Science.gov

Sample records for rate monitoring shown

  1. Biases of Success Rate Differences Shown in Binomial Effect Size Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    2004-01-01

    The intent of a binomial effect size display (BESD) is to show "the [real-world] importance of [an] effect indexed by a correlation [r]" (R. Rosenthal, 1994, p. 242) by reexpressing this correlation as a success rate difference (SRD) (e.g., treatment group success rate - control group success rate). However, SRDs displayed in BESDs generally…

  2. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  3. Multifaceted bundle interventions shown effective in reducing VAP rates in our multidisciplinary ICUs

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Abdel Latif; Khan, Raymond; Mundekkadan, Shihab

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) remains a worldwide harm associated with hospital acquired infection. Our VAP rate at King Abdulaziz Medical City was 4.0 per 1 000 patient days at baseline. All regulatory bodies continue to emphasize the importance of reducing these infections and include a guideline of practice recommendations to address them, notably the VAP bundle by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Our baseline compliance was low and measured to be 83%; this was perceived as an opportunity to work on revising our interventions in the ICUs. An improvement team gathered in 2013, and following the “model of improvement” methodology, along with a sequence of parallel PDSAs, they were able to increase compliance with the care bundle and sustain it above 95% for more than one year. This translated in a decrease in the VAP rate from 4.0 to 0.8 in all different multidisciplinary ICUs. PMID:27096090

  4. Multifaceted bundle interventions shown effective in reducing VAP rates in our multidisciplinary ICUs.

    PubMed

    Marini, Abdel Latif; Khan, Raymond; Mundekkadan, Shihab

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) remains a worldwide harm associated with hospital acquired infection. Our VAP rate at King Abdulaziz Medical City was 4.0 per 1 000 patient days at baseline. All regulatory bodies continue to emphasize the importance of reducing these infections and include a guideline of practice recommendations to address them, notably the VAP bundle by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Our baseline compliance was low and measured to be 83%; this was perceived as an opportunity to work on revising our interventions in the ICUs. An improvement team gathered in 2013, and following the "model of improvement" methodology, along with a sequence of parallel PDSAs, they were able to increase compliance with the care bundle and sustain it above 95% for more than one year. This translated in a decrease in the VAP rate from 4.0 to 0.8 in all different multidisciplinary ICUs.

  5. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  6. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  7. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Don L; Hart, Toryalai; Larson-Prior, Linda J; Baird, Bill; Olson, Marram; Trumpis, Michael; Makayed, Katherine; Bavafa, Payam

    2006-01-01

    Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves). Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone)]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1) Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2) These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3) The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide new methods for

  8. Acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    1991-01-01

    The acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor permits an expectant mother to perform the fetal Non-Stress Test in her home. The potential market would include the one million U.S. pregnancies per year requiring this type of prenatal surveillance. The monitor uses polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric polymer film for the acoustic sensors, which are mounted in a seven-element array on a cummerbund. Evaluation of the sensor ouput signals utilizes a digital signal processor, which performs a linear prediction routine in real time. Clinical tests reveal that the acoustically based monitor provides Non-Stress Test records which are comparable to those obtained with a commercial ultrasonic transducer.

  9. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  10. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA.

  11. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA. PMID:26643079

  12. Design of an FECG scalp electrode fetal heart rate monitor.

    PubMed

    Reguig, F B; Kirk, D L

    1996-03-01

    The design of a fetal heart rate (FHR) monitor using fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) scalp electrodes is described. It is shown that the design approach followed two stages: generation of FHR pulses at R-R intervals and FHR computation. The former uses a simple hardware approach for QRS detection and R-wave enhancement, while the latter requires a software implementation in order to produce FHR traces on a beat to beat basis. The QRS detection is based on bandpass filtering using switched mode capacitor technique; the R-wave enhancement and amplitude information are achieved by differentiation followed by fullwave rectification and peak detection. An adaptive threshold together with a comparator circuit are used to generate FHR pulses at R-R intervals. Beat to beat variations of FHR traces are produced by hardware and software implementation on a Z80 microprocessor board. Results obtained by the FHR monitor are evaluated and contrasted to other commercial FHR monitors. PMID:8673321

  13. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  14. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors For Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  15. Monitoring Error Rates In Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Leigh J.; Ma, Duanduan; Levine, Stuart S.

    2016-01-01

    Guaranteeing high-quality next-generation sequencing data in a rapidly changing environment is an ongoing challenge. The introduction of the Illumina NextSeq 500 and the depreciation of specific metrics from Illumina's Sequencing Analysis Viewer (SAV; Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) have made it more difficult to determine directly the baseline error rate of sequencing runs. To improve our ability to measure base quality, we have created an open-source tool to construct the Percent Perfect Reads (PPR) plot, previously provided by the Illumina sequencers. The PPR program is compatible with HiSeq 2000/2500, MiSeq, and NextSeq 500 instruments and provides an alternative to Illumina's quality value (Q) scores for determining run quality. Whereas Q scores are representative of run quality, they are often overestimated and are sourced from different look-up tables for each platform. The PPR’s unique capabilities as a cross-instrument comparison device, as a troubleshooting tool, and as a tool for monitoring instrument performance can provide an increase in clarity over SAV metrics that is often crucial for maintaining instrument health. These capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27672352

  16. Monitoring Error Rates In Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Leigh J.; Ma, Duanduan; Levine, Stuart S.

    2016-01-01

    Guaranteeing high-quality next-generation sequencing data in a rapidly changing environment is an ongoing challenge. The introduction of the Illumina NextSeq 500 and the depreciation of specific metrics from Illumina's Sequencing Analysis Viewer (SAV; Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) have made it more difficult to determine directly the baseline error rate of sequencing runs. To improve our ability to measure base quality, we have created an open-source tool to construct the Percent Perfect Reads (PPR) plot, previously provided by the Illumina sequencers. The PPR program is compatible with HiSeq 2000/2500, MiSeq, and NextSeq 500 instruments and provides an alternative to Illumina's quality value (Q) scores for determining run quality. Whereas Q scores are representative of run quality, they are often overestimated and are sourced from different look-up tables for each platform. The PPR’s unique capabilities as a cross-instrument comparison device, as a troubleshooting tool, and as a tool for monitoring instrument performance can provide an increase in clarity over SAV metrics that is often crucial for maintaining instrument health. These capabilities are highlighted.

  17. Infrared imaging based hyperventilation monitoring through respiration rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna

    2016-07-01

    A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography based approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration rates. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath rate. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact based methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image based approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.

  18. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  19. Puerperal endometritis and intrauterine fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rehu, M; Haukkamaa, M

    1980-08-01

    The incidence of puerperal endometritis in 5058 patients who were delivered during a one year study period was recorded prospectively. Caesarean section was performed in 774 cases (15.3%) and intrauterine fetal heart rate monitoring was used in 2016 cases (39.9%). After vaginal delivery, the incidence of endometritis was 1.5% in those monitored externally and 2.4% in those monitored internally (P less than 0.05). After Caesarean section, endometritis occurred in 8.0% of those monitored externally and in 16.4% of those monitored internally for varying times (P less than 0.01). The duration of monitoring had no significant effect on these infection rates. The risk of puerperal endometritis after internal fetal monitoring seemed to be the same as after one vaginal examination. PMID:7259077

  20. Interaction of a commercial heart rate monitor with implanted pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Joglar, J A; Hamdan, M H; Welch, P J; Page, R L

    1999-03-01

    Dry-electrode heart rate monitors allow display of heart rate by transmitting a signal to the receiving device, which typically is on the wrist or exercise machine, but due to the potential for electromagnetic interference, their use has been contraindicated in patients with pacemakers. In 12 patients, we found no adverse effect on pacemaker function; in addition, the monitors generally were accurate in measuring heart rate during pacing.

  1. Mouse tail vertebrae adapt to cyclic mechanical loading by increasing bone formation rate and decreasing bone resorption rate as shown by time-lapsed in vivo imaging of dynamic bone morphometry.

    PubMed

    Lambers, Floor M; Schulte, Friederike A; Kuhn, Gisela; Webster, Duncan J; Müller, Ralph

    2011-12-01

    It is known that mechanical loading leads to an increase in bone mass through a positive shift in the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. How the remodeling sites change over time as an effect of loading remains, however, to be clarified. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how bone formation and resorption sites are modulated by mechanical loading over time by using a new imaging technique that extracts three dimensional formation and resorption parameters from time-lapsed in vivo micro-computed tomography images. To induce load adaptation, the sixth caudal vertebra of C57BL/6 mice was cyclically loaded through pins in the adjacent vertebrae at either 8 N or 0 N (control) three times a week for 5 min (3000 cycles) over a total of 4 weeks. The results showed that mechanical loading significantly increased trabecular bone volume fraction by 20% (p<0.001) and cortical area fraction by 6% (p<0.001). The bone formation rate was on average 23% greater (p<0.001) and the bone resorption rate was on average 25% smaller (p<0.001) for the 8 N group than for the 0 N group. The increase in bone formation rate for the 8 N group was mostly an effect of a significantly increased surface of bone formation sites (on average 16%, p<0.001), while the thickness of bone formation packages was less affected (on average 5% greater, p<0.05). At the same time the surface of bone resorption sites was significantly reduced (on average 15%, p<0.001), while the depth of resorption pits remained the same. For the 8 N group, the strength of the whole bone increased significantly by 24% (p<0.001) over the loading period, while the strain energy density in the trabecular bone decreased significantly by 24% (p<0.001). In conclusion, mouse tail vertebrae adapt to mechanical loading by increasing the surface of formation sites and decreasing the surface of resorption sites, leading to an overall increase in bone strength. This new imaging technique will provide opportunities

  2. Randomised controlled trial of intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Mahomed, K.; Nyoni, R.; Mulambo, T.; Kasule, J.; Jacobus, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare effectiveness of different methods of monitoring intrapartum fetal heart rate. DESIGN--Prospective randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Referral maternity hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe. SUBJECTS--1255 women who were 37 weeks or more pregnant with singleton cephalic presentation and normal fetal heart rate before entry into study. INTERVENTIONS--Intermittent monitoring of fetal heart rate by electronic monitoring, Doppler ultrasound, use of Pinard stethoscope by a research midwife, or routine use of Pinard stethoscope by attending midwife. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, need for operative delivery for fetal distress, neonatal mortality, Apgar scores, admission to neonatal unit, neonatal seizures, and hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. RESULTS--Abnormalities in fetal heart rate were detected in 54% (172/318) of the electronic monitoring group, 32% (100/312) of the ultrasonography group, 15% (47/310) of the Pinard stethoscope group, and 9% (28/315) of the routine monitoring group. Caesarean sections were performed for 28% (89%), 24% (76), 10% (32), and 15% (46) of the four groups respectively. Neonatal outcome was best in the ultrasonography group: hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy occurred in two, one, seven, and 10 cases in the four groups respectively; neonatal seizures occurred only in the last two groups (six and nine cases respectively); and deaths occurred in eight, two, five, and nine cases respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Abnormalities in fetal heart rate were more reliably detected by Doppler ultrasonography than with Pinard stethoscope, and its use resulted in good perinatal outcome. The use of relatively cheap ultrasound monitors should be further evaluated and promoted in obstetric units caring for high risk pregnancies in developing countries with scarce resources. PMID:8136665

  3. A Wearable Device for Monitoring Sweat Rates via Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Matzeu, Giusy; Fay, Cormac; Vaillant, Alix; Coyle, Shirley; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-08-01

    A feasibility study on a new technique capable of monitoring localized sweat rate is explored in this paper. Wearable devices commonly used in clinical practice for sweat sampling (i.e., Macroducts) were positioned on the body of an athlete whose sweat rate was then monitored during cycling sessions. The position at which the sweat fills the Macroduct was indicated by a contrasting marker and captured via a series of time-stamped photos or a video recording of the device during an exercise period. Given that the time of each captured image/frame is known (either through time stamp on photos or the constant frame rate of the video capture), it was, therefore, possible to estimate the sweat flow rate through a simple calibration model. The importance of gathering such valuable information is described, together with the results from a number of exercise trials to investigate the viability of this approach. PMID:26394409

  4. Can we properly model the neutron monitor count rate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Agnieszka; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.; Mishev, Alexander L.; Corti, Claudio; Bindi, Veronica

    2015-09-01

    Neutron monitors provide continuous measurements of secondary nucleonic particles produced in the atmosphere by the primary cosmic rays and form the main tool to study the heliospheric modulation of cosmic rays. In order to study cosmic rays using the world network of neutron monitor and needs to be able to model the neutron monitor count rate. Earlier it was difficult because of the poorly known yield function, which has been essentially revisited recently. We have presented a verification of the new yield function of the standard neutron monitor (NM) using a recently released data on the direct in situ measurements of the galactic cosmic rays energy spectrum during 2006-2009 (the period of the record high cosmic ray flux) by Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics spaceborne spectrometer, and on NM latitude surveys performed during the period of 1994-2007, including periods of high solar activity. We found a very good agreement between the measured count rates of sea level NMs and the modeled ones in very different conditions: from low to high solar activity and from polar to tropical regions. This implies that the count rate of a sea level neutron monitor can be properly modeled in all conditions, using the new yield function.

  5. Oxygen Mass Flow Rate Generated for Monitoring Hydrogen Peroxide Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard

    2002-01-01

    Recent interest in propellants with non-toxic reaction products has led to a resurgence of interest in hydrogen peroxide for various propellant applications. Because peroxide is sensitive to contaminants, material interactions, stability and storage issues, monitoring decomposition rates is important. Stennis Space Center (SSC) uses thermocouples to monitor bulk fluid temperature (heat evolution) to determine reaction rates. Unfortunately, large temperature rises are required to offset the heat lost into the surrounding fluid. Also, tank penetration to accomodate a thermocouple can entail modification of a tank or line and act as a source of contamination. The paper evaluates a method for monitoring oxygen evolution as a means to determine peroxide stability. Oxygen generation is not only directly related to peroxide decomposition, but occurs immediately. Measuring peroxide temperature to monitor peroxide stability has significant limitations. The bulk decomposition of 1% / week in a large volume tank can produce in excess of 30 cc / min. This oxygen flow rate corresponds to an equivalent temperature rise of approximately 14 millidegrees C, which is difficult to measure reliably. Thus, if heat transfer were included, there would be no temperature rise. Temperature changes from the surrounding environment and heat lost to the peroxide will also mask potential problems. The use of oxygen flow measurements provides an ultra sensitive technique for monitoring reaction events and will provide an earlier indication of an abnormal decomposition when compared to measuring temperature rise.

  6. Quartz crystal microbalance thin-film dissolution rate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsberg, William D.; Kanazawa, Kay K.

    1989-03-01

    We describe the details of construction and operation of an instrument useful for the characterization of dissolution kinetics of thin films. This device, based on a quartz crystal microbalance operating in contact with a liquid, avoids the limitations associated with the use of optical, electrical, and mechanical dissolution rate measurement techniques. The QCM rate monitor has general application to the measurement of the kinetics of dissolution of transparent and opaque thin films such as dielectrics, metals, and polymeric resists.

  7. Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

    2004-01-01

    National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

  8. Concurrent validity of the Armour39 heart rate monitor strap.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Dupont, William H; Sterczala, Adam R; Looney, Dave P; Dombrowski, Dylan H; McDermott, Danielle M; Bryce, Alexander; Maladouangdock, Jesse; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Luk, Hui-Ying; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kraemer, William J

    2014-03-01

    New technology offers potential advantages in physically demanding environments where convenience and comfort are important and accurate and reliable data collection is challenging. Nevertheless, it is important to validate the accuracy and reliability of such biological monitoring systems (BMS) before they are adopted. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the concurrent validity of a new heart rate monitor across a range of exercise intensities and with a large and diverse group of male subjects in a large cohort with diverse physical fitness characteristics. Seventy-five men (age, 23 ± 4 years; height, 181 ± 8 cm; body mass, 83 ± 12 kg; estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 3.16 ± 0.63 [L·min]) volunteered and completed a graded cycle ergometer exercise protocol while heart rate was continuously monitored before, during, and after exercise with the new device (Armour39) and the gold standard (electrocardiogram). The 2-minute stages included sitting, standing, and cycling with 35 W increments until volitional fatigue. The coefficient of determination between mean heart rate values at each stage was R = 0.99, whereas Pearson correlations (r) at each stage were ≥ 0.99. Heart rates during exercise were typically within 1 beat of each other. The Armour39 BMS, therefore, is an acceptable means for the valid and reliable determination of heart rate under various bodily positions and levels of exertion, including maximal exercise intensity. PMID:23860286

  9. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  10. Signal processing methodologies for an acoustic fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III; Stoughton, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development is presented of real time signal processing methodologies for the detection of fetal heart tones within a noise-contaminated signal from a passive acoustic sensor. A linear predictor algorithm is utilized for detection of the heart tone event and additional processing derives heart rate. The linear predictor is adaptively 'trained' in a least mean square error sense on generic fetal heart tones recorded from patients. A real time monitor system is described which outputs to a strip chart recorder for plotting the time history of the fetal heart rate. The system is validated in the context of the fetal nonstress test. Comparisons are made with ultrasonic nonstress tests on a series of patients. Comparative data provides favorable indications of the feasibility of the acoustic monitor for clinical use.

  11. Commercialization and Industrial Development for the Fetal Hear Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives for this task were to continue the development and testing of the NASA/ODU passive acoustic fetal heart rate monitor, with the goal of transferring the technology to the commercial sector. Areas of work included: 1. To assist in the development of a new hardware front end electronics box for the fetal heart rate monitor, so as to reduce the size of the electronics box, and also to provide for a "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" mode of operation. To make necessary changes in the operating software to support the two modes of operation. 2. To provide an option for a strip chart recording for the system, so that medical personnel could more easily make comparisons with ultra sound strip chart recordings. and 3. To help with continued testing of the system.

  12. Pulse wave transit time for monitoring respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Ahlstrom, C; Lanne, T; Ask, P

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the beat-to-beat respiratory fluctuations in pulse wave transit time (PTT) and its subcomponents, the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and the vessel transit time (VTT) in ten healthy subjects. The three transit times were found to fluctuate in pace with respiration. When applying a simple breath detecting algorithm, 88% of the breaths seen in a respiration air-flow reference could be detected correctly in PTT. Corresponding numbers for PEP and VTT were 76 and 81%, respectively. The performance during hypo- and hypertension was investigated by invoking blood pressure changes. In these situations, the error rates in breath detection were significantly higher. PTT can be derived from signals already present in most standard monitoring set-ups. The transit time technology thus has prospects to become an interesting alternative for respiration rate monitoring.

  13. Real-time signal processing for fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimy, Muhammad I; Ahmed, Firoz; Mohd Ali, M A; Zahedi, Edmond

    2003-02-01

    An algorithm based on digital filtering, adaptive thresholding, statistical properties in the time domain, and differencing of local maxima and minima has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the fetal and maternal heart rates from the maternal abdominal electrocardiogram during pregnancy and labor for ambulatory monitoring. A microcontroller-based system has been used to implement the algorithm in real-time. A Doppler ultrasound fetal monitor was used for statistical comparison on five volunteers with low risk pregnancies, between 35 and 40 weeks of gestation. Results showed an average percent root mean square difference of 5.32% and linear correlation coefficient from 0.84 to 0.93. The fetal heart rate curves remained inside a +/- 5-beats-per-minute limit relative to the reference ultrasound method for 84.1% of the time. PMID:12665042

  14. Prone position craniotomy in pregnancy without fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jean; Alexander, Ashish; Philip, Shoba; Thomas, Anoop

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant patient in second trimester scheduled for posterior fossa craniotomy in prone position is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Things to consider are physiological changes during pregnancy, non-obstetric surgery in pregnant patients, neuroanesthetic principles, effects of prone positioning, and need for fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring. We have described the anesthetic management of this case and discussed intra-operative FHR monitoring including controversies about its role, indications, and various options available as per fetal gestational age. In our case we attempted intermittent intra-operative FHR monitoring to optimize maternal positioning and fetal oxygenation even though the fetus was pre-viable. However the attempt was abandoned due to practical difficulties with prone positioning. Patient made good neurological recovery following the procedure and delivered a healthy term baby 4 months later. Decisions regarding fetal monitoring should be individualized based on viability of the fetus and feasibility of emergency cesarean delivery. Good communication between a multidisciplinary team involving neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, obstetrician, and neonatologist is important for a successful outcome for mother and fetus. We conclude that prone position neurosurgery can safely be carried out in a pregnant patient with pre-viable fetus without FHR monitoring. PMID:27555144

  15. A new monitor for routine thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate monitoring in k0 INAA.

    PubMed

    Koster-Ammerlaan, M J J; Bacchi, M A; Bode, P; De Nadai Fernandes, E A

    2008-12-01

    The Zr-Au set for monitoring the thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate and the epithermal spectrum parameter alpha is not always practicable for routine application of INAA in well-thermalized facilities. An alternative set consisting of Cr, Au and Mo provides values for the thermal neutron fluence rate, f and alpha that are not significantly different from those found via the Zr-Au method and the Cd-covered Zr-method. The IRMM standard SMELS-II was analyzed using the (Au-Cr-Mo) monitor and a good agreement was obtained.

  16. Non-Contact Heart Rate Monitoring Using Lab Color Space.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hamidur; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Research progressing during the last decade focuses more on non-contact based systems to monitor Heart Rate (HR) which are simple, low-cost and comfortable to use. Most of the non-contact based systems are using RGB videos which is suitable for lab environment. However, it needs to progress considerably before they can be applied in real life applications. As luminance (light) has significance contribution on RGB videos HR monitoring using RGB videos are not efficient enough in real life applications in outdoor environment. This paper presents a HR monitoring method using Lab color facial video captured by a webcam of a laptop computer. Lab color space is device independent and HR can be extracted through facial skin color variation caused by blood circulation considering variable environmental light. Here, three different signal processing methods i.e., Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied on the color channels in video recordings and blood volume pulse (BVP) has been extracted from the facial regions. In this study, HR is subsequently quantified and compare with a reference measurement. The result shows that high degrees of accuracy have been achieved compared to the reference measurements. Thus, this technology has significant potential for advancing personal health care, telemedicine and many real life applications such as driver monitoring. PMID:27225552

  17. A Wearable Capacitive Sensor for Monitoring Human Respiratory Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Subrata Kumar; Kumagai, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    Realizing an untethered, low-cost, and comfortably wearable respiratory rate sensor for long-term breathing monitoring application still remains a challenge. In this paper, a conductive-textile-based wearable respiratory rate sensing technique based on the capacitive sensing approach is proposed. The sensing unit consists of two conductive textile electrodes that can be easily fabricated, laminated, and integrated in garments. Respiration cycle is detected by measuring the capacitance of two electrodes placed on the inner anterior and posterior sides of a T-shirt at either the abdomen or chest position. A convenient wearable respiratory sensor setup with a capacitance-to-voltage converter has been devised. Respiratory rate as well as breathing mode can be accurately identified using the designed sensor. The sensor output provides significant information on respiratory flow. The effectiveness of the proposed system for different breathing patterns has been evaluated by experiments.

  18. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  19. Bluetooth(Registered Trademark) Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; West, Michael R.; Kalogera, Kent L.; Hanson, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required during exercise for crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data is required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth® heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health on board ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) was worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_RHM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the two data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. REULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6%error), followed by CS4 (3.3%error), CS3 (6.4%error), and CS2 (9.2%error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to get the best quality data. CS2 will be used in an

  20. Assessment of error rates in acoustic monitoring with the R package monitoR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Jonathan; Hafner, Sasha D.; Donovan, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population-scale reactions to climate change and land-use change may require monitoring many sites for many years, a process that is suited for an automated system. We developed and tested monitoR, an R package for long-term, multi-taxa acoustic monitoring programs. We tested monitoR with two northeastern songbird species: black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens) and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). We compared detection results from monitoR in 52 10-minute surveys recorded at 10 sites in Vermont and New York, USA to a subset of songs identified by a human that were of a single song type and had visually identifiable spectrograms (e.g. a signal:noise ratio of at least 10 dB: 166 out of 439 total songs for black-throated green warbler, 502 out of 990 total songs for ovenbird). monitoR’s automated detection process uses a ‘score cutoff’, which is the minimum match needed for an unknown event to be considered a detection and results in a true positive, true negative, false positive or false negative detection. At the chosen score cut-offs, monitoR correctly identified presence for black-throated green warbler and ovenbird in 64% and 72% of the 52 surveys using binary point matching, respectively, and 73% and 72% of the 52 surveys using spectrogram cross-correlation, respectively. Of individual songs, 72% of black-throated green warbler songs and 62% of ovenbird songs were identified by binary point matching. Spectrogram cross-correlation identified 83% of black-throated green warbler songs and 66% of ovenbird songs. False positive rates were  for song event detection.

  1. Heart rate monitoring and control in altered gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, M; Parati, G; Rizzo, F; Meriggi, P; Merati, G; Faini, A; Castiglioni, P

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of indirect evidences it has been hypothesized that during space missions the almost complete absence of gravity might impair the baroreflex control of circulation. In the first part of this paper we report results obtained from a series of experiments carried out to directly verify this hypothesis during the 16-day STS 107 Shuttle flight. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity was assessed in four astronauts before flight (baseline) and at days 0-1, 6-7 and 12-13 during flight, both at rest and while performing moderate exercise. Our results indicate that at rest the baroreflex sensitivity significantly increased in the early flight phase, as compared to pre-flight values and tended to return to baseline in the mid-late phase of flight. During exercise, baroreflex sensitivity was lower than at rest, without any difference among pre-flight and in-flight values. These findings seem to exclude the hypothesis of an impairment of the baroreflex control of heart rate during exposure to microgravity, at least over a time window of 16 days. In the second part of the paper we propose a novel textile-based methodology for heart rate and other vital signs monitoring during gravity stress. The positive results obtained from its use during parachute jumps support the use of smart garments for the unobtrusive assessment of physiological parameters in extreme environments. PMID:18003559

  2. Heart rate monitoring in soccer: interest and limits during competitive match play and training, practical application.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Dellal; da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Wong, Del P; Natali, Antonio J; De Lima, Jorge R P; Bara Filho, Mauricio G B; Marins, Joao J C B; Garcia, Emerson Silami; Karim, Chamari

    2012-10-01

    The identification of physiological loads imposed by soccer training or match play reveals essential information, which may help improve training and recovery strategies. Until today, the use of heart rate (HR) monitoring is not standardized in soccer. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze, determine and compare the exercise intensity (EI) monitored by HR in professional, youth, and recreational soccer players during matches and training sessions using a meta-analysis. Heart rate is one of the most common physiological variables used to determine exercise internal training load. The mean EI recorded during competitive matches was described as 70-80% of VO2max or 80-90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), independent of the playing level. With respect to HR training zones, approximately 65% of the total match duration is spent at intensity of 70-90% HRmax and rarely below 65% HRmax. However, although HRmax is mostly employed in the literature, monitoring EI should be expressed in relation to reserve heart rate, as it was described as a more reliable indicator of HR, allowing interindividual comparisons. The HR response according to the playing position indicates that midfielders are characterized by the highest EI, followed by forwards and fullbacks. Moreover, in the second half of the match, the EI is lower than that observed during the first half; this reduction could be correlated with the level of the player's physical conditioning. Consequently, coaches may favor the use of interval training or small-sided training games because these are shown to improve both aerobic capacity and the ability to repeat high-intensity actions. Small-sided games allow reaching similar HR responses to those found during interval training and match play but with greater heterogeneity values. Future investigations should include a larger sample of players with special reference to playing position and the expression of EI in percentage of the reserve heart rate, analyzing the

  3. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  4. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  5. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  6. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  7. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  8. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  9. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  10. Enhancing Cryptosporidium parvum recovery rates for improved water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Pagona; Venkateswaran, Sesha; Bradley, Mark; Bridle, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Water monitoring is essential to ensure safe drinking water for consumers. However existing methods have several drawbacks, particularly with regard to the poor recovery of Cryptosporidium due to the inability to efficiently elute Cryptosporidium oocysts during the established detection process used by water utilities. Thus the development of new inexpensive materials that could be incorporated into the concentration and release stage that would control Cryptosporidium oocysts adhesion would be beneficial. Here we describe improved filter performance following dip-coating of the filters with a "bioactive" polyacrylate. Specifically 69% more oocysts were eluted from the filter which had been coated with a polymer than on the naked filter alone.

  11. Imaging method for monitoring delivery of high dose rate brachytherapy

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G; Majewski, Stanislaw

    2012-10-23

    A method for in-situ monitoring both the balloon/cavity and the radioactive source in brachytherapy treatment utilizing using at least one pair of miniature gamma cameras to acquire separate images of: 1) the radioactive source as it is moved in the tumor volume during brachytherapy; and 2) a relatively low intensity radiation source produced by either an injected radiopharmaceutical rendering cancerous tissue visible or from a radioactive solution filling a balloon surgically implanted into the cavity formed by the surgical resection of a tumor.

  12. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  13. Optical, real-time monitoring of the glomerular filtration rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabito, Carlos A.; Chen, Yang; Schomacker, Kevin T.; Modell, Mark D.

    2005-10-01

    An easy and accurate assessment of the renal function is a critical requirement for detecting the initial functional decline of the kidney induced by acute or chronic renal disease. A method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is developed with the accuracy of clearance techniques and the convenience of plasma creatinine. The renal function is measured in rats as the rate of clearance determined from time-resolved transcutaneous fluorescence measurements of a new fluorescent glomerular filtration agent. The agent has a large dose-safety coefficient and the same space distribution and clearance characteristics as iothalamate. This new approach is a convenient and accurate way to perform real-time measurements of the glomerular filtration rate to detect early kidney disease before the renal function becomes severely and irreversibly compromised.

  14. College Officials Urged to Monitor the Graduation Rate Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Documenting that there are 62 U.S. colleges and universities where the six-year graduation rates for Black undergraduate students have recently outpaced those of their White peers, the report by the Washington, D.C.-based Education Sector, an independent education policy think tank, has pointed out that schools where underrepresented minorities…

  15. Monitoring cerebral oxygen saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass using near-infrared spectroscopy: the relationships with body temperature and perfusion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yichao; Ding, HaiShu; Gong, Qingcheng; Jia, Zaishen; Huang, Lan

    2006-03-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) because of weak arterial pulsation, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) is almost the only available method to monitor cerebral oxygenation noninvasively. Our group develops a NIRS oximeter to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation especially its oxygen saturation (rScO2). To achieve optimal coupling between the sensor and human brain, the distances between the light source and the detectors on it are properly chosen. The oximeter is calibrated by blood gas analysis, and the results indicate that its algorithm is little influenced by either background absorption or overlying tissue. We used it to measure the rScO2 of 15 patients during CPB. It is shown that rScO2 is negatively correlated with body temperature and positively with perfusion rate. There are two critical stages during CPB when rScO2 might be relatively low: one is the low-perfusion-rate stage, the other is the early rewarming stage. During cooling, the changes of total hemoglobin concentration (CtHb) compared with its original value is also monitored. It is shown that CtHb decreases to a small extent, which may mainly reflect cerebral vasoconstriction induced by cooling. All these results indicate that NIRS can be used to monitor cerebral oxygenation to protect cerebral tissue during CPB.

  16. Differential rates of gene expression monitored by green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Lu, Canghai; Albano, C Renee; Bentley, William E; Rao, Govind

    2002-08-20

    The use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene has made a broad impact in several areas, especially in studies of protein trafficking, localization, and expression analysis. GFP's many advantages are that it is small, autocatalytic, and does not require fixation, cell disruption, or the addition of cofactors or substrates. Two characteristics of GFP, extreme stability and chromophore cyclization lag time, pose a hindrance to the application of GFP as a real-time gene expression reporter in bioprocess applications. In this report, we present analytical methods that overcome these problems and enable the temporal visualization of discrete gene regulatory events. The approach we present measures the rate of change in GFP fluorescence, which in turn reflects the rate of gene expression. We conducted fermentation and microplate experiments using a protein synthesis inhibitor to illustrate the feasibility of this system. Additional experiments using the classic gene regulation of the araBAD operon show the utility of GFP as a near real-time indicator of gene regulation. With repetitive induction and repression of the arabinose promoter, the differential rate of GFP fluorescence emission shows corresponding cyclical changes during the culture.

  17. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G.

    2012-06-19

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  18. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Cerniglia, P.

    1990-10-23

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  19. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Cerniglia, Philip

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  20. Lightweight wrist photoplethysmography for heavy exercise: motion robust heart rate monitoring algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Insoo

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of heart rate monitoring based on wrist photoplethysmography (PPG) during heavy exercise is addressed. PPG is susceptible to motion artefacts, which have to be mitigated for accurate heart rate estimation. Motion artefacts are particularly apparent for wrist devices, for example, a smart watch, because of the high mobility of the arms. Proposed is a low complexity highly accurate heart rate estimation method for continuous heart rate monitoring using wrist PPG. The proposed method achieved 2.57% mean absolute error in a test data set where subjects ran for a maximum speed of 17 km/h. PMID:26609397

  1. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  2. Coherence of heart rate variability and local physical fields in monitoring studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzhilkin, D. A.; Borodin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Technological advances have led to a substantial modification of the physical fields of the environment, which could affect the status of living organisms under their constant exposure. In this study, the activity of human cardiovascular system under the influence of a complex natural physical environmental factors investigated. The study was conducted on a representative homogeneous sample (44 persons aged 19 to 22 years) by simultaneous monitoring of electrocardiograms and natural physical fields in Tomsk (geomagnetic field, meteorological parameters - temperature, pressure and humidity, surface wind speed, the parameters of the Schumann resonance - amplitude, frequency and quality factor of the first four modes in the range of 6 to 32 Hz, the power spectral density infrasonic background in the range of from 0,5 to 32 Hz). It was shown that among the set of parameters of physical fields present field that can resonate in the functioning of the human organism. The greatest coherence with heart rate variability detect variations eastern component of the geomagnetic field.

  3. Unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on a fiber specklegram sensor and a single-board computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Alessandro B.; Frizera, Anselmo; Cotrina, Anibal; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a portable and unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on fiber specklegram sensors. The proposed module uses the Raspberry Pi module to perform the image acquisition and the fiber specklegram sensor, which is based on multimode plastic optical fibers. The heart rate is obtained by welch power spectral density estimate and the heart beats are identified by means of a threshold analysis.

  4. Smart pillow for heart-rate monitoring using a fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihao; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat; Yim, Huiqing

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a new method to monitor heart rate using fiber optic microbending based sensor for in-bed non-intrusive monitoring. The sensing system consists of transmitter, receiver, sensor mat, National Instrument (NI) data acquisition (DAQ) card and a computer for signal processing. The sensor mat is embedded inside a commercial pillow. The heart rate measurement system shows an accuracy of +/-2 beats, which has been successfully demonstrated in a field trial. The key technological advantage of our system is its ability to measure heart rate with no preparation and minimal compliance by the patient.

  5. Monitoring of antibiotic resistance rates of Helicobacter pylori in Austrian children, 2002-2009.

    PubMed

    Prechtl, Johannes; Deutschmann, Andrea; Savic, Tamara; Jahnel, Jörg; Bogiatzis, Athanasios; Muntean, Wolfgang; Hauer, Almuthe C; Hoffmann, Karl Martin

    2012-03-01

    We retrospectively studied antibiotic resistance rates of H. pylori and their temporal changes in children. Resistance rates were 21.6% for both clarithromycin and metronidazole. There was no overall difference between children with or without migrational background. Resistance rates increased over time, and patients without migrational background showed a significant increase in metronidazole resistance. Our study emphasizes antibiotic resistance monitoring of H. pylori in children.

  6. Magneto-impedance sensor for quasi-noncontact monitoring of breathing, pulse rate and activity status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corodeanu, S.; Chiriac, H.; Radulescu, L.; Lupu, N.

    2014-05-01

    Results on the development and testing of a novel magnetic sensor based on the detection of the magneto-impedance variation due to changes in the permeability of an amorphous wire are reported. The proposed application is the quasi-noncontact monitoring of the breathing frequency and heart rate for diagnosing sleep disorders. Patient discomfort is significantly decreased by transversally placing the sensitive element onto the surface of a flexible mattress in order to detect its deformation associated with cardiorespiratory activity and body movements. The developed sensor has a great application potential in monitoring the vital signs during sleep, with special advantages for children sleep monitoring.

  7. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI)

    PubMed Central

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Lin, Bill S.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner. PMID:26440644

  8. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Lin, Bill S.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner.

  9. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  10. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  11. Monitoring volcano precursory activity with the materials failure approach, using rates of cumulative seismic coda length

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelius, R.R.; Voight, B. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    The proportionality between the energy, E, of an elastic wave and the square of its amplitude led to the usage of Benioff diagrams'' for purposes of volcano monitoring. These diagrams show the time-integrated amplitude as [radical]E versus time. The authors propose to use accelerating cumulative coda length directly in volcano monitoring. This surrogate measure of energy'' is used for practical reasons, as it eliminates the intermediate step required for energy calculations with regional and instrument-specific constants. Rates of cumulative coda (s/day) may be used for the materials failure approach'' to eruption prediction, which fits data according to an empirical rate-acceleration relationship. The method allows numerical or graphical rate extrapolation towards the expected failure rate; eruption windows may be established. Rate series derived from either cumulative amplitude, cumulative coda, or calculated [radical]E can be analyzed by the materials failure approach equally well; neither series is favored by this method because of similar characteristics. They suggest rate interpolation from the time-integrated data over constant coda-increments instead of over constant time-increments. This results in an increasingly higher frequency of rate data towards the end of an accelerating time series. The end-weighted rate calculation emphasizes the latest precursory developments while it smooths noise at lower rates. Adjusting the applied constant coda-increment for rate calculations as a function of total encountered coda, is a technique for an automated and sequential update of the extrapolated failure time.

  12. Monitoring and Prevalence Rates of Metabolic Syndrome in Military Veterans with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Khatana, Sameed Ahmed M.; Kane, Joshua; Taveira, Tracey H.; Bauer, Mark S.; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome—a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors—is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)—a risk factor for metabolic syndrome—has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. Methods and Findings We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005–2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357), 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. Conclusions Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics. With the high

  13. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  14. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm). 870.2300 Section 870.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste...

  8. Monitoring the dissolution rate of photoresist thin films via multiwavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Ankur; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2003-05-01

    Dissolution rate monitors (DRMs) and related techniques have been used for a number of years to study the dissolution behavior of photoresist materials in detail. Due to the relative difficulty in obtaining commercial DRM instruments, crude methods for measuring dissolution rates such as the (formula availble in paper) have been developed. In this method, the resist-coated substrate is immersed in a developer solution for a fixed development time, removed and dried, and the remaining film thickness is measured. The dissolution rate information for the resist is then calculated from the slope of the resist thickness versus development time data. This method is simple and can easily be used in a fab environment, but it suffers from a number of limitations. For example, this method is very inaccurate for resists that develop very quickly (< 20 seconds) such as many modern chemically amplified resists. Such quick development times are often crucial in exploring the full behavior of a resist. A much better method for measuring the dissolution behavior of photoresist films is to use interferometric methods such as those suggested originally by Dill and coworkers. In this work, an extremely flexible and simple instrument based on inexpensive, commercially available, PC card spectrometers will be presented that can be used quite robustly in both fab and laboratory environments for measuring the dissolution behavior of photoresist films. The hardware required in order to construct such a simple apparatus will be discussed along with various experimental configurations that are appropriate for different measurement tasks. Thin film thickness estimation using the DRM can be done using either single wavelength versus time interferometry data (plot of reflected light intensity versus development time) or the complete multiwavelength spectra obtained from a spectroscopic reflectometry system. Film thickness estimation using single wavelength data analysis is good for films that

  9. Smartphone applications (apps) for heart rate measurement in children: comparison with electrocardiography monitor.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Lin; Fu, Yun-Ching; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chan, Sheng-Ching; Hwang, Betau; Jan, Sheng-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) measurement is essential for children with abnormal heart beats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HR measurement by smartphone applications (apps) could be a feasible alternative to an electrocardiography (ECG) monitor. A total of 40 children, median age of 4.3 years, were studied. Using four free smartphone apps, pulse rates were measured at the finger (or toe) and earlobe, and compared with baseline HRs measured by ECG monitors. Significant correlations between measured pulse rates and baseline HRs were found. Both correlation and accuracy rate were higher in the earlobe group than the finger/toe group. When HR was <120 beats per min (bpm), the accuracy rates were not different between the two different measuring sites for each app (median of 65 vs 76%). The accuracy rates in the finger/toe group were significantly lower than those in the earlobe group for all apps when HR was ≥ 120 bpm (27 vs 65%). There were differences among apps in their abilities to measure pulse rates. Taking children's pulse rate from the earlobe would be more accurate, especially for tachycardia. However, we do not recommend that smartphone apps should not be used for routine medical use or used as the sole form of HR measurement because the results of their accuracy are not good enough.

  10. A new rate index for environmental monitoring of combined reuse/recycle packaging systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-08-01

    It is shown that the conventional recycling rate fails to reflect environmental performance for packaging flows with both recycle and reuse. The reuse rate, the total number of reuse trips and the reuse- lifetime are also shown to be inadequate. A new rate index defined in terms of the total amount of packaging material reaching the consumer is proposed. It reflects immediate improvements in environmental impact according to specific criteria and it reduces to the conventional rate for systems with only recycle. Albeit this shortcut environmental assessment is not entirely comprehensive and does not unveil a full sustainability profile, it may be useful for immediate packaging flow evaluation and policy implementation. For given packaging production technology it reveals a specific maximum level on recycling, below which environmental impacts from processing are limited or reduced, even if production level grows. Cleaner technologies in reprocessing of recycled materials may elevate this maximum level while still limiting or reducing environmental impacts.

  11. A new rate index for environmental monitoring of combined reuse/recycle packaging systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-08-01

    It is shown that the conventional recycling rate fails to reflect environmental performance for packaging flows with both recycle and reuse. The reuse rate, the total number of reuse trips and the reuse- lifetime are also shown to be inadequate. A new rate index defined in terms of the total amount of packaging material reaching the consumer is proposed. It reflects immediate improvements in environmental impact according to specific criteria and it reduces to the conventional rate for systems with only recycle. Albeit this shortcut environmental assessment is not entirely comprehensive and does not unveil a full sustainability profile, it may be useful for immediate packaging flow evaluation and policy implementation. For given packaging production technology it reveals a specific maximum level on recycling, below which environmental impacts from processing are limited or reduced, even if production level grows. Cleaner technologies in reprocessing of recycled materials may elevate this maximum level while still limiting or reducing environmental impacts. PMID:16200980

  12. Demonstrating the accuracy of an in-hospital ambulatory patient monitoring solution in measuring respiratory rate.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, N; Hunniford, T; Harper, R; Flynn, A; Kennedy, A; Branagh, D; McLaughlin, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents clinical testing conducted to evaluate the accuracy of Aingeal, a wireless in-hospital patient monitor, in measuring respiration rate via impedance pneumography. Healthy volunteers were invited to simultaneously wear a CE Marked Aingeal vital signs monitor and a capnograph, the current gold standard in respiration rate measurement. During the test, participants were asked to undergo a series of defined breathing protocols which included normal breathing, paced breathing between 8-23 breaths per minute (bpm) and a recovery period following moderate exercise. Statistical analysis of the data collected shows a mean difference of -0.73, a standard deviation of 1.61, limits of agreement of -3.88 and +2.42 bpm and a P-value of 0.22. This testing demonstrates comparable performance of the Aingeal device in measuring respiration rate with a well-accepted and widely used alternative method. PMID:24111283

  13. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  14. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil. PMID:16722077

  15. Monitoring performance of the cameras under the high dose-rate gamma ray environments.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2014-05-01

    CCD/CMOS cameras, loaded on a robot system, are generally used as the eye of the robot and monitoring unit. A major problem that arises when dealing with images provided by CCD/CMOS cameras under severe accident situations of a nuclear power plant is the presence of speckles owing to the high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. To use a CCD/CMOS camera as a monitoring unit in a high radiation area, the legibility of the camera image in such intense gamma-radiation fields should therefore be defined. In this paper, the authors describe the monitoring index as a figure of merit of the camera's legibleness under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation environment. From a low dose-rate (10 Gy h) to a high dose-rate (200 Gy h) level, the legible performances of the cameras owing to the speckles are evaluated. The numbers of speckles generated by gamma ray irradiation in the camera image are calculated by an image processing technique. The legibility of the sensor indicator (thermo/hygrometer) owing to the number of speckles is also presented. PMID:24667385

  16. Non-contact and noise tolerant heart rate monitoring using microwave doppler sensor and range imagery.

    PubMed

    Matsunag, Daichi; Izumi, Shintaro; Okuno, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a non-contact and noise-tolerant heart beat monitoring system. The proposed system comprises a microwave Doppler sensor and range imagery using Microsoft Kinect™. The possible application of the proposed system is a driver health monitoring. We introduce the sensor fusion approach to minimize the heart beat detection error. The proposed algorithm can subtract a body motion artifact from Doppler sensor output using time-frequency analysis. The body motion artifact is a crucially important problem for biosignal monitoring using microwave Doppler sensor. The body motion speed is obtainable from range imagery, which has 5-mm resolution at 30-cm distance. Measurement results show that the success rate of the heart beat detection is improved about 75% on average when the Doppler wave is degraded by the body motion artifact.

  17. Development of a polymer etch rate monitor: design, characterization, and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heping; Toddy, Terry; Gibbons, Stephen; May, Trisha

    2003-05-01

    A polymer etch rate monitor (PERM) was designed to quantify rates of base-soluble polymeric materials by measuring electric signals. The thickness of a thin film was demonstrated to be proportional to the electric resistance of the polymer coating. The applicability of the electric cell design for characterizing the dissolution of polymer coatings was demonstrated. Characterization of the electric signal versus the developing process revealed distinctive steps and mechanisms of the dissolution process. Scanning electron microscopy provided some insight into the dissolution process and the interaction between polymeric coatings and base. The correlation between dissolution rate and the concentration of base was investigated. Also investigated was the relationship between dissolution rate of polymeric coating and its thermal curing parameter. This monitor is able to provide instant information about the dissolution process as well as the etch rate in the base solution. Not only can the overall dissolution rate be measured, but the dissolution behavior and interaction can also be interpreted by analyzing the dissolving curve. This instrument has been used successfully for quality control purposes. Currently, the applicability of this device for photosensitive polymeric coatings is being evaluated.

  18. System for simultaneously monitoring heart and breathing rate in mice using a piezoelectric transducer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinichi; Yamada, Katsuya; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2006-05-01

    We propose a novel system for simultaneously monitoring the heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR) of anesthetized mice using a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) placed under the body. It is known that a PZT, which transforms mechanical vibrations into electrical signals, can detect heart sounds and breathing movements. However, no PZT system has been reported for simultaneous and continuous monitoring of HR and BR, possibly due to difficulties in eliminating noises and errors caused by the amplitude fluctuation of heart sounds and breathing movements. These difficulties were overcome by custom-designed analogue circuitry and a microprocessor program, resulting in detection of HR and BR with a high reliability compared to the values obtained from ECG and a conventional airflow sensor. We believe that this practical and easy-to-use system can be applied to a wide variety of basic and clinical research fields.

  19. Monitoring of ultraviolet pulse rate dependent photomechanical actuation in carbon nanotubes using fiber Bragg gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Shivananju, B. N.; Suri, Ashish; Asokan, S.; Misra, Abha

    2014-01-06

    In this Letter, we present a non-contact method of controlling and monitoring photomechanical actuation in carbon nanotubes (CNT) by exposing it to ultra-violet radiation at different pulse rates (10 to 200 Hz). This is accomplished by imparting a reversible photo induced strain (5–330 με) on CNT coated fibre Bragg gratings; CNT undergoes an internal reversible structural change due to cyclic photon absorption that leads to the development of mechanical strain, which in turn allows reversible switching of the Bragg wavelength. The results also reveal an interesting pulse rate dependent rise and fall times of photomechanical actuation in CNT.

  20. Wireless patch sensor for remote monitoring of heart rate, respiration, activity, and falls.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alexander M; Selvaraj, Nandakumar; Ferdosi, Nima; Narasimhan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Unobtrusive continuous monitoring of important vital signs and activity metrics has the potential to provide remote health monitoring, at-home screening, and rapid notification of critical events such as heart attacks, falls, or respiratory distress. This paper contains validation results of a wireless Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) patch sensor consisting of two electrocardiography (ECG) electrodes, a microcontroller, a tri-axial accelerometer, and a BLE transceiver. The sensor measures heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate, posture, steps, and falls and was evaluated on a total of 25 adult participants who performed breathing exercises, activities of daily living (ADLs), various stretches, stationary cycling, walking/running, and simulated falls. Compared to reference devices, the heart rate measurement had a mean absolute error (MAE) of less than 2 bpm, time-domain HRV measurements had an RMS error of less than 15 ms, respiratory rate had an MAE of 1.1 breaths per minute during metronome breathing, posture detection had an accuracy of over 95% in two of the three patch locations, steps were counted with an absolute error of less than 5%, and falls were detected with a sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 100%.

  1. Measuring the sedimentation rate in a magnetorheological fluid column via thermal conductivity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haibin; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Guizhen; Ma, Wentao; Wereley, Norman M.

    2016-05-01

    Measuring sedimentation rate of magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) is of great importance when designing and synthesizing MRFs for engineering applications. A method of characterizing sedimentation rate in an MRF column is proposed utilizing thermal conductivity correlated with particle concentration. A series of MRF samples composed of carbonyl iron particles suspended in silicone oil were prepared, and their concentrations (measured as volume fraction, ∅) and thermal conductivities, k, were tested. A calibration curve was developed to relate particle concentration, ∅, to thermal conductivity, k, using this set of MRF samples with known concentration. The particle concentration, ∅, in the MRF column was then monitored by measuring thermal conductivities (k) at a fixed location and using this calibration relationship. Finally, sedimentation rate in the MRF column was determined by examining how particle concentration varied with time. The sedimentation rate measured in the MRF column was validated using visual observation of mudline (boundary between the topmost clarified fluid zone and MRF below).

  2. New method of proportional counter feedback biasing for wide-range radiation dose-rate monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, M.K.; Gueerant, G.C.; Manning, F.W.; Valentine, K.H.

    1985-02-01

    A prototypic wide-range radiation dose-rate monitor for civil defense applications has been developed and tested. The specified dose-rate range (0 to 500 R/h) was displayed on a single readout scale by using feedback-controlled biasing of a proportional counter. This new method is based on controlling the avalanche multiplication factor (gas gain) of the counter by varying its bias voltage in response to its measured output current (i.e., detected dose rate). The counter output current varies between 0 and 1.5 nA in a quasilogarithmic response to dose rates between 0 and 500 R/h. The corresponding values of gas gain and bias voltage range from 1 to 300 and 200 to 1900 V respectively.

  3. New method of proportional counter feedback biasing for wide-range radiation dose-rate monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.; Guerrant, G.C.; Manning, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A prototypic wide-range radiation dose-rate monitor for civil defense applications has been developed and tested. The specified dose-rate range (0 to 500 R/h) was displayed on a single readout scale by using feedback-controlled biasing of a proportional counter. This new method is based on controlling the avalanche multiplication factor (gas gain) of the counter by varying its bias voltage in response to its measured output current (i.e., detected dose rate). The counter output current varies between 0 and 1.5 nA in a quasi-logarithmic response to dose rates between 0 and 500 R/h. The corresponding values of gas gain and bias voltage range from 1 to 300 and 200 to 1900 V respectively.

  4. Monitoring of Heart and Breathing Rates Using Dual Cameras on a Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunyoung; Kong, Youngsun; Reyes, Bersain; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H

    2016-01-01

    Some smartphones have the capability to process video streams from both the front- and rear-facing cameras simultaneously. This paper proposes a new monitoring method for simultaneous estimation of heart and breathing rates using dual cameras of a smartphone. The proposed approach estimates heart rates using a rear-facing camera, while at the same time breathing rates are estimated using a non-contact front-facing camera. For heart rate estimation, a simple application protocol is used to analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with the rear camera. The breathing rate is estimated from non-contact video recordings from both chest and abdominal motions. Reference breathing rates were measured by a respiration belt placed around the chest and abdomen of a subject; reference heart rates (HR) were determined using the standard electrocardiogram. An automated selection of either the chest or abdominal video signal was determined by choosing the signal with a greater autocorrelation value. The breathing rate was then determined by selecting the dominant peak in the power spectrum. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, data were collected from 11 healthy subjects. The breathing ranges spanned both low and high frequencies (6-60 breaths/min), and the results show that the average median errors from the reflectance imaging on the chest and the abdominal walls based on choosing the maximum spectral peak were 1.43% and 1.62%, respectively. Similarly, HR estimates were also found to be accurate.

  5. Passive fetal heart rate monitoring apparatus and method with enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen A. (Inventor); Livingston, David L. (Inventor); Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for acquiring signals emitted by a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats and determining a fetal heart rate. Multiple sensor signals are outputted by a passive fetal heart rate monitoring sensor. Multiple parallel nonlinear filters filter these multiple sensor signals to identify fetal heart beats in the signal data. A processor determines a fetal heart rate based on these identified fetal heart beats. The processor includes the use of a figure of merit weighting of heart rate estimates based on the identified heart beats from each filter for each signal. The fetal heart rate thus determined is outputted to a display, storage, or communications channel. A method for enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination includes acquiring signals from a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats from the signals by multiple parallel nonlinear filtering, and determining a fetal heart rate based on the identified fetal heart beats. A figure of merit operation in this method provides for weighting a plurality of fetal heart rate estimates based on the identified fetal heart beats and selecting the highest ranking fetal heart rate estimate.

  6. Monitoring of Heart and Breathing Rates Using Dual Cameras on a Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunyoung; Kong, Youngsun; Reyes, Bersain; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H

    2016-01-01

    Some smartphones have the capability to process video streams from both the front- and rear-facing cameras simultaneously. This paper proposes a new monitoring method for simultaneous estimation of heart and breathing rates using dual cameras of a smartphone. The proposed approach estimates heart rates using a rear-facing camera, while at the same time breathing rates are estimated using a non-contact front-facing camera. For heart rate estimation, a simple application protocol is used to analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with the rear camera. The breathing rate is estimated from non-contact video recordings from both chest and abdominal motions. Reference breathing rates were measured by a respiration belt placed around the chest and abdomen of a subject; reference heart rates (HR) were determined using the standard electrocardiogram. An automated selection of either the chest or abdominal video signal was determined by choosing the signal with a greater autocorrelation value. The breathing rate was then determined by selecting the dominant peak in the power spectrum. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, data were collected from 11 healthy subjects. The breathing ranges spanned both low and high frequencies (6-60 breaths/min), and the results show that the average median errors from the reflectance imaging on the chest and the abdominal walls based on choosing the maximum spectral peak were 1.43% and 1.62%, respectively. Similarly, HR estimates were also found to be accurate. PMID:26963390

  7. Monitoring of Heart and Breathing Rates Using Dual Cameras on a Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Yunyoung; Kong, Youngsun; Reyes, Bersain; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H.

    2016-01-01

    Some smartphones have the capability to process video streams from both the front- and rear-facing cameras simultaneously. This paper proposes a new monitoring method for simultaneous estimation of heart and breathing rates using dual cameras of a smartphone. The proposed approach estimates heart rates using a rear-facing camera, while at the same time breathing rates are estimated using a non-contact front-facing camera. For heart rate estimation, a simple application protocol is used to analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with the rear camera. The breathing rate is estimated from non-contact video recordings from both chest and abdominal motions. Reference breathing rates were measured by a respiration belt placed around the chest and abdomen of a subject; reference heart rates (HR) were determined using the standard electrocardiogram. An automated selection of either the chest or abdominal video signal was determined by choosing the signal with a greater autocorrelation value. The breathing rate was then determined by selecting the dominant peak in the power spectrum. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, data were collected from 11 healthy subjects. The breathing ranges spanned both low and high frequencies (6–60 breaths/min), and the results show that the average median errors from the reflectance imaging on the chest and the abdominal walls based on choosing the maximum spectral peak were 1.43% and 1.62%, respectively. Similarly, HR estimates were also found to be accurate. PMID:26963390

  8. Evaluation of a strapless heart rate monitor during simulated flight tasks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Fu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Pilots are under high task demands during flight. Monitoring pilot's physiological status is very important in the evaluation of pilot's workload and flight safety. Recently, physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded into a watch that can be used without a conventional chest strap. This makes it possible to unobtrusively monitor, log and transmit pilot's physiological measurements such as heart rate (HR) during flight tasks. The purpose of this study is to validate HR recorded by a strapless heart rate watch against criterion ECG-derived HR. Ten commercial pilots (mean ± SD : age: 39.1 ± 7.8 years; total flight hours 7173.2 ± 5270.9 hr) performed three routinely trained flight tasks in a full flight simulator: wind shear go-around (WG), takeoff and climb (TC), and hydraulic failure (HF). For all tasks combined (overall) and for each task, differences between the heart rate watch measurements and the criterion data were small (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.71 beats/min [-0.85, -0.57]; WG: -0.90 beats/min [-1.15, -0.65]; TC: -0.69 beats/min [-0.98, -0.40]; HF: -0.61 beats/min [-0.80, -0.42]). There were high correlations between the heart rate watch measurements and the ECG-derived HR for all tasks (r ≥ 0.97, SEE < 3). Bland-Altman plots also show high agreements between the watch measurements and the criterion HR. These results suggest that the strapless heart rate watch provides valid measurements of HR during simulated flight tasks and could be a useful tool for pilot workload evaluation.

  9. Methods for monitoring corals and crustose coralline algae to quantify in-situ calcification rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jennifer M.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don

    2013-01-01

    The potential effect of global climate change on calcifying marine organisms, such as scleractinian (reef-building) corals, is becoming increasingly evident. Understanding the process of coral calcification and establishing baseline calcification rates are necessary to detect future changes in growth resulting from climate change or other stressors. Here we describe the methods used to establish a network of calcification-monitoring stations along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract in 2009. In addition to detailing the initial setup and periodic monitoring of calcification stations, we discuss the utility and success of our design and offer suggestions for future deployments. Stations were designed such that whole coral colonies were securely attached to fixed apparati (n = 10 at each site) on the seafloor but also could be easily removed and reattached as needed for periodic weighing. Corals were weighed every 6 months, using the buoyant weight technique, to determine calcification rates in situ. Sites were visited in May and November to obtain winter and summer rates, respectively, and identify seasonal patterns in calcification. Calcification rates of the crustose coralline algal community also were measured by affixing commercially available plastic tiles, deployed vertically, at each station. Colonization by invertebrates and fleshy algae on the tiles was low, indicating relative specificity for the crustose coralline algal community. We also describe a new, nonlethal technique for sampling the corals, used following the completion of the monitoring period, in which two slabs were obtained from the center of each colony. Sampled corals were reattached to the seafloor, and most corals had completely recovered within 6 months. The station design and sampling methods described herein provide an effective approach to assessing coral and crustose coralline algal calcification rates across time and space, offering the ability to quantify the potential effects of

  10. Validity of a heart rate monitor during work in the laboratory and on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, A. D. Jr; Lee, S. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space flight. Three different comparisons were made. The first compared HRM data to simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of varying heart rates that were generated by an ECG simulator. The second compared HRM data to ECG recordings collected during work sessions of 14 subjects in the laboratory. Finally, ECG downlink and HRM data were compared in four astronauts who performed cycle exercise during space flight. The data were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were that the HRM recorded virtually identical heart rates compared with ECG recordings for the data set generated by an ECG simulator. The regression equation for the relationship between ECG versus HRM heart rate data during work in the laboratory was: ECG HR = 0.99 x (HRM) + 0.82 (r2 = 0.99). Finally, the agreement between ECG downlink data and HRM data during space flight was also very high, with the regression equation being: Downlink ECG HR = 1.05 x (HRM) -5.71 (r2 = 0.99). The results of this study indicate that the HRM provides accurate data and may be used to reliably obtain valid data regarding heart rate responses during work.

  11. Monitoring fetal heart rate during pregnancy: contributions from advanced signal processing and wearable technology.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Maria G; Fanelli, Andrea; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  12. Monitoring Fetal Heart Rate during Pregnancy: Contributions from Advanced Signal Processing and Wearable Technology

    PubMed Central

    Signorini, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring. PMID:24639886

  13. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests. PMID:24167281

  14. Cardiovascular oscillations at the bedside: early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using heart rate characteristics monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, J. Randall; Delos, John B.; Flower, Abigail A.; Cao, Hanqing; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Richman, Joshua S.; Lake, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and non-linear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician. PMID:22026974

  15. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P.; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-01-01

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests. PMID:24167281

  16. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests.

  17. Development of a piezopolymer pressure sensor for a portable fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Pretlow, R. A.; Stoughton, J. W.; Baker, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A piezopolymer pressure sensor has been developed for service in a portable fetal heart rate monitor, which will permit an expectant mother to perform the fetal nonstress test, a standard predelivery test, in her home. Several sensors are mounted in an array on a belt worn by the mother. The sensor design conforms to the distinctive features of the fetal heart tone, namely, the acoustic signature, frequency spectrum, signal amplitude, and localization. The components of a sensor serve to fulfill five functions: signal detection, acceleration cancellation, acoustical isolation, electrical shielding, and electrical isolation of the mother. A theoretical analysis of the sensor response yields a numerical value for the sensor sensitivity, which is compared to experiment in an in vitro sensor calibration. Finally, an in vivo test on patients within the last six weeks of term reveals that nonstress test recordings from the acoustic monitor compare well with those obtained from conventional ultrasound.

  18. Statistical characterization of Strong and Mid Solar Flares and Sun EUV rate monitoring with GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte-Moreno, Enric; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Beniguel, Yannick; Orus-Perez, Raul; Prieto-Cerdeira, Roberto; Schlueter, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The global network of permanent Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers has become an useful and affordable way of monitoring the Solar EUV flux rate, especially -for the time being- in the context of Major and Mid geoeffective intensity Solar Flares (M. Hernandez-Pajares et al., Space Weather, doi:10.1029/2012SW000826, 2012). In fact the maturity of this technique (GNSS Solar FLAre Indicator, GSFLAI) has allowed to incorporate it in operational real-time (RT) conditions, thanks to the availability of global GNSS datastreams from the RT International GNSS Network (M. Caissy et al, GPS World, June 1, 2012), and performed in the context of the MONITOR and MONITOR2 ESA-funded projects (Y. Beniguel et al., NAVITEC Proc., 978-1-4673-2011-5 IEEE, 2012). The main goal of this presentation is to summarize a detailed recent study of the statistical properties of Solar Flares (E. Monte and M. Hernandez-Pajares, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2014JA020206, 2014) by considering the GNSS proxy of EUV rate (GSFLAI parameter) computed independently each 30 seconds during the whole last solar cycle. An statistical model has been characterized that explains the empirical results such as (a) the persistence and presence of bursts of solar flares and (b) their long tail peak values of the solar flux variation, which can be characterized by: (1) A fractional Brownian model for the long-term dependence, and (2), a power law distribution for the time series extreme values. Finally, an update of the Solar Flares' occurrence during the recent months of Solar Activity, gathered in RT within MONITOR2 project, will close the paper.

  19. Performance monitoring following total sleep deprivation: effects of task type and error rate.

    PubMed

    Renn, Ryan P; Cote, Kimberly A

    2013-04-01

    There is a need to understand the neural basis of performance deficits that result from sleep deprivation. Performance monitoring tasks generate response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs), generated from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) located in the medial surface of the frontal lobe that reflect error processing. The outcome of previous research on performance monitoring during sleepiness has been mixed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance monitoring in a controlled study of experimental sleep deprivation using a traditional Flanker task, and to broaden this examination using a response inhibition task. Forty-nine young adults (24 male) were randomly assigned to a total sleep deprivation or rested control group. The sleep deprivation group was slower on the Flanker task and less accurate on a Go/NoGo task compared to controls. General attentional impairments were evident in stimulus-locked ERPs for the sleep deprived group: P300 was delayed on Flanker trials and smaller to Go-stimuli. Further, N2 was smaller to NoGo stimuli, and the response-locked ERN was smaller on both tasks, reflecting neurocognitive impairment during performance monitoring. In the Flanker task, higher error rate was associated with smaller ERN amplitudes for both groups. Examination of ERN amplitude over time showed that it attenuated in the rested control group as error rate increased, but such habituation was not apparent in the sleep deprived group. Poor performing sleep deprived individuals had a larger Pe response than controls, possibly indicating perseveration of errors. These data provide insight into the neural underpinnings of performance failure during sleepiness and have implications for workplace and driving safety.

  20. E-bra with nanosensors, smart electronics and smart phone communication network for heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Rai, Pratyush; Kegley, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Heart related ailments have been a major cause for deaths in both men and women in United States. Since 1985, more women than men have died due to cardiac or cardiovascular ailments for reasons that are not well understood as yet. Lack of a deterministic understanding of this phenomenon makes continuous real time monitoring of cardiovascular health the best approach for both early detection of pathophysiological changes and events indicative of chronic cardiovascular diseases in women. This approach requires sensor systems to be seamlessly mounted on day to day clothing for women. With this application in focus, this paper describes a e-bra platform for sensors towards heart rate monitoring. The sensors, nanomaterial or textile based dry electrodes, capture the heart activity signals in form Electrocardiograph (ECG) and relay it to a compact textile mountable amplifier-wireless transmitter module for relay to a smart phone. The ECG signal, acquired on the smart phone, can be transmitted to the cyber space for post processing. As an example, the paper discusses the heart rate estimation and heart rate variability. The data flow from sensor to smart phone to server (cyber infrastructure) has been discussed. The cyber infrastructure based signal post processing offers an opportunity for automated emergency response that can be initiated from the server or the smartphone itself. Detailed protocols for both the scenarios have been presented and their relevance to the present emergency healthcare response system has been discussed.

  1. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    PubMed

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-01

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  2. High-resolution monitoring of bedload transport rates: a benchmark of two approaches (accelerometers and image processing)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, Blaise; Rousseau, Gauthier; Ancey, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Experimental and field studies have shown how intermittent bedload transport can be at low flow rates. The development and validation of bedload-transport equations require high-resolution records over long periods of time. Two technologies are considered in the present investigation: image processing and accelerometers mounted on impact plates. The former has been successfully applied to monitor bedload transport in many flume experiments, and the latter has shown encouraging results at different field sites. Calibration is a major issue in both cases, and it is often difficult to assess the precision of the data collected. In our talk, we show how to calibrate and compare the performances of accelerometer and image-processing based techniques in laboratory conditions. The accelerometer is fixed on a perforated steel plate, which is placed vertically at the lower end of the flume. The vibrations due to the particles impacting the plate are recorded with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz. The proxy for bedload transport rate is chosen as the number of peaks above a fixed threshold of the recorded signal. Note that impact plates are usually set in flush with the bed, and to our knowledge, the vertical configuration presented here has not yet been documented. The experimental setup for image processing involves a video-camera that takes top-view images of the particles moving over a white board mounted at the outlet of the flume. Data storage poses an issue, which can be got round by pre-processing the images in real time. The bedload transport rate is estimated based on the number of particles that are identified on the images. The two technologies have the advantages of being cost-effective and demanding limited effort for implementation. They provide high-resolution bedload transport rates over several hours. Estimates of bedload discharge were found to be robust and accurate for low sediment transport rates. At higher rates, the sensors may saturate due the arrival

  3. Ultrasonic monitoring of erosion/corrosion thinning rates in industrial piping systems.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, Farhang; Salehi, Farzaneh; Safavi, Vahid; Mokhtari, Arman; Sinclair, Anthony N

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring pipe wall erosion/corrosion thinning rates is an important issue in petrochemical and power generation industries. In this paper, two signal processing techniques are utilized for estimating the thinning rate based on ultrasonic pipe wall thickness data collected over a short period of time. The first is a combination of cross-correlation and polynomial curve fitting and the second is a model-based estimation (MBE) scheme. These techniques are applied to data collected from an accelerated thinning rate apparatus and both show that they are capable of estimating the thinning rates quickly in short time periods with good accuracy. In laboratory applications, thinning rates as low as 10 μm/year were measured within 15 days with an uncertainty of ±1.5 μm/year by both techniques. Although the MBE technique can yield marginally better accuracy, the greater stability and computational speed of the cross-correlation technique make it the preferred choice for industrial use.

  4. Monitoring copper toxicity in natural phytoplankton assemblages: application of Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Patricia; Beiras, Ricardo; Fernández, Emilio

    2010-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted with natural coastal phytoplankton assemblages exposed to [Cu] within the range 5-80 microg L(-1). The effect of Cu on several biological variables such as chlorophyll a concentration, particle size distribution, O2-production and fluorescence variables recorded by a Fast Repetition Rate fluorometer was monitored during 72 h. Variable fluorescence (Fv) was the most sensitive and rapid among all the variables tested. This work contributes to reinforce the use of fluorescence endpoints in ecotoxicological studies by proving their ecological relevance through relationships found between fluorescence and population-level responses as growth rate and gross O2 production. The lowest calculated EC10 was 2.65 microg L(-1), concentration commonly exceeded in polluted waters.

  5. The non-contact monitoring of heart and respiratory rates using laser irradiation: an experimental simultaneous monitoring with and without clothes during biochemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Ishizuka, T; Ishihara, M; Ishihara, M; Matsumura, K; Kikuchi, M; Kurita, A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contact method to evaluate the heart and respiratory rates simultaneously using a single optical sensor which can be used without the removal of clothes before a decontamination procedure in biochemical hazards. We measured the heart and respiratory rates with and without clothes to assess the vital sign monitoring before decontamination. In order to monitor the heart and respiratory rates of rabbits simultaneously, the respiratory and cardiac peaks were separated using fast Fourier transform from a 5 mW helium-neon laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) reflected off the chest walls of rabbits. A cloth (50 mm x 50 mm, 2 mm thick) was placed on the chest of the rabbits to simulate the vital sign monitoring with clothes. The heart rate measured using this method agreed with the rate derived from an electrocardiogram (r = 0.82, p<0.05). The respiratory rate correlated with the manually measured respirator rate (r = 0.93, p<0.05). This method appears promising as a non-contact method for monitoring the heart and respiratory rates of patients under biochemically hazardous conditions.

  6. The non-contact monitoring of heart and respiratory rates using laser irradiation: an experimental simultaneous monitoring with and without clothes during biochemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Ishizuka, T; Ishihara, M; Ishihara, M; Matsumura, K; Kikuchi, M; Kurita, A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contact method to evaluate the heart and respiratory rates simultaneously using a single optical sensor which can be used without the removal of clothes before a decontamination procedure in biochemical hazards. We measured the heart and respiratory rates with and without clothes to assess the vital sign monitoring before decontamination. In order to monitor the heart and respiratory rates of rabbits simultaneously, the respiratory and cardiac peaks were separated using fast Fourier transform from a 5 mW helium-neon laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) reflected off the chest walls of rabbits. A cloth (50 mm x 50 mm, 2 mm thick) was placed on the chest of the rabbits to simulate the vital sign monitoring with clothes. The heart rate measured using this method agreed with the rate derived from an electrocardiogram (r = 0.82, p<0.05). The respiratory rate correlated with the manually measured respirator rate (r = 0.93, p<0.05). This method appears promising as a non-contact method for monitoring the heart and respiratory rates of patients under biochemically hazardous conditions. PMID:12775459

  7. The non-contact heart rate measurement system for monitoring HRV.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji-Jer; Yu, Sheng-I; Syu, Hao-Yi; See, Aaron Raymond

    2013-01-01

    A noncontact ECG monitoring and analysis system was developed using capacitive-coupled device integrated to a home sofa. Electrodes were placed on the backrest of a sofa separated from the body with only the chair covering and the user's clothing. The study also incorporates measurements using different fabric materials, and a pure cotton material was chosen to cover the chair's backrest. The material was chosen to improve the signal to noise ratio. The system is initially implemented on a home sofa and is able to measure non-contact ECG through thin cotton clothing and perform heart rate analysis to calculate the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. It was also tested under different conditions and results from reading and sleeping exhibited a stable ECG. Subsequently, results from our calculated HRV were found to be identical to those of a commercially available HRV analyzer. However, HRV parameters are easily affected by motion artifacts generated during drinking or eating with the latter producing a more severe disturbance. Lastly, parameters measured are saved on a cloud database, providing users with a long-term monitoring and recording for physiological information.

  8. Comparison of Erosion Rates Estimated by Sediment Budget Techniques and Suspended Sediment Monitoring and Regulatory Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, M.; Eads, R.

    2007-12-01

    Watersheds in the northern California Coast Range have been designated as "impaired" with respect to water quality because of excessive sediment loads and/or high water temperature. Sediment budget techniques have typically been used by regulatory authorities to estimate current erosion rates and to develop targets for future desired erosion rates. This study examines erosion rates estimated by various methods for portions of the Gualala River watershed, designated as having water quality impaired by sediment under provisions of the Clean Water Act Section 303(d), located in northwest Sonoma County (~90 miles north of San Francisco). The watershed is underlain by Jurassic age sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan formation. The San Andreas Fault passes through the western edge of watershed, and other active faults are present. A substantial portion of the watershed is mantled by rock slides and earth flows, many of which are considered dormant. The Coast Range is geologically young, and rapid rates of uplift are believed to have contributed to high erosion rates. This study compares quantitative erosion rate estimates developed at different spatial and temporal scales. It is motivated by a proposed vineyard development project in the watershed, and the need to document conditions in the project area, assess project environmental impacts and meet regulatory requirements pertaining to water quality. Erosion rate estimates were previously developed using sediment budget techniques for relatively large drainage areas (~100 to 1,000 km2) by the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board and US EPA and by the California Geological Survey. In this study, similar sediment budget techniques were used for smaller watersheds (~3 to 8 km2), and were supplemented by a suspended sediment monitoring program utilizing Turbidity Threshold Sampling techniques (as described in a companion study in this session). The duration of the monitoring program to date

  9. Radon exhalation rates from building materials using electret ion chamber radon monitors in accumulators.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Stieff, Frederick

    2009-08-01

    An electret ion chamber (EIC) radon monitor in a sealed accumulator measures the integrated average radon concentration at the end of the accumulation duration. Theoretical equations have been derived to relate such radon concentrations (Bq m(-3) ) to the radon emanation rate (Bq d(-1)) from building materials enclosed in the accumulator. As an illustration, a 4-L sealable glass jar has been used as an accumulator to calculate the radon emanation rate from different granite samples. The radon emanation rate was converted into radon flux (Bq mm(-2) d(-1)) by dividing the emanation rate by surface area of the sample. Fluxes measured on typical, commercially available granites ranged from 20-30 Bq m(-2) d(-1). These results are similar to the results reported in the literature. The lower limit of detection for a 2-d measurement works out to be 7 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Equations derived can also be used for other sealable accumulators and other integrating detectors, such as alpha track detectors.

  10. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen, Temperature and Respiration Rate of Horticultural Crops Post Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Edwards, Gareth; Green, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In order to design optimal packages, it is of pivotal importance to determine the rate at which harvested fresh fruits and vegetables consume oxygen. The respiration rate of oxygen (RRO2) is determined by measuring the consumed oxygen per hour per kg plant material, and the rate is highly influenced by temperature and gas composition. Traditionally, RRO2 has been determined at discrete time intervals. In this study, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) were used to determine RRO2 continuously in plant material (fresh cut broccoli florets) at 5 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C and at modified gas compositions (decreasing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide levels). Furthermore, the WSN enabled concomitant determination of oxygen and temperature in the very close vicinity of the plant material. This information proved a very close relationship between changes in temperature and respiration rate. The applied WSNs were unable to determine oxygen levels lower than 5% and carbon dioxide was not determined. Despite these drawbacks in relation to respiration analysis, the WSNs offer a new possibility to do continuous measurement of RRO2 in post harvest research, thereby investigating the close relation between temperature and RRO2. The conclusions are that WSNs have the potential to be used as a monitor of RRO2 of plant material after harvest, during storage and packaging, thereby leading to optimized consumer products. PMID:22164085

  11. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  12. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in Ireland: methods and response rates.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Linda M; Kearney, Patricia M; Greene, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers' information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland. PMID:24912944

  13. Fiber optic based heart-rate and pulse pressure shape monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinos, D.; Dehipawala, S.; Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Musa, M.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2012-01-01

    Macro-bending fiber optic based heart-rate and pulse pressure shape monitors have been fabricated and tested for non-invasive measurement. Study of fiber bending loss and its stability and variations are very important especially for sensor designs based on optical fiber bending. Wavelengths from 1300 nm to 1550 nm have been used with fabrication based on multimode fiber, single mode fiber, and photonic crystal fiber. The smallest studied curvature would demand the use of single mode standard fibers. The collected data series show high quality suitable for random series analysis. Fractal property of optically measured pulse pressure data has been observed to correlate with physical activity. Correlation to EKG signal suggests that the fabricated monitors are capable of measuring the differential time delays at wrist and leg locations. The difference in time delay could be used to formulate a velocity parameter for diagnostics. The pulse shape information collected by the fiber sensor provides additional parameters for the analysis of the fractal nature of the heart. The application to real time measurement of blood vessel stiffness with this optical non-invasive fiber sensor is discussed.

  14. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jang-Ho; Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Jung Wook; Youm, Se-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR) monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW) into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG) device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future. PMID:26389912

  15. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jang-Ho; Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Jung Wook; Youm, Se-Kyoung

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR) monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW) into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG) device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future.

  16. Use of heart rate monitoring for an individualized and time-variant decompression model.

    PubMed

    Gutvik, Christian R; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O

    2010-11-01

    Individual differences, physiological pre-conditions and in-dive conditions like workload and body temperature have been known to influence bubble formation and risk of decompression sickness in diving. Despite this fact, such effects are currently omitted from the decompression algorithms and tables that are aiding the divers. There is an apparent need to expand the modeling beyond depth and time to increase safety and efficiency of diving. The present paper outlines a mathematical model for how heart rate monitoring in combination with individual parameters can be used to obtain a customized and time-variant decompression model. We suggest that this can cover some of the individual differences and dive conditions that are affecting bubble formation. The model is demonstrated in combination with the previously published Copernicus decompression model, and is suitable for implementation in dive computers and post dive simulation software for more accurate risk analysis. PMID:20577757

  17. Towards continuous monitoring of pulse rate in neonatal intensive care unit with a webcam.

    PubMed

    Mestha, Lalit K; Kyal, Survi; Xu, Beilei; Lewis, Leslie Edward; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel method to monitor pulse rate (PR) on a continuous basis of patients in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using videos taken from a high definition (HD) webcam. We describe algorithms that determine PR from videoplethysmographic (VPG) signals extracted from multiple regions of interest (ROI) simultaneously available within the field of view of the camera where cardiac signal is registered. We detect motion from video images and compensate for motion artifacts from each ROI. Preliminary clinical results are presented on 8 neonates each with 30 minutes of uninterrupted video. Comparisons to hospital equipment indicate that the proposed technology can meet medical industry standards and give improved patient comfort and ease of use for practitioners when instrumented with proper hardware. PMID:25570823

  18. Bedload Hysteresis and Bedform Deformation Rates Investigated with Physical Samples, Multibeam Sonar, and Seismic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaeuman, D.; Schmandt, B.; Stewart, R. L.; Pryor, C.

    2015-12-01

    Field and laboratory observations indicate that bedload transport frequently exhibits clockwise hysteresis. Several grain-scale mechanisms could account for this, including increases in the median surface particle size, development of stable particle arrangements on the bed surface, or reductions in the sediment supply. Alternatively, bedload hysteresis at steady flow could occur if the bed configuration stabilizes as bedforms approach a configuration that is in quasi-equilibrium with prevailing hydraulic conditions. The roles of bedform development and changes in coarse sediment availability as potential causes of hysteresis are investigated with a unique dataset obtained during a high flow release in the Trinity River, a regulated gravel-bed river in California. Physical bedload samples were obtained over the release hydrograph along with continuous seismic monitoring with 3-component broadband seismometers at four locations along the river. At one location, changes in bed topography during the peak of the release were monitored with repeated multibeam sonar surveys over a channel length of about 1 km. In addition, a network of 80 vertical-component seismometers was deployed adjacent to the channel to support development of a time series of maps showing local variations in seismic energy production on the stream bed. Finally, a gravel augmentation operation was being implemented at the upstream end of the reach during the release peak, permitting evaluation of how changes in sediment supply affect downstream transport rates. Sampled bedload transport rates were found to increase briefly during gravel augmentation operations, but return to pre-augmentation levels within a few hours after augmentation activities stop and generally decline over a period of peak flow lasting about 3 days. The sonar data indicate that most of the topographic change observed during the peak flow period occurred in the first several hours of the period, supporting the hypothesis that

  19. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  20. Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  1. Subsidence rate monitoring of Aghajari oil field based on Differential SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, N. Fouladi; Sahebi, M. R.; Matkan, A. A.; Roostaei, M.

    2013-06-01

    Land subsidence, due to natural or anthropogenic processes, causes significant costs in both economic and structural aspects. That part of subsidence observed most is the result of human activities, which relates to underground exploitation. Since the gradual surface deformation is a consequence of hydrocarbon reservoirs extraction, the process of displacement monitoring is amongst the petroleum industry priorities. Nowadays, Differential SAR Interferometry, in which satellite images are utilized for elevation change detection and analysis - in a millimetre scale, has proved to be a more real-time and cost-effective technology in contrast to the traditional surveying method. In this study, surface displacements in Aghajari oil field, i.e. one of the most industrious Iranian hydrocarbon sites, are being examined using radar observations. As in a number of interferograms, the production wells inspection reveals that surface deformation signals develop likely due to extraction in a period of several months. In other words, different subsidence or uplift rates and deformation styles occur locally depending on the geological conditions and excavation rates in place.

  2. Heart Rate Variability Monitoring during Sleep Based on Capacitively Coupled Textile Electrodes on a Bed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Ji; Hwang, Su Hwan; Yoon, Hee Nam; Lee, Won Kyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed and tested a capacitively coupled electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement system using conductive textiles on a bed, for long-term healthcare monitoring. The system, which was designed to measure ECG in a bed with no constraints of sleep position and posture, included a foam layer to increase the contact region with the curvature of the body and a cover to ensure durability and easy installation. Nine healthy subjects participated in the experiment during polysomnography (PSG), and the heart rate (HR) coverage and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed to evaluate the system. The experimental results showed that the mean of R-peak coverage was 98.0% (95.5%–99.7%), and the normalized errors of HRV time and spectral measures between the Ag/AgCl system and our system ranged from 0.15% to 4.20%. The root mean square errors for inter-beat (RR) intervals and HR were 1.36 ms and 0.09 bpm, respectively. We also showed the potential of our developed system for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wake detection as well as for recording of abnormal states. PMID:26007716

  3. Heart Rate Variability Monitoring during Sleep Based on Capacitively Coupled Textile Electrodes on a Bed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Ji; Hwang, Su Hwan; Yoon, Hee Nam; Lee, Won Kyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-05-14

    In this study, we developed and tested a capacitively coupled electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement system using conductive textiles on a bed, for long-term healthcare monitoring. The system, which was designed to measure ECG in a bed with no constraints of sleep position and posture, included a foam layer to increase the contact region with the curvature of the body and a cover to ensure durability and easy installation. Nine healthy subjects participated in the experiment during polysomnography (PSG), and the heart rate (HR) coverage and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed to evaluate the system. The experimental results showed that the mean of R-peak coverage was 98.0% (95.5%-99.7%), and the normalized errors of HRV time and spectral measures between the Ag/AgCl system and our system ranged from 0.15% to 4.20%. The root mean square errors for inter-beat (RR) intervals and HR were 1.36 ms and 0.09 bpm, respectively. We also showed the potential of our developed system for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wake detection as well as for recording of abnormal states.

  4. Observable Effects of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections on Ground Level Neutron Monitor Count Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. J.; Catalán, E.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Medina, J.; García, O.; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, non-recurrent Forbush decreases (FDs) triggered by the passage of shock-driving interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) have been analyzed. Fifty-nine ICMEs have been studied, but only 25 % of them were associated to a FD. We find that shock-driving magnetic clouds (MCs) produce deeper FDs than shock-driving ejecta. This fact can be explained regarding the observed growing trends between decreases in neutron monitor (NM) count rate and MC/ejecta speed and its associated rigidity. MCs are faster and have higher associated rigidities than ejecta. Also the deceleration of ICMEs seems to be a cause for producing FDs, as can be inferred from the decreasing trend between NM count rate and deceleration. This probably implies that the interaction between the ICME traveling from the corona to the Earth and the solar wind can play an important role in producing deeper FDs. Finally, we conclude that ejecta without flux rope topology are the ones less effective in unchaining FDs.

  5. Toward the improvement in fetal monitoring during labor with the inclusion of maternal heart rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Manuela; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Bernardes, João

    2016-04-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is used routinely in labor, but conventional methods have a limited capacity to detect fetal hypoxia/acidosis. An exploratory study was performed on the simultaneous assessment of maternal heart rate (MHR) and FHR variability, to evaluate their evolution during labor and their capacity to detect newborn acidemia. MHR and FHR were simultaneously recorded in 51 singleton term pregnancies during the last two hours of labor and compared with newborn umbilical artery blood (UAB) pH. Linear/nonlinear indices were computed separately for MHR and FHR. Interaction between MHR and FHR was quantified through the same indices on FHR-MHR and through their correlation and cross-entropy. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis included nonparametric confidence intervals and statistical tests, receiver operating characteristic curves and linear discriminant analysis. Progression of labor was associated with a significant increase in most MHR and FHR linear indices, whereas entropy indices decreased. FHR alone and in combination with MHR as FHR-MHR evidenced the highest auROC values for prediction of fetal acidemia, with 0.76 and 0.88 for the UAB pH thresholds 7.20 and 7.15, respectively. The inclusion of MHR on bivariate analysis achieved sensitivity and specificity values of nearly 100 and 89.1%, respectively. These results suggest that simultaneous analysis of MHR and FHR may improve the identification of fetal acidemia compared with FHR alone, namely during the last hour of labor.

  6. Monitoring land subsidence rates with permanent scatterers SAR interferometry: a case study of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jun; Li, Xiaojuan; Yu, Jie; Wang, Yanbing; Wan, Yanyan; An, Zhihui

    2015-12-01

    The ground subsidence phenomenon is more serious in Beijing, large-scale land subsidence seriously threats to urban planning and construction and the safety of residents. In order to study the subsidence condition, it is necessary to monitor land subsidence. Choosing 28 scenes Envisat ASAR images covering Beijing city from December 2003 to March 2009, permanent scatterer SAR interferometry (PSI) technique was applied to obtained time series land subsidence information. Then the trend characteristics and factors of subsidence were analyzed, comparing land subsidence result with the groundwater data and geological structure data. Comparison between the PSI-derived subsidence rates and leveling data obtained shows that the result of PSI is agreed with the leveling data. The results indicate that the PSI technique is capable of providing high-level accuracy subsidence information. The results show that:(1) The deformation rates derived PSI ranging from -45.80 to 4.36mm/a;(2) In the study area, the serious subsidence areas distribute in Chaoyang District, Shunyi District, Tongzhou District and Pinggu District;(3) The subsidence tends to become more and more concentrated in 6 years from 2003 to 2009.

  7. Evaluation of the beat-to-beat detection accuracy of PulseOn wearable optical heart rate monitor.

    PubMed

    Parak, Jakub; Tarniceriu, Adrian; Renevey, Philippe; Bertschi, Mattia; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) provides significant information about the health status of an individual. Optical heart rate monitoring is a comfortable alternative to ECG based heart rate monitoring. However, most available optical heart rate monitoring devices do not supply beat-to-beat detection accuracy required by proper HRV analysis. We evaluate the beat-to-beat detection accuracy of a recent wrist-worn optical heart rate monitoring device, PulseOn (PO). Ten subjects (8 male and 2 female; 35.9±10.3 years old) participated in the study. HRV was recorded with PO and Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 (BG2) device, which was used as an ECG based reference. HRV was recorded during sleep. As compared to BG2, PO detected on average 99.57% of the heartbeats (0.43% of beats missed) and had 0.72% extra beat detection rate, with 5.94 ms mean absolute error (MAE) in beat-to-beat intervals (RRI) as compared to the ECG based RRI BG2. Mean RMSSD difference between PO and BG2 derived HRV was 3.1 ms. Therefore, PO provides an accurate method for long term HRV monitoring during sleep.

  8. GROUND WATER ISSUE - CALCULATION AND USE OF FIRST-ORDER RATE CONSTANTS FOR MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue paper explains when and how to apply first-order attenuation rate constant calculations in monitored natural attenuation (MNA) studies. First-order attenuation rate constant calculations can be an important tool for evaluating natural attenuation processes at ground-wa...

  9. Creating Abbreviated Rating Scales to Monitor Classroom Inattention-Overactivity, Aggression, and Peer Conflict: Reliability, Validity, and Treatment Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Rating scales developed to measure child emotional and behavioral problems typically are so long as to make their use in progress monitoring impractical in typical school settings. This study examined two methods of selecting items from existing rating scales to create shorter instruments for use in assessing response to intervention. The…

  10. The effect of corrosion induced surface morphology changes on ultrasonically monitored corrosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

    2016-11-01

    Corrosion rates obtained by very frequent (daily) measurements with permanently installed ultrasonic sensors have been shown to be highly inaccurate when changes in surface morphology lead to ultrasonic signal distortion. In this paper the accuracy of ultrasonically estimated corrosion rates (mean wall thickness loss) by means of standard signal processing methods (peak to peak—P2P, first arrival—FA, cross correlation—XC) was investigated and a novel thickness extraction algorithm (adaptive cross-correlation—AXC) is presented. All of the algorithms were tested on simulated ultrasonic data that was obtained by modelling the surface geometry evolution coupled with a fast ultrasonic signal simulator based on the distributed point source method. The performance of each algorithm could then be determined by comparing the actual known mean thickness losses of the simulated surfaces to the values that each algorithm returned. The results showed that AXC is the best of the investigated processing algorithms. For spatially random thickness loss 90% of AXC estimated thickness trends were within ‑10 to +25% of the actual mean loss rate (e.g. 0.75–1.1 mm year‑1 would be measured for a 1 mm year‑1 actual mean loss rate). The other algorithms (P2P, FA, XC) exhibited error distributions that were 5–10 times larger. All algorithms performed worse in scenarios where wall loss was not distributed randomly in space (spatially correlated thickness loss occured) and where the overall rms of the surface was either growing or declining. However, on these surfaces AXC also outperformed the other algorithms and showed almost an order of magnitude improvement compared to them.

  11. Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown here are two of the six aluminum statues of postal delivery men - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts and drive shafts. This power system drove the tumblers which cleaned chain in building #7. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  13. 6. NARADA FALLS, WITH FIRST CROSSING BRIDGE SHOWN ABOVE FALLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NARADA FALLS, WITH FIRST CROSSING BRIDGE SHOWN ABOVE FALLS, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  14. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  15. 2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing over dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  16. Assessment of skeletal muscle fatigue of road maintenance workers based on heart rate monitoring and myotonometry

    PubMed Central

    Roja, Zenija; Kalkis, Valdis; Vain, Arved; Kalkis, Henrijs; Eglite, Maija

    2006-01-01

    Objective This research work is dedicated to occupational health problems caused by ergonomic risks. The research object was road building industry, where workers have to work very intensively, have long work hours, are working in forced/constrained work postures and overstrain during the work specific parts of their bodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work heaviness degree and to estimate the muscle fatigue of workers after one week work cycle. The study group consisted of 10 road construction and maintenance workers and 10 pavers aged between 20 and 60 years. Methods Physical load were analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR), work postures (OWAS) and perceived exertion (RPE). Assessments of the muscles strain and functional state (tone) were carried out using myotonometric (MYO) measurements. The reliability of the statistical processing of heart rate monitoring and myotonometry data was determined using correlating analysis. Results This study showed that that road construction and repairing works should be considered as a hard work according to average metabolic energy consumption 8.1 ± 1.5 kcal/min; paving, in its turn, was a moderately hard work according to 7.2 ± 1.1 kcal/min. Several muscle tone levels were identified allowing subdivision of workers into three conditional categories basing on muscle tone and fatigue: I – absolute muscle relaxation and ability to relax; II – a state of equilibrium, when muscles are able to adapt to the work load and are partly able to relax; and III – muscle fatigue and increased tone. It was also found out that the increase of muscle tone and fatigue mainly depend on workers physical preparedness and length of service, and less – on their age. Conclusion We have concluded that a complex ergonomic analysis consisting of heart rate monitoring, assessment of compulsive working postures and myotonometry is appropriate to assess the work heaviness degree and can provide prognosis of occupational pathology

  17. Monitoring of cache miss rates for accurate dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Leo C.; Poellabauer, Christian; Schwan, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    Modern mobile processors offer dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, which can be used to reduce the energy requirements of embedded and real-time applications by exploiting idle CPU resources, while still maintaining all applications' real-time characteristics. However, accurate predictions of task run-times are key to computing the frequencies and voltages that ensure that all tasks' real-time constraints are met. Past work has used feedback-based approaches, where applications' past CPU utilizations are used to predict future CPU requirements. Inaccurate predictions in these approaches can lead to missed deadlines, less than expected energy savings, or large overheads due to frequent voltage and frequency changes. Previous solutions ignore other `indicators' of future CPU requirements, such as the frequency of I/O operations, memory accesses, or interrupts. This paper addresses this shortcoming for memory-intensive applications, where measured task run-times and cache miss rates are used as feedback for accurate run-time predictions. Cache miss rates indicate the frequency of memory accesses and enable us to derive the latencies introduced by these operations. The results shown in this paper indicate improvements in the number of deadlines met and the amount of energy saved.

  18. Monitoring of cache miss rates for accurate dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Leo C.; Poellabauer, Christian; Schwan, Karsten

    2004-12-01

    Modern mobile processors offer dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, which can be used to reduce the energy requirements of embedded and real-time applications by exploiting idle CPU resources, while still maintaining all applications' real-time characteristics. However, accurate predictions of task run-times are key to computing the frequencies and voltages that ensure that all tasks' real-time constraints are met. Past work has used feedback-based approaches, where applications' past CPU utilizations are used to predict future CPU requirements. Inaccurate predictions in these approaches can lead to missed deadlines, less than expected energy savings, or large overheads due to frequent voltage and frequency changes. Previous solutions ignore other `indicators' of future CPU requirements, such as the frequency of I/O operations, memory accesses, or interrupts. This paper addresses this shortcoming for memory-intensive applications, where measured task run-times and cache miss rates are used as feedback for accurate run-time predictions. Cache miss rates indicate the frequency of memory accesses and enable us to derive the latencies introduced by these operations. The results shown in this paper indicate improvements in the number of deadlines met and the amount of energy saved.

  19. Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James A.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p < 0.001). As monitoring time progressed, mean differences between the subspecies were no longer significant. High RR over monitoring time was associated with high lactate concentration. Antillean manatees had higher overall lactate values ([mean ± SD] 20.6 ± 7.8 mmol/L) than Florida manatees (13.7 ± 6.7 mmol/L; p < 0.001). We recommend monitoring manatee OT, HR, and RR during capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.

  20. Effects of sensor type and sensor location on signal quality in bed mounted ballistocardiographic heart rate and respiration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vehkaoja, Antti; Kontunen, Anton; Lekkala, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    Sleeping is a crucial part of our circadian rhythm and the quality of sleep has substantial impact on the quality of life in general and the overall well-being of a person. That is why sleep related physiological measurements have been in the focus of many scientific studies along the years, and why a large number of different measurement methods have been developed for this purpose. The ability to monitor heart rate respiration without any sensors or electrodes being directly attached to the body is extremely useful especially in long-term monitoring and it allows automated daily measurements without any medical staff present. This is the reason why ballistocardiographic force sensors and accelerometers have been introduced alongside electrocardiography (ECG) and thermistors or respiration belts as a means to monitor the heart rate and respiration during sleep. While ECG remains as the most reliable and accurate method for heart rate monitoring, the development of unobtrusive monitoring methods has improved to the point where the commercialization of such sleep monitoring systems has been possible. In this paper, the signals of five sensors and sensor placement combinations for measuring physiological parameters from a sleeping person are evaluated and compared in terms of their measurement sensitivities and waveform quality. The sensors are accelerometer and film type force sensors made of PVDF and EMFi material placed under the mattress topper and PVDF and EMFi sensors placed under the bed posts. PMID:26737266

  1. Patterns of physical activity determined by heart rate monitoring among diabetic children

    PubMed Central

    Massin, M; Lebrethon, M; Rocour, D; Gerard, P; Bourguignon, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged to participate in physical activity because exercise can benefit insulin sensitivity and improve known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Methods: Physical activity patterns of 127 children and adolescents with stable type 1 diabetes were investigated by 24 hour continuous heart rate monitoring. The percentage of heart rate reserve was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. The results were compared with normative data. Results: Diabetic preschoolchildren accumulated 192.7 (78.1), 39.1 (24.3), and 21.3 (9.4) minutes/day (mean (SD)) of light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, respectively. At the same activity levels, diabetic schoolchildren accumulated 168.9 (76.7), 37.9 (15.9), and 19.0 (14.8) minutes/day, and diabetic teenagers accumulated 166.3 (67.5), 45.6 (26.9), and 25.2 (15.3) minutes/day. Diabetic schoolchildren were significantly more active than healthy peers when considering moderate activity; diabetic teenagers were significantly more active when considering moderate and vigorous activity. There was a negative correlation between the most recent glycated haemoglobin and the time spent in light activities in schoolchildren, and a negative correlation between mean glycated haemoglobin for one year and time spent in light and moderate activities in schoolchildren. Conclusion: The majority of our diabetic patients meet the classical paediatric guidelines for physical activity and compare favourably with their healthy peers. PMID:15941770

  2. Contextual view of building 271 from across the river shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 271 from across the river shown at center between coal sheds at left and building 91 at right; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Edison upright phonographs are stored throughout the third floor; shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Edison upright phonographs are stored throughout the third floor; shown here are also storage cabinets containing parts for 1929 Edison radios. Cabinets also contain partial experimental apparatus from other parts of the laboratory. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  4. 59. DETAIL OF THIRD PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL IN CONSOLE SHOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. DETAIL OF THIRD PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL IN CONSOLE SHOWN IN CA-133-1-A-58. NOTE 20-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANEL IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. White Matter Development during Adolescence as Shown by Diffusion MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing…

  6. 83. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: CISTERN TOWER, BOILER CHIMNEY AND LARGE CHIMNEYS FROM BISCUIT KILNS 4 & 5. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-9. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  7. 9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat at center level. Juices mix and flow and left lower level. Copper kettles are down below view level. Looking toward front of building. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  8. 1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE FIRST STEP IN A SIX-STEP PROCESS TO ANALYZE URINE SAMPLES FOR PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM CONTAMINATION. IN THIS STEP, NITRIC ACID IS ADDED TO SAMPLE, AND THE SAMPLE IS BOILED DOWN TO A WHITE POWDER. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Monitoring granulation rate processes using three PAT tools in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Tok, Ai Tee; Goh, Xueping; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the responses of three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) techniques applied simultaneously to monitor a pilot-scale fluidized bed granulation process. Real-time measurements using focused beam reflectance measurement (Lasentec FBRM) and near-infra red spectroscopy (Bruker NIR) were taken by inserting in-line probes into the fluidized bed. Non-intrusive acoustic emission measurements (Physical Acoustic AE) were performed by attaching piezoelectric sensors on the external wall of the fluidized bed. Powder samples were collected at regular intervals during the granulation process and characterized offline using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereo-optical microscopy and loss on drying method. PAT data comprising chord length distribution and chord count (from FBRM), absorption spectra (from NIR) and average signal levels and counts (from AE) were compared with the particle properties measured using offline samples. All three PAT techniques were able to detect the three granulation regimes or rate processes (wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, breakage) to varying degrees of sensitivity. Being dependent on optical signals, the sensitivities of the FBRM and NIR techniques were susceptible to fouling on probe windows. The AE technique was sensitive to background fluidizing air flows and external interferences. The sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses of the PAT techniques examined may facilitate the selection of suitable PAT tools for process development and scale-up studies.

  10. Use of heart rate variability in monitoring stress and recovery in judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Morales, José; Alamo, Juan M; García-Massó, Xavier; Buscà, Bernat; López, Jose L; Serra-Añó, Pilar; González, Luís-Millán

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of different judo training loads on heart rate variability (HRV) measurements, to determine if they can be used as valid indicators in monitoring stress and recovery in judo athletes. Fourteen male national-standard judo athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups, and each group followed a different type of training, namely, a high training load (HTL) and a moderate training load program (MTL). Data collection included HRV measurements, a Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-SPORT), and strength measurements, 4 weeks before and after the training program. The HTL group had lower square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR intervals, very low frequency, high frequency, short-term variability, short-range scaling exponents, general recovery, sport-specific recovery, general stress, maximum strength, maximum power, and higher low/high frequency ratio at posttest compared with pretest (p ≤ 0.05). The HTL group showed lower short-range and long-range scaling exponents, general recovery, sport-specific recovery, and higher general stress than the MTL group in posttest measurements (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, judo athletes enrolled in an HTL program showed an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system with decreased vagal modulation, together with a decrease in strength parameters, higher markers for stress, and a lower perception of recovery.

  11. Note: Signal conditioning of a hot-film anemometer for a periodic flow rate monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Federico; Tagliaferri, Cristian

    2011-12-01

    A flow monitoring system based on a constant temperature hot-film anemometer is presented. The device has been designed to monitor a dispensing process of extremely low quantities of adhesive material. The monitoring device presented in this paper is useful in industrial applications where exact flow speed tracking is not needed, but reliability and tolerance to parameters variability are essential. During the design of the device, problems related to the physical characteristic of the calorimetric sensor, in particular its thermal capacitance, and to the periodic nature of the monitored flow have been taken into account and suitable solutions have been implemented. The schematic representation of the monitoring device together with the experimental results obtained by monitoring fluids with different physical characteristics are presented.

  12. 59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of two large, unused, waste water settling tanks (near the city of New Haven, at some distance from the lock site). All members have been laid up with contemporary separating ties between them to ensure complete wetting during storage. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  13. Skylab 3 crewmen shown eating in Orbital Workshop wardroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The three Skylab 3 crewmen are shown eating in the Orbital Workshop (OWS) wardroom of the Skylab space station in Earth orbit, in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the OWS. Astronaut Alan L. Bean (right), commander, illustrates eating under zero gravity conditions upsidedown. The two other crewmen are Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott (left), science pilot; and Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot.

  14. Accuracy of a Wrist-Worn Wearable Device for Monitoring Heart Rates in Hospital Inpatients: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Ryan R; Boyd, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background As the sensing capabilities of wearable devices improve, there is increasing interest in their application in medical settings. Capabilities such as heart rate monitoring may be useful in hospitalized patients as a means of enhancing routine monitoring or as part of an early warning system to detect clinical deterioration. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of heart rate monitoring by a personal fitness tracker (PFT) among hospital inpatients. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of 50 stable patients in the intensive care unit who each completed 24 hours of heart rate monitoring using a wrist-worn PFT. Accuracy of heart rate recordings was compared with gold standard measurements derived from continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) monitoring. The accuracy of heart rates measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2.R) was also measured as a positive control. Results On a per-patient basis, PFT-derived heart rate values were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring (average bias of −1.14 beats per minute [bpm], with limits of agreement of 24 bpm). By comparison, Spo2.R recordings produced more accurate values (average bias of +0.15 bpm, limits of agreement of 13 bpm, P<.001 as compared with PFT). Personal fitness tracker device performance was significantly better in patients in sinus rhythm than in those who were not (average bias −0.99 bpm vs −5.02 bpm, P=.02). Conclusions Personal fitness tracker–derived heart rates were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring in real-world testing and not as accurate as Spo2.R-derived heart rates. Performance was worse among patients who were not in sinus rhythm. Further clinical evaluation is indicated to see if PFTs can augment early warning systems in hospitals. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02527408; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02527408 (Archived by WebCite at  http://www.webcitation.org/6kOFez3on) PMID:27651304

  15. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  16. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  17. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  18. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  19. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  20. A rapid, non-destructive methodology to monitor activity of sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete based on H2S uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Wells, Tony; Keller, Jurg

    2014-08-01

    Many existing methods to monitor the corrosion of concrete in sewers are either very slow or destructive measurements. To overcome these limitations, a rapid, non-invasive methodology was developed to monitor the sulfide-induced corrosion process on concrete through the measurement of the H2S uptake rates of concrete at various corrosion stages. The H2S uptake rate for a concrete coupon was determined by measuring the gaseous H2S concentrations over time in a temperature- and humidity-controlled gas-tight reactor. The reliability of this method was evaluated by carrying out repeated tests on different concrete coupons previously exposed to 50 ppm of H2S, at 30 °C and 100% relative humidity for over 32 months. The H2S uptake measurements showed good reproducibility. It was also shown that a severely corroded coupon exhibited higher sulfide uptake rates than a less corroded coupon. This could be explained by the corrosion layer in the more corroded coupon having a higher biological sulfide oxidation activity than the less corroded coupon. Additionally, temperature changes had a stronger effect on the uptake rate of the heavily corroded coupon compared to the less corroded coupon. A corrosion rate of 8.9 ± 0.5 mm/year, estimated from the H2S uptake results, agreed well with the corrosion rate observed in real sewers under similar conditions. The method could be applied to investigate important factors affecting sulfide-induced concrete corrosion, particularly temperature, fluctuating gaseous H2S concentrations, oxygen concentrations, surface pH and relative humidity.

  1. Continuous Monitoring and On-line Analysis of Operational Dose Rates: Tools to Further Mitigate Radiation Risks

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Degtiarenko

    2009-07-01

    Along with passive and active engineering and administrative controls usually implemented in radiation protection programs at different facilities, continuous monitoring and on-line analysis of data measured by the radiation detectors at the workplace and in the environment can be considered as an additional tool used to further mitigate radiation risks. Many monitoring systems on the market today allow connecting radiation area monitors into a network, and reading and accumulating data continuously in a database. The point of this presentation is to bring attention to the fact that such accumulated information can be analyzed and used in many respects to improve reliability and functionality of the monitoring and control systems. A simple time history of background readings from a radiation detector can be used to evaluate the stability of the detector performance. Data recorded during normal facility operations may serve to establish a pattern of acceptable dose rates in such detector and allow to better detect off-normal and unstable modes of the facility operation before they reach hardware trip levels. Facility operators and users may utilize such monitoring systems to optimize operations and minimize their radiological impact. Implementation and examples of use of the RADMON radiation monitoring and data analysis system at Jefferson Lab is presented.

  2. Gear Durability Shown To Be Improved by Superfinishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krautz, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Gears, bearings, and similar mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. At the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, we postulated that the fatigue lives of gears could be improved by providing smoother tooth surfaces. A superfinishing process was applied to a set of conventionally ground, aerospace-quality gears. This process produced a highly polished, mirrorlike surface as shown in the preceding photograph. The surface fatigue lives of both superfinished and conventionally ground gears were measured by experiments. The superfinished gears survived about four times longer than the conventionally ground gears. These superfinished gears were produced from conventionally ground, aerospace-quality gears whose geometry had been inspected. The gears were superfinished by placing them in a vibrating bath consisting of water, detergent, abrasive powder, and small pieces of zinc. Upon removal from the bath, the surfaces were highly polished, as depicted in the preceding photograph. The gears were again inspected, and dimensional measurements made before and after the superfinishing operation were compared. Superfinishing removed the peaks of the grinding marks and left a much smoother surface. Profile and spacing checks proved that the overall gear tooth shape was not affected in any harmful way. Superfinishing uniformly removed approximately 2.5 microns from each surface.

  3. DOM transformations in stream biofilms shown by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, N. R.; Rosentreter, J. A.; Bengtsson, M. M.; Wagner, K.; Herberg, E. R.; Battin, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    Alpine streams are hotspots of biogeochemical activity, where dissolved organic matter (DOM) is mineralised and transformed by heterotrophic microorganisms while travelling downstream. The chemical composition of DOM strongly affects the rate and type of transformations that occur, and a portion of the DOM is thought to be chemically resistant to decomposition by biofilm microorganisms. In soil studies, interactions between decomposition rates of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) and labile rhizodeposits have often been described as 'priming effects'. Labile substrate additions have been observed both to stimulate and to suppress mineralisation of recalcitrant substrates under different conditions, due to substrate co-metabolism or microbial community dynamics. Although the same principles are likely to apply to decomposition of recalcitrant DOM and labile algal exudates, few studies so far have investigated priming effects in an aquatic context. In this presentation, we describe results from a microcosm experiment. Streamwater with added recalcitrant DOM was passed through bioreactors mimicking streambed heterotrophic biofilms. Three potential priming treatments were applied; glucose (G), glucose with nitrate and phosphate (GNP) or an algal extract with nitrate and phosphate (ANP). We used fluorescence emission-excitation matrices (EEM) and UV spectroscopy on the DOM input to and output from the bioreactors to unravel potential interactions between recalcitrant and labile DOM during priming in biofilms.

  4. The recent warming in eastern Minnesota shown by ground temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Donald G.; Ruschy, David L.

    1993-03-01

    Soil and ground (here defined as beyond the depth of weathering or soil) temperatures can be superior to surface temperatures as indicators of climatic trends, because the “noise” common to the latter has been effectively reduced or removed. As a result, the 12.8 m ground temperatures recorded routinely at the University of Minnesota St. Paul campus climatological observatory since 1963 can provide valuable information on climatic trends.The observatory, located in the midst of land that has been in agricultural test plots since 1885, was instrumented with copper-constantan thermocouples buried at various depths in the soil and ground. The two air temperature measurements, with which the 12.8 m ground temperature is compared, are made with maximum and minimum glass thermometers housed in standard temperature shelters.The mean air temperature increases of 0.049°C and 0.035°C per year, 1963-1990, at the observatory and the nearby Eastern Minnesota station, respectively, compare favorably with the 12.8 m ground temperature mean increase of 0.041°C per year. Due to the brevity of the record and to its approximate coincidence with the most recent northern hemisphere warming period, the extrapolation of these rates beyond the record period must be done with care.

  5. Development of a flow rate monitoring method for the wearable ventricular assist device driver.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Kentaro; Homma, Akihiko; Sumikura, Hirohito; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Koichi; Katano, Kazuo; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-06-01

    Our research institute has been working on the development of a compact wearable drive unit for an extracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) with a pneumatically driven pump. A method for checking the pump blood flow on the side of the drive unit without modifying the existing blood pump and impairing the portability of it will be useful. In this study, to calculate the pump flow rate indirectly from measuring the flow rate of the driving air of the VAD air chamber, we conducted experiments using a mock circuit to investigate the correlation between the air flow rate and the pump flow rate as well as its accuracy and error factors. The pump flow rate was measured using an ultrasonic flow meter at the inflow and outflow tube, and the air flow was measured using a thermal mass flow meter at the driveline. Similarity in the instantaneous waveform was confirmed between the air flow rate in the driveline and the pump flow rate. Some limitations of this technique were indicated by consideration of the error factors. A significant correlation was found between the average pump flow rate in the ejecting direction and the average air flow rate in the ejecting direction (R2 = 0.704-0.856), and the air flow rate in the filling direction (R2 = 0.947-0.971). It was demonstrated that the average pump flow rate was estimated exactly in a wide range of drive conditions using the air flow of the filling phase. PMID:25500948

  6. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  7. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  8. Implementation Of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs Associated With Reductions In Opioid-Related Death Rates.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Stephen W; Fry, Carrie E; Jones, Timothy F; Buntin, Melinda B

    2016-07-01

    Over the past two decades the number of opioid pain relievers sold in the United States rose dramatically. This rise in sales was accompanied by an increase in opioid-related overdose deaths. In response, forty-nine states (all but Missouri) created prescription drug monitoring programs to detect high-risk prescribing and patient behaviors. Our objectives were to determine whether the implementation or particular characteristics of the programs were effective in reducing opioid-related overdose deaths. In adjusted analyses we found that a state's implementation of a program was associated with an average reduction of 1.12 opioid-related overdose deaths per 100,000 population in the year after implementation. Additionally, states whose programs had robust characteristics-including monitoring greater numbers of drugs with abuse potential and updating their data at least weekly-had greater reductions in deaths, compared to states whose programs did not have these characteristics. We estimate that if Missouri adopted a prescription drug monitoring program and other states enhanced their programs with robust features, there would be more than 600 fewer overdose deaths nationwide in 2016, preventing approximately two deaths each day. PMID:27335101

  9. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or... dioxins/furans and mercury stack test, determine the average carbon feed rate in kilograms (or pounds)...

  10. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  11. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  12. Leak Rate Test for a Fiber Beam Monitor Contained in a Vacuum for the Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mara, Bridget; Lane, Noel; Gross, Eisen; Gray, Frederick; Muon g-2 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.14 parts per million (ppm). The measurement will build on the Brookhaven-based E821 experiment, which yielded results suggesting new physics such as supersymmetry. The Fiber Beam Monitors (FBMs) are used in the experiment to determine the position and observe the motion of a muon beam and monitor the properties of the beam over time. The FBMs support a 9 cm × 8 cm ``harp'' with 7 scintillating fibers separated from each other by 13 mm, each with a diameter of 0.5 mm. The experiment requires a vacuum of less than 1 ×10-6 Torr to prevent trapping of electrons ionized from the residual gas by the electrostatic quadrupoles. To meet this requirement the FBMs must have a leak rate of less than 5 ×10-5 Torr L/s. We have constructed a vacuum system to simulate these conditions and have determined the leak rate of the FBMs within the constructed vacuum apparatus. This leak rate will be reported, along with preliminary results from tests of the light output from the scintillating fibers. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.14 parts per million (ppm). The measurement will build on the Brookhaven-based E821 experiment, which yielded results suggesting new physics such as supersymmetry. The Fiber Beam Monitors (FBMs) are used in the experiment to determine the position and observe the motion of a muon beam and monitor the properties of the beam over time. The FBMs support a 9 cm × 8 cm ``harp'' with 7 scintillating fibers separated from each other by 13 mm, each with a diameter of 0.5 mm. The experiment requires a vacuum of less than 1 ×10-6 Torr to prevent trapping of electrons ionized from the residual gas by the electrostatic quadrupoles. To meet this requirement the FBMs must have a leak rate of less than 5 ×10-5 Torr L/s. We have constructed a vacuum system to simulate these conditions

  13. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate. PMID:26473860

  14. A multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to accurately monitor heart rate against motion artefact during exercise.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-10-12

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from -15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  15. Photoplethysmographic imaging via spectrally demultiplexed erythema fluctuation analysis for remote heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Chung, Audrey G.; Chwyl, Brendan; Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wang, Xiao Yu; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Traditional photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems use the red, green, and blue (RGB) broadband measurements of a consumer digital camera to remotely estimate a patients heart rate; however, these broadband RGB signals are often corrupted by ambient noise, making the extraction of subtle fluctuations indicative of heart rate difficult. Therefore, the use of narrow-band spectral measurements can significantly improve the accuracy. We propose a novel digital spectral demultiplexing (DSD) method to infer narrow-band spectral information from acquired broadband RGB measurements in order to estimate heart rate via the computation of motion- compensated skin erythema fluctuation. Using high-resolution video recordings of human participants, multiple measurement locations are automatically identified on the cheeks of an individual, and motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are acquired at each measurement location over time via measurement location tracking. The motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are spectrally demultiplexed using a non-linear inverse model based on the spectral sensitivity of the camera's detector. A PPG signal is then computed from the demultiplexed narrow-band spectral information via skin erythema fluctuation analysis, with improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing for reliable remote heart rate measurements. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under ambient lighting conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system achieves robust and accurate heart rate measurements and can provide additional information about the participant beyond the capabilities of traditional PPGI methods.

  16. Cyclostationarity-based joint monitoring of symbol-rate, frequency offset, CD and OSNR for Nyquist WDM superchannels.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Maria; Sato, Masaki; Thomsen, Benn

    2015-10-01

    Software-defined transceivers can be reconfigured based on demand and existing channel impairments, and as such, monitoring of both signal and channel parameters is necessary. We demonstrate a novel joint estimation method suitable for spectrally efficient Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), based on the cyclostationary property of linearly modulated signals, exploited both in the frequency and time domains. Using a Nyquist superchannel composed of three 10 GBaud channels, we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous monitoring of symbol-rate with 100% accuracy, roll-off, frequency offset (FO), chromatic dispersion (CD) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) with root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of 20%, 4 MHz, 200 ps/nm and 1.5 dB respectively, when the roll-off factor is larger than 0.06 for DP-QPSK and 0.3 for DP-16QAM.

  17. Online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in bottom spray fluid bed coating--development and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-16

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop a visiometric process analyzer for online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process. The secondary purpose is to investigate the influences of partition gap and air accelerator insert size on particle mass flow rate using the developed visiometric process analyzer. Particle movement in the region between the product chamber and partition column was captured using a high speed camera. Mean particle velocity and number of particles in the images were determined by particle image velocimetry and morphological image processing method respectively. Mass flow rate was calculated using particle velocity, number of particles in the images, particle density and size information. Particle velocity and number findings were validated using image tracking and manual particle counting techniques respectively. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method was accurate. Partition gap was found to influence particle mass flow rate by limiting the rate of solids flux into the partition column; the air accelerator insert was found to influence particle mass flow rate by a Venturi effect. Partition gap and air accelerator insert diameter needed to be adjusted accordingly in relation to the other variability sources and diameter of coating cores respectively. The potential, challenges and possible solutions of the proposed visiometric process analyzer were further discussed.

  18. A mathematical method for extracting cell secretion rate from affinity biosensors continuously monitoring cell activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yandong; Zhou, Qing; Matharu, Zimple; Liu, Ying; Kwa, Timothy; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Our laboratory has previously developed miniature aptasensors that may be integrated at the site of a small group of cells for continuous detection of cell secreted molecules such as inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In a system such as this, the signal measured at the sensor surfaces is a complex function of transport, reaction, as well as of cellular activity. Herein, we report on the development of a mathematical framework for extracting cell production rates from binding curves generated with affinity biosensors. This framework consisted of a diffusion-reaction model coupled to a root finding algorithm for determining cell production rates values causing convergence of a predetermined criterion. To experimentally validate model predictions, we deployed a microfluidic device with an integrated biosensor for measuring the IFN-γ release from CD4 T cells. We found close agreement between secretion rate observed theoretically and those observed experimentally. After taking into account the differences in sensor geometry and reaction kinetics, the method for cell secretion rate determination described in this paper may be broadly applied to any biosensor continuously measuring cellular activity.

  19. Variability of the human heart rate as a diagnostic instrument obtained by mean of a wireless monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barajas Mauricio, Sánchez; Hernández González, Martha Alicia; Figueroa Vega, Nicte; Malacara Hernández, Juan Manuel; Fraga Teodoro, Córdova

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: Heart rate variability (HRV) is the cyclic measurement of RR intervals between normal beats. Aim: To determine the VFC via a wireless Polar monitor. Material and methods: 100 symptomatic menopausal women were studied for measurements of HRV were I post a Polar RS400 Watch four hrs. Results: Obtained through the fast Fourier transform, the frequency domain HRV low frequency (LF) 0.04-0.15 Hz, high frequency (HF) 0.15-0.4Hz and the ratio LF / HF. Conclusion: obtaining HRV is important for cardiovascular autonomic assessment in menopausal women.

  20. Use Of A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Rate Monitor To Examine Photoproduct Effects On Resist Dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsberg, W. D.; Willson, C. G.; Kanazawa, K. K.

    1985-04-01

    A new general method for measuring dissolution kinetics of thin films has been developed. This technique employs a quartz crystal microbalance to measure the mass of the dissolving thin film. The method allows the measurement of very rapid dissolution rates, and can also be used to study the dissolution kinetics of thick or opaque films. The technique has several advantages over alternative in situ methods based on optical interferometry or capacitance. This instrument has been used to examine the effects of photoproducts on the dissolution kinetics of positive photoresist. The influence of photolytically generated carboxylic acid, and the nitrogen byproduct entrapped in the film, have been independently assessed by comparing the solubility of films of novolac resin, and films of resin plus carboxylic acid photoproduct, with that of exposed photoresist. Our results indicate that the acid does not significantly influence the solubility of the resin, and that entrapped gaseous photoproducts exert a rate-enhancing effect.

  1. The effect of textile-based inductive coil sensor positions for heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hye Ran; Lee, Young-Jae; Gi, Sunok; Khang, Seonah; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Min-Gyu; Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2014-02-01

    In the research related to heart rate measurement, few studies have been done using magnetic-induced conductivity sensing methods to measure the heart rate. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the position of a textile-based inductive coil sensor on the measurement of the heart rate. In order to assess the capability of the textile-based inductive coil sensor and the repeatability of measured cardiac muscle contractions, we proposed a new quality index based on the morphology of measured signals using a textile-based inductive coil sensor. We initially explored eight potential positions of the inductive sensor in a pilot experiment, followed by three sensor positions in the main experiment. A simultaneously measured electrocardiography (ECG) signal (Lead II) which was used as a reference signal for a comparison of the R-peak location with signals obtained from selected positions of the textile-based inductive coil sensor. The result of the main experiment indicated that the total quality index obtained from the sensor position 'P3', which was located 3 cm away from the left side from the center front line on the chest circumference line, was the highest (QI value = 1.30) among the three positions across all the subjects. This finding led us to conclude that (1) the position of the textile-based inductive coil sensor significantly affected the quality of the measurement results, and that (2) P3 would be the most appropriate position for the textile-based inductive coil sensor for heart rate measurements based on the magnetic-induced conductivity sensing principle.

  2. Monitoring the impact of the indoor air quality on silver cultural heritage objects using passive and continuous corrosion rate assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    `t Hart, Lucy; Storme, Patrick; Anaf, Willemien; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik; Dorriné, Walter; Janssens, Koen; de Wael, Karolien; Schalm, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    There is a long tradition in evaluating industrial atmospheres by measuring the corrosion rate of exposed metal coupons. The heritage community also uses this method, but the interpretation of the corrosion rate often lacks clarity due to the low corrosivity in indoor museum environments. This investigation explores the possibilities and drawbacks of different silver corrosion rate assessments. The corrosion rate is determined by three approaches: (1) chemical characterization of metal coupons using analytical techniques such as electrochemical measurements, SEM-EDX, XRD, and µ-Raman spectroscopy, (2) continuous corrosion monitoring methods based on electrical resistivity loss of a corroding nm-sized metal wire and weight gain of a corroding silver coated quartz crystal, and (3) characterization of the visual degradation of the metal coupons. This study confirms that subtle differences in corrosivity between locations inside a museum can be determined on condition that the same corrosion rate assessment is used. However, the impact of the coupon orientation with respect to the prevailing direction of air circulation can be substantially larger than the impact of the coupon location.

  3. Molecular monitoring of Escherichia coli O157: H7 sterilization rate using qPCR and propidium monoazide treatment.

    PubMed

    Xing-Long, X; Cong-Cong, L; Yang, Q; Yi-Gang, Y; Hui, W

    2013-05-01

    Propidium monoazide is a DNA-intercalating dye. PMA-qPCR has been reported as a novel method to detect live bacteria in complex samples. In this study, this method was used to monitor the sterilization effects of UHP, ultrasound and high PEF on Escherichia coli O157:H7. Our results showed that all three sterilization techniques are successful to kill viable E. coli O157:H7 cells under their appropriate conditions. PMA-qPCR can effectively monitor the amount of DNA released from viable E. coli O157:H7 cells, and the results from PMA-qPCR were highly consistent with those from plate counting after treatment with UHP, ultrasound and high PEF. The maximal ΔCt between PMA-qPCR and qPCR obtained in this study was 10·39 for UHP, 5·76 for ultrasound and 2·30 for high PEF. The maximal sterilization rates monitored by PMA-qPCR were 99·92% for UHP, 99·99% for ultrasound and 100% for high PEF. Thus, PMA-qPCR can be used to detect the sterilization effect on food and water supplies after treatment with UHP, ultrasound and high PEF.

  4. The Telltale Heartbeat: Heart-Rate Monitors are Taking New Shapes.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The pulse rate has long been considered a basic and essential window on a person?s general physical condition. A racing heart could mean a person is at risk for a heart attack or, conversely, simply stressed, excited, or exercising. An erratic heartbeat could be a sign of a thyroid condition or, rather, just an indication that a person has indulged in one too many cups of coffee that morning. A slow pulse, on the other hand, could be a sign of a serious electrical problem within the organ or suggest, to the contrary, that a heart is as strong as an ox. PMID:26799726

  5. Monitoring the Restart of a High-Rate Wastewater Disposal Well in the Val d'Agri Oilfield (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gori, P.; Improta, L.; Moretti, M.; Colasanti, G.; Criscuoli, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri Quaternary basin in the Southern Apennine range of Italy hosts the largest inland oil field in Europe. Wastewater coming from the oil exploitation is re-injected by a high-rate disposal well into strongly fractured limestones of the hydrocarbon carbonate reservoir. Disposal activity has induced micro-seismicity since the beginning of injection in June 2006. Around 220 small magnitude events (ML < 2.3) were recorded between 2006 and 2013 by the trigger-mode monitoring local network managed by the oil company and by the National Seismic Network of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The induced micro-seismicity illuminated a pre-existing high-angle fault located 1 km below the well. Since June 2006, wastewater has been re-injected with only short interruptions due acid stimulations. In January 2015 disposal activity was halted due to technical operations in the oil refinery and wastewater injection restarted after two weeks. We installed 5 short-period stations within 10 km of the disposal well to carefully monitor the re-start phase and the subsequent 3 months of disposal activity. This temporary network was complemented by stations of the National Seismic Network giving this final configuration:9 stations within 10 km of the well with the closest station 2 km apart, 13 stations within 20 km. Here we report on the preliminary analysis of the local earthquake recorded during the survey focusing on the events occurred in the injection area. The seismicity rate is compared with injection data.In spite of the dense network, we found that the rate of induced seismicity (both the number and energy of events) is very low when compared to the seismicity recorded during the first 5 years of injection activity carried out with comparable rate and pressure.

  6. Methodological and experimental study of the relationship between displacement rate of landslide and GNSS strategy for deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Piras, Marco; Allasia, Paolo; Dabove, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The use of GNSS for landslide monitoring is not a novelty. In the field of large slope instabilities, where the phenomena are usually wide and the use of complex monitoring networks is needed, often a continuous monitoring is required. In this case, the installed GNSS solution is composed by a dual frequency receiver, with a solar power and with a radio connection to a ground station, where the measurement sessions of the rovers are collected and processed. The management of the collected data is the most critical aspect because the approach, which is commonly used, assumes a fixed position of the GNSS antenna during the acquisition time window. When the landslide is active, the position shift of the point can be considered insignificant for the low displacement rate, but together with the increase of the velocity, the GNSS time series processing becomes a crucial aspect to obtain reliable and enough accurate measurements. Starting from real case studies as the Italian large slope instabilities of Montaguto (Avellino, Italy) and Mont de La Saxe (Courmayeur, Italy), we focused on the presence of different kinematic domains with dissimilar displacement behaviors and velocities. In particular, the range of velocities registered during the main active periods ranges from several millimeters/day up to several meters/day, so the strategy for the GNSS processing data must be very different. Methodology for data acquisition (continuous or windowed) and its duration, type of receivers and antenna used (single or dual frequency, GPS or GNSS, mass market or geodetic), data processing strategies (i.e. single epoch, kinematic), and eventually GNSS network services are fundamental factors, which may favor one or another solution, according to time, economy and infrastructure readiness in the field. In the greater part of these studies, the choices were made based on the experience of responsible in the similar conditions. Starting from the behavior of real cases previously cited

  7. Adjustment on the Type I Error Rate for a Clinical Trial Monitoring for both Intermediate and Primary Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In many clinical trials, a single endpoint is used to answer the primary question and forms the basis for monitoring the experimental therapy. Many trials are lengthy in duration and investigators are interested in using an intermediate endpoint for an accelerated approval, but will rely on the primary endpoint (such as, overall survival) for the full approval of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration. We have designed a clinical trial where both intermediate (progression-free survival, (PFS)) and primary endpoints (overall survival, (OS)) are used for monitoring the trial so the overall type I error rate is preserved at the pre-specified alpha level of 0.05. A two-stage procedure is used. In the first stage, the Bonferroni correction was used where the global type I error rate was allocated to each of the endpoints. In the next stage, the O’Brien-Fleming approach was used to design the boundary for the interim and final analysis for each endpoint. Data were generated assuming several parametric copulas with exponential marginals. Different degrees of dependence, as measured by Kendall’s τ, between OS and PFS were assumed: 0 (independence) 0.3, 0.5 and 0.70. This approach is applied to an example in a prostate cancer trial. PMID:24466469

  8. Bedload transport rates in a gravel bedded-river derived from high-resolution monitoring using seismic impact plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Peter; Soar, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Accurate characterisation of bedload transport rates is critical for a better understanding of geomorphological process dynamics, aquatic habitats, sediment budgets and strategies for catchment-scale initiatives in sediment management under conditions of climate change. However, rate estimation is challenging in practice: direct measurements are costly and logistically difficult to achieve with acceptable accuracy over geomorphologically-relevant time periods, and the uncertainty in transport rates predicted from empirical formulae and numerical simulation is rarely below 50 per cent. Partly reflecting these issues, passive technologies for continuous bedload monitoring are becoming increasingly popular. Sensors such as seismic impact plates offer the opportunity to characterise bedload activity at exceptionally high resolution - monitoring from the River Avon, (Devon, UK) indicated that despite significant intra-event and between-plate differences in apparent bedload transport aggregated over 5-minute periods, the magnitude-frequency product of discharge and impact frequency result in a highly plausible effective discharge, supporting the potential value of impact plates as indicators of relative sediment transport loads over annual timescales. Whereas the focus in bedload rate estimation to date has been on developing satisfactory sediment rating curves from detection signals, we instead develop a method for directly estimating bedload transport rates from impact plate data as a function of intensity of transport (count, n, per second), bed material mass (kg) and cross-stream transport variability. Bulk sediment samples are converted to a mass in transit for each instantaneous discharge according to the intensity of transport and a Monte Carlo simulation of the load in transit determined at random from the bed material particle size distribution. The lower detection threshold is determined using experimental calibration and the upper size limit is determined from

  9. Multi-rate Kalman filtering for the data fusion of displacement and acceleration response measurements in dynamic system monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Andrew; Wu, Meiliang

    2007-02-01

    Many damage detection and system identification approaches benefit from the availability of both acceleration and displacement measurements. This is particularly true in the case of suspected non-linear behavior and permanent deformations. In civil and mechanical structural modeling accelerometers are most often used, however displacement sensors, such as non-contact optical techniques as well as GPS-based methods for civil structures are becoming more common. It is suggested, where possible, to exploit the inherent redundancy in the sensor information and combine the collocated acceleration and displacement measurements in a manner which yields highly accurate motion data. This circumvents problematic integration of accelerometer data that causes low-frequency noise amplification, and potentially more problematic differentiation of displacement measurements which amplify high-frequency noise. Another common feature of displacement-based sensing is that the high-frequency resolution is limited, and often relatively low sampling rates are used. In contrast, accelerometers are often more accurate for higher frequencies and higher sampling rates are often available. The fusion of these two data types must, therefore, combine data sampled at different frequencies. A multi-rate Kalman filtering approach is proposed to solve this problem. In addition, a smoothing step is introduced to obtain improved accuracy in the displacement estimate when it is sampled at lower rates than the corresponding acceleration measurement. Through trials with simulated data the procedure's effectiveness is shown to be quite robust at a variety of noise levels and relative sample rates for this practical problem.

  10. A Simple and Reliable Setup for Monitoring Corrosion Rate of Steel Rebars in Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Jibran, Mohammed Abdul Azeem; Azad, Abul Kalam

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in the measurement of the rate of corrosion of steel in concrete depends on many factors. The high resistivity of concrete makes the polarization data erroneous due to the Ohmic drop. The other source of error is the use of an arbitrarily assumed value of the Stern-Geary constant for calculating corrosion current density. This paper presents the outcomes of a research work conducted to develop a reliable and low-cost experimental setup and a simple calculation procedure that can be utilised to calculate the corrosion current density considering the Ohmic drop compensation and the actual value of the Stern-Geary constants calculated using the polarization data. The measurements conducted on specimens corroded to different levels indicate the usefulness of the developed setup to determine the corrosion current density with and without Ohmic drop compensation. PMID:24526907

  11. Instantaneous monitoring of sleep fragmentation by point process heart rate variability and respiratory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Citi, Luca; Bianchi, Matt T; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel, automatic point-process approach that is able to provide continuous, instantaneous estimates of heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in long duration data recordings such as those during an entire night of sleep. We analyze subjects with and without sleep apnea who underwent diagnostic polysomnography. The proposed algorithm is able to quantify multi-scale high time resolution autonomic signatures of sleep fragmentation, such as arousals and stage transitions, throughout an entire night. Results demonstrate the ability of our methods to track fast dynamic transitions from sleep to wake and between REM sleep and other sleep stages, providing resolution details not available in sleep scoring summaries. An automatic threshold-based procedure is further able to detect brief arousals, with the instantaneous indices characterizing specific arousal dynamic signatures.

  12. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. Thirty are cluster member galaxies, and nine are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates between 8 and 525 Msolar yr-1. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J-band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, consistent with several previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell Cardiel et al.; Crawford et al.). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars and, therefore, recent star formation. Using the Starburst99 model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2-219 Msolar yr-1 for the cooling flow sample. For two-thirds of this sample, it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV-inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well-populated XMM UV cluster archive, and a more extensive follow-up study is currently underway.

  13. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 solar mass per year. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar mass per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  14. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  15. Association of electronic fetal monitoring during labor with cesarean section rate and with neonatal morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J; Harris, D R; Hosmer, D W

    1988-01-01

    Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey by the National Center for Health Statistics were used to assess the relation of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) during labor with cesarean section rates and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In univariate analyses, EFM was associated with higher cesarean section rates, lower five-minute Apgar scores, and a higher rate of respiratory distress. Logistic regression analysis controlling for other risk factors for poor neonatal outcome indicated that the association of EFM with higher cesarean section rates persisted (odds ratio 1.45, 95% CI 1.16, 1.81), except in certain pregnancies at very high risk for cesarean section. EFM was associated with an Apgar score less than 6 at five minutes only if delivery was by cesarean section. EFM was not found to be independently associated with respiratory distress. Neither univariate nor multivariate analyses found an association of EFM with neonatal mortality. These results suggest that EFM may identify hypoxic infants, who are frequently delivered by cesarean section. The lack of association of EFM with beneficial neonatal outcomes is consistent either with lack of effect of EFM or with uncontrolled selection bias. PMID:3407813

  16. A low perfusion rate microreactor for continuous monitoring of enzyme characteristics: application to glucose oxidase.

    PubMed

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G A; Venema, K; van Berkel, W J H; Korf, J

    2007-11-01

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver the reactants and the device was linked on-line to an electrochemical detector. The microreactor was used for on-line preparation of apoglucose oxidase in strong acid and its subsequent reactivation with flavin adenine dinucleotide. In addition we describe a miniaturized version of the microreactor used to assess several characteristics of femtomole to attomole amounts of glucose oxidase. A low negative potential over the electrodes was used when ferrocene was the mediator in combination with horseradish peroxidase, ensuring the absence of oxidation of electro-active compounds in biological fluids. A low backpressure at very low flow rates is an advantage, which increases the sensitivity. A variety of further applications of the microreactor are suggested.

  17. A machine learning approach to improve contactless heart rate monitoring using a webcam.

    PubMed

    Monkaresi, Hamed; Calvo, Rafael A; Yan, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Unobtrusive, contactless recordings of physiological signals are very important for many health and human-computer interaction applications. Most current systems require sensors which intrusively touch the user's skin. Recent advances in contact-free physiological signals open the door to many new types of applications. This technology promises to measure heart rate (HR) and respiration using video only. The effectiveness of this technology, its limitations, and ways of overcoming them deserves particular attention. In this paper, we evaluate this technique for measuring HR in a controlled situation, in a naturalistic computer interaction session, and in an exercise situation. For comparison, HR was measured simultaneously using an electrocardiography device during all sessions. The results replicated the published results in controlled situations, but show that they cannot yet be considered as a valid measure of HR in naturalistic human-computer interaction. We propose a machine learning approach to improve the accuracy of HR detection in naturalistic measurements. The results demonstrate that the root mean squared error is reduced from 43.76 to 3.64 beats/min using the proposed method. PMID:25014930

  18. Are Currently Available Wearable Devices for Activity Tracking and Heart Rate Monitoring Accurate, Precise, and Medically Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    El-Amrawy, Fatema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The new wave of wireless technologies, fitness trackers, and body sensor devices can have great impact on healthcare systems and the quality of life. However, there have not been enough studies to prove the accuracy and precision of these trackers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and overall performance of seventeen wearable devices currently available compared with direct observation of step counts and heart rate monitoring. Methods Each participant in this study used three accelerometers at a time, running the three corresponding applications of each tracker on an Android or iOS device simultaneously. Each participant was instructed to walk 200, 500, and 1,000 steps. Each set was repeated 40 times. Data was recorded after each trial, and the mean step count, standard deviation, accuracy, and precision were estimated for each tracker. Heart rate was measured by all trackers (if applicable), which support heart rate monitoring, and compared to a positive control, the Onyx Vantage 9590 professional clinical pulse oximeter. Results The accuracy of the tested products ranged between 79.8% and 99.1%, while the coefficient of variation (precision) ranged between 4% and 17.5%. MisFit Shine showed the highest accuracy and precision (along with Qualcomm Toq), while Samsung Gear 2 showed the lowest accuracy, and Jawbone UP showed the lowest precision. However, Xiaomi Mi band showed the best package compared to its price. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of the selected fitness trackers are reasonable and can indicate the average level of activity and thus average energy expenditure. PMID:26618039

  19. Treatment system for whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy with in vivo monitoring and control of light dose rate and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Marynissen, J.P.; Jansen, H.; Star, W.M. )

    1989-11-01

    A system is described for in vivo monitoring and control of light dose rate and dose during whole bladder photodynamic therapy (PDT). A modified cystoscope admits an isotropic light source (fiber with diffusing tip, connected to a dye laser) and three translucent nylon catheters that are unfolded in three directions along the bladder wall. An isotropic light detector (0.8 mm. diameter probe on 200 microns. fiber) is inserted into each catheter and connected to an amplifier displaying light dose rate (in mW/cm.2) and integrated light dose (in J/cm.2) for each probe. Before treatment a low light level is used to optimize the position of the light source, requiring equal readings by each of the three dosimetry probes. Uniformity of irradiation is checked by moving the probes through their respective catheters along the bladder wall. With red light (wavelength 630 nm.) a dose rate uniformity of {plus minus} 20% could be achieved in vivo in dog bladder. With green light (514.5 nm.) uniform irradiation was difficult, most likely due to a much smaller contribution of scattered light. Measurements during clinical PDT show that optimizing the light source position by suprapubic transvesical ultrasound may not secure uniform irradiation. Half-way into the treatment a difference of 100% between the readings of two probes was noted. Adjusting the position of the light source resulted in integrated light dose variations of less than 20% among the three probes at the end of treatment.

  20. Real-time monitoring and verification of in vivo high dose rate brachytherapy using a pinhole camera.

    PubMed

    Duan, J; Macey, D J; Pareek, P N; Brezovich, I A

    2001-02-01

    We investigated a pinhole imaging system for independent in vivo monitoring and verification of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment. The system consists of a high-resolution pinhole collimator, an x-ray fluoroscope, and a standard radiographic screen-film combination. Autofluoroscopy provides real-time images of the in vivo Ir-192 HDR source for monitoring the source location and movement, whereas autoradiography generates a permanent record of source positions on film. Dual-pinhole autoradiographs render stereo-shifted source images that can be used to reconstruct the source dwell positions in three dimensions. The dynamic range and spatial resolution of the system were studied with a polystyrene phantom using a range of source strengths and dwell times. For the range of source activity used in HDR brachytherapy, a 0.5 mm diameter pinhole produced sharp fluoroscopic images of the source within the dynamic range of the fluoroscope. With a source-to-film distance of 35 cm and a 400 speed screen-film combination, the same pinhole yielded well recognizable images of a 281.2 GBq (7.60 Ci) Ir-192 source for dwell times in the typical clinical range of 2 to 400 s. This 0.5 mm diameter pinhole could clearly resolve source positions separated by lateral displacements as small as 1 mm. Using a simple reconstruction algorithm, dwell positions in a phantom were derived from stereo-shifted dual-pinhole images and compared to the known positions. The agreement was better than 1 mm. A preliminary study of a patient undergoing HDR treatment for cervical cancer suggests that the imaging method is clinically feasible. Based on these studies we believe that the pinhole imaging method is capable of providing independent and reliable real-time monitoring and verification for HDR brachytherapy.

  1. Real-time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device.

    PubMed

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real-time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time-course data for bulk and peri-cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non-invasive and label-free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non-invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell(-1) s(-1) , and 5 and 35 amol cell(-1) s(-1) were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non-invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell-based therapies.

  2. Monitoring global rates of biodiversity change: challenges that arise in meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2010 goals

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Andy

    2005-01-01

    By agreeing to strive for ‘a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity’ by the year 2010, political leaders at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (held in Johannesburg, South Africa) presented conservation scientists with a great opportunity, but also one of their most significant challenges. This is an extremely exciting and laudable development, but this reporting process could be made yet more powerful if it incorporates, from the outset, independent scientific assessment of the measures, how they are analysed, and practical ways of plugging key gaps. This input is crucial if the measures are to be widely owned, credible and robust to the vigorous external scrutiny to which they will doubtless be exposed. Assessing how rates of biodiversity loss have changed from current levels by 2010 will require that a given attribute has been measured at least three times; however, most habitats, species, populations and ecosystem services have not been assessed even once. Furthermore, the best data on which to base estimates of biodiversity loss are biased towards the charismatic vertebrate species; unfortunately, these supply minimal services to the human economy. We have to find ways to redress this taxonomic imbalance and expand our analyses to consider the vast diversity of invertebrate, fungal and microbial species that play a role in determining human health and economic welfare. In the first part of this paper I will use examples from local and regional monitoring of biological diversity to examine the desired properties of ‘ideal indicators’. I will then change focus and examine an initial framework that asks how we might monitor changes in the economic goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. I will use this exercise to examine how the set of possible indicators given by the Convention on Biological Diversity might be modified in ways that provide a more critical assay of the economic value of

  3. Developing a Change-Sensitive Brief Behavior Rating Scale as a Progress Monitoring Tool for Social Behavior: An Example Using the Social Skills Rating System--Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Cook, Clayton R.; Collins, Tai; Dart, Evan; Rasetshwane, Kutlo; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Research has been unsuccessful at revealing an analogue to curriculum-based measurement in the area of progress monitoring for social behavior. As a result, there is a need to develop change-sensitive, technically adequate, feasible progress monitoring tools for social behavior that represent general outcome measures of performance. The purpose of…

  4. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Livingstone, M.B.; Prentice, A.M.; Coward, W.A.; Ceesay, S.M.; Strain, J.J.; McKenna, P.G.; Nevin, G.B.; Barker, M.E.; Hickey, R.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE.

  5. A Pressure Sensing System for Heart Rate Monitoring with Polymer-Based Pressure Sensors and an Anti-Interference Post Processing Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Li, Cheng; Wang, Zhe; Mi, Wentian; Li, Yuxing; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate measurement is a basic and important issue for either medical diagnosis or daily health monitoring. In this work great efforts have been focused on realizing a portable, comfortable and low cost solution for long-term domestic heart rate monitoring. A tiny but efficient measurement system composed of a polymer-based flexible pressure sensor and an analog anti-interference readout circuit is proposed; manufactured and tested. The proposed polymer-based pressure sensor has a linear response and high sensitivity of 13.4 kPa−1. With the circuit’s outstanding capability in removing interference caused by body movement and the highly sensitive flexible sensor device, comfortable long-term heart rate monitoring becomes more realistic. Comparative tests prove that the proposed system has equivalent capability (accuracy: <3%) in heart rate measurement to the commercial product. PMID:25648708

  6. Luminance level of a monitor: influence on detectability and detection rate of breast cancer in 2D mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemelmans, Frédéric; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Chesterman, Frédérique; Kimpe, Tom; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate lesion detectability and reading time as a function of luminance level of the monitor. Material and Methods: 3D mass models and microcalcification clusters were simulated into ROIs of for processing mammograms. Randomly selected ROIs were subdivided in three groups according to their background glandularity: high (>30%), medium (15-30%) and low (<15%). 6 non-spiculated masses (9 - 11mm), 6 spiculated masses (5 - 7mm) and 6 microcalcification clusters (2 - 4mm) were scaled in 3D to create a range of sizes. The linear attenuation coefficient (AC) of the masses was adjusted from 100% glandular tissue to 90%, 80%, 70%, to create different contrasts. Six physicists read the full database on Barco's Coronis Uniti monitor for four different luminance levels (300, 800, 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2), using a 4-AFC tool. Percentage correct (PC) and time were computed for all different conditions. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate the effect of luminance on PC and time. A multi-factorial analysis was performed using MANOVA.. Results: Paired t-test indicated a statistically significant difference for the average time per session between 300 and 1200; 800 and 1200; 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2, for all participants combined. There was no effect on PC. MANOVA denoted significantly lower reading times for high glandularity images at 1200 Cd/m2. Both types of masses were significantly faster detected at 1200 Cd/m2, for the contrast study. In the size study, microcalcification clusters and spiculated masses had a significantly higher detection rate at 1200 Cd/m2. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a significant decrease in reading time, while detectability remained constant.

  7. Reservoir depletion at The Geysers geothermal area, California, shown by four-dimensional seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunasekera, R.C.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive geothermal exploitation at The Geysers geothermal area, California, induces myriads of small-magnitude earthquakes that are monitored by a dense, permanent, local seismometer network. Using this network, tomographic inversions were performed for the three-dimensional Vp and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for April 1991, February 1993, December 1994, October 1996, and August 1998. The extensive low-Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir grew in strength from a maximum of 9% to a maximum of 13.4% during the 7-year study period. This is attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. This decreases Vp by increasing compressibility, and increases Vs because of reduction in pore pressure and the drying of argillaceous minerals, e.g., illite, which increase the shear modulus. These effects serendipitously combine to lower Vp/Vs, resulting in a strong overall effect that provides a convenient tool for monitoring reservoir depletion. Variations in the Vp and Vs fields indicate that water depletion is the dominant process in the central part of the exploited reservoir, and pressure reduction and mineral drying in the northwest and southeast parts of the reservoir. The rate at which the Vp/Vs anomaly grew in strength in the period 1991-1998 suggests most of the original anomaly was caused by exploitation. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective geothermal reservoir depletion monitoring tool and can potentially provide information about depletion in parts of the reservoir that have not been drilled.

  8. Crisis of Japanese vascular flora shown by quantifying extinction risks for 1618 taxa.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Taku; Takenaka, Akio; Ishihama, Fumiko; Fujita, Taku; Ogawa, Makoto; Katsuyama, Teruo; Kadono, Yasuro; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Serizawa, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Hideki; Takamiya, Masayuki; Fujii, Shinji; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Muneda, Kazuo; Yokota, Masatsugu; Yonekura, Koji; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2014-01-01

    Although many people have expressed alarm that we are witnessing a mass extinction, few projections have been quantified, owing to limited availability of time-series data on threatened organisms, especially plants. To quantify the risk of extinction, we need to monitor changes in population size over time for as many species as possible. Here, we present the world's first quantitative projection of plant species loss at a national level, with stochastic simulations based on the results of population censuses of 1618 threatened plant taxa in 3574 map cells of ca. 100 km2. More than 500 lay botanists helped monitor those taxa in 1994-1995 and in 2003-2004. We projected that between 370 and 561 vascular plant taxa will go extinct in Japan during the next century if past trends of population decline continue. This extinction rate is approximately two to three times the global rate. Using time-series data, we show that existing national protected areas (PAs) covering ca. 7% of Japan will not adequately prevent population declines: even core PAs can protect at best <60% of local populations from decline. Thus, the Aichi Biodiversity Target to expand PAs to 17% of land (and inland water) areas, as committed to by many national governments, is not enough: only 29.2% of currently threatened species will become non-threatened under the assumption that probability of protection success by PAs is 0.5, which our assessment shows is realistic. In countries where volunteers can be organized to monitor threatened taxa, censuses using our method should be able to quantify how fast we are losing species and to assess how effective current conservation measures such as PAs are in preventing species extinction. PMID:24922311

  9. Field validation of cable monitoring and rating system (CMARS) laboratory model. Semi-annual report, 1 May 1979-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Englehardt, J.; Harris, H.; Kasny, E.; Orifice, D.; Patton, R.; Sottovia, P.

    1980-01-01

    One year of research on validating the performance of the Cable Monitoring and Rating System (CMARS) is reported. The performance testing was conducted on underground 230-kV and 345-kV pipe type cable circuits owned by the New Jersey Public Service Electric and Gas Co. Laser temperature monitoring systems and a data acquisition system were installed. Software installation and development is discussed. The CMARS testing program is described. (LCL)

  10. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure

    PubMed Central

    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context. PMID:27247646

  11. Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected

  12. Merapi 2010 eruption-Chronology and extrusion rates monitored with satellite radar and used in eruption forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, John S.; Schneider, David J.; Griswold, Julia P.; Keeler, Ronald H.; Burton, William C.; Noyles, Christopher; Newhall, Christopher G.; Ratdomopurbo, Antonius

    2013-07-01

    Despite dense cloud cover, satellite-borne commercial Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) enabled frequent monitoring of Merapi volcano's 2010 eruption. Near-real-time interpretation of images derived from the amplitude of the SAR signals and timely delivery of these interpretations to those responsible for warnings, allowed satellite remote sensing for the first time to play an equal role with in situ seismic, geodetic and gas monitoring in guiding life-saving decisions during a major volcanic crisis. Our remotely sensed data provide an observational chronology for the main phase of the 2010 eruption, which lasted 12 days (26 October-7 November, 2010). Unlike the prolonged low-rate and relatively low explosivity dome-forming and collapse eruptions of recent decades at Merapi, the eruption began with an explosive eruption that produced a new summit crater on 26 October and was accompanied by an ash column and pyroclastic flows that extended 8 km down the flanks. This initial explosive event was followed by smaller explosive eruptions on 29 October-1 November, then by a period of rapid dome growth on 1-4 November, which produced a summit lava dome with a volume of ~ 5 × 106 m3. A paroxysmal VEI 4 magmatic eruption (with ash column to 17 km altitude) destroyed this dome, greatly enlarged the new summit crater and produced extensive pyroclastic flows (to ~ 16 km radial distance in the Gendol drainage) and surges during the night of 4-5 November. The paroxysmal eruption was followed by a period of jetting of gas and tephra and by a second short period (12 h) of rapid dome growth on 6 November. The eruption ended with low-level ash and steam emissions that buried the 6 November dome with tephra and continued at low levels until seismicity decreased to background levels by about 23 November. Our near-real-time commercial SAR documented the explosive events on 26 October and 4-5 November and high rates of dome growth (> 25 m3 s- 1). An event tree analysis for the previous

  13. An accurate derivation of the air dose-rate and the deposition concentration distribution by aerial monitoring in a low level contaminated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Sugita, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) have been conducting aerial monitoring to investigate the distribution of radioactive cesium dispersed into the atmosphere after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), Tokyo Electric Power Company. Distribution maps of the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition concentration on the ground are prepared using spectrum obtained by aerial monitoring. The radioactive cesium deposition is derived from its dose rate, which is calculated by excluding the dose rate of the background radiation due to natural radionuclides from the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground. The first step of the current method of calculating the dose rate due to natural radionuclides is calculate the ratio of the total count rate of areas where no radioactive cesium is detected and the count rate of regions with energy levels of 1,400 keV or higher (BG-Index). Next, calculate the air dose rate of radioactive cesium by multiplying the BG-Index and the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher for the area where the radioactive cesium is distributed. In high dose-rate areas, however, the count rate of the 1,365-keV peak of Cs-134, though small, is included in the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher, which could cause an overestimation of the air dose rate of natural radionuclides. We developed a method for accurately evaluating the distribution maps of natural air dose-rate by excluding the effect of radioactive cesium, even in contaminated areas, and obtained the accurate air dose-rate map attributed the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground. Furthermore, the natural dose-rate distribution throughout Japan has been obtained by this method.

  14. On-line identification of P-glycoprotein substrates by monitoring of extracellular acidification and respiration rates in living cells.

    PubMed

    Seeland, Swen; Treiber, Alexander; Hafner, Mathias; Huwyler, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    The influence of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in drug resistance as well as drug absorption and disposition is an important factor to be considered during the development of new drugs. Thus, the early identification and exclusion of compounds showing a high affinity towards P-glycoprotein can help to select drug candidates. The aim of our study was to implement a label-free assay for the identification of P-glycoprotein substrates in living cells. For this approach, a multiparametric, chip-based sensor system was used to determine extracellular acidification, cell respiration and adhesion upon stimulation with P-glycoprotein substrates. Using L-MDR1 cells, a human P-glycoprotein overexpressing cell line, the influence of P-glycoprotein activity was determined for seven different compounds, demonstrating the applicability of the system for P-glycoprotein substrate identification. Effects were concentration dependent, as shown for the P-glycoprotein substrate verapamil, and were associated with cellular acidification and respiration. P-glycoprotein ATPase activation by verapamil could be described by a Michaelis-Menten type kinetic profile showing saturation at high substrate concentrations. The Michaelis-Menten constants K(M) were determined to be 0.92μM (calculated based on extracellular acidification) and 4.9μM (calculated based on cellular respiration). Control experiments using 100nM of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor elacridar indicated that the observed effects were related to P-glycoprotein ATPase activity. In contrast, wild-type LLC-PK1 cells not expressing P-glycoprotein were not responsive towards stimulation with different P-glycoprotein substrates. Summarizing these findings, the used microsensor system is a generic system suitable for the identification of P-glycoprotein substrates. In contrast to biochemical P-glycoprotein assays, activation of the drug efflux pump can be monitored on-line in living cells to identify P-glycoprotein substrates and to study the

  15. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Lopes, I.

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  16. The development of a high count rate neutron flux monitoring channel using silicon carbide semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisi Fard, Mehdi

    In this dissertation, a fast neutron flux-monitoring channel, which is based on the use of SiC semiconductor detectors is designed, modeled and experimentally evaluated as a power monitor for the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactors. A detailed mathematical model of the SiC diode detector and the electronic processing channel is developed using TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice simulation codes. The flux monitoring channel is tested at the OSU Research Reactor. The response of the SiC neutron-monitoring channel to neutrons is in close agreement to simulation results. Linearity of the channel response to thermal and fast neutron fluxes, pulse height spectrum of the channel, energy calibration of the channel and the detector degradation in a fast neutron flux are presented. Along with the model of the neutron monitoring channel, a Simulink model of the GT-MHR core has been developed to evaluate the power monitoring requirements for the GT-MHR that are most demanding for the SiC diode power monitoring system. The Simulink model is validated against a RELAP5 model of the GT-MHR. This dyanamic model is used to simulate reactor transients at the full power and at the start up, in order to identify the response time requirements of the GT-MHR. Based on the response time requirements that have been identified by the Simulink model and properties of the monitoring channel, several locations in the central reflector and the reactor cavity are identified to place the detector. The detector lifetime and dynamic range of the monitoring channel at the detector locations are calculated. The channel dynamic range in the GT-MHR central reflector covers four decades of the reactor power. However, the detector does not survive for a reactor refueling cycle in the central reflector. In the reactor cavity, the detector operates sufficiently long; however, the dynamic range of the channel is smaller than the dynamic range of the channel in the central reflector.

  17. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-12-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris.

  18. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-01-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris. PMID:2271347

  19. Validation of heart rate derived from a physiological status monitor-embedded compression shirt against criterion ECG.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, B A; Boland, D M; Carney, J; Abrazado, M; Smith, D L; Cooper, C B

    2014-01-01

    Firefighters are subject to extreme environments and high physical demands when performing duty-related tasks. Recently, physiological status monitors (PSM) have been embedded into a compression shirt to enable firefighters to measure, visualize, log, and transmit vital metrics such as heart rate (HR) to aid in cardiovascular risk identification and mitigation, thereby attempting to improve the health, fitness, and safety of this population. The purpose of this study was to validate HR recorded by the PSM-embedded compression shirt against a criterion standard laboratory ECG-derived HR when worn concurrently with structural firefighting personal protective equipment (PPE) during four simulated firefighting activities. Ten healthy, college-age men (mean ± SD: age: 21 ± 1 yr; body mass: 91 ± 10 kg; body mass index: 26.9 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) completed four tasks that are routinely performed during firefighting operations: outdoor fast-paced walking (FW), treadmill walking (TW), searching/crawling (SC), and ascending/descending stairs (AD). They wore the PSM-embedded compression shirt under structural firefighting PPE. HR was recorded concurrently by the PSM-embedded compression shirt and a portable metabolic measurement system accompanied with a standard 12-lead electrocardiograph that was used to provide criterion measures of HR. For all four tasks combined there was very high correlation of PSM and ECG HR (r > 0.99; SEE 0.84 /min) with a mean difference (bias) of -0.02 /min and limits of agreement of -0.07 to 0.02 /min. For individual tasks, the correlations were also high (r-values = 0.99; SEE 0.81-0.89). The mean bias (limits of agreement) was: FW 0.03 (-0.09 to 0.14); TW 0.04 (-0.05 to 0.12); SC -0.01 (-0.12 to 0.10); AD -0.13 (-0.21 to -0.04) /min. These findings demonstrate that the PSM-embedded compression shirt provides a valid measure of HR during simulated firefighting activities when compared with a standard 12-lead ECG.

  20. Can reading rate acceleration improve error monitoring and cognitive abilities underlying reading in adolescents with reading difficulties and in typical readers?

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-28

    Dyslexia is characterized by slow, inaccurate reading and by deficits in executive functions. The deficit in reading is exemplified by impaired error monitoring, which can be specifically shown through neuroimaging, in changes in Error-/Correct-related negativities (ERN/CRN). The current study aimed to investigate whether a reading intervention program (Reading Acceleration Program, or RAP) could improve overall reading, as well as error monitoring and other cognitive abilities underlying reading, in adolescents with reading difficulties. Participants with reading difficulties and typical readers were trained with the RAP for 8 weeks. Their reading and error monitoring were characterized both behaviorally and electrophysiologically through a lexical decision task. Behaviorally, the reading training improved "contextual reading speed" and decreased reading errors in both groups. Improvements were also seen in speed of processing, memory and visual screening. Electrophysiologically, ERN increased in both groups following training, but the increase was significantly greater in the participants with reading difficulties. Furthermore, an association between the improvement in reading speed and the change in difference between ERN and CRN amplitudes following training was seen in participants with reading difficulties. These results indicate that improving deficits in error monitoring and speed of processing are possible underlying mechanisms of the RAP intervention. We suggest that ERN is a good candidate for use as a measurement in evaluating the effect of reading training in typical and disabled readers.

  1. 26 CFR 53.6151-1 - Time and place for paying tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and place for paying tax shown on returns... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Procedure and Administration § 53.6151-1 Time and place for paying tax shown on returns. The Chapter 42 tax shown on any...

  2. High rate and high spatial resolution surface deformation monitoring of the Argentiere glacier from complementary remote sensing and geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Lionel; Pham, Ha-Thai; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Vernier, Flavien; Moreau, Luc; Martin, Olivier; Thom, Christian; Briole, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Argentière glacier in the French Alps (Mont-Blanc massif) is a 10 km long glacier covering 19 km². Its flow on a large scale has been studied for over a hundred years by glaciologists, but the time and space fluctuations of its flow are still poorly documented. We selected a small area of the glacier, about 1 km upstream of the Lognan serac fall to measure the glacier flow with in-situ GPS measurements combined with time series of ground based pictures and time series of synthetic aperture radar images from the TerreSAR-X satellite. The experiment took place during two months between September and November 2013 with a network of thirteen single-frequency GPS receivers (eleven set up on the glacier and two on the nearby bedrock) deployed in the field with a sampling rate of 30s. Our data processing allows us to estimate epoch by epoch coordinates of each GPS site with a centimetric precision. The main interest of this approach is twofold : the monitoring of the temporal evolution of the flow and the providing of ground control points for the local and satellite remote sensing imagery. The average velocities of the stations is around 15 cm/day with peaks reaching 25cm/day lasting a few hours to one day after rainfalls or cooling periods. We explain these accelerations as the consequence of an increased basal water pressure. The strain tensor analysis shows a good consistency between the main strain axis and the orientation of the cracks on both sides of the glacier. However, available only at eleven points, the GPS data can not in any case give a picture of the overall deformation of the glacier. In order to map the glacier flow as a whole, including crevasse areas or serac falls, two automatic digital cameras were installed during the experiment on the bedrock on the shore of the glacier with acquisitions every three hours during day time. The processing of the stereo pairs produces maps in which the pixels coordinates (and their changes) are estimated with a

  3. Monitoring the Rate Solvolytic Decomposition of Benzenediazonium Tetrafluoroborate in Aqueous Media Using a pH Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Floyd L.

    2005-01-01

    A lab rotary experiment using the pH measurements of an aqueous solution to monitor the course of a solvolytic reaction was conducted. This experiment allowed the students to gain experience in taking precise pH measurement, to use nonlinear analysis techniques for analyzing kinetic data and to use the Arrhenius equation for determination of…

  4. Observations of the UARS Particle Environment Monitor and computation of ionization rates in the middle and upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Biard, J. C.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rees, M. H.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.; Nightingale, R. W.; Imhof, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present observations made by the Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) instruments during the geomagnetic storm of 8-9 November, 1991. Ionization and energy deposition rates as functions of altitude in the middle and upper atmosphere by incident electrons and positive ions in the storm interval are computed. The suite of PEM instruments provides a systematic measurement of energetic particles and their associated X-rays over an energy range not fully covered by previous satellite missions.

  5. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  6. Neutron monitors and muon detectors for solar modulation studies: Interstellar flux, yield function, and assessment of critical parameters in count rate calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, D.; Cheminet, A.; Derome, L.; Ghelfi, A.; Hubert, G.

    2015-01-01

    Particles count rates at given Earth location and altitude result from the convolution of (i) the interstellar (IS) cosmic-ray fluxes outside the solar cavity, (ii) the time-dependent modulation of IS into Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes, (iii) the rigidity cut-off (or geomagnetic transmission function) and grammage at the counter location, (iv) the atmosphere response to incoming TOA cosmic rays (shower development), and (v) the counter response to the various particles/energies in the shower. Count rates from neutron monitors or muon counters are therefore a proxy to solar activity. In this paper, we review all ingredients, discuss how their uncertainties impact count rate calculations, and how they translate into variation/uncertainties on the level of solar modulation ϕ (in the simple Force-Field approximation). The main uncertainty for neutron monitors is related to the yield function. However, many other effects have a significant impact, at the 5-10% level on ϕ values. We find no clear ranking of the dominant effects, as some depend on the station position and/or the weather and/or the season. An abacus to translate any variation of count rates (for neutron and μ detectors) to a variation of the solar modulation ϕ is provided.

  7. Assessing the impact of safety monitoring on the efficacy analysis in large Phase III group sequential trials with non-trivial safety event rate.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yanqiu; Palesch, Yuko Y; DeSantis, Stacia M; Zhao, Wenle

    2016-01-01

    In Phase III clinical trials for life-threatening conditions, some serious but expected adverse events, such as early deaths or congestive heart failure, are often treated as the secondary or co-primary endpoint, and are closely monitored by the Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC). A naïve group sequential design (GSD) for such a study is to specify univariate statistical boundaries for the efficacy and safety endpoints separately, and then implement the two boundaries during the study, even though the two endpoints are typically correlated. One problem with this naïve design, which has been noted in the statistical literature, is the potential loss of power. In this article, we develop an analytical tool to evaluate this negative impact for trials with non-trivial safety event rates, particularly when the safety monitoring is informal. Using a bivariate binary power function for the GSD with a random-effect component to account for subjective decision-making in safety monitoring, we demonstrate how, under common conditions, the power loss in the naïve design can be substantial. This tool may be helpful to entities such as the DSMCs when they wish to deviate from the prespecified stopping boundaries based on safety measures. PMID:26010228

  8. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort to locate and recover missing children, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) joins other executive...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6151-1 - Time and place for paying tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and place for paying tax shown on returns... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Time and Place for Paying Tax § 1.6151-1 Time and place for paying tax shown on returns. (a) In general. Except as provided in section 6152 and paragraph (b) of...

  10. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... those which have been updated to reflect a missing child's current age through computer enhancement... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  11. 26 CFR 156.6151-1 - Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration § 156.6151-1 Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns. The tax under chapter 54... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns. 156.6151-1 Section 156.6151-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 26 CFR 54.6151-1 - Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of tax shown on returns. Effective for any Form 8928 that is due on or after January 1, 2010, the tax... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns. 54.6151-1 Section 54.6151-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. 26 CFR 157.6151-1 - Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRANSACTIONS Procedure and Administration § 157.6151-1 Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns. The... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns. 157.6151-1 Section 157.6151-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 26 CFR 55.6151-1 - Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... returns. The tax shown on any return which is imposed by Chapter 44 shall, without notice or assessment... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns. 55.6151-1 Section 55.6151-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  16. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  17. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  18. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  19. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  20. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  1. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  2. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  3. Application of a combined global positioning and heart rate monitoring system in jumper horses during an official competition - A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Marilena; Giudice, Elisabetta; Rizzo, Maria; Congiu, Fulvio; Zumbo, Alessandro; Arfuso, Francesca; Di Pietro, Simona; Bruschetta, Daniele; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined global positioning system (GPS)/heart rate (HR) monitoring system is a valuable tool to assess, step by step, the physiological response of HR and its relationship with speed in healthy horses competing in an official show jumping class. Six mares performing a standardised warm-up and jumping course were monitored using a HR/GPS device. Venous blood lactate (BL), assessed before and after exercise, showed a significant increase (P = 0.0004) following the physical effort. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant changes in HR throughout the experimental period. The analysis of HR data recorded during the warm-up jumping stage showed significantly higher HR (P = 0.001) in the recovery period compared to the related jumping phase. Shifting the fence height from 100 cm to 125 cm during the warm-up jumps was also found to cause a significant increase (P = 0.016) in HR. According to these preliminary results, the simultaneous logging of heart rate and speed has the potential to be a reliable and powerful technique for field testing that can help in the monitoring of the horse's response to jumping effort during training and competition. PMID:27342090

  4. Application of a combined global positioning and heart rate monitoring system in jumper horses during an official competition - A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Marilena; Giudice, Elisabetta; Rizzo, Maria; Congiu, Fulvio; Zumbo, Alessandro; Arfuso, Francesca; Di Pietro, Simona; Bruschetta, Daniele; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined global positioning system (GPS)/heart rate (HR) monitoring system is a valuable tool to assess, step by step, the physiological response of HR and its relationship with speed in healthy horses competing in an official show jumping class. Six mares performing a standardised warm-up and jumping course were monitored using a HR/GPS device. Venous blood lactate (BL), assessed before and after exercise, showed a significant increase (P = 0.0004) following the physical effort. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant changes in HR throughout the experimental period. The analysis of HR data recorded during the warm-up jumping stage showed significantly higher HR (P = 0.001) in the recovery period compared to the related jumping phase. Shifting the fence height from 100 cm to 125 cm during the warm-up jumps was also found to cause a significant increase (P = 0.016) in HR. According to these preliminary results, the simultaneous logging of heart rate and speed has the potential to be a reliable and powerful technique for field testing that can help in the monitoring of the horse's response to jumping effort during training and competition.

  5. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and methods for monitoring the dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2006-03-28

    A scanned, pulsed, focused laser irradiation apparatus can measure and image the photocurrent collection resulting from a dose-rate equivalent exposure to infrared laser light across an entire silicon die. Comparisons of dose-rate response images or time-delay images from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems allows precise identification of those specific age-affected circuit structures within a device that merit further quantitative analysis with targeted materials or electrical testing techniques. Another embodiment of the invention comprises a broad-beam, dose rate-equivalent exposure apparatus. The broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. This embodiment can be combined with the synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into a device under test to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure.

  6. Tension Tamer: Delivering Meditation With Objective Heart Rate Acquisition for Adherence Monitoring Using a Smart Phone Platform

    PubMed Central

    Vertegel, Alexey; Shaporev, Aleksey; Treiber, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This brief report demonstrates the proof of concept of the Tension Tamer (TT) smartphone application, which integrates photoplethysmograph capabilities with breathing awareness meditation (BAM), to reduce stress and measure heart rate and adherence. Design Methods for objectively measuring heart rate and adherence to BAM were developed as part of a future randomized controlled trial. Setting/Location The study was conducted at Jerry Zucker Middle School of Science and the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Subjects The subjects were three prehypertensive male teachers. Intervention The method used was smartphone delivered BAM. Outcome measures Objective measures included heart rate, adherence, and ambulatory blood pressure (BP). Results Adherence data was successfully collected by the TT application. Increased adherence to TT coincided with increased improvements in ambulatory BP over a 3-month period. Conclusions TT shows promise as a simple inexpensive program for administering BAM and capturing adherence data in future clinical trials. PMID:22967280

  7. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.

  8. The usefulness of session rating of perceived exertion for monitoring training load despite several influences on perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Padulo, Johnny; Chamari, Karim

    2014-09-01

    Despite various contributing factors, session rating of perceived exertion has the potential to affect a large proportion of the global sporting and clinical communities since it is an inexpensive and simple tool that is highly practical and accurately measures an athlete's outcome of training or competition. Its simplicity can help optimize performance and reduce negative outcomes of hard training in elite athletes.

  9. Astronaut Virgil Grissom shown through window of open hatch on Gemini craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three orbit mission, is shown through the window of the open hatch on Gemini spacecraft in the white room on the mornining of the launch.

  10. Quantification of magma ascent rate through rockfall monitoring at the growing/collapsing lava dome of Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, S. B.; Varley, N. R.; Kueppers, U.; Lesage, P.; Reyes Davila, G. Á.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent eruptive phase of Volcán de Colima, Mexico, started in 1998 and was characterized by episodic dome growth with a variable effusion rate, interrupted intermittently by explosive eruptions. Between November 2009 and June 2011, growth at the dome was limited to a lobe on the western side where it had previously started overflowing the crater rim, leading to the generation of rockfall events. This meant that no significant increase in dome volume was perceivable and the rate of magma ascent, a crucial parameter for volcano monitoring and hazard assessment, could no longer be quantified via measurements of the dome's dimensions. Here, we present alternative approaches to quantify the magma ascent rate. We estimate the volume of individual rockfalls through the detailed analysis of sets of photographs (before and after individual rockfall events). The relationship between volume and infrared images of the freshly exposed dome surface and the seismic signals related to the rockfall events was then investigated. Larger events exhibited a correlation between the previously estimated volume of a rockfall and the surface temperature of the freshly exposed dome surface as well as the mean temperature of rockfall masses distributed over the slope. We showed that for larger events, the volume of the rockfall correlates with the maximum temperature at the newly formed cliff as well as the seismic energy. By calibrating the seismic signals using the volumes estimated from photographs, the count of rockfalls over a certain period was used to estimate the magma extrusion flux for the period investigated. Over the course of the measurement period, significant changes were observed in number of rockfalls, rockfall volume and hence averaged extrusion rate. The extrusion rate was not constant: it increased from 0.008 m3 s-1 to 0.02 m3 s-1 during 2010 and dropped down to 0.008 m3 s-1 again in March 2011. In June 2011, magma extrusion had come to a halt. The methodology

  11. Quantification of magma ascent rate through rockfall monitoring at the growing/collapsing lava dome of Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, S. B.; Varley, N. R.; Kueppers, U.; Lesage, P.; Reyes Davila, G. Á.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-07-01

    The most recent eruptive phase of Volcán de Colima, Mexico, started in 1998 and was characterized by dome growth with a variable effusion rate, interrupted intermittently by explosive eruptions. Between November 2009 and June 2011, activity at the dome was mostly limited to a lobe on the western side where it had previously started overflowing the crater rim, leading to the generation of rockfall events. As a consequence of this, no significant increase in dome volume was perceivable and the rate of magma ascent, a crucial parameter for volcano monitoring and hazard assessment could no longer be quantified via measurements of the dome's dimensions. Here, we present alternative approaches to quantify the magma ascent rate. We estimate the volume of individual rockfalls through the detailed analysis of sets of photographs (before and after individual rockfall events). The relationship between volume and infrared images of the freshly exposed dome surface and the seismic signals related to the rockfall events were then investigated. Larger rockfall events exhibited a correlation between its previously estimated volume and the surface temperature of the freshly exposed dome surface, as well as the mean temperature of rockfall mass distributed over the slope. We showed that for larger events, the volume of the rockfall correlates with the maximum temperature of the newly exposed lava dome as well as a proxy for seismic energy. It was therefore possible to calibrate the seismic signals using the volumes estimated from photographs and the count of rockfalls over a certain period was used to estimate the magma extrusion flux for the period investigated. Over the course of the measurement period, significant changes were observed in number of rockfalls, rockfall volume and hence averaged extrusion rate. The extrusion rate was not constant: it increased from 0.008 ± 0.003 to 0.02 ± 0.007 m3 s-1 during 2010 and dropped down to 0.008 ± 0.003 m3 s-1 again in March 2011. In

  12. Robust sleep apnea monitoring using heart rate variability and extended Kalman classification based on single lead ECG.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Vahid; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Alibakhshian, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    Sleep apnea diagnosis requires analysis of long term polysomnographic signal during one period of night sleep. Limited access to sleep laboratories, various required devices and dedicated assistants made the diagnosis of sleep apnea underestimated and not easily accessible to the general population. In this work, a classification method based on modified Kalman filter which uses heart rate variability (HRV) wavelet signal obtained from a single electrocardiogram (ECG) lead is proposed. A pre-filtering was performed on wavelet transform to improve the correlation of extracted features. Sample entropy was used to enhance the convergence rate and accuracy of classification. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The classifier overcomes these methods by 5.3% to 7.2% improvements in accuracy.

  13. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal experiment control and monitor software maintenance manual, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment Control and Monitor (EC&M) software was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenter's terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various investigations by government agencies, universities, and industry. The EC&M software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitoring (C&PM) software system of the HBR-LET. The EC&M software allows users to initialize, control, and monitor the instrumentation within the HBR-LET using a predefined sequence of commands. Besides instrument control, the C&PM software system is also responsible for computer communication between the HBR-LET and the ACTS NASA Ground Station and for uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during rain fade events. The EC&M Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189160) outlines the commands required to install and operate the EC&M software. Input and output file descriptions, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed in the document. The EC&M Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189161) is a programmer's guide that describes current implementation of the EC&M software from a technical perspective. An overview of the EC&M software, computer algorithms, format representation, and computer hardware configuration are included in the manual.

  14. In-situ Real-Time Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compound Exposure and Heart Rate Variability for Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Kumano, Hiroaki; Sakabe, Kou; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    In-situ real-time monitoring of volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure and heart rate variability (HRV) were conducted for eight multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients using a VOC monitor, a Holter monitor, and a time-activity questionnaire for 24 h to identify the relationship between VOC exposure, biological effects, and subjective symptoms in actual life. The results revealed no significantly different parameters for averaged values such as VOC concentration, HF (high frequency), and LF (low frequency) to HF ratio compared with previous data from healthy subjects (Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 4127–4138). Significant negative correlations for four subjects were observed between HF and amounts of VOC change. These results suggest that some patients show inhibition of parasympathetic activities along with VOC exposure as observed in healthy subjects. Comparing the parameters during subjective symptoms and normal condition, VOC concentration and/or VOC change were high except for one subject. HF values were low for five subjects during subjective symptoms. Examining the time-series data for VOC exposure and HF of each subject showed that the subjective symptoms, VOC exposure, and HF seemed well related in some symptoms. Based on these characteristics, prevention measures of symptoms for each subject may be proposed. PMID:26445055

  15. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal experiment control and monitor software user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment Control and Monitor (EC&M) software was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenter's terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various investigations by government agencies, universities, and industry. The EC&M software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitoring (C&PM) software system of the HBR-LET. The EC&M software allows users to initialize, control, and monitor the instrumentation within the HBR-LET using a predefined sequence of commands. Besides instrument control, the C&PM software system is also responsible for computer communication between the HBR-LET and the ACTS NASA Ground Station and for uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during rain fade events. The EC&M Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189160) outlines the commands required to install and operate the EC&M software. Input and output file descriptions, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed in the document.

  16. Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Guechi, Youcef; Pichot, Amélie; Frasca, Denis; Rayeh-Pelardy, Fatima; Lardeur, Jean-Yves; Mimoz, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    To compare respiration rate measurement by an acoustic method and thoracic impedance to capnometry as the reference method, in patients at the Emergency Department after drug or alcoholic poisoning. In this observational study, 30 patients aged 18 or older, hospitalized at the Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning, without any contraindication to a face mask and/or a cervical acoustic sensor, were included in the study. They benefited from a simultaneous recording of their respiration rate by the acoustic method (RRa(®), Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA, USA), by thoracic impedance (Philips Intellivue(®) MP2, Suresnes, France) and by capnometry (Capnostream(®) 20, Oridion, Jerusalem, Israël) through a face mask (Capnomask(®), Mediplus Ltd, Raleigh, NC, USA) for 40-60 min. Of the 86,578 triplets collected, 77,155 (89.1%) were exploitable. Median (range) respiration rate measured by capnometry was 18 (7-29) bpm. Compared to capnometry, bias and limits of agreement were 0.1 ± 3.8 bpm for the acoustic method and 0.3 ± 5.5 bpm for thoracic impedance. The proportions of RR values collected by acoustic method or by thoracic impedance which differed over 10 or 20% during more than 15 s, compared to capnometry, were 8.3 versus 14.3, and 1.5 versus 3.8%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The acoustic sensor had to be repositioned on three patients. For 11 patients, the Capnomask(®) was removed several times. In patients with drug or alcoholic poisoning, the acoustic method seems more accurate than thoracic impedance and better tolerated than face mask capnometry.

  17. An investigation towards real time dose rate monitoring, and fuel rod detection in a First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah F; Monk, Stephen D; Riaz, Zahid

    2014-12-01

    The First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP) is located on the Sellafield Nuclear Site, housing legacy spent Magnox nuclear fuel. Some of which has since corroded, forming a layer of Corroded Magnox Sludge (CMS) creating one of the largest decommissioning challenges the UK has faced. In this work the composition, physical properties and potentially high hazard nature of CMS are discussed, as are the gamma emission spectra of spent Magnox fuel rods typical of the ilk stored. We assess the potential use of a RadLine gamma detector to dose rate map this area and provide fuel rod detection. RadLine consists of a small scintillator, fibre optic cable and photon counter. The probe has the unusual advantage of not being electrically active and therefore fully submersible underwater, with the option to deploy hundreds of metres in length. Our experimental method encompasses general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP, where we describe the modelling of CMS and pond liquor in comprehensive detail, including their radiological spectrum, chemical composition data, and physical properties. This investigation concludes that the maximum energy deposited within the scintillator crystal due to ambient CMS corresponds to a dose rate of 5.65Gy h(-1), thus above this value positive detection of a fuel rod would be anticipated. It is additionally established that the detectable region is within a 20cm range.

  18. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears. PMID:25101837

  19. A Simple Calculation in Service of Constraining the Rate of FU Orionis Outburst Events from Photometric Monitoring Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Findeisen, Krzysztof P.

    2015-07-01

    The FU Orionis class of young stellar objects is enigmatic and rare. The members are interpreted to be “outbursting,” that is, they are currently in a state of enhanced accretion by several orders of magnitude relative to the more modest disk-to-star accretion rates measured in typical T Tauri stars. They are key to our understanding of the history of stellar mass assembly and pre-main-sequence evolution, and are also critical when considering the chemical and physical evolution of the circumstellar environment—where planets form. A common supposition is that all T Tauri stars repeatedly undergo such outbursts, more frequently in their earlier evolutionary stages when the disks are more massive, so as to build up the requisite amount of stellar mass on the required timescale. However, the actual data supporting this traditional picture of episodically enhanced disk accretion are limited, and the observational properties of the known sample of FU Ori objects are quite diverse. To improve our understanding of these rare objects, we outline the logic used to meaningfully constrain the rate of FU Ori outbursts and present numbers to guide parameter choices in the analysis of time domain surveys.

  20. An investigation towards real time dose rate monitoring, and fuel rod detection in a First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah F; Monk, Stephen D; Riaz, Zahid

    2014-12-01

    The First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP) is located on the Sellafield Nuclear Site, housing legacy spent Magnox nuclear fuel. Some of which has since corroded, forming a layer of Corroded Magnox Sludge (CMS) creating one of the largest decommissioning challenges the UK has faced. In this work the composition, physical properties and potentially high hazard nature of CMS are discussed, as are the gamma emission spectra of spent Magnox fuel rods typical of the ilk stored. We assess the potential use of a RadLine gamma detector to dose rate map this area and provide fuel rod detection. RadLine consists of a small scintillator, fibre optic cable and photon counter. The probe has the unusual advantage of not being electrically active and therefore fully submersible underwater, with the option to deploy hundreds of metres in length. Our experimental method encompasses general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP, where we describe the modelling of CMS and pond liquor in comprehensive detail, including their radiological spectrum, chemical composition data, and physical properties. This investigation concludes that the maximum energy deposited within the scintillator crystal due to ambient CMS corresponds to a dose rate of 5.65Gy h(-1), thus above this value positive detection of a fuel rod would be anticipated. It is additionally established that the detectable region is within a 20cm range. PMID:25244071

  1. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  2. Field Metabolic Rate and PCB Adipose Tissue Deposition Efficiency in East Greenland Polar Bears Derived from Contaminant Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J.; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2′,4,4′,55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears. PMID:25101837

  3. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  4. Continuous monitoring of salivary flow rate and pH at the surface of the dentition following consumption of acidic beverages.

    PubMed

    Millward, A; Shaw, L; Harrington, E; Smith, A J

    1997-01-01

    Use of a splint-mounted flexible pH electrode has allowed reliable continuous monitoring of pH at the surface of the dentition whilst still enabling subjects to drink normally. pH was monitored at the palatal upper left central incisor and upper right first permanent molar sites after drinking 1% (w/v) citric acid. A maximal decrease in pH to values of 2-3 was observed after 1 min followed by a slower recovery which was above pH 5.5 within 2 min at the former site and in 4-5 min at the latter site. A sharp rise in parotid saliva flow rate was seen at 1 min after drinking the same concentration of citric acid by glass, straw or feeder cup, which returned to resting levels within 6 min although the fall-off of flow rate was slower with the feeder cup. Thus, after dietary acid intake the pH at the surface of the dentition is below the critical pH for enamel dissolution for shorter periods than previously suggested, which is probably a reflection of salivary neutralisation and washing. PMID:8955994

  5. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  6. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha‑1, N1: 110 kg ha‑1, N2: 170 kg ha‑1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3‑, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha‑1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha‑1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days

  7. Heart rate variability parameters and fetal movement complement fetal behavioral states detection via magnetography to monitor neurovegetative development

    PubMed Central

    Brändle, Johanna; Preissl, Hubert; Draganova, Rossitza; Ortiz, Erick; Kagan, Karl O.; Abele, Harald; Brucker, Sara Y.; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Fetal behavioral states are defined by fetal movement and heart rate variability (HRV). At 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) the distinction of four fetal behavioral states represented by combinations of quiet or active sleep or awakeness is possible. Prior to 32 weeks, only periods of fetal activity and quiesence can be distinguished. The increasing synchronization of fetal movement and HRV reflects the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) control. Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) detects fetal heart activity at high temporal resolution, enabling the calculation of HRV parameters. This study combined the criteria of fetal movement with the HRV analysis to complete the criteria for fetal state detection. HRV parameters were calculated including the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal R–R interval (SDNN), the mean square of successive differences of the R–R intervals (RMSSD, SDNN/RMSSD ratio, and permutation entropy (PE) to gain information about the developing influence of the ANS within each fetal state. In this study, 55 magnetocardiograms from healthy fetuses of 24–41 weeks’ GA were recorded for up to 45 min using a fetal biomagnetometer. Fetal states were classified based on HRV and movement detection. HRV parameters were calculated for each state. Before GA 32 weeks, 58.4% quiescence and 41.6% activity cycles were observed. Later, 24% quiet sleep state (1F), 65.4% active sleep state (2F), and 10.6% active awake state (4F) were observed. SDNN increased over gestation. Changes of HRV parameters between the fetal behavioral states, especially between 1F and 4F, were statistically significant. Increasing fetal activity was confirmed by a decrease in PE complexity measures. The fHRV parameters support the differentiation between states and indicate the development of autonomous nervous control of heart rate function. PMID:25904855

  8. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure § 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... statement as to whether the price of the article was increased on or following the effective date of...

  9. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure § 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... statement as to whether the price of the article was increased on or following the effective date of...

  10. 32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD231. BEHIND WALL FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD-2-31. BEHIND WALL FRAMING IS SAMPLING ROOM WITH WOOD SAMPLING ELEVATOR. CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ON LEFT (SOUTH). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633,...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633,...

  16. INVOLVEMENT OF MICRORNAS IN EMBRYONIC GENOME ACTIVATION AS SHOWN BY DICER EXPRESSION IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most maternal transcripts including many housekeeping genes are degraded at or around embryonic genome activation as evidenced by our initial studies. This degradation appears to be global but highly regulated. MicroRNAs are naturally occurring small (19-24bp) RNAs that are shown to be involved in m...

  17. Use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives to increase response rates among African Americans in the Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Dykema, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Kniss, Chad; Kvale, Katherine; González, Kim; Cautley, Eleanor

    2012-05-01

    From 2009 to 2010, an experiment was conducted to increase response rates among African American mothers in the Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). Sample members were randomly assigned to groups that received a prepaid, cash incentive of $5 (n = 219); a coupon for diapers valued at $6 (n = 210); or no incentive (n = 209). Incentives were included with the questionnaire, which was mailed to respondents. We examined the effects of the incentives on several outcomes, including response rates, cost effectiveness, survey response distributions, and item nonresponse. Response rates were significantly higher for the cash group than for the coupon (42.5 vs. 32.4%, P < .05) or no incentive group (42.5 vs. 30.1%, P < .01); the coupon and no incentive groups performed similarly. While absolute costs were the highest for the cash group, the cost per completed survey was the lowest. The incentives had limited effects on response distributions for specific survey questions. Although respondents completing the survey by mail in the cash and coupon groups exhibited a trend toward being less likely to have missing data, the effect was not significant. Compared to a coupon or no incentive, a small cash incentive significantly improved response rates and was cost effective among African American respondents in Wisconsin PRAMS. Incentives had only limited effects, however, on survey response distributions, and no significant effects on item nonresponse. PMID:21509432

  18. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  19. Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.

    PubMed

    Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed. PMID:22049761

  20. SeismoGeodesy: Combination of High Rate, Real-time GNSS and Accelerometer Observations and Rapid Seismic Event Notification for Earth Quake Early Warning and Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael; Zimakov, Leonid; Moessmer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Scientific GNSS networks are moving towards a model of real-time data acquisition, epoch-by-epoch storage integrity, and on-board real-time position and displacement calculations. This new paradigm allows the integration of real-time, high-rate GNSS displacement information with acceleration and velocity data to create very high-rate displacement records. The mating of these two instruments allows the creation of a new, very high-rate (200 Hz) displacement observable that has the full-scale displacement characteristics of GNSS and high-precision dynamic motions of seismic technologies. It is envisioned that these new observables can be used for earthquake early warning studies, volcano monitoring, and critical infrastructure monitoring applications. Our presentation will focus on the characteristics of GNSS, seismic, and strong motion sensors in high dynamic environments, including historic earthquakes replicated on a shake table over a range of displacements and frequencies. We will explore the optimum integration of these sensors from a filtering perspective including simple harmonic impulses over varying frequencies and amplitudes and under the dynamic conditions of various earthquake scenarios. We will also explore the tradeoffs between various GNSS processing schemes including real-time precise point positioning (PPP) and real-time kinematic (RTK) as applied to seismogeodesy. In addition we will discuss implementation of a Rapid Seismic Event Notification System that provides quick delivery of digital data from seismic stations to the acquisition and processing center and a full data integrity model for real-time earthquake notification that provides warning prior to significant ground shaking.

  1. Comparison of Polar® RS800G3™ heart rate monitor with Polar® S810i™ and electrocardiogram to obtain the series of RR intervals and analysis of heart rate variability at rest.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de Rezende; da Silva, Natália Turri; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-03-01

    The Polar® RS800G3™ rate monitor was released in the market to replace the Polar® S810i™, and few studies have assessed that the RR series obtained by this equipment is reliable for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). We compared HRV indexes among the devices Polar® RS800G3™, Polar® S810i™ and eletrocardiogram (ECG) to know whether the series of Polar® RS800G3™ are as reliable as those devices already validated. We analysed data from 30 healthy young adults, male, with an average age of 20·66 ± 1·40 years, which had captured the heart rate beat to beat in the three devices simultaneously with spontaneously breathing, first in the supine position and subsequently sit both for 30 min. The obtained series of RR intervals was used to calculate the indexes of HRV in the time domain (SDNN and RMSSD) and in the frequency domain (LF, HF and LF/HF). There were no significant differences in HRV indexes calculated from series obtained by the three devices, regardless of the position analysed, and a high correlation coefficient was observed. The results suggest that the Polar® RS800G3™ is able to capture series of RR intervals for analysis of HRV indexes as reliable as those obtained by ECG and Polar® S810i™.

  2. Interventions shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4–12 Years Old *

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are ‘executive functions,’ including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children’s executive functions – computerized training, non-computerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. Central to all these is repeated practice and constantly challenging executive functions. Children with worse executive functions initially, benefit most; thus early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  3. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-08-19

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children's executive functions: computerized training, noncomputerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. All successful programs involve repeated practice and progressively increase the challenge to executive functions. Children with worse executive functions benefit most from these activities; thus, early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  4. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID33G101, ANOTHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID-33-G-101, ANOTHER VIEW. PERSONNEL DOORWAY INTO CHAMBER IDENTIFIES SODIUM HAZARD AND POSSIBILITY OF INERT GAS. LIQUID SODIUM COOLANT WAS USED IN A SPECIAL ETR LOOP ADAPTED FOR IT IN 1972. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Comment [on “Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Young, Robert S.; Bush, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Leatherman et al. [2000] (Eos, Trans., AGU, February 8, 2000, p.55) affirm that global eustatic sea-level rise is driving coastal erosion. Furthermore, they argue that the long-term average rate of shoreline retreat is 150 times the rate of sea-level rise. This rate, they say, is more than a magnitude greater than would be expected from a simple response to sea-level rise through inundation of the shoreline. We agree that sea-level rise is the primary factor causing shoreline retreat in stable coastal areas.This is intuitive. We also believe, however, that the Leatherman et al. [2000] study has greatly underestimated the rate of coastal recession along most low slope shorelines. Slopes along the North Carolina continental shelf/coastal plain approach 10,000:1. To us, this suggests that we should expect rates of shoreline recession 10,000 times the rate of sea-level rise through simple inundation of the shoreline.

  6. Detection of atrial high-rate events by continuous Home Monitoring: clinical significance in the heart failure–cardiac resynchronization therapy population

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Boerdlein, Annegret; Proff, Jochen; Ong, Peter; Valencia, Oswaldo; Maier, Sebastian K.G.; Bauer, Wolfgang R.; Paul, Vince; Sack, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aims Uncertainty exists over the importance of device-detected short-duration atrial arrhythmias. Continuous atrial diagnostics, through home monitoring (HM) technology (BIOTRONIK, Berlin, Germany), provides a unique opportunity to assess frequency and quantity of atrial fibrillation (AF) episodes defined as atrial high-rate events (AHRE). Methods and results Prospective data from 560 heart failure (HF) patients (age 67 ± 10 years, median ejection fraction 27%) patients with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device capable of HM from two multi-centre studies were analysed. Atrial high-rate events burden was defined as the duration of mode switch in a 24-h period with atrial rates of >180 beats for at least 1% or total of 14 min per day. The primary endpoint was incidence of a thromboembolic (TE) event. Secondary endpoints were cardiovascular death, hospitalization because of AF, or worsening HF. Over a median 370-day follow-up AHRE occurred in 40% of patients with 11 (2%) patients developing TE complications and mortality rate of 4.3% (24 deaths, 16 with cardiovascular aetiology). Compared with patients without detected AHRE, patients with detected AHRE>3.8 h over a day were nine times more likely to develop TE complications (P= 0.006). The majority of patients (73%) did not show a temporal association with the detected atrial episode and their adverse event, with a mean interval of 46.7 ± 71.9 days (range 0–194) before the TE complication. Conclusion In a high-risk cohort of HF patients, device-detected atrial arrhythmias are associated with an increased incidence of TE events. A cut-off point of 3.8 h over 24 h was associated with significant increase in the event rate. Routine assessment of AHRE should be considered with other data when assessing stroke risk and considering anti-coagulation initiation and should also prompt the optimization of cardioprotective HF therapy in CRT patients. PMID:21933802

  7. Tropical Controls on the CO2 Atmospheric Growth Rate 2010-2011 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M. M.; Brix, H.; Gurney, K. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variations in the atmospheric growth rate of CO2 have been attributed to the tropical regions and the controls are correlated with temperature anomalies. We investigate the spatial drivers of the atmospheric growth rate and the processes controlling them over the exceptional period of 2010-2011. This period was marked by a marked shift from an El Nino to La Nina period resulting in historically high sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Atlantic leading to serious droughts in the Amazon. However, in 2011, unusual precipitation in Australia was linked to gross primary productivity anomalies in semi-arid regions. We use satellite observations of CO2, CO, and solar induced fluorescence assimilated into the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux) to attribute the atmospheric growth rate to global, spatially resolved fluxes. This system is based upon observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2­-Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model. The system is used to compute regional tropical and extra-tropical fluxes and quantify the role of biomass burning and gross primary productivity in controlling those fluxes.

  8. An 8.12 μW wavelet denoising chip for PPG detection and portable heart rate monitoring in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Li; Xu, Zhang; Peng, Li; Xiaohui, Hu; Hongda, Chen

    2016-05-01

    A low power wavelet denoising chip for photoplethysmography (PPG) detection and portable heart rate monitoring is presented. To eliminate noise and improve detection accuracy, Harr wavelet (HWT) is chosen as the processing tool. An optimized finite impulse response structure is proposed to lower the computational complexity of proposed algorithm, which is benefit for reducing the power consumption of proposed chip. The modulus maxima pair location module is design to accurately locate the PPG peaks. A clock control unit is designed to further reduce the power consumption of the proposed chip. Fabricated with the 0.18 μm N-well CMOS 1P6M technology, the power consumption of proposed chip is only 8.12 μW in 1 V voltage supply. Validated with PPG signals in multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care databases and signals acquired by the wrist photoelectric volume detection front end, the proposed chip can accurately detect PPG signals. The average sensitivity and positive prediction are 99.91% and 100%, respectively.

  9. An appraisal of the use of an infrared digital monitoring system for long-term measurement of heart rate in reptilian embryos.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Marina R; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of heart rate (fH) in embryonic reptiles has previously imposed some degree of invasive treatment on the developing embryo. Recently a non-invasive technique of fH detection from intact eggs was developed for commercial avian breeders and has since been used in biological research. This device uses infrared light, enabling it to detect heartbeats in very early embryos. However, infrared light is a source of heat and extended enclosure of an egg in the device is likely to affect temperature with consequent effects on physiological processes, including fH. We studied the effect of use of the monitor on the temperature of eggs and on fH in two species of reptiles, the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Egg temperature increased from a room temperature of 27-28 °C, by 26% in turtles and 14% in iguanas over 1h of enclosure, resulting in an increase in fH of 76-81% in turtles and 35-50% iguanas. These effects on fH can either be avoided by brief enclosure of each egg in the monitor or measured and accounted for during the design of long-term experiments. PMID:26086361

  10. An appraisal of the use of an infrared digital monitoring system for long-term measurement of heart rate in reptilian embryos.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Marina R; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of heart rate (fH) in embryonic reptiles has previously imposed some degree of invasive treatment on the developing embryo. Recently a non-invasive technique of fH detection from intact eggs was developed for commercial avian breeders and has since been used in biological research. This device uses infrared light, enabling it to detect heartbeats in very early embryos. However, infrared light is a source of heat and extended enclosure of an egg in the device is likely to affect temperature with consequent effects on physiological processes, including fH. We studied the effect of use of the monitor on the temperature of eggs and on fH in two species of reptiles, the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Egg temperature increased from a room temperature of 27-28 °C, by 26% in turtles and 14% in iguanas over 1h of enclosure, resulting in an increase in fH of 76-81% in turtles and 35-50% iguanas. These effects on fH can either be avoided by brief enclosure of each egg in the monitor or measured and accounted for during the design of long-term experiments.

  11. Microchannel conductivity measurements in microchip for on line monitoring of dephosphorylation rates of organic phosphates using paramagnetic-beads linked alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kechadi, Mohammed; Sotta, Bruno; Gamby, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of polymer coated microelectrodes for the realtime conductivity monitoring in a microchannel photoablated through the polymer without contact. Based on this strategy, a small conductometry sensor has been developed to record in time conductivity variation when an enzymatic reaction occurs through the channel. The rate constant determination, k2, for the dephosphorylation of organic phosphate-alkaline phosphatase-superparamagnetic beads complex using chemically different substrates such as adenosine monoesterphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate was taken as an example to demonstrate selectivity and sensivity of the detection scheme. The k2 value measured for each adenosine phosphate decreases from 39 to 30 s(-1) in proportion with the number (3, 2 and 1) of attached phosphate moiety, thus emphasizing the steric hindrance effect on kinetics. PMID:25476378

  12. Microchannel conductivity measurements in microchip for on line monitoring of dephosphorylation rates of organic phosphates using paramagnetic-beads linked alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kechadi, Mohammed; Sotta, Bruno; Gamby, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of polymer coated microelectrodes for the realtime conductivity monitoring in a microchannel photoablated through the polymer without contact. Based on this strategy, a small conductometry sensor has been developed to record in time conductivity variation when an enzymatic reaction occurs through the channel. The rate constant determination, k2, for the dephosphorylation of organic phosphate-alkaline phosphatase-superparamagnetic beads complex using chemically different substrates such as adenosine monoesterphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate was taken as an example to demonstrate selectivity and sensivity of the detection scheme. The k2 value measured for each adenosine phosphate decreases from 39 to 30 s(-1) in proportion with the number (3, 2 and 1) of attached phosphate moiety, thus emphasizing the steric hindrance effect on kinetics.

  13. Catalysis of PAH biodegradation by humic acid shown in synchrotron infrared studies

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Nieman, Karl; Sorensen, Darwin L.; Miller, Charles D.; Martin, Michael C.; Borch, Thomas; McKinney, Wayne R.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2001-09-26

    The role of humic acid (HA) in the biodegradation of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been the subject of controversy, particularly in unsaturated environments. By utilizing an infrared spectromicroscope and a very bright, nondestructive synchrotron photon source, we monitored in situ and, over time, the influence of HA on the progression of degradation of pyrene (a model PAH) by a bacterial colony on a magnetite surface. Our results indicate that HA dramatically shortens the onset time for PAH biodegradation from 168 to 2 h. In the absence of HA, it takes the bacteria about 168 h to produce sufficient glycolipids to solubilize pyrene and make it bioavailable for biodegradation. These results will have large implications for the bioremediation of contaminated soils.

  14. Probiotics Shown To Change Bacterial Community Structure in the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Netherwood, Trudy; Gilbert, H. J.; Parker, D. S.; O’Donnell, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Culturing and molecular techniques were used to monitor changes in the bacterial flora of the avian gastrointestinal (GI) tract following introduction of genetically modified (GM) and unmodified probiotics. Community hybridization of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA demonstrated that the bacterial flora of the GI tract changed significantly in response to the probiotic treatments. The changes were not detected by culturing. Although both GM and non-GM strains of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 11508 changed the bacterial flora of the chicken GI tract, they did so differently. Probing the community DNA with an Enterococcus faecalis-specific probe showed that the relative amount of E. faecalis in the total eubacterial population increased in the presence of the non-GM strain and decreased in the presence of the GM probiotic compared with the results obtained with an untreated control group. PMID:10543832

  15. Review and Analysis of Existing Mobile Phone Apps to Support Heart Failure Symptom Monitoring and Self-Care Management Using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS)

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Mathew S; Reading, Meghan; Hiraldo, Grenny; Hickey, Kathleen T; Iribarren, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure is the most common cause of hospital readmissions among Medicare beneficiaries and these hospitalizations are often driven by exacerbations in common heart failure symptoms. Patient collaboration with health care providers and decision making is a core component of increasing symptom monitoring and decreasing hospital use. Mobile phone apps offer a potentially cost-effective solution for symptom monitoring and self-care management at the point of need. Objective The purpose of this review of commercially available apps was to identify and assess the functionalities of patient-facing mobile health apps targeted toward supporting heart failure symptom monitoring and self-care management. Methods We searched 3 Web-based mobile app stores using multiple terms and combinations (eg, “heart failure,” “cardiology,” “heart failure and self-management”). Apps meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics functionality scores, and Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) guidelines for nonpharmacologic management. Apps were downloaded and assessed independently by 2-4 reviewers, interclass correlations between reviewers were calculated, and consensus was met by discussion. Results Of 3636 potentially relevant apps searched, 34 met inclusion criteria. Most apps were excluded because they were unrelated to heart failure, not in English or Spanish, or were games. Interrater reliability between reviewers was high. AskMD app had the highest average MARS total (4.9/5). More than half of the apps (23/34, 68%) had acceptable MARS scores (>3.0). Heart Failure Health Storylines (4.6) and AskMD (4.5) had the highest scores for behavior change. Factoring MARS, functionality, and HFSA guideline scores, the highest performing apps included Heart Failure Health Storylines, Symple, ContinuousCare Health App, WebMD, and AskMD. Peer-reviewed publications were identified

  16. The development of hurricane Inez, 1966, as shown by satellite nighttime radiometric and daytime television coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A complete documentation of Numbus 2 High Resolution infrared Radiometer data and ESSA-1 and 3 television photographs is presented for the life-time of Hurricane Inez, 1966. Ten computer produced radiation charts were analyzed in order to delineate the three dimensional cloud structure during the formative, mature and dissipating stages of this tropical cyclone. Time sections were drawn throughout the storm's life cycle to relate the warm core development and upper level outflow of the storm with their respective cloud canopies, as shown by the radiation data. Aerial reconnaissance weather reports, radar photographs and conventional weather analyses were used to complement the satellite data. A computer program was utilized to accept Nimbus 2 HRIR equivalent blackbody temperatures within historical maximum and minimum sea surface temperature limits over the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Organic solute changes with acidification in Lake Skjervatjern as shown by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Hayes, T.

    1994-01-01

    1H-NMR spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool to establish possible real differences and trends between all natural organic solute fractions (fulvic acids, humic acids, and XAD-4 acids) after acid-rain additions to the Lake Skjervatjern watershed. The proton NMR technique used in this study determined the spectral distribution of nonexchangeable protons among four peaks (aliphatic protons; aliphatic protons on carbon ?? or attached to electronegative groups; protons on carbons attached to O or N heteroatoms; and aromatic protons). Differences of 10% or more in the respective peak areas were considered to represent a real difference. After one year of acidification, fulvic acids decreased 13% (relative) in Peak 3 protons on carbon attached to N and O heteratoms and exhibited a decrease in aromatic protons between 27% and 31%. Humic acids also exhibited an 11% relative decrease in aromatic protons as a result of acidification. After one year of acidification, real changes were shown in three of the four proton assignments in XAD-4 acids. Peak 1 aliphatic protons increased by 14% (relative), Peak 3 protons on carbons attached to O and N heteroatoms decreased by 13% (relative), and aromatic protons (Peak 4) decreased by 35% (relative). Upon acidification, there was a trend in all solutes for aromatic protons to decrease and aliphatic protons to increase. The natural variation in organic solutes as shown in the Control Side B of the lake from 1990 to 1991 is perhaps a small limitation to the same data interpretations of acid rain changes at the Lake Skjervatjern site, but the proton NMR technique shows great promise as an independent scientific tool to detect and support other chemical techniques in establishing organic solute changes with different treatments (i.e., additions of acid rain).

  18. Impact of drought on the CO2 atmospheric growth rate 2010-2012 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Jiang, Z.; Bloom, A. A.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M.; Collatz, G. J.; Gurney, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The La Nina between 2011-2012 led to significant droughts in the US and Northeastern Brazil while the historic drought in Amazon in 2010 was caused in part by the historic central Pacific El Nino. In order to investigate the role of drought on the atmospheric CO2 growth rate, we use satellite observations of CO2 and CO to infer spatially resolved carbon fluxes and attribute those fluxes to combustion sources correlated with drought conditions. Solar induced fluorescence in turn is used to estimate the impact of drought on productivity and its relationship to total flux. Preliminary results indicate that carbon losses in Mexico are comparable to the total fossil fuel production for that region. These in turn played an important role in the acceleration of the atmospheric growth rate from 2011-2012. These results were enabled using the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux), which is based upon a 4D-variational assimilation system that incorporates observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2-­Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model.

  19. Monitoring the source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that the retrieval of correct source memory cues, those leading to a correct source attribution, increases confidence, whereas the retrieval of incorrect source memory cues, those leading to a source misattribution, decreases confidence was tested. Four predictions were derived from this hypothesis: (1) confidence should be higher for correct than incorrect source attribution except; (2) when no source cues are retrieved; (3) only the source misattributions inferred from the retrieval of incorrect source cues will be rated with low confidence; and (4) the number of source cues retrieved, either correct or incorrect, will affect the confidence in the source attributions. To test these predictions, participants read two narratives from two witnesses to a bank robbery, a customer and a teller. Then, participants completed a source monitoring test with four alternatives, customer, teller, both, or neither, and rated their confidence in their source attribution. Results supported the first three predictions, but they also suggested that the number of correct source monitoring cues retrieved did not play a role in the monitoring of the accuracy of the source attributions. Attributions made from the recovery of incorrect source cues could be tagged as dubious or uncertain, thus leading to lowered confidence irrespective of the number of incorrect source cues or whether another correct source cue was also recovered. This research has potential applications for eyewitness memory because it shows that confidence can be an indicator of the accuracy of a source attribution. PMID:23553316

  20. Upwelling of hydrothermal solutions through ridge flank sediments shown by pore water profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, C.R.P.; Bender, M.L.

    1982-05-07

    High calcium ion and low magnesium ion concentrations in sediment pore waters in cores from the Galapagos Mounds Hydrothermal Field on the flank of the Galapagos Spreading Center are believed to be due to a calcium-magnesium exchange reaction between circulating seawater and basement basalt. The nonlinearity of the calcium ions and magnesium ion gradients indicates that these discharging hydrothermal solutions on the ridge flank are upwelling at the rate of about 1 centimeter per year through the pelagic sediments of the Mounds Field and at about 20 centimeters per year through the hydrothermal mounds themselves.

  1. Ancient Grandeur of the Vertebrate Neuropeptide Y System Shown by the Coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae.

    PubMed

    Larhammar, Dan; Bergqvist, Christina A

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes, and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and peptide YY (PYY) and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1-Y8 (Y3 does not exist). The different vertebrate lineages have subsequently lost or gained a few receptor genes. For instance, the human genome has lost three of the seven receptors while the zebrafish has lost two and gained two receptor genes. Here we describe the NPY system of a representative of an early diverging lineage among the sarcopterygians, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth was found to have retained all seven receptors from the ancestral jawed vertebrate. The receptors display the typical characteristics found in other vertebrates. Interestingly, the coelacanth was found to have the local duplicate of the PYY gene, called pancreatic polypeptide, previously only identified in tetrapods. Thus, this duplication took place very early in the sarcopterygian lineage, before the origin of tetrapods. These findings confirm the ancient complexity of the NPY system and show that mammals have lost more NPY receptors than any other vertebrate lineage. The coelacanth has all three peptides found in tetrapods and has retained the ancestral jawed vertebrate receptor repertoire with neither gains or losses.

  2. Physiologic mechanisms effecting circulatory and body fluid losses in weightlessness as shown by mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Simanonok, K E; Srinivasan, R S; Charles, J B

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms causing large body water losses in weightlessness are not clear. It has long been considered that a central volume expansion drives the physiologic adaptation to a reduced total blood volume, with normal blood composition eventually regained. However, inflight venous pressure measures suggest that central volume expansion in weightlessness may be very transient, or that considerable cardiovascular adaptation to fluid shifts occurs on the ground while astronauts wait in the semi-supine pre-launch position. If a central volume stimulus does not persist, other mechanisms must drive the adaptation of circulation to a reduced blood volume and account for body fluid losses. Recent results from the SLS-1 mission suggest that body fluid volumes do not simply decline to new equilibria but that they decrease to a low point, then undergo some recovery. Similar "under-shoots" of body fluid volumes have also been shown in computer simulations, providing confidence in the validity of the model. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms which could explain the loss of body fluids in weightlessness and how a cardiovascular preadaptation countermeasure we previously tested ameliorated body fluid losses. It is assumed that the physiology of head down tilt (HDT) provides a reasonably accurate analog of weightless exposure. PMID:11537415

  3. Global Monitoring RSEM System for Crop Production by Incorporating Satellite-based Photosynthesis Rates and Anomaly Data of Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, D.; Sakuma, H.

    2014-12-01

    The first author has been developing RSEM crop-monitoring system using satellite-based assessment of photosynthesis, incorporating meteorological conditions. Crop production comprises of several stages and plural mechanisms based on leaf photosynthesis, surface energy balance, and the maturing of grains after fixation of CO2, along with water exchange through soil vegetation-atmosphere transfer. Grain production in prime countries appears to be randomly perturbed regionally and globally. Weather for crop plants reflects turbulent phenomena of convective and advection flows in atmosphere and surface boundary layer. It has been difficult for scientists to simulate and forecast weather correctly for sufficiently long terms to crop harvesting. However, severely poor harvests related to continental events must originate from a consistent mechanism of abnormal energetic flow in the atmosphere through both land and oceans. It should be remembered that oceans have more than 100 times of energy storage compared to atmosphere and ocean currents represent gigantic energy flows, strongly affecting climate. Anomalies of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), globally known as El Niño, Indian Ocean dipole, and Atlantic Niño etc., affect the seasonal climate on a continental scale. The authors aim to combine monitoring and seasonal forecasting, considering such mechanisms through land-ocean biosphere transfer. The present system produces assessments for all continents, specifically monitoring agricultural fields of main crops. Historical regions of poor and good harvests are compared with distributions of SST anomalies, which are provided by NASA GSFC. Those comparisons fairly suggest that the Worst harvest in 1993 and the Best in 1994 relate to the offshore distribution of low temperature anomalies and high gaps in ocean surface temperatures. However, high-temperature anomalies supported good harvests because of sufficient solar radiation for photosynthesis, and poor harvests because

  4. Estimation of lava flow field volumes and volumetric effusion rates from airborne radar profiling and other data: Monitoring of the Nornahraun (Holuhraun) 2014/15 eruption in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Högnadóttir, Thordís; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudbjörnsson, Snaebjörn; Lárusson, Örnólfur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Riishuus, Morten; Magnússon, Eyjólfur

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of lava-producing eruptions involves systematic measurement of flow field volumes, which in turn can be used to obtain average magma discharge over the period of observation. However, given inaccessibility to the interior parts of active lava fields, remote sensing techniques must be applied. Several satellite platforms provide data that can be geo-referenced, allowing area estimation. However, unless sterographic or tandem satellite data are available, the determination of thicknesses is non-trivial. The ongoing eruption ('Nornaeldar')at Dyngjusandurin the Icelandic highlands offers an opportunity to monitor the temporal and spatial evolution of a typical Icelandic lava flow field. The mode of emplacementis complex and includesboth horizontal and vertical stacking, inflation of lobes and topographic inversions. Due to the large extent of the flow field (>83 km2 on 5 Jan 2015, and still growing) and its considerable local variation in thickness (30 m) and surface roughness, obtaining robust quantification of lava thicknesses is very challenging,despite the lava is being emplaced onto a low-relief sandur plain. Creative methods have been implemented to obtain as reliable observation as possible into the third dimension: Next to areal extent measurements from satellites and maps generated with airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), lava thickness profiles are regularly obtained by low-level flights with a fixed-wing aircraft that is equipped with a ground clearance radar coupled witha submeter DGPS,a system originally designed for monitoring surface changes of glaciers above geothermally active areas.The resulting radar profile data are supplemented by analyses of aerial photos and complemented by results from an array of ground based thickness measurement methods. The initial results indicate that average effusion ratewas ~200 m3/s in the first weeks of the eruption (end August, early September) but declined to 50-100 m3/s in November to December period

  5. Home apnea monitor use - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a machine used to monitor a baby's heart rate and breathing after coming home from the hospital. ... on the monitor goes off when your baby's heart rate or breathing slows or stops. The monitor is ...

  6. Pluriformity of inflammation in multiple sclerosis shown by ultra-small iron oxide particle enhancement.

    PubMed

    Vellinga, Machteld M; Oude Engberink, Raoul D; Seewann, Alexandra; Pouwels, Petra J W; Wattjes, Mike P; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Pering, Christiane; Polman, Chris H; de Vries, Helga E; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Barkhof, Frederik

    2008-03-01

    Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) is routinely used as a marker for inflammation in MRI to visualize breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in multiple sclerosis. Recent data suggest that ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) can be used to visualize cellular infiltration, another aspect of inflammation. This project aimed to compare the novel USPIO particle SHU555C to the longitudinal pattern of Gd-DTPA enhancement in multiple sclerosis. Nineteen relapsing-remitting patients were screened monthly using Gd-enhanced MRI. In case of new enhancing lesions, USPIO were injected and 24 h later, MRI was performed and blood was collected to confirm USPIO loading of circulating monocytes. Lesion development was monitored by 3 monthly Gd-DTPA-enhanced scans and a final scan 7-11 months after injection. USPIO-enhancement was observed as hyperintensity on T1-weighted images, whereas no signal changes were observed on T2-weighted-gradient-echo images. In 14 patients with disease activity, 188 USPIO-positive lesions were seen, 144 of which were Gd-negative. By contrast, there were a total of 59 Gd-positive lesions, 15 of which were USPIO negative. Three patterns of USPIO-enhancement were seen: (i) focal enhancement; (ii) ring-like enhancement and (iii) return to isointensity of a previously hypointense lesion. The latter pattern was most frequently observed for lesions that turned out to be transiently hypointense on follow-up scans, and ring-enhancing lesions were less likely to evolve into black holes at follow-up than lesions without ring-like USPIO-enhancement; we speculate this to be associated with repair. In 4% of the USPIO-positive/Gd negative lesions, USPIO-enhancement preceded Gd-enhancement by 1 month. USPIO-enhancement remained visible for up to 3 months in 1.5% of all USPIO-positive lesions. In 29% of the lesions enhancing with both contrast agents, USPIO-enhancement persisted whereas Gd-enhancement had already resolved. In conclusion, the new

  7. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora).

    PubMed

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-05-01

    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting. The control regime may be optimised by monitoring plant responses, and may be promptly adjusted when plant performance is affected by extreme microclimatic conditions, such as high irradiance or temperature. To determine the stress indicators of plants based on their physiological responses, net photosynthesis (Pn) and four chlorophyll-a fluorescence parameters: maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII [Fv/Fm], electron transport rate [ETR], PSII operating efficiency [F'q/F'm], and non-photochemical quenching [NPQ] were assessed for potted chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) 'Coral Charm' under different temperature (20, 24, 28, 32, 36 °C) and daily light integrals (DLI; 11, 20, 31, and 43 mol m(-2) created by a PAR of 171, 311, 485 and 667 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for 16 h). High irradiance (667 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) combined with high temperature (>32 °C) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased Fv/Fm. Under high irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes in the NPQ determined the PSII operating efficiency, with no major change in the fraction of open PSII centres (qL) (indicating a QA redox state). We conclude that 1) chrysanthemum plants cope with excess irradiance by non-radiative dissipation or a reversible stress response, with the effect on the Pn and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII

  8. Seismic subduction of the Nazca Ridge as shown by the 1996-97 Peru earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, W.; Mendoza, C.; Engdahl, E.R.; Choy, G.L.; Norabuena, E.

    1999-01-01

    By rupturing more than half of the shallow subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge, the great November 12, 1996 Peruvian earthquake contradicts the hypothesis that oceanic ridges subduct aseismically. The mainshock's rupture has a length of about 200 km and has an average slip of about 1.4 m. Its moment is 1.5 x 1028 dyne-cm and the corresponding M(w) is 8.0. The mainshock registered three major episodes of moment release as shown by a finite fault inversion of teleseismically recorded broadband body waves. About 55% of the mainshock's total moment release occurred south of the Nazca Ridge, and the remaining moment release occurred at the southern half of the subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge. The rupture south of the Nazca Ridge was elongated parallel to the ridge axis and extended from a shallow depth to about 65 km depth. Because the axis of the Nazca Ridge is at a high angle to the plate convergence direction, the subducting Nazca Ridge has a large southwards component of motion, 5 cm/yr parallel to the coast. The 900-1200 m relief of the southwards sweeping Nazca Ridge is interpreted to act as a 'rigid indenter,' causing the greatest coupling south of the ridge's leading edge and leading to the large observed slip. The mainshock and aftershock hypocenters were relocated using a new procedure that simultaneously inverts local and teleseismic data. Most aftershocks were within the outline of the Nazca Ridge. A three-month delayed aftershock cluster' occurred at the northern part of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Aftershocks were notably lacking at the zone of greatest moment release, to the south of the Nazca Ridge. However, a lone foreshock at the southern end of this zone, some 140 km downstrike of the mainshock's epicenter, implies that conditions existed for rupture into that zone. The 1996 earthquake ruptured much of the inferred source zone of the M(w) 7.9-8.2 earthquake of 1942, although the latter was a slightly larger earthquake. The rupture zone of

  9. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-González, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3∘ Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5∘ eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20∘ diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly

  10. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L⁻¹·day⁻¹ indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  11. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−1 indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  12. Comparison of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure with Toe Pinch and Bispectral Index for Monitoring the Depth of Anesthesia in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Samer M; Sullivan, Sarah; Hankenson, F Claire; Kilbaugh, Todd J; Margulies, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Determining depth of anesthesia (DOA) is a clinical challenge in veterinary medicine, yet it is critical for the appropriate oversight of animals involved in potentially painful experimental procedures. Here, we investigated various parameters used to monitor conscious awareness during surgical procedures and refined the application of noxious stimuli to anesthetized animals. Specifically we used a common stimulus, a compressive toe pinch (TP), to determine physiologic changes that accompanied a positive or negative motion response in isoflurane-anesthetized piglets. A positive response was defined as any reflexive withdrawal, whereas a negative response was defined as the absence of motion after stimulation. We also assessed the utility of the bispectral index (BIS) for its ability to predict a motion response to TP. The average of BIS values over 1 min (BISmean) was recorded before and after TP. In piglets with a positive response to TP, heart rate (HR), but not blood pressure (BP), increased significantly, but receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that HR was not a sensitive, specific predictor of TP motion response. Both before and after TP, BISmean was a strong predictor of a positive motion response. We conclude that HR and noninvasive BP changes are not clinically reliable indicators of anesthetic depth when assessed immediately after a peripherally applied compressive force as an indicator stimulus; however, BISmean and response TP are acceptable for assessing DOA in piglets maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. PMID:26424252

  13. Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Sensors for Waste Incineration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Matthes, S.A.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A.

    2007-03-01

    Electrochemical corrosion rate sensors work in high temperature waste incineration applications where ash is deposited. The ash serves as the electrolyte for electrochemical measurements, such as liner polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and harmonic distortion analyses. Results to date have shown that these types of sensors respond qualitatively to changes in temperature, gas composition, alloy composition, and type of ash. Several years of research have shown that high temperature corrosion rate probes need to be better understood before corrosion rate can be used as a process variable by power plant operators. More recent research has shown that electrochemical corrosion probes typically measure lower corrosion rates than those measured by standard mass loss techniques. While still useful for monitoring changes in corrosion rates, absolute probe corrosion rates will need a calibration factor to be useful. Ideas for research that may help resolve these issues are presented.

  14. Using Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagally, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion have been shown to be a valid method of monitoring physical activity intensity for both adults and children. As such, this subjective method may serve as an alternative to objective measurements for assessing students' performance on national standards 2 and 4. The OMNI-Child perceived exertion scales were…

  15. Influence of Human Activity Patterns, particle composition, and residential air exchange rates on modeled distributions of PM 2.5 exposure compared with central-site monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central-site monitors do not account for factors such as outdoor-to-indoor transport and human activity patterns that influence personal exposures to ambient fine-particulate matter (PM2.5). We describe and compare different ambient PM2.5 exposure estimation...

  16. Gas Pressure Monitored Iodide-Catalyzed Decomposition Kinetics of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2]: Initial-Rate and Integrated-Rate Methods in the General Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Barlag, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of the iodide-catalyzed decomposition of [subscript 2]O[subscript 2] using the integrated-rate method is described. The method is based on the measurement of the total gas pressure using a datalogger and pressure sensor. This is a modification of a previously reported experiment based on the initial-rate approach. (Contains 2…

  17. Therapeutic drug monitoring of psychotropic medications

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Philip B

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of a number of psychotropic medications has proven to be of value, enabling minimization of the limitations of considerable genetic variability in their metabolism and the high rates of poor compliance with many psychiatric disorders. Therapeutic ranges have been established for lithium, some of the tricyclic antidepressants, and clozapine. TDM has also been shown to be useful in avoiding toxicity (as many psychotropics have narrow therapeutic indices), particularly that due to interactions with other compounds. PMID:11564052

  18. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  19. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  20. Remotely monitoring evaporation rate and soil water status using thermal imaging and "three-temperatures model (3T Model)" under field-scale conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo Yu; Zhao, Ming

    2010-03-01

    Remote monitoring of soil evaporation and soil water status is necessary for water resource and environment management. Ground based remote sensing can be the bridge between satellite remote sensing and ground-based point measurement. The primary object of this study is to provide an algorithm to estimate evaporation and soil water status by remote sensing and to verify its accuracy. Observations were carried out in a flat field with varied soil water content. High-resolution thermal images were taken with a thermal camera; soil evaporation was measured with a weighing lysimeter; weather data were recorded at a nearby meteorological station. Based on the thermal imaging and the three-temperatures model (3T model), we developed an algorithm to estimate soil evaporation and soil water status. The required parameters of the proposed method were soil surface temperature, air temperature, and solar radiation. By using the proposed method, daily variation in soil evaporation was estimated. Meanwhile, soil water status was remotely monitored by using the soil evaporation transfer coefficient. Results showed that the daily variation trends of measured and estimated evaporation agreed with each other, with a regression line of y = 0.92x and coefficient of determination R(2) = 0.69. The simplicity of the proposed method makes the 3T model a potentially valuable tool for remote sensing. PMID:20445861

  1. Low rates of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance detected in a well monitored cohort in South Africa accessing antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Carole L; Papathanasopolous, Maria A; Fox, Matthew; Conradie, Francesca; Ive, Prudence; Orrell, Catherine; Zeinecker, Jennifer; Sanne, Ian; Wood, Robin; McIntyre, James; Stevens, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergence of complex HIV-1 drug resistance mutations has been linked to the duration of time on a failing antiretroviral (ARV) drug regimen. This study reports on resistance profiles in a closely monitored subtype C infected cohort. Methods A total of 812 participants were enrolled into the CIPRA-SA ‘safeguard the household’ study, viral loads (VLs) were performed 12 weekly for 96 weeks. Virological failure was defined as either <1.5 log drop in VL at week 12 or 2 consecutive VL measurements >1000 RNA copies/ml after week 24. Regimens prescribed were in-line with the South African roll-out program (d4T, 3TC, EFV or NVP). Viral RNA was extracted from patients with virological failure, and pol RT-PCR and sequence analysis were performed to determine drug resistance mutations. Results Eighty three participants experienced virological failure on the first-line regimen during the study period, of which 61 (73%) had HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. The M184V mutation was the most frequent (n=46; 65%), followed by K103N (46%) and Y181C (21%). TAMS were infrequent (1%) and Q151M was not observed. Conclusion Drug resistance profiles were less complex than has been previously reported in South Africa using the same ARV drug regimens. This data suggests that frequent viral load monitoring limits the level and complexity of resistance observed in HIV-1 subtype C, preserving susceptibility to second-line options. PMID:22293461

  2. The Effect of the Wings of Single Engine Airplanes on Propulsive Efficiency as Shown by Full Scale Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Wood, Donald H

    1929-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the wings on propulsive efficiency. The wings are shown to cause a reduction of 1 percent to 3 percent in propulsive efficiency, which is about the same for monoplane as well as biplane wings.

  3. Patient Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In photo above, the electrocardiogram of a hospitalized patient is being transmitted by telemetry. Widely employed in space operations, telemetry is a process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where the signals are reconverted to usable information. In this instance, heart readings are picked up by the electrode attached to the patient's body and delivered by wire to the small box shown, which is a telemetry transmitter. The signals are relayed wirelessly to the console in the background, which converts them to EKG data. The data is displayed visually and recorded on a printout; at the same time, it is transmitted to a central control station (upper photo) where a nurse can monitor the condition of several patients simultaneously. The Patient Monitoring System was developed by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, in conjunction with Abbott Medical Electronics, Houston, Texas. In developing the system, SCI drew upon its extensive experience as a NASA contractor. The company applied telemetry technology developed for the Saturn launch vehicle and the Apollo spacecraft; instrumentation technology developed for heart, blood pressure and sleep monitoring of astronauts aboard NASA's Skylab long duration space station; and communications technology developed for the Space Shuttle.

  4. OSS-1/contamination monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; McIntosh, R.

    1983-02-01

    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  5. Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: results from two years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brian J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Hill, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Headwater streams are key sites of nutrient and organic matter processing and retention, but little is known about temporal variability in gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) rates as a result of the short duration of most ecosystem metabolism measurements in lotic ecosystems. We examined temporal variability and controls on ecosystem metabolism by measuring daily rates continuously for two years in Walker Branch, a first-order deciduous forest stream. Four important scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates were identified: (1) seasonal, (2) day-to-day, (3) episodic (storm-related), and (4) inter-annual. Seasonal patterns were largely controlled by the leaf phenology and productivity of the deciduous riparian forest. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic throughout the year with the exception of the open-canopy spring when GPP and ER rates were similar. Day-to-day variability in weather conditions influenced light reaching the streambed, resulting in high day-to-day variability in GPP particularly during spring (daily light levels explained 84% of the variance in daily GPP in April). Episodic storms depressed GPP for several days in spring, but increased GPP in autumn by removing leaves shading the streambed. Storms depressed ER initially, but then stimulated ER to 2-3 times pre-storm levels for several days. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic in both years of the study (NEP = -1156 and -773 g O2 m-2 y-1), with annual GPP being similar (488 and 519 g O2 m-2 y-1) but annual ER being higher in 2004 than 2005 (-1645 vs. -1292 g O2 m-2 y-1). Inter-annual variability in ecosystem metabolism (assessed by comparing 2004 and 2005 rates with previous measurements) was the result of the storm frequency and timing and the size of the spring macroalgal bloom. Changes in local climate can have substantial impacts on stream ecosystem metabolism rates and ultimately influence the carbon source and sink properties of

  6. Disease management: remote monitoring in heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators, resynchronization devices, and haemodynamic monitors.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T

    2013-06-01

    Heart failure represents a major public health concern, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A particular focus of contemporary heart failure management is reduction of hospital admission and readmission rates. While optimal medical therapy favourably impacts the natural history of the disease, devices such as cardiac resynchronization therapy devices and implantable cardioverter defibrillators have added incremental value in improving heart failure outcomes. These devices also enable remote patient monitoring via device-based diagnostics. Device-based measurement of physiological parameters, such as intrathoracic impedance and heart rate variability, provide a means to assess risk of worsening heart failure and the possibility of future hospitalization. Beyond this capability, implantable haemodynamic monitors have the potential to direct day-to-day management of heart failure patients to significantly reduce hospitalization rates. The use of a pulmonary artery pressure measurement system has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization in a large randomized controlled study, the CardioMEMS Heart Sensor Allows Monitoring of Pressure to Improve Outcomes in NYHA Class III Heart Failure Patients (CHAMPION) trial. Observations from a pilot study also support the potential use of a left atrial pressure monitoring system and physician-directed patient self-management paradigm; these observations are under further investigation in the ongoing LAPTOP-HF trial. All these devices depend upon high-intensity remote monitoring for successful detection of parameter deviations and for directing and following therapy.

  7. On-line monitoring of blend uniformity in continuous drug product manufacturing process--The impact of powder flow rate and the choice of spectrometer: Dispersive vs. FT.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenqi; McGhehey, Kathryn C; Leavesley, Ian M; Manley, Leo F

    2016-01-25

    One of the commonly acknowledged issues in continuous manufacturing of drug products is how to provide a representative sampling on flowing powder to assure its blend uniformity. An investigation was conducted to improve understanding on the impact of powder flow rate under different continuous manufacturing conditions and the impact of optical parameters (such as resolution, co-adds, and integration time) on NIR spectral quality with respect to a dispersive and a Fourier transform instrument. A partial least squares (PLS)-based spectral pretreatment was found useful to tackle the impact of different flow rates on NIR spectral signals. Multivariate figures of merit (FOM) were used to evaluate performances across different instruments and optical settings and discover the advantageous selectivity and sensitivity on the Fourier transform than the dispersive instrument regardless of the use of co-adds.

  8. Investigating the limits of PET/CT imaging at very low true count rates and high random fractions in ion-beam therapy monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, Christopher Bauer, Julia; Conti, Maurizio; Guérin, Laura; Eriksson, Lars; Parodi, Katia

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy with protons and heavier ions enables a tighter conformation of the applied dose to arbitrarily shaped tumor volumes with respect to photons, but is more sensitive to uncertainties in the radiotherapeutic treatment chain. Consequently, an independent verification of the applied treatment is highly desirable. For this purpose, the irradiation-induced β{sup +}-emitter distribution within the patient is detected shortly after irradiation by a commercial full-ring positron emission tomography/x-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner installed next to the treatment rooms at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). A major challenge to this approach is posed by the small number of detected coincidences. This contribution aims at characterizing the performance of the used PET/CT device and identifying the best-performing reconstruction algorithm under the particular statistical conditions of PET-based treatment monitoring. Moreover, this study addresses the impact of radiation background from the intrinsically radioactive lutetium-oxyorthosilicate (LSO)-based detectors at low counts. Methods: The authors have acquired 30 subsequent PET scans of a cylindrical phantom emulating a patientlike activity pattern and spanning the entire patient counting regime in terms of true coincidences and random fractions (RFs). Accuracy and precision of activity quantification, image noise, and geometrical fidelity of the scanner have been investigated for various reconstruction algorithms and settings in order to identify a practical, well-suited reconstruction scheme for PET-based treatment verification. Truncated listmode data have been utilized for separating the effects of small true count numbers and high RFs on the reconstructed images. A corresponding simulation study enabled extending the results to an even wider range of counting statistics and to additionally investigate the impact of scatter coincidences. Eventually, the recommended

  9. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  10. Rapid monitoring of iron-chelating therapy in thalassemia major by a new cardiovascular MR measure: the reduced transverse relaxation rate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Jensen, Jens H; Wu, Ed X; Feng, Li; Au, Wing-Yan; Cheung, Jerry S; Ha, Shau-Yin; Sheth, Sujit S; Brittenham, Gary M

    2011-08-01

    In iron overload, almost all the excess iron is stored intracellularly as rapidly mobilizable ferritin iron and slowly exchangeable hemosiderin iron. Increases in cytosolic iron may produce oxidative damage that ultimately results in cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Because intracellular ferritin iron is evidently in equilibrium with the low-molecular-weight cytosolic iron pool, measurements of ferritin iron potentially provide a clinically useful indicator of changes in cytosolic iron. The cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) index of cardiac iron used clinically, the effective transverse relaxation rate (R(2)*), is principally influenced by hemosiderin iron and changes only slowly over several months, even with intensive iron-chelating therapy. Another conventional CMR index of cardiac iron, the transverse relaxation rate (R(2)), is sensitive to both hemosiderin iron and ferritin iron. We have developed a new MRI measure, the 'reduced transverse relaxation rate' (RR(2)), and have proposed in previous studies that this measure is primarily sensitive to ferritin iron and largely independent of hemosiderin iron in phantoms mimicking ferritin iron and human liver explants. We hypothesized that RR(2) could detect changes produced by 1 week of iron-chelating therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. We imaged 10 patients with thalassemia major at 1.5 T in mid-ventricular short-axis planes of the heart, initially after suspending iron-chelating therapy for 1 week and subsequently after resuming oral deferasirox. After resuming iron-chelating therapy, significant decreases were observed in the mean myocardial RR(2) (7.8%, p < 0.01) and R(2) (5.5%, p < 0.05), but not in R(2)* (1.7%, p > 0.90). Although the difference between changes in RR(2) and R(2) was not significant (p > 0.3), RR(2) was consistently more sensitive than R(2) (and R(2)*) to the resumption of iron-chelating therapy, as judged by the effect sizes of relaxation rate differences detected

  11. Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.; Simpson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

  12. Comparative analyses of factors determining soil erosion rates based on network of Mediterranean monitored catchments for the innovative, adaptive and resilient agriculture of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanová, Anna; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Raclot, Damien; Perdo Nunes, João; Licciardello, Feliciana; Mathys, Nicolle; Latron, Jérôme; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Klotz, Sébastien; Mekki, Insaf; Gallart, Francesc; Solé Benet, Albert; Pérez Gallego, Nuria; Andrieux, Patrick; Jantzi, Hugo; Moussa, Roger; Planchon, Olivier; Marisa Santos, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    In order to project the soil erosion response to climate change in the fragile Mediterranean region it is inevitable to understand its existing patterns. Soil erosion monitoring on a catchment scale enables to analyse temporal and spatial variability of soil erosion and sediment delivery, while the integrating study of different catchments is often undertaken to depicther the general patterns. In this study, eight small catchments (with area up to 1,32 km2), representative for the western part of the Mediterranean region (according to climate, bedrock, soils and main type of land use) were compared. These catchments, grouped in the R-OS Med Network were situated in France (3), Spain (2), Portugal (1), Italy (1) and Tunisia (1). The average precipitation ranged between 236 to 1303 mm·a-1 and mean annual sediment yield varied 7.5 to 6900 Mg·km-2·a-1. The complex databes was based on more than 120 years of hydrological and sediment data, with series between 3 and 29 years long. The variability of sediment data was described on annual and monthly basis. The relationship between the sediment yield and more than 35 factors influencing the sediment yield including the characteristics of climate, topography, rainfall, runoff, land use, vegetation and soil cover, connectivity and dominant geomorphic processes, was studied. The preliminary results confirmed the differences in rainfall, runoff and sediment response, and revealed both the similarities and differences in soil erosion responses of the catchments. They are further dependent on the variability of factors themselves, with important contribution of the state of soil properties, vegetation cover and land use. Anna Smetanová has received the support of the European Union, in the framework of the Marie-Curie FP7 COFUND People Programme, through the award of an AgreenSkills' fellowship (under grant agreement n° 267196)

  13. Accurate heart rate estimation from camera recording via MUSIC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Seyyed Hamed; Balasingham, Ilangko; Ramstad, Tor Audun; Kansanen, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm to extract heart rate frequency from video camera using the Multiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. This leads to improved accuracy of the estimated heart rate frequency in cases the performance is limited by the number of samples and frame rate. Monitoring vital signs remotely can be exploited for both non-contact physiological and psychological diagnosis. The color variation recorded by ordinary cameras is used for heart rate monitoring. The orthogonality between signal space and noise space is used to find more accurate heart rate frequency in comparison with traditional methods. It is shown via experimental results that the limitation of previous methods can be overcome by using subspace methods. PMID:26738015

  14. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation.

  15. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation. PMID:24897608

  16. Acoustic monitoring of co-seismic changes in gas bubble rupture rate in a hydrothermal reservoir: field evaluation of a possible precursor and mechanism for remote seismic triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity is a phenomenon in which an earthquake at one location triggers others over distances up to thousands of kilometers. The mechanism by which low-amplitude dynamic oscillations of the confining stress can produce such an effect, often after a time delay of minutes-to-days, is unclear, but a concentration of remotely triggered seismic events in carbon-dioxide-rich volcanic and geothermal regions suggests that an increase in pore fluid pressure associated with the nucleation and growth of carbon-dioxide gas bubbles may reduce the effective stress in critically loaded geologic faults. While this hypothesis has been tested in bench-scale laboratory experiments, field detection of seismically initiated gas bubble growth in groundwater may provide further evidence for this remote triggering mechanism. In the present study, a hydrophone continuously records the acoustic power spectrum in CH-10B, a hydrothermal well located in Long Valley Caldera, California - a site that is susceptible to remotely seismic triggering. This well exhibits co-seismic changes in water level in response to near and distant earthquakes, including every magnitude-six or greater at any location on Earth. Exploiting the inverse relationship between gas bubble radius and the peak acoustic frequency emitted when a gas bubble ruptures, this investigation seeks to detect changes in the acoustic power spectrum arising from a shift in the size-distribution or count rate of rupturing gas bubbles, coincident with a distant earthquake. By resolving the timing and intensity of the onset of a change in gas bubble rupture rate after the passage of seismic wave from a distant source, it may be possible to establish the extent to which seismically initiated gas bubble growth contributes to co-seismic borehole water level response, pore fluid pressure perturbations, and the onset of remotely triggered seismicity.

  17. Noninvasive vital signal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zenan; Chee, Jonny; Chua, Kok Poo; Chen, ZhouDe

    2010-05-01

    Vital signals of patients, such as heart rate, temperature and movement are crucial to monitor patients in hospital. Current heart rate measurement is obtained by using Electrocardiograph, which normally applies electrodes to the patient's body. As electrodes are extremely uncomfortable to ware and hinder patient's movement, a non-invasive vital signal-monitoring device will be a better solution. Similar to Electrocardiograph, the device detects the voltage difference across the heart by using concept of capacitance, which can be obtained by two conductive fiber sewing on the bed sheet. Simultaneous temperature reading can also be detected by using surface mounted temperature sensor. This paper will mainly focus on the heart rate monitoring.

  18. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans.

  19. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans. PMID:25004078

  20. Mercury (II) sensor based on monitoring dissociation rate of the trans-acting factor MerR from cis-element by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masaki; Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2015-05-15

    Transcriptional switches regulate gene expression in response to environmental changes surrounding cell. Many studies have focused on two fundamentally different models of transcriptional control by bacterial metalloregulatory protein. Distortion of the DNA fragment including cis-element, to which the trans-acting factor MerR binds, is accepted as the mechanism of gene expression regulation by Hg (II) while, in cases of the other trans-acting factors ArsR and CadC, events of association to and dissociation from cis-element are known to control transcription in response to As (III) and Cd (II), respectively. In this study, interactions between green-fluorescent-protein-tagged trans-acting factor and immobilized cis-element were analyzed on solid surface. Fluorescent measurements and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) responses revealed that although the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) was much lower in MerR than in ArsR and CadC, the dissociation rate of MerR from DNA increased in response to Hg (II) at concentrations of 5-10(4) µg l(-1). These results firstly demonstrate an increase of KD between MerR and its recognition site in DNA by Hg (II), and possibility of rapid Hg (II) quantification with the low detection limit (5 µg l(-1)) and the high dynamic range (10(1)-10(4) µg l(-1)).

  1. Twenty-four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor Heart Rate: A Potential Marker for Gestational Hypertension in at-Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Corenthian J.; Dodson, William C.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Repke, John T.; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively correlated the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) to conventional sphygmomanometer blood pressure measurements (CSM) in women at risk for gestational hypertensive disorders (GHTNDs) and identified predictive factors from ABPM for GHTND. We analyzed 73 women with ≥1 risk factor for developing a GHTND. Using both the CSM and ABPM, the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured for 24 hours during three periods (14 to 24 weeks; 24 to 32 weeks; and 33 weeks to delivery). Correlation between the CSM and ABPM lessened as pregnancy progressed. Seventeen (25%) of women developed a GHTND. MAP variability increased in the GHTND group versus those without a GHTND. The odds of developing a GHTND increased 1.5 times for every 1 beat per minute increase in the ABPM 24-hour HR at visit 1 and reversed by visit 3. In women at risk for a GHTND, CSM and ABPM correlate less well as pregnancy advances. HR changes in at-risk women may be a marker for the development of a GHTND and may reflect increased sympathetic activity and/or decreased baroreceptor sensitivity. PMID:22147639

  2. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

    PubMed

    Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

  3. Temporal Patterns in Sheep Fetal Heart Rate Variability Correlate to Systemic Cytokine Inflammatory Response: A Methodological Exploration of Monitoring Potential Using Complex Signals Bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Herry, Christophe L; Cortes, Marina; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Durosier, Lucien D; Cao, Mingju; Burns, Patrick; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles; Seely, Andrew J E; Frasch, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    Fetal inflammation is associated with increased risk for postnatal organ injuries. No means of early detection exist. We hypothesized that systemic fetal inflammation leads to distinct alterations of fetal heart rate variability (fHRV). We tested this hypothesis deploying a novel series of approaches from complex signals bioinformatics. In chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep, we induced an inflammatory response with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected intravenously (n = 10) observing it over 54 hours; seven additional fetuses served as controls. Fifty-one fHRV measures were determined continuously every 5 minutes using Continuous Individualized Multi-organ Variability Analysis (CIMVA). CIMVA creates an fHRV measures matrix across five signal-analytical domains, thus describing complementary properties of fHRV. We implemented, validated and tested methodology to obtain a subset of CIMVA fHRV measures that matched best the temporal profile of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. In the LPS group, IL-6 peaked at 3 hours. For the LPS, but not control group, a sharp increase in standardized difference in variability with respect to baseline levels was observed between 3 h and 6 h abating to baseline levels, thus tracking closely the IL-6 inflammatory profile. We derived fHRV inflammatory index (FII) consisting of 15 fHRV measures reflecting the fetal inflammatory response with prediction accuracy of 90%. Hierarchical clustering validated the selection of 14 out of 15 fHRV measures comprising FII. We developed methodology to identify a distinctive subset of fHRV measures that tracks inflammation over time. The broader potential of this bioinformatics approach is discussed to detect physiological responses encoded in HRV measures. PMID:27100089

  4. Temporal Patterns in Sheep Fetal Heart Rate Variability Correlate to Systemic Cytokine Inflammatory Response: A Methodological Exploration of Monitoring Potential Using Complex Signals Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hau-Tieng; Durosier, Lucien D.; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles; Seely, Andrew J. E.; Frasch, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal inflammation is associated with increased risk for postnatal organ injuries. No means of early detection exist. We hypothesized that systemic fetal inflammation leads to distinct alterations of fetal heart rate variability (fHRV). We tested this hypothesis deploying a novel series of approaches from complex signals bioinformatics. In chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep, we induced an inflammatory response with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected intravenously (n = 10) observing it over 54 hours; seven additional fetuses served as controls. Fifty-one fHRV measures were determined continuously every 5 minutes using Continuous Individualized Multi-organ Variability Analysis (CIMVA). CIMVA creates an fHRV measures matrix across five signal-analytical domains, thus describing complementary properties of fHRV. We implemented, validated and tested methodology to obtain a subset of CIMVA fHRV measures that matched best the temporal profile of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. In the LPS group, IL-6 peaked at 3 hours. For the LPS, but not control group, a sharp increase in standardized difference in variability with respect to baseline levels was observed between 3 h and 6 h abating to baseline levels, thus tracking closely the IL-6 inflammatory profile. We derived fHRV inflammatory index (FII) consisting of 15 fHRV measures reflecting the fetal inflammatory response with prediction accuracy of 90%. Hierarchical clustering validated the selection of 14 out of 15 fHRV measures comprising FII. We developed methodology to identify a distinctive subset of fHRV measures that tracks inflammation over time. The broader potential of this bioinformatics approach is discussed to detect physiological responses encoded in HRV measures. PMID:27100089

  5. Apnea monitor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An apnea monitor checks the heart rate and respiration of the baby to make sure he or she is breathing properly. When either one falls below normal levels, the apnea monitor beeps to notify the ... wrong. Newborns, especially preemies, are often put on an apnea ...

  6. The second X-15 rocket plane (56-6671) is shown with two external fuel tanks which were added during

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The second X-15 rocket plane (56-6671) is shown with two external fuel tanks which were added during its conversion to the X-15A-2 configuration in the mid-1960's. After receiving an ablative coating to protect the craft from the high temperatures associated with high-Mach-number supersonic flight, the X-15A-2 was then covered with a white sealant coat. This ablative coating and sealant and the additional fuel would help Air Force Col. William J. 'Pete' Knight fly the #2 X-15 to a world record speed of 4,520 mph (Mach 6.7). The famed X-15 rocket planes were flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from 1959 through 1968. The X-15 was developed to provide data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls and the physiological aspects of high speed, high altitude flight. The joint NASA/U.S. Air Force/North American Aviation X-15 hypersonic flight research program is still considered to be one of the most successful NASA aeronautical research programs ever flown. One of the most advanced aeronautical tools of its day, the X-15 carried almost 600 instruments and sensors to record flight data. A wide range of experiments flown by the three X-15s during the 199-flight program helped advance the development of vital aeronautic and space flight systems.

  7. Heredity characteristics of schizophrenia shown by dynamic functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional MRI scans of unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianpo; Shen, Hui; Zeng, Ling-Li; Qin, Jian; Liu, Zhening; Hu, Dewen

    2016-08-01

    Previous static resting-state functional connectivity (FC) MRI (rs-fcMRI) studies have suggested certain heredity characteristics of schizophrenia. Recently, dynamic rs-fcMRI analysis, which can better characterize the time-varying nature of intrinsic activity and connectivity and may therefore unveil the special connectivity patterns that are always lost in static FC analysis, has shown a potential neuroendophenotype of schizophrenia. In this study, we have extended previous static rs-fcMRI studies to a dynamic study by exploring whether healthy siblings share aberrant dynamic FC patterns with schizophrenic patients, which may imply a potential risk for siblings to develop schizophrenia. We utilized the dynamic rs-fcMRI method using a sliding window approach to evaluate FC discrepancies within transient states across schizophrenic patients, unaffected siblings, and matched healthy controls. Statistical analysis showed five trait-related connections that are related to cingulo-opercular, occipital, and default mode networks, reflecting the shared connectivity alterations between schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings. The findings suggested that schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings shared common transient functional disconnectivity, implying a potential risk for the healthy siblings of developing schizophrenia.

  8. Carbohydrate moieties of the interstitial and glandular tissues of the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl testis shown by lectin histochemistry

    PubMed Central

    SÁEZ, FRANCISCO JOSÉ; MADRID, JUAN FRANCISCO; APARICIO, RAQUEL; HERNÁNDEZ, FRANCISCO; ALONSO, EDURNE

    2001-01-01

    The amphibian testis is a useful model because of its zonal organisation in lobules, distributed along the cephalocaudal axis, each containing a unique germ cell type. Sperm empty lobules form the so-called glandular tissue at the posterior region of the gonad. Androgen production is limited to the cells of the interstitial tissue surrounding lobules with spermatozoa bundles and to the cells of the glandular tissue. In this work, we have studied the distribution of terminal carbohydrate moieties of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides in the interstitial and glandular tissue of the Pleurodeles waltl testis, by means of 14 lectins combined with chemical and enzymatic deglycosylation pretreatment. Some differences in glycan composition between the interstitial and the glandular tissue have been detected. Thus in both tissues, N-linked oligosaccharides contained mannose, Gal(β1,4)GlcNAc, and Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal(β1,4)GlcNAc, while O-linked oligosaccharides contained Con A-positive mannose, Gal(β1,3)GalNAc, Gal(β1,4)GlcNAc, Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal(β1,4)GlcNAc, and WGA-positive GlcNAc. Fucose was also detected in both tissues. However, GlcNAc on N-linked oligosaccharides and GalNAc and Neu5Ac(α2,6)Gal/GalNAc on both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides were found only in the interstitial tissue. As glandular tissue cells arise from the innermost cells of interstitial tissue that surround lobules, the differences in the glycan composition of interstitial and glandular tissue shown in this work may be related to the start of androgen synthesis when steroid hormone (SH)-secreting cells develop. PMID:11215767

  9. Monitoring materials

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for effectively implementing alpha and/or beta and/or gamma monitoring of items or locations as desired. Indirect alpha monitoring by detecting ions generated by alpha emissions, in conjunction with beta and/or gamma monitoring is provided. The invention additionally provides for screening of items prior to alpha monitoring using beta and/or gamma monitoring, so as to ensure that the alpha monitoring apparatus is not contaminated by proceeding direct to alpha monitoring of a heavily contaminated item or location. The invention provides additional versatility in the emission forms which can be monitored, whilst maintaining accuracy and avoiding inadvertent contamination.

  10. Surface response of blind thrust shown from high resolution topographic data and updated geochronology at Wheeler Ridge, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; DeVecchio, D. E.; Johnstone, S. A.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wheeler Ridge is an asymmetric east-propagating anticline (10km axis, 330m relief) above a north-vergent blind thrust deforming Quaternary alluvial fan and shallow marine rocks at the northern front of the Transverse Ranges, San Joaquin Valley, CA. This area was a research foci in the 1990's when the soils, u-series soil carbonate dating, and subsurface structure of deformed strata identified from oil wells were used to create a kinematic model of deformation, and estimates of fault slip, uplift, and lateral propagation rates. A recent collection of light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data allow us to complete meter scale topographic analyses of the fluvial networks and hillslopes and correlate geomorphic response to tectonics. We interpret these results using a detailed morphological map and observe drainage network and hillslope process transitions both along and across the fold axis. With lidar topography, we extract common morphometrics (e.g., channel steepness-- ksn, eroded volume, hillslope relief) to illustrate how the landscape is responding to variations in uplift rate along the fold axis and show asymmetry of surface response on the forelimb and backlimb. The forelimb is dominated by large drainages with landslides initiating in the marine units at the core of the fold. Our topographic analysis shows that the stream channel indices values on the forelimb increase along the fold axis, away from the propagation tip. The backlimb drainages are dominantly long and linear with broad ridgelines. Using lidar and fieldwork, we see that uplifted backlimb surfaces preserve the deformed fan surface. The preliminary OSL results from alluvial fan units improve age control of previously defined surfaces, refining our understanding of the deposition and uplift of alluvial fan units on preserved on backlimb.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in the southern ecological zones of Cameroon, as shown by genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , previously described as the “Cameroon family. Further analysis based on MIRU-VNTR profiles had greater resolving power than spoligotyping and defined additional genotypes in the same spoligotype cluster. Conclusion The molecular characterization of MTBC strains from humans in two ecological regions of Cameroon has shown that M. tuberculosis sensu stricto is the predominant agent of TB cases in the zones. Three decades ago, TB was reported to be caused by M. africanum in 56.0% of cases. The present findings are consistent with a major shift in the prevalence of M. tuberculosis in Cameroon. PMID:24028382

  12. Cooperative runtime monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallé, Sylvain

    2013-11-01

    Requirements on message-based interactions can be formalised as an interface contract that specifies constraints on the sequence of possible messages that can be exchanged by multiple parties. At runtime, each peer can monitor incoming messages and check that the contract is correctly being followed by their respective senders. We introduce cooperative runtime monitoring, where a recipient 'delegates' its monitoring task to the sender, which is required to provide evidence that the message it sends complies with the contract. In turn, this evidence can be quickly checked by the recipient, which is then guaranteed of the sender's compliance to the contract without doing the monitoring computation by itself. A particular application of this concept is shown on web services, where service providers can monitor and enforce contract compliance of third-party clients at a small cost on the server side, while avoiding to certify or digitally sign them.

  13. Relation Between Spark-Ignition Engine Knock, Detonation Waves, and Autoignition as Shown by High-Speed Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D

    1946-01-01

    A critical review of literature bearing on the autoignition and detonation-wave theories of spark-ignition engine knock and on the nature of gas vibrations associated with combustion and knock results in the conclusion that neither the autoignition theory nor the detonation-wave theory is an adequate explanation of spark-ignition engine knock. A knock theory is proposed, combining the autoignition and detonation-wave theories, which introduces the idea that the detonation wave develops in autoignited or after-burning gases, and ascribes comparatively low-pitched heavy knocks to autoignition but high-pitched pinging knocks to detonation waves with the possibility of combinations of the two types of knocks. Analysis of five shots of knocking combustion, taken with the NACA high-speed motion-picture camera at the rate of 40,000 photographs per second reveals propagation speeds ranging from 3250 to more than 5500 feet per second. The range of propagation speeds from 3250 to more than 5500 feet per second is held to be considered with the proposed combined theory but not with either the simple autoignition theory or the simple detonation-wave theory.

  14. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  15. Traffic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mestech's X-15 "Eye in the Sky," a traffic monitoring system, incorporates NASA imaging and robotic vision technology. A camera or "sensor box" is mounted in a housing. The sensor detects vehicles approaching an intersection and sends the information to a computer, which controls the traffic light according to the traffic rate. Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages aided in the company's development of the system. The X-15's "smart highway" can also be used to count vehicles on a highway and compute the number in each lane and their speeds, important information for freeway control engineers. Additional applications are in airport and railroad operations. The system is intended to replace loop-type traffic detectors.

  16. Monitoring Exhaled Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Siobal, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, assessment of exhaled CO2 in both intubated and non-intubated patients has evolved into an essential component in many aspects of patient monitoring. Besides the basic assessment of ventilation, exhaled CO2 monitoring can provide valuable patient safety information and critical physiologic data in regard to the ventilation and perfusion matching in the lungs, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. Despite these important clinical monitoring benefits and widespread availability, exhaled CO2 monitoring is often underutilized. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance and present the extensive body of knowledge to support the use of exhaled CO2 monitoring in various areas of clinical practice. Advanced application concepts and the future development of exhaled CO2 monitoring will also be discussed. PMID:27601718

  17. Monitoring Exhaled Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Siobal, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, assessment of exhaled CO2 in both intubated and non-intubated patients has evolved into an essential component in many aspects of patient monitoring. Besides the basic assessment of ventilation, exhaled CO2 monitoring can provide valuable patient safety information and critical physiologic data in regard to the ventilation and perfusion matching in the lungs, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. Despite these important clinical monitoring benefits and widespread availability, exhaled CO2 monitoring is often underutilized. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance and present the extensive body of knowledge to support the use of exhaled CO2 monitoring in various areas of clinical practice. Advanced application concepts and the future development of exhaled CO2 monitoring will also be discussed.

  18. EPA RESISTANCE MONITORING RESEARCH (NCR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 resistance management research program was organized around three components: development of resistance monitoring program for Bt corn using remote sensing, standardization of resistance assays, and testing of resistance management models. Each area of research has shown...

  19. A Bridge Deflection Monitoring with GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figurski, M.; Gałuszkiewicz, M.; Wrona, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces results of investigation carried on by The Applied Geomatics Section in Military University of Technology. Research includes possibilities of monitoring dynamic behavior of a bridge using high rate GPS data. Whole event was executed with collaboration of The Road and Bridge Management and The Warsaw Geodesy Company. Interdisciplinary approach with this project allows authors to get reliable information about investigating constructions and their respond for true traffic loading detected by GPS receivers. Way of compute data and used software (TRACK) are also shown in this paper.

  20. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  1. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2013-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  2. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  3. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  4. Examining the Relationship between Heart Rate and Problem Behavior: A Case Study of Severe Skin Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hustyi, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between heart rate and self-injurious behavior (SIB) shown by individuals with IDD (intellectual and developmental disabilities). In this single-case study, we simultaneously monitored heart rate and activity levels during a functional analysis of severe skin picking behavior exhibited by a young man with…

  5. Effects of Verapamil SR and Atenolol on 24-Hour Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertension Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: An International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Ambulatory Monitoring Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Denardo, Scott J.; Gong, Yan; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Farsang, Csaba; Keltai, Matyas; Szirmai, László; Messerli, Franz H.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pepine, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), increased BP and HR variability, and altered diurnal variations of BP and HR (nighttime dipping and morning surge) in patients with systemic hypertension are each associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, there are no reports on the effect of hypertension treatment on these important hemodynamic parameters in the growing population of hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). This was a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), which involved 22,576 clinically stable patients aged ≥50 years with hypertension and CAD randomized to either verapamil SR- or atenolol-based hypertension treatment strategies. The subgroup consisted of 117 patients undergoing 24-hour ambulatory monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Hourly systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) decreased after 1 year for both verapamil SR- and atenolol-based treatment strategies compared with baseline (P<0.0001). Atenolol also decreased hourly HR (P<0.0001). Both treatment strategies decreased SBP variability (weighted standard deviation: P = 0.012 and 0.021, respectively). Compared with verapamil SR, atenolol also increased the prevalence of BP and HR nighttime dipping among prior non-dippers (BP: OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.26 – 8.97; P = 0.015; HR: OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 1.35-12.17; P = 0.012) and blunted HR morning surge (+2.8 vs. +4.5 beats/min/hr; P = 0.019). Both verapamil SR- and especially atenolol-based strategies resulted in favorable changes in ambulatory monitoring parameters that have been previously associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00133692 PMID:25835002

  6. [Influenza vaccination rates in Hessian hospitals].

    PubMed

    Wicker, S; Gottschalk, R; Wolff, U; Krause, G; Rabenau, H F

    2012-08-01

    Influenza infections have been shown to spread in hospitals rapidly; nosocomial transmissions occur frequently. Influenza vaccination of health care personnel (HCP) is an effective strategy for preventing influenza infections among personnel and patients. In summer 2011 we conducted an anonymous questionnaire among Hessian hospitals assessing influenza vaccination rates, kind and concept of vaccination programmes. Overall, 95.8% (68/71) of hospitals surveyed offered influenza vaccinations for HCP free of charge. Influenza vaccination rates have been recorded only by 70.4% (50/71). Over 80% (season 2009/2010: 41/50- season 2010/2011: 44/50) of hospitals questioned, mentioned influenza vaccination rates under 20%. Our findings confirm that the influenza vaccination rates might be less than the generally assumed and communicated influenza vaccination rates of 20-25%. Thirty years since the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommended that all HCP get vaccinated against influenza, vaccination rates still remain below 30%. Measures to improve influenza vaccination rates among HCP are required. Monitoring of vaccination rates is a precondition to assess the acceptance of a vaccination programme.

  7. Tests of Rating Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masin, Sergio Cesare; Busetto, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The study reports empirical tests of Anderson's, Haubensak's, Helson's, and Parducci's rating models when two end anchors are used for rating. The results show that these models cannot predict the judgment effect called here the Dai Pra effect. It is shown that an extension of Anderson's model is consistent with this effect. The results confirm…

  8. Multizone infiltration monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.N.; Burch, J.; Judkoff, R.

    1982-06-01

    A multizone infiltration monitoring system (MIMS) using a single tracer gas has been developed. MIMS measures zonal infiltration and exfiltration as well as interzonal air movement rates. The system has been used at the 4-zone test house at the SERI interim field site, and this paper presents preliminary results. The present system can determine zonal infiltration rates, and the results show significant differences in infiltration rates for the various zones.

  9. MONITORING DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monitoring design component of the overall Monitoring Framework provides answers to the questions: What site or environment will be monitored? What parameters will be measured at the site? Where will the measurements be taken? When and how frequently will the measurements be ...

  10. Entrainment rates and microphysics in POST stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, H.; Frick, G.; Malinowski, Szymon P.; Jonsson, H.; Khelif, D.; Krueger, Steven K.

    2013-11-01

    An aircraft field study (POST; Physics of Stratocumulus Top) was conducted off the central California coast in July and August 2008 to deal with the known difficulty of measuring entrainment rates in the radiatively important stratocumulus (Sc) prevalent in that area. The Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies Twin Otter research aircraft flew 15 quasi-Lagrangian flights in unbroken Sc and carried a full complement of probes including three high-data-rate probes: ultrafast temperature probe, particulate volume monitor probe, and gust probe. The probes' colocation near the nose of the Twin Otter permitted estimation of entrainment fluxes and rates with an in-cloud resolution of 1 m. Results include the following: Application of the conditional sampling variation of classical mixed layer theory for calculating the entrainment rate into cloud top for POST flights is shown to be inadequate for most of the Sc. Estimated rates resemble previous results after theory is modified to take into account both entrainment and evaporation at cloud top given the strong wind shear and mixing at cloud top. Entrainment rates show a tendency to decrease for large shear values, and the largest rates are for the smallest temperature jumps across the inversion. Measurements indirectly suggest that entrained parcels are primarily cooled by infrared flux divergence rather than cooling from droplet evaporation, while detrainment at cloud top causes droplet evaporation and cooling in the entrainment interface layer above cloud top.

  11. Radiation monitoring at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žontar, D.; Belle SVD Monitoring Group

    2003-03-01

    High beam currents at the KEK B factory lead to high radiation background (order of 100 krad/y, consisting mostly of spent electrons/positrons) around the interaction point where the silicon vertex detector is located. In order to monitor the background conditions close to the interaction point a radiation monitoring system has been developed and installed. It is based on 16 monitoring modules containing RadFET chip (containing 4 sensors) for measurement of total accumulated dose and PIN diodes for measurement of instantaneous dose rate.

  12. Defibrillator/monitor/pacemakers.

    PubMed

    2003-05-01

    Defibrillator/monitors allow operators to assess and monitor a patient's ECG and, when necessary, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. When integral noninvasive pacing is added, the device is called a defibrillator/monitor/pacemaker. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for two newly evaluated models, the Welch Allyn PIC 50 and the Zoll M Series CCT, and we summarize our findings for the previously evaluated models that are still on the market. We rate the models for the following applications: general crash-cart use, in-hospital transport use, and emergency medical service (EMS) use.

  13. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  14. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  15. Monitoring your baby before labor

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- monitoring; Contraction stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring

  16. DATAC bus monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III; Thomas, Robert J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) bus is a multiple transmitter data bus developed to interconnect various aircraft systems. A typical DATAC bus installation for the NASA B-737 aircraft is shown. A bus monitor unit was developed for the DATAC data bus. The bus monitor unit consists of two systems: A Zilog Z8002 based S100 bus microcomputer system that connects to a DATAC terminal and receives data appearing on the bus, and an IMB PC-compatible computer used to display and interpret that data. Test results of the existing bus monitor have indicated areas for improvement. The most obvious improvement is to increase the speed of the data transfers between the S100 and the MS-DOS systems.

  17. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  18. Birth defects monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Klingberg, M.A.; Papier, C.M.; Hart, J.

    1983-01-01

    Population monitoring of birth defects provides a means for detecting relative changes in their frequency. Many varied systems have been developed throughout the world since the thalidomide tragedy of the early 1960s. Although it is difficult to pinpoint specific teratogenic agents based on rises in rates of a particular defect or a constellation of defects, monitoring systems can provide clues for hypothesis testing in epidemiological investigations. International coordination of efforts in this area resulted in the founding of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) in 1974. In this paper we will describe the functions and basic requirements of monitoring systems in general, and look at the development and activities of the ICBDMS. A review of known and suspected environmental teratogenic agents (eg, chemical, habitual, biological, physical, and nutritional) is also presented.

  19. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  20. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  1. FUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2012-10-01

    The monitor takes six 1300s TIME-TAG darks every six weeks. The exposures are distributed over about six hours from initial turn-on to characterize the rate increase as a function of turn-on time and temperature. The frequency has been reduced from bi-weekly to once every six weeks to stay within a reasonable orbit count.

  2. FUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The monitor takes six 1300s TIME-TAG darks every six weeks. The exposures are distributed over about six hours from initial turn-on to characterize the rate increase as a function of turn-on time and temperature.

  3. [Dendrolimus spp. damage monitoring by using NOAA/AVHRR data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yushu; Ban, Xianxiu; Chen, Pengshi; Feng, Rui; Ji, Ruipeng; Xiao, Yan

    2005-05-01

    This paper approached the feasibility of quantitatively monitoring Dendrolimus spp. damage by using NOAA/ AVHRR data. The damaged rate of needle leaf was used to represent Dendrolimus spp. harming degree, and < 30%, 30%-60% and > 60% of damaged rate was defined as low, medium and severe harming degree, respectively. The correlation equation of damaged rate and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was established, based on the ground spectrum observation. The NDVI was 0.8823 when no damage occurred. A relative NDVI value of damaged to undamaged area was used to express the remote sensing index of low, medium and severe harming degree. The index was 1 for undamaged forest, and 0.78-1, 0.57-0.78 and < 0.57 for low, medium and severe harming degrees, respectively. The mixed pixels were separated by linear addable vertical vegetation index in the monitoring, and the quantitative monitoring and analysis was accomplished for years when the three damage degrees happened. It was shown that AVHRR data could be more available in quantitatively monitoring and analyzing serious damage, while low degree damage was difficult to distinguish by AVHRR data, due to the differences of surface properties and atmospheric influences, as well as the lower space resolution of NOAA/AVHRR. The damaged area estimated by AVHRR was 12.1%-14.3% lower than that by TM.

  4. Electrostatic monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for more simply measuring alpha and/or beta emissions arising from items or locations. The technique uses indirect monitoring of the emissions by detecting ions generated by the emissions, the ions being attracted electrostatically to electrodes for discharge of collection. The apparatus and method employ a chamber which is sealed around the item or location during monitoring with no air being drawn into or expelled from the chamber during the monitoring process. A simplified structure and operations arises as a result, but without impairing the efficiency and accuracy of the detection technique.

  5. [Rate Justification for Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) for Central Florida, Inc., Orlando.

    This brief report argues against the cost analysis process currently used as a form of rate justification by states and central agencies who are purchasing child care. Instead, a logic is proposed for negotiated rates based on expected levels of necessary costs and reasonable rates in comparison with open market levels as shown on day care…

  6. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  7. Environment Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

  8. Cycle isolation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C.

    2009-07-15

    There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

  9. Fuel processor temperature monitoring and control

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2002-01-01

    In one embodiment, the method of the invention monitors one or more of the following conditions: a relatively low temperature value of the gas stream; a relatively high temperature value of the gas stream; and a rate-of-change of monitored temperature. In a preferred embodiment, the rate of temperature change is monitored to prevent the occurrence of an unacceptably high or low temperature condition. Here, at least two temperatures of the recirculating gas stream are monitored over a period of time. The rate-of-change of temperature versus time is determined. Then the monitored rate-of-change of temperature is compared to a preselected rate-of-change of value. The monitoring of rate-of-change of temperature provides proactive means for preventing occurrence of an unacceptably high temperature in the catalytic reactor.

  10. Space Weather monitoring with Neutron Monitor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigies, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    Space Weather affects many areas of the modern society, advance knowledge about space weather events is important to protect personnel and infrastructure. Cosmic Rays (CR) measurements by ground-based Neutron Monitors are influenced by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), the intensity of the ever present Cosmic Rays is reduced in a Forbush decrease (Fd). In the case of very energetic CMEs, the measured intensity can be significantly increased in a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE). By detecting the anisotropy of the CR environment, a CME can be detected hours before it arrives at Earth. During a GLE the high-energy particles from the Sun can be detected before the more abundant lower energy particles arrive at Earth, thus allowing to take protective measures. Since the beginning of the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) project, which has been started in 2008 with funding from the European Commission, real-time data from Neutron Monitors around the world has been made available through one web-portal. We have more than doubled the number of stations providing data since the start of the project to now over 30 stations. The effectiveness of the ALERT applications which are based on NMDB data has been shown by the recent GLE71. We will present different applications through which the measurements and different data products are accessible.

  11. Dielectric material degradation monitoring of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Ronald E.; Houser, Nicole M.; Lavoie, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    It is a known phenomenon that some dielectric materials used to construct plasma actuators degrade during operation. However, the rate at which this process occurs, to what extent, as well as a method to monitor is yet to be established. In this experimental study, it is shown that electrical measurements can be used to monitor changes in the material of the plasma actuators. The procedure we introduce for monitoring the actuators follows from the work of Kriegseis, Grundmann, and Tropea [Kriegseis et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 013305 (2011)], who used Lissajous figures to measure actuator power consumption and capacitance. In the present study, we quantify changes in both the power consumption and capacitance of the actuators over long operating durations. It is shown that the increase in the effective capacitance of the actuator is related to degradation (thinning) of the dielectric layer, which is accompanied by an increase in actuator power consumption. For actuators constructed from layers of Kapton® polyimide tape, these changes are self-limiting. Although the polyimide film degrades relatively quickly, the underlying adhesive layer appears to remain intact. Over time, the effective capacitance was found to increase by up to 36%, 25%, and 11% for actuators constructed with 2, 3, and 4 layers of Kapton tape, respectively. A method is presented to prevent erosion of the Kapton dielectric layer using a coating of Polydimethylsiloxane oil. It is shown the application of this treatment can delay the onset of degradation of the Kapton dielectric material.

  12. Wireless Applications for Structural Monitoring of Inflatable Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on wireless applications for structural health monitoring of inflatable space structures is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) REquirements; 3) Implementation; and 4) strucutral health monitoring system summary.

  13. Evaluation of the ViewSonic PF815 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 22-Inch Diagonal Color Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    NIDL does not certify the ViewSonic PF815 color monitor as being suitable for IEC workstations requiring stereoscopic performance. NIDL rates this color monitor as "A" in monoscopic, but "C" in stereoscopic mode for the Image Analyst and Cartographer applications. The 1-pixel-on/1-pixel-off contrast modulation over the whole screen in monoscopic mode is excellent for a CRT color monitor. The "C" rating results from the maximum vertical refresh rate of 55 Hz per eye in stereo mode. This is below the IEC Working Group specification of 60 Hz per eye. The monitor passes the stereo extinction requirement of 15:1 with StereoGraphics CrystalEyes shutter glasses at 50 Hz per eye. The flat face CRT in the PF815 is an aperture grill technology, much like the aperture grill Trinitron CRT used in Sony monitors. Originally, NIDL certified as acceptable for the IEC workstation the View Sonic P817 color CRT monitor. But, the manufacturer withdrew this product from the market. NIDL purchased the new flat face ViewSonic PF815 monitor to determine if this could be an acceptable color monitor in place of the P817. As we see from the discussion above, NIDL does not certify the PF815 monitor. NIDL evaluated two new monitors from Cornerstone and Eizo that can achieve the 60 Hz per eye minimum vertical refresh rate needed for stereo mode acceptability. These are shown in the following table along with the PF815 and other color CRT monitors.

  14. Recent advance in patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recent advance in technology has developed a lot of new aspects of clinical monitoring. We can monitor sedation levels during anesthesia using various electroencephalographic (EEG) indices, while it is still not useful for anesthesia depth monitoring. Some attempts are made to monitor the changes in sympathetic nerve activity as one of the indicators of stress, pain/analgesia, or anesthesia. To know the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, heart rate or blood pressure variability is investigated. For trend of cardiac output, low invasive monitors have been investigated. Improvement of ultrasound enables us to see cardiac structure and function continuously and clearer, increases success rate and decreases complication of central venous puncture and various kinds of nerve blocks. Without inserting an arterial catheter, trends of arterial oxygen tension or carbon dioxide tension can be monitored. Indirect visualization of the airway decreases difficult intubation and makes it easier to teach tracheal intubation. The changes in blood volume can be speculated non-invasively. Cerebral perfusion and metabolism are not ordinary monitored yet, but some studies show their usefulness in management of critically ill. This review introduces recent advances in various monitors used in anesthesia and critical care including some studies of the author, especially focused on EEG and cardiac output. However, the most important is that these new monitors are not almighty but should be used adequately in a limited situation where their meaning is confirmed. PMID:20877698

  15. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  16. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  17. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  18. Recreation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, B.; Merklein, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recreational use and recreational facilities are common features at hydropower projects. In fact, the hydropower industry is a major supplier of recreational opportunities contributing to tourism and rural economic growth in many communities across the country, As demands for public recreation have grown, pressure on the hydropower industry to provide more public access and more facilities has increased. This paper looks at recent developments in the FERC licensing and compliance arenas with regard to planning for and monitoring recreation at hydropower facilities. The paper highlights the increased occurrence of recreation monitoring requirements in license articles and discusses methods for complying with such requirements. The paper also looks at how monitoring data can be used to avoid unnecessary developments and to better plan for future recreation use.

  19. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  20. Predictive monitoring for sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis to prevent shock.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brynne A; Fairchild, Karen D

    2015-08-01

    Despite vigilant clinical assessment of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), diagnosis of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis often does not occur until an infant has significant hemodynamic compromise. Predictive monitoring involves analysis of vital signs and other clinical data to identify infants at highest risk and to detect early-stage illness, leading to timelier treatment and improved outcomes. The first vital-sign predictive monitoring device developed for sepsis detection in babies in the NICU is the heart rate characteristics index (HeRO) monitor, which continuously analyzes the electrocardiogram signal for low heart rate variability and transient decelerations. Use of this monitor in very low birth weight infants (<1500 g) was shown in a large multicenter randomized clinical trial to significantly reduce mortality. The purpose of this review is (1) to summarize the physiologic changes in neonatal sepsis and progression to shock, (2) to review efforts toward risk stratification for sepsis shortly after birth based on demographic and physiologic scoring systems, (3) to describe development and implementation of heart rate characteristics monitoring and other important aspects of sepsis early warning systems, and (4) to provide an overview of current research analyzing multiple vital signs and other clinical variables in an attempt to develop even more effective predictive monitoring devices and systems.

  1. Continuous non-contact vital sign monitoring in neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Guazzi, Alessandro; Jorge, João; Davis, Sara; Watkinson, Peter; Green, Gabrielle; Shenvi, Asha; McCormick, Kenny; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Current technologies to allow continuous monitoring of vital signs in pre-term infants in the hospital require adhesive electrodes or sensors to be in direct contact with the patient. These can cause stress, pain, and also damage the fragile skin of the infants. It has been established previously that the colour and volume changes in superficial blood vessels during the cardiac cycle can be measured using a digital video camera and ambient light, making it possible to obtain estimates of heart rate or breathing rate. Most of the papers in the literature on non-contact vital sign monitoring report results on adult healthy human volunteers in controlled environments for short periods of time. The authors' current clinical study involves the continuous monitoring of pre-term infants, for at least four consecutive days each, in the high-dependency care area of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford. The authors have further developed their video-based, non-contact monitoring methods to obtain continuous estimates of heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation for infants nursed in incubators. In this Letter, it is shown that continuous estimates of these three parameters can be computed with an accuracy which is clinically useful. During stable sections with minimal infant motion, the mean absolute error between the camera-derived estimates of heart rate and the reference value derived from the ECG is similar to the mean absolute error between the ECG-derived value and the heart rate value from a pulse oximeter. Continuous non-contact vital sign monitoring in the NICU using ambient light is feasible, and the authors have shown that clinically important events such as a bradycardia accompanied by a major desaturation can be identified with their algorithms for processing the video signal. PMID:26609384

  2. Continuous non-contact vital sign monitoring in neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Mauricio; Guazzi, Alessandro; Jorge, João; Davis, Sara; Watkinson, Peter; Green, Gabrielle; Shenvi, Asha; McCormick, Kenny; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2014-09-01

    Current technologies to allow continuous monitoring of vital signs in pre-term infants in the hospital require adhesive electrodes or sensors to be in direct contact with the patient. These can cause stress, pain, and also damage the fragile skin of the infants. It has been established previously that the colour and volume changes in superficial blood vessels during the cardiac cycle can be measured using a digital video camera and ambient light, making it possible to obtain estimates of heart rate or breathing rate. Most of the papers in the literature on non-contact vital sign monitoring report results on adult healthy human volunteers in controlled environments for short periods of time. The authors' current clinical study involves the continuous monitoring of pre-term infants, for at least four consecutive days each, in the high-dependency care area of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford. The authors have further developed their video-based, non-contact monitoring methods to obtain continuous estimates of heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation for infants nursed in incubators. In this Letter, it is shown that continuous estimates of these three parameters can be computed with an accuracy which is clinically useful. During stable sections with minimal infant motion, the mean absolute error between the camera-derived estimates of heart rate and the reference value derived from the ECG is similar to the mean absolute error between the ECG-derived value and the heart rate value from a pulse oximeter. Continuous non-contact vital sign monitoring in the NICU using ambient light is feasible, and the authors have shown that clinically important events such as a bradycardia accompanied by a major desaturation can be identified with their algorithms for processing the video signal. PMID:26609384

  3. Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

  4. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1999-06-29

    A monitoring well is described which includes: a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto. 8 figs.

  5. Monitoring of Microalgal Processes.

    PubMed

    Havlik, Ivo; Scheper, Thomas; Reardon, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Process monitoring, which can be defined as the measurement of process variables with the smallest possible delay, is combined with process models to form the basis for successful process control. Minimizing the measurement delay leads inevitably to employing online, in situ sensors where possible, preferably using noninvasive measurement methods with stable, low-cost sensors. Microalgal processes have similarities to traditional bioprocesses but also have unique monitoring requirements. In general, variables to be monitored in microalgal processes can be categorized as physical, chemical, and biological, and they are measured in gaseous, liquid, and solid (biological) phases. Physical and chemical process variables can be usually monitored online using standard industrial sensors. The monitoring of biological process variables, however, relies mostly on sensors developed and validated using laboratory-scale systems or uses offline methods because of difficulties in developing suitable online sensors. Here, we review current technologies for online, in situ monitoring of all types of process parameters of microalgal cultivations, with a focus on monitoring of biological parameters. We discuss newly introduced methods for measuring biological parameters that could be possibly adapted for routine online use, should be preferably noninvasive, and are based on approaches that have been proven in other bioprocesses. New sensor types for measuring physicochemical parameters using optical methods or ion-specific field effect transistor (ISFET) sensors are also discussed. Reviewed methods with online implementation or online potential include measurement of irradiance, biomass concentration by optical density and image analysis, cell count, chlorophyll fluorescence, growth rate, lipid concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, dielectric scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Future perspectives are discussed, especially in the field of image analysis using in situ

  6. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  7. The MICE luminosity monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Forrest, D.; Soler, F. J. P.

    2013-02-01

    The MICE experiment will provide the first measurement of ionisation cooling, a technique suitable for reducing the transverse emittance of a tertiary muon beam in a future neutrino factory accelerator facility. MICE is presently in the final stages of commissioning its beam line. The MICE luminosity monitor has proved an invaluable tool throughout this process, providing independent measurements of particle rate from the MICE target, normalisation for beam line detectors and verification of simulation codes.

  8. Inclusion of satellites in an 18/21 translocation chromosome shown by ammonical-silver staining (sat-banding) in case of partial trisomy 18.

    PubMed Central

    Neu, R L; Ortega, C C; Barg, G A; Pinto, W; Gardner, L I; Howell, W M; Denton, T E

    1976-01-01

    A male infant with a partial trisomy 18 and a 46,XY, --21, t(18;21)(18qter replaced by 18q12::21 p13 replaced by 21 qter) chromosome complement is described. The translocation chromosome is of special interest because it includes the satellites of chromosome 21. This was shown by differential satellite staining with the ammoniacal-silver technique. Images PMID:65472

  9. Application of empirical mode decomposition in removing fidgeting interference in doppler radar life signs monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Mostafanezhad, Isar; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor; Mandic, Danilo P

    2009-01-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition has been shown effective in the analysis of non-stationary and non-linear signals. As an application in wireless life signs monitoring in this paper we use this method in conditioning the signals obtained from the Doppler device. Random physical movements, fidgeting, of the human subject during a measurement can fall on the same frequency of the heart or respiration rate and interfere with the measurement. It will be shown how Empirical Mode Decomposition can break the radar signal down into its components and help separate and remove the fidgeting interference.

  10. Development of monitoring and control technology based on trace gas monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liebowitz, B.

    1997-07-01

    Trace gases are generated by many biological reactions. During anaerobic decomposition, trace levels of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases are produced. It was shown previously that these trace gases are intrinsically related to the biochemical reactions occurring and, therefore, offer promise for on-line process monitoring and control. This work was designed to test how effectively hydrogen and CO could be to monitor high-rate anaerobic systems that has significant mass transfer and complex hydraulics. An experimental program was designed to examine the behavior of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system under steady state and in response to organic loading perturbations. The responses of trace gases CO and H{sub 2} were tracked using an on-line, real-time gas-monitoring system linked to a computer-controlled data acquisition package. Data on conventional process parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were concurrently collected. Monitoring of conventional process indicators (i.e., pH, VFA, gas production) and trace gas (H{sub 2} and CO) indicators was conducted using a matrix of nine different steady-state OLRs (4-23 kg COD/m{sup 3} -d) and system HRTs (0.5 to 2.5 days) was performed to determine any correlation among the indicators. Of OLR, HRT, and influent COD, only OLR had any significant influence on the process indicators examined. All parameters except methane increased with increases in OLR; methane decreased with increased OLR. The OLR and gas production rate (GP) were observed to be linearly correlated.

  11. EAGLE can do Efficient LTL Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We briefly present a rule-based framework, called EAGLE, that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. In this paper we show how EAGLE can do linear temporal logic (LTL) monitoring in an efficient way. We give an upper bound on the space and time complexity of this monitoring.

  12. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  13. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  14. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  15. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1984-06-01

    Recent research is reviewed from books, international committees and symposia which describes the usefulness of biological monitoring for exposure to such compounds as organometallic chemicals, carbon monoxide and cyanide. The types of analyses include the following measurements: the concentration of the chemical in various biological media such as blood, urine, and expired air; the concentration of metabolites of the individual chemical in the same media; and determination of nonadverse biological changes resulting from the reaction of the organism to exposure. A main goal of such monitoring is to ensure that the current or past levels of worker exposure are safe, so that such exposure does not involve an unacceptable health risk. It considers routes other than absorption by the lungs and is a good method for evaluating individual exposures.

  16. Increased WD-repeat containing protein 1 in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas shown by comparative proteomic analysis of malignant and healthy gynecological tissue.

    PubMed

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian cancer employing multiple fractioning and high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, and asked whether specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates or therapeutic targets could be identified. High throughput proteomics was conducted on immunodepleted and fractioned interstitial fluid from pooled samples of ovarian carcinomas, using endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue as controls. Differential analysis revealed the up-regulation of extracellular proteasomes in tumor interstitial fluid compared to the healthy control. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared with control tissues were identified. Detection of proteasome 20S related proteins in TIF compared to IF from healthy tissue indicates that the 20S proteasome can have a role in the tumor microenvironment. Six selected proteins, CEACAM5, FREM2, MUC5AC, TFF3, PYCARD and WDR1, were independently validated in individual tumor lysates from ovarian carcinomas by multiple reaction monitoring initiated detection and sequence analysis, Western blot and/or selected reaction monitoring. Quantification of specific proteins revealed substantial heterogeneity between individual samples. Nevertheless, WD repeat-containing protein 1 was confirmed as being significantly overexpressed in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared to healthy ovarian tissue by Orbitrap analysis of individual native interstitial fluid from ovarian and endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue. We suggest that this protein should be explored as a therapeutic target in ovarian carcinomas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

  17. Monitoring oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2011-06-01

    Cyanosis was used for a century after dentists began pulling teeth under 100% N(2)O in 1844 because brief (2 min) severe hypoxia is harmless. Deaths came with curare and potent anesthetic respiratory arrest. Leland Clark's invention of a polarographic blood oxygen tension electrode (1954) was introduced for transcutaneous PO2 monitoring to adjust PEEP and CPAP PO2 to prevent premature infant blindness from excess O2 (1972). Oximetry for warning military aviators was tried after WW II but not used for routine monitoring until Takuo Aoyagi (1973) discovered an equation to measure SaO2 by the ratio of ratios of red and IR light transmitted through tissue as it changed with arterial pulses. Pulse oximetry (1982) depended on simultaneous technology improvements of light emitting red and IR diodes, tiny cheap solid state sensors and micro-chip computers. Continuous monitoring of airway anesthetic concentration and oxygen also became very common after 1980. Death from anesthesia fell 10 fold between 1985 and 2000 as pulse oximetry became universally used, but no proof of a causative relationship to pulse oximetry exists. It is now assumed that all anesthesiologist became much more aware of the dangers of prolonged hypoxia, perhaps by using the pulse oximeters. PMID:21717228

  18. Detection of respiratory compromise by acoustic monitoring, capnography, and brain function monitoring during monitored anesthesia care.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Pedro P; Tanaka, Maria; Drover, David R

    2014-12-01

    Episodes of apnea in sedated patients represent a risk of respiratory compromise. We hypothesized that acoustic monitoring would be equivalent to capnography for detection of respiratory pauses, with fewer false alarms. In addition, we hypothesized that the patient state index (PSI) would be correlated with the frequency of respiratory pauses and therefore could provide information about the risk of apnea during sedation. Patients undergoing sedation for surgical procedures were monitored for respiration rate using acoustic monitoring and capnography and for depth of sedation using the PSI. A clinician blinded to the acoustic and sedation monitor observed the capnograph and patient to assess sedation and episodes of apnea. Another clinician retrospectively reviewed the capnography and acoustic waveform and sound files to identify true positive and false positive respiratory pauses by each method (reference method). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio for detection of respiratory pause was calculated for acoustic monitoring and capnography. The correlation of PSI with respiratory pause events was determined. For the 51 respiratory pauses validated by retrospective analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio positive for detection were 16, 96 %, and 3.5 for clinician observation; 88, 7 %, and 1.0 for capnography; and 55, 87 %, and 4.1 for acoustic monitoring. There was no correlation between PSI and respiratory pause events. Acoustic monitoring had the highest likelihood ratio positive for detection of respiratory pause events compared with capnography and clinician observation and, therefore, may provide the best method for respiration rate monitoring during these procedures. PMID:24420342

  19. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  20. Process monitor gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, T. A.; Ausschnitt, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of advanced imaging methods to pattern chip features, process windows continue to shrink with decreasing critical dimensions. Controlling the manufacturing process within these shrinking windows requires monitor structures designed to maximize both sensitivity and robustness. In particular, monitor structures must exhibit a large, measurable response to dose and focus changes over the entire range of the critical features process window. Any process variations present fundamental challenges to the effectiveness of OPC methods, since the shape compensation assumes a repeatable process. One particular process parameter which is under increasing scrutiny is focus blur, e.g. from finite laser bandwidth, which can cause such OPC instability, and thereby damage pattern fidelity. We introduce a new type of test target called the Process Monitor Grating (PMG) which is designed for extreme sensitivity to process variation. The PMG design principle is to use assist features to zero out higher diffraction orders. We show via simulation and experiment that such structures are indeed very sensitive to process variation. In addition, PMG targets have other desirable attributes such as mask manufacturability, robustness to pattern collapse, and compatibility with standard CD metrology methods such as scatterometry. PMG targets are applicable to the accurate determination of dose and focus deviations, and in combination with an isofocal grating target, allow the accurate determination of focus blur. The methods shown in this paper are broadly applicable to the characterization of process deviations using test wafers or to the control of product using kerf structures.

  1. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  2. Engine monitoring display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Mary E.

    1992-01-01

    The current study is part of a larger NASA effort to develop displays for an engine-monitoring system to enable the crew to monitor engine parameter trends more effectively. The objective was to evaluate the operational utility of adding three types of information to the basic Boeing Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) display formats: alphanumeric alerting messages for engine parameters whose values exceed caution or warning limits; alphanumeric messages to monitor engine parameters that deviate from expected values; and a graphic depiction of the range of expected values for current conditions. Ten training and line pilots each flew 15 simulated flight scenarios with five variants of the basic EICAS format; these variants included different combinations of the added information. The pilots detected engine problems more quickly when engine alerting messages were included in the display; adding a graphic depiction of the range of expected values did not affect detection speed. The pilots rated both types of alphanumeric messages (alert and monitor parameter) as more useful and easier to interpret than the graphic depiction. Integrating engine parameter messages into the EICAS alerting system appears to be both useful and preferred.

  3. 40 CFR 63.605 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rate and dryer output rate, or monitor the dryer output rate and the dryer input and output moisture contents and calculate the corresponding dryer input rate. (b)(1) Each owner or operator of a new or...), (d)(4), or (e)(2). The source shall certify that the control devices and processes have not...

  4. Ammonia Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); Thompson, John O. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia monitor and method of use are disclosed. A continuous, real-time determination of the concentration of ammonia in an aqueous process stream is possible over a wide dynamic range of concentrations. No reagents are required because pH is controlled by an in-line solid-phase base. Ammonia is selectively transported across a membrane from the process stream to an analytical stream to an analytical stream under pH control. The specific electrical conductance of the analytical stream is measured and used to determine the concentration of ammonia.

  5. Defibrillator/monitor/pacemakers.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    In this Evaluation, we present our test results and ratings for two newly evaluated defibrillator/monitor/pacemakers--the Medtronic ERS Lifepak 20 and the Philips HeartStart MRx. We also summarize and update our findings for eight previously evaluated models that are still on the market. We rate the models based on their desirability for in-hospital applications, such as general crash-cart use and in-hospital transport use, and for prehospital applications, specifically emergency medical service (EMS) use. The primary function of the devices examined in this study is to allow operators to assess and monitor a patient's ECG and, when necessary, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. However, currently available models can also be equipped to do much more during a resuscitation attempt - from monitoring multiple physiologic parameters to providing noninvasive pacing capability to functioning as an automated external defibrillator (AED). Our testing examined all these capabilities to help hospital and EMS purchasers make effective selection decisions.

  6. Physiologic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic monitoring systems monitor vital physiologic parameters so that clinicians can be informed of changes in a patient's condition. For this study, we evaluated systems from six monitoring suppliers--Dräger Medical, GE Healthcare, Nihon Kohden, Philips Medical Systems, Spacelabs Medical, and Welch Allyn. The intent of this study is to help facilities choose not just the most appropriate system, but also the most appropriate version of that system--the combination of components that will best suit the facility's needs. Our testing focused primarily on adaptability, alarm implementation, and human factors design. We rated the systems based on their capabilities and performance for each of seven care settings: critical care unit, emergency department, intermediate care unit and general medical/surgical floor, operating room (with separate ratings for use during conscious sedation and general anesthesia), postanesthesia care unit, and transport. The systems performed well against the majority of our criteria. Nevertheless, we found notable differences in specific features and performance areas. These differences will have varying levels of significance for different hospitals. PMID:15794523

  7. The importance of sensitive detection of malaria parasites in the human and insect hosts in epidemiological studies, as shown by the analysis of field samples from Guinea Bissau.

    PubMed

    Snounou, G; Pinheiro, L; Gonçalves, A; Fonseca, L; Dias, F; Brown, K N; do Rosario, V E

    1993-01-01

    A method based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for highly sensitive detection and identification of human malaria parasites was applied to blood and mosquito samples obtained from a village in Guinea Bissau. The prevalence of parasites in the human population was shown to be greatly underestimated by microscopical examination. In particular, a high incidence of Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale parasites was revealed only by the PCR assay. Preliminary evidence was obtained to show that the distribution of P. malariae infections within the village was non-random. This was supported by analysis of the parasite species infecting the mosquito vector. The implication of these results for the design and interpretation of epidemiological surveys is discussed.

  8. Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Monitoring of vital parameters is an important topic in neonatal daily care. Progress in computational intelligence and medical sensors has facilitated the development of smart bedside monitors that can integrate multiple parameters into a single monitoring system. This paper describes non-contact monitoring of neonatal vital signals based on infrared thermography as a new biomedical engineering application. One signal of clinical interest is the spontaneous respiration rate of the neonate. It will be shown that the respiration rate of neonates can be monitored based on analysis of the anterior naris (nostrils) temperature profile associated with the inspiration and expiration phases successively. Objective The aim of this study is to develop and investigate a new non-contact respiration monitoring modality for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using infrared thermography imaging. This development includes subsequent image processing (region of interest (ROI) detection) and optimization. Moreover, it includes further optimization of this non-contact respiration monitoring to be considered as physiological measurement inside NICU wards. Results Continuous wavelet transformation based on Debauches wavelet function was applied to detect the breathing signal within an image stream. Respiration was successfully monitored based on a 0.3°C to 0.5°C temperature difference between the inspiration and expiration phases. Conclusions Although this method has been applied to adults before, this is the first time it was used in a newborn infant population inside the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The promising results suggest to include this technology into advanced NICU monitors. PMID:22243660

  9. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  10. Monitoring biofilm formation in power plant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Licina, G.J.; Nekoksa, G.

    1997-12-31

    Power plants have experienced severe general corrosion, pitting, under deposit corrosion, and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems, resulting in decreased plant availability and significantly increased operations and maintenance costs. MIC has been a particularly difficult problem since corrosion resistant alloys in relatively benign environments have failed as a result of microbiological influences in short times. Copper base alloys, carbon steels and stainless steels have all been susceptible. In a number of instances, replacement of piping and heat exchangers has been required to alleviate corrosion-related problems. Monitoring is a key element to improved corrosion control in cooling water systems. On-line methods provide evaluations of corrosion rates in real time and are sensitive to localized corrosion. Electrochemical methods of corrosion measurement are readily automated, both for acquisition of corrosion data and for process control. An electrochemical probe for on-line monitoring of biofilm activity has been shown to provide an early warning of biofilm formation and incipient MIC in fresh and saline waters.

  11. A phoswich well detector for radioxenon monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Wolfgang; Tan, Hui; Fallu-Labruyere, Anthony; Warburton, William K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Gleyzer, Anshel

    2007-08-01

    One of several methods used to detect nuclear weapons testing is the monitoring of radioactive xenon in the atmosphere. For high sensitivity, monitoring stations use a complex system of separate beta and gamma detectors to detect beta-gamma coincidences from characteristic radioxenon isotopes in small amounts of xenon extracted from large volumes of air. We report a simpler approach that uses a single phoswich detector, comprising optically coupled plastic and CsI scintillators to absorb beta particles and gamma rays, respectively, and then detect coincidences by pulse shape analysis of the detector signal. Previous studies with a planar prototype detector have shown that the technique can clearly separate beta only, gamma only and coincidence events, does not degrade the energy resolution, and has an error rate for detecting coincidences of less than 0.1%. In this paper, we will present a new phoswich well detector design, consisting of a 1'' diameter plastic cell enclosed in a 3'' CsI crystal. Based on Monte Carlo modeling and experimental results, the design will be characterized in terms of energy resolution and its ability to separate beta and gamma only, and coincidence events.

  12. On the ability of birth defects monitoring to detect new teratogens.

    PubMed

    Khoury, M J; Holtzman, N A

    1987-07-01

    Recent concerns have been raised about the ability of birth defects monitoring programs to detect increases in the incidence of birth defects following the introduction of new teratogens. The authors illustrate how most monitoring programs in the United States and Europe are limited in their ability to detect new teratogens because of a combination of parameters: the small population size, the low population frequency of exposure to the new teratogen, the weakness of many suspected teratogens (measured in terms of relative risk R), the low background rate, and the etiologic heterogeneity in the measured defects. In a system that monitors 25,000 births per year, it can be shown that although a new teratogen such as thalidomide (R = 175) can lead to a significant increase in the number of observed cases in 1-2 weeks of monitoring, even strong teratogens such as valproic acid and isotretinoin (R = 20-25) require more than 20 years of monitoring to show a significant increase in the number of cases because of low exposure frequency. Also, most mild to moderate teratogens (R = 2-5) can be totally missed. To improve the ability of birth defects monitoring programs to detect new teratogens, it is suggested that surveillance systems ought to examine subsegments of the population with maximal exposure potential, classify birth defects into more etiologically homogeneous groups, and expand the sample size of the monitored population.

  13. A retro-biosynthetic approach to the prediction of biosynthetic pathways from position-specific isotope analysis as shown for tramadol.

    PubMed

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Nun, Pierrick; Remaud, Gérald S; Silvestre, Virginie; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Lecerf-Schmidt, Florine; Boumendjel, Ahcène; De Waard, Michel; Robins, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    Tramadol, previously only known as a synthetic analgesic, has now been found in the bark and wood of roots of the African medicinal tree Nauclea latifolia. At present, no direct evidence is available as to the biosynthetic pathway of its unusual skeleton. To provide guidance as to possible biosynthetic precursors, we have adopted a novel approach of retro-biosynthesis based on the position-specific distribution of isotopes in the extracted compound. Relatively recent developments in isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C NMR spectrometry make possible the measurement of the nonstatistical position-specific natural abundance distribution of (13)C (δ(13)Ci) within the molecule with better than 1‰ precision. Very substantial variation in the (13)C positional distribution is found: between δ(13)Ci = -11 and -53‰. Distribution is not random and it is argued that the pattern observed can substantially be interpreted in relation to known causes of isotope fractionation in natural products. Thus, a plausible biosynthetic scheme based on sound biosynthetic principals of precursor-substrate relationships can be proposed. In addition, data obtained from the (18)O/(16)O ratios in the oxygen atoms of the compound add support to the deductions made from the carbon isotope analysis. This paper shows how the use of (13)C NMR at natural abundance can help with proposing a biosynthetic route to compounds newly found in nature or those difficult to tackle by conventional means.

  14. A retro-biosynthetic approach to the prediction of biosynthetic pathways from position-specific isotope analysis as shown for tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Romek, Katarzyna M.; Nun, Pierrick; Remaud, Gérald S.; Silvestre, Virginie; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Lecerf-Schmidt, Florine; Boumendjel, Ahcène; De Waard, Michel; Robins, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol, previously only known as a synthetic analgesic, has now been found in the bark and wood of roots of the African medicinal tree Nauclea latifolia. At present, no direct evidence is available as to the biosynthetic pathway of its unusual skeleton. To provide guidance as to possible biosynthetic precursors, we have adopted a novel approach of retro-biosynthesis based on the position-specific distribution of isotopes in the extracted compound. Relatively recent developments in isotope ratio monitoring by 13C NMR spectrometry make possible the measurement of the nonstatistical position-specific natural abundance distribution of 13C (δ13Ci) within the molecule with better than 1‰ precision. Very substantial variation in the 13C positional distribution is found: between δ13Ci = −11 and −53‰. Distribution is not random and it is argued that the pattern observed can substantially be interpreted in relation to known causes of isotope fractionation in natural products. Thus, a plausible biosynthetic scheme based on sound biosynthetic principals of precursor–substrate relationships can be proposed. In addition, data obtained from the 18O/16O ratios in the oxygen atoms of the compound add support to the deductions made from the carbon isotope analysis. This paper shows how the use of 13C NMR at natural abundance can help with proposing a biosynthetic route to compounds newly found in nature or those difficult to tackle by conventional means. PMID:26106160

  15. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  16. A Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring network: Evaluation and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; Gay, David A.

    2014-03-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  17. A Great Lakes atmospheric mercury monitoring network: evaluation and design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; ,; David, A.

    2014-01-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  18. Intracranial pressure monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ICP monitoring; CSF pressure monitoring ... There are 3 ways to monitor pressure in the skull (intracranial pressure). INTRAVENTRICULAR CATHETER The intraventricular catheter is the most accurate monitoring method. To insert an intraventricular catheter, a ...

  19. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Share this page: Was this page ... Monitored Drugs | Common Questions | Related Pages What is therapeutic drug monitoring? Therapeutic drug monitoring is the measurement ...

  20. A method for predicting gamma-radiation dose rates in the premises of the multiple forced circulation circuit of an RBMK-1000 reactor from the data of chemical and radiospectrometric monitoring of coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikov, O. G.; Kovalev, S. M.; Epikhin, A. I.; Kozlov, E. P.; Petrov, S. I.; Rodionov, Yu. A.; Kritskii, V. G.; Styazhkin, P. S.

    2009-05-01

    A mathematical model for predicting gamma-radiation dose rate in the premises of the multiple forced circulation circuit is developed, which is based on the data of water chemistry in the circuit, radionuclide composition of coolant, and hydraulic characteristics of equipment. Data on approbation of the model are presented that were obtained during the shutdown of power units at the Leningrad and Smolensk nuclear power stations.

  1. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, James E.

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  2. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  3. Process Monitor

    2003-12-01

    This library is used to get process information (eg memory and timing). By setting an environment variable, the runtime system loads libprocmon.so while loading your executable. This library causes the SIGPROF signal to be triggered at time intervals. The procmon signal handler calls various system routines (eg clock_gettime, malinfo, getrusage, and ioctl {accessing the /proc filesystem}) to gather information about the process. The information is then printed to a file which can be viewed graphicallymore » via procmon_plot.pl. This information is obtained via a sampling approach. As with any sampling approach, the information it gathers will not be completely accurate. For example, if you are looking at memory high-water mark the memory allocation and freeing could have occurred between samples and thus would not be "seen" by this program. See "Usage" below for environment variables that affect this monitor (eg time between sampling).« less

  4. Document Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

  5. Monitoring iron mineralization processes using nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Kristina

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements can be used to probe the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of water in the pore space of geological materials. In geophysics, NMR relaxation measurements are used in to measure water content and estimate permeability in the top 100 m of Earth's surface. The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to determine if NMR can also be used in geophysical applications to monitor iron mineralization processes associated with contaminant remediation. The first part of the research presented in this thesis focuses on understanding the effect of iron mineral form and redox state on the NMR relaxation response of water in geologic material. Laboratory NMR measurements were made on Fe(III)-bearing minerals (ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite, and hematite), Fe(II)-bearing minerals (siderite, pyrite, and troilite), and a mixed valence iron-bearing mineral (magnetite). The results of these measurements show that the relaxation rate of water is strongly dependent on the mineral form of iron. Shown in the final section of this thesis are results from an experiment exploring temporal changes in the measured NMR relaxation rates during the reaction of ferrihydrite with aqueous Fe(II). These results show that NMR can be used to monitor temporal chemical changes in iron minerals. I conclude that this research shows that NMR indeed has the potential to be used as a tool for monitoring geochemical reactions associated with contaminant remediation.

  6. Platelet factor V supports hemostasis in a patient with an acquired factor V inhibitor, as shown by prothrombinase and tenase assays.

    PubMed

    Perdekamp, Maria T Grosse; Rubenstein, David A; Jesty, Jolyon; Hultin, Mae B

    2006-10-01

    A woman with gross hematuria was shown to have a severe isolated factor V deficiency due to a factor V inhibitor of 200 U/ml titer. Hematuria persisted despite multiple infusions of plasma but, after one transfusion with 1 U platelets, urine red blood cells decreased by more than 98%. To evaluate the patient's platelet function we performed prothrombinase and tenase assays with platelets from the patient and from normal donors. By prothrombinase assay, ionophore-activated patient platelets showed 42% of the activity of normal platelets in their ability to support prothrombin activation by activated factor X; whereas in a 'tenase' assay, which measures the platelets' ability to support factor X activation by activated factor IX + activated factor VIII, their activity was 117% of normal. The addition of excess bovine activated factor V to the prothrombinase assay fully corrected the defect. The results demonstrate the benefit of platelet transfusion and indicate that in this case the platelets are the primary source of factor V for hemostasis.

  7. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.

    PubMed

    Batada, Ameena; Seitz, Maia Dock; Wootan, Margo G; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    A 2005 review by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies concluded that food marketing influences children's food preferences, consumption, and health. Given the powerful influence of marketing on children's diets, this cross-sectional study examined the types of foods, the nutritional quality of those foods, and the marketing techniques and messages used in food advertising during Saturday morning children's television programming. During 27.5 hours of programming in May 2005, 49% of advertisements shown were for food (281 food advertisements out of 572 total advertisements). The most commonly advertised food categories were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and cereal bars (27% of all food advertisements), restaurants (19% of food advertisements), and snack foods (18% of food advertisements). Ninety-one percent of food advertisements were for foods or beverages high in fat, sodium, or added sugars or were low in nutrients. Cartoon characters were used in 74% of food advertisements, and toy or other giveaways were used in 26% of food advertisements. About half of food advertisements contained health/nutrition or physical activity messages and 86% of food advertisements contained emotional appeals. This study provides food and nutrition professionals with information about the amount and types of food children are encouraged to eat during Saturday morning television programming. The findings can help food and nutrition professionals counsel children about healthful eating and/or develop programs or policies to balance those advertisements with healthful eating messages. PMID:18375225

  8. Spots and stripes: Pleomorphic patterning of stem cells via p-ERK-dependent cell-chemotaxis shown by feather morphogenesis and mathematical simulation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Min; Jiang, Ting Xin; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, Philip K.; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Summary A key issue in stem cell biology is the differentiation of homogeneous stem cells towards different fates which are also organized into desired configurations. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the process of periodic patterning. Feather explants offer a fundamental and testable model in which multi-potential cells are organized into hexagonally arranged primordia and the spacing between primordia. Previous work explored roles of a Turing reaction-diffusion mechanism in establishing chemical patterns. Here we show that a continuum of feather patterns, ranging from stripes to spots, can be obtained when the level of p-ERK activity is adjusted with chemical inhibitors. The patterns are dose-dependent, tissue stage-dependent, and irreversible. Analyses show ERK-activity-dependent mesenchymal cell chemotaxis is essential for converting micro-signaling centers into stable feather primordia. A mathematical model based on short-range activation, long-range inhibition, and cell chemotaxis is developed and shown to simulate observed experimental results. This generic cell behavior model can be applied to model stem cell patterning behavior at large. PMID:19647731

  9. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death.

  10. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748

  11. Monitoring with Coda Wave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gret, A.; Snieder, R.

    2004-12-01

    Aki has been a pioneer in monitoring the subsurface with coda waves and with guided waves. His analysis of temporal and spatial variations in coda Q has proven to be a powerful tool for monitoring purposes. We have extended his technique in new method called coda wave interferometry where changes in the full waveforms of coda waves are used to monitor changes in the subsurface. We have developed and implemented the theory to use this technique to monitor the following changes: a change in the seismic velocity, a change in scatterer locations, and a change in the location of earthquakes. As shown by Aki, the seismic coda is dominated by shear waves. Therefore our technique is primarily sensitive to changes in the S-velocity. Aki also worked on wave propagation in volcanoes. We have used coda wave interferometry to monitor two active volcanoes, Arenal (Costa Rica) and Mt. Erebus (Antarctica). I will give several examples to illustrate how coda waves can be used for monitoring purposes.

  12. Development of an absorbance-based response model for monitoring the growth rates of Arcobacter butzleri as a function of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the growth of Arcobacter butzleri in poultry was evaluated as a function of storage temperature (5, 22.5, and 40°C), pH (5, 7, and 9), and NaCl concentration (0, 4, and 8%). A predictive model was developed using the absorbance-based response surface methodology to describe the growth rate. The primary model was obtained to predict a growth rate with a good fit (R2≥0.95), and the secondary model was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis and calculated as follows: Growth rate=-2.267274-0.024181 (Temp)+0.6459384 (pH)+0.1926227 (NaCl)+0.0024661 (Temp×pH)-0.001312 (Temp×NaCl)-0.018802 (pH×NaCl)+0.000467 (Temp2)-0.041711 (pH2)- 0.007426 (NaCl2). Our data showed that the growth of A. butzleri can be completely inhibited at a pH of 5 (in the absence of NaCl, at 5°C) and at a pH of 9 (in the presence of 8% NaCl, at 5°C). The surface response model was statistically significant, with P<0.0001, as evident from the Fisher F test and from coefficient determination (R2, 0.95). This model was also verified by the bias factor (Bf, 0.839), accuracy factor (Af, 1.343), and mean square error (MSE, 0.0138). The newly developed secondary models of growth rate for A. butzleri could possibly be incorporated into a tertiary modeling program such as Pathogen Modeling Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA]) and Food Micro Model (in the United Kingdom). As a result, they could be used to predict the growth kinetics of A. butzleri as a function of a combination of environmental factors. Ultimately, the developed model can be used to reduce A. butzleri in poultry production, processing, and distribution, thereby enhancing food safety.

  13. Immunologic response of patients with legionellosis against major protein-containing antigens of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 as shown by immunoblot analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, J S; Plikaytis, B B; Wilkinson, H W

    1986-01-01

    Major protein-containing antigens of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis with rabbit antisera to 14 different Legionella species or serogroups. Fourteen bands were observed in immunoelectropherograms of whole-cell, sonicated cell, and heated cell preparations, seven of which appeared in the supernatant fluid from the heated cells and three of which were shown in an outer membrane fraction. Immunoblots of whole-cell antigen preparations of 14 Legionella species or serogroups revealed seven major Legionella proteins: antigens with molecular weights of 58,000, 79,000, and 154,000 were present in all Legionella sp. strains, antigens with molecular weights of 44,000 and 97,000 occurred in multiple species, and antigens with molecular weights of 14,000 and 25,000 were present only in L. pneumophila strains. All sera from 15 patients with culture-confirmed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 disease and 14 of 18 (78%) sera from serologically diagnosed patients reacted with the 58-kilodalton (kDa) common antigen. In contrast, less than one-half of the sera reacted with the L. pneumophila-specific proteins (14 and 25 kDa). Absorption of sera with Escherichia coli cells had no effect on their reactivity with the 58-kDa antigen, whereas absorption with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 cells removed reactivity. These data suggest that the 58-kDa antigen may prove useful in serodiagnostic tests for legionellosis. Images PMID:3517046

  14. A remote drip infusion monitoring system employing Bluetooth.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Maki, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a remote drip infusion monitoring system for use in hospitals. The system consists of several infusion monitoring devices and a central monitor. The infusion monitoring device employing a Bluetooth module can detect the drip infusion rate and an empty infusion solution bag, and then these data are sent to the central monitor placed at the nurses' station via the Bluetooth. The central monitor receives the data from several infusion monitoring devices and then displays graphically them. Therefore, the developed system can monitor intensively the drip infusion situation of the several patients at the nurses' station.

  15. Wearable vital parameters monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramaliu, Radu Vadim; Vasile, Alexandru; Bacis, Irina

    2015-02-01

    The system we propose monitors body temperature, heart rate and beside this, it tracks if the person who wears it suffers a faint. It uses a digital temperature sensor, a pulse sensor and a gravitational acceleration sensor to monitor the eventual faint or small heights free falls. The system continuously tracks the GPS position when available and stores the last valid data. So, when measuring abnormal vital parameters the module will send an SMS, using the GSM cellular network , with the person's social security number, the last valid GPS position for that person, the heart rate, the body temperature and, where applicable, a valid fall alert or non-valid fall alert. Even though such systems exist, they contain only faint detection or heart rate detection. Usually there is a strong correlation between low/high heart rate and an eventual faint. Combining both features into one system results in a more reliable detection device.

  16. Seizures and hypothermia: importance of electroencephalographic monitoring and considerations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Geraldine B; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Wusthoff, Courtney J

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a common cause of seizures in neonates. Despite the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia, seizure rates are similar to those reported in the pre-therapeutic hypothermia era. However, the seizure profile has been altered resulting in a lower overall seizure burden, shorter individual seizure durations, and seizures that are harder to detect. Electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring is the gold standard for detecting all seizures in neonates and this is even more critical in neonates who are cooled, as they are often sedated, making seizures more difficult to detect. Several studies have shown that the majority of seizures in neonates undergoing therapeutic hypothermia remain subclinical, thus requiring EEG monitoring for diagnosis. Amplitude-integrated EEG monitoring is useful but shorter duration seizures are more likely to be missed. Evidence is emerging about the pharmacokinetic profile of routinely used antiepileptic drugs during therapeutic hypothermia and some modifications have been suggested, particularly for lidocaine use.

  17. Seizures and hypothermia: importance of electroencephalographic monitoring and considerations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Geraldine B; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Wusthoff, Courtney J

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a common cause of seizures in neonates. Despite the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia, seizure rates are similar to those reported in the pre-therapeutic hypothermia era. However, the seizure profile has been altered resulting in a lower overall seizure burden, shorter individual seizure durations, and seizures that are harder to detect. Electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring is the gold standard for detecting all seizures in neonates and this is even more critical in neonates who are cooled, as they are often sedated, making seizures more difficult to detect. Several studies have shown that the majority of seizures in neonates undergoing therapeutic hypothermia remain subclinical, thus requiring EEG monitoring for diagnosis. Amplitude-integrated EEG monitoring is useful but shorter duration seizures are more likely to be missed. Evidence is emerging about the pharmacokinetic profile of routinely used antiepileptic drugs during therapeutic hypothermia and some modifications have been suggested, particularly for lidocaine use. PMID:25683598

  18. Luminosity monitor.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-16

    Luminosity monitors are needed in each experiment doing spin physics at RHIC. They concentrate on the luminosity aspects here because, for example, with a 10{sup {minus}3} raw asymmetry in an experiment, an error of 10{sup {minus}4} in the luminosity is as significant as a 10% polarization error. Because luminosity is a property of how two beams overlap, the luminosity at an interaction region must be measured at that interaction region in order to be relevant to the experiment at that interaction region. The authors will have to do the physics and the luminosity measurements by using labels on the event sums according to the polarization labels on the colliding bunches. Most likely they will not have independent polarization measurement on each bunch, but only on all the filled bunches in a ring, or perhaps all the bunches that are actually used in an experiment. Most analyses can then be handled by using the nine combinations gotten from three kinds of bunches in each ring, +, {minus} and empty bunches. The empty bunches are needed to measure beam-gas background, (and some, like six in a row, are needed for the beam abort). Much of the difficulty comes from the fact that they must use a physics process to represent the luminosity. This process must have kinematic and geometric cuts both to reduce systematics such as beam-gas backgrounds, and to make it representative of the part of the interaction diamond from which the physics events come.

  19. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  20. The heat rate index indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Lasasso, M.; Runyan, B.; Napoli, J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a method of tracking unit performance through the use of a reference number called the Heat Rate Index Indicator. The ABB Power Plant Controls OTIS performance monitor is used to determine when steady load conditions exist and then to collect controllable and equipment loss data which significantly impact thermal efficiency. By comparing these loss parameters to those found during the previous heat balance, it is possible to develop a new adjusted heat rate curve. These impacts on heat rate are used to changes the shape of the tested heat rate curve by the appropriate percentages over a specified load range. Mathcad is used to determine the Heat Rate Index by integrating for the areas beneath the adjusted heat rate curve and a heat rate curve that represents the unit`s ideal heat rate curve is the Heat Rate Index. An index of 1.0 indicates that the unit is operating at an ideal efficiency, while an index of less than 1.0 indicates that the unit is operating at less than ideal conditions. A one per cent change in the Heat Rate Index is equivalent to a one percent change in heat rate. The new shape of the adjusted heat rate curve and the individual curves generated from the controllable and equipment loss parameters are useful for determining performance problems in specific load ranges.

  1. Remote monitoring for international safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    Remote monitoring is not a new technology, and its application to safeguards relevant activities has been examined for a number of years. On behalf of the US Department of Energy and international partners, remote monitoring systems have been emplaced in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world. The experience gained from these field trials of remote monitoring systems has shown the viability of the concept of using integrated monitoring systems. Although a wide variety of sensors has been used in the remote monitoring field trials conducted to date, the possible range of instrumentation that might be used has scarcely been touched. As the technology becomes widespread, large amounts of data will become available to inspectors responsible for safeguards activities at the sites. Effective use of remote monitoring will require processing, archiving, presenting, and assessing of these data. To provide reasonable efficiency in the application of this technology, data processing should be done in a careful and organized manner. The problem will be not an issue of poring over scant records but of surviving under a deluge of information made possible by modern technology. Fortunately, modern technology, which created the problem of the data glut, is available to come to the assistance of those inundated by data. Apart from the technological problems, one of the most important aspects of remote monitoring is the potential constraint related to the transmission of data out of a facility or beyond national borders. Remote monitoring across national borders can be seriously considered only in the context of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime.

  2. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOEpatents

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  3. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Ballard, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

  4. Monitoring chaos of cardiac rhythms

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer-Kress, G.

    1989-01-01

    Chaos theory provides a new paradigm in monitoring complexity changes in heart rate variability. Even in cases where the spectral analysis only shows broad band characteristics estimations of dimensional complexity parameters can show quantitative changes in the degree of chaos present in the interbeat interval dynamics. We introduce the concept of dimensional complexity as dynamical monitoring parameter and discuss its properties in connection with control data and data taken during cardiac arrest. Whereas dimensional complexity provides a quantitative indicator of overall chaotic behavior, recurrence plots allow direct visualization of recurrences in arbitrary high dimensional pattern-space. In combination these two methods from non-linear dynamics exemplify a new approach in the problem of heart rate monitoring and identification of precursors of cardiac arrest. Finally we mention a new method of chaotic control, by which selective and highly effective perturbations of nonlinear dynamical systems could be used for improved pacing patterns. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  5. MAD - Monitoring ALICE Dataflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Grigoras, C.; Wegrzynek, A.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Following a successful Run 1, which ended in February 2013, the ALICE data acquisition (DAQ) entered a consolidation phase to prepare for Run 2 which will start in the beginning of 2015. A new software tool has been developed by the data acquisition project to improve the monitoring of the experiment's dataflow, from the data readout in the DAQ farm up to its shipment to CERN's main computer centre. This software, called ALICE MAD (Monitoring ALICE Dataflow), uses the MonALISA framework as core module to gather, process, aggregate and distribute monitoring values from the different processes running in the distributed DAQ farm. Data are not only pulled from the data sources to MAD but can also be pushed by dedicated data collectors or the data source processes. A large set of monitored metrics (from the backpressure status on the readout links to event counters in each of the DAQ nodes and aggregated data rates for the whole data acquisition) is needed to provide a comprehensive view of the DAQ status. MAD also injects alarms in the Orthos alarm system whenever abnormal conditions are detected. The MAD web-based GUI uses WebSockets to provide dynamic and on-time status displays for the ALICE shift crew. Designed as a widget-based system, MAD supports an easy integration of new visualization blocks and also customization of the information displayed to the shift crew based on the ALICE activities.

  6. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. Results BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non‐dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. Conclusions When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non‐invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. PMID:26524104

  7. Monitoring the inhibition of erosion by a CO2 laser with OCT

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for measuring small dimensional changes on tooth surfaces, OCT has great potential for monitoring tooth erosion. Previous studies have shown that enamel areas ablated by a carbon dioxide laser manifested lower rates of erosion compared to the non-ablated areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a model to monitor erosion in vitro that could potentially be used in vivo. Teeth surfaces were irradiated with a carbon dioxide laser at low sub-ablative fluence to create an acid-resistant reference layer without damaging the enamel. The laser treated areas were compared with the unprotected areas using OCT during exposure to a pH cycling model for up to 6 days. The laser treated areas markedly reduced the rate of erosion. PMID:24817804

  8. Monitoring the inhibition of erosion by a CO2 laser with OCT.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenneth H; Tom, Henry; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-18

    Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for measuring small dimensional changes on tooth surfaces, OCT has great potential for monitoring tooth erosion. Previous studies have shown that enamel areas ablated by a carbon dioxide laser manifested lower rates of erosion compared to the non-ablated areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a model to monitor erosion in vitro that could potentially be used in vivo. Teeth surfaces were irradiated with a carbon dioxide laser at low sub-ablative fluence to create an acid-resistant reference layer without damaging the enamel. The laser treated areas were compared with the unprotected areas using OCT during exposure to a pH cycling model for up to 6 days. The laser treated areas markedly reduced the rate of erosion.

  9. Continuous monitoring of particle emissions during showering.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Kenneth A; Ollison, Will M

    2006-12-01

    Particle formation from showering may be attributed to dissolved mineral aerosols remaining after evaporation of micron-sized satellite droplets produced by the showerhead or from splashing of larger shower water droplets on surfaces. Duplicate continuous particle monitors measured particle size distributions in a ventilated residential bathroom under various showering conditions, using a full-size mannequin in the shower to simulate splashing effects during showering. Particle mass concentrations were estimated from measured shower particle number densities and used to develop emission factors for inhalable particles. Emission source strengths of 2.7-41.3 microg/ m3/min were estimated under the various test conditions using residential tap water in Columbus, OH. Calculated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the bathroom reached several hundred micrograms per cubic meter; calculated coarse particulate matter (PM10) levels approached 1000 microg/m3. Rates of particle formation tended to be highest for coarse shower spray settings with direct impact on the mannequin. No consistent effects of water temperature, water pressure, or spray setting on overall emission rates were apparent, although water temperature and spray setting did have an effect when varied within a single shower sampling run. Salt solutions were injected into the source water during some tests to assess the effects of total dissolved solids on particle emission rates. Injection of salts was shown to increase the PM2.5 particle formation rate by approximately one third, on average, for a doubling in tap water-dissolved solids content; PM10 source strengths approximately doubled under these conditions, because very few particles >10 microm were formed. PMID:17195485

  10. Observations on the luminosity lifetimes, emittance growth rates and intra-beam scattering at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L.G. Lebrun et al.

    2003-05-22

    A record luminosity of 4.2 10{sup 31}has been reached at the Fermilab p-{bar p} collider. The lifetime of this luminosity at the beginning of the store is about 10 hours. This lifetime can be explained by the measured loss of anti-protons and protons due to collisions and emittance growths. We report on transverse emittance growth rates based on our Synchrotron Light Monitor. Longitudinal emittance growth rate measurements are based on the TeV Sampled Bunch Display data. It is shown that Intra Beam Scattering is a significant source of emittance growth rates. We comment on other possible factors for these observed emittance growth rates. Finally, we comment on future luminosity lifetimes, as we hope to further increase our peak luminosity.

  11. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  12. Development of living body information monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Torigoe, Ippei; Miyagawa, Hidekazu; Murayama, Nobuki; Hayashida, Yuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2009-12-01

    The easy monitoring systems of contact and non-contact living body information for preventing the the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were proposed as an alternative monitoring system of the infant's vital information. As for the contact monitoring system, respiration sensor, ECG electrodes, thermistor and IC signal processor were integrated into babies' nappy holder. This contact-monitoring unit has RF transmission function and the obtained data are analyzed in real time by PC. In non-contact mortaring system, the infrared thermo camera was used. The surrounding of the infant's mouth and nose is monitored and the respiration rate is obtained by thermal image processing of its temperature change image of expired air. This proposed system of in-sleep infant's vital information monitoring system and unit are very effective as not only infant's condition monitoring but also nursing person's one.

  13. Development of living body information monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Torigoe, Ippei; Miyagawa, Hidekazu; Murayama, Nobuki; Hayashida, Yuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2010-03-01

    The easy monitoring systems of contact and non-contact living body information for preventing the the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were proposed as an alternative monitoring system of the infant's vital information. As for the contact monitoring system, respiration sensor, ECG electrodes, thermistor and IC signal processor were integrated into babies' nappy holder. This contact-monitoring unit has RF transmission function and the obtained data are analyzed in real time by PC. In non-contact mortaring system, the infrared thermo camera was used. The surrounding of the infant's mouth and nose is monitored and the respiration rate is obtained by thermal image processing of its temperature change image of expired air. This proposed system of in-sleep infant's vital information monitoring system and unit are very effective as not only infant's condition monitoring but also nursing person's one.

  14. 40 CFR 63.605 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the mass flow of phosphorus-bearing feed material to the process. The monitoring system shall have an... either the mass flow of phosphorus-bearing feed material to the dryer or calciner, or the mass flow of... total mass rate in metric ton/hour of phosphorus bearing feed using a monitoring system for...

  15. Monitoring hand hygiene: meaningless, harmful, or helpful?

    PubMed

    Larson, Elaine

    2013-05-01

    Whereas monitoring adherence to hand hygiene (HH) guidelines is standard practice in most acute care facilities, practice improvement has been slow. In hospitals primarily concerned with reputation, incentives to report high HH rates may create negative consequences. Practice change will require increased staff engagement and more sustainable methods to monitor HH and provide feedback.

  16. Automatic calorimetry system monitors RF power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harness, B. W.; Heiberger, E. C.

    1969-01-01

    Calorimetry system monitors the average power dissipated in a high power RF transmitter. Sensors measure the change in temperature and the flow rate of the coolant, while a multiplier computes the power dissipated in the RF load.

  17. Apparatus for monitoring linear explosive performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques provide performance monitoring standard for acceptance, lot qualification, and comparison testing of devices. Exhibit high degree of simplicity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Apparatus simultaneously measures explosive pressure stimulus energy, explosive cutting, or rupturing, ability, and detonation propagation rate.

  18. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Biermann, A; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Gouveia, F J; Grayson, A; Harrach, R J; Hoppes, W G; Jones, H; Mathews, S; Merrigan, J R; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M; Rueppel, D; Sanchez, L; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, B; Williams, R

    2006-01-10

    Environmental monitoring personnel from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) prepared this ''Environmental Monitoring Plan'' (EMP) to meet the requirements in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' (DOE 1991) and applicable portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 (see WSS B93 and B94 in Appendix B). ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' is followed as a best management practice; under Work Smart Standards, LLNL complies with portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 as shown in Appendix B. This document is a revision of the May 1999 EMP (Tate et al. 1999) and is current as of March 1, 2002. LLNL is one of the nation's premier applied-science national security laboratories. Its primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable, and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. LLNL's programs in advanced technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and basic science apply LLNL's unique capabilities and enhance the competencies needed for this national security mission. LLNL's mission also involves working with industrial and academic partners to increase national competitiveness and improve science education. LLNL's mission is dynamic and has changed over the years to meet new national needs. In keeping with the Laboratory's mission, the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) have top priority. LLNL's policy is to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage. The environment, safety, and health are to be priority considerations in the planning and execution of all work activities at the Laboratory (LLNL 2001). Furthermore, it is the policy of LLNL to comply with applicable ES&H laws, regulations, and requirements

  19. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  20. An Optimized International Vehicle Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    York, R.L.; Close, D.A.; Fehlau, P.E.

    1999-07-16

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to evaluate detector configurations to achieve a vehicle monitor that is economical, practical to install, and has adequate sensitivity to be an effective barrier to illegal transportation of special nuclear materials. We designed a new detector configuration that improves the sensitivity of available drive-through vehicle monitors by more than a factor of 5 while not changing the nuisance alarm rate.