal, hybrid wired and wireless optical access can be seamlessly integrated and variable-rate optical wireless transmission can also be achieved. Analytical bit-error-rate (BER) expressions are derived for both the CE-OFDM signal with M-PAM overlay and the overlaid unipolar M-PAM signal, which are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. The BER performances of wired access, indoor OWC wireless access and outdoor OWC wireless access are evaluated. Moreover, variable-rate indoor and outdoor optical wireless access based on the adaptive envelope modulation technique is also discussed.

  2. Heart rate response after emotional picture presentation is modulated by interoceptive awareness.

    PubMed

    Pollatos, Olga; Herbert, Beate M; Matthias, Ellen; Schandry, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    The perception of visceral signals plays a crucial role in many theories of emotions. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between interoceptive awareness, emotional experience and heart rate responses in an emotional stimulation paradigm. Based on their performance in a heartbeat perception task 38 participants (16 males, 22 females) were classified as subjects with either high (n=19; 8 males) or low interoceptive awareness (n=19; 8 males). 120 pictures (40 pleasant, 40 unpleasant, 40 neutral slides) from the International Affective Picture System served as emotional stimuli. Heart rate changes were recorded during baseline and during slide presentation. After each slide, the subjects had to rate emotional valence and arousal on a 9-point self-report scale. Statistical analyses revealed significantly stronger heart rate responses to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli in subjects with high interoceptive awareness. Furthermore, subjects with high interoceptive awareness rated pleasant and unpleasant slides as significantly more arousing; no differences were found in the emotional valence ratings. Heartbeat perception scores correlated significantly positive with both the mean arousal rating and with the mean heart rate changes. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between the perception of cardiac signals and the peripheral processing of emotional stimuli.

  3. Improvements on the refresh rate and dynamical properties of a SLM by sequential readout using an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre, Michael; Viaris de Lesegno, Bruno; Farcy, René; Pruvost, Laurence; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Delboulbé, Anne; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Dolfi, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of an acousto-optic modulator to enhance the refresh rate and dynamic properties of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The useful area of the SLM surface is split in several zones which are addressed separately, and read in a sequence by a steered laser beam. This configuration allows to increase the refresh rate by five orders of magnitude. Furthermore, improvements on the nature of the transition between different holograms are experimentally shown. The advantages of this technique are discussed in the particular context of cold atom manipulation with holographic optical tweezers.

  4. The Role of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor in Modulation of Heart Rate Dynamics in Endotoxemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mazloom, Roham; Eftekhari, Golnar; Rahimi, Maryam; Khori, Vahid; Hajizadeh, Sohrab; Dehpour, Ahmad R.; Mani, Ali R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that artificial stimulation of the vagus nerve reduces systemic inflammation in experimental models of sepsis. This phenomenon is a part of a broader cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway which activates the vagus nerve to modulate inflammation through activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nACHR). Heart rate variability represents the complex interplay between autonomic nervous system and cardiac pacemaker cells. Reduced heart rate variability and increased cardiac cycle regularity is a hallmark of clinical conditions that are associated with systemic inflammation (e.g. endotoxemia and sepsis). The present study was aimed to assess the role of α7nACHR in modulation of heart rate dynamics during systemic inflammation. Systemic inflammation was induced by injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats. Electrocardiogram and body temperature were recorded in conscious animals using a telemetric system. Linear and non-linear indices of heart rate variability (e.g. sample entropy and fractal-like temporal structure) were assessed. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry studies showed that α7nACHR is expressed in rat atrium and is mainly localized at the endothelial layer. Systemic administration of an α7nACHR antagonist (methyllycaconitine) did not show a significant effect on body temperature or heart rate dynamics in naïve rats. However, α7nACHR blockade could further reduce heart rate variability and elicit a febrile response in endotoxemic rats. Pre-treatment of endotoxemic animals with an α7nACHR agonist (PHA-543613) was unable to modulate heart rate dynamics in endotoxemic rats but could prevent the effect of endotoxin on body temperature within 24 h experiment. Neither methyllycaconitine nor PHA-543613 could affect cardiac beating variability of isolated perfused hearts taken from control or endotoxemic rats. Based on our observations we suggest a tonic role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in

  5. Reconfigurable digital coherent receiver for metro-access networks supporting mixed modulation formats and bit-rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Antonio; Gonzalez, Neil Guerrero; Arlunno, Valeria; Borkowski, Robert; Pham, Tien Thang; Rodes, Roberto; Zhang, Xu; Othman, Maisara Binti; Prince, Kamau; Yu, Xianbin; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Zibar, Darko; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2013-12-01

    A single, reconfigurable, digital coherent receiver is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for converged wireless and optical fiber transport. The capacity of reconstructing the full transmitted optical field allows for the demodulation of mixed modulation formats and bit-rates. We performed experimental validation of different modulation formats, including VCSEL based OOK, baseband QPSK, RoF OFDM and wireless IR-UWB over a 78 km deployed fiber link.

  6. Heart rate modulates the slow enhancement of contraction due to sudden left ventricular dilation.

    PubMed

    Tucci, P J; Murad, N; Rossi, C L; Nogueira, R J; Santana, O

    2001-05-01

    In isovolumic blood-perfused dog hearts, left ventricular developed pressure (DP) was recorded while a sudden ventricular dilation was promoted at three heart rate (HR) levels: low (L: 52 +/- 1.7 beats/min), intermediate (M: 82 +/- 2.2 beats/min), and high (H: 117 +/- 3.5 beats/min). DP increased instantaneously with chamber expansion (Delta(1)DP), and another continuous increase occurred for several minutes (Delta(2)DP). HR elevation did not alter Delta(1)DP (32.8 +/- 1.6, 33.6 +/- 1.5, and 34.3 +/- 1.2 mmHg for L, M, and H, respectively), even though it intensified Delta(2)DP (17.3 +/- 0.9, 20.7 +/- 1.0, and 26.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg for L, M, and H, respectively), meaning that the treppe phenomenon enhances the length dependence of the contraction component related to changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Frequency increments reduced the half time of the slow response (82 +/- 3.6, 67 +/- 2.6, and 53 +/- 2.0 s for L, M, and H, respectively), while the number of beats included in half time increased (72 +/- 2.9, 95 +/- 2.9, and 111 +/- 3.2 beats for L, M, and H, respectively). HR modulation of the slow response suggests that L-type Ca(2+) channel currents and/or the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger plays a relevant role in the stretch-triggered Ca(2+) gain when HR increases in the canine heart.

  7. Associations of Heart Rate With Inflammatory Markers Are Modulated by Gender and Obesity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bandinelli, Stefania; Gemma, Antonella; Ferrucci, Luigi; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2015-01-01

    Background. Faster resting heart rate (HR), which is associated with inflammation and elevated cortisol levels, is a risk factor for excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, inflammation, and elevated cortisol levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of Body Mass Index (BMI) with inflammation and cortisol in modulating HR in older subjects. Methods. We analyzed data of 895 participants aged 65+ enrolled in the “InCHIANTI” study, in sinus rhythm, and not taking beta blockers or digoxin. Linear regression was performed to assess the adjusted association between HR, IL-6, and cortisol levels. The model was also analyzed stratifying for BMI tertiles. Logistic regression was adopted for evaluating the association of HR exceeding the mean value with Il-6 and serum cortisol. Results. According to multivariable linear regression, IL-6 and cortisol levels were associated with HR (B = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.43–2.42; p = .005 and B = .34, 95% CI = 0.17–.51; p < .0001, respectively). The association was significant only among women in the highest BMI tertile (B = 4.16, 95% CI = 1.40–6.91; p = .003 for IL-6 and B = .57, 95% CI = 0.14–1.01; p = .010 for cortisol). Logistic regression confirmed that IL-6 and cortisol levels were associated with HR above the mean value in the highest BMI tertile (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.15–3.97; p = .009 and OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03–1.25; p = .009, respectively). Conclusions. Faster HR is associated with proinflammatory state in elderly patients; this association seems to be limited to women with higher BMI. PMID:25429009

  8. Modulation of post‐movement beta rebound by contraction force and rate of force development

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Adam; Mullinger, Karen J.; O'Neill, George C.; Barratt, Eleanor L.; Morris, Peter G.; Bauer, Markus; Folland, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Movement induced modulation of the beta rhythm is one of the most robust neural oscillatory phenomena in the brain. In the preparation and execution phases of movement, a loss in beta amplitude is observed [movement related beta decrease (MRBD)]. This is followed by a rebound above baseline on movement cessation [post movement beta rebound (PMBR)]. These effects have been measured widely, and recent work suggests that they may have significant importance. Specifically, they have potential to form the basis of biomarkers for disease, and have been used in neuroscience applications ranging from brain computer interfaces to markers of neural plasticity. However, despite the robust nature of both MRBD and PMBR, the phenomena themselves are poorly understood. In this study, we characterise MRBD and PMBR during a carefully controlled isometric wrist flexion paradigm, isolating two fundamental movement parameters; force output, and the rate of force development (RFD). Our results show that neither altered force output nor RFD has a significant effect on MRBD. In contrast, PMBR was altered by both parameters. Higher force output results in greater PMBR amplitude, and greater RFD results in a PMBR which is higher in amplitude and shorter in duration. These findings demonstrate that careful control of movement parameters can systematically change PMBR. Further, for temporally protracted movements, the PMBR can be over 7 s in duration. This means accurate control of movement and judicious selection of paradigm parameters are critical in future clinical and basic neuroscientific studies of sensorimotor beta oscillations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2493–2511, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc PMID:27061243

  9. Biogenic amines modulate pulse rate in the dorsal blood vessel of Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Kevin M; Grupe, Rebecca E; Lobsang, Tenzin T; Yang, Xong

    2010-05-01

    The biogenic amines are widespread regulators of physiological processes, and play an important role in regulating heart rate in diverse organisms. Here, we present the first pharmacological evidence for a role of the biogenic amines in the regulation of dorsal blood vessel pulse rate in an aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774). Bath application of octopamine to intact worms resulted in an acceleration of pulse rate, but not when co-applied with the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor MDL-12,330a. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline mimicked the effects of OA, but the polar adenosine receptor antagonist 8(p-sulphophenyl)theophylline was significantly less potent than theophylline. Pharmacologically blocking synaptic reuptake of the biogenic amines using the selective 5-HT reuptake blocker fluoxetine or various tricyclic antidepressants also accelerated heart rate. Depletion of the biogenic amines by treatment with the monoamine vesicular transporter blocker reserpine dramatically depressed pulse rate. Pulse rate was partially restored in amine-depleted worms after treatment with octopamine or dopamine, but fully restored following treatment with serotonin. This effect of 5-HT was weakly mimicked by 5-methoxytryptamine, but not by alpha-methylserotonin; it was completely blocked by clozapine and partially blocked by cyproheptadine. Because they are known to orchestrate a variety of adaptive behaviors in invertebrates, the biogenic amines may coordinate blood flow with behavioral state in L.variegatus.

  10. In-situ comparison of thermal measurement technologies for interpretation of PV module temperature de-rating effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwood, Teri; Bennett, Whit; Lai, Teh; Simmons-Potter, Kelly

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that the efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) module is strongly impacted by its temperature such that higher temperatures lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. An accurate measurement of the temperature de-rating effect, therefore, is vital to the correct interpretation of PV module performance under varied environmental conditions. The current work investigates and compares methods for performing measurements of module temperature both in the lab and in field-test environments. A comparison of several temperature measurement devices was made in order to establish the ideal sensor configuration for quantifying module operating temperature. Sensors were also placed in various locations along a string of up to eight photovoltaic modules to examine the variance in operating temperature with position in the string and within a larger array of strings.

  11. Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yen-Liang

    2015-01-26

    To increase the traffic rate in phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC), a multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) modulation is first proposed and demonstrated. In the measurement, we do not utilize optical blue filter to increase modulation bandwidth of phosphor-LED in the VLC system. In this proposed scheme, different bands of OFDM signals are applied to different LED chips in a LED lamp, this can avoid the power fading and nonlinearity issue by applying the same OFDM signal to all the LED chips in a LED lamp. Here, the maximum increase percentages of traffic rates are 41.1%, 17.8% and 17.8% under received illuminations of 200, 500 and 1000 Lux, respectively, when the proposed three-band OFDM modulation is used in the VLC system. In addition, the analysis and verification by experiments are also performed.

  12. Direction-Modulated Brachytherapy for High-Dose-Rate Treatment of Cervical Cancer. I: Theoretical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dae Yup; Webster, Matthew J.; Scanderbeg, Daniel J.; Yashar, Catheryn; Choi, Dongju; Song, Bongyong; Devic, Slobodan; Ravi, Ananth; Song, William Y.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that utilization of the direction-modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) concept can significantly improve treatment plan quality in the setting of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The new, MRI-compatible, tandem design has 6 peripheral holes of 1.3-mm diameter, grooved along a nonmagnetic tungsten-alloy rod (ρ = 18.0 g/cm{sup 3}), enclosed in Delrin tubing (polyoxymethylene, ρ = 1.41 g/cm{sup 3}), with a total thickness of 6.4 mm. The Monte Carlo N-Particle code was used to calculate the anisotropic {sup 192}Ir dose distributions. An in-house-developed inverse planning platform, geared with simulated annealing and constrained-gradient optimization algorithms, was used to replan 15 patient cases (total 75 plans) treated with a conventional tandem and ovoids (T and O) applicator. Prescription dose was 6 Gy. For replanning, we replaced the conventional tandem with that of the new DMBT tandem for optimization but left the ovoids in place and kept the dwell positions as originally planned. All DMBT plans were normalized to match the high-risk clinical target volume V100 coverage of the T and O plans. Results: In general there were marked improvements in plan quality for the DMBT plans. On average, D2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were reduced by 0.59 ± 0.87 Gy (8.5% ± 28.7%), 0.48 ± 0.55 Gy (21.1% ± 27.2%), and 0.10 ± 0.38 Gy (40.6% ± 214.9%) among the 75 plans, with best single-plan reductions of 3.20 Gy (40.8%), 2.38 Gy (40.07%), and 1.26 Gy (27.5%), respectively. The high-risk clinical target volume D90 was similar, with 6.55 ± 0.96 Gy and 6.59 ± 1.06 Gy for T and O and DMBT, respectively. Conclusions: Application of the DMBT concept to cervical cancer allowed for improved organ at risk sparing while achieving similar target coverage on a sizeable patient population, as intended, by maximally utilizing the anatomic information contained in 3-dimensional

  13. Ultrasensitive anion detection by NMR spectroscopy: a supramolecular strategy based on modulation of chemical exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Perruchoud, Loïse H; Hadzovic, Alen; Zhang, Xiao-An

    2015-06-08

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for monitoring molecular interactions and is widely used to characterize supramolecular systems at the atomic level. NMR is limited for sensing purposes, however, due to low sensitivity. Dynamic processes such as conformational changes or binding events can induce drastic effects on NMR spectra in response to variations in chemical exchange (CE) rate, which can lead to new strategies in the design of supramolecular sensors through the control and monitoring of CE rate. Here, we present an indirect NMR anion sensing technique in which increased CE rate, due to anion-induced conformational flexibility of a relatively rigid structure of a novel sensor, allows ultrasensitive anion detection as low as 120 nM.

  14. A dual-input nonlinear system analysis of autonomic modulation of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Chon, K H; Mullen, T J; Cohen, R J

    1996-05-01

    Linear analyses of fluctuations in heart rate and other hemodynamic variables have been used to elucidate cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The role of nonlinear contributions to fluctuations in hemodynamic variables has not been fully explored. This paper presents a nonlinear system analysis of the effect of fluctuations in instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) on heart rate (HR) fluctuations. To successfully employ a nonlinear analysis based on the Laguerre expansion technique (LET), we introduce an efficient procedure for broadening the spectral content of the ILV and ABP inputs to the model by adding white noise. Results from computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of broadening the spectral band of input signals to obtain consistent and stable kernel estimates with the use of the LET. Without broadening the band of the ILV and ABP inputs, the LET did not provide stable kernel estimates. Moreover, we extend the LET to the case of multiple inputs in order to accommodate the analysis of the combined effect of ILV and ABP effect on heart rate. Analyzes of data based on the second-order Volterra-Wiener model reveal an important contribution of the second-order kernels to the description of the effect of lung volume and arterial blood pressure on heart rate. Furthermore, physiological effects of the autonomic blocking agents propranolol and atropine on changes in the first- and second-order kernels are also discussed.

  15. Enhancing sensitivity to interaural time differences at high modulation rates by introducing temporal jitter

    PubMed Central

    Goupell, Matthew J.; Laback, Bernhard; Majdak, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) in high-frequency bandpass-filtered periodic and aperiodic (jittered) pulse trains was tested at a nominal pulse rate of 600 pulses per second (pps). It was found that random binaurally-synchronized jitter of the pulse timing significantly increases ITD sensitivity. A second experiment studied the effects of rate and place. ITD sensitivity for jittered 1200-pps pulse trains was significantly higher than for periodic 600-pps pulse trains, and there was a relatively small effect of place. Furthermore, it could be concluded from this experiment that listeners were not solely benefiting from the longest interpulse intervals (IPIs) and the instances of reduced rate by adding jitter, because the two types of pulse trains had the same longest IPI. The effect of jitter was studied using a physiologically-based model of auditory nerve and brainstem (medial superior olive neurons). It was found that the random timing of the jittered pulses increased firing synchrony in the auditory periphery, which caused an improved rate-ITD tuning for the 600-pps pulse trains. These results suggest that a recovery from binaural adaptation induced by temporal jitter is possibly related to changes in the temporal firing pattern, not spectral changes. PMID:19894831

  16. A dual-input nonlinear system analysis of autonomic modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chon, K. H.; Mullen, T. J.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Linear analyses of fluctuations in heart rate and other hemodynamic variables have been used to elucidate cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The role of nonlinear contributions to fluctuations in hemodynamic variables has not been fully explored. This paper presents a nonlinear system analysis of the effect of fluctuations in instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) on heart rate (HR) fluctuations. To successfully employ a nonlinear analysis based on the Laguerre expansion technique (LET), we introduce an efficient procedure for broadening the spectral content of the ILV and ABP inputs to the model by adding white noise. Results from computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of broadening the spectral band of input signals to obtain consistent and stable kernel estimates with the use of the LET. Without broadening the band of the ILV and ABP inputs, the LET did not provide stable kernel estimates. Moreover, we extend the LET to the case of multiple inputs in order to accommodate the analysis of the combined effect of ILV and ABP effect on heart rate. Analyzes of data based on the second-order Volterra-Wiener model reveal an important contribution of the second-order kernels to the description of the effect of lung volume and arterial blood pressure on heart rate. Furthermore, physiological effects of the autonomic blocking agents propranolol and atropine on changes in the first- and second-order kernels are also discussed.

  17. Absence of arterial baroreflex modulation of skin sympathetic activity and sweat rate during whole-body heating in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T. E.; Cui, J.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    1. Prior findings suggest that baroreflexes are capable of modulating skin blood flow, but the effects of baroreceptor loading/unloading on sweating are less clear. Therefore, this project tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically induced alterations in arterial blood pressure in heated humans would lead to baroreflex-mediated changes in both skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and sweat rate. 2. In seven subjects mean arterial blood pressure was lowered (approximately 8 mmHg) and then raised (approximately 13 mmHg) by bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Moreover, in a separate protocol, arterial blood pressure was reduced via steady-state administration of sodium nitroprusside. In both normothermia and heat-stress conditions the following responses were monitored: sublingual and mean skin temperatures, heart rate, beat-by-beat blood pressure, skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry), local sweat rate and SSNA (microneurography from peroneal nerve). 3. Whole-body heating increased skin and sublingual temperatures, heart rate, cutaneous blood flow, sweat rate and SSNA, but did not change arterial blood pressure. Heart rate was significantly elevated (from 74 +/- 3 to 92 +/- 4 beats x min(-1); P < 0.001) during bolus sodium nitroprusside-induced reductions in blood pressure, and significantly reduced (from 92 +/- 4 to 68 +/- 4 beats x min(-1); P < 0.001) during bolus phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure, thereby demonstrating normal baroreflex function in these subjects. 4. Neither SSNA nor sweat rate was altered by rapid (bolus infusion) or sustained (steady-state infusion) changes in blood pressure regardless of the thermal condition. 5. These data suggest that SSNA and sweat rate are not modulated by arterial baroreflexes in normothermic or moderately heated individuals.

  18. Porting of an FPGA Based High Data Rate DVB-S2 Modulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-13

    maximum portability and scalability. The VHDL and software were partitioned such that all time critical signal processing was handled by the FPG A. It...The VHDL Design The HDR DVB-S2 VHDL design was partitioned into small manageable waveform specific-modules and FPGA-specific modules. The intention...S2 modulator. The portion of the design located within the Core Transmitter box represents the waveform specific modules. The HDR DVB-S2 VHDL

  19. Modulating the rate of charge transport in a metal-organic framework thin film using host:guest chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hod, Idan; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-01-28

    Herein we demonstrate the use of host-guest chemistry to modulate rates of charge transport in metal-organic framework (MOF) films. The kinetics of site-to-site of charge hopping and, in turn, the overall redox conductivity, of a ferrocene-modified MOF can be altered by up to 30-fold by coupling electron exchange to the oxidation-state-dependent formation of inclusion complexes between cyclodextrin and channel-tethered metallocenes.

  20. Low-Complexity, Digital Encoder/Modulator Developed for High-Data-Rate Satellite B-ISDN Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Electronics Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing advanced electronic technologies for the space communications and remote sensing systems of tomorrow. As part of the continuing effort to advance the state-of-the-art in satellite communications and remote sensing systems, Lewis developed a low-cost, modular, programmable, and reconfigurable all-digital encoder-modulator (DEM) for medium- to high-data-rate radiofrequency communication links. The DEM is particularly well suited to high-data-rate downlinks to ground terminals or direct data downlinks from near-Earth science platforms. It can support data rates up to 250 megabits per second (Mbps) and several modulation schemes, including the traditional binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modes, as well as higher order schemes such as 8 phase-shift keying (8PSK) and 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM). The DEM architecture also can precompensate for channel disturbances and alleviate amplitude degradations caused by nonlinear transponder characteristics.

  1. Feeding Ecology Informs Parasite Epidemiology: Prey Selection Modulates Encounter Rate with Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Liccioli, Stefano; Bialowas, Carly; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E.; Massolo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of urban coyote feeding ecology in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of Alveolar Echinococcosis in humans. As coyotes can play a main role in the maintenance of this zoonotic parasite within North American urban settings, such study can ultimately aid disease risk management. Between June 2012 and June 2013, we collected 251 coyote feces and conducted trapping of small mammals (n = 971) in five parks in the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We investigated E. multilocularis epidemiology by assessing seasonal variations of coyote diet and the selective consumption of different rodent intermediate host species. Furthermore, accounting for small mammal digestibility and coyote defecation rates we estimated the number of small mammal preys ingested by coyote and consequently, coyote encounter rates with the parasite. Dominant food items included small mammals, fruit and vegetation, although hare and deer were seasonally relevant. The lowest frequency of occurrence per scat of small mammals was recorded in winter (39.4 %), when consumption of deer was highest (36.4 %). However, highest encounter rates (number of infected hosts predated/season) with E. multilocularis (95% CI: 1.0 - 22.4), combined with the lack of predation on non-competent small mammal species, suggest that winter is the critical season for transmission and control of this parasite. Within the small mammal assemblage, voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus and Myodes gapperi) were the selected preys of urban coyotes and likely played a key role for the maintenance of the urban sylvatic life-cycle of E. multilocularis in Calgary. PMID:25768437

  2. Feeding ecology informs parasite epidemiology: prey selection modulates encounter rate with Echinococcus multilocularis in urban coyotes.

    PubMed

    Liccioli, Stefano; Bialowas, Carly; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of urban coyote feeding ecology in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of Alveolar Echinococcosis in humans. As coyotes can play a main role in the maintenance of this zoonotic parasite within North American urban settings, such study can ultimately aid disease risk management. Between June 2012 and June 2013, we collected 251 coyote feces and conducted trapping of small mammals (n = 971) in five parks in the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We investigated E. multilocularis epidemiology by assessing seasonal variations of coyote diet and the selective consumption of different rodent intermediate host species. Furthermore, accounting for small mammal digestibility and coyote defecation rates we estimated the number of small mammal preys ingested by coyote and consequently, coyote encounter rates with the parasite. Dominant food items included small mammals, fruit and vegetation, although hare and deer were seasonally relevant. The lowest frequency of occurrence per scat of small mammals was recorded in winter (39.4%), when consumption of deer was highest (36.4%). However, highest encounter rates (number of infected hosts predated/season) with E. multilocularis (95% CI: 1.0-22.4), combined with the lack of predation on non-competent small mammal species, suggest that winter is the critical season for transmission and control of this parasite. Within the small mammal assemblage, voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus and Myodes gapperi) were the selected preys of urban coyotes and likely played a key role for the maintenance of the urban sylvatic life-cycle of E. multilocularis in Calgary.

  3. Time Modulation of the {beta}{sup +}-Decay Rate of H-Like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. N.; Kryshen, E. L.; Pitschmann, M.; Kienle, P.

    2008-10-31

    Recent experimental data at GSI on the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K-shell electron capture (EC) decays of the H-like ions {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} and {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, suggest that they are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC}{approx_equal}7 sec and amplitudes a{sub EC}{approx_equal}0.20. Since it is known that these ions are unstable also under the nuclear positron ({beta}{sup +}) decays, we study a possible time dependence of the nuclear {beta}{sup +}-decay rate of the H-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} ion. We show that the time dependence of the {beta}{sup +}-decay rate of the H-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} ion as well as any H-like heavy ions cannot be observed.

  4. FPGA-based rate-adaptive LDPC-coded modulation for the next generation of optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ding; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-09-05

    In this paper, we propose a rate-adaptive FEC scheme based on LDPC codes together with its software reconfigurable unified FPGA architecture. By FPGA emulation, we demonstrate that the proposed class of rate-adaptive LDPC codes based on shortening with an overhead from 25% to 42.9% provides a coding gain ranging from 13.08 dB to 14.28 dB at a post-FEC BER of 10-15 for BPSK transmission. In addition, the proposed rate-adaptive LDPC coding combined with higher-order modulations have been demonstrated including QPSK, 8-QAM, 16-QAM, 32-QAM, and 64-QAM, which covers a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios. Furthermore, we apply the unequal error protection by employing different LDPC codes on different bits in 16-QAM and 64-QAM, which results in additional 0.5dB gain compared to conventional LDPC coded modulation with the same code rate of corresponding LDPC code.

  5. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  6. Genetic modulation of RNA metabolism in Drosophilia. I. Increased rate of ribosomal RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Clark, S H; Strausbaugh, L D; Kiefer, B I

    1977-08-01

    It has been suggested that a particular Y chromosome which is rDNA-deficient (YbbSuVar-5) may be associated with an increased utilization of rDNA template in adult testes (Shermoen and Kiefer 1975). To extend the observations on this chromosome, experiments were designed to determine if the chromosome has an effect on rRNA synthesis in bobbed adults and on classic bobbed phenotypes (shortened and thinner scutellar bristles and delayed development). Specific activity measurements were made on rRNA extracted from adult males of the genotypes car bb/YbbSuVar-5, which are rDNA-deficient to the same extent, and from Samarkand+ isogenic (Sam+ iso), which is a wild-type stock. The resulting data demonstrated that the presence of the YbbSuVar-5 chromosome increases the rate of ribosomal RNA synthesis in adult flies. In addition, it was found that the presence of this particular Y chromosome restores wild-type bristle phenotype and development time. Appropriate genetic crosses indicate that the observed effects (increased rRNA synthesis, restoration of wild-type phenotype) are a function of this particular Y chromosome, and are not due to autosomal factors. The results of these experiments suggest that the rate of rRNA accumulation is under genetic control.

  7. Modulation of Leaf Economic Traits and Rates by Soil Properties, at Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, V.; Wright, I. J.; Reich, P. B.; Batjes, N. H., Jr.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Bhaskar, R.; Santiago, L. S.; Ellsworth, D.; Niinemets, U.; Cornwell, W.

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis can be construed as an economic process that optimises the costs of acquisition, transport and utilisation of two substitutable photosynthetic resources: water and nitrogen. The influence of soil fertility on photosynthetic rates and leaf 'economic' traits related with H2O and N costs is poorly quantified in higher plants in comparison with the effects of climate. We set out to address this situation by quantifying the unique and shared contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of soil and climate properties on photosynthetic traits: light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Aarea), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), leaf N and P (Narea and Parea) and specific leaf area (SLA). We used mixed regression models, multivariate analyses and variance partitioning. Along a first dimension of soil fertility, soil pH covaried positively with measures of base status and climatic aridity, and negatively with soil organic C content. Along this dimension from low to high soil pH, Narea, Parea and Aarea increased and SLA decreased. Along an independent dimension of soil fertility, gs declined and Parea increased with soil available P (Pavail). Overall, soil variables were stronger predictors of leaf traits than were climate variables, except for SLA. Importantly, soils and climate were not redundant information to explain leaf trait variation but were not additive either. Shared effects of soil and climate dominated over their independent effects on Narea and Parea, while unique effects of soils dominated for Aarea and gs. Three environmental variables were key for explaining variation in leaf traits: soil pH and Pavail, and climatic aridity. Although the reliability of global soils datasets lags behind that of climate datasets our results nonetheless provide compelling evidence that both can

  8. Loss of Breathing Modulation of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Recent and Long Standing Diabetes Mellitus Type II

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, Bruno; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C.; Callejas-Rojas, José A.; Gien-López, José A.; Delgado-García, Guillermo R.; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Healthy subjects under rhythmic breathing have heart interbeat intervals with a respiratory band in the frequency domain that can be an index of vagal activity. Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM) affects the autonomic nervous system of patients, thus it can be expected changes on the vagal activity. Here, the influence of DM on the breathing modulation of the heart rate is evaluated by analyzing in the frequency domain heart interbeat interval (IBI) records obtained from 30 recently diagnosed, 15 long standing DM patients, and 30 control subjects during standardized clinical tests of controlled breathing at 0.1 Hz, supine rest and standing upright. Fourier spectral analysis of IBI records quantifies heart rate variability in different regions: low-frequencies (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz), high-frequencies (HF, 0.15–0.4 Hz), and a controlled breathing peak (RP, centered around 0.1 Hz). Two new parameters are introduced: the frequency radius rf (square root of the sum of LF and HF squared) and β (power of RP divided by the sum of LF and HF). As diabetes evolves, the controlled breathing peak loses power and shifts to smaller frequencies, indicating that heart rate modulation is slower in diabetic patients than in controls. In contrast to the traditional parameters LF, HF and LF/HF, which do not show significant differences between the three populations in neither of the clinical tests, the new parameters rf and β, distinguish between control and diabetic subjects in the case of controlled breathing. Sympathetic activity that is driven by the baroreceptor reflex associated with the 0.1 Hz breathing modulations is affected in DM patients. Diabetes produces not only a rigid heartbeat with less autonomic induced variability (rf diminishes), but also alters the coupling between breathing and heart rate (reduced β), due to a progressive decline of vagal and sympathetic activity. PMID:27802329

  9. Loss of Breathing Modulation of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Recent and Long Standing Diabetes Mellitus Type II.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Estañol, Bruno; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C; Callejas-Rojas, José A; Gien-López, José A; Delgado-García, Guillermo R; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Healthy subjects under rhythmic breathing have heart interbeat intervals with a respiratory band in the frequency domain that can be an index of vagal activity. Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM) affects the autonomic nervous system of patients, thus it can be expected changes on the vagal activity. Here, the influence of DM on the breathing modulation of the heart rate is evaluated by analyzing in the frequency domain heart interbeat interval (IBI) records obtained from 30 recently diagnosed, 15 long standing DM patients, and 30 control subjects during standardized clinical tests of controlled breathing at 0.1 Hz, supine rest and standing upright. Fourier spectral analysis of IBI records quantifies heart rate variability in different regions: low-frequencies (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz), high-frequencies (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz), and a controlled breathing peak (RP, centered around 0.1 Hz). Two new parameters are introduced: the frequency radius rf (square root of the sum of LF and HF squared) and β (power of RP divided by the sum of LF and HF). As diabetes evolves, the controlled breathing peak loses power and shifts to smaller frequencies, indicating that heart rate modulation is slower in diabetic patients than in controls. In contrast to the traditional parameters LF, HF and LF/HF, which do not show significant differences between the three populations in neither of the clinical tests, the new parameters rf and β, distinguish between control and diabetic subjects in the case of controlled breathing. Sympathetic activity that is driven by the baroreceptor reflex associated with the 0.1 Hz breathing modulations is affected in DM patients. Diabetes produces not only a rigid heartbeat with less autonomic induced variability (rf diminishes), but also alters the coupling between breathing and heart rate (reduced β), due to a progressive decline of vagal and sympathetic activity.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  11. Characterization of pulse amplitude and pulse rate modulation for a human vestibular implant during acute electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. A. K.; DiGiovanna, J.; Cavuscens, S.; Ranieri, M.; Guinand, N.; van de Berg, R.; Carpaneto, J.; Kingma, H.; Guyot, J.-P.; Micera, S.; Perez Fornos, A.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. The vestibular system provides essential information about balance and spatial orientation via the brain to other sensory and motor systems. Bilateral vestibular loss significantly reduces quality of life, but vestibular implants (VIs) have demonstrated potential to restore lost function. However, optimal electrical stimulation strategies have not yet been identified in patients. In this study, we compared the two most common strategies, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and pulse rate modulation (PRM), in patients. Approach. Four subjects with a modified cochlear implant including electrodes targeting the peripheral vestibular nerve branches were tested. Charge-equivalent PAM and PRM were applied after adaptation to baseline stimulation. Vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movement responses were recorded to evaluate stimulation efficacy during acute clinical testing sessions. Main results. PAM evoked larger amplitude eye movement responses than PRM. Eye movement response axes for lateral canal stimulation were marginally better aligned with PRM than with PAM. A neural network model was developed for the tested stimulation strategies to provide insights on possible neural mechanisms. This model suggested that PAM would consistently cause a larger ensemble firing rate of neurons and thus larger responses than PRM. Significance. Due to the larger magnitude of eye movement responses, our findings strongly suggest PAM as the preferred strategy for initial VI modulation.

  12. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  13. Tai Chi Chuan modulates heart rate variability during abdominal breathing in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Li, You-Fa; Yue, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Xiao; Chang, Yu-Kai; Yi, Long-Yan; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-03-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice is currently intentionally applied in clinical populations, especially those with cardiovascular diseases because of its potential benefits on the autonomic nervous system. The long-term effect of TCC practice on heart rate variability (HRV) remains largely unknown. In this study, we recruited 23 TCC practitioners whose experience averaged approximately 21 years and 19 controls matched by age, sex and education to examine the effect of TCC practice on the autonomic nervous system during a resting state and during an abdominal breathing state. HRV was measured by traditional electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The results showed that the low frequency, total power frequency, and normalized low frequency components and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio were significantly higher, whereas the normalized high frequency was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state. However, we did not detect any significant difference in the HRV measures during the resting state between the two groups. Additionally, TCC experience did not correlate with HRV components either in the abdominal state or the resting state in the TCC group. Considering all of these findings, we suggest that TCC improves vagal activity and the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during the relaxation state. This study also provides direct physiological evidence for the role of TCC practice in relaxation.

  14. Picosecond optical pulse generation at gigahertz rates by direct modulation of a semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auyeung, J.

    1981-01-01

    We report the generation of picosecond pulses by the direct modulation of a buried heterostructure GaAlAs diode laser. Pulse width of 28 ps is achieved at a repetition frequency of 2.5 GHz. Pulse width dependence on the experimental parameters is described.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kelner; T.E. Owen; D.L. George; A. Minachi; M.G. Nored; C.J. Schwartz

    2004-03-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} began a multi-year project co-funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. The project goal is to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype retrofit natural gas energy flow meter in 2000-2001 included: (1) evaluation of the inferential gas energy analysis algorithm using supplemental gas databases and anticipated worst-case gas mixtures; (2) identification and feasibility review of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen diluent content; (3) experimental performance evaluation of infrared absorption sensors for carbon dioxide diluent content; and (4) procurement of a custom ultrasonic transducer and redesign of the ultrasonic pulse reflection correlation sensor for precision speed-of-sound measurements. A prototype energy meter module containing improved carbon dioxide and speed-of-sound sensors was constructed and tested in the GRI Metering Research Facility at SwRI. Performance of this module using transmission-quality natural gas and gas containing supplemental carbon dioxide up to 9 mol% resulted in gas energy determinations well within the inferential algorithm worst-case tolerance of {+-}2.4 Btu/scf (nitrogen diluent gas measured by gas chromatograph). A two-week field test was performed at a gas-fired power plant to evaluate the inferential algorithm and the data acquisition requirements needed to adapt the prototype energy meter module to practical field site conditions.

  16. Development of inhibitory mechanisms underlying selectivity for the rate and direction of frequency-modulated sweeps in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2007-02-14

    Although it is known that neural selectivity for species-specific vocalizations changes during development, the mechanisms underlying such changes are not known. This study followed the development of mechanisms underlying selectivity for the direction and rate of frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps in the auditory cortex of the pallid bat, a species that uses downward FM sweeps to echolocate. In the adult cortex, direction and rate selectivity arise as a result of different spectral and temporal properties of low-frequency inhibition (LFI) and high-frequency inhibition (HFI). A narrow band of delayed HFI shapes rate selectivity for downward FM sweeps. A broader band of early LFI shapes direction selectivity. Here we asked whether these differences in LFI and HFI are present at the onset of hearing in the echolocation range or whether the differences develop slowly. We also studied how the development of properties of inhibitory frequencies influences FM rate and direction selectivity. We found that adult-like FM rate selectivity is present at 2 weeks after birth, whereas direction selectivity matures 12 weeks after birth. The different developmental time course for direction and rate selectivity is attributable to the differences in the development of LFI and HFI. Arrival time and bandwidth of HFI are adult-like at 2 weeks. Average arrival time of LFI gradually becomes faster and bandwidth becomes broader between 2 and 12 weeks. Thus, two properties of FM sweeps that are important for vocalization selectivity follow different developmental time courses attributable to the differences in the development of underlying inhibitory mechanisms.

  17. Time-gated single-photon detection module with 110 ps transition time and up to 80 MHz repetition rate

    SciTech Connect

    Buttafava, Mauro Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Dalla Mora, Alberto

    2014-08-15

    We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor.

  18. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  19. Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback on cardiovascular responses and autonomic sympathovagal modulation following stressor tasks in prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Sun, P; Wang, S; Lin, G; Wang, T

    2016-02-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is implicated in prehypertension, and previous studies have suggested that therapies that improve modulation of sympathovagal balance, such as biofeedback and slow abdominal breathing, are effective in patients with prehypertension at rest. However, considering that psychophysiological stressors may be associated with greater cardiovascular risk in prehypertensives, it is important to investigate whether heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) results in equivalent effects on autonomic cardiovascular responses control during stressful conditions in prehypertensives. A total of 32 college students with prehypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to HRV-BF (n=12), slow abdominal breathing (SAB, n=10) or no treatment (control, n=10) groups. Then, a training experiment consisting of 15 sessions was employed to compare the effect of each intervention on the following cardiovascular response indicators before and after intervention: heart rate (HR); heart rate variability (HRV) components; blood volume pulse amplitude (BVPamp); galvanic skin response; respiration rate (RSP); and blood pressure. In addition, the cold pressor test and the mental arithmetic challenge test were also performed over two successive days before and after the invention as well as after 3 months of follow-up. A significant decrease in HR and RSP and a significant increase in BVPamp were observed after the HRV-BF intervention (P<0.001). For the HRV analysis, HRV-BF significantly reduced the ratio of low-frequency power to high-frequency power (the LF/HF ratio, P<0.001) and increased the normalized high-frequency power (HFnm) (P<0.001) during the stress tests, and an added benefit over SAB by improving HRV was also observed. In the 3-month follow-up study, similar effects on RSP, BVPamp, LF/HF and HFnm were observed in the HRV-BF group compared with the SAB group. HRV-BF training contributes to the beneficial effect of reducing the stress-related cardiovascular

  20. Gravitational focusing and substructure effects on the rate modulation in direct dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Nobile, Eugenio Del; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Witte, Samuel J.

    2015-08-21

    We study how gravitational focusing (GF) of dark matter by the Sun affects the annual and biannual modulation of the expected signal in non-directional direct dark matter searches, in the presence of dark matter substructure in the local dark halo. We consider the Sagittarius stream and a possible dark disk, and show that GF suppresses some, but not all, of the distinguishing features that would characterize substructure of the dark halo were GF neglected.

  1. Gravitational focusing and substructure effects on the rate modulation in direct dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Nobile, Eugenio Del; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Witte, Samuel J. E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2015-08-01

    We study how gravitational focusing (GF) of dark matter by the Sun affects the annual and biannual modulation of the expected signal in non-directional direct dark matter searches, in the presence of dark matter substructure in the local dark halo. We consider the Sagittarius stream and a possible dark disk, and show that GF suppresses some, but not all, of the distinguishing features that would characterize substructure of the dark halo were GF neglected.

  2. Demodulator for binary-phase modulated signals having a variable clock rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ta Tzu (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Method and apparatus for demodulating binary-phase modulated signals recorded on a magnetic stripe on a card as the card is manually inserted into a card reader. Magnetic transitions are sensed as the card is read and the time interval between immediately preceeding basic transitions determines the duration of a data sampling pulse which detects the presence or absence of an intermediate transition pulse indicative of two respective logic states. The duration of the data sampling pulse is approximately 75 percent of the preceeding interval between basic transitions to permit tracking succeeding time differences in basic transition intervals of up to approximately 25 percent.

  3. Light-limited growth rate modulates nitrate inhibition of dinitrogen fixation in the marine unicellular cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Nathan S; Hutchins, David A

    2014-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is the dominant supply of new nitrogen (N) to the oceans, but is often inhibited in the presence of fixed N sources such as nitrate (NO3-). Anthropogenic fixed N inputs to the ocean are increasing, but their effect on marine N2 fixation is uncertain. Thus, global estimates of new oceanic N depend on a fundamental understanding of factors that modulate N source preferences by N2-fixing cyanobacteria. We examined the unicellular diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii (strain WH0003) to determine how the light-limited growth rate influences the inhibitory effects of fixed N on N2 fixation. When growth (µ) was limited by low light (µ = 0.23 d-1), short-term experiments indicated that 0.4 µM NH4+ reduced N2-fixation by ∼90% relative to controls without added NH4+. In fast-growing, high-light-acclimated cultures (µ = 0.68 d-1), 2.0 µM NH4+ was needed to achieve the same effect. In long-term exposures to NO3-, inhibition of N2 fixation also varied with growth rate. In high-light-acclimated, fast-growing cultures, NO3- did not inhibit N2-fixation rates in comparison with cultures growing on N2 alone. Instead NO3- supported even faster growth, indicating that the cellular assimilation rate of N2 alone (i.e. dinitrogen reduction) could not support the light-specific maximum growth rate of Crocosphaera. When growth was severely light-limited, NO3- did not support faster growth rates but instead inhibited N2-fixation rates by 55% relative to controls. These data rest on the basic tenet that light energy is the driver of photoautotrophic growth while various nutrient substrates serve as supports. Our findings provide a novel conceptual framework to examine interactions between N source preferences and predict degrees of inhibition of N2 fixation by fixed N sources based on the growth rate as controlled by light.

  4. Impact of small MU/segment and dose rate on delivery accuracy of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT).

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Zhuang, Tingliang; Mastroianni, Anthony; Djemil, Toufik; Cui, Taoran; Xia, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans may require more control points (or segments) than some of fixed-beam IMRT plans that are created with a limited number of segments. Increasing number of control points in a VMAT plan for a given prescription dose could create a large portion of the total number of segments with small number monitor units (MUs) per segment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the small number MU/segment on the delivery accuracy of VMAT delivered with various dose rates. Ten patient datasets were planned for hippocampus sparing for whole brain irradiation. For each dataset, two VMAT plans were created with maximum dose rates of 600 MU/min (the maximum field size of 21×40 cm2) and 1000 MU/min (the maximum field size of 15×15 cm2) for a daily dose of 3 Gy. Without reoptimization, the daily dose of these plans was purposely reduced to 1.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy while keeping the same total dose. Using the two dose rates and three different daily doses, six VMAT plans for each dataset were delivered to a physical phantom to investigate how the changes of dose rate and daily doses impact on delivery accuracy. Using the gamma index, we directly compared the delivered planar dose profiles with the reduced daily doses (1.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy) to the delivered planar dose at 3 Gy daily dose, delivered at dose rate of 600 MU/min and 1000 MU/min, respectively. The average numbers of segments with MU/segment≤1 were 35±8, 87±6 for VMAT-600 1.5 Gy, VMAT-600 1 Gy plans, and 30±7 and 42±6 for VMAT-1000 1.5 Gy and VMAT-1000 1 Gy plans, respectively. When delivered at 600 MU/min dose rate, the average gamma index passing rates (1%/1 mm criteria) of comparing delivered 1.5 Gy VMAT planar dose profiles to 3.0 Gy VMAT delivered planar dose profiles was 98.28%±1.66%, and the average gamma index passing rate of comparing delivered 1.0 Gy VMAT planar dose to 3.0 Gy VMAT delivered planar dose was 83.75%±4.86%. If using 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm

  5. Impact of small MU/segment and dose rate on delivery accuracy of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT).

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Zhuang, Tingliang; Mastroianni, Anthony; Djemil, Toufik; Cui, Taoran; Xia, Ping

    2016-05-08

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans may require more control points (or segments) than some of fixed-beam IMRT plans that are created with a limited number of segments. Increasing number of control points in a VMAT plan for a given prescription dose could create a large portion of the total number of segments with small number monitor units (MUs) per segment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the small number MU/segment on the delivery accuracy of VMAT delivered with various dose rates. Ten patient datasets were planned for hippocampus sparing for whole brain irradiation. For each dataset, two VMAT plans were created with maximum dose rates of 600 MU/min (the maximum field size of 21 × 40 cm2) and 1000 MU/min (the maximum field size of 15 × 15 cm2) for a daily dose of 3 Gy. Without reoptimization, the daily dose of these plans was purposely reduced to 1.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy while keeping the same total dose. Using the two dose rates and three different daily doses, six VMAT plans for each dataset were delivered to a physical phantom to investigate how the changes of dose rate and daily doses impact on delivery accuracy. Using the gamma index, we directly compared the delivered planar dose profiles with the reduced daily doses (1.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy) to the delivered planar dose at 3 Gy daily dose, delivered at dose rate of 600 MU/min and 1000 MU/min, respectively. The average numbers of segments with MU/segment ≤ 1 were 35 ± 8, 87 ± 6 for VMAT-600 1.5 Gy, VMAT-600 1 Gy plans, and 30 ± 7 and 42 ± 6 for VMAT-1000 1.5 Gy and VMAT-1000 1 Gy plans, respectively. When delivered at 600 MU/min dose rate, the average gamma index passing rates (1%/1 mm criteria) of comparing delivered 1.5 Gy VMAT planar dose profiles to 3.0 Gy VMAT delivered planar dose profiles was 98.28% ± 1.66%, and the average gamma index passing rate of comparing delivered 1.0 Gy VMAT planar dose to 3.0 Gy VMAT delivered planar dose was 83.75% ± 4.86%. If using 2%/2mm

  6. SU-E-T-421: Feasibility Study of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with Constant Dose Rate for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R; Wang, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility, efficiency, and delivery accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy with constant dose rate (VMAT-CDR) for whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) of endometrial cancer. Methods: The nine-Field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), VMAT with variable dose-rate (VMAT-VDR), and VMAT-CDR plans were created for 9 patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs), and normal tissue (NT) were compared. The monitor units (MUs) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated. For each VMAT-CDR plan, a dry Run was performed to assess the dosimetric accuracy with MatriXX from IBA. Results: Compared with IMRT, the VMAT-CDR plans delivered a slightly greater V20 of the bowel, bladder, pelvis bone, and NT, but significantly decreased the dose to the high-dose region of the rectum and pelvis bone. The MUs Decreased from 1105 with IMRT to 628 with VMAT-CDR. The delivery time also decreased from 9.5 to 3.2 minutes. The average gamma pass rate was 95.6% at the 3%/3 mm criteria with MatriXX pretreatment verification for 9 patients. Conclusion: VMAT-CDR can achieve comparable plan quality with significant shorter delivery time and smaller number of MUs compared with IMRT for patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. It can be accurately delivered and be an alternative to IMRT on the linear accelerator without VDR capability. This work is supported by the grant project, National Natural; Science Foundation of China (No. 81071237)

  7. Atomizing characteristics of swirl can combustor modules with swirl blast fuel injectors. [in terms of NOX emission rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Cold flow atomization tests of several different designs of swirl can combustor modules were conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter duct at airflow rates (per unit area) of 7.3 to 25.7 g/sq cm sec and water flow rates of 6.3 to 18.9 g/sec. The effect of air and water flow rates on the mean drop size of water sprays produced with the swirl blast fuel injectors were determined. Also, from these data it was possible to determine the effect of design modifications on the atomizing performance of various fuel injector and air swirler configurations. The trend in atomizing performance, as based on the mean drop size, was then compared with the trends in the production of nitrogen oxides obtained in combustion studues with the same swirl can combustors. It was found that the fuel injector design that gave the best combustor performance in terms of a low NOx emission index also gave the best atomizing performance as characterized by a spray of relatively small mean drop diameter. It was also demonstrated that at constant inlet air stream momentum the nitrogen oxides emission index was found to vary inversely with the square of the mean drop diameter of the spray produced by the different swirl blast fuel injectors. Test conditions were inlet air static pressures of 100,000 to 200,000 N/sq m at an inlet air temperature of 293 K.

  8. Improved color purity and electroluminescent efficiency obtained by modulating thicknesses and evaporation rates of hole block and electron transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Li, Xiaona; Li, Xiyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a series of electroluminescent (EL) devices based on trivalent europium (Eu3+) complex Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were fabricated by selecting 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as hole block and electron transport materials, respectively. Interestingly, we found the transport of electrons decreases gradually with increasing thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq3 layers. Analyzing carrier distribution and EL spectra, we conclude that appropriately modulating the thicknesses and evaporation rates is an efficient way to decrease the accumulation of electrons in HBL, thus suppressing the EL of hole block material. On the other hand, decreasing the transport of electrons can also facilitate the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, thus further enhancing the EL efficiency. As a result, pure Eu3+ emission with the efficiency as high as 8.49 cd/A was realized by controlling the thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq3 layers to be 30 nm and 0.10 nm/s, 40 nm and 0.10 nm/s, respectively.

  9. Patterns of cosmogenic radionuclide production rates in the heliosphere and problems of solar modulation on a long time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinova, G. K.

    2016-11-01

    The results of long-term studies of cosmogenic radionuclide production rates along the orbits of 39 chondrites that fell to the Earth between 1959 and 2013 are presented. They constitute a long series of homogeneous data, a statistical smoothing of which demonstrate some general patterns of the distribution and variations of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with energy >100 MeV in the inner (<5 AU) heliosphere. A correlation analysis of the production rates of radionuclides with different half-lives suggests that the solar GCR modulation mechanism is constant over at least 1 million years. The role of stochastic factors in the polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field for the phases of maximum solar activity has been revealed. The subtle sensitivity of the 54Mn production rate in the Chelyabinsk chondrite to the short-term closure of the heliosphere for positively charged particles over 14 months between June 2012 and July 2013 is used as an example to show the high resolution of the method of using cosmogenic radionuclides in meteorites as natural GCR detectors.

  10. Evidence that the RdeA protein is a component of a multistep phosphorelay modulating rate of development in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, W T; Thomason, P A; Gross, J D; Neweil, P C

    1998-01-01

    We have isolated an insertional mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum that aggregated rapidly and formed spores and stalk cells within 14 h of development instead of the normal 24 h. We have shown by parasexual genetics that the insertion is in the rdeA locus and have cloned the gene. It encodes a predicted 28 kDa protein (RdeA) that is enriched in charged residues and is very hydrophilic. Constructs with the DNA for the c-Myc epitope or for the green fluorescent protein indicate that RdeA is not compartmentalized. RdeA displays homology around a histidine residue at amino acid 65 with members of the H2 module family of phosphotransferases that participate in multistep phosphoryl relays. Replacement of this histidine rendered the protein inactive. The mutant is complemented by transformation with the Ypd1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, itself an H2 module protein. We propose that RdeA is part of a multistep phosphorelay system that modulates the rate of development. PMID:9582274

  11. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  12. Modulation of the Sympatho-Vagal Balance during Sleep: Frequency Domain Study of Heart Rate Variability and Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Cerutti, Sergio; Viardot, Geoffrey; Werner, Sandra; Bianchi, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is a complex state characterized by important changes in the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) greatly changes during different sleep stages, showing a predominant parasympathetic drive to the heart during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and an increased sympathetic activity during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Respiration undergoes important modifications as well, becoming deeper and more regular with deep sleep and shallower and more frequent during REM sleep. The aim of the present study is to assess both autonomic cardiac regulation and cardiopulmonary coupling variations during different sleep stages in healthy subjects, using spectral and cross-spectral analysis of the HRV and respiration signals. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed in 11 healthy women and the HRV signal and the respiration signal were obtained. The spectral and cross-spectral parameters of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal were computed at low frequency and at breathing frequency (high frequency, HF) during different sleep stages. Results attested a sympatho-vagal balance shift toward parasympathetic modulation during NREM sleep and toward sympathetic modulation during REM sleep. Spectral analysis of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal indicated a higher respiration regularity during deep sleep, and a higher parasympathetic drive was also confirmed by an increase in the coherence between the HRV and the respiration signal in the HF band during NREM sleep. Our findings about sleep stage-dependent variations in the HRV signal and in the respiratory activity are in line with previous evidences and confirm spectral analysis of the HRV and the respiration signal to be a suitable tool for investigating cardiac autonomic modulation and cardio-respiratory coupling during sleep. PMID:22416233

  13. Average symbol error rate for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation in generalized atmospheric turbulence and misalignment errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-11-01

    A framework is presented for the analysis of average symbol error rate (SER) for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation in a free-space optical communication system. The standard probability density function (PDF)-based approach is extended to evaluate the average SER by representing the Q-function through its Meijer's G-function equivalent. Specifically, a converging power series expression for the average SER is derived considering the zero-boresight misalignment errors in the receiver side. The analysis presented here assumes a unified expression for the PDF of channel coefficient which incorporates the M-distributed atmospheric turbulence and Rayleigh-distributed radial displacement for the misalignment errors. The analytical results are compared with the results obtained using Q-function approximation. Further, the presented results are supported by the Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. A specialized layering module for high rep-rate production of free standing HiPER targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, I.; Belolipetskiy, A.; Koresheva, E.; Koshelev, E.; Malinina, E.; Mitina, L.; Panina, L.; Chtcherbakov, V.; Tolley, M.; Edwards, C.; Spindloe, C.

    2013-11-01

    The target supply system is a necessary requirement for fueling a future energy source (reactor) with a high rep-rate: 0.1-10 Hz. At the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), significant progress has been made in the technology based on rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets that is referred to as FST (Free-Standing Targets) layering method. This allows creating a continuously or repeatable operating FST supply system, the development of which at LPI dates back to 1980s. Therefore, the LPI is in the position to propose the use of FST technologies for HiPER facility operation (conceptual design and prototype realization). Here we report on our most significant results on the development of a specialized layering module prototype for repeatable formation of HiPER free-standing cryogenic targets.

  15. In vitro fermentation profiles, gas production rates, and microbiota modulation as affected by certain fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose.

    PubMed

    Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Murphy, Michael R; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2009-02-25

    It is of interest to benefit from the positive intestinal health outcomes of prebiotic consumption but with minimal gas production. This study examined gas production potential, fermentation profile, and microbial modulation properties of several types of oligosaccharides. Substrates studied included short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose-enriched inulin, galactooligosaccharide, and polydextrose. Each substrate was fermented in vitro using human fecal inoculum, and fermentation characteristics were quantified at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h. Gas and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production data showed that short-chain oligosaccharides were more rapidly fermented and produced more SCFA and gas than substrates with greater degrees of polymerization. Lactobacilli increased similarly among substrates. Short-chain oligosaccharides fermentation resulted in the greatest increase in bifidobacteria concentrations. Mixing short- and long-chain oligosaccharides attenuated short-chain oligosaccharide fermentation rate and extent. This study provides new information on the fermentation characteristics of some oligosaccharides used in human nutrition.

  16. Insights into the hierarchical structure and digestion rate of alkali-modulated starches with different amylose contents.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dongling; Yu, Long; Liu, Hongsheng; Zou, Wei; Xie, Fengwei; Simon, George; Petinakis, Eustathios; Shen, Zhiqi; Chen, Ling

    2016-06-25

    Combined analytical techniques were used to explore the effects of alkali treatment on the multi-scale structure and digestion behavior of starches with different amylose/amylopectin ratios. Alkali treatment disrupted the amorphous matrix, and partial lamellae and crystallites, which weakened starch molecular packing and eventually enhanced the susceptibility of starch to alkali. Stronger alkali treatment (0.5% w/w) made this effect more prominent and even transformed the dual-phase digestion of starch into a triple-phase pattern. Compared with high-amylose starch, regular maize starch, which possesses some unique structure characteristics typically as pores and crystallite weak points, showed evident changes of hierarchical structure and in digestion rate. Thus, alkali treatment has been demonstrated as a simple method to modulate starch hierarchical structure and thus to realize the rational development of starch-based food products with desired digestibility.

  17. Blazhko effect in the Galactic bulge fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars - I. Incidence rate and differences between modulated and non-modulated stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present the first paper of a series focused on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type stars pulsating in the fundamental mode that are located in the Galactic bulge. A comprehensive overview of the incidence rate and light-curve characteristics of the Blazhko stars is given. We analysed 8282 stars having the best quality data in the OGLE-IV survey, and found that at least 40.3 per cent of the stars show modulation of their light curves. The number of Blazhko stars we identified is 3341, which is the largest sample ever studied, implying that these are the most relevant statistical results currently available. Using combined data sets with OGLE-III observations, we found that 50 per cent of the stars that show unresolved peaks close to the main component in OGLE-IV are actually Blazhko stars with extremely long periods. Blazhko stars with modulation occur preferentially among RR Lyrae stars with shorter pulsation periods in the Galactic bulge. Fourier amplitude and phase coefficients based on the mean light curves appear to be substantially lower for Blazhko stars than for stars with an unmodulated light curve on average. We derived new relations for the compatibility parameter Dm in the I passband and relations that allow for differentiating modulated and non-modulated stars easily based on R31, ϕ21 and ϕ31. Photometric metallicities, intrinsic colours and absolute magnitudes computed using empirical relations are the same for Blazhko and non-modulated stars in the Galactic bulge, suggesting there is no correlation between the occurrence of the Blazhko effect and these parameters.

  18. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  19. Modulation of lead-induced performance deficit in children by varying signal rate in a serial choice reaction task

    SciTech Connect

    Winneke, G.; Brockhaus, A.; Collet, W.; Kraemer, U. )

    1989-11-01

    Evidence is presented showing that serial choice reaction performance is disrupted at low blood lead levels (PbB), and that parametric variation of task characteristics modulates the degree of disruption. This evidence is based on two independent studies in 6- to 9-year-old children living in two lead smelter areas in the cities of Nordenham (N = 114) and Stolberg (N = 109) in West Germany. Average PbB was 8.2 micrograms/100 ml (4.4-23.8 micrograms/100 ml) in the Nordenham sample and 7.4 micrograms/100 ml (4.2-18.0 micrograms/100 ml) in the Stolberg sample. Serial choice reaction performance was assessed by means of the Vienna reaction device in which a random sequence of light and tone signals has to be answered by pressing appropriate response buttons. Correct (hits) and false responses (errors) were evaluated as performance measures, and signal rate was varied in order to achieve easy and difficult task conditions. Exposure-related performance deficit was more pronounced for errors than for hits, more clearcut for high than for low signal rates, and proved significant in both studies after correction for confounding using confounder models of different complexities. Some features of the observed deficit resemble clinical observations in children presenting with attention deficit disorder.

  20. The rating reliability calculator

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David J

    2004-01-01

    Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program. PMID:15117416

  1. Glomerular filtration rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  2. Modulation of the rate of cardiac muscle contraction by troponin C constructs with various calcium binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Norman, Catalina; Rall, Jack A; Tikunova, Svetlana B; Davis, Jonathan P

    2007-10-01

    We investigated whether changing thin filament Ca(2+) sensitivity alters the rate of contraction, either during normal cross-bridge cycling or when cross-bridge cycling is increased by inorganic phosphate (P(i)). We increased or decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force production by incorporating into rat skinned cardiac trabeculae the troponin C (TnC) mutants V44QTnC(F27W) and F20QTnC(F27W). The rate of isometric contraction was assessed as the rate of force redevelopment (k(tr)) after a rapid release and restretch to the original length of the muscle. Both in the absence of added P(i) and in the presence of 2.5 mM added P(i) 1) Ca(2+) sensitivity of k(tr) was increased by V44QTnC(F27W) and decreased by F20QTnC(F27W) compared with control TnC(F27W); 2) k(tr) at submaximal Ca(2+) activation was significantly faster for V44QTnC(F27W) and slower for F20QTnC(F27W) compared with control TnC(F27W); 3) at maximum Ca(2+) activation, k(tr) values were similar for control TnC(F27W), V44QTnC(F27W), and F20QTnC(F27W); and 4) k(tr) exhibited a linear dependence on force that was indistinguishable for all TnCs. In the presence of 2.5 mM P(i), k(tr) was faster at all pCa values compared with the values for no added P(i) for TnC(F27W), V44QTnC(F27W), and F20QTnC(F27W). This study suggests that TnC Ca(2+) binding properties modulate the rate of cardiac muscle contraction at submaximal levels of Ca(2+) activation. This result has physiological relevance considering that, on a beat-to-beat basis, the heart contracts at submaximal Ca(2+) activation.

  3. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.

  4. SU-E-T-185: Feasibility Study of Dose Rate Modulated Arc Therapy (DrMAT) for Lung SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    KO, Y; Cho, B; Yi, B; Kwak, J; Song, S; Je, H; Ahn, S; Noh, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To show the feasibility of clinical application of DrMAT for SBRT in lung cancer patients. DrMAT is a form of dynamic conformal arc therapy where MLC segments and dose rates are controlled through simple field weight optimization. Methods: To show feasibility a new treatment plan was created based on the CT of SBRT lung cancer patients. Static plans with 33 fields are made, which have 11deg in between each field and are acquired rotating gantry angle from 180deg to 188deg in CCW direction, total 352deg is rotated. MLC maintained static aperture for each field. To optimize 33 individual fields, field weight was adjusted accordingly using weight optimization algorithm. Keeping weights and MU of static plan, static MLC aperture was converted to multiple arc segments. Arc plan could be created with the fields in the intervals of 11deg. Static MLC should be converted to arc segment MLC. Dynamic conformal arc therapy plan consists of 33 arc fields, is converted to one dose rate modulated arc therapy (DrMAT) plan. DrMAT plan consists of 166 control points which becomes a single arc plan that changes the shape of MLC for every 2.2deg. The resulting DrMAT plan is not an inverse plan it is a simple form of dynamic conformal arc plan using field weight obtained from static plan. This is compared and evaluated with the VMAT plan. Results: DrMAT and VMAT plans have been compared based on the RTOG1021. Both DrMAT and VMAT plans satisfy 100% irradiation to 95% of PTV and critical organs did not exceed dose limit suggested in RTOG1021. DrMAT plan is almost similar with VMAT plan in Result. Conclusion: Field weight optimization method did not show better Resultcompared to VMAT optimization. However, considering simplicity, DrMAT satisfies the condition in RTOG1021. Therefore clinical application of DrMAT is feasible.

  5. Modulation by stimulation rate of basal and cAMP-elevated Ca2+ channel current in guinea pig ventricular cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The modulation of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) by changes in stimulation frequency was investigated in single ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from guinea pig hearts. Electrical recordings were carried out at 21-25 degrees C and at 33-37 degrees C with the whole-cell patch clamp method, under K(+)-free conditions. A comparison is made between the response to frequency changes for ICa in the basal state and after the application of drugs which elevate the level of adenosine-3',5'- cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) within the cells. Peak basal ICa was reduced with an increase in stimulation rate from 0.5 Hz to 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 Hz. This frequency-induced reduction of ICa was enhanced by reduced temperature, was unchanged when Na+ or Ba2+ carried the basal Ca2+ channel current, and was greatly enhanced after elevating cAMP levels with forskolin, isoprenaline, or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cyclic AMP. We examined the mechanism of the enhancement of the frequency- induced reduction of ICa by cAMP, and found two conditions which abolished it: (a) application of isoprenaline when Na+ carried the Ca2+ channel current in Ca(2+)-free solution, or (b) application of 3- isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a broad-spectrum phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It was further shown that an elevation of both ICa and cAMP (induced by isoprenaline), and not an increase of ICa alone (induced by Bay K 8644), is required to produce the extra component of reduction by frequency. It is concluded that Ca2+ entry results in feedback regulation of ICa, through the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent phosphodiesterase(s). This is important in the context of sympathetic stimulation, which produces the companion conditions of an elevated heart rate and increases in cAMP levels and Ca2+ entry. PMID:8537815

  6. Elucidating PID Degradation Mechanisms and In Situ Dark I–V Monitoring for Modeling Degradation Rate in CdTe Thin-Film Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve; Terwilliger, Kent; VanSant, Kaitlyn; Kempe, Michael; Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah; Olsson, Anders; Propst, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    A progression of potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms are observed in CdTe modules, including shunting/junction degradation and two different manifestations of series resistance depending on the stress level and water ingress. The dark I-V method for in-situ characterization of Pmax based on superposition was adapted for the thin-film modules undergoing PID in view of the degradation mechanisms observed. An exponential model based on module temperature and relative humidity was fit to the PID rate for multiple stress levels in chamber tests and validated by predicting the observed degradation of the module type in the field.

  7. Can geometric indices of heart rate variability predict improvement in autonomic modulation after resistance training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Alice Soares Dos; Ricci-Vitor, Ana Laura; Bragatto, Vanessa Santa Rosa; Santos, Ana Paula Soares Dos; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with autonomic dysfunctions that can be evaluated through heart rate variability (HRV). Resistance training promotes improvement in autonomic modulation; however, studies that evaluate this scenario using geometric indices, which include nonlinear evaluation, thus providing more accurate information for physiological interpretation of HRV, are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of resistance training on autonomic modulation, using geometric indices of HRV, and peripheral muscle strength in individuals with COPD. Fourteen volunteers with COPD were submitted to resistance training consisting of 24 sessions lasting 60 min each, with a frequency of three times a week. The intensity was determined as 60% of one maximum repetition and was progressively increased until 80% for the upper and lower limbs. The HRV and dynamometry were performed at two moments, the beginning and the end of the experimental protocol. Significant increases were observed in the RRtri (4·81 ± 1·60 versus 6·55 ± 2·69, P = 0·033), TINN (65·36 ± 35·49 versus 101·07 ± 63·34, P = 0·028), SD1 (7·48 ± 3·17 versus 11·04 ± 6·45, P = 0·038) and SD2 (22·30 ± 8·56 versus 32·92 ± 18·78, P = 0·022) indices after the resistance training. Visual analysis of the Poincare plot demonstrated greater dispersion beat-to-beat and in the long-term interval between consecutive heart beats. Regarding muscle strength, there was a significant increase in the shoulder abduction and knee flexion. In conclusion, geometric indices of HRV can predict improvement in autonomic modulation after resistance training in individuals with COPD; improvement in peripheral muscle strength in patients with COPD was also observed.

  8. Multi-rate demodulator architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Michael A.; Caso, Gregory S.

    1991-01-01

    A unique digital multi-rate demodulator (MRD) architecture is presented for onboard satellite communications processing. The multi-rate feature enables the same demodulator hardware to process either one wideband channel (WBC), or process up to thirty-two independent narrowband channels (NBC) that are time division multiplexed (TDM). The MRD can process many quadrature modulation format such as offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK). Possible applications include voice and data transmission for commercial or military users.

  9. Multi-rate demodulator architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, Michael A.; Caso, Gregory S.

    1991-11-01

    A unique digital multi-rate demodulator (MRD) architecture is presented for onboard satellite communications processing. The multi-rate feature enables the same demodulator hardware to process either one wideband channel (WBC), or process up to thirty-two independent narrowband channels (NBC) that are time division multiplexed (TDM). The MRD can process many quadrature modulation format such as offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK). Possible applications include voice and data transmission for commercial or military users.

  10. Improved crystalline quality of N-polar GaN epitaxial layers grown with reformed flow-rate-modulation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianguo; Wu, Zili; Dai, Qian; Yang, Hongquan; Cui, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    A reformed flow-rate-modulation technology was developed for the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layers. To improve the crystalline quality of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layers, a GaN nucleation layer was grown at relatively low temperature with carefully-controlled pulsed supply of Ga source and showed diverse morphology with atomic force microscope (AFM). Furthermore, the electrical and optical properties of the grown N-polar GaN epitaxial layers were investigated extensively by means of Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurements. The characterization results revealed that as compared with the N-polar GaN epitaxial layer grown over the conventional GaN nucleation layer which was deposited with continuous supply of both N and Ga sources, the electrical and optical properties of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layer grown with optimized supply of Ga source for the GaN nucleation layer were significantly improved.

  11. Time Modulation of the K-Shell Electron Capture Decay Rates of H-like Heavy Ions at GSI Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. N.; Kienle, P.

    2009-08-07

    According to experimental data at GSI, the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K shell electron capture decays of the H-like heavy ions with one electron in the K shell, such as {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}, {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, and {sup 122}I{sup 52+}, are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC} of the order of a few seconds, obeying an A scaling T{sub EC}=A/20 s, where A is the mass number of the mother nuclei, and with amplitudes a{sub d}{sup EC}approx0.21. We show that these data can be explained in terms of the interference of two massive neutrino mass eigenstates. The appearance of the interference term is due to overlap of massive neutrino mass eigenstate energies and of the wave functions of the daughter ions in two-body decay channels, caused by the energy and momentum uncertainties introduced by time differential detection of the daughter ions in GSI experiments.

  12. Packet error rate analysis of digital pulse interval modulation in intersatellite optical communication systems with diversified wavefront deformation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin; Wang, Dayan; Xie, Wanqing

    2015-02-20

    Diversified wavefront deformation is an inevitable phenomenon in intersatellite optical communication systems, which will decrease system performance. In this paper, we investigate the description of wavefront deformation and its influence on the packet error rate (PER) of digital pulse interval modulation (DPIM). With the wavelet method, the diversified wavefront deformation can be described by wavelet parameters: coefficient, dilation, and shift factors, where the coefficient factor represents the depth, dilation factor represents the area, and shift factor is for location. Based on this, the relationship between PER and wavelet parameters is analyzed from a theoretical viewpoint. Numerical results illustrate the validity of theoretical analysis: PER increases with the depth and area and decreases if location gets farther from the center of the optical antenna. In addition to describing diversified deformation, the advantage of the wavelet method over Zernike polynomials in computational complexity is shown via numerical example. This work provides a feasible method for the description along with influence analysis of diversified wavefront deformation from a practical viewpoint and will be helpful for designing optical systems.

  13. Modulation of heart rate response to acute stressors throughout the breeding season in the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Smith, Andrew D; Gineste, Benoit; Kauffmann, Marion; Groscolas, René

    2015-06-01

    'Fight-or-flight' stress responses allow animals to cope adaptively to sudden threats by mobilizing energy resources and priming the body for action. Because such responses can be costly and redirect behavior and energy from reproduction to survival, they are likely to be shaped by specific life-history stages, depending on the available energy resources and the commitment to reproduction. Here, we consider how heart rate (HR) responses to acute stressors are affected by the advancing breeding season in a colonial seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We subjected 77 birds (44 males, 33 females) at various stages of incubation and chick-rearing to three experimental stressors (metal sound, distant approach and capture) known to vary both in their intensity and associated risk, and monitored their HR responses. Our results show that HR increase in response to acute stressors was progressively attenuated with the stage of breeding from incubation to chick-rearing. Stress responses did not vary according to nutritional status or seasonal timing (whether breeding was initiated early or late in the season), but were markedly lower during chick-rearing than during incubation. This pattern was obvious for all three stressors. We discuss how 'fight-or-flight' responses may be modulated by considering the energy commitment to breeding, nutritional status and reproductive value of the brood in breeding seabirds.

  14. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  15. Method of joint bit rate/modulation format identification and optical performance monitoring using asynchronous delay-tap sampling for radio-over-fiber systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesmi, Latifa; Menif, Mourad

    2016-08-01

    In the context of carrying a wide variety of modulation formats and data rates for home networks, the study covers the radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology, where the need for an alternative way of management, automated fault diagnosis, and formats identification is expressed. Also, RoF signals in an optical link are impaired by various linear and nonlinear effects including chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion, amplified spontaneous emission noise, and so on. Hence, for this purpose, we investigated the sampling method based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling in conjunction with a cross-correlation function for the joint bit rate/modulation format identification and optical performance monitoring. Three modulation formats with different data rates are used to demonstrate the validity of this technique, where the identification accuracy and the monitoring ranges reached high values.

  16. Utility of a Novel Biofeedback Device for Within-Breath Modulation of Heart Rate in Rats: A Quantitative Comparison of Vagus Nerve vs. Right Atrial Pacing

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, Erin L.; Chauhan, Ashok S.; Zhao, Le; Lataro, Renata M.; Salgado, Helio C.; Nogaret, Alain; Paton, Julian F. R.

    2016-01-01

    In an emerging bioelectronics era, there is a clinical need for physiological devices incorporating biofeedback that permits natural and demand-dependent control in real time. Here, we describe a novel device termed a central pattern generator (CPG) that uses cutting edge analog circuitry producing temporally controlled, electrical stimulus outputs based on the real time integration of physiological feedback. Motivated by the fact that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), which is the cyclical changes in heart rate every breath, is an essential component of heart rate variability (HRV) (an indicator of cardiac health), we have explored the versatility and efficiency of the CPG for producing respiratory modulation of heart rate in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. Diaphragmatic electromyographic activity was used as the input to the device and its output connected to either the right cervical vagus nerve or the right atrium for pacing heart rate. We found that the CPG could induce respiratory related heart rate modulation that closely mimicked RSA. Whether connected to the vagus nerve or right atrium, the versatility of the device was demonstrated by permitting: (i) heart rate modulation in any phase of the respiratory cycle, (ii) control of the magnitude of heart rate modulation, and (iii) instant adaptation to changes in respiratory frequency. Vagal nerve pacing was only possible following transection of the nerve limiting its effective use chronically. Pacing via the right atrium permitted better flexibility and control of heart rate above its intrinsic level. This investigation now lays the foundation for future studies using this biofeedback technology permitting closer analysis of both the function and dysfunction of RSA. PMID:26869940

  17. High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The architecture of High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation in other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an over-view of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.

  18. Rate of tension redevelopment is not modulated by sarcomere length in permeabilized human, murine, and porcine cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Edes, István Ferenc; Czuriga, Dániel; Csányi, Gábor; Chlopicki, Stefan; Recchia, Fabio A; Borbély, Attila; Galajda, Zoltán; Edes, István; van der Velden, Jolanda; Stienen, Ger J M; Papp, Zoltán

    2007-07-01

    The increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity of isometric force development along with sarcomere length (SL) is considered as the basis of the Frank-Starling law of the heart, possibly involving the regulation of cross-bridge turnover kinetics. Therefore, the Ca(2+) dependencies of isometric force production and of the cross-bridge-sensitive rate constant of force redevelopment (k(tr)) were determined at different SLs (1.9 and 2.3 mum) in isolated human, murine, and porcine permeabilized cardiomyocytes. k(tr) was also determined in the presence of 10 mM inorganic phosphate (P(i)), which interfered with the force-generating cross-bridge transitions. The increases in Ca(2+) sensitivities of force with SL were very similar in human, murine, and porcine cardiomyocytes (DeltapCa(50): approximately 0.11). k(tr) was higher (P < 0.05) in mice than in humans or pigs at all Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]) [maximum k(tr) (k(tr,max)) at a SL of 1.9 mum and pCa 4.75: 1.33 +/- 0.11, 7.44 +/- 0.15, and 1.02 +/- 0.05 s(-1), in humans, mice, and pigs, respectively] but k(tr) did not depend on SL in any species. Moreover, when the k(tr) values for each species were expressed relative to their respective maxima, similar Ca(2+) dependencies were obtained. Ten millimolar P(i) decreased force to approximately 60-65% and left DeltapCa(50) unaltered in all three species. P(i) increased k(tr,max) by a factor of approximately 1.6 in humans and pigs and by a factor of approximately 3 in mice, independent of SL. In conclusion, species differences exert a major influence on k(tr), but SL does not appear to modulate the cross-bridge turnover rates in human, murine, and porcine hearts.

  19. Beware Capital Charge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The capital charge rate has a material effect in cost comparisons. Care should be taken to calculate it correctly and use it properly. The most common mistake is to use a nominal, rather than real, capital charge rate. To make matters worse, the common short-cut formula does not work well. (author)

  20. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  1. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a “universal” form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents −0.352 and −1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913

  2. Applications of Reaction Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  3. Encoding of the amplitude modulation of pulsatile electrical stimulation in the feline cochlear nucleus by neurons in the inferior colliculus; effects of stimulus pulse rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreery, Douglas; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor; Yadav, Kamal; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2013-10-01

    Objectives. Persons without a functional auditory nerve cannot benefit from cochlear implants, but some hearing can be restored by an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) with stimulating electrodes implanted on the surface of the cochlear nucleus (CN). Most users benefit from their ABI, but speech recognition tends to be poorer than for users of cochlear implants. Psychophysical studies suggest that poor modulation detection may contribute to the limited performance of ABI users. In a cat model, we determined how the pulse rate of the electrical stimulus applied within or on the CN affects temporal and rate encoding of amplitude modulation (AM) by neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Approach. Stimulating microelectrodes were implanted chronically in and on the cats' CN, and multi-site recording microelectrodes were implanted chronically into the ICC. Encoding of AM pulse trains by neurons in the ICC was characterized as vector strength (VS), the synchrony of neural activity with the AM, and as the mean rate of neuronal action potentials (neuronal spike rate (NSR)). Main results. For intranuclear microstimulation, encoding of AM as VS was up to 3 dB greater when stimulus pulse rate was increased from 250 to 500 pps, but only for neuronal units with low best acoustic frequencies, and when the electrical stimulation was modulated at low frequencies (10-20 Hz). For stimulation on the surface of the CN, VS was similar at 250 and 500 pps, and the dynamic range of the VS was reduced for pulse rates greater than 250 pps. Modulation depth was encoded strongly as VS when the maximum stimulus amplitude was held constant across a range of modulation depth. This ‘constant maximum’ protocol allows enhancement of modulation depth while preserving overall dynamic range. However, modulation depth was not encoded as strongly as NSR. Significance. The findings have implications for improved sound processors for present and future ABIs. The performance of

  4. Reconfigurable intensity modulation and direct detection optical transceivers for variable-rate wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical networks utilizing digital signal processing-based symbol mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Bingbing; Chen, Yanxu; Chen, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Variable-rate intensity modulation and direct detection-based optical transceivers with software-controllable reconfigurability and transmission performance adaptability are experimentally demonstrated, utilizing M-QAM symbol mapping implemented in MATLAB® programs. A frequency division multiplexing-based symbol demapping and wavelength management method is proposed for the symbol demapper and tunable laser management used in colorless optical network unit.

  5. National ART Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What are the steps for an ART cycle ... 37MB] Section 3: ART Cycles using frozen nondonor embryos Did implantation rates differ by a woman’s age? [ ...

  6. The ratings game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2009-04-01

    How sad to read a supposedly serious debate among distinguished physicists (February p19) about which combinations of the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) ratings represent a university physics department's true strengths.

  7. Rating the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explains how people arrive at personal hazard assessments. Explores why people overestimate some hazards and underestimate others. Examines risk ratings for activities and technologies such as nuclear power, motor vehicles, pesticides, and vaccinations. (MA)

  8. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  9. Video Slope Rate Detector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent describes an apparatus for measuring the rate of change of voltage and the polarity of a pulse having a two input terminal differential amplifier with a delay line connected to one of the input terminals.

  10. Rating Your Cash Manager?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, George A.; Johannisson, Eric E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of a public cash management policy should include safety, liquidity, yield, and legality. Contains a cash management policy/procedure checklist, a test for cash managers, and a formula for calculating the rate of return. (MLF)

  11. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  12. Hydroxychloroquine reduces heart rate by modulating the hyperpolarization-activated current If: Novel electrophysiological insights and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Capel, Rebecca A.; Herring, Neil; Kalla, Manish; Yavari, Arash; Mirams, Gary R.; Douglas, Gillian; Bub, Gil; Channon, Keith; Paterson, David J.; Terrar, Derek A.; Burton, Rebecca-Ann B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bradycardic agents are of interest for the treatment of ischemic heart disease and heart failure, as heart rate is an important determinant of myocardial oxygen consumption. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the propensity of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to cause bradycardia. Methods We assessed the effects of HCQ on (1) cardiac beating rate in vitro (mice); (2) the “funny” current (If) in isolated guinea pig sinoatrial node (SAN) myocytes (1, 3, 10 µM); (3) heart rate and blood pressure in vivo by acute bolus injection (rat, dose range 1–30 mg/kg), (4) blood pressure and ventricular function during feeding (mouse, 100 mg/kg/d for 2 wk, tail cuff plethysmography, anesthetized echocardiography). Results In mouse atria, spontaneous beating rate was significantly (P < .05) reduced (by 9% ± 3% and 15% ± 2% at 3 and 10 µM HCQ, n = 7). In guinea pig isolated SAN cells, HCQ conferred a significant reduction in spontaneous action potential firing rate (17% ± 6%, 1 μM dose) and a dose-dependent reduction in If (13% ± 3% at 1 µM; 19% ± 2% at 3 µM). Effects were also observed on L-type calcium ion current (ICaL) (12% ± 4% reduction) and rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) (35% ± 4%) at 3 µM. Intravenous HCQ decreased heart rate in anesthetized rats (14.3% ± 1.1% at 15mg/kg; n = 6) without significantly reducing mean arterial blood pressure. In vivo feeding studies in mice showed no significant change in systolic blood pressure nor left ventricular function. Conclusions We have shown that HCQ acts as a bradycardic agent in SAN cells, in atrial preparations, and in vivo. HCQ slows the rate of spontaneous action potential firing in the SAN through multichannel inhibition, including that of If. PMID:26025323

  13. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  14. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  15. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  16. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  17. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for pancreatic and prostate cancer using pulsed low–dose rate delivery techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Lang, Jinyi; Wang, Pei; Kang, Shengwei; Lin, Mu-han; Chen, Xiaoming; Chen, Fu; Guo, Ming; Chen, Lili; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie

    2014-01-01

    Reirradiation of patients who were previously treated with radiotherapy is vastly challenging. Pulsed low–dose rate (PLDR) external beam radiotherapy has the potential to reduce normal tissue toxicities while providing significant tumor control for recurrent cancers. This work investigates treatment planning techniques for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-based PLDR treatment of various sites, including cases with pancreatic and prostate cancer. A total of 20 patients with clinical recurrence were selected for this study, including 10 cases with pancreatic cancer and 10 with prostate cancer. Large variations in the target volume were included to test the ability of IMRT using the existing treatment planning system and optimization algorithm to deliver uniform doses in individual gantry angles/fields for PLDR treatments. Treatment plans were generated with 10 gantry angles using the step-and-shoot IMRT delivery technique, which can be delivered in 3-minute intervals to achieve an effective low dose rate of 6.7 cGy/min. Instead of dose constraints on critical structures, ring structures were mainly used in PLDR-IMRT optimization. In this study, the PLDR-IMRT plans were compared with the PLDR-3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans and the PLDR-RapidArc plans. For the 10 cases with pancreatic cancer that were investigated, the mean planning target volume (PTV) dose for each gantry angle in the PLDR-IMRT plans ranged from 17.6 to 22.4 cGy. The maximum doses ranged between 22.9 and 34.8 cGy. The minimum doses ranged from 8.2 to 17.5 cGy. For the 10 cases with prostate cancer that were investigated, the mean PTV doses for individual gantry angles ranged from 18.8 to 22.6 cGy. The maximum doses per gantry angle were between 24.0 and 34.7 cGy. The minimum doses per gantry angle ranged from 4.4 to 17.4 cGy. A significant reduction in the organ at risk (OAR) dose was observed with the PLDR-IMRT plan when compared with that using the PLDR-3DCRT

  18. Body Sodium Overload Modulates the Firing Rate and Fos Immunoreactivity of Serotonergic Cells of Dorsal Raphe Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Andrea; Pitra, Soledad; Carrer, Hugo F.; Vivas, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether serotonergic (5HT) dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) cells are involved in body sodium status regulation, the effect of a s.c. infusion of either 2 M or 0.15 M NaCl on 5HT DRN neuron firing was studied using single unit extracellular recordings. In separate groups of 2 M and 0.15 M NaCl-infused rats, water intake, oxytocin (OT) plasma concentration, urine and plasma sodium and protein concentrations were also measured. Also, to determine the involvement of particular brain nuclei and neurochemical systems in body sodium overload (SO), animals from both groups were perfused for brain immunohistochemical detection of Fos, Fos-OT and Fos-5HT expression. SO produced a significant increase in serotonergic DRN neuron firing rate compared to baseline and 0.15 M NaCl-infused rats. As expected, 2 M NaCl s.c. infusion also induced a significant increase of water intake, diuresis and natriuresis, plasma sodium concentration and osmolality, even though plasma volume did not increase as indicated by changes in plasma protein concentration. The distribution of neurons along the forebrain and brainstem expressing Fos after SO showed the participation of the lamina terminalis, extended amygdala, supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei in the neural network that controls osmoregulatory responses. Both Fos-OT immunoreactive and plasma OT concentration increased after s.c. hypertonic sodium infusion. Finally, matching the “in vivo” electrophysiological study, SO doubled the number of Fos-5HT immunolabeled cells within the DRN. In summary, the results characterize the behavioral, renal and endocrine responses after body sodium overload without volume expansion and specify the cerebral nuclei that participate at different CNS levels in the control of these responses. The electrophysiological approach also allows us to determine in an “in vivo" model that DRN 5HT neurons increase their firing frequency during an increase in systemic sodium

  19. SU-E-P-15: Technique Factor Modulation and Reference Plane Air Kerma Rates in Response to Simulated Patient Thickness Variations for a Sample of Current Generation Fluoroscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderle, K; Rakowski, J; Dong, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare approaches to technique factor modulation and air kerma rates in response to simulated patient thickness variations for four state-of-the-art and one previous-generation interventional fluoroscopes. Methods: A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom was used as a tissue surrogate for the purposes of determining fluoroscopic reference plane air kerma rates, kVp, mA, and spectral filtration over a wide range of simulated tissue thicknesses. Data were acquired for each fluoroscopic and acquisition dose curve within a default abdomen or body imaging protocol. Results: The data obtained indicated vendor- and model-specific variations in the approach to technique factor modulation and reference plane air kerma rates across a range of tissue thicknesses. Some vendors have made hardware advances increasing the radiation output capabilities of their fluoroscopes; this was evident in the acquisition air kerma rates. However, in the imaging protocol evaluated, all of the state-of-the-art systems had relatively low air kerma rates in the fluoroscopic low-dose imaging mode as compared to the previous-generation unit. Each of the newest-generation systems also employ copper filtration in the selected protocol in the acquisition mode of imaging; this is a substantial benefit, reducing the skin entrance dose to the patient in the highest dose-rate mode of fluoroscope operation. Conclusion: Understanding how fluoroscopic technique factors are modulated provides insight into the vendor-specific image acquisition approach and provides opportunities to optimize the imaging protocols for clinical practice. The enhanced radiation output capabilities of some of the fluoroscopes may, under specific conditions, may be beneficial; however, these higher output capabilities also have the potential to lead to unnecessarily high dose rates. Therefore, all parties involved in imaging, including the clinical team, medical physicists, and imaging vendors, must work

  20. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death.

  1. Quantify Degradation Rates and Mechanisms of PV Modules and Systems Installed in Florida Through Comprehensive Experimental and Theoretical Analysis (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorloaica-Hickman, N.; Davis, K.; Kurtz, S.; Jordan, D.

    2011-02-01

    The economic viability of photovoltaic (PV) technologies is inextricably tied to both the electrical performance and degradation rate of the PV systems, which are the generators of electrical power in PV systems. Over the past 15 years, performance data have been collected on numerous PV systems installed throughout the state of Florida and will be presented.

  2. Optical rate sensor algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, Jo A.

    1989-01-01

    Optical sensors, in particular Charge Coupled Device (CCD) arrays, will be used on Space Station to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. Algorithms are presented to derive attitude rate from the optical sensors. The first algorithm is a recursive differentiator. A variance reduction factor (VRF) of 0.0228 was achieved with a rise time of 10 samples. A VRF of 0.2522 gives a rise time of 4 samples. The second algorithm is based on the direct manipulation of the pixel intensity outputs of the sensor. In 1-dimensional simulations, the derived rate was with 0.07 percent of the actual rate in the presence of additive Gaussian noise with a signal to noise ratio of 60 dB.

  3. Inertial wave beams and inertial wave modes in a rotating cylinder with time-modulated rotation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcia, Ion D.; Ghasemi V., Abouzar; Harlander, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Inertial gravity waves play an crucial role in atmospheres, oceans, and the fluid inside of planets and moons. In the atmosphere, the effect of rotation is neglected for small wavelength and the waves bear the character of internal gravity waves. For long waves, the hydrostatic assumption is made which in turn makes the atmosphere inelastic with respect to inertial motion. In contrast, in the Earth's interior, pure inertial waves are considered as an important fundamental part of the motion. Moreover, as the deep ocean is nearly homogeneous, there the inertial gravity waves bear the character of inertial waves. Excited at the oceans surface mainly due to weather systems the waves can propagate downward and influence the deep oceans motion. In the light of the aforesaid it is important to understand better fundamental inertial wave dynamics. We investigate inertial wave modes by experimental and numerical methods. Inertial modes are excited in a fluid filled rotating annulus by modulating the rotation rate of the outer cylinder and the upper and lower lids. This forcing leads to inertial wave beams emitted from the corner regions of the annulus due to periodic motions in the boundary layers (Klein et al., 2013). When the forcing frequency matches with the eigenfrequency of the rotating annulus the beam pattern amplitude is increasing, the beams broaden and mode structures can be observed (Borcia et al., 2013a). The eigenmodes are compared with analytical solutions of the corresponding inviscid problem (Borcia et al, 2013b). In particular for the pressure field a good agreement can be found. However, shear layers related to the excited wave beams are present for all frequencies. This becomes obvious in particular in the experimental visualizations that are done by using Kalliroscope particles, highlighting relative motion in the fluid. Comparing the eigenfrequencies we find that relative to the analytical frequencies, the experimental and numerical ones show a small

  4. Currency Exchange Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual…

  5. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  6. Target Heart Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Lower Your Sodium in 21 Days! Learn how you can lower your sodium and change your salty ways in 21 Days! Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart ...

  7. Modelling Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    Determination of the intentions of the test developer is fundamental to the choice of the analytical model for a rating scale. For confirmatory analysis, the developer's intentions inform the choice of the general form of the model, representing the manner in which the respondent interacts with the scale; these intentions also inform the choice of…

  8. Paradoxes in Film Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

  9. What's in a Rating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Walsh, Elias

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the formal ratings that principals give teachers and a variety of observable teacher characteristics, including proxies for productivity. Prior work has shown that principals can differentiate between more and less effective teachers, especially at the tails of the quality distribution, and that subjective…

  10. Variable Rate Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers with the ability to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer a producer great cost savings; however, the full potential of these benefits and savings cannot...

  11. Variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  12. Variable rate irrigation (VRI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology is now offered by all major manufacturers of moving irrigation systems, mostly on center pivot irrigation systems. Variable irrigation depths may be controlled by sector only, in which case only the speed of the irrigation lateral is regulated. Or, variable ...

  13. Snowmelt rate dictates streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, Theodore B.; Molotch, Noah P.; Livneh, Ben; Harpold, Adrian A.; Knowles, John F.; Schneider, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    Declining mountain snowpack and earlier snowmelt across the western United States has implications for downstream communities. We present a possible mechanism linking snowmelt rate and streamflow generation using a gridded implementation of the Budyko framework. We computed an ensemble of Budyko streamflow anomalies (BSAs) using Variable Infiltration Capacity model-simulated evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, and estimated precipitation at 1/16° resolution from 1950 to 2013. BSA was correlated with simulated baseflow efficiency (r2 = 0.64) and simulated snowmelt rate (r2 = 0.42). The strong correlation between snowmelt rate and baseflow efficiency (r2 = 0.73) links these relationships and supports a possible streamflow generation mechanism wherein greater snowmelt rates increase subsurface flow. Rapid snowmelt may thus bring the soil to field capacity, facilitating below-root zone percolation, streamflow, and a positive BSA. Previous works have shown that future increases in regional air temperature may lead to earlier, slower snowmelt and hence decreased streamflow production via the mechanism proposed by this work.

  14. Growth rate and cell size modulate the synthesis of, and requirement for, G1-phase cyclins at start.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brandt L; Zhang, Jian; Markwardt, J; Tokiwa, George; Volpe, Tom; Honey, Sangeet; Futcher, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commitment to cell cycle progression occurs at Start. Progression past Start requires cell growth and protein synthesis, a minimum cell size, and G(1)-phase cyclins. We examined the relationships among these factors. Rapidly growing cells expressed, and required, dramatically more Cln protein than did slowly growing cells. To clarify the role of cell size, we expressed defined amounts of CLN mRNA in cells of different sizes. When Cln was expressed at nearly physiological levels, a critical threshold of Cln expression was required for cell cycle progression, and this critical threshold varied with both cell size and growth rate: as cells grew larger, they needed less CLN mRNA, but as cells grew faster, they needed more Cln protein. At least in part, large cells had a reduced requirement for CLN mRNA because large cells generated more Cln protein per unit of mRNA than did small cells. When Cln was overexpressed, it was capable of promoting Start rapidly, regardless of cell size or growth rate. In summary, the amount of Cln required for Start depends dramatically on both cell size and growth rate. Large cells generate more Cln1 or Cln2 protein for a given amount of CLN mRNA, suggesting the existence of a novel posttranscriptional size control mechanism.

  15. Prolonged Adaptation to a Low or High Protein Diet Does Not Modulate Basal Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates – A Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Hursel, Rick; Martens, Eveline A. P.; Gonnissen, Hanne K. J.; Hamer, Henrike M.; Senden, Joan M. G.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Based on controlled 36 h experiments a higher dietary protein intake causes a positive protein balance and a negative fat balance. A positive net protein balance may support fat free mass accrual. However, few data are available on the impact of more prolonged changes in habitual protein intake on whole-body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. Objective To assess changes in whole-body protein turnover and basal muscle protein synthesis rates following 12 weeks of adaptation to a low versus high dietary protein intake. Methods A randomized parallel study was performed in 40 subjects who followed either a high protein (2.4 g protein/kg/d) or low protein (0.4 g protein/kg/d) energy-balanced diet (30/35/35% or 5/60/35% energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat) for a period of 12 weeks. A subgroup of 7 men and 8 women (body mass index: 22.8±2.3 kg/m2, age: 24.3±4.9 y) were selected to evaluate the impact of prolonged adaptation to either a high or low protein intake on whole body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. After the diet, subjects received continuous infusions with L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-2H2]tyrosine in an overnight fasted state, with blood samples and muscle biopsies being collected to assess post-absorptive whole-body protein turnover and muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. Results After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body protein balance in the fasted state was more negative in the high protein treatment when compared with the low protein treatment (-4.1±0.5 vs -2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.001). Whole-body protein breakdown (43.0±4.4 vs 37.8±3.8 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.03), synthesis (38.9±4.2 vs 35.1±3.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.01) and phenylalanine hydroxylation rates (4.1±0.6 vs 2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.001) were significantly higher in the high vs low protein group. Basal muscle protein synthesis rates were maintained on a low

  16. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  17. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  18. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  19. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  20. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, Andrew

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.

  1. Rotational rate sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  2. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  3. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  4. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  5. The effect of ATP-sensitive potassium channel modulation on heart rate in isolated muskrat and guinea pig hearts.

    PubMed

    Streeby, D R; McKean, T A

    1994-12-01

    Muskrats (Ondontra zibethicus) are common freshwater diving mammals exhibiting a bradycardia with both forced and voluntary diving. This bradycardia is mediated by vagal innervation; however, if hypoxia is present there may be local factors that also decrease heart rate. Some of these local factors may include ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation and extracellular accumulation of potassium ions, hydrogen ions and lactate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these factors in the isolated perfused hearts of muskrats and of a non-diving mammal, the guinea pig. Although lactate and proton administration reduced heart rate in isolated muskrat and guinea pig hearts, there was no difference in the response to lactate and proton infusion between the two species. Muskrat hearts were more sensitive to the heart-rate-lowering effects of exogenously applied potassium than were guinea pig hearts. Early increases in extracellular potassium concentration during hypoxia are thought to be mediated by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Activation of these channels under normoxic conditions had a mildly negative chronotropic effect in both species; however, activation of these channels with Lemakalim under hypoxic conditions caused the guinea pig heart to respond with an augmented bradycardia similar to that seen in the hypoxic muskrat heart in the absence of drugs. Inhibition of these channels by glibenclamide during hypoxia was partially successful in blocking the bradycardia in guinea pig hearts, but inhibition of the same channels in hypoxic muskrat hearts had a damaging effect as two of five hearts went into contracture during the hypoxia. Thus, although ATP-sensitive potassium channels appear to have a major role in the bradycardia of hypoxia in guinea pigs, the failure to prevent the bradycardia by inhibition of these channels in muskrat hearts suggests that multiple factors are involved in the hypoxia-induced bradycardia in this species.

  6. Modulation of the cell membrane expression of the kininogens regulates the rate of bradykinin delivery to cells.

    PubMed

    Schmaier, A H

    1992-01-01

    The kininogens were first recognized as the parent molecules for bradykinin. Their relative physiologic importance in plasma hemostasis and fibrinolysis and tissue cysteine protease inhibition has not been clarifed. Recent studies on the structure and function of the plasma kininogens, their interaction with cells of the intravascular compartment, and clinical investigations on contact system activation have refocused the physiologic importance of these proteins to kinin delivery for the maintance of vasodilatory tone. Kininogen expression on platelets slows the rate of kinin liberation, and kinins upregulate kininogen expression on endothelial cells. Regulation of kinin delivery by influencing kininogen expression may provide for new agents to manipulate blood pressure.

  7. Longitudinal Assessment of Global and Regional Rate of Grey Matter Atrophy in 1,172 Healthy Older Adults: Modulation by Sex and Age

    PubMed Central

    Crivello, Fabrice; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Tzourio, Christophe; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the neuroanatomical changes in healthy older adults is important to differentiate pathological from normal brain structural aging. The present study investigated the annualized rate of GM atrophy in a large sample of older participants, focusing on the hippocampus, and searching for modulation by age and sex. In this 4-year longitudinal community cohort study, we used a VBM analysis to estimate the annualized rate of GM loss, at both the global and regional levels, in 1,172 healthy older adults (65–82 years) scanned at 1.5T. The global annualized rate of GM was −4.0 cm3/year (−0.83%/year). The highest rates of regional GM loss were found in the frontal and parietal cortices, middle occipital gyri, temporal cortex and hippocampus. The rate of GM atrophy was higher in women (−4.7 cm3/year, −0.91%/year) than men (−3.3 cm3/year, −0.65%/year). The global annualized rate of GM atrophy remained constant throughout the age range of the cohort, in both sexes. This pattern was replicated at the regional level, with the exception of the hippocampi, which showed a rate of GM atrophy that accelerated with age (2.8%/year per year of age) similarly for men and women. The present study reports a global and regional description of the annualized rate of grey matter loss and its evolution after the age of 65. Our results suggest greater anatomical vulnerability of women in late life and highlight a specific vulnerability of the hippocampus to the aging processes after 65 years of age. PMID:25469789

  8. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  9. Compendium of photovoltaic degradation rates: Photovoltaic degradation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk C.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; VanSant, Kaitlyn; Newmiller, Jeff

    2016-02-07

    Published data on photovoltaic (PV) degradation measurements were aggregated and re-examined. The subject has seen an increased interest in recent years resulting in more than 11 000 degradation rates in almost 200 studies from 40 different countries. As studies have grown in number and size, we found an impact from sampling bias attributable to size and accuracy. Because of the correlational nature of this study we examined the data in several ways to minimize this bias. We found median degradation for x-Si technologies in the 0.5-0.6%/year range with the mean in the 0.8-0.9%/year range. Hetero-interface technology (HIT) and microcrystalline silicon (..mu..c-Si) technologies, although not as plentiful, exhibit degradation around 1%/year and resemble thin-film products more closely than x-Si. Several studies showing low degradation for copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) have emerged. Higher degradation for cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been reported, but these findings could reflect a convolution of less accurate studies and longer stabilization periods for some products. Significant deviations for beginning-of-life measurements with respect to nameplate rating have been documented over the last 35 years. Therefore, degradation rates that use nameplate rating as reference may be significantly impacted. Studies that used nameplate rating as reference but used solar simulators showed less variation than similar studies using outdoor measurements, even when accounting for different climates. This could be associated with confounding effects of measurement uncertainty and soiling that take place outdoors. Hotter climates and mounting configurations that lead to sustained higher temperatures may lead to higher degradation in some, but not all, products. Wear-out non-linearities for the worst performing modules have been documented in a few select studies that took multiple measurements of an ensemble of modules during the lifetime of the system. However, the majority

  10. Clinical rating scales.

    PubMed

    Relja, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), rating scales are used to assess the degree of disease-related disability and to titrate long-term treatment to each phase of the disease. Recognition of non-motor symptoms required modification of existing widely used scales to integrate non-motor elements. In addition, new scales have been developed for the assessment of non-motor symptoms. In this article, assessment of PD patients will be discussed, particularly for non-motor symptoms such as pain and fatigue.

  11. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  12. Exhaustive endurance training for 6-9 weeks did not induce changes in intrinsic heart rate and cardiac autonomic modulation in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the effects of progressively increased training load and overtraining on resting and intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM), and their relationships to performance variables. Nine athletes (ETG) increased training volume at 70-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 130% (p<0.01) and training volume at <70% VO2max by 100% (p < 0.01) during 6-9 weeks. The corresponding increases in six female control athletes (CG) were 5 and 10%. Pharmacological blocking through atropine and propranolol and the Rosenblueth and Simeone model were used to calculate the sympathovagal balance index (Abal) and to measure IHR. The results were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. VO2max, IHR and Abal did not change. Resting heart rate had a tendency to decrease in the ETG and increase in the CG during the training period (interaction p < 0.01). Five ETG athletes demonstrated overtraining state (OA subgroup). Their VO2max (mean+/-SEM) decreased from 53.0+/-2.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) to 50.2+/-2.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (p < 0.01), but no changes in resting HR, IHR and Abal were found. A significant correlation between the baseline values of VO2max and the parasympathetic activity index was found (r=-0.59, p < 0.05). In conclusion, progressively increased training load and overtraining did not induce significant changes in intrinsic heart rate or cardiac autonomic modulation in female endurance athletes. Resting heart rate rather decreased with heavy endurance training and overtraining. High maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with high cardiac parasympathetic modulation.

  13. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  14. Lindblad rate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Budini, Adrian A.

    2006-11-15

    In this paper we derive an extra class of non-Markovian master equations where the system state is written as a sum of auxiliary matrixes whose evolution involve Lindblad contributions with local coupling between all of them, resembling the structure of a classical rate equation. The system dynamics may develop strong nonlocal effects such as the dependence of the stationary properties with the system initialization. These equations are derived from alternative microscopic interactions, such as complex environments described in a generalized Born-Markov approximation and tripartite system-environment interactions, where extra unobserved degrees of freedom mediates the entanglement between the system and a Markovian reservoir. Conditions that guarantee the completely positive condition of the solution map are found. Quantum stochastic processes that recover the system dynamics in average are formulated. We exemplify our results by analyzing the dynamical action of nontrivial structured dephasing and depolarizing reservoirs over a single qubit.

  15. Vital Signs Rate Meter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    S15 VITAL SIGNS RTE NETER(U) TEXAS R FW4D A UNIV COLLEGE 1/1 STATION IENGINEERING PROGM C S LESSAD ET RL. SEP 8? USRFSN-TR-$?-14 F33615-S3-D-0602...UNCLMSIFIED F/O 6/12 ML IIB 125 11 128 11.2.5_ ka7 U S S SS S S S S S0 02.2 36 * . * * * . - * . - .. . - - . Q -- .* USAFSAM-TR-87-1 4 VITAL SIGNS RATE...UNIT ELEMENT NO. INO.I NO. IACESSION NO. 622027 2729 02 21 11 TITLE ft ml’S111111:1111"ll vital Signs Rae ~t= 12. PERSONAL AUTWOR(S) Lessard, Cierles

  16. Modulation of the reaction rate of regulating protein induces large morphological and motional change of amoebic cell.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin I; Sasai, Masaki

    2007-03-21

    Morphologies of moving amoebae are categorized into two types. One is the "neutrophil" type in which the long axis of cell roughly coincides with its moving direction. This type of cell extends a leading edge at the front and retracts a narrow tail at the rear, whose shape has been often drawn as a typical amoeba in textbooks. The other one is the "keratocyte" type with widespread lamellipodia along the front side arc. Short axis of cell in this type roughly coincides with its moving direction. In order to understand what kind of molecular feature causes conversion between two types of morphologies, and how two typical morphologies are maintained, a mathematical model of amoebic cells is developed. This model describes movement of cell and intracellular reactions of activator, inhibitor and actin filaments in a unified way. It is found that the producing rate of activator is a key factor of conversion between two types. This model also explains the observed data that the keratocyte type cells tend to rapidly move along a straight line. The neutrophil type cells move along a straight line when the moving velocity is small, but they show fluctuated motions deviating from a line when they move as fast as the keratocyte type cells. Efficient energy consumption in the neutrophil type cells is predicted.

  17. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls.

  18. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls. PMID:27578601

  19. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-08-31

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls.

  20. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  1. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Agglomeration Influences Dose-Rates and Modulates Oxidative Stress Mediated Dose-Response Profiles In Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Wang, Wei; Minard, Kevin R.; Karin, Norman J.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-07-31

    Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. The authors created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm-1.5 μm) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared with large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modelling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalysing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density-dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro, the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (μg/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterisation and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their

  2. Towards Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Low Self-Discharge Rate: Ion Diffusion Modulation and Anode Protection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Tao; Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Chen-Zi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-09-07

    The self-discharge of a lithium-sulfur cell decreases the shelf-life of the battery and is one of the bottlenecks that hinders its practical applications. New insights into both the internal chemical reactions in a lithium-sulfur system and effective routes to retard self-discharge for highly stable batteries are crucial for the design of lithium-sulfur cells. Herein, a lithium-sulfur cell with a carbon nanotube/sulfur cathode and lithium-metal anode in lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/1,3-dioxolane/dimethyl ether electrolyte was selected as the model system to investigate the self-discharge behavior. Both lithium anode passivation and polysulfide anion diffusion suppression strategies are applied to reduce self-discharge of the lithium-sulfur cell. When the lithium-metal anode is protected by a high density passivation layer induced by LiNO3 , a very low shuttle constant of 0.017 h(-1) is achieved. The diffusion of the polysulfides is retarded by an ion-selective separator, and the shuttle constants decreased. The cell with LiNO3 additive maintained a discharge capacity of 97 % (961 mAh g(-1) ) of the initial capacity after 120 days at open circuit, which was around three times higher than the routine cell (32 % of initial capacity, corresponding to 320 mAh g(-1) ). It is expected that lithium-sulfur batteries with ultralow self-discharge rates may be fabricated through a combination of anode passivation and polysulfide shuttle control, as well as optimization of the lithium-sulfur cell configuration.

  3. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  4. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  5. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  6. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  7. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  8. Average bit error rate performance analysis of subcarrier intensity modulated MRC and EGC FSO systems with dual branches over M distribution turbulence channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ran-ran; Wang, Ping; Cao, Tian; Guo, Li-xin; Yang, Yintang

    2015-07-01

    Based on the space diversity reception, the binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulated free space optical (FSO) system over Málaga (M) fading channels is investigated in detail. Under independently and identically distributed and independently and non-identically distributed dual branches, the analytical average bit error rate (ABER) expressions in terms of H-Fox function for maximal ratio combining (MRC) and equal gain combining (EGC) diversity techniques are derived, respectively, by transforming the modified Bessel function of the second kind into the integral form of Meijer G-function. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is also provided to verify the accuracy of the presented models.

  9. Psychrophilic (6--15 {degree}C) high-rate anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater in a two-module expanded granular sludge bed system

    SciTech Connect

    Rebac, S.; Lier, J.B. van; Lens, P.; Cappellen, J. van; Vermeulen, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Dekkers, F.; Swinkels, K.T.M.

    1998-11-01

    Psychrophilic (6--15 C) anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater was investigated. A two-module expanded granular sludge bed reactor system with a total volume of 140 dm{sup 3} was used to treat malting wastewater having a soluble and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) between 233 and 1778 mg dm{sup {minus}3} and between 317 and 4422 mg dm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. The removal efficiencies at 6 C were 47 and 71% of the soluble and volatile fatty acids (VFA) COD, at organic loading rates (OLR) ranging between 3.3 and 5.8 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The removal efficiencies at 10--15 C were 67--78 and 90--96% of the soluble and VFA COD at an OLR between 2.8 and 12.3 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The specific methanogenic activity of the sludge present in each module increased 2--3-fold during system operation for 400 days. The relatively high concentration of suspended solids in the influent (25% of the total COD) caused a deterioration of the sludge bed in the first reactor module. This was aggravated by excessive growth of acidifying biomass, which persisted in the first module sludge bed and resulted in granular sludge flotation. However, the second module could accommodate the increased OLR, this providing a very high effluent quality (soluble COD < 200 mg dm{sup {minus}3}) of the total system. The stability of module 1 concerning suspended solids could be restored by presettling the wastewater.

  10. Consumers Union rates condoms.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    In an effort to provide some insights as to why and how condoms fail, the Consumers Union of the United States tested brandname condoms for leakage, bursting, tensile strength and heat deterioration and surveyed 1900 women and men who used the method for birth control. The highest-ranked latex condoms were Nuform, Trojan Plus, Conceptrol Shield and Horizon Nuda. Least preferred were Sheik No. 22 unlubricated condoms and Trojan unlubricated. Preferences among skin condoms were Fourex Capsuled and Klingtite Naturalamb. Obvious advantages of the condom method of contraception, in addition to its potentially high success rate, include the following: 1) protection against venereal disease; 2) lack of side effects; 3) simplicity of method; and 4) reasonable price. 1/2 of the 1900 respondentes cited interruption of lovemaking, reduced sensitivity and mere awareness of condom presence as reasons why the method impaired sexual pleasure. Almost 1/4 of the respondents disliked the need for prompt withdrawal in order to avoid spillage, and some feared vigorous intercourse would result in the condom slipping off.

  11. Rates of Earth degassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onions, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    The degassing of the Earth during accretion is constrained by Pu-U-I-Xe systematics. Degassing was much more efficient during the first 100-200 Ma than subsequently, and it was more complete for Xe than for the lighter gases. More than 90 percent of the degassed Xe escaped from the atmosphere during this period. The combination of fractional degassing of melts and rare gas escape from the atmosphere is able to explain the deficit of terrestrial Xe as a simple consequence of this early degassing history. By the time Xe was quantitatively retained in the atmosphere, the abundances of Kr and the lighter gases in the Earth's interior were similar to or higher than the present-day atmospheric abundances. Subsequent transfer of these lighter rare gases into the atmosphere requires a high rate of post-accretion degassing and melt production. Considerations of Pu-U-Xe systematics suggest that relatively rapid post-accretion degassing was continued to ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. The present-day degassing history of the Earth is investigated through consideration of rare gas isotope abundances. Although the Earth is a highly degassed body, depleted in rare gases by many orders of magnitude relative to their solar abundances, it is at the present-day losing primordial rare gases which were trapped at the time of accretion.

  12. Performance Ratings and Librarians Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele, David

    1970-01-01

    Two aspects of rating personnel performance are explored: (1) the rating form and some guidelines for filling it in and (2) the right of the librarian who is being rated to discuss or appeal a rating he believes to be biased. (NH)

  13. 78 FR 14821 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION... Commission has adopted its 2013 preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier... preliminary fee rate on Class II revenues shall be one-half of the annual fee rate, which is 0.037%...

  14. 77 FR 41202 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2012. These rates... Commission. If a Tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the final fee rate...

  15. 76 FR 7879 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2011. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2011 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  16. 75 FR 5342 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2010 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  17. 76 FR 38207 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2011. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the final fee rate...

  18. 77 FR 5267 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2012. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2012 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  19. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  20. A Beat Frequency RF Modulator for Generation of Low Repetition Rate Electron Microbunches for the CEBAF Polarized Source

    SciTech Connect

    John Musson; Reza Kazimi; Benard Poelker; Joseph Grames; John Hansknecht

    2007-06-25

    Fiber-based drive lasers now produce all of the spin-polarized electron beams at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab. The flexibility of these drive lasers, combined with the existing three-beam CEBAF photoinjector Chopper, provides a means to implement a beat frequency technique to produce long time intervals between individual electron microbunches (tens of nanoseconds) by merely varying the nominal 499 MHz drive laser frequency by < 20%. This submission describes the RF Laser modulator that uses a divider and heterodyne scheme to maintain coherence with the accelerator Master Oscillator (MO), while providing delay resolution in increments of 2ns. Some possible uses for such a beam are discussed as well as intended future development.

  1. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induced modulations in precipitation and nitrogen wet deposition rates in the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nergui, T.; Chung, S. H.; Adam, J. C.; Evans, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The ENSO affects atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates through its modulation on N wet deposition. Precipitation and wet deposition measurements at 151 sites of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and the NINO3.4 SST climate index from the NOAA's Climate Prediction Center are analyzed to determine the impacts of the ENSO on N wet deposition and precipitation rates in the continental U.S. Precipitation and N wet deposition time series are dominated by high frequency components; however, they contain a wide range of inter-annual frequency components depending on the location. At the 2-to 6-year timescale, variability of precipitation and N wet deposition rates in the Pacific Northwest, the Rocky Mountains, the Gulf States, the Northeast, and the Great Lakes regions are correlated with that of the NINO3.4 index (r2= 0.09-0.59 for precipitation and r2= 0.09-0.52 for N wet deposition, p<0.05). The spatial patterns and strength of the correlations vary by region and season. The correlations are the strongest and most spatially extensive during winter; 46-62% and 46-53% of the 2- to 6-year variability of precipitation and N wet deposition rates in the Rocky Mountains, the Gulf of Mexico, and near the Great Lakes can be explained by ENSO activity. The wintertime relationships tend to hold through springtime in the Great Lakes, the Ohio River Valley, and the Northeast. During the El Niño winters and springs, N wet deposition rates are higher than normal (greater than the 70thpercentile) in the southern Great Plains and the Gulf Coast. Winter and spring La Niña episodes bring precipitation and N wet deposition rates above normal over the Cascades, the Ohio River Valley, the Northeast and the Great Lakes regions. The ensemble mean of eleven coupled General Circulation Models (Yeh et al., 2009) shows that the weak ENSO cycles, having small to moderate amplitudes and reoccurring in shorter time intervals, are projected to dominate in the 21

  2. Use of the dental disease nonbattle injury encounter module to assess the emergency rate on an Army military installation within the United States.

    PubMed

    Colthirst, Paul; DeNicolo, Philip; Will, Randy; Simecek, John W

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to establish a baseline rate for dental emergencies (DE) occurring within a Brigade Combat Team (BCT) garrisoned on a military installation located in the continental United States (CONUS), and (2) to determine if differences in risk of DE are observed in soldiers of different Dental Fitness Classifications (DFC). Data concerning DE were documented by Army Dental Corps providers using CONUS Dental Disease Nonbattle Injury Emergency Encounter module of the Corporate Dental Application (CDA). The data were collected from September 1, 2011 to December 15, 2011. The number of soldiers at risk, the BCT dental readiness, the DFC of each soldier who experienced a DE, and the date of the dental visit that preceded the DE were documented from CDA. The estimated rate of 221 DE per 1,000 soldiers per year was observed. The risk of DE for DFC 3 soldiers was five times that of soldiers who were DFC 1 or 2. Assessing the DE rate of a BCT in garrison is useful for stakeholders and policymakers who must accommodate the impact of DE on mission readiness.

  3. Dopaminergic Drugs Modulate Learning Rates and Perseveration in Parkinson’s Patients in a Dynamic Foraging Task

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Robb B.; Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Lau, Brian; Myers, Catherine E.; Gluck, Mark A.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Making appropriate choices often requires the ability to learn the value of available options from experience. Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, neurons hypothesized to play a role in reinforcement learning. Although previous studies have shown that Parkinson’s patients are impaired in tasks involving learning from feedback, they have not directly tested the widely held hypothesis that dopamine neuron activity specifically encodes the reward prediction error signal used in reinforcement learning models. To test a key prediction of this hypothesis, we fit choice behavior from a dynamic foraging task with reinforcement learning models and show that treatment with dopaminergic drugs alters choice behavior in a manner consistent with the theory. More specifically, we found that dopaminergic drugs selectively modulate learning from positive outcomes. We observed no effect of dopaminergic drugs on learning from negative outcomes. We also found a novel dopamine-dependent effect on decision making that is not accounted for by reinforcement learning models: perseveration in choice, independent of reward history, increases with Parkinson’s disease and decreases with dopamine therapy. PMID:19955362

  4. A New Paradigm for Gamma Ray Bursts: Long Term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John; Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long term evolution of GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep "breaks" in the long term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power law segment.

  5. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  6. Proteome-wide muscle protein fractional synthesis rates predict muscle mass gain in response to a selective androgen receptor modulator in rats.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Shearer, Todd W; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; King, Chelsea; Wong, Po-Yin Anne; Shen, Ying; Turnbull, Philip S; Kramer, Fritz; Clifton, Lisa; Russell, Alan; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2016-03-15

    Biomarkers of muscle protein synthesis rate could provide early data demonstrating anabolic efficacy for treating muscle-wasting conditions. Androgenic therapies have been shown to increase muscle mass primarily by increasing the rate of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that the synthesis rate of large numbers of individual muscle proteins could serve as early response biomarkers and potentially treatment-specific signaling for predicting the effect of anabolic treatments on muscle mass. Utilizing selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) treatment in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat, we applied an unbiased, dynamic proteomics approach to measure the fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of 167-201 individual skeletal muscle proteins in triceps, EDL, and soleus. OVX rats treated with a SARM molecule (GSK212A at 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg) for 10 or 28 days showed significant, dose-related increases in body weight, lean body mass, and individual triceps but not EDL or soleus weights. Thirty-four out of the 94 proteins measured from the triceps of all rats exhibited a significant, dose-related increase in FSR after 10 days of SARM treatment. For several cytoplasmic proteins, including carbonic anhydrase 3, creatine kinase M-type (CK-M), pyruvate kinase, and aldolase-A, a change in 10-day FSR was strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.90-0.99) to the 28-day change in lean body mass and triceps weight gains, suggesting a noninvasive measurement of SARM effects. In summary, FSR of multiple muscle proteins measured by dynamics of moderate- to high-abundance proteins provides early biomarkers of the anabolic response of skeletal muscle to SARM.

  7. Impact of dose rate on accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy plan delivery using the pretreatment portal dosimetry quality assurance and setting up the workflow at hospital levels

    PubMed Central

    Kaviarasu, Karunakaran; Raj, N. Arunai Nambi; Murthy, K. Krishna; Babu, A. Ananda Giri; Prasad, Bhaskar Laxman Durga

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of dose rate on accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan delivery by comparing the gamma agreement between the calculated and measured portal doses by pretreatment quality assurance (QA) using electronic portal imaging device dosimetry and creating a workflow for the pretreatment IMRT QA at hospital levels. As the improvement in gamma agreement leads to increase in the quality of IMRT treatment delivery, gamma evaluation was carried out for the calculated and the measured portal images for the criteria of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA). Three gamma parameters: Maximum gamma, average gamma, and percentage of the field area with a gamma value>1.0 were analyzed. Three gamma index parameters were evaluated for 40 IMRT plans (315 IMRT fields) which were calculated for 400 monitor units (MU)/min dose rate and maximum multileaf collimator (MLC) speed of 2.5 cm/s. Gamma parameters for all 315 fields are within acceptable limits set at our center. Further, to improve the gamma results, we set an action level for this study using the mean and standard deviation (SD) values from the 315 fields studied. Forty out of 315 IMRT fields showed low gamma agreement (gamma parameters>2 SD as per action level of the study). The parameters were recalculated and reanalyzed for the dose rates of 300, 400 and 500 MU/min. Lowering the dose rate helped in getting an enhanced gamma agreement between the calculated and measured portal doses of complicated fields. This may be attributed to the less complex motion of MLC over time and the MU of the field/segment. An IMRT QA work flow was prepared which will help in improving the quality of IMRT delivery. PMID:26865759

  8. Textbook Deficiencies: Ambiguities in Chemical Kinetics Rates and Rate Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quisenberry, Keith T.; Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2006-03-01

    Balanced chemical reactions often have at least some stoichiometry coefficients that are not unity. To avoid ambiguity in defining the kinetics rate for a reaction, the IUPAC has established the convention, rate = (1/ν i )/(d[A i ]/d t ) relating the reaction rate to the rate of change of concentration of any reactant or product A i and its stoichiometry number ν i (negative for reactants, positive for products). The rate is a product of the rate constant k and some function of the concentrations of reactants and products that must be determined experimentally. While most general chemistry textbooks correctly state this convention, most also proceed to ignore it in subsequent development, particularly in the use of integrated rate laws and the definition of the reaction half-life. We recommend that in future editions, authors make it clear that (i) the reaction rate and rate constant cannot be defined unambiguously without explicitly stating the reaction for which they apply and therefore (ii) the relation between the half-life, which is a physical property of the reaction system, and the rate constant depends upon how the reaction is written. The errors have arisen in part because most texts simply state the integrated rate expressions for first- and second-order reactions without deriving them. It is both appropriate and easy to include such derivations in texts oriented toward students intending careers in science, engineering, and medicine.

  9. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  10. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer Survival rates are often used by doctors ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  11. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  12. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  13. MEMS Rate Sensors for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel P.

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined Electro Mechanical System Rate sensors offer many advantages that make them attractive for space use. They are smaller, consume less power, and cost less than the systems currently available. MEMS Rate Sensors however, have not been optimized for use on spacecraft. This paper describes an approach to developing MEMS Rate Sensors systems for space use.

  14. 75 FR 44807 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the preliminary fee...

  15. Rate and Occupancy Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Association of Coll. and Univ. Housing Officers.

    In its annual effort to determine rate and occupancy trends in the Mid-Atlantic region, MACUHO surveyed by questionnaire the chief housing officers on its mailing list and received 99 usable responses, compared with 65 the previous year. The average double room rate was reported to be $691, compared with $646 in 1975; the average board rate rose…

  16. The use of heart rate variability measures as indicators of autonomic nervous modulation must be careful in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wan-An; Chen, Gau-Yang; Shih, Chun-Che; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2016-10-01

    The precise relation between heart rate variability (HRV) and autonomic re-innervation has not been established explicitly in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), but can be inferred from the fact that the HRV is reduced immediately after OHT and may increase gradually with time. The aim of this study was to investigate the residual HRV in patients about 1-2 years after OHT, as compared with patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Thirteen patients who had received OHT and 14 patients who had received CABG surgery were recruited. HRV analysis was performed and the HRV measures in supine position were compared between these two groups of patients. We found that the mean (mRRI), standard deviation and coefficient of variation of RR intervals, total power, very low frequency power (VLFP), low frequency power, high frequency power (HFP), normalized VLFP (nVLFP) and low-/high-frequency power ratio in the OHT group were all significantly decreased, while the heart rate (HR) and normalized HFP (nHFP) were significantly increased, as compared with the CABG group. The decrease in HRV was more severe in the VLFP region. A smaller nVLFP and a greater nHFP were associated with a smaller mRRI and a larger HR in the OHT patients. The slope of the power law relation of HRV became positive in OHT patients, instead of negative in CABG patients. We conclude that patients after OHT have residual HRV which were characterized by severely depressed time and frequency domain HRV, increased HR and nHFP, decreased nVLFP, and positive slope of the power-law relation of HRV. The use of nHFP as the indicator of vagal modulation and the use of nVLFP as the indicator of renin-angiotensin modulation, thermoregulation and vagal withdrawal must be careful in the OHT patients.

  17. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone’s camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, ‘Unique Heart Rate Monitor’, you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal reflection and sharing with a provider. PMID:28293594

  18. Discharge ratings at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    A discharge rating is the relation of the discharge at a gaging station to stage and sometimes also to other variables. This chapter of 'Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations' describes the procedures commonly used to develop simple ratings where discharge is related only to stage and the most frequently encountered types of complex ratings where additional factors such as rate of change in stage, water-surface slope, or index velocity are used. Fundamental techniques of logarithmic plotting and the applications of simple storage routing to rating development are demonstrated. Computer applications, especially for handheld programmable calculators, and data handling are stressed.

  19. The Galactic Nova Rate Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, a reliable estimate of the Galactic nova rate has remained elusive. Here, the overall Galactic nova rate is estimated by extrapolating the observed rate for novae reaching m≤slant 2 to include the entire Galaxy using a two component disk plus bulge model for the distribution of stars in the Milky Way. The present analysis improves on previous work by considering important corrections for incompleteness in the observed rate of bright novae and by employing a Monte Carlo analysis to better estimate the uncertainty in the derived nova rates. Several models are considered to account for differences in the assumed properties of bulge and disk nova populations and in the absolute magnitude distribution. The simplest models, which assume uniform properties between bulge and disk novae, predict Galactic nova rates of ∼50 to in excess of 100 per year, depending on the assumed incompleteness at bright magnitudes. Models where the disk novae are assumed to be more luminous than bulge novae are explored, and predict nova rates up to 30% lower, in the range of ∼35 to ∼75 per year. An average of the most plausible models yields a rate of {50}-23+31 yr‑1, which is arguably the best estimate currently available for the nova rate in the Galaxy. Virtually all models produce rates that represent significant increases over recent estimates, and bring the Galactic nova rate into better agreement with that expected based on comparison with the latest results from extragalactic surveys.

  20. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented.

  1. Associations of resting heart rate with endothelium-dependent vasodilation and shear rate.

    PubMed

    Laosiripisan, Jitanan; Parkhurst, Kristin L; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a hemodynamic factor that can modulate blood flow as it affects the frequency of shear stimuli acting on the arterial wall. However, the association between heart rate and endothelium-dependent vasodilation remains highly controversial. We determined the association between heart rate at rest and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in 98 apparently healthy adults (18-63 years). The mild and positive association between heart rate and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was no longer significant when age and sex or baseline diameter were controlled for. The path analyses revealed that heart rate was not directly related to FMD but the association was indirectly mediated by shear rate, which was confirmed by a bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CIs (0.0157-0.1056). We concluded that even though heart rate and endothelium-dependent vasodilation were associated with shear rate, there was no independent relation between heart rate and FMD.

  2. Dose rate mapping of VMAT treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, Mark; Antoniu Popescu, I.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Human tissues exhibit a varying response to radiation dose depending on the dose rate and fractionation scheme used. Dose rate effects have been reported for different radiations, and tissue types. The literature indicates that there is not a significant difference in response for low-LET radiation when using dose rates between 1 Gy min-1 and 12 Gy min-1 but lower dose rates have an observable sparing effect on tissues and a differential effect between tissues. In intensity-modulated radiotherapy such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) the dose can be delivered with a wide range of dose rates. In this work we developed a method based on time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the dose rate frequency distribution for clinical VMAT treatments for three cancer sites, head and neck, lung, and pelvis within both planning target volumes (PTV) and normal tissues. The results show a wide range of dose rates are used to deliver dose in VMAT and up to 75% of the PTV can have its dose delivered with dose rates  <1 Gy min-1. Pelvic plans on average have a lower mean dose rate within the PTV than lung or head and neck plans but a comparable mean dose rate within the organs at risk. Two VMAT plans that fulfil the same dose objectives and constraints may be delivered with different dose rate distributions, particularly when comparing single arcs to multiple arc plans. It is concluded that for dynamic plans, the dose rate range used varies to a larger degree than previously assumed. The effect of the dose rate range in VMAT on clinical outcome is unknown.

  3. Dose rate mapping of VMAT treatments.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Mark; Popescu, I Antoniu; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-06-07

    Human tissues exhibit a varying response to radiation dose depending on the dose rate and fractionation scheme used. Dose rate effects have been reported for different radiations, and tissue types. The literature indicates that there is not a significant difference in response for low-LET radiation when using dose rates between 1 Gy min(-1) and 12 Gy min(-1) but lower dose rates have an observable sparing effect on tissues and a differential effect between tissues. In intensity-modulated radiotherapy such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) the dose can be delivered with a wide range of dose rates. In this work we developed a method based on time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the dose rate frequency distribution for clinical VMAT treatments for three cancer sites, head and neck, lung, and pelvis within both planning target volumes (PTV) and normal tissues. The results show a wide range of dose rates are used to deliver dose in VMAT and up to 75% of the PTV can have its dose delivered with dose rates  <1 Gy min(-1). Pelvic plans on average have a lower mean dose rate within the PTV than lung or head and neck plans but a comparable mean dose rate within the organs at risk. Two VMAT plans that fulfil the same dose objectives and constraints may be delivered with different dose rate distributions, particularly when comparing single arcs to multiple arc plans. It is concluded that for dynamic plans, the dose rate range used varies to a larger degree than previously assumed. The effect of the dose rate range in VMAT on clinical outcome is unknown.

  4. Aberrant Meiotic Modulation Partially Contributes to the Lower Germination Rate of Pollen Grains in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Low Nitrogen Supply.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongyan; Wu, Huamao; Pan, Xiaoying; Jin, Weiwei; Li, Xuexian

    2016-11-15

    Pollen germination is an essential step towards successful pollination during maize reproduction. How low niutrogen (N) affects pollen germination remains an interesting biological question to be addressed. We found that only low N resulted in a significantly lower germination rate of pollen grains after 4 weeks of low N, phosphorus or potassium treatment in maize production. Importantly, cytological analysis showed 7-fold more micronuclei in male meiocytes under the low N treatment than in the control, indicating that the lower germination rate of pollen grains was partially due to numerous chromosome loss events resulting from preceding meiosis. The appearance of 10 bivalents in the control and low N cells at diakinesis suggested that chromosome pairing and recombination in meiosis I was not affected by low N. Further gene expression analysis revealed dramatic down-regulation of Nuclear Division Cycle 80 (Ndc80) and Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (Rcc1-1) expression and up-regulation of Cell Division Cycle 20 (Cdc20-1) expression, although no significant difference in the expression level of kinetochore foundation proteins Centromeric Histone H3 (Cenh3) and Centromere Protein C (Cenpc) and cohesion regulators Recombination 8 (Rec8) and Shugoshin (Sgo1) was observed. Aberrant modulation of three key meiotic regulators presumably resulted in a high likelihood of erroneous chromosome segregation, as testified by pronounced lagging chromosomes at anaphase I or cell cycle disruption at meiosis II. Thus, we proposed a cytogenetic mechanism whereby low N affects male meiosis and causes a higher chromosome loss frequency and eventually a lower germination rate of pollen grains in a staple crop plant.

  5. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  6. Saturn component failure rate and failure rate modifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Failure mode frequency ratios, environmental adjustment factors, and failure rates for mechanical and electromechanical component families are presented. The failure rates and failure rate modifiers resulted from a series of studies whose purpose was to provide design, tests, reliability, and systems engineers with accurate, up-to-date failure rate information. The results of the studies were achieved through an extensive engineering analysis of the Saturn Program test data and Unsatisfactory Condition Reports (UCR's) and the application of mathematical techniques developed for the studies.

  7. Heart rate variability shows different cardiovascular modulation in Parkinson's disease patients with tremor dominant subtype compared to those with akinetic rigid dominant subtype.

    PubMed

    Solla, Paolo; Cadeddu, Christian; Cannas, Antonino; Deidda, Martino; Mura, Nicola; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Marrosu, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can present with different motor subtypes depending on the predominant symptoms (tremor or rigidity/bradykinesia). Slower disease progression and less cognitive decline are observed in tremor-dominant patients compared to those with akinetic-rigid subtype. Autonomic cardiovascular disorders have been described in parkinsonian patients, although the definite correlations with different subtypes of PD are not clear. In this context, heart rate variability (HRV) analysis represents a non-invasive and established tool in assessing cardiovascular autonomic modulation. We investigate cardiovascular autonomic modulation in PD patients with tremor dominant subtype in comparison to akinetic rigid dominant subtype subjects using HRV analysis. Twenty-eight PD patients (17 with tremor dominant subtype and 11 with akinetic rigid dominant subtype) were enrolled and compared to 17 age and sex-matched healthy controls. HRV was analyzed in time- and frequency-domains. Low-frequency (LF) values were significantly lower in the akinetic rigid dominant subtype than in the tremor dominant group [LF 41.4 ± 13.6 vs 55.5 ± 11.6 (p < 0.007)] indicating that the disease led to a more evident impairment of the baroreflex modulation of the autonomic outflow mediated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in the first class of patients. These findings support the biological relevance of clinical subtypes supporting the idea of a different pathophysiological process between these subtypes. These differences also suggest that different subtypes may also result in different responses to therapy or in the possible development of cardiovascular side effects of dopaminergic drugs in these different populations.

  8. High data rate systems for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitwood, John

    1991-01-01

    Information systems in the next century will transfer data at rates that are much greater than those in use today. Satellite based communication systems will play an important role in networking users. Typical data rates; use of microwave, millimeter wave, or optical systems; millimeter wave communication technology; modulators/exciters; solid state power amplifiers; beam waveguide transmission systems; low noise receiver technology; optical communication technology; and the potential commercial applications of these technologies are discussed.

  9. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  10. Field measurement of ventilation rates.

    PubMed

    Persily, A K

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75 years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained.

  11. Conducting Market Rate Surveys and Establishing Rate Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric; Collins, Ray; Stoney, Louise

    Market rate surveys and the rate-setting policies and reimbursement rules informed by them are at the core of the market-based approach to child care and are central to the delicate balancing act of ensuring access to subsidized care while at the same time promoting the quality of child care. This report provides an overview of the market-based…

  12. 15 CFR 700.3 - Priority ratings and rated orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Overview § 700.3 Priority ratings and rated orders. (a... for items that the person normally supplies. The existence of previously accepted unrated or lower... contractor to subcontractor to suppliers throughout the procurement chain. (e) Persons may place a...

  13. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.

  14. Multi-calculation rate simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Akhter, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is common in real time simulations of large aerospace systems to separate the high and low frequency subsystems within the simulation and perform the integrations of the subsystems at different calculation rates. This is done to strike a balance between accuracy of calculation and capacity of the digital computer. Questions arising as to the accuracy of this structure compared to single calculation rates were studied using a linear aircraft model. Also investigated were interactions arising to cause errors worse than those expected. Problems are specifically identified and guidelines are given for selection of sample rates for multiple rate simulations.

  15. Assessing dose rate distributions in VMAT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Volken, W.; Terribilini, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Zaugg, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2016-04-01

    Dose rate is an essential factor in radiobiology. As modern radiotherapy delivery techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) introduce dynamic modulation of the dose rate, it is important to assess the changes in dose rate. Both the rate of monitor units per minute (MU rate) and collimation are varied over the course of a fraction, leading to different dose rates in every voxel of the calculation volume at any point in time during dose delivery. Given the radiotherapy plan and machine specific limitations, a VMAT treatment plan can be split into arc sectors between Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine control points (CPs) of constant and known MU rate. By calculating dose distributions in each of these arc sectors independently and multiplying them with the MU rate, the dose rate in every single voxel at every time point during the fraction can be calculated. Independently calculated and then summed dose distributions per arc sector were compared to the whole arc dose calculation for validation. Dose measurements and video analysis were performed to validate the calculated datasets. A clinical head and neck, cranial and liver case were analyzed using the tool developed. Measurement validation of synthetic test cases showed linac agreement to precalculated arc sector times within  ±0.4 s and doses  ±0.1 MU (one standard deviation). Two methods for the visualization of dose rate datasets were developed: the first method plots a two-dimensional (2D) histogram of the number of voxels receiving a given dose rate over the course of the arc treatment delivery. In similarity to treatment planning system display of dose, the second method displays the dose rate as color wash on top of the corresponding computed tomography image, allowing the user to scroll through the variation over time. Examining clinical cases showed dose rates spread over a continuous spectrum, with mean dose rates hardly exceeding 100 cGy min-1 for conventional

  16. Heart Rate and Respiratory Rate Influence on Heart Rate Variability Repeatability: Effects of the Correction for the Prevailing Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with average heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RespRate), alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations 7 days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences—every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001), i.e., by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent. PMID:27588006

  17. Rating Openness: A Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachan, Angus; And Others

    This training manual explains the process of rating client openness from a short sample of dyadic help-intended interactions. The overview of client openness includes a discussion of the 10-week undergraduate program which teaches students to assess client openness based on behavioral ratings from the Group Assessment of Interpersonal Traits…

  18. Descriptive Analysis of Student Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marasini, Donata; Quatto, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Let X be a statistical variable representing student ratings of University teaching. It is natural to assume for X an ordinal scale consisting of k categories (in ascending order of satisfaction). At first glance, student ratings can be summarized by a location index (such as the mode or the median of X) associated with a convenient measure of…

  19. Rating scales and Rasch measurement.

    PubMed

    Andrich, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  20. The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

  1. Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative…

  2. Value of IDEA Ratings Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Just as it has every June since 2006, the U.S. Department of Education last month delivered a rating to each state and territory based on the performance of its special education programs. The ratings, intended to fulfill the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's requirement that "measurable" and "rigorous" targets be…

  3. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  4. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  5. Quantum rate-distortion coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard

    2000-10-01

    I introduce rate-distortion theory for the coding of quantum information, and derive a lower bound, involving the coherent information, on the rate at which qubits must be used to store or compress an entangled quantum source with a given maximum level of distortion per source emission.

  6. Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Theodore D.

    1983-01-01

    Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)

  7. What Is a Reaction Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  8. Test and Evaluation of Reduced Rate Multiplexers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    modems. However, recognizing the potential economics that could result from operating at data rates lower than 64 KB/S, this T&E program is structured to...modulation transmitted as a vestigial . sideband line signal, -16 dB carrier 2853 Hz added in quadrature, 4 level 4800 baud 9600 BIS, 4800/7200/9600 B

  9. Overview of Field Experience - Degradation Rates & Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-14

    The way a PV module fails may depend not only on its design and the materials used in its construction, but also on the weather it experiences, the way it is mounted, and the quality control during its manufacture. This presentation gives an overview of Field Experience - what degradation rates and what lifetimes are being observed in various regions.

  10. A family 11 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) improves the efficacy of a recombinant cellulase used to supplement barley-based diets for broilers at lower dosage rates.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Ponte, P I P; Guerreiro, C I P D; Santos, H M; Falcão, L; Freire, J P B; Ferreira, L M A; Prates, J A M; Fontes, C M G A; Lordelo, M M

    2008-09-01

    1. Exogenous microbial beta-1,3-1,4-glucanases and hemicellulases contribute to improving the nutritive value of cereals rich in soluble non-starch polysaccharides for poultry. 2. In general, plant cell wall hydrolases display a modular structure comprising a catalytic module linked to one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Based on primary structure similarity, CBMs have been classified in 50 different families. CBMs anchor cellulases and hemicellulases into their target substrates, therefore eliciting efficient hydrolysis of recalcitrant polysaccharides. 3. A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a family 11 beta-glucan-binding domain in the function of recombinant derivatives of cellulase CtLic26A-Cel5E of Clostridium thermocellum that were used to supplement a barley-based diet at lower dosage rates. 4. The results showed that birds fed on diets supplemented with the recombinant CtLic26A-Cel5E modular derivative containing the family 11 CBM or the commercial enzyme mixture Rovabio Excel AP tended to display improved performance when compared to birds fed diets not supplemented with exogenous enzymes. 5. It is suggested that at lower than previously reported enzyme dosage (10 U/kg vs 30 U/kg of basal diet), the beta-glucan-binding domain also elicits the function of the recombinant CtLic26A-Cel5E derivatives. 6. Finally, the data suggest that exogenous enzymes added to barley-based diets act primarily in the proximal section of the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. H2O2 production rate in Lactobacillus johnsonii is modulated via the interplay of a heterodimeric flavin oxidoreductase with a soluble 28 Kd PAS domain containing protein

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Ricardo B.; Graves, Christina; Wright, Kaitlyn; Gardner, Christopher L.; Lorca, Graciela L.; Gonzalez, Claudio F.

    2015-01-01

    Host and commensals crosstalk, mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), has triggered a growing scientific interest to understand the mechanisms governing such interaction. However, the majority of the scientific studies published do not evaluate the ROS production by commensals bacteria. In this context we recently showed that Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2, a strain of probiotic value, modulates the activity of the critical enzymes 2,3-indoleamine dioxygenase via H2O2 production. L. johnsonii N6.2 by decreasing IDO activity, is able to modify the tryptophan/kynurenine ratio in the host blood with further systemic consequences. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2 production is critical to predict the probiotic value of these strains and to optimize bacterial biomass production in industrial processes. We performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes differentially expressed in L. johnsonii N6.2 cells collected from cultures grown under different aeration conditions. Herein we described the biochemical characteristics of a heterodimeric FMN reductase (FRedA/B) whose in vitro activity is controlled by LjPAS protein with a typical Per-Arnst-Sim (PAS) sensor domain. Interestingly, LjPAS is fused to the FMN reductase domains in other lactobacillaceae. In L. johnsonii, LjPAS is encoded by an independent gene which expression is repressed under anaerobic conditions (>3 fold). Purified LjPAS was able to slow down the FRedA/B initial activity rate when the holoenzyme precursors (FredA, FredB, and FMN) were mixed in vitro. Altogether the results obtained suggest that LjPAS module regulates the H2O2 production helping the cells to minimize oxidative stress in response to environmental conditions. PMID:26236298

  12. The Logic of Collective Rating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nax, Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of participatory rating mechanisms on online sales platforms has had substantial impact on firms' sales and profits. In this note, we develop a dynamic model of consumer influences on ratings and of rating influences on consumers, focussing on standard 5-star mechanisms as implemented by many platforms. The key components of our social influence model are the consumer trust in the `wisdom of crowds' during the purchase phase and indirect reciprocity during the rating decision. Our model provides an overarching explanation for well-corroborated empirical regularities. We quantify the performance of the voluntary rating mechanism in terms of realized consumer surplus with the no-mechanism and full-information benchmarks, and identify how it could be improved.

  13. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  14. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in General Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Yi; Malik, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system plays an integral role in homeostasis. Autonomic modulation can frequently be altered in patients with cardiac disorders as well as in patients with other critical illnesses or injuries. Assessment of heart rate variability is based on analysis of consecutive normal R-R intervals and may provide quantitative information on the modulation of cardiac vagal and sympathetic nerve input. The hypothesis that depressed heart rate variability may occur over a broad range of illness and injury, and may inversely correlated with disease severity and outcome has been tested in various clinical settings over the last decade. This article reviews recent literature concerning the potential clinical implications and limitations of heart rate variability assessment in general medicine. PMID:16943988

  15. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  16. Comment on 'Time modulation of K-shell electron capture decay rates of H-like heavy ions at GSI experiments.'

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H. J.; Physics; Weizmann Inst. of Science; Tel Aviv Univ.

    2010-04-16

    A Comment on the Letter by A.N. Ivanov and P. Kienle, Physical Review Letters volume 103, Issue 6, 062502 (2009). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply to experimental data at GSI, the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K shell electron capture decays of the H-like heavy ions with one electron in the K shell, such as {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}, {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, and {sup 122}I{sup 52+}, are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC} of the order of a few seconds, obeying an A scaling T{sub EX}=A/20 s, where A is the mass number of the mother nuclei, and with amplitudes a{sub d {sup EC}}{approx}0.21. We show that these data can be explained in terms of the interference of two massive neutrino mass eigenstates. The appearance of the interference term is due to overlap of massive neutrino mass eigenstate energies and of the wave functions of the daughter ions in two-body decay channels, caused by the energy and momentum uncertainties introduced by time differential detection of the daughter ions in GSI experiments.

  17. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  18. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  19. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    PubMed

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R; Lewis, J

    1993-03-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the activity was largely aerobic but varied in intensity, with phases of strenuous anaerobic work. The type of course was shown significantly (analysis of variance; P < 0.001) to affect the mean heart rate attained by each orienteer (FR = 160, HP = 158, SR = 150 beats min-1), with courses that required more technical skill and hence slower running producing lower mean heart rates; although the general physical demands were similar for all courses. The older orienteers (> 45 years) recorded heart rate profiles that were similar to those of the young orienteers with no correlation being found between age and mean heart rate while exercising.

  20. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R; Lewis, J

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the activity was largely aerobic but varied in intensity, with phases of strenuous anaerobic work. The type of course was shown significantly (analysis of variance; P < 0.001) to affect the mean heart rate attained by each orienteer (FR = 160, HP = 158, SR = 150 beats min-1), with courses that required more technical skill and hence slower running producing lower mean heart rates; although the general physical demands were similar for all courses. The older orienteers (> 45 years) recorded heart rate profiles that were similar to those of the young orienteers with no correlation being found between age and mean heart rate while exercising. PMID:8457815

  1. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  2. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  3. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  4. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  5. 78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... pursuant to the following rate schedule: Rate Schedule SRD-13, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy... supersedes the existing rate schedule shown below: Rate Schedule SRD-08, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and... SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION RATE SCHEDULE SRD-13 \\1\\ WHOLESALE RATES FOR HYDRO POWER AND ENERGY SOLD...

  6. 77 FR 2521 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... System pursuant to the Integrated System Rate Schedules which supersede the existing rate schedules... Integrated System pursuant to the following Integrated System Rate Schedules: Rate Schedule P-11,...

  7. Confidence rating for eutrophication assessments.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Uwe H; Topcu, Dilek H

    2014-05-15

    Confidence of monitoring data is dependent on their variability and representativeness of sampling in space and time. Whereas variability can be assessed as statistical confidence limits, representative sampling is related to equidistant sampling, considering gradients or changing rates at sampling gaps. By the proposed method both aspects are combined, resulting in balanced results for examples of total nitrogen concentrations in the German Bight/North Sea. For assessing sampling representativeness surface areas, vertical profiles and time periods are divided into regular sections for which individually the representativeness is calculated. The sums correspond to the overall representativeness of sampling in the defined area/time period. Effects of not sampled sections are estimated along parallel rows by reducing their confidence, considering their distances to next sampled sections and the interrupted gradients/changing rates. Confidence rating of time sections is based on maximum differences of sampling rates at regular time steps and related means of concentrations.

  8. Documentation for POTW Removal Rates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Table VI of the RFI presents removal and destruction rates for toxic chemicals sent to POTWs, based on experimental and estimated data compiled by the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) Program.

  9. TRMM Sees Chantal's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 8, NASA's TRMM satellite saw Tropical Storm Chantal's heaviest rainfall happening at a rate of over 115.5 mm/hr. (~4.5 inches) near Chantal's center where thunderstorms reached heights of o...

  10. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Jan 18,2017 ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  11. High Rate GPS on Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, M.

    2005-12-01

    The high rate GPS data processing can be considered as the "new deal" in geodetic monitoring of active volcanoes. Before an eruption, infact, transient episodes of ground displacements related to the dynamics of magmatic fluids can be revealed through a careful analysis of high rate GPS data. In the very first phases of an eruption the real time processing of high rate GPS data can be used by the authorities of Civil Protection to follow the opening of fractures field on the slopes of the volcanoes. During an eruption large explosions, opening of vents, migration of fractures fields, landslides and other dangerous phenomena can be followed and their potential of damage estimated by authorities. Examples from the recent eruption of Stromboli volcano and from the current activities of high rate GPS monitoring on Mt. Etna are reported, with the aim to show the great potential and the perspectives of this technique.

  12. Tropical Storm Faxai's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows Tropical Storm Faxai's rainfall rates on March 2 from a TRMM TMI/PR rainfall analysis being faded in over infrared cloud data from the TRMM VIRS instrument. Credit: SSAI/NASA, ...

  13. Bulk Etch Rate and Swell Rate of CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, David; Ume, Rubab; Sheets, Rebecca; Regan, Sean; Sangster, Craig; Padalino, Stephen; McLean, James

    2016-10-01

    The use of CR-39 plastic as a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector is an effective technique for obtaining data in high-energy particle experiments including inertial confinement fusion. To reveal particle tracks after irradiation, CR-39 is chemically etched in NaOH at 80°C, producing micron-scale signal pits at the nuclear track sites. The development of these pits depends on both the bulk etch rate and the faster etch rate along the track, and is complicated by swelling as water is absorbed. Contrary to common etching models, we find the bulk etch rate to be depth dependent within 15 μ m of the surface, as revealed by swelling TASTRACK CR-39 pieces to their maximum capacity prior to etching. The bulk etch rate was measured using the standard mass method as well as the fission fragment track diameter method. Combining models of swelling and etching rates predicts the progress of bulk etching during a standard etch, without pre-swelling. This result has implications for the understanding the chemistry of the etch process, as well as the outcome of CR-39 surface preparation methods. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  14. Conditioned inhibition and reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Kwok, Dorothy W S; Andrew, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    We investigated conditioned inhibition in a magazine approach paradigm. Rats were trained on a feature negative discrimination between an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) reinforced at one rate versus a compound of that CS and a visual stimulus (L) reinforced at a lower rate. This training established L as a conditioned inhibitor. We then tested the inhibitory strength of L by presenting it in compound with other auditory CSs. L reduced responding when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a high rate, but had less or even no inhibitory effect when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a low rate. The inhibitory strength of L was greater if it signaled a decrease in reinforcement from an already low rate than if it signaled an equivalent decrease in reinforcement from a high rate. We conclude that the strength of inhibition is not a linear function of the change in reinforcement that it signals. We discuss the implications of this finding for models of learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) that identify inhibition with a difference (subtraction) rule.

  15. Vaccination coverage rates for 1986.

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    This article sets forth data on vaccination coverage rates in children under 1 year of age in the individual countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in 1986. In the Region of the Americas as a whole, the 1986 coverage rate was 80% for oral poliovaccine, 54% for DPT, 55% for measles, and 63% for BCG. Vaccination coverage rates increased over 1985 levels for all but measles, which showed a 5% decline due to decreases in Brazil and Mexico. In the Caribbean subregion, the majority of country coverage rates for DPT and oral poliovirus vaccine are equal to or above 80%, while measles coverage rates are generally below 50%. In Central America, vaccine coverage rates with all antigens except BCG showed significant increases between 1985 and 1986. In Central America, coverage ranged from above 80% for oral poliovirus vaccine and DPT in Belize, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua, to below 40% in Guatemala. In general, countries in the region are improving vaccination performance as a result of establishment of vaccination days or campaigns and acceleration of the Expanded Program on Immunization. However, much work remains to be done if the goal of 100% immunization of children and women of childbearing age by 1990 is to be met.

  16. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  17. Civilian residential fire fatality rates: Six high-rate states versus six low-rate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. R., Jr.; Helzer, S. G.

    1983-08-01

    Results of an analysis of 1,600 fire fatalities occurring in six states with high fire-death rates and six states with low fire-death rates are presented. Reasons for the differences in rates are explored, with special attention to victim age, sex, race, and condition at time of ignition. Fire cause patterns are touched on only lightly but are addressed more extensively in the companion piece to this report, "Rural and Non-Rural Civilian Residential Fire Fatalities in Twelve States', NBSIR 82-2519.

  18. Matching and conditioned reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-03-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement.

  19. High Data Rate Quantum Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiat, Paul; Christensen, Bradley; McCusker, Kevin; Kumor, Daniel; Gauthier, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    While quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are now commercially available, the data rate is a limiting factor for some desired applications (e.g., secure video transmission). Most QKD systems receive at most a single random bit per detection event, causing the data rate to be limited by the saturation of the single-photon detectors. Recent experiments have begun to explore using larger degree of freedoms, i.e., temporal or spatial qubits, to optimize the data rate. Here, we continue this exploration using entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom. That is, we use simultaneous temporal and polarization entanglement to reach up to 8.3 bits of randomness per coincident detection. Due to current technology, we are unable to fully secure the temporal degree of freedom against all possible future attacks; however, by assuming a technologically-limited eavesdropper, we are able to obtain 23.4 MB/s secure key rate across an optical table, after error reconciliation and privacy amplification. In this talk, we will describe our high-rate QKD experiment, with a short discussion on our work towards extending this system to ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, aiming to secure the temporal degree of freedom and to implement a 30-km free-space link over a marine environment.

  20. When Rating Systems Do Not Rate: Evaluating ERA's Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henman, Paul; Brown, Scott D.; Dennis, Simon

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the Australian Government's Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) assessment of research quality declined to rate 1.5 per cent of submissions from universities. The public debate focused on practices of gaming or "coding errors" within university submissions as the reason for this outcome. The issue was about the…

  1. Implementation of Constant Dose Rate and Constant Angular Spacing Intensity-modulated Arc Therapy for Cervical Cancer by Using a Conventional Linear Accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruo-Hui; Fan, Xiao-Mei; Bai, Wen-Wen; Cao, Yan-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) can only be implemented on the new generation linacs such as the Varian Trilogy® and Elekta Synergy®. This prevents most existing linacs from delivering VMAT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a conventional linear accelerator delivering constant dose rate and constant angular spacing intensity-modulated arc therapy (CDR-CAS-IMAT) for treating cervical cancer. Methods: Twenty patients with cervical cancer previously treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using Varian Clinical 23EX were retreated using CDR-CAS-IMAT. The planning target volume (PTV) was set as 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on the ability to meet the dose volume histogram. The homogeneity index (HI), target volume conformity index (CI), the dose to organs at risk, radiation delivery time, and monitor units (MUs) were also compared. The paired t-test was used to analyze the two data sets. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software. Results: Compared to the IMRT group, the CDR-CAS-IMAT group showed better PTV CI (0.85 ± 0.03 vs. 0.81 ± 0.03, P = 0.001), clinical target volume CI (0.46 ± 0.05 vs. 0.43 ± 0.05, P = 0.001), HI (0.09±0.02 vs. 0.11 ± 0.02, P = 0.005) and D95 (5196.33 ± 28.24 cGy vs. 5162.63 ± 31.12 cGy, P = 0.000), and cord D2 (3743.8 ± 118.7 cGy vs. 3806.2 ± 98.7 cGy, P = 0.017) and rectum V40 (41.9 ± 6.1% vs. 44.2 ± 4.8%, P = 0.026). Treatment time (422.7 ± 46.7 s vs. 84.6 ± 7.8 s, P = 0.000) and the total plan Mus (927.4 ± 79.1 vs. 787.5 ± 78.5, P = 0.000) decreased by a factor of 0.8 and 0.15, respectively. The IMRT group plans were superior to the CDR-CAS-IMAT group plans considering decreasing bladder V50 (17.4 ± 4.5% vs. 16.6 ± 4.2%, P = 0.049), bowel V30 (39.6 ± 6.5% vs. 36.6 ± 7.5%, P = 0.008), and low-dose irradiation volume; there were no significant differences in other statistical indexes. Conclusions

  2. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  3. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  4. MEMS Rate Sensors for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Micromachined Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) Rate Sensors are an enabling technology for Nanosatellites. The recent award of a Nanosatellite program to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) underscores the urgency of the development of these systems for space use. The Guidance Navigation and Control Center (GNCC) at the GSFC is involved in several efforts to develop this technology. The GNCC seeks to improve the performance of these sensors and develop flight ready systems for spacecraft use by partnering with industry leaders in MEMS Rate Sensor development. This paper introduces Microgyros and discusses the efforts in progress at the GNCC to improve the performance of these units and develop MEMS Rate Sensors for space use.

  5. Estimation of spontaneous mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Loki; Berry, Charles C; Gasche, Christoph

    2003-09-01

    Spontaneous or randomly occurring mutations play a key role in cancer progression. Estimation of the mutation rate of cancer cells can provide useful information about the disease. To ascertain these mutation rates, we need mathematical models that describe the distribution of mutant cells. In this investigation, we develop a discrete time stochastic model for a mutational birth process. We assume that mutations occur concurrently with mitosis so that when a nonmutant parent cell splits into two progeny, one of these daughter cells could carry a mutation. We propose an estimator for the mutation rate and investigate its statistical properties via theory and simulations. A salient feature of this estimator is the ease with which it can be computed. The methods developed herein are applied to a human colorectal cancer cell line and compared to existing continuous time models.

  6. Injury rates in Shotokan karate

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, G. R.; Mannion, S.; Meredith, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the injury rate in three British Shotokan karate championships in consecutive years. In these tournaments strict rules governed contact, with only "light" or "touch" contact allowed. Protective padding for the head, hands, or feet was prohibited. METHODS: Prospective recording of injuries resulting from 1770 bouts in three national competitions of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Details of ages and years of karate experience were also obtained. RESULTS: 160 injuries were sustained in 1770 bouts. The overall rate of injury was 0.09 per bout and 0.13 per competitor. 91 (57%) injuries were to the head. The average age of those injured was 22 years, with an average of nine years of experience in karate. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of protective padding does not result in higher injury rates than in most other series of Shotokan karate injuries. Strict refereeing is essential, however, to maintain control and minimise contact. 


 PMID:10378069

  7. Calculating transient rates from surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a method to determine the transient surface density and transient rate for any given survey, using Monte Carlo simulations. This method allows us to determine the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of the transients in the whole flux-duration plane rather than one or a few points as currently available methods do. It is applicable to every survey strategy that is monitoring the same part of the sky, regardless the instrument or wavelength of the survey, or the target sources. We have simulated both top-hat and Fast Rise Exponential Decay light curves, highlighting how the shape of the light curve might affect the detectability of transients. Another application for this method is to estimate the number of transients of a given kind that are expected to be detected by a survey, provided that their rate is known.

  8. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  9. Recent deformation rates on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1994-11-01

    Constraints on the recent geological evolution of Venus may be provided by quantitative estimates of the rates of the principal resurfacing processes, volcanism and tectonism. This paper focuses on the latter, using impact craters as strain indicators. The total postimpact tectonic strain lies in the range 0.5-6.5%, which defines a recent mean strain rate of 10-18-10-17/s when divided by the mean surface age. Interpretation of the cratering record as one of pure production requires a decline in resurfacing rates at about 500 Ma (catastrophic resurfacing model). If distributed tectonic resurfacing contributed strongly before that time, as suggested by the widespread occurrence of tessera as inliers, the mean global strain rate must have been at least approximately 10-15/s, which is also typical of terrestrial active margins. Numerical calculations of the response of the lithosphere to inferred mantle convective forces were performed to test the hypothesis that a decrease in surface strain rate by at least two orders of magnitude could be caused by a steady decline in heat flow over the last billion years. Parameterized convection models predict that the mean global thermal gradient decreases by only about 5 K/km over this time; even with the exponential dependence of viscosity upon temperature, the surface strain rate drops by little more than one order of magnitude. Strongly unsteady cooling and very low thermal gradients today are necessary to satisfy the catastrophic model. An alternative, uniformitarian resurfacing hypothesis holds that Venus is resurfaced in quasi-random 'patches' several hundred kilometers in size that occur in response to changing mantle convection patterns.

  10. High Data Rate Instrument Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

    1999-01-01

    The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

  11. On A Theory of Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    asexual . In asexual reproduction , one parent divides into two or more o¤spring. In sexual reproduction , two parents must mate to produce one or more o...spring, n. In terms of rates, asexual reproduction produces n o¤spring, where n may be the ex- pected value of some random variable, so we have a rate of...increase of asexually reproducing population as rasexual n 1 t N (t) ; (210) where: t = the time between reproductions (assuming these times are

  12. On a Theory of Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    take two forms (that we know of): sexual and asexual . In asexual reproduction , one parent divides into two or more o¤spring. In sexual reproduction , two...parents must mate to produce one or more o¤spring, n. In terms of rates, asexual reproduction produces n o¤spring, where n may be the ex- pected...especially for the asexual reproduction forms. This is a rather obvious example where rate theory produces something strikingly di¤erent from what is

  13. Breathing rates and heart rate spectrograms regarding body position in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Avbelj, Viktor; Kalisnik, Jurij-Matija; Trobec, Roman; Gersak, Borut

    2003-05-01

    The right lateral body position has been proposed as an effective vagal enhancer. However, the possibility of breathing affecting heart rate power spectra in different body positions has not been assessed. The level of vagal modulation in various body positions in normal subjects was estimated by calculating heart rate power spectra. The results suggest that the levels of vagal modulation do not necessarily reflect a change due to assuming different body position, but might be the consequence of changed breathing patterns. Before adopting the right lateral body position as vagal enhancing, the contribution of varying breathing pattern should be eliminated.

  14. Exchange Rates and Old People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Extends earlier work on aging as a process of exchange by focusing on the issue of exchange rates and how they are negotiated. Access to power resources declines with age, placing the old person in the position of negotiating from weakness. (Author)

  15. Rate determination from vector observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Jerold L.

    1993-01-01

    Vector observations are a common class of attitude data provided by a wide variety of attitude sensors. Attitude determination from vector observations is a well-understood process and numerous algorithms such as the TRIAD algorithm exist. These algorithms require measurement of the line of site (LOS) vector to reference objects and knowledge of the LOS directions in some predetermined reference frame. Once attitude is determined, it is a simple matter to synthesize vehicle rate using some form of lead-lag filter, and then, use it for vehicle stabilization. Many situations arise, however, in which rate knowledge is required but knowledge of the nominal LOS directions are not available. This paper presents two methods for determining spacecraft angular rates from vector observations without a priori knowledge of the vector directions. The first approach uses an extended Kalman filter with a spacecraft dynamic model and a kinematic model representing the motion of the observed LOS vectors. The second approach uses a 'differential' TRIAD algorithm to compute the incremental direction cosine matrix, from which vehicle rate is then derived.

  16. Heterozygosity increases microsatellite mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Amos, William

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing of families of Arabidopsis has recently lent strong support to the heterozygote instability (HI) hypothesis that heterozygosity locally increases mutation rate. However, there is an important theoretical difference between the impact on base substitutions, where mutation rate increases in regions surrounding a heterozygous site, and the impact of HI on sequences such as microsatellites, where mutations are likely to occur at the heterozygous site itself. At microsatellite loci, HI should create a positive feedback loop, with heterozygosity and mutation rate mutually increasing each other. Direct support for HI acting on microsatellites is limited and contradictory. I therefore analysed AC microsatellites in 1163 genome sequences from the 1000 genomes project. I used the presence of rare alleles, which are likely to be very recent in origin, as a surrogate measure of mutation rate. I show that rare alleles are more likely to occur at locus-population combinations with higher heterozygosity even when all populations carry exactly the same number of alleles. PMID:26740567

  17. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  18. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  19. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  20. NASA Human-Rating Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Harkins, Wil; Stamatelatos, Michael

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Procedural Requirements 87052B defines the Human-Rating Certification process and related technical requirements for human spaceflight programs developed by and for NASA. The document specifies Agency-level responsibilities related to the certification, processes to be established by the program, and technical requirements.

  1. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  2. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  3. Alternative Schools and Dropout Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    National dropou figures hover around 46 percent, according to the U.S. Office of Education. School business partnerships, including occupational training, counseling, and preemployment experience, have been effective in reducing the dropout rate in many schools. The use of computers in teaching traditional subjects has proved attractive to…

  4. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOEpatents

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  5. Metabolic rate meter and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. I.; Ruderman, I. W. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the dynamic metabolic rate of a human or animal. The ratio of the exhaled carbon dioxide to a known amount of C(13)02 introduced into the exhalation is determined by mass spectrometry. This provides an instantaneous measurement of the carbon dioxide generated.

  6. 76 FR 8946 - Security Ratings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 229, 230, 232, 239, 240, and 249 RIN 3235-AK18 Security Ratings AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This is one of several releases that...

  7. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  8. 78 FR 15973 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate Correction In notice document 2013-05334, appearing on page 14821 in the issue of Thursday, March 7, 2013, make the following correction: On page 14821, in...

  9. Survival rates in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilmott, R W; Tyson, S L; Dinwiddie, R; Matthew, D J

    1983-01-01

    Life tables were calculated for 273 British children with cystic fibrosis for the period 1974-9. There was a marked improvement in survival rates in the meconium ileus group compared with the 1969-73 data, but there was little improvement in patients presenting later with other symptoms. PMID:6639137

  10. Copiea - excretion rates of salamaders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USAThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Milanovich , J., and M. Hopton. Stoichiometry of excreta in larval stream salamanders: implications regarding the ecological roles of salamanders. FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, 00, (2012).

  11. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  12. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  13. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  14. 45 CFR 800.202 - Rating factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Premiums, Rating Factors, Medical Loss Ratios, and Risk Adjustment § 800.202 Rating factors. (a... Act. (c) Age rating. For age rating, an MSPP issuer must use the ratio established by the State...

  15. 45 CFR 800.202 - Rating factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Premiums, Rating Factors, Medical Loss Ratios, and Risk Adjustment § 800.202 Rating factors. (a... Act. (c) Age rating. For age rating, an MSPP issuer must use the ratio established by the State...

  16. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  17. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  18. Kepler Reliability and Occurrence Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve

    2016-10-01

    The Kepler mission has produced tables of exoplanet candidates (``KOI table''), as well as tables of transit detections (``TCE table''), hosted at the Exoplanet Archive (http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu). Transit detections in the TCE table that are plausibly due to a transiting object are selected for inclusion in the KOI table. KOI table entries that have not been identified as false positives (FPs) or false alarms (FAs) are classified as planet candidates (PCs, Mullally et al. 2015). A subset of PCs have been confirmed as planetary transits with greater than 99% probability, but most PCs have <99% probability of being true planets. The fraction of PCs that are true transiting planets is the PC reliability rate. The overall PC population is believed to have a reliability rate >90% (Morton & Johnson 2011).

  19. Rate processes in gas phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction-rate theory and experiment are given a critical review from the engineers' point of view. Rates of heavy-particle, collision-induced reaction in gas phase are formulated in terms of the cross sections and activation energies for reaction. The effect of cross section function shape and of excited state contributions to reaction both cause the slope of Arrhenius plots to differ from the true activation energy, except at low temperature. The master equations for chemically reacting gases are introduced, and dissociation and ionization reactions are shown to proceed primarily from excited states about kT from the dissociation or ionization limit. Collision-induced vibration, vibration-rotation, and pure rotation transitions are treated, including three-dimensional effects and conservation of energy, which have usually been ignored. The quantum theory of transitions at potential surface crossing is derived, and results are found to be in fair agreement with experiment in spite of some questionable approximations involved.

  20. Self-similar aftershock rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  1. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  2. Reaction Rate Data Number 59.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    18 9. Naval Research Laboratory — Parameterization of the Atmospheric Heating Rate from 15 to 120 km due to 02 and 03 A bsorption of Solar Radiation...Photodissociation Spectroscopy of (‘03 19 12. United Technologies Research Center — Calculatiomi of Energe tics of Selected Atmospheric Systems 19 AUTHOR...the (354) and (52’) ions. 11. Photodissociation Spectroscopy of (‘03 — J. T. Moseley, PC’, Cosbv . and J R. Peterson, Stan- ford Research Institute

  3. Growth rate for blackhole instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Hollands and Wald showed that dynamic stability of stationary axisymmetric black holes is equivalent to positivity of canonical energy on a space of linearised axisymmetric perturbations satisfying certain boundary and gauge conditions. Using a reflection isometry of the background, we split the energy into kinetic and potential parts. We show that the kinetic energy is positive. In the case that potential energy is negative, we show existence of exponentially growing perturbations and further obtain a variational formula for the growth rate.

  4. 76 FR 46603 - Security Ratings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...In light of the provisions of Section 939A of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, we are adopting amendments to replace rule and form requirements under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for securities offering or issuer disclosure rules that rely on, or make special accommodations for, security ratings (for example, Forms S-3 and F-3......

  5. Statistics of Instantaneous Rainfall Rates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    INSTANTANEOUS RAINFALL RATES Douglas M.A. Jones Wayne M. Wendland State Water Surveys Division University of Illinois C)C) Urbana, Illinois 61801 ’.3 4 Final...NAME %D %tnDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASKState Water Survey AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS University of Illinois 62101F Urbana, Illinois 61801...distribution unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the obstract entered in Block 20, If different from Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES I. KEY WORDS (Continue

  6. Understanding High Rate Behavior Through Low Rate Analog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-28

    Transition Temperature[°C] 82.4 -20 Melting Point [°C] 100-260 40-50 Thermal conductivity [W·m -1 ·K -1 ] 0.14–0.28 0.14–0.17 Table 2. The four PVC...13) Here, the thermal diffusivity, α, is first calculated from the conductivity , k, density, ρ, and specific heat capacity, C; alternatively the...chapter. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity means that specimen heating also occurs at lower strain rates than for PVC. Before performing

  7. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  8. Reaction Rate Parameterization for Nuclear Astrophysics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. P.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Smith, M. S.; Hix, W. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Sharp, J. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Meyer, R. A.

    2004-11-01

    Libraries of thermonuclear reaction rates are used in element synthesis models of a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena, such as exploding stars and the inner workings of our sun. These computationally demanding models are more efficient when libraries, which may contain over 60000 rates and vary by 20 orders of magnitude, have a uniform parameterization for all rates. We have developed an on-line tool, hosted at www.nucastrodata.org, to obtain REACLIB parameters (F.-K. Thielemann et al., Adv. Nucl. Astrophysics 525, 1 (1987)) that represent reaction rates as a function of temperature. This helps to rapidly incorporate the latest nuclear physics results in astrophysics models. The tool uses numerous techniques and algorithms in a modular fashion to improve the quality of the fits to the rates. Features, modules, and additional applications of this tool will be discussed. * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. D.O.E. under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 + Supported by U.S. D.O.E. under Grant No. DE-FG02-96ER40955

  9. Glucose Injections into the Dorsal Hippocampus or Dorsolateral Striatum of Rats Prior to T-Maze Training: Modulation of Learning Rates and Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal, Clinton E.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of injecting glucose into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum on learning rates and on strategy selection in rats trained on a T-maze that can be solved by using either a hippocampus-sensitive place or striatum-sensitive response strategy. Percentage strategy selection on a probe trial…

  10. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  11. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  12. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  13. Students' ratings of teacher practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, T.; Harris, G.; Liu, X.; Aguirre-Munoz, Z.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we explore a novel approach for assessing the impact of a professional development programme on classroom practice of in-service middle school mathematics teachers. The particular focus of this study is the assessment of the impact on teachers' employment of strategies used in the classroom to foster the mathematical habits of mind and mathematical self-efficacy of their students. We describe the creation and testing of a student survey designed to assess teacher classroom practice based primarily on students' ratings of teacher practices.

  14. Double White Dwarf Merger Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are very successfully used as standard candles on cosmological distance scales, but so far the nature of the progenitor(s) is unclear. A possible scenario for SNe Ia are merging carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with a combined mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of these mergers for two different common envelope prescriptions and metallicities. The shape of the delay time distributions is rather insensitive to the assumptions. The normalization is a factor ~3-13 too low compared to observations.

  15. Modulating the rate and rhythmicity of perceptual rivalry alternations with the mixed 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A agonist psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Hasler, Felix; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Hell, Daniel; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2005-06-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are presented simultaneously to corresponding points within the left and right eyes. Under these conditions, the observer's perception will alternate between the two perceptual alternatives. Motivated by the reported link between the rate of perceptual alternations, symptoms of psychosis and an incidental observation that the rhythmicity of perceptual alternations during binocular rivalry was greatly increased 10 h after the consumption of LSD, this study aimed to investigate the pharmacology underlying binocular rivalry and to explore the connection between the timing of perceptual switching and psychosis. Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, PY) was chosen for the study because, like LSD, it is known to act as an agonist at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A receptors and to produce an altered state sometimes marked by psychosis-like symptoms. A total of 12 healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, low-dose (115 microg/kg) and high-dose (250 microg/kg) PY conditions. In line with predictions, under both low- and high-dose conditions, the results show that at 90 min postadministration (the peak of drug action), rate and rhythmicity of perceptual alternations were significantly reduced from placebo levels. Following the 90 min testing period, the perceptual switch rate successively increased, with some individuals showing increases well beyond pretest levels at the final testing, 360 min postadministration. However, as some subjects had still not returned to pretest levels by this time, the mean phase duration at 360 min was not found to differ significantly from placebo. Reflecting the drug-induced changes in rivalry phase durations, subjects showed clear changes in psychological state as indexed by the 5D-ASC (altered states of consciousness) rating scales. This study suggests the involvement of serotonergic pathways in binocular rivalry and supports the previously proposed role of a brainstem

  16. Multifractality and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we participate to the discussion set forth by the editor of Chaos for the controversy, "Is the normal heart rate chaotic?" Our objective was to debate the question, "Is there some more appropriate term to characterize the heart rate variability (HRV) fluctuations?" We focused on the ≈24 h RR series prepared for this topic and tried to verify with two different techniques, generalized structure functions and wavelet transform modulus maxima, if they might be described as being multifractal. For normal and congestive heart failure subjects, the hq exponents showed to be decreasing for increasing q with both methods, as it should be for multifractal signals. We then built 40 surrogate series to further verify such hypothesis. For most of the series (≈75%-80% of cases) multifractality stood the test of the surrogate data employed. On the other hand, series coming from patients in atrial fibrillation showed a small, if any, degree of multifractality. The population analyzed is too small for definite conclusions, but the study supports the use of multifractal series to model HRV. Also it suggests that the regulatory action of autonomous nervous system might play a role in the observed multifractality.

  17. The current martian cratering rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubar, I. J.; McEwen, A. S.; Byrne, S.; Kennedy, M. R.; Ivanov, B.

    2013-07-01

    The discovery of 248 dated impact sites known to have formed within the last few decades allows us to refine the current cratering rate and slope of the production function at Mars. We use a subset of 44 of these new craters that were imaged before and after impact by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera - a thoroughly searched data set that minimizes biases from variable image resolutions. We find the current impact rate is 1.65 × 10-6 craters with an effective diameter ⩾3.9 m/km2/yr, with a differential slope (power-law exponent) of -2.45 ± 0.36. This results in model ages that are factors of three to five below the Hartmann (Hartmann, W.K. [2005]. Icarus 174, 294-320) and Neukum et al. (Neukum, G., Ivanov, B.A., Hartmann, W.K. [2001]. Space Sci. Rev. 96, 55-86)/Ivanov (Ivanov, B.A. [2001]. Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104) model production functions where they overlap in diameter. The best-fit production function we measure has a shallower slope than model functions at these sizes, but model function slopes are within the statistical errors. More than half of the impacts in this size range form clusters, which is another reason to use caution when estimating surface ages using craters smaller than ˜50 m in diameter.

  18. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... rate or, if that exceeds the maximum interest rate permitted by the constitution or laws of a given State, the maximum interest rate will be the rate permitted by the constitution or laws of the given... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business...

  19. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  20. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  1. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  2. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  3. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  4. 48 CFR 42.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing rates. 42.704... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.704 Billing rates. (a) The contracting... final indirect cost rates also shall be responsible for determining the billing rates. (b)...

  5. 48 CFR 42.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Billing rates. 42.704... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.704 Billing rates. (a) The contracting... final indirect cost rates also shall be responsible for determining the billing rates. (b)...

  6. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  7. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  8. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  9. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Boesch, C; Goodall, J; Pusey, A; Williams, J; Wrangham, R

    2001-05-01

    In order to compare evolved human and chimpanzees' life histories we present a synthetic life table for free-living chimpanzees, derived from data collected in five study populations (Gombe, Taï, Kibale, Mahale, Bossou). The combined data from all populations represent 3711 chimpanzee years at risk and 278 deaths. Males show higher mortality than females and data suggest some inter-site variation in mortality. Despite this variation, however, wild chimpanzees generally have a life expectancy at birth of less than 15 years and mean adult lifespan (after sexual maturity) is only about 15 years. This is considerably lower survival than that reported for chimpanzees in zoos or captive breeding colonies, or that measured among modern human hunter-gatherers. The low mortality rate of human foragers relative to chimpanzees in the early adult years may partially explain why humans have evolved to senesce later than chimpanzees, and have a longer juvenile period.

  10. 78 FR 73821 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service. ACTION: Notice of Depreciation Rates for Telecommunications Plant. SUMMARY: The United States Department of... Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation rates for telecommunications plant for the period...

  11. Calculation of molecular excitation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1993-01-01

    State-to-state collisional excitation rates for interstellar molecules observed by radio astronomers continue to be required to interpret observed line intensities in terms of local temperatures and densities. A problem of particular interest is collisional excitation of water which is important for modeling the observed interstellar masers. In earlier work supported by a different NASA Grant, excitation of water in collisions with He atoms was studied; after many years of successively more refined calculations that problem now seems to be well understood, and discrepancies with earlier experimental data for related (pressure broadening) phenomena are believed to reflect experimental errors. Because of interstellar abundances, excitation by H2, the dominant interstellar species, is much more important than excitation by He, although it has been argued that rates for excitation by these are similar. Under the current grant theoretical study of this problem has begun which is greatly complicated by the additional degrees of freedom which must be included both in determining the interaction potential and also in the molecular scattering calculation. We have now computed the interaction forces for nearly a thousand molecular geometries and are close to having an acceptable global fit to these points which is necessary for the molecular dynamics calculations. Also, extensive modifications have been made to the molecular scattering code, MOLSCAT. These included coding the rotational basis sets and coupling matrix elements required for collisions of an asymmetric top with a linear rotor. A new method for numerical solution of the coupled equations has been incorporated. Because of the long-ranged nature of the water-hydrogen interaction it is necessary to integrate the equations to rather large intermolecular separations, and the integration methods previously available in MOLSCAT are not ideal for such cases. However, the method used by Alexander in his HIBRIDON code is

  12. P03.09. Modulation of Autonomic Nervous System Assessed Through Heart Rate Variability by a Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Program: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Detloff, Barry; Dicken, Julie; Somerville, Beth; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Benditt, David

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Supporting Behavioral Change, Alleviating Pain Background: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a well-delineated 8-week mindfulness meditation program and hence lends itself well to be applied clinically and studied systematically. Heart rate variability (HRV) is the beat-to-beat variation in the heart rate and is a unique way to study sympathovagal balance and autonomic control of cardiopulmonary dynamics. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited from among participants of the MBSR program offered at the University of Minnesota. Two visits are planned, before and after completion of the MBSR program. After a brief period to help subjects acclimatize, 3 phases of data were recorded, each phase lasting for 5 minutes. Phase 1. Resting: Served as baseline value.Phase 2. Controlled Respiration: Involved audio cues to control the respiratory rate at a fixed interval of 6/minute.Phase 3. Meditation:Involved self-guided sitting meditation.Echocardiogram, respiration, and skin temperature were recorded continuously throughout each phase. Each subject will serve as his/her own control. Endpoints: Change in the standard deviation of normal-normal RR intervals (SDNN), measure of HRV total power, during a state of meditation (phase 3) at the completion of the MBSR program. Change in SDNN during a resting, non-meditative state (phase 1) at the completion of the MBSR program. Change in SDNN between controlled respiration (phase 2) and meditation (phase 3) after completion of the MBSR program. Change in Perceived Stress Scale score. Conclusion: Volunteers will return for their final visit after completion of the MBSR course in June 2013. With the knowledge gained from this pilot study, we hope to study the effects of the MBSR program in patients with established cardiovascular disease conditions in which sympatho-vagal imbalance is known to play some role in causation, namely myocardial infarction, heart failure, and

  13. Synaptic filtering of rate-coded information.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Matthias; Lindner, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we analytically examine the influence of synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) on the transfer of rate-coded information through synapses. STP endows each presynaptic input spike with an amplitude that depends on previous input spikes. We develop a method to calculate the spectral statistics of this amplitude modulated spike train (postsynaptic input) for the case of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. We derive in particular analytical approximations for cross-spectra, power spectra, and for the coherence function between the postsynaptic input and the time-dependent rate modulation for a specific model. We give simple expressions for the coherence in the limiting cases of pure facilitation and pure depression. Using our analytical results and extensive numerical simulations, we study the spectral coherence function for postsynaptic input resulting from a single synapse or from a group of synapses. For a single synapse, we find that the synaptic coherence function is largely independent of frequency indicating broadband information transmission. This effect is even more pronounced for a large number of synapses. However, additional noise gives rise to frequency-dependent information filtering.

  14. Synaptic filtering of rate-coded information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Matthias; Lindner, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we analytically examine the influence of synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) on the transfer of rate-coded information through synapses. STP endows each presynaptic input spike with an amplitude that depends on previous input spikes. We develop a method to calculate the spectral statistics of this amplitude modulated spike train (postsynaptic input) for the case of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. We derive in particular analytical approximations for cross-spectra, power spectra, and for the coherence function between the postsynaptic input and the time-dependent rate modulation for a specific model. We give simple expressions for the coherence in the limiting cases of pure facilitation and pure depression. Using our analytical results and extensive numerical simulations, we study the spectral coherence function for postsynaptic input resulting from a single synapse or from a group of synapses. For a single synapse, we find that the synaptic coherence function is largely independent of frequency indicating broadband information transmission. This effect is even more pronounced for a large number of synapses. However, additional noise gives rise to frequency-dependent information filtering.

  15. Rate of runaway evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Groep, J. van de; Straten, P. van der; Vogels, J. M.

    2011-09-15

    Evaporative cooling is a process that is essential in creating Bose-Einstein condensates in dilute atomic gasses. This process has often been simulated based on a model using a truncated Boltzmann distribution. This model assumes that the energy distribution up to the threshold energy can still be described by a Boltzmann distribution: it assumes detailed balance up to the threshold energy. However, the evolution of the distribution function in time is not taken into account. Here we solve the kinetic Boltzmann equation for a gas undergoing evaporative cooling in a harmonic and linear trap in order to determine the evolution of the energy distribution. The magnitude of the discrepancy with the truncated Boltzmannmodel is calculated by including a polynomial expansion of the distribution function. We find that up to 35% fewer particles are found in the high-energy tail of the distribution with respect to the truncated Boltzmann distribution and up to 15% more collisions are needed to reach quantum degeneracy. Supported by a detailed investigation of the particle loss rate at different energies, we conclude that the limited occupation of high-energy states during the evaporation process causes the lowering of the evaporation speed and efficiency.

  16. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  17. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01

    Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  18. Total Control – Pollen Presentation and Floral Longevity in Loasaceae (Blazing Star Family) Are Modulated by Light, Temperature and Pollinator Visitation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Tilo; Weigend, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Stamen movements can be understood as a mechanism influencing pollen presentation and increasing outbreeding success of hermaphroditic flowers via optimized male function. In this study we experimentally analyzed the factors regulating autonomous and thigmonastic (triggered by flower visitors) stamen movements in eight species of Loasaceae. Both types of stamen movements are positively influenced by light and temperature and come to a virtual standstill in the dark and at low temperatures (12°C). Pollen presentation is thus discontinued during periods where pollinators are not active. Overall stamen presentation increases with increasing flower age. Contrary to expectation, no geometrical correlation between the floral scale stimulated and the stamen fascicle reacting exists, indicating that the stimulus is transmitted over the receptacle and stamen maturation dictates which and how many stamens react. Thigmonastic stamen presentation is dramatically accelerated compared to autonomous movement (3–37 times), indicating that the rate of stamen maturation can be adjusted to different visitation schedules. Flowers can react relatively uniformly down to stimulation intervals of 10–15 min., consistently presenting comparable numbers of stamens in the flower c. 5 min. after the stimulus and can thus keep the amount of pollen presented relatively constant even under very high visitation frequencies of 4–6 visits/h. Thigmonastic pollen presentation dramatically reduces the overall duration of the staminate phase (to 1/3rd in Nasa macrothyrsa). Similarly, the carpellate phase is dramatically reduced after pollination, down to 1 d from 4 d. Overall flower longevity is reduced by more than 2/3rds under high visitation rates (<3 d versus 10 d under visitor exclusion) and depleted and pollinated flowers are rapidly removed from the pool. Complex floral behaviour in Loasaceae thus permits a near-total control over pollen dispensation schedules and floral longevity of the

  19. Modulation of an IDP binding mechanism and rates by helix propensity and non-native interactions: association of HIF1α with CBP.

    PubMed

    De Sancho, David; Best, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins that acquire their three dimensional structures only upon binding to their targets are very important in cellular signal regulation. While experimental studies have been made on the structures of both bound (structured) and unbound (disordered) states, less is known about the actual folding-binding transition. Coarse grained simulations using native-centric (i.e. Gō) potentials have been particularly useful in addressing this problem, given the large search space for IDP binding, but have well-known deficiencies in reproducing the unfolded state structure and dynamics. Here, we investigate the interaction of HIF1α with CBP using a hierarchy of coarse-grained models, in each case matching the binding affinity at 300 K to the experimental value. Starting from a pure Gō-like model based on the native structure of the complex we go on to consider a more realistic model of helix propensity in the HIF1α, and finally the effect of non-native interactions between binding partners. We find structural disorder (i.e."fuzziness") in the bound state of HIF1α in all models which is supported by the results of atomistic simulations. Correcting the over-stabilized helices in the unbound state gives rise to a more cooperative folding-binding transition (destabilizing partially bound intermediates). Adding non-native contacts lowers the free energy barrier for binding to an almost barrierless scenario, leading to higher binding/unbinding rates relative to the other models, in better agreement with the near diffusion-limited binding rates measured experimentally. Transition state structures for the three models are highly disordered, supporting a fly-casting mechanism for binding.

  20. Venus climate stability and volcanic resurfacing rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, M. A.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Pollack, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The climate of Venus is to a large degree controlled by the radiative properties of its massive atmosphere. In addition, outgassing due to volcanic activity, exospheric escape processes, and surface/atmosphere interactions may all be important in moderating the abundances of atmospheric CO2 and other volatiles. We have developed an evolutionary climate model for Venus using a systems approach that emphasizes feedbacks between elements in the climate system. Modules for atmospheric radiative transfer, surface/atmosphere interactions, tropospheric chemistry, and exospheric escape processes have so far been developed. Climate feedback loops result from interconnections between modules, in the form of the environmental parameters pressure, temperature, and atmospheric mixing ratios. The radiative transfer module has been implemented by using Rosseland mean opacities in a one dimensional grey radiative-convective model. The model has been solved for the static (time independent) case to determine climate equilibrium points. The dynamics of the model have also been explored by employing reaction/diffusion kinetics for possible surface atmosphere heterogeneous reactions over geologic timescales. It was found that under current conditions, the model predicts that the climate of Venus is at or near an unstable equilibrium point. The effects of constant rate volcanism and corresponding exsolution of volatiles on the stability of the climate model were also explored.

  1. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rate plan adopted shall be reviewed on a continuing basis by the board, as well as in conjunction with its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan. ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rate plan adopted shall be reviewed on a continuing basis by the board, as well as in conjunction with its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan. ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan...

  3. Student Ratings: The Need for Comparative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashin, William E.

    There are four reasons why comparative data is needed for student ratings of faculty performance: (1) the considerable inflation of student ratings; (2) the great variability in the way students rate different items; (3) because student rating systems must be flexible and comparable; and (4) because of factors (such as student motivation, class…

  4. How Boards and Presidents Influence Credit Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedem, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Moody's Investors Service provides credit ratings for hundreds of private and public colleges and universities--ratings that can strongly influence the interest rates higher-education institutions can obtain when they want to borrow money. How colleges are governed and managed are key determinants of those credit ratings, especially in an…

  5. Retention Rate by Ethnicity. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document discusses retention rate based on ethnicity for Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) for December 2002. The study found that the 2001 Fall-Spring retention rates increased among all ethnic groups. The total college retention rate rose by 2.7 percentage points to 75.2%. Among individual groups, the highest retention rate of 76.9% was…

  6. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  7. 19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proclaimed rate. 159.33 Section 159.33 Customs... currency involved, such proclaimed rate shall be used unless it varies by 5 percent or more from...

  8. 19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proclaimed rate. 159.33 Section 159.33 Customs... currency involved, such proclaimed rate shall be used unless it varies by 5 percent or more from...

  9. 75 FR 1363 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... System pursuant to the following Integrated System Rate Schedules: Rate Schedule P-09, Wholesale Rates...) Administrator has determined based on the 2009 Integrated System Current Power Repayment Study, that...

  10. 76 FR 48159 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... facilities. The Administrator has developed proposed Integrated System rates, which are supported by a rate... 24 projects are repaid via revenues received under the Integrated System rates, as are those...

  11. 78 FR 62616 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... Integrated System pursuant to the Integrated System Rate Schedules to supersede the existing rate schedules... into effect on an interim basis, increases the power rates for the Integrated System pursuant to...

  12. 48 CFR 942.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing rates. 942.704... ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.704 Billing rates. (b) When the contracting officer or auditor responsible for establishing billing rates, in accordance with 48 CFR 42.704, has not...

  13. 48 CFR 942.704 - Billing rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Billing rates. 942.704... ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.704 Billing rates. (b) When the contracting officer or auditor responsible for establishing billing rates, in accordance with 48 CFR 42.704, has not...

  14. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  15. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  16. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  17. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  19. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  20. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  1. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999–2013, the rate of people dying ...

  2. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999–2013, the rate of people dying ...

  3. Dual-Rate Transmission Reduces Weather Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Scheme ensures maximum data received on average. Dual-rate scheme for maximizing data returned during spacecraft mission, adaptable, as is or with modifications, to high-frequency terrestrial data transmission. Data rate fixed in advance at minimum value guarantees reasonable prospect of success during bad weather. Dualrate strategy yields net data rate 2.5 times best achievable with single transmission rate.

  4. Heart Rate and Behavior of Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boomsma, Dorret I.; Plomin, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on heart rate were studied in samples of twin pairs in middle childhood. Heart rate was measured in resting situation and under two task conditions. Heart rate was related to parental ratings of shyness, emotionality, and selective attention measure. Multivariate analysis suggested that covariance between heart…

  5. 78 FR 44459 - Rate Regulation Reforms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... unlawfully high (from the current T-bill rate to the U.S. Prime Rate, as published in the Wall Street Journal... be computed shall be the most recent U.S. Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The... be the U.S. Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the date the statement...

  6. Development of digital flow control system for multi-channel variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical step for variable-rate spray applications in orchards and ornamental nurseries. An automatic flow rate control system activated with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was developed to control flow rates...

  7. Triheptanoin for glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D): Modulation of human ictogenesis, cerebral metabolic rate and cognitive indices by a food supplement

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Juan M.; Liu, Peiying; Mao, Deng; Kelly, Dorothy; Hernandez, Ana; Sheng, Min; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Zhang, Xuchen; Park, Jason Y.; Hynan, Linda S.; Stavinoha, Peter; Roe, Charles R.; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective G1D is commonly associated with electrographic spike-wave and - less-noticeably – with absence seizures. The G1D syndrome has long been attributed to energy (i.e., ATP-synthetic) failure, as have experimental, toxic-rodent epilepsies to impaired brain metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate depletion. Indeed, a (seldom-acknowledged) function of glucose and other substrates is the generation of brain TCAs via carbon-donor reactions collectively named anaplerosis. However, TCAs are preserved in murine G1D. This renders inferences about energy failure premature and suggests a different hypothesis, also grounded on our findings, that consumption of alternate TCA precursors is stimulated, potentially detracting from other functions. Second, common ketogenic diets can ameliorate G1D seizures, but lead to a therapeutically-counterintuitive reduction in blood glucose available to the brain, and they can prove ineffective in 1/3 of cases. While developing G1D treatments, all of this motivated us to: a) uphold (rather than attenuate) the residual brain glucose flux that all G1D patients possess; and b) stimulate the TCA cycle, including anaplerosis. Therefore, we tested the medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin, a widely-used medical food supplement that can fulfill both of these metabolic roles. The rationale is that ketone bodies derived from ketogenic diets are not anaplerotic, in contrast with triheptanoin metabolites, as we have shown in the G1D mouse brain. Design We supplemented the regular diet of a case series of G1D patients with food-grade triheptanoin. First we confirmed that, despite their frequent electroencephalographic (EEG) presence as spike-waves, most seizures are rarely visible, such that perceptions by patients or others are inadequate for treatment evaluation. Thus, we used EEG, quantitative neuropsychological, blood analytical, and MRI cerebral metabolic rate measurements as main outcomes. Setting Academic and

  8. 76 FR 80326 - 2012 Rate Changes for the Basetime, Overtime, Holiday, and Laboratory Services Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ..., plus the travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. The... * 1.9% (calendar year 2011 Cost of Living Increase)) = $28.17 + $8.63(benefits rate) + $.75 (travel... increase, multiplied by 1.5, plus the benefits rate, plus the travel and operating rate, plus the...

  9. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  10. 47 CFR 64.1900 - Nondominant interexchange carrier certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate integration requirements. 64.1900 Section 64.1900... Rate Averaging and Rate Integration Requirements § 64.1900 Nondominant interexchange carrier certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate integration requirements. (a) A nondominant...

  11. 5 CFR 531.245 - Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing locality rates and special... Gm Employees § 531.245 Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees. Locality rates and special rates are computed for GM employees in the same manner as locality rates and special...

  12. Fluid flow rate control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinicke, Robert H. (Inventor); Mohtar, Rafic (Inventor); Nelson, Richard O. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A poppet is modulated between closed and full open positions by a brushless DC motor operating magnetically through a housing to drive a permanent magnet rotor which carries the poppet. The rotor is supported on several parallel cables which are stationarily fixed at one end and attached to the rotor at the other end, whereby rotation of the rotor twists the cables, causing axial foreshortening and axial translation of rotor and poppet. Axial translation is enhanced by placing a spacer between the cables, intermediate their ends. A permanent magnet ring is disposed around the valve seat directly axially attracting the rotor to a valve closed position.

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26699542

  14. Perception of a Sung Vowel as a Function of Frequency-Modulation Rate and Excursion in Listeners with Normal Hearing and Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Frequency fluctuations in human voices can usually be described as coherent frequency modulation (FM). As listeners with hearing impairment (HI listeners) are typically less sensitive to FM than listeners with normal hearing (NH listeners), this study investigated whether hearing loss affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM…

  15. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  16. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  17. Stability of growth rate of sodium chlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, M. M.; Žekić, A. A.; Baroš, Z. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The constancy of stabilized sodium chlorate crystal growth rate is investigated. After the growth rate stabilization, solution supersaturation was altered and then the initial one was restored, which resulted in fast restoring of the growth rate existing prior to the supersaturation change. It is thereby shown that stabilized growth rate is indeed very stable. The majority of crystals decrease the growth rates during the 3-4 growth hours, even if the process develops at the constant experimental conditions all the time. The new crystals introduced into the cell, continue to grow as the already growing crystals, with higher initial growth rates.

  18. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors differentially modulate rate and timing of auditory responses in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Lissandra Castellan Baldan; Sinha, Shiva R.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin is a physiological signal that translates both internal and external information about behavioral context into changes in sensory processing through a diverse array of receptors. The details of this process, particularly how receptors interact to shape sensory encoding, are poorly understood. In the inferior colliculus, a midbrain auditory nucleus, serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors have suppressive and 5-HT1B receptors have facilitatory effects on evoked responses of neurons. We explored how these two receptor classes interact by testing three hypotheses: that they 1) affect separate neuron populations, 2) affect different response properties, or 3) have different endogenous patterns of activation. The first two hypotheses were tested by iontophoretic application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists individually and together to neurons in vivo. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists affected overlapping populations of neurons. During co-application, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists influenced spike rate and frequency bandwidth additively, with each moderating the effect of the other. In contrast, although both agonists individually influenced latencies and interspike intervals, the 5-HT1A agonist dominated these measurements during co-application. The third hypothesis was tested by applying antagonists of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors. Blocking 5-HT1B receptors was complementary to activation of the receptor, but blocking 5-HT1A receptors was not, suggesting the endogenous activation of additional receptor types. These results suggest that cooperative interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors shape auditory encoding in the IC, and that the effects of neuromodulators within sensory systems may depend nonlinearly on the specific profile of receptors that are activated. PMID:20646059

  19. Dietary lipids modulate bone prostaglandin E2 production, insulin-like growth factor-I concentration and formation rate in chicks.

    PubMed

    Watkins, B A; Shen, C L; McMurtry, J P; Xu, H; Bain, S D; Allen, K G; Seifert, M F

    1997-06-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition of liver and bone, and on the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in liver and bone, as well as the relationship of these factors to bone metabolism. Day-old male broiler chicks were given a semipurified diet containing one of four lipid sources: soybean oil (SBO), butter+corn oil (BC), margarine+corn oil (MAC), or menhaden oil+corn oil (MEC) at 70 g/kg of the diet. At 21 and 42 d of age, chicks fed MEC had the highest concentration of (n-3) fatty acids [20:5(n-3), 22:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3)] in polar and neutral lipids of cortical bone but the lowest amount of 20:4(n-6) in polar lipids. Diets containing t-18:1 fatty acids (MAC and BC) resulted in t18:1 accumulation in bone and liver. Bone IGF-I concentration increased from 21 to 42 d in chicks given the SBO and BC diets. Tibial periosteal bone formation rate (BFR) was higher in chicks given BC compared with those consuming SBO and MEC at 21 d. The higher BFR and concentrations of hexosamine in serum and IGF-I in cartilage, but lower 20:4(n-6) content in bone polar lipids in chicks given BC compared with those given SBO suggest that BC optimized bone formation by altering the production of bone growth factors. A second study confirmed that dietary butter fat lowered ex vivo prostaglandin E2 production and increased trabecular BFR in chick tibia. These studies showed that dietary fat altered BFR perhaps by controlling the production of local regulatory factors in bone.

  20. System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

    2014-12-30

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

  1. Feed-forward true carrier extraction of high baud rate phase shift keyed signals using photonic modulation stripping and low-bandwidth electronics.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Radan; Kakande, Joseph; Richardson, David J

    2011-12-19

    Retrieving the full information carried by phase shift keyed (PSK) data streams requires a reference local oscillator (LO). If the receiver utilizes digital signal processing (DSP), a free-running LO can be used, although several benefits can be derived from generating an optical LO that is locked in frequency and phase to the original signal carrier (which is unfortunately suppressed in the PSK data modulation process). Here, we present a new concept of carrier recovery. Using nonlinear optics, we strip the data modulation and derive an error signal proportional to the phase/frequency difference between a free running intradyne LO and the data-stripped signal. After extracting this frequency difference (using slow electronics), we frequency shift the free running LO by this amount, effectively obtaining a homodyne LO. The carrier is recovered to a precision of better than ±0.5 Hz and the method is tested by performing homodyne detection of a 20 Gbaud binary PSK signal.

  2. High-Rate Digital Receiver Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder; Bialas, Thomas; Brambora, Clifford; Fisher, David

    2004-01-01

    A high-rate digital receiver (HRDR) implemented as a peripheral component interface (PCI) board has been developed as a prototype of compact, general-purpose, inexpensive, potentially mass-producible data-acquisition interfaces between telemetry systems and personal computers. The installation of this board in a personal computer together with an analog preprocessor enables the computer to function as a versatile, highrate telemetry-data-acquisition and demodulator system. The prototype HRDR PCI board can handle data at rates as high as 600 megabits per second, in a variety of telemetry formats, transmitted by diverse phase-modulation schemes that include binary phase-shift keying and various forms of quadrature phaseshift keying. Costing less than $25,000 (as of year 2003), the prototype HRDR PCI board supplants multiple racks of older equipment that, when new, cost over $500,000. Just as the development of standard network-interface chips has contributed to the proliferation of networked computers, it is anticipated that the development of standard chips based on the HRDR could contribute to reductions in size and cost and increases in performance of telemetry systems.

  3. Measurements of the atmospheric neutron leakage rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Ifedili, S. O.; Jenkins, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The atmospheric neutron leakage rate in the energy range from 0.01 to 10,000,000 eV has been measured as a function of latitude, altitude, and time with a neutron detector on board the Ogo 6 satellite. The latitude dependence of the neutron leakage is in reasonable agreement with that predicted by Lingenfelter (1963) and Light et al. (1973) if the neutron energy spectrum has the shape calculated by Newkirk (1963). The change in the neutron latitude dependence with the cosmic ray modulation agrees with the predictions of Lingenfelter and Light et al. For several solar proton events enhancements were observed in the neutron counting rates at lambda greater than or equal to 70 deg. Such events, however, provide an insignificant injection of protons at E less than or equal to 20 MeV into the radiation belts. An isotropic angular distribution of the neutron leakage in the energy range from 0.1 keV to 10 MeV best fits the observed altitude dependence of the neutron leakage flux.

  4. Modulation effect of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields on CO2 production and rates of acetate and pyruvate formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell culture.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2015-03-01

    We studied action of one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional low-frequency oscillating electric and magnetic fields on sugar metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell culture. S. cerevisiae cells were grown on a minimal medium containing glucose (10%) as a carbon source and salts (0.3-0.5%) that supplied nitrogen, phosphorus and trace metals. We found that appropriate three-dimensional field patterns can either accelerate or inhibit sugar metabolism in yeast cells, as compared to control experiments. We also studied aerobic sugar metabolism, with similar results. Sugar metabolism was monitored by formation of pyruvate, acetate and CO2. We found that for the P1 parameter set the cell metabolism accelerates as evaluated by all of the monitored chemical products, and the cell density growth rate also accelerates, with opposite effects observed for the P2 parameter set. These parameter sets are introduced using D, ω, φ, B, ω', and φ' - vectors defining amplitudes, frequencies and phases of periodic electric and magnetic fields, respectively. Thus, the P1 parameter set: D = (2.6, 3.1, 2.2) V/cm; ω = (0.8, 1.6, 0.2) kHz; φ = (1.31, 0.9, 1.0) rad; B = (3.1, 7.2, 7.2) × 10(-4) T; ω' = (2.1, 1.3, 3.1) kHz; φ' = (0.4, 2.1, 2.8) rad; and the P2 parameter set: D = (4.3, 1.6, 3.8) V/cm; ω = (3.3, 1.8, 2.8) kHz; φ = (0.86, 1.1, 0.4) rad; B = (5.4, 1.3, 1.3) × 10(-4) T; ω' = (1.3, 1.7, 0.9) kHz; φ' = (2.6, 1.7, 1.7) rad. The effects obtained for the less complex field combinations that used one-dimensional or two-dimensional configurations, or omitted either the electric or the magnetic contribution, were significantly weaker than those obtained for the complete P1 and P2 parameter sets.

  5. Suppressants for lowering propellant binder burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Addition of boron compound to lower burning rate of solid propellant binder is reported. Chemical reactions involved in propellant binder modification are described. Advantages of method for lowering burning rate are analyzed.

  6. 7 CFR 930.200 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Assessment Rates § 930.200... products. Included in this rate is $0.005 per pound of cherries to cover the cost of the research...

  7. 7 CFR 930.200 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... products. Included in this rate is $0.005 per pound of cherries to cover the costs of the new research and... MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Assessment Rates §...

  8. 75 FR 27375 - Postal Rate Case Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Rate Case Management AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is seeking comments relevant to management of an anticipated exigent postal rate case. It...

  9. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  10. 23 CFR 650.707 - Rating factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.707 Rating factor. (a) The following formula is to be used in the selection process for ranking discretionary bridge...

  11. 23 CFR 650.707 - Rating factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.707 Rating factor. (a) The following formula is to be used in the selection process for ranking discretionary bridge...

  12. 23 CFR 650.707 - Rating factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.707 Rating factor. (a) The following formula is to be used in the selection process for ranking discretionary bridge...

  13. 23 CFR 650.707 - Rating factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.707 Rating factor. (a) The following formula is to be used in the selection process for ranking discretionary bridge...

  14. 23 CFR 650.707 - Rating factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.707 Rating factor. (a) The following formula is to be used in the selection process for ranking discretionary bridge...

  15. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... NCHS National Vital Statistics System. Provisional number of divorces and annulments and rate: United States, 2000-2014 ...

  16. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... guaranteed loan will be negotiated between the lender and the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. The variable rate must be based on published indices, such as...

  17. Reinforcement rate and interresponse time differentiation1

    PubMed Central

    Kuch, Dennis O.; Platt, John R.

    1976-01-01

    Reinforcement rate and differential reinforcement of IRTs were independently manipulated to assess their relative contribution to the control of interresponse times (IRTs). Modified percentile reinforcement schedules (Platt, 1973) allowed control of reinforcement rate while longest or shortest IRTs were selectively reinforced. In the absence of differential IRT reinforcement, mean IRT decreased with increasing reinforcement rate. Compared to this small effect of reinforcement rate, reinforcement of long IRTs produced large changes in mean IRT at constant reinforcement rates. No interaction of reinforcement rate and IRT reinforcement was detected. The demonstration of large IRT changes in the absence of reinforcement-rate changes indicates the precedence of IRT reinforcement over molar reinforcement-rate correlations in the determination of IRTs in these procedures. PMID:16811962

  18. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  19. 76 FR 6762 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION... Agriculture (USDA), announces the depreciation rates for telecommunications plant for the period ending... Common to Insured and Guaranteed Telecommunications Loans, Sec. 1737.70(e) explains the...

  20. Constraining the Cooling Rates of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, S. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Anand, M.; Grady, M. M.

    2017-02-01

    The cooling rates of chondrules are an important constraint on chondrule formation. By measuring and modelling diffusion profiles between relict grain and overgrowth formed during cooling, we will calculate the cooling rate of the host chondrule.

  1. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  2. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzetta, Kerry; Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary data for 2003 from the National Center for Health Statistics show the teen birth rate continues to decline, reaching historic lows for teens in each age group. The 2003 rate of 41.7 births per 1,000 females 15-19 was 33 per cent lower than the 1991 peak rate of 61.8. The 2003 birth rate for teens aged 15-17 (22.4) was 42 per cent lower…

  3. Training improves cochlear implant rate discrimination on a psychophysical task.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Raymond L; Shannon, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which cochlear implant (CI) rate discrimination can be improved through training. Six adult CI users took part in a study that included 32 h of training and assessment on rate discrimination measures. Rate difference limens (DLs) were measured from 110 to 3520 Hz in octave steps using 500 ms biphasic pulse trains; the target and standard stimuli were loudness-balanced with the target always at an adaptively lower rate. DLs were measured at four electrode positions corresponding to basal, mid-basal, mid-apical, and apical locations. Procedural variations were implemented to determine if rate discrimination was impacted by random variations in stimulus amplitude or by amplitude modulation. DLs improved by more than a factor of 2 across subjects, electrodes, and standard rates. Factor analysis indicated that the effect of training was comparable for all electrodes and standard rates tested. Neither level roving nor amplitude modulation had a significant effect on rate DLs. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that training can significantly improve CI rate discrimination on a psychophysical task.

  4. 2 CFR 200.440 - Exchange rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exchange rates. 200.440 Section 200.440 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... Exchange rates. (a) Cost increases for fluctuations in exchange rates are allowable costs subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 1033.140 - Rated power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rated power. 1033.140 Section 1033.140... EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.140 Rated power. This section describes how to determine the rated power of a locomotive for the purposes of this part. (a) A...

  6. The Rate Laws for Reversible Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the rate laws for reversible reactions. Indicates that although prediction of the form of the rate law for a reverse reaction given the rate law for the forward reaction is not certain, the number of possibilities is limited because of relationships described. (JN)

  7. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  8. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  9. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  10. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  11. Reputation, Halo, and Ratings of Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that previous ratings of programs in psychology reflect both an experimental psychology and general institutional halo bias. It was found that applied programs in counseling psychology do receive ratings that differ from overall ratings of psychology in general. Programs ranked as strong, good, and adequate are…

  12. Knowledge Workers' Perceptions of Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.; Rupp, William T.

    2004-01-01

    One major purpose of performance appraisals is to determine individual merit, especially where pay for performance systems are employed. Based upon expectancy theory, high performance ratings should entail high merit increases while low performance ratings result in low merit increases. However, it appears that decoupling performance ratings and…

  13. 28 CFR 345.53 - Piecework rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... depending upon his/her own output) or Group Wage Fund (in which all members of a group strive for higher rates or production output as a unit, and all share in a pool of funds distributed among work group... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.53 Piecework rates. Piecework rates...

  14. 40 CFR 1033.140 - Rated power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rated power. 1033.140 Section 1033.140... EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.140 Rated power. This section describes how to determine the rated power of a locomotive for the purposes of this part. (a) A...

  15. 77 FR 36585 - Postal Rate Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice of rate and changes affecting Inbound Air Parcel Post at... rates not of general applicability for Inbound Air Parcel Post at Universal Postal Union (UPU) rates.\\1... inbound parcels eligible to receive transportation by air, as opposed to surface. Id., Attachment 1 at...

  16. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  17. Calculating Graduation Rates: We Can Do Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    The statistic of choice to prove that U.S. schools are failing has changed over time. First, it was test scores that meant they could not keep up with Japan. More recently it has become graduation rate. Often accompanying the graduation rate in the failure litany is the drop-out rate. NCLB puts additional pressure on dropout counts because it…

  18. 30 CFR 250.1632 - Production rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production rates. 250.1632 Section 250.1632 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 250.1632 Production rates. Each sulphur deposit shall be produced at rates that will provide...

  19. 46 CFR 308.503 - Rate schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.503 Rate schedules. Rate schedules published by the Maritime... Maritime Administrator at any time without notice. If no rate is published for a voyage on which war...

  20. 18 CFR 284.10 - Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subject to this section must reasonably reflect any material variation in the cost of providing the... rate filed for service subject to this section must be a one-part rate that recovers the costs... has the effect of guaranteeing revenue. Such rate must separately identify cost...

  1. An "Emergent Model" for Rate of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Sandra; Pierce, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Does speed provide a "model for" rate of change in other contexts? Does JavaMathWorlds (JMW), animated simulation software, assist in the development of the "model for" rate of change? This project investigates the transference of understandings of rate gained in a motion context to a non-motion context. Students were 27 14-15 year old students at…

  2. 28 CFR 345.53 - Piecework rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Piecework rates. 345.53 Section 345.53 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.53 Piecework rates. Piecework rates...

  3. 28 CFR 345.53 - Piecework rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Piecework rates. 345.53 Section 345.53 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.53 Piecework rates. Piecework rates...

  4. 28 CFR 345.53 - Piecework rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Piecework rates. 345.53 Section 345.53 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.53 Piecework rates. Piecework rates...

  5. 28 CFR 345.53 - Piecework rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Piecework rates. 345.53 Section 345.53 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.53 Piecework rates. Piecework rates...

  6. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  7. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  8. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  9. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at... construction is to be accomplished by the timber purchaser. The advertised rates shall be not less than...

  10. Stability Reliability of the Behavior Rating Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellers, Robert A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined test-retest stability of Behavior Rating Profile for students grades l-12 (N=198), parents (N=212), and teachers (N=176) on 3 norm-referenced scales. Found Teacher Rating scale reliable across all grades for screening and eligibility, Parent Rating scale reliable for Grade 3-12 screening and Grade 3-6,ll, and l2, eligibility. Found…

  11. 46 CFR 183.230 - Temperature ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temperature ratings. 183.230 Section 183.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.230 Temperature ratings. Temperature ratings of...

  12. 46 CFR 183.230 - Temperature ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temperature ratings. 183.230 Section 183.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.230 Temperature ratings. Temperature ratings of...

  13. 46 CFR 183.230 - Temperature ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature ratings. 183.230 Section 183.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.230 Temperature ratings. Temperature ratings of...

  14. 46 CFR 183.230 - Temperature ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temperature ratings. 183.230 Section 183.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.230 Temperature ratings. Temperature ratings of...

  15. 46 CFR 183.230 - Temperature ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temperature ratings. 183.230 Section 183.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.230 Temperature ratings. Temperature ratings of...

  16. 14 CFR 65.73 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.73 Ratings. (a) The following ratings are issued under this subpart: (1) Airframe. (2) Powerplant. (b) A mechanic certificate with an aircraft or... mechanic certificate with an airframe or powerplant rating, or both, as the case may be, and may...

  17. 14 CFR 65.73 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.73 Ratings. (a) The following ratings are issued under this subpart: (1) Airframe. (2) Powerplant. (b) A mechanic certificate with an aircraft or... mechanic certificate with an airframe or powerplant rating, or both, as the case may be, and may...

  18. 14 CFR 65.73 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.73 Ratings. (a) The following ratings are issued under this subpart: (1) Airframe. (2) Powerplant. (b) A mechanic certificate with an aircraft or... mechanic certificate with an airframe or powerplant rating, or both, as the case may be, and may...

  19. 14 CFR 65.73 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.73 Ratings. (a) The following ratings are issued under this subpart: (1) Airframe. (2) Powerplant. (b) A mechanic certificate with an aircraft or... mechanic certificate with an airframe or powerplant rating, or both, as the case may be, and may...

  20. 14 CFR 65.73 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.73 Ratings. (a) The following ratings are issued under this subpart: (1) Airframe. (2) Powerplant. (b) A mechanic certificate with an aircraft or... mechanic certificate with an airframe or powerplant rating, or both, as the case may be, and may...