Science.gov

Sample records for rate monitoring shown

  1. Noninvasive Heart Rate Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    NUMOEN2. GVT ACCESSION NO.2 ReCIPICUTS CATALOG NUMOeaR 14 -A674P ;-FR 4. TITLE (end S.dU. L TYPE OF RgPORT & PCFmOO covgeno Noninvasive Heart Rate monitor...WHNWIM AMINOw3 I& SUPPLEMENTARYV NOTES A9-W A IS. KCY WORDS (Canam. an ,. d" it4 II wooe.p ad IiEEr 6F AAm Heart Raet Monitor; Doppler Detector...of using a handheld, battery operated, cv microwave radar, operating at 2.45 GHs, for use as a heart rate monitor under chemically contaminated

  2. Biases of Success Rate Differences Shown in Binomial Effect Size Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    2004-01-01

    The intent of a binomial effect size display (BESD) is to show "the [real-world] importance of [an] effect indexed by a correlation [r]" (R. Rosenthal, 1994, p. 242) by reexpressing this correlation as a success rate difference (SRD) (e.g., treatment group success rate - control group success rate). However, SRDs displayed in BESDs generally…

  3. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  4. Multifaceted bundle interventions shown effective in reducing VAP rates in our multidisciplinary ICUs.

    PubMed

    Marini, Abdel Latif; Khan, Raymond; Mundekkadan, Shihab

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) remains a worldwide harm associated with hospital acquired infection. Our VAP rate at King Abdulaziz Medical City was 4.0 per 1 000 patient days at baseline. All regulatory bodies continue to emphasize the importance of reducing these infections and include a guideline of practice recommendations to address them, notably the VAP bundle by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Our baseline compliance was low and measured to be 83%; this was perceived as an opportunity to work on revising our interventions in the ICUs. An improvement team gathered in 2013, and following the "model of improvement" methodology, along with a sequence of parallel PDSAs, they were able to increase compliance with the care bundle and sustain it above 95% for more than one year. This translated in a decrease in the VAP rate from 4.0 to 0.8 in all different multidisciplinary ICUs.

  5. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  6. Noninvasive Heart Rate Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-31

    plethysmography can be applied to various parts of the body such as finger, toe, ear, forehead, neck, wrist and so on. The choice of location is predicated upon...frequency, hydrostatic, cardiac vibration wave is also explored. 3 2.0 METHODOLOGY The basic methodology and underlying principle of the heart rate monitor...regarding heart rate can be extracted in a number of ways. In the present application, the Doppler effect will be utilized. The principle of

  7. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone’s camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, ‘Unique Heart Rate Monitor’, you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal reflection and sharing with a provider. PMID:28293594

  8. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  9. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  10. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Don L; Hart, Toryalai; Larson-Prior, Linda J; Baird, Bill; Olson, Marram; Trumpis, Michael; Makayed, Katherine; Bavafa, Payam

    2006-01-01

    Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves). Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone)]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1) Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2) These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3) The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide new methods for

  11. Acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    1991-01-01

    The acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor permits an expectant mother to perform the fetal Non-Stress Test in her home. The potential market would include the one million U.S. pregnancies per year requiring this type of prenatal surveillance. The monitor uses polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric polymer film for the acoustic sensors, which are mounted in a seven-element array on a cummerbund. Evaluation of the sensor ouput signals utilizes a digital signal processor, which performs a linear prediction routine in real time. Clinical tests reveal that the acoustically based monitor provides Non-Stress Test records which are comparable to those obtained with a commercial ultrasonic transducer.

  12. Heart Rate and Electrocardiography Monitoring in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ho, David; Zhao, Xin; Gao, Shumin; Hong, Chull; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of current cardiovascular research involves studies in genetically engineered mouse models. The measurement of heart rate is central to understanding cardiovascular control under normal conditions, with altered autonomic tone, superimposed stress or disease states, both in wild type mice as well as those with altered genes. Electrocardiography (ECG) is the “gold standard” using either hard wire or telemetry transmission. In addition, heart rate is measured or monitored from the frequency of the arterial pressure pulse or cardiac contraction, or by pulse oximetry. For each of these techniques, discussions of materials and methods, as well as advantages and limitations are covered. However, only the direct ECG monitoring will determine not only the precise heart rates but also whether the cardiac rhythm is normal or not. PMID:21743842

  13. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  14. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... of monitoring? • How is auscultation performed? • How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? • How is external monitoring performed? • ... method of periodically listening to the fetal heartbeat. Electronic fetal monitoring is a procedure in which instruments ...

  15. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA.

  16. Design of an FECG scalp electrode fetal heart rate monitor.

    PubMed

    Reguig, F B; Kirk, D L

    1996-03-01

    The design of a fetal heart rate (FHR) monitor using fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) scalp electrodes is described. It is shown that the design approach followed two stages: generation of FHR pulses at R-R intervals and FHR computation. The former uses a simple hardware approach for QRS detection and R-wave enhancement, while the latter requires a software implementation in order to produce FHR traces on a beat to beat basis. The QRS detection is based on bandpass filtering using switched mode capacitor technique; the R-wave enhancement and amplitude information are achieved by differentiation followed by fullwave rectification and peak detection. An adaptive threshold together with a comparator circuit are used to generate FHR pulses at R-R intervals. Beat to beat variations of FHR traces are produced by hardware and software implementation on a Z80 microprocessor board. Results obtained by the FHR monitor are evaluated and contrasted to other commercial FHR monitors.

  17. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors For Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  18. Improving Video Based Heart Rate Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Rozado, David; Duenser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Non-contact measurements of cardiac pulse can provide robust measurement of heart rate (HR) without the annoyance of attaching electrodes to the body. In this paper we explore a novel and reliable method to carry out video-based HR estimation and propose various performance improvement over existing approaches. The investigated method uses Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to detect the underlying HR signal from a mixed source signal present in the RGB channels of the image. The original ICA algorithm was implemented and several modifications were explored in order to determine which one could be optimal for accurate HR estimation. Using statistical analysis, we compared the cardiac pulse rate estimation from the different methods under comparison on the extracted videos to a commercially available oximeter. We found that some of these methods are quite effective and efficient in terms of improving accuracy and latency of the system. We have made the code of our algorithms openly available to the scientific community so that other researchers can explore how to integrate video-based HR monitoring in novel health technology applications. We conclude by noting that recent advances in video-based HR monitoring permit computers to be aware of a user's psychophysiological status in real time.

  19. Clinical evaluation of a novel respiratory rate monitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory rate has been shown to be an important predictor of cardiac arrest, respiratory adverse events and intensive care unit admission and has been designated a vital sign. However it is often inadequately monitored in hospitals. We test the hypothesis that RespiraSense, a piezoelectric-based novel respiratory rate (RR) monitor which measures the differential motion of the chest and abdomen during respiratory effort, is not inferior to commonly used methods of respiratory rate measurement. Respiratory rate was compared between the developed RespiraSense device and both electrocardiogram and direct observation by nursing staff. Data was collected from 48 patients admitted to the post-anaesthesia care unit in a tertiary level hospital. The primary outcome measure was difference in average RR calculated over a 15 min interval between (1) RespiraSense and ECG and (2) RespiraSense and nurses' evaluation. The secondary outcome measure was the correlation between the respiratory rates measured using these three methods. The 95 % confidence interval for the difference in average RR between RespiraSense and ECG was calculated to be [-3.9, 3.1]. The 95 % confidence interval for the difference in average RR between RespiraSense and nurses' evaluation was [-5.5, 4.3]. We demonstrate a clinically relevant agreement between RR monitored by the RespiraSense device with both ECG-derived and manually observed RR in 48 post-surgical patients in a PACU environment.

  20. Monitoring Error Rates In Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Leigh J.; Ma, Duanduan; Levine, Stuart S.

    2016-01-01

    Guaranteeing high-quality next-generation sequencing data in a rapidly changing environment is an ongoing challenge. The introduction of the Illumina NextSeq 500 and the depreciation of specific metrics from Illumina's Sequencing Analysis Viewer (SAV; Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) have made it more difficult to determine directly the baseline error rate of sequencing runs. To improve our ability to measure base quality, we have created an open-source tool to construct the Percent Perfect Reads (PPR) plot, previously provided by the Illumina sequencers. The PPR program is compatible with HiSeq 2000/2500, MiSeq, and NextSeq 500 instruments and provides an alternative to Illumina's quality value (Q) scores for determining run quality. Whereas Q scores are representative of run quality, they are often overestimated and are sourced from different look-up tables for each platform. The PPR’s unique capabilities as a cross-instrument comparison device, as a troubleshooting tool, and as a tool for monitoring instrument performance can provide an increase in clarity over SAV metrics that is often crucial for maintaining instrument health. These capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27672352

  1. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... inserted through the vagina into your uterus. Internal monitoring can be used only after the membranes of the amniotic sac have ruptured (after “your water breaks” or is broken). What happens if the ...

  2. Infrared imaging based hyperventilation monitoring through respiration rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna

    2016-07-01

    A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography based approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration rates. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath rate. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact based methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image based approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.

  3. Case Studies in Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yee, J.; Parboosingh, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    Subtle changes in the characteristics of the fetal heart rate are currently used to assess the condition of the fetus in late pregnancy and during labour. The authors present three case studies of fetal heart rate monitoring. PMID:21267323

  4. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  5. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  6. [Acoustic respiratory rate monitoring in a patient with a tracheostomy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Toda, Yuichiro; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masao; Shimizu, Kazuyoshi; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic respiratory rate (RRa) monitoring has been validated for patients after general anesthesia and has been shown to be a useful technique. However, its feasibility in patients with a tracheostomy has not been assessed yet. Successful monitoring of RRa in a patient with a tracheostomy is described in this case report. A 56-year-old male patient was scheduled for cranioplasty after severe subarachnoidal hemorrhage under general anesthesia. A tracheostomy tube had been placed in the patient because of airway obstruction and altered spontaneous breathing. The acoustic sensor was placed at the usual position and RRa was successfully monitored by Rad 87 (Masimo Corp., Irvine). Statistical analysis was made for comparison of respiratory rate determined by RRa monitoring with respiratory rate visually counted by intensive care nurses. There was no statistically significant difference between the two respiratory rates (P = 0.82). RRa monitoring is useful even in patients with a tracheostomy.

  7. Monitoring nocturnal heart rate with bed sensor.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, M; Kortelainen, J M; Pärkkä, J; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S L; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the estimated Nocturnal Heart Rate (HR), recorded through a bed sensor, compared with the one obtained from standard electrocardiography (ECG). Twenty-eight sleep deprived patients were recorded for one night each through matrix of piezoelectric sensors, integrated into the mattress, through polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously. The two recording methods have been compared in terms of signal quality and differences in heart beat detection. On average, coverage of 92.7% of the total sleep time was obtained for the bed sensor, testifying the good quality of the recordings. The average beat-to-beat error of the inter-beat intervals was 1.06%. These results suggest a good overall signal quality, however, considering fast heart rates (HR > 100 bpm), performances were worse: in fact, the sensitivity in the heart beat detection was 28.4% while the false positive rate was 3.8% which means that a large amount of fast beats were not detected. The accuracy of the measurements made using the bed sensor has less than 10% of failure rate especially in periods with HR lower than 70 bpm. For fast heart beats the uncertainty increases. This can be explained by the change in morphology of the bed sensor signal in correspondence of a higher HR.

  8. Interaction of a commercial heart rate monitor with implanted pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Joglar, J A; Hamdan, M H; Welch, P J; Page, R L

    1999-03-01

    Dry-electrode heart rate monitors allow display of heart rate by transmitting a signal to the receiving device, which typically is on the wrist or exercise machine, but due to the potential for electromagnetic interference, their use has been contraindicated in patients with pacemakers. In 12 patients, we found no adverse effect on pacemaker function; in addition, the monitors generally were accurate in measuring heart rate during pacing.

  9. ATLAS trigger operations: Monitoring with ``Xmon'' rate prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aukerman, Andrew; Hong, Tae Min

    2017-01-01

    We present the operations and online monitoring with the ``Xmon'' rate prediction system for the trigger system at the ATLAS Experiment. A two-level trigger system reduces the LHC's bunch-crossing rate, 40 MHz at design capacity, to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz, while maintaining a high efficiency of selecting events of interest. The Xmon system uses the luminosity value to predict trigger rates that are, in turn, compared with incoming rates. The predictions rely on past runs to parameterize the luminosity dependency of the event rate for a trigger algorithm. Some examples are given to illustrate the performance of the tool during recent operations.

  10. Highly sensitive radon monitor and radon emanation rates for detector components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E.; Komori, M.; Takahisa, K.; Kudomi, N.; Kume, K.; Hayashi, K.; Yoshida, S.; Ohsumi, H.; Ejiri, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Tasaka, S.

    2001-02-01

    The radon emanation rates for materials were measured by using the electrostatic precipitation method as a radon monitor. It was found that a low level of radon was emanated from several material components in ELEGANT V. The radon monitor has been developed for the highly sensitive measurements of low-level radon concentration. The system was shown to have a sensitivity to radon concentrations as low as 1.6 mBq/ m3 for one day measurement. The system was also used as the radon concentration monitor for the gas inside the airtight box of the ELEGANT V at Oto Cosmo Observatory.

  11. Towards 24/7 continuous heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tarniceriu, Adrian; Parak, Jakub; Renevey, Philippe; Nurmi, Marko; Bertschi, Mattia; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2016-08-01

    Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) carry rich information about physical activity, mental and physical load, physiological status, and health of an individual. When combined with activity monitoring and personalized physiological modelling, HR/HRV monitoring may be used for monitoring of complex behaviors and impact of behaviors and external factors on the current physiological status of an individual. Optical HR monitoring (OHR) from wrist provides a comfortable and unobtrusive method for HR/HRV monitoring and is better adhered by users than traditional ECG electrodes or chest straps. However, OHR power consumption is significantly higher than that for ECG based methods due to the measurement principle based on optical illumination of the tissue. We developed an algorithmic approach to reduce power consumption of the OHR in 24/7 HR trending. We use continuous activity monitoring and a fast converging frequency domain algorithm to derive a reliable HR estimate in 7.1s (during outdoor sports, in average) to 10.0s (during daily life). The method allows >80% reduction in power consumption in 24/7 OHR monitoring when average HR monitoring is targeted, without significant reduction in tracking accuracy.

  12. Oxygen Mass Flow Rate Generated for Monitoring Hydrogen Peroxide Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard

    2002-01-01

    Recent interest in propellants with non-toxic reaction products has led to a resurgence of interest in hydrogen peroxide for various propellant applications. Because peroxide is sensitive to contaminants, material interactions, stability and storage issues, monitoring decomposition rates is important. Stennis Space Center (SSC) uses thermocouples to monitor bulk fluid temperature (heat evolution) to determine reaction rates. Unfortunately, large temperature rises are required to offset the heat lost into the surrounding fluid. Also, tank penetration to accomodate a thermocouple can entail modification of a tank or line and act as a source of contamination. The paper evaluates a method for monitoring oxygen evolution as a means to determine peroxide stability. Oxygen generation is not only directly related to peroxide decomposition, but occurs immediately. Measuring peroxide temperature to monitor peroxide stability has significant limitations. The bulk decomposition of 1% / week in a large volume tank can produce in excess of 30 cc / min. This oxygen flow rate corresponds to an equivalent temperature rise of approximately 14 millidegrees C, which is difficult to measure reliably. Thus, if heat transfer were included, there would be no temperature rise. Temperature changes from the surrounding environment and heat lost to the peroxide will also mask potential problems. The use of oxygen flow measurements provides an ultra sensitive technique for monitoring reaction events and will provide an earlier indication of an abnormal decomposition when compared to measuring temperature rise.

  13. Evaluation of wearable consumer heart rate monitors based on photopletysmography.

    PubMed

    Parak, Jakub; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Wearable monitoring of heart rate (HR) during physical activity and exercising allows real time control of exercise intensity and training effect. Recently, technologies based on pulse plethysmography (PPG) have become available for personal health management for consumers. However, the accuracy of these monitors is poorly known which limits their application. In this study, we evaluated accuracy of two PPG based (wrist i.e. Mio Alpha vs forearm i.e. Schosche Rhythm) commercially available HR monitors during exercise. 21 healthy volunteers (15 male and 6 female) completed an exercise protocol which included sitting, lying, walking, running, cycling, and some daily activities involving hand movements. HR estimation was compared against values from the reference electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The heart rate estimation reliability scores for <;5% accuracy against reference were following: mio Alpha 77,83% and Scosche Rhytm 76,29%. The estimated results indicate that performance of devices depends on various parameters, including specified activity, sensor type and device placement.

  14. Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

    2004-01-01

    National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

  15. [THE REMOTE MONITORING OF ARTERIAL PRESSURE AND RATE OF HEARTBEATS].

    PubMed

    Shalkovskii, A G; Kuptsov, S M; Berseneva, E A

    2015-01-01

    The article considers issues of necessity of development and implementation of remote monitoring of arterial blood pressure and rate of heartbeats as a mean of enhancing quality of medical care of patients. The main characteristics of development of specialized automated system as an integral component of the project is considered too.

  16. Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

    2004-01-01

    National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

  17. Concurrent validity of the Armour39 heart rate monitor strap.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Dupont, William H; Sterczala, Adam R; Looney, Dave P; Dombrowski, Dylan H; McDermott, Danielle M; Bryce, Alexander; Maladouangdock, Jesse; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Luk, Hui-Ying; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kraemer, William J

    2014-03-01

    New technology offers potential advantages in physically demanding environments where convenience and comfort are important and accurate and reliable data collection is challenging. Nevertheless, it is important to validate the accuracy and reliability of such biological monitoring systems (BMS) before they are adopted. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the concurrent validity of a new heart rate monitor across a range of exercise intensities and with a large and diverse group of male subjects in a large cohort with diverse physical fitness characteristics. Seventy-five men (age, 23 ± 4 years; height, 181 ± 8 cm; body mass, 83 ± 12 kg; estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 3.16 ± 0.63 [L·min]) volunteered and completed a graded cycle ergometer exercise protocol while heart rate was continuously monitored before, during, and after exercise with the new device (Armour39) and the gold standard (electrocardiogram). The 2-minute stages included sitting, standing, and cycling with 35 W increments until volitional fatigue. The coefficient of determination between mean heart rate values at each stage was R = 0.99, whereas Pearson correlations (r) at each stage were ≥ 0.99. Heart rates during exercise were typically within 1 beat of each other. The Armour39 BMS, therefore, is an acceptable means for the valid and reliable determination of heart rate under various bodily positions and levels of exertion, including maximal exercise intensity.

  18. Low data rate ultra wideband ECG monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Keong, Ho Chee; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a successfully implemented wireless electrocardiograph monitoring using low data rate ultra wideband (UWB) transmission. Low data rate ultra wideband is currently under consideration for the newly formed wireless body area network (WBAN) group (IEEE802.15.6) to develop a standard for wireless vital sign monitoring. Maximizing the transmission power of the transmitter and reducing the stringent requirements and complexity of the receiver have always been the key considerations for an UWB transceiver. Multiple pulses per bit has been sent in our low data rate UWB prototype system to increase the transmitter power, to reduce the complexity of the receiver and to ease the requirement on the receiver's analog to digital converter. Non-coherent technique has been used for the demodulation of UWB signals at the receiver that reduces the receiver complexity further.

  19. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  20. Prone position craniotomy in pregnancy without fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jean; Alexander, Ashish; Philip, Shoba; Thomas, Anoop

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant patient in second trimester scheduled for posterior fossa craniotomy in prone position is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Things to consider are physiological changes during pregnancy, non-obstetric surgery in pregnant patients, neuroanesthetic principles, effects of prone positioning, and need for fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring. We have described the anesthetic management of this case and discussed intra-operative FHR monitoring including controversies about its role, indications, and various options available as per fetal gestational age. In our case we attempted intermittent intra-operative FHR monitoring to optimize maternal positioning and fetal oxygenation even though the fetus was pre-viable. However the attempt was abandoned due to practical difficulties with prone positioning. Patient made good neurological recovery following the procedure and delivered a healthy term baby 4 months later. Decisions regarding fetal monitoring should be individualized based on viability of the fetus and feasibility of emergency cesarean delivery. Good communication between a multidisciplinary team involving neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, obstetrician, and neonatologist is important for a successful outcome for mother and fetus. We conclude that prone position neurosurgery can safely be carried out in a pregnant patient with pre-viable fetus without FHR monitoring.

  1. Signal processing methodologies for an acoustic fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III; Stoughton, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development is presented of real time signal processing methodologies for the detection of fetal heart tones within a noise-contaminated signal from a passive acoustic sensor. A linear predictor algorithm is utilized for detection of the heart tone event and additional processing derives heart rate. The linear predictor is adaptively 'trained' in a least mean square error sense on generic fetal heart tones recorded from patients. A real time monitor system is described which outputs to a strip chart recorder for plotting the time history of the fetal heart rate. The system is validated in the context of the fetal nonstress test. Comparisons are made with ultrasonic nonstress tests on a series of patients. Comparative data provides favorable indications of the feasibility of the acoustic monitor for clinical use.

  2. Commercialization and Industrial Development for the Fetal Hear Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives for this task were to continue the development and testing of the NASA/ODU passive acoustic fetal heart rate monitor, with the goal of transferring the technology to the commercial sector. Areas of work included: 1. To assist in the development of a new hardware front end electronics box for the fetal heart rate monitor, so as to reduce the size of the electronics box, and also to provide for a "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" mode of operation. To make necessary changes in the operating software to support the two modes of operation. 2. To provide an option for a strip chart recording for the system, so that medical personnel could more easily make comparisons with ultra sound strip chart recordings. and 3. To help with continued testing of the system.

  3. Pulse wave transit time for monitoring respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Ahlstrom, C; Lanne, T; Ask, P

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the beat-to-beat respiratory fluctuations in pulse wave transit time (PTT) and its subcomponents, the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and the vessel transit time (VTT) in ten healthy subjects. The three transit times were found to fluctuate in pace with respiration. When applying a simple breath detecting algorithm, 88% of the breaths seen in a respiration air-flow reference could be detected correctly in PTT. Corresponding numbers for PEP and VTT were 76 and 81%, respectively. The performance during hypo- and hypertension was investigated by invoking blood pressure changes. In these situations, the error rates in breath detection were significantly higher. PTT can be derived from signals already present in most standard monitoring set-ups. The transit time technology thus has prospects to become an interesting alternative for respiration rate monitoring.

  4. Heart Rate Monitor for Portable MP3 Player.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaywoo; Lee, Mi-Hee; Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan; Bang, Seokwon; Kim, Sangryong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a photoplethysmography sensor based on a heart rate monitor for a portable MP3 player. Two major design issues are addressed: one is to acquire the sensor signal with a proper amplitude despite a wide range of variation and the other is to handle the noise contaminated signal which is caused by a motion artifact. A benchmarking test with a professional medical photoplethysmography sensor shows that our device performs very well in calculating heart rate even though our photoplethysmography sensor module was designed to be cost effective.

  5. Non-Contact Heart Rate Monitoring Using Lab Color Space.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hamidur; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Research progressing during the last decade focuses more on non-contact based systems to monitor Heart Rate (HR) which are simple, low-cost and comfortable to use. Most of the non-contact based systems are using RGB videos which is suitable for lab environment. However, it needs to progress considerably before they can be applied in real life applications. As luminance (light) has significance contribution on RGB videos HR monitoring using RGB videos are not efficient enough in real life applications in outdoor environment. This paper presents a HR monitoring method using Lab color facial video captured by a webcam of a laptop computer. Lab color space is device independent and HR can be extracted through facial skin color variation caused by blood circulation considering variable environmental light. Here, three different signal processing methods i.e., Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied on the color channels in video recordings and blood volume pulse (BVP) has been extracted from the facial regions. In this study, HR is subsequently quantified and compare with a reference measurement. The result shows that high degrees of accuracy have been achieved compared to the reference measurements. Thus, this technology has significant potential for advancing personal health care, telemedicine and many real life applications such as driver monitoring.

  6. A Wearable Capacitive Sensor for Monitoring Human Respiratory Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Subrata Kumar; Kumagai, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    Realizing an untethered, low-cost, and comfortably wearable respiratory rate sensor for long-term breathing monitoring application still remains a challenge. In this paper, a conductive-textile-based wearable respiratory rate sensing technique based on the capacitive sensing approach is proposed. The sensing unit consists of two conductive textile electrodes that can be easily fabricated, laminated, and integrated in garments. Respiration cycle is detected by measuring the capacitance of two electrodes placed on the inner anterior and posterior sides of a T-shirt at either the abdomen or chest position. A convenient wearable respiratory sensor setup with a capacitance-to-voltage converter has been devised. Respiratory rate as well as breathing mode can be accurately identified using the designed sensor. The sensor output provides significant information on respiratory flow. The effectiveness of the proposed system for different breathing patterns has been evaluated by experiments.

  7. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  8. Evaporation rate and composition monitoring of electron beam PVD processes

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; Meier, T.; McClelland, M.A.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing sensor and control technology to improve the quality and range of applicability of electron beam PVD. The approach being developed uses tunable lasers to measure, the density and composition of the vapor plume. This paper reviews the principles of operation of laser based sensors and discusses data from experiments in which titanium and niobium are co-vaporized. Laser data agreed well with deposited film compositions and spatial variations in deposited film cross sections. Laser based vapor monitoring appears to have broad applicability and has the potential to extend the use of high rate electron beam PVD.

  9. Monitoring Progress in Population Health: Trends in Premature Death Rates

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, Bridget B.; Kindig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Trends in population health outcomes can be monitored to evaluate the performance of population health systems at the national, state, and local levels. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast 4 measures for assessing progress in population health improvement by using age-adjusted premature death rates as a summary measure of the overall health outcomes in the United States and in all 50 states. Methods To evaluate the performance of statewide population health systems during the past 20 years, we used 4 measures of age-adjusted premature (<75 years of age) death rates: current rates (2009), baseline trends (1990s), follow-up trends (2000s), and changes in trends from baseline to the follow-up periods (ie, “bending the curve”). Results Current premature death rates varied by approximately twofold, with the lowest rate in Minnesota (268 deaths per 100,000) and the highest rate in Mississippi (482 deaths per 100,000). Rates improved the most in New York during the baseline period (−3.05% per year) and in New Jersey during the follow-up period (−2.87% per year), whereas Oklahoma ranked last in trends during both periods (−0.30%/y, baseline; +0.18%/y, follow-up). Trends improved the most in Connecticut, bending the curve downward by −1.03%; trends worsened the most in New Mexico, bending the curve upward by 1.21%. Discussion Current premature death rates, recent trends, and changes in trends vary by state in the United States. Policy makers can use these measures to evaluate the long-term population health impact of broad health care, behavioral, social, and economic investments in population health. PMID:24370109

  10. Bluetooth(Registered Trademark) Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; West, Michael R.; Kalogera, Kent L.; Hanson, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required during exercise for crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data is required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth® heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health on board ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) was worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_RHM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the two data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. REULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6%error), followed by CS4 (3.3%error), CS3 (6.4%error), and CS2 (9.2%error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to get the best quality data. CS2 will be used in an

  11. Recharge in Karst Shrublands of Central Texas: Monitoring Drip Rates in Shallow Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazan, R. A.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Owens, K.; Shade, B.

    2007-12-01

    The exceedingly complex subsurface hydrology of karst landscapes presents formidable challenges to understanding recharge rates and the relationships between rainfall and recharge. In this study, we have established a network of drip collectors and monitoring stations in shallow caves in the Edwards Plateau to better understand the dynamics of recharge and eventually for determining the effect of woody plants on recharge rates. Understanding recharge rates has direct relevance for management of the Edwards Aquifer, which serves as the main source of fresh water for the city of San Antonio and surrounding communities, As population around San Antonio continues to grow so does the demand for water, in turn, a need to address the supply exists. We have instrumented two caves that lie within the Camp Bullis Training Facility north of San Antonio, Texas. Data collected at each site record precipitation on the surface and measure recharge inside the caves. Monitoring of natural rainfall events at these sites began in October 2004. To date, all monitoring and data collection has occurred with the juniper canopy in place. Results have shown that cave recharge is influenced by 1) rainfall intensity and duration, 2) antecedent soil moisture condition, 3) depth of soil, and 4) surface geology. We plan to remove the tree canopy in the summer of 2008 and continue monitoring cave recharge in response to natural and re-created rainfall events. Comparing data collected with and without juniper cover in place will allow us to determine if recharge may be increased by reducing tree cover.

  12. Assessment of error rates in acoustic monitoring with the R package monitoR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Jonathan; Hafner, Sasha D.; Donovan, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population-scale reactions to climate change and land-use change may require monitoring many sites for many years, a process that is suited for an automated system. We developed and tested monitoR, an R package for long-term, multi-taxa acoustic monitoring programs. We tested monitoR with two northeastern songbird species: black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens) and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). We compared detection results from monitoR in 52 10-minute surveys recorded at 10 sites in Vermont and New York, USA to a subset of songs identified by a human that were of a single song type and had visually identifiable spectrograms (e.g. a signal:noise ratio of at least 10 dB: 166 out of 439 total songs for black-throated green warbler, 502 out of 990 total songs for ovenbird). monitoR’s automated detection process uses a ‘score cutoff’, which is the minimum match needed for an unknown event to be considered a detection and results in a true positive, true negative, false positive or false negative detection. At the chosen score cut-offs, monitoR correctly identified presence for black-throated green warbler and ovenbird in 64% and 72% of the 52 surveys using binary point matching, respectively, and 73% and 72% of the 52 surveys using spectrogram cross-correlation, respectively. Of individual songs, 72% of black-throated green warbler songs and 62% of ovenbird songs were identified by binary point matching. Spectrogram cross-correlation identified 83% of black-throated green warbler songs and 66% of ovenbird songs. False positive rates were  for song event detection.

  13. Urine flow rate monitoring in hypovolemic multiple trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Klein, Yoram; Toledano, Ronen; Koyfman, Leonid; Frank, Dmitry; Shamir, Micha Y; Klein, Moti

    2017-01-01

    The urine output is an important clinical parameter of renal function and blood volume status, especially in critically ill multiple trauma patients. In the present study, the minute-to-minute urine flow rate and its variability were analyzed in hypotensive multiple trauma patients during the first 6 h of their ICU (intensive care unit) stay. These parameters have not been previously reported. The study was retrospective and observational. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the computerized Register Information Systems. A total of 59 patients were included in the study. The patients were divided into two study groups. Group 1 consisted of 29 multiple trauma patients whose systolic blood pressure was greater than 90 mmHg on admission to the ICU and who were consequently deemed to be hemodynamically compromised. Group 2 consisted of 30 patients whose systolic blood pressure was less than 90 mmHg on admission to the ICU and who were therefore regarded as hemodynamically uncompromised. The urine output and urine flow rate variability during the first 6 h of the patients' ICU stay was significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 (p < 0.001 and 0.006 respectively). Statistical analysis by the Pearson method demonstrated a strong direct correlation between decreased urine flow rate variability and decreased urine output per hour (R = 0.17; P = 0.009), decreased mean arterial blood pressure (R = 0.24; p = 0.001), and increased heart rate (R = 0.205; p = 0.001). These findings suggest that minute-to-minute urine flow rate variability is a reliable incipient marker of hypovolemia and that it should therefore take its place among the parameters used to monitor the hemodynamic status of critically ill multiple trauma patients.

  14. Heart rate variability monitoring and assessment system on chip.

    PubMed

    Massagram, Wansuree; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Macchiarulo, Luca; Chen, Mingqi

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system on a chip for heart rate variability monitoring and assessment. The system design applies digital techniques to measure RR intervals from ECG signals, then categorizes and stores HRV measures in an internal memory. The system has been tested for functionality, synthesized and laid out in a 0.5 μm CMOS technology in a 3x3 mm2chip with less than 1.5 μW power dissipation. The chip detects all R peaks with millisecond accuracy after the initial 2 seconds of data, and stores up to 2 minutes of continuous ECG data and up to 4 minutes of HRV histogram. Compact size, low cost, and low power consumption make this chip suitable for employment in modern implantable and portable devices.

  15. Assessment of heart rate variability in breath holding children by 24 hour Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Osman; Ciftel, Murat; Ozturk, Kezban; Kilic, Omer; Kahveci, Hasan; Laloğlu, Fuat; Ceylan, Ozben

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism in children with breath holding may be generalised autonomic dysregulation. Thus, we performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability analyses using 24-hour Holter monitoring to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. We performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate analyses using 24-hour Holter monitors to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children during a breath-holding spell. Our study group consisted of 68 children with breath-holding spells - 56 cyanotic type and 12 pallid type - and 39 healthy controls. Clinical and heart rate variability results were compared between each spell type - cyanotic or pallid - and the control group; significant differences (p<0.05) in standard deviation of all NN intervals, mean of the standard deviations of all NN intervals for all 5-minute segments, percentage of differences between adjacent RR intervals >50 ms, and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals values were found between the pallid and cyanotic groups. Holter monitoring for 24 hours and heart rate variability parameters, particularly in children with pallid spells, are crucial for evaluation of cardiac rhythm changes.

  16. Influences of environmental noise level and respiration rate on the accuracy of acoustic respiration rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Shizuha; Toyama, Hiroaki; Takei, Yusuke; Wagatsuma, Toshihiro; Yabuki, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2017-02-07

    We tested the hypothesis that the environmental noise generated by a forced-air warming system reduces the monitoring accuracy of acoustic respiration rate (RRa). Noise levels were adjusted to 45-55, 56-65, 66-75, and 76-85 dB. Healthy participants breathed at set respiration rates (RRset) of 6, 12, and 30/min. Under each noise level at each RRset, the respiration rates by manual counting (RRm) and RRa were recorded. Any appearance of the alarm display on the RRa monitor was also recorded. Each RRm of all participants agreed with each RRset at each noise level. At 45-55 dB noise, the RRa of 13, 17, and 17 participants agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. The RRa of 14, 17, and 16 participants at 56-65 dB noise, agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. At 66-75 dB noise, the RRa of 9, 15, and 16 participants agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. The RRa of one, nine, and nine participants at 76-85 dB noise agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively, which was significantly less than the other noise levels (P < 0.05). Overall, 72.9% of alarm displays highlighted incorrect values of RRa. In a noisy situation involving the operation of a forced-air warming system, the acoustic respiration monitoring should be used carefully especially in patients with a low respiration rate.

  17. Estimation of Measurement Characteristics of Ultrasound Fetal Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Yasuaki; Mamune, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Suguru; Yoshida, Atsushi; Sasa, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Hisaaki; Kobayashi, Mitsunao

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasound fetal heart rate monitoring is very useful to determine the status of the fetus because it is noninvasive. In order to ensure the accuracy of the fetal heart rate (FHR) obtained from the ultrasound Doppler data, we measure the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) directly and obtain the Doppler data simultaneously. The FHR differences of the Doppler data from the direct ECG data are concentrated at 0 bpm (beats per minute), and are practically symmetrical. The distribution is found to be very close to the Student's t distribution by the test of goodness of fit with the chi-square test. The spectral density of the FHR differences shows the white noise spectrum without any dominant peaks. Furthermore, the f-n (n>1) fluctuation is observed both with the ultrasound Doppler FHR and with the direct ECG FHR. Thus, it is confirmed that the FHR observation and observation of the f-n (n>1) fluctuation using the ultrasound Doppler FHR are as useful as the direct ECG.

  18. Heart rate monitoring in soccer: interest and limits during competitive match play and training, practical application.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Dellal; da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Wong, Del P; Natali, Antonio J; De Lima, Jorge R P; Bara Filho, Mauricio G B; Marins, Joao J C B; Garcia, Emerson Silami; Karim, Chamari

    2012-10-01

    The identification of physiological loads imposed by soccer training or match play reveals essential information, which may help improve training and recovery strategies. Until today, the use of heart rate (HR) monitoring is not standardized in soccer. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze, determine and compare the exercise intensity (EI) monitored by HR in professional, youth, and recreational soccer players during matches and training sessions using a meta-analysis. Heart rate is one of the most common physiological variables used to determine exercise internal training load. The mean EI recorded during competitive matches was described as 70-80% of VO2max or 80-90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), independent of the playing level. With respect to HR training zones, approximately 65% of the total match duration is spent at intensity of 70-90% HRmax and rarely below 65% HRmax. However, although HRmax is mostly employed in the literature, monitoring EI should be expressed in relation to reserve heart rate, as it was described as a more reliable indicator of HR, allowing interindividual comparisons. The HR response according to the playing position indicates that midfielders are characterized by the highest EI, followed by forwards and fullbacks. Moreover, in the second half of the match, the EI is lower than that observed during the first half; this reduction could be correlated with the level of the player's physical conditioning. Consequently, coaches may favor the use of interval training or small-sided training games because these are shown to improve both aerobic capacity and the ability to repeat high-intensity actions. Small-sided games allow reaching similar HR responses to those found during interval training and match play but with greater heterogeneity values. Future investigations should include a larger sample of players with special reference to playing position and the expression of EI in percentage of the reserve heart rate, analyzing the

  19. Longterm Monitoring of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates at Aviation Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Thomas; Briese, J.; Burda, O.; Burmeister, S.; Glaßmeier, K. H.; Haag, K. H.; Heber, B.; Klages, T.; Langner, F.; Luchtenberg, F.; Matthiae, D.; Meier, M.; Nezel, M.; Reitz, G.; Wissmann, F.

    Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) are high energetic charged particles, mainly protons and alpha-particles, originating from galactic sources and impinging on the Earth from all directions. The intensity of these particles is modulated by the solar activity, the Earth's magnetosphere and its atmosphere. Depending on the geomagnetic latitude only particles above certain cut-off rigidities can reach the top of the atmosphere. The cut-off rigidity is independent of the par-ticle sort; it is lowest over the magnetic poles and highest close to the equator. In the Earth's atmosphere, interactions of incident cosmic particles with atoms of the atmosphere's compo-nents cause not only deceleration or absorption of the primary particles but also production of new secondary particles which in turn can generate further particles. This results in a sec-ondary radiation field in the lower layers of the atmosphere, the composition and dose rate of which is dependent on altitude and magnetic latitude respectively. Beside this slowly varying background, solar energetic particle events (SPEs) may temporarily change this radiation field. One of the scientific goals of the RAMONA cooperation (RAdiation Monitoring ON board Aircraft) is to investigate the impact of SPEs on the radiation environment at flight altitudes. Although different models for such Space Weather effects have been developed, it is still im-possible to forecast the occurrence of a relevant SPE. Therefore, the permanent operation of appropriate dosimetric instruments onboard aircraft is pursued in order to gain knowledge for further model developments. Three NAVIDOS dosimetry systems (NAVIgation DOSimeter) developed by the RAMONA cooperation, have already been installed in aircraft. First results of the corresponding measurements will be presented.

  20. Variable Accuracy of Wearable Heart Rate Monitors during Aerobic Exercise.

    PubMed

    Gillinov, Stephen; Etiwy, Muhammad; Wang, Robert; Blackburn, Gordon; Phelan, Dermot; Gillinov, A Marc; Houghtaling, Penny; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Desai, Milind Y

    2017-08-01

    Athletes and members of the public increasingly rely on wearable HR monitors to guide physical activity and training. The accuracy of newer, optically based monitors is unconfirmed. We sought to assess the accuracy of five optically based HR monitors during various types of aerobic exercise. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 38 ± 12 yr, 54% female) completed exercise protocols on a treadmill, a stationary bicycle, and an elliptical trainer (±arm movement). Each participant underwent HR monitoring with an electrocardiogaphic chest strap monitor (Polar H7), forearm monitor (Scosche Rhythm+), and two randomly assigned wrist-worn HR monitors (Apple Watch, Fitbit Blaze, Garmin Forerunner 235, and TomTom Spark Cardio), one on each wrist. For each exercise type, HR was recorded at rest, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity. Agreement between HR measurements was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (rc). Across all exercise conditions, the chest strap monitor (Polar H7) had the best agreement with ECG (rc = 0.996) followed by the Apple Watch (rc = 0.92), the TomTom Spark (rc = 0.83), and the Garmin Forerunner (rc = 0.81). Scosche Rhythm+ and Fitbit Blaze were less accurate (rc = 0.75 and rc = 0.67, respectively). On treadmill, all devices performed well (rc = 0.88-0.93) except the Fitbit Blaze (rc = 0.76). While bicycling, only the Garmin, Apple Watch, and Scosche Rhythm+ had acceptable agreement (rc > 0.80). On the elliptical trainer without arm levers, only the Apple Watch was accurate (rc = 0.94). None of the devices was accurate during elliptical trainer use with arm levers (all rc < 0.80). The accuracy of wearable, optically based HR monitors varies with exercise type and is greatest on the treadmill and lowest on elliptical trainer. Electrode-containing chest monitors should be used when accurate HR measurement is imperative.

  1. Passive RFID tag based heart rate monitoring from an ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Vora, Shrenik; Dandekar, Kapil; Kurzweg, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a monitoring system that employs a passive RFID tag to transmit heart rate using an ECG signal as its source. This system operates without a battery and has been constructed with easily available commercial components. Here, an RFID tag is used as an on-off keying device, wherein it is normally transmitting, but turns off every time a heart beat is detected. Heart beats ranging from 30BPM through 300BPM are successfully measured using our device. It is shown that the system is capable of providing accurate heart rate measurements up to a distance of ten feet with a standard deviation of less than one beat per minute without a local power source. The proposed system is also found to be resilient in the presence of an additional RFID tag.

  2. Comparison of rate assessment between resting heart rate and 24-hour Holter monitoring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Srisukwattana, Akanis; Krittayaphong, Rungroj

    2012-02-01

    Target heart rate in rate control strategy has been proposed by the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. There is limited data on the correlation of measured heart rate at rest and during Holter monitoring. To evaluate the proportion of achieved target heart rate between resting heart rate measuring and 24-hour Holter monitoring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who receive rate control strategy. Patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who archived target resting heart rate under rate control strategy at Siriraj Hospital and who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring were studied to evaluate the correlation between two methods of heart rate control. 47 patients were enrolled. Underlying cardiac conditions were as follows: hypertensive heart disease 44.7%, valvular heart disease 25%, coronary artery disease 17% and dilated cardiomyopathy 12.8%. There were 10 patients (21.3%) whose achieving target resting heart rate was not correlated with 24-hour Holter monitoring. Three patients (6.4%) underwent permanent pacemaker implantation due to sick sinus syndrome (SSS) or tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. In chronic atrial fibrillation patients that receive rate control strategy, evaluation of only resting heart rate might not be enough for long-term evaluation and treatment and 24-hour monitoring may be an additional helpful test in order to more precisely adjust medication for long-term treatment and detection of SSS.

  3. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  4. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  5. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  6. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  7. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  8. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    PubMed

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  9. Validation of heart rate monitor Polar RS800 for heart rate variability analysis during exercise.

    PubMed

    Hernando, David; Garatachea, Nuria; Almeida, Rute; Casajús, Jose Antonio; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-09-27

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during exercise is an interesting non-invasive tool to measure the cardiovascular response to the stress of exercise. Wearable heart rate monitors are a comfortable option to measure RR intervals while doing physical activities. It is necessary to evaluate the agreement between HRV parameters derived from the RR series recorded by wearable devices and those derived from an ECG during dynamic exercise of low to high intensity.23 male volunteers performed an exercise stress test on a cycle ergometer. Subjects wore a Polar RS800 device while ECG was also recorded simultaneously to extract the reference RR intervals. A time-frequency spectral analysis was performed to extract the instantaneous mean heart rate (HRM), and the power of low frequency (PLF) and high frequency (PHF) components, the latter centred on the respiratory frequency. Analysis was done in intervals of different exercise intensity based on oxygen consumption. Linear correlation, reliability and agreement were computed in each interval.The agreement between the RR series obtained from the Polar device and from the ECG is high throughout the whole test, although the shorter the RR is, the more differences there are. Both methods are interchangeable when analysing HRV at rest. At high exercise intensity, HRM and PLF still presented a high correlation (ρ>0.8) and excellent reliability and agreement indices (above 0.9). However, the PHF measurements from the Polar showed reliability and agreement coefficients around 0.5 or lower when the level of the exercise increases (for levels of O2 above 60%).

  10. Imaging method for monitoring delivery of high dose rate brachytherapy

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G; Majewski, Stanislaw

    2012-10-23

    A method for in-situ monitoring both the balloon/cavity and the radioactive source in brachytherapy treatment utilizing using at least one pair of miniature gamma cameras to acquire separate images of: 1) the radioactive source as it is moved in the tumor volume during brachytherapy; and 2) a relatively low intensity radiation source produced by either an injected radiopharmaceutical rendering cancerous tissue visible or from a radioactive solution filling a balloon surgically implanted into the cavity formed by the surgical resection of a tumor.

  11. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  12. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  13. Optical, real-time monitoring of the glomerular filtration rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabito, Carlos A.; Chen, Yang; Schomacker, Kevin T.; Modell, Mark D.

    2005-10-01

    An easy and accurate assessment of the renal function is a critical requirement for detecting the initial functional decline of the kidney induced by acute or chronic renal disease. A method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is developed with the accuracy of clearance techniques and the convenience of plasma creatinine. The renal function is measured in rats as the rate of clearance determined from time-resolved transcutaneous fluorescence measurements of a new fluorescent glomerular filtration agent. The agent has a large dose-safety coefficient and the same space distribution and clearance characteristics as iothalamate. This new approach is a convenient and accurate way to perform real-time measurements of the glomerular filtration rate to detect early kidney disease before the renal function becomes severely and irreversibly compromised.

  14. College Officials Urged to Monitor the Graduation Rate Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Documenting that there are 62 U.S. colleges and universities where the six-year graduation rates for Black undergraduate students have recently outpaced those of their White peers, the report by the Washington, D.C.-based Education Sector, an independent education policy think tank, has pointed out that schools where underrepresented minorities…

  15. [Analysing heart rate variability to improve the monitoring of pain].

    PubMed

    Butruille, Laura; De Jonckheere, Julien; Jeanne, Mathieu; Tavernier, Benoît; Logier, Régis

    2016-12-01

    An innovative technique based on the analysis of instantaneous heart rate variability helps to improve the prevention and management of pain and discomfort. Simple to implement, this non-invasive technique is based on the continuous recording of the electrocardiograph signal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. College Officials Urged to Monitor the Graduation Rate Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Documenting that there are 62 U.S. colleges and universities where the six-year graduation rates for Black undergraduate students have recently outpaced those of their White peers, the report by the Washington, D.C.-based Education Sector, an independent education policy think tank, has pointed out that schools where underrepresented minorities…

  17. Monitoring cerebral oxygen saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass using near-infrared spectroscopy: the relationships with body temperature and perfusion rate.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yichao; Ding, Haishu; Gong, Qingcheng; Jia, Zaishen; Huang, Lan

    2006-01-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) because of weak arterial pulsation, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) is almost the only available method to monitor cerebral oxygenation noninvasively. Our group develops a NIRS oximeter to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation especially its oxygen saturation (rScO2). To achieve optimal coupling between the sensor and human brain, the distances between the light source and the detectors on it are properly chosen. The oximeter is calibrated by blood gas analysis, and the results indicate that its algorithm is little influenced by either background absorption or overlying tissue. We used it to measure the rScO2 of 15 patients during CPB. It is shown that rScO2 is negatively correlated with body temperature and positively with perfusion rate. There are two critical stages during CPB when rScO2 might be relatively low: one is the low-perfusion-rate stage, the other is the early rewarming stage. During cooling, the changes of total hemoglobin concentration (C(tHb)) compared with its original value is also monitored. It is shown that C(tHb) decreases to a small extent, which may mainly reflect cerebral vasoconstriction induced by cooling. All these results indicate that NIRS can be used to monitor cerebral oxygenation to protect cerebral tissue during CPB.

  18. Monitoring cerebral oxygen saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass using near-infrared spectroscopy: the relationships with body temperature and perfusion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yichao; Ding, HaiShu; Gong, Qingcheng; Jia, Zaishen; Huang, Lan

    2006-03-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) because of weak arterial pulsation, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) is almost the only available method to monitor cerebral oxygenation noninvasively. Our group develops a NIRS oximeter to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation especially its oxygen saturation (rScO2). To achieve optimal coupling between the sensor and human brain, the distances between the light source and the detectors on it are properly chosen. The oximeter is calibrated by blood gas analysis, and the results indicate that its algorithm is little influenced by either background absorption or overlying tissue. We used it to measure the rScO2 of 15 patients during CPB. It is shown that rScO2 is negatively correlated with body temperature and positively with perfusion rate. There are two critical stages during CPB when rScO2 might be relatively low: one is the low-perfusion-rate stage, the other is the early rewarming stage. During cooling, the changes of total hemoglobin concentration (CtHb) compared with its original value is also monitored. It is shown that CtHb decreases to a small extent, which may mainly reflect cerebral vasoconstriction induced by cooling. All these results indicate that NIRS can be used to monitor cerebral oxygenation to protect cerebral tissue during CPB.

  19. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G.

    2012-06-19

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  20. A High Count Rate Neutron Beam Monitor for Neutron Scattering Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Amanda; Crow, Lowell; Diawara, Yacouba; Hayward, J P; Hayward, Jason P; Menhard, Kocsis; Sedov, Vladislav N; Funk, Loren L

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Beam monitors are an important diagnostic tool in neutron science facilities. Present beam monitors use either ionization chambers in integration mode, which are slow and have no timing information, or pulse counters which can easily be saturated by high beam intensities. At high flux neutron scattering facilities, neutron beam monitors with very low intrinsic efficiency (10-5) are presently selected to keep the counting rate within a feasible range, even when a higher efficiency would improve the counting statistics and yield a better measurement of the incident beam. In this work, we report on a high count rate neutron beam monitor. This beam monitor offers good timing with an intrinsic efficiency of 10-3 and a counting rate capability of over 1,000,000 cps without saturation.

  1. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Cerniglia, Philip

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  2. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired nonpeaking units. The owner or operator shall meet the general operating requirements in § 75.10 of this part for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit, gas-fired...

  3. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CO2 concentration in the flue gases. (b) Moisture correction. If a correction for the stack gas... pollutant concentration monitor measures on a different moisture basis from the diluent monitor, the owner... emission rates (in lb/mmBtu) by combining the NOX concentration (in ppm), diluent concentration (in...

  4. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CO2 concentration in the flue gases. (b) Moisture correction. If a correction for the stack gas... pollutant concentration monitor measures on a different moisture basis from the diluent monitor, the owner... emission rates (in lb/mmBtu) by combining the NOX concentration (in ppm), diluent concentration (in...

  5. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CO2 concentration in the flue gases. (b) Moisture correction. If a correction for the stack gas... pollutant concentration monitor measures on a different moisture basis from the diluent monitor, the owner... emission rates (in lb/mmBtu) by combining the NOX concentration (in ppm), diluent concentration (in...

  6. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CO2 concentration in the flue gases. (b) Moisture correction. If a correction for the stack gas... pollutant concentration monitor measures on a different moisture basis from the diluent monitor, the owner... emission rates (in lb/mmBtu) by combining the NOX concentration (in ppm), diluent concentration (in...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  12. Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fu-Kang; Tang, Mu-Cyun; Su, Sheng-Chao; Horng, Tzyy-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL) radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW) radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO) and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject’s wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject’s wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO’s output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information. PMID:27792176

  13. Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Kang; Tang, Mu-Cyun; Su, Sheng-Chao; Horng, Tzyy-Sheng

    2016-10-26

    To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL) radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW) radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO) and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject's wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject's wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO's output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information.

  14. Scientific Literature Review on the Topic of Monitoring and Modeling Seabed Evolution Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    study of fossil evidence of onshore-directed storm events in estuarine sediments: Chezzetcook Inlet, Nova Scotia,” Can. J. Earth Sci. 46(2009): 193...Scientific literature review on the topic of monitoring and modeling seabed evolution rates Douglas J Schillinger GaleForce Scientific...to perform an overview literature survey of existing scientific research work into monitoring and modeling of seabed rates of evolution . This work

  15. Lightweight wrist photoplethysmography for heavy exercise: motion robust heart rate monitoring algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Insoo

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of heart rate monitoring based on wrist photoplethysmography (PPG) during heavy exercise is addressed. PPG is susceptible to motion artefacts, which have to be mitigated for accurate heart rate estimation. Motion artefacts are particularly apparent for wrist devices, for example, a smart watch, because of the high mobility of the arms. Proposed is a low complexity highly accurate heart rate estimation method for continuous heart rate monitoring using wrist PPG. The proposed method achieved 2.57% mean absolute error in a test data set where subjects ran for a maximum speed of 17 km/h. PMID:26609397

  16. Design of heart rate monitor based on piezoelectric sensor using an Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyowati, Veni; Muninggar, Jodelin; Shanti. N. A, Made R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Reading of result heart rate using an acoustic stethoscope needs a particular skill, quiet environment, and hearing sensitivity. This project had the purpose design of a user-friendly automatic heart rate monitor and especially in a noisy area which to eliminate problems and incorrect reading of result. The liquid crystal display shows a heart rate as a result of measurements. The design of the heart rate monitor has two main parts; the signal recorder that a piezoelectric sensor, a filter, and an amplifier as recorder. The second parts was Arduino microcontroller with reinforced. Besides, three supporting buttons provided as the manual switches, the ‘on’, the ‘start’, and ‘reset’ buttons. The values acquired from the heart rate monitor indicate that those were on the Vernier BPS-BTA value range. The measurement error factor of the heart rate monitor then compared to the Vernier BPS-BTA test device was 3.15%. Besides, the value of statistical independent-test indicates that there is no significant difference (P = 0.971) between the heart rate monitor device and the Vernier BPS-BTA. In conclusion, this device was ready to be used because it has almost the same accuracy with the standart device.

  17. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Enabled Body Sensor Network for Self-Powered Human Heart-Rate Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiming; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoshi; Zhou, Zhihao; Meng, Keyu; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-26

    Heart-rate monitoring plays a critical role in personal healthcare management. A low-cost, noninvasive, and user-friendly heart-rate monitoring system is highly desirable. Here, a self-powered wireless body sensor network (BSN) system is developed for heart-rate monitoring via integration of a downy-structure-based triboelectric nanogenerator (D-TENG), a power management circuit, a heart-rate sensor, a signal processing unit, and Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission. By converting the inertia energy of human walking into electric power, a maximum power of 2.28 mW with total conversion efficiency of 57.9% was delivered at low operation frequency, which is capable of immediately and sustainably driving the highly integrated BSN system. The acquired heart-rate signal by the sensor would be processed in the signal process circuit, sent to an external device via the Bluetooth module, and displayed on a personal cell phone in a real-time manner. Moreover, by combining a TENG-based generator and a TENG-based sensor, an all-TENG-based wireless BSN system was developed, realizing continuous and self-powered heart-rate monitoring. This work presents a potential method for personal heart-rate monitoring, featured as being self-powered, cost-effective, noninvasive, and user-friendly.

  18. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  19. Coherence of heart rate variability and local physical fields in monitoring studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzhilkin, D. A.; Borodin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Technological advances have led to a substantial modification of the physical fields of the environment, which could affect the status of living organisms under their constant exposure. In this study, the activity of human cardiovascular system under the influence of a complex natural physical environmental factors investigated. The study was conducted on a representative homogeneous sample (44 persons aged 19 to 22 years) by simultaneous monitoring of electrocardiograms and natural physical fields in Tomsk (geomagnetic field, meteorological parameters - temperature, pressure and humidity, surface wind speed, the parameters of the Schumann resonance - amplitude, frequency and quality factor of the first four modes in the range of 6 to 32 Hz, the power spectral density infrasonic background in the range of from 0,5 to 32 Hz). It was shown that among the set of parameters of physical fields present field that can resonate in the functioning of the human organism. The greatest coherence with heart rate variability detect variations eastern component of the geomagnetic field.

  20. Unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on a fiber specklegram sensor and a single-board computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Alessandro B.; Frizera, Anselmo; Cotrina, Anibal; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a portable and unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on fiber specklegram sensors. The proposed module uses the Raspberry Pi module to perform the image acquisition and the fiber specklegram sensor, which is based on multimode plastic optical fibers. The heart rate is obtained by welch power spectral density estimate and the heart beats are identified by means of a threshold analysis.

  1. Smart pillow for heart-rate monitoring using a fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihao; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat; Yim, Huiqing

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a new method to monitor heart rate using fiber optic microbending based sensor for in-bed non-intrusive monitoring. The sensing system consists of transmitter, receiver, sensor mat, National Instrument (NI) data acquisition (DAQ) card and a computer for signal processing. The sensor mat is embedded inside a commercial pillow. The heart rate measurement system shows an accuracy of +/-2 beats, which has been successfully demonstrated in a field trial. The key technological advantage of our system is its ability to measure heart rate with no preparation and minimal compliance by the patient.

  2. New hysteroscopy pump to monitor real-time rate of fluid intravasation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Kumar, Alka

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the benefit of monitoring the intravasation rate in addition to the conventional measurement of fluid deficit in hysteroscopic surgical procedures. The intravasation rate is the rate, in milliliters per minute, at which fluid enters the systemic circulation, whereas fluid deficit is the amount of irrigation fluid, in milliliters, already absorbed by the patient. To determine the intravasation rate, a manually operated intravasation monitoring pump was constructed, with which one of us (Dr. Atul Kumar) performed 966 hysteroscopic procedures from May 1993 to February 2010. Because the intravasation rate had to be manually calculated by an assistant, it was decided to replace the assistant with a controller to monitor intravasation rate. The surgical experience gathered from the manually operated pump was used to develop algorithms for the controller. The controller-operated intravasation monitoring pump was constructed, with which 41 hysteroscopic procedures were performed from March 2010 to August 2011. In hysteroscopic procedures, this pump simultaneously displays the real-time intravasation rate and the fluid deficit on an LCD screen.

  3. Estimation procedures to measure and monitor failure rates of components during thermal-vacuum testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. E.; Kruger, R.

    1980-01-01

    Estimation procedures are described for measuring component failure rates, for comparing the failure rates of two different groups of components, and for formulating confidence intervals for testing hypotheses (based on failure rates) that the two groups perform similarly or differently. Appendix A contains an example of an analysis in which these methods are applied to investigate the characteristics of two groups of spacecraft components. The estimation procedures are adaptable to system level testing and to monitoring failure characteristics in orbit.

  4. Magneto-impedance sensor for quasi-noncontact monitoring of breathing, pulse rate and activity status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corodeanu, S.; Chiriac, H.; Radulescu, L.; Lupu, N.

    2014-05-01

    Results on the development and testing of a novel magnetic sensor based on the detection of the magneto-impedance variation due to changes in the permeability of an amorphous wire are reported. The proposed application is the quasi-noncontact monitoring of the breathing frequency and heart rate for diagnosing sleep disorders. Patient discomfort is significantly decreased by transversally placing the sensitive element onto the surface of a flexible mattress in order to detect its deformation associated with cardiorespiratory activity and body movements. The developed sensor has a great application potential in monitoring the vital signs during sleep, with special advantages for children sleep monitoring.

  5. Heart rate monitoring from wrist-type PPG based on singular spectrum analysis with motion decision.

    PubMed

    Yang Wang; Zhiwen Liu; Bin Dong

    2016-08-01

    Heart rate (HR) monitoring is necessary for daily healthcare. Wrist-type photoplethsmography (PPG) is a convenient and non-invasive technique for HR monitoring. However, motion artifacts (MA) caused by subjects' movements can extremely interfere the results of HR monitoring. In this paper, we propose a high accuracy method using motion decision, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and spectral peak searching for daily HR estimation. The proposed approach was evaluated on 8 subjects under a series of different motion states. Compared with electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded simultaneously, the experimental results indicated that the averaged absolute estimation error was 2.33 beats per minute (BPM).

  6. Video-Based Physiologic Monitoring During an Acute Hypoxic Challenge: Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate, and Oxygen Saturation.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S; Jacquel, Dominique; Foo, David M H; Antunes, André; Borg, Ulf R

    2017-09-01

    The physiologic information contained in the video photoplethysmogram is well documented. However, extracting this information during challenging conditions requires new analysis techniques to capture and process the video image streams to extract clinically useful physiologic parameters. We hypothesized that heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation trending can be evaluated accurately from video information during acute hypoxia. Video footage was acquired from multiple desaturation episodes during a porcine model of acute hypoxia using a standard visible light camera. A novel in-house algorithm was used to extract photoplethysmographic cardiac pulse and respiratory information from the video image streams and process it to extract a continuously reported video-based heart rate (HRvid), respiratory rate (RRvid), and oxygen saturation (SvidO2). This information was then compared with HR and oxygen saturation references from commercial pulse oximetry and the known rate of respiration from the ventilator. Eighty-eight minutes of data were acquired during 16 hypoxic episodes in 8 animals. A linear mixed-effects regression showed excellent responses relative to a nonhypoxic reference signal with slopes of 0.976 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.973-0.979) for HRvid; 1.135 (95% CI, 1.101-1.168) for RRvid, and 0.913 (95% CI, 0.905-0.920) for video-based oxygen saturation. These results were obtained while maintaining continuous uninterrupted vital sign monitoring for the entire study period. Video-based monitoring of HR, RR, and oxygen saturation may be performed with reasonable accuracy during acute hypoxic conditions in an anesthetized porcine hypoxia model using standard visible light camera equipment. However, the study was conducted during relatively low motion. A better understanding of the effect of motion and the effect of ambient light on the video photoplethysmogram may help refine this monitoring technology for use in the clinical environment.

  7. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Lin, Bill S.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner.

  8. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI)

    PubMed Central

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Lin, Bill S.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner. PMID:26440644

  9. Monitoring athletic training status using the maximal rate of heart rate increase.

    PubMed

    Bellenger, Clint R; Thomson, Rebecca L; Howe, Peter R C; Karavirta, Laura; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Reductions in maximal rate of heart rate increase (rHRI) correlate with performance reductions when training load is increased. This study evaluated whether rHRI tracked performance changes across a range of training states. Prospective intervention. rHRI was assessed during five min of cycling at 100W (rHRIcyc) and running at 8km/h (rHRIrun) in 13 male triathletes following two weeks of light-training (LT), two weeks of heavy-training (HT) and a two-day recovery period (RP). A five min cycling time-trial assessed performance and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Performance likely decreased following HT (Effect size±90% confidence interval=-0.18±0.09), then very likely increased following RP (0.32±0.14). rHRIcyc very likely decreased (-0.48±0.24), and rHRIrun possibly decreased (-0.33±0.48), following HT. Changes in both measures were unclear following RP. Steady-state HR was almost certainly lower (-0.81±0.31) during rHRIcyc than rHRIrun. A large correlation was found between reductions in performance and rHRIrun (r±90%; CI=0.65±0.34) from LT to HT, but was unclear for rHRIcyc. Trivial within-subject correlations were found between rHRI and performance, but the strength of relationship between rHRIrun and performance was largely associated with V˙O2peak following LT (r=-0.58±0.38). Performance reductions were most sensitively tracked by rHRIrun following HT. This may be due to rHRIrun being assessed at a higher intensity than rHRIcyc, inferred from a higher steady-state HR and supported by a stronger within-subject relationship between rHRIrun and performance in individuals with a lower V˙O2peak, in whom the same exercise intensity would represent a greater physiological stress. rHRI assessed at relatively high exercise intensities may better track performance changes. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  11. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  12. Calculating the rate of exothermic energy release for catalytic converter efficiency monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hepburn, J.S.; Meitzler, A.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports on the development of a new methodology for OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitoring. Temperature measurements taken from the center of the catalyst substrate or near the exterior surface of the catalyst brick were used in conjunction with macroscopic energy balances to calculate the instantaneous rate of exothermic energy generation within the catalyst. The total calculated rate of exothermic energy release over the FTP test cycle was within 10% of the actual or theoretical value and provided a good indicator of catalyst light-off for a variety of aged catalytic converters. Normalization of the rate of exothermic energy release in the front section of the converter by the mass flow rate of air inducted through the engine was found to provide a simple yet practical means of monitoring the converter under both FTP and varying types of road driving.

  13. Optical fiber head for monitoring of heart rate and blood oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Kacper; Baranowska, Agata; Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Dorosz, Dominik

    2016-09-01

    In this article we presented possibility of heart rate and blood oxygenation measurements by classic displacement optical fiber sensor in reflection mode. Based on numerical analysis of sensor head characteristics the optimal construction was developed. Three LED diodes at the wavelengths of 530nm (green), 650nm (red) and 850nm (infrared) were used for determine heart rate and saturation of blood during "in vivo" measurements. Developed sensor head allows noninvasive and continuously monitoring of blood parameters.

  14. Monitoring cutting tool operation and condition with a magnetoelastic rate of change of torque sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Garshelis, Ivan J.; Kari, Ryan J.; Tollens, Stijn P. L.; Cuseo, James M.

    2008-04-01

    Application of a magnetoelastic rate of change of torque sensor to monitor the condition of milling cutters and operating parameters is described. Cutting tools naturally degrade with use by wear, chipping, or fracture, and the efficiency and quality of the product are highly dependent on the tool condition. The theoretical analysis is compared to experimental data in detecting changes in torque during each cutting event, and the rate of change of torque signal is investigated for a variety of cutting tool conditions.

  15. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    PubMed

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results.

  16. Comparisons of monthly mean cosmic ray counting rates observes from worldwide network of neutron monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, J. Y.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to examine the stability of neutron monitor observation, each of the monthly average counting rates of a neutron monitors is correlated to those of Kiel neutron monitor. The regression coefficients thus obtained are compared with the coupling coefficients of isotropic intensity radiation. The results of the comparisons for five year periods during 1963 to 1982, and for whole period are given. The variation spectrum with a single power law with an exponent of -0.75 up to 50 GV is not so unsatisfactory one. More than one half of the stations show correlations with the coefficient greater than 0.9. Some stations have shifted the level of mean counting rates by changing the instrumental characteristics which can be adjusted.

  17. Catch rates relative to angler party size with implications for monitoring angler success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Angler catch rates often are used to monitor angler success, assess the need for additional management actions, and evaluate the effectiveness of management practices. Potential linkages between catch rate and angler party size were examined to assess how party size might affect the use of catch rate as an index of angler success in recreational fisheries. Data representing 22,355 completed interviews conducted at access points in lakes and reservoirs throughout Mississippi during 1987-2003 were analyzed. Total party catch was not proportional to total party effort; thus, catch rate decreased as party size increased. Depending on the taxa targeted, the average catch rate per angler decreased 40-50% between parties of one and parties of two, although subsequent decreases were less substantial. Because party size accounted for a considerable portion of the variability in catch rate over time and space, failure to remove this variability weakens the manager's ability to detect differences or changes in catch rates. Therefore, the use of catch rates to monitor fisheries may be inappropriate unless party size is taken into account. Party size may influence the angler's ability to catch fish through a variety of processes, including partitioning a limited number of catchable fish among members of a party and party composition. When catch rates are used to estimate total catch rather than to index angler success, party size is not a concern.

  18. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  3. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  4. Monitoring the dissolution rate of photoresist thin films via multiwavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Ankur; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2003-05-01

    Dissolution rate monitors (DRMs) and related techniques have been used for a number of years to study the dissolution behavior of photoresist materials in detail. Due to the relative difficulty in obtaining commercial DRM instruments, crude methods for measuring dissolution rates such as the (formula availble in paper) have been developed. In this method, the resist-coated substrate is immersed in a developer solution for a fixed development time, removed and dried, and the remaining film thickness is measured. The dissolution rate information for the resist is then calculated from the slope of the resist thickness versus development time data. This method is simple and can easily be used in a fab environment, but it suffers from a number of limitations. For example, this method is very inaccurate for resists that develop very quickly (< 20 seconds) such as many modern chemically amplified resists. Such quick development times are often crucial in exploring the full behavior of a resist. A much better method for measuring the dissolution behavior of photoresist films is to use interferometric methods such as those suggested originally by Dill and coworkers. In this work, an extremely flexible and simple instrument based on inexpensive, commercially available, PC card spectrometers will be presented that can be used quite robustly in both fab and laboratory environments for measuring the dissolution behavior of photoresist films. The hardware required in order to construct such a simple apparatus will be discussed along with various experimental configurations that are appropriate for different measurement tasks. Thin film thickness estimation using the DRM can be done using either single wavelength versus time interferometry data (plot of reflected light intensity versus development time) or the complete multiwavelength spectra obtained from a spectroscopic reflectometry system. Film thickness estimation using single wavelength data analysis is good for films that

  5. Smartphone applications (apps) for heart rate measurement in children: comparison with electrocardiography monitor.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Lin; Fu, Yun-Ching; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chan, Sheng-Ching; Hwang, Betau; Jan, Sheng-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) measurement is essential for children with abnormal heart beats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HR measurement by smartphone applications (apps) could be a feasible alternative to an electrocardiography (ECG) monitor. A total of 40 children, median age of 4.3 years, were studied. Using four free smartphone apps, pulse rates were measured at the finger (or toe) and earlobe, and compared with baseline HRs measured by ECG monitors. Significant correlations between measured pulse rates and baseline HRs were found. Both correlation and accuracy rate were higher in the earlobe group than the finger/toe group. When HR was <120 beats per min (bpm), the accuracy rates were not different between the two different measuring sites for each app (median of 65 vs 76%). The accuracy rates in the finger/toe group were significantly lower than those in the earlobe group for all apps when HR was ≥ 120 bpm (27 vs 65%). There were differences among apps in their abilities to measure pulse rates. Taking children's pulse rate from the earlobe would be more accurate, especially for tachycardia. However, we do not recommend that smartphone apps should not be used for routine medical use or used as the sole form of HR measurement because the results of their accuracy are not good enough.

  6. A real-time phoneme counting algorithm and application for speech rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aharonson, Vered; Aharonson, Eran; Raichlin-Levi, Katia; Sotzianu, Aviv; Amir, Ofer; Ovadia-Blechman, Zehava

    2017-03-01

    Adults who stutter can learn to control and improve their speech fluency by modifying their speaking rate. Existing speech therapy technologies can assist this practice by monitoring speaking rate and providing feedback to the patient, but cannot provide an accurate, quantitative measurement of speaking rate. Moreover, most technologies are too complex and costly to be used for home practice. We developed an algorithm and a smartphone application that monitor a patient's speaking rate in real time and provide user-friendly feedback to both patient and therapist. Our speaking rate computation is performed by a phoneme counting algorithm which implements spectral transition measure extraction to estimate phoneme boundaries. The algorithm is implemented in real time in a mobile application that presents its results in a user-friendly interface. The application incorporates two modes: one provides the patient with visual feedback of his/her speech rate for self-practice and another provides the speech therapist with recordings, speech rate analysis and tools to manage the patient's practice. The algorithm's phoneme counting accuracy was validated on ten healthy subjects who read a paragraph at slow, normal and fast paces, and was compared to manual counting of speech experts. Test-retest and intra-counter reliability were assessed. Preliminary results indicate differences of -4% to 11% between automatic and human phoneme counting. Differences were largest for slow speech. The application can thus provide reliable, user-friendly, real-time feedback for speaking rate control practice.

  7. Correlation of seizure frequency and medication down-titration rate during video-EEG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Al Kasab, Sami; Dawson, Rachael A; Jaramillo, Jorge L; Halford, Jonathan J

    2016-11-01

    The three important questions in video-EEG monitoring are (1) whether it is productive to monitor patients with low outpatient seizure frequency, (2) whether rapid down-titration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during EMU admission helps generate more recorded seizures, and (3) how long a patient who has not yet had a seizure should be monitored in the EMU. This study aimed to answer these three questions. Preadmission seizure frequency, times of AED administration, and times of seizure occurrence were collected on all adult patients admitted to the EMU at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) between 2012 and 2014 - a total of 439 patients. The correlations between EMU seizure frequency and both (1) preadmission seizure frequency and (2) rate of antiepileptic drug (AED) down-titration were evaluated. The time of occurrence of seizures was evaluated. There was no correlation between patient-reported outpatient seizure frequency and EMU seizure frequency. In patients who were tapered off AEDs during monitoring, the rate of AED taper correlated with the EMU seizure frequency. Patients whose AEDs were more quickly tapered had higher EMU seizure frequencies. In order to record a first event in patients of unknown seizure type, approximately 3.5days of EMU monitoring was required. Clinicians should not hesitate to admit patients with low preadmission seizure frequency to the EMU since many of these patients will have a seizure during monitoring. Faster AED down-titration in the EMU increases EMU seizure frequency. In patients who have not yet had a seizure in the EMU, monitoring should continue for at least four days. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effect of daily noise exposure monitoring on annual rates of hearing loss in industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Cullen, Mark R; Slade, Martin D; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Methods Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of hearing loss. The intervention consisted of daily monitoring of at-ear noise exposure and regular feedback on exposures from supervisors. The annual rate of change in high frequency hearing average at 2, 3 and 4 KHz before intervention (2000–2004) and 4 years after intervention (2006–2009) was determined. Annual rates of loss were compared between 78 intervention subjects and 234 controls in other company smelters matched for age, gender and high frequency hearing threshold level in 2005. Results Individuals monitoring daily noise exposure experienced on average no further worsening of high frequency hearing (average rate of hearing change at 2, 3 and 4 KHz=–0.5 dB/year). Matched controls also showed decelerating hearing loss, the difference in rates between the two groups being significant (p<0.0001). Analysis of a subset of intervention subjects matched to controls for initial rate of hearing loss showed a similar trend but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Conclusion Monitoring daily occupational noise exposure inside hearing protection with ongoing administrative feedback apparently reduces the risk of occupational NIHL in industrial workers. Longer follow-up of these workers will help determine the significance of the intervention effect. Intervention studies for the prevention of NIHL need to include appropriate control groups. PMID:21193566

  9. Monitoring, modeling, and management: why base avian management on vital rates and how should it be done?

    Treesearch

    David F. DeSante; M. Philip Nott; Danielle R. Kaschube

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that effective management of landbirds should be based on assessing and monitoring their vital rates (primary demographic parameters) as well as population trends. This is because environmental stressors and management actions affect vital rates directly and usually without time lags, and because monitoring vital rates provides a) information on...

  10. Design and Implementation of a Smart Sensor for Respiratory Rate Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Roa Romero, Laura M.; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Hernández, David Naranjo; Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel Ángel; Barbarov-Rostán, Gerardo; Rubia-Marcos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the design, development and implementation of a smart sensor to monitor the respiratory rate. This sensor is aimed at overcoming the drawbacks of other systems currently available in market, namely, devices that are costly, uncomfortable, difficult-to-install, provide low detection sensitivity, and little-to-null patient-to-patient calibration. The device is based on capacitive sensing by means of an LC oscillator. Experimental results show that the sensor meets the necessary requirements, making feasible the proposed monitoring system with the technology used. PMID:24534921

  11. Design and implementation of a smart sensor for respiratory rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Roa Romero, Laura M; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Hernández, David Naranjo; Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel Ángel; Barbarov-Rostán, Gerardo; Rubia-Marcos, Carlos

    2014-02-14

    This work presents the design, development and implementation of a smart sensor to monitor the respiratory rate. This sensor is aimed at overcoming the drawbacks of other systems currently available in market, namely, devices that are costly, uncomfortable, difficult-to-install, provide low detection sensitivity, and little-to-null patient-to-patient calibration. The device is based on capacitive sensing by means of an LC oscillator. Experimental results show that the sensor meets the necessary requirements, making feasible the proposed monitoring system with the technology used.

  12. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  13. Linshom thermodynamic sensor is a reliable alternative to capnography for monitoring respiratory rate.

    PubMed

    Preiss, David; Drew, Benjamin A; Gosnell, James; Kodali, Bhavani S; Philip, James H; Urman, Richard D

    2017-02-22

    Monitoring ventilation accurately is a technically challenging, yet indispensable aspect of patient care in the intra- and post-procedural settings. A new prototypical device known as the Linshom Respiratory Monitoring Device (LRMD) has been recently designed to non-invasively, inexpensively, and portably measure respiratory rate. The purpose of this study was to measure the accuracy and variability of LRMD measurements of respiratory rate relative to the measurement of capnography. In this prospective study, participants were enrolled and individually fitted with a face mask monitored by the LRMD and capnography. With a baseline oxygen flow rate and digital metronome to pace their respiratory rate, the participants were instructed to breathe at 10 breaths per minute (bpm) for 3 min, 20 bpm for 3 min, 30 bpm for 3 min, 0 bpm for 30 s, and resume regular breathing for 30 s. Both sensors were connected to a computer for continuous temperature and carbon dioxide waveform recordings. The data were then retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-six healthy volunteers, mean (range) age 27.8 (23-37) and mean (range) BMI 23.1 (18.8-29.2) kg/m(2) were recruited. There were 15 males (57.7%) and 11 females (42.3%). After excluding 3 subjects for technical reasons, 13,800 s of breathing and 4,140 expiratory breaths were recorded. Throughout the protocol, the average standard deviation (SD) for the LRMD and capnography was 1.11 and 1.81 bpm, respectively. The overall mean bias (±2SD) between LRMD and capnography was -0.33 (±0.1.56) bpm. At the lowest and intermediate breathing rates reflective of hypoventilation and normal ventilation, the LRMD variance was 0.55 and 1.23 respectively, compared to capnography with 5.54 and 7.47, respectively. At higher breathing rates indicative of hyperventilation, the variance of the test device was 4.52, still less than that of capnography at 5.73. This study demonstrated a promising correlation between the LRMD and capnography for use as

  14. Monitoring performance of the cameras under the high dose-rate gamma ray environments.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2014-05-01

    CCD/CMOS cameras, loaded on a robot system, are generally used as the eye of the robot and monitoring unit. A major problem that arises when dealing with images provided by CCD/CMOS cameras under severe accident situations of a nuclear power plant is the presence of speckles owing to the high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. To use a CCD/CMOS camera as a monitoring unit in a high radiation area, the legibility of the camera image in such intense gamma-radiation fields should therefore be defined. In this paper, the authors describe the monitoring index as a figure of merit of the camera's legibleness under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation environment. From a low dose-rate (10 Gy h) to a high dose-rate (200 Gy h) level, the legible performances of the cameras owing to the speckles are evaluated. The numbers of speckles generated by gamma ray irradiation in the camera image are calculated by an image processing technique. The legibility of the sensor indicator (thermo/hygrometer) owing to the number of speckles is also presented.

  15. Monitoring Fetal Heart Rate during Labor: A Comparison of Three Methods

    PubMed Central

    Darmanjian, Shalom; Nguyen, Minh Tam; Busowski, John D.; Euliano, Neil; Gregg, Anthony R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of a noninvasive fetal heart rate monitor with that of ultrasound, using a fetal scalp electrode as the gold standard, in laboring women of varying body habitus, throughout labor and delivery. Laboring women requiring fetal scalp electrode were monitored simultaneously with the investigational device (noninvasive fetal ECG), ultrasound, and fetal scalp electrode. An algorithm extracted the fetal heart rate from the noninvasive fetal ECG signal. Each noninvasive device recording was compared with fetal scalp electrode with regard to reliability by positive percent agreement and accuracy by root mean squared error. Seventy-one women were included in this analysis. Positive percent agreement was 83.4 ± 15.4% for noninvasive fetal ECG and 62.4 ± 26.7% for ultrasound. The root mean squared error compared with fetal scalp electrode-derived fetal heart rate was 4.8 ± 2.0 bpm for noninvasive fetal ECG and 14.3 ± 8.2 bpm for ultrasound. The superiority of noninvasive fetal ECG was maintained for stages 1 and 2 of labor and increases in body mass index. Compared with fetal scalp electrode-derived fetal heart rate, noninvasive fetal ECG is more accurate and reliable than ultrasound for intrapartum monitoring for stages 1 and 2 of labor and is less affected by increasing maternal body mass index. This confirms the results of other workers in this field. PMID:28392944

  16. The development of a microprocessor system for simultaneously monitoring heart rate from multiple subjects.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J T; Pohorecky, L A

    1987-06-01

    Two computer systems developed in our laboratory to monitor the heart rate of freely moving rats are described below. The first system uses the Commodore CBM microcomputer and monitors a single rat. The second system uses the IBM CS9000, monitors up to four rats simultaneously, and provides real-time graphics. Both systems rely on a Schmitt-trigger circuit which digitizes the electrical signal generation by the heart during every cardiac cycle. Both systems also employ the same algorithm to handle the appreciable levels of noise generated by subject movement. The algorithm developed for filtering this noise and its effectiveness are presented. This paper illustrates a software-intensive approach to handling signal timing, and the advantages provided by 16/32-bit versus an 8-bit microcomputer.

  17. Sensor fusion methods for reducing false alarms in heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriel; Brusamarello, Valner

    2016-12-01

    Automatic patient monitoring is an essential resource in hospitals for good health care management. While alarms caused by abnormal physiological conditions are important for the delivery of fast treatment, they can be also a source of unnecessary noise because of false alarms caused by electromagnetic interference or motion artifacts. One significant source of false alarms is related to heart rate, which is triggered when the heart rhythm of the patient is too fast or too slow. In this work, the fusion of different physiological sensors is explored in order to create a robust heart rate estimation. A set of algorithms using heart rate variability index, Bayesian inference, neural networks, fuzzy logic and majority voting is proposed to fuse the information from the electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure and photoplethysmogram. Three kinds of information are extracted from each source, namely, heart rate variability, the heart rate difference between sensors and the spectral analysis of low and high noise of each sensor. This information is used as input to the algorithms. Twenty recordings selected from the MIMIC database were used to validate the system. The results showed that neural networks fusion had the best false alarm reduction of 92.5 %, while the Bayesian technique had a reduction of 84.3 %, fuzzy logic 80.6 %, majority voter 72.5 % and the heart rate variability index 67.5 %. Therefore, the proposed algorithms showed good performance and could be useful in bedside monitors.

  18. Acoustic method respiratory rate monitoring is useful in patients under intravenous anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2017-02-01

    Respiratory depression can occur during intravenous general anesthesia without tracheal intubation. A new acoustic method for respiratory rate monitoring, RRa(®) (Masimo Corp., Tokyo, Japan), has been reported to show good reliability in post-anesthesia care and emergency units. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the acoustic method for measurement of respiratory rate during intravenous general anesthesia, as compared with capnography. Patients with dental anxiety undergoing dental treatment under intravenous anesthesia without tracheal intubation were enrolled in this study. Respiratory rate was recorded every 30 s using the acoustic method and capnography, and detectability of respiratory rate was investigated for both methods. This study used a cohort study design. In 1953 recorded respiratory rate data points, the number of detected points by the acoustic method (1884, 96.5 %) was significantly higher than that by capnography (1682, 86.1 %) (P < 0.0001). In the intraoperative period, there was a significant difference in the LOA (95 % limits of agreement of correlation between difference and average of the two methods)/ULLOA (under the lower limit of agreement) in terms of use or non-use of a dental air turbine (P < 0.0001). In comparison between capnography, the acoustic method is useful for continuous monitoring of respiratory rate in spontaneously breathing subjects undergoing dental procedures under intravenous general anesthesia. However, the acoustic method might not accurately detect in cases in with dental air turbine.

  19. Consumer information on fetal heart rate monitoring during labor: a content analysis: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer; De Vries, Raymond; Low, Lisa Kane

    2014-01-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is used for the majority of births that occur in the United States. While there are indications for use of EFM for women with high-risk pregnancies, its use in low-risk pregnancies is less evidence-based. In low-risk women, the use of EFM is associated with an increased risk for cesarean birth compared with the use of intermittent auscultation of the fetal heart rate. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the existence of evidence-based information on fetal heart rate monitoring in popular consumer-focused maternity books and Web sites. Content analysis of information in consumer-oriented Web sites and books was completed using the NVivo software (QRSinternational, Melbourne, Australia). Themes identified included lack of clear terminology when discussing fetal monitoring, use of broad categories such as low risk and high risk, limited presentation of information about intermittent auscultation, and presentation of EFM as the standard of care, particularly upon admission into the labor unit. More than one-third of the sources did not mention auscultation, and conflicting information about monitoring methods was presented. The availability of accurate, publically accessible information offers consumers the opportunity to translate knowledge into the power to seek evidence-based care practices during their maternity care experience.

  20. The rhetoric of informed choice: perspectives from midwives on intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hindley, Carol; Thomson, Ann M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To investigate midwives’ attitudes, values and beliefs on the use of intrapartum fetal monitoring. Design  Qualitative, semi‐structured interviews Subjects and setting  Fifty‐eight registered midwives in two hospitals in the North of England. Results  In this paper two main themes are discussed, these are: informed choice, and the power of the midwife. Midwives favoured the application of informed choice and shared a unanimous consensus on the definition. However, the idealistic perception of informed choice, which included contemporary notions of empowerment and autonomy for women expressing an informed choice, was not reportedly translated into practice. Midwives had to implement informed choice on intrapartum fetal monitoring within a competing set of health service agendas, i.e. medically driven protocols and a political climate of actively managed childbearing. This resulted in the manipulation of information during the midwives’ interactions with women. This ultimately meant that the women often got the choice the midwives wanted them to have. Conclusions  The information that a midwife imparts may consciously or subconsciously affect the woman's uptake and understanding of information. Therefore, the midwife has a powerful role to play in balancing the benefits and risk ratios applicable to fetal heart rate monitoring. However, a deeply ingrained pre‐occupation with technological methods of intrapartum fetal monitoring over many years has made it difficult for midwives to offer alternative forms of monitoring. This has placed limits on the facilitation of informed choice and autonomous decision making for women. PMID:16266418

  1. The limits of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in the prevention of neonatal metabolic acidemia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven L; Hamilton, Emily F; Garite, Thomas J; Timmins, Audra; Warrick, Philip A; Smith, Samuel

    2017-02-01

    Despite intensive efforts directed at initial training in fetal heart rate interpretation, continuing medical education, board certification/recertification, team training, and the development of specific protocols for the management of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, the goals of consistently preventing hypoxia-induced fetal metabolic acidemia and neurologic injury remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to validate a recently published algorithm for the management of category II fetal heart rate tracings, to examine reasons for the birth of infants with significant metabolic acidemia despite the use of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, and to examine critically the limits of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in the prevention of neonatal metabolic acidemia. The potential performance of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring under ideal circumstances was evaluated in an outcomes-blinded examination fetal heart rate tracing of infants with metabolic acidemia at birth (base deficit, >12) and matched control infants (base deficit, <8) under the following conditions: (1) expert primary interpretation, (2) use of a published algorithm that was developed and endorsed by a large group of national experts, (3) assumption of a 30-minute period of evaluation for noncritical category II fetal heart rate tracings, followed by delivery within 30 minutes, (4) evaluation without the need to provide patient care simultaneously, and (5) comparison of results under these circumstances with those achieved in actual clinical practice. During the study period, 120 infants were identified with an arterial cord blood base deficit of >12 mM/L. Matched control infants were not demographically different from subjects. In actual practice, operative intervention on the basis of an abnormal fetal heart rate tracings occurred in 36 of 120 fetuses (30.0%) with metabolic acidemia. Based on expert, algorithm-assisted reviews, 55 of 120 patients with acidemia (45.8%) were

  2. Regular monitoring of breast-feeding rates: feasible and sustainable. The Emilia-Romagna experience.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Simona; Borsari, Silvana; Verdini, Eleonora; Battaglia, Sergio; Cisbani, Luca; Sforza, Stefano; Cuoghi, Chiara; Basevi, Vittorio

    2017-08-01

    An efficient breast-feeding monitoring system should be in place in every country to assist policy makers and health professionals plan activities to reach optimal breast-feeding rates. Design/Setting/Subjects From March to June 2015, breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age were monitored in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region, using four questions added to a newly developed paediatric immunization database with single records for each individual. Data were collected at primary-care centres. Breast-feeding definitions and 24 h recall as recommended by the WHO were used. Direct age standardization was applied to breast-feeding rates. Record linkage with the medical birth database was attempted to identify maternal, pregnancy and delivery factors associated with full breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age. Data on breast-feeding were collected for 14044 infants. The mean regional full breast-feeding rate at 3 months was 52 %; differences between local health authorities ranged from 42 to 62 %. At 5 months of age, the mean regional full breast-feeding rate dropped to 33 % (range between local health authorities: 26 to 46 %). Record linkage with the birth certificate database was successful for 93 % of records. Total observations more than doubled with respect to the previous regional survey. The new monitoring system implemented in 2015 in Emilia-Romagna region, totally integrated with the immunization database, has proved to be feasible, sustainable and more efficient than the previous one. This system can be a model for other regions and countries where the vast majority of mothers obtain vaccinations from public health facilities and that already have an immunization database in place.

  3. Surface Flooding from Hurricane Harvey Shown in New SMAP Imagery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    A new series of images generated with data from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite illustrate the surface flooding caused by Hurricane Harvey from before its initial landfall through August 27, 2017. The SMAP observations detect the proportion of the ground covered by surface water within the satellite's field of view. The sequence of images depicts successive satellite orbital swath observations showing the surface water conditions on August 22, before Harvey's landfall (left), and then on Aug. 27, two days after landfall (middle). The resulting increase in surface flooding from record rainfall over the three-day period, shown at right, depicts regionally heavy flooding around the Houston metropolitan area. The hardest hit areas (blue and purple shades) cover more than 23,000 square miles (about 59,600 square kilometers) and indicate a more than 1,000-fold increase in surface water cover from rainfall-driven flooding. SMAP's low-frequency (L-band) microwave radiometer features enhanced capabilities for detecting surface water changes in nearly all weather conditions and under low-to-moderate vegetation cover. The satellite provides global coverage with one to three-day repeat sampling, which is well suited for monitoring dynamic inland waters around the world. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21930

  4. Monitoring of ultraviolet pulse rate dependent photomechanical actuation in carbon nanotubes using fiber Bragg gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Shivananju, B. N.; Suri, Ashish; Asokan, S.; Misra, Abha

    2014-01-06

    In this Letter, we present a non-contact method of controlling and monitoring photomechanical actuation in carbon nanotubes (CNT) by exposing it to ultra-violet radiation at different pulse rates (10 to 200 Hz). This is accomplished by imparting a reversible photo induced strain (5–330 με) on CNT coated fibre Bragg gratings; CNT undergoes an internal reversible structural change due to cyclic photon absorption that leads to the development of mechanical strain, which in turn allows reversible switching of the Bragg wavelength. The results also reveal an interesting pulse rate dependent rise and fall times of photomechanical actuation in CNT.

  5. Wireless patch sensor for remote monitoring of heart rate, respiration, activity, and falls.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alexander M; Selvaraj, Nandakumar; Ferdosi, Nima; Narasimhan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Unobtrusive continuous monitoring of important vital signs and activity metrics has the potential to provide remote health monitoring, at-home screening, and rapid notification of critical events such as heart attacks, falls, or respiratory distress. This paper contains validation results of a wireless Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) patch sensor consisting of two electrocardiography (ECG) electrodes, a microcontroller, a tri-axial accelerometer, and a BLE transceiver. The sensor measures heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate, posture, steps, and falls and was evaluated on a total of 25 adult participants who performed breathing exercises, activities of daily living (ADLs), various stretches, stationary cycling, walking/running, and simulated falls. Compared to reference devices, the heart rate measurement had a mean absolute error (MAE) of less than 2 bpm, time-domain HRV measurements had an RMS error of less than 15 ms, respiratory rate had an MAE of 1.1 breaths per minute during metronome breathing, posture detection had an accuracy of over 95% in two of the three patch locations, steps were counted with an absolute error of less than 5%, and falls were detected with a sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 100%.

  6. A novel respiratory rate estimation method for sound-based wearable monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianmin; Ser, Wee; Goh, Daniel Yam Thiam

    2011-01-01

    The respiratory rate is a vital sign that can provide important information about the health of a patient, especially that of the respiratory system. The aim of this study is to develop a simple method that can be applied in wearable systems to monitor the respiratory rate automatically and continuously over extended periods of time. In this paper, a novel respiratory rate estimation method is presented to achieve this target. The proposed method has been evaluated in both the open-source data as well as the local-hospital data, and the results are encouraging. The findings of this study revealed strong linear correlation to the reference respiratory rate. The correlation coefficients for the open-source data and the in-hospital data are 0.99 and 0.96 respectively. The standard deviation of the estimation error is less than 7% for both types of data.

  7. New method of proportional counter feedback biasing for wide-range radiation dose-rate monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.; Guerrant, G.C.; Manning, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A prototypic wide-range radiation dose-rate monitor for civil defense applications has been developed and tested. The specified dose-rate range (0 to 500 R/h) was displayed on a single readout scale by using feedback-controlled biasing of a proportional counter. This new method is based on controlling the avalanche multiplication factor (gas gain) of the counter by varying its bias voltage in response to its measured output current (i.e., detected dose rate). The counter output current varies between 0 and 1.5 nA in a quasi-logarithmic response to dose rates between 0 and 500 R/h. The corresponding values of gas gain and bias voltage range from 1 to 300 and 200 to 1900 V respectively.

  8. Measuring the sedimentation rate in a magnetorheological fluid column via thermal conductivity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haibin; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Guizhen; Ma, Wentao; Wereley, Norman M.

    2016-05-01

    Measuring sedimentation rate of magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) is of great importance when designing and synthesizing MRFs for engineering applications. A method of characterizing sedimentation rate in an MRF column is proposed utilizing thermal conductivity correlated with particle concentration. A series of MRF samples composed of carbonyl iron particles suspended in silicone oil were prepared, and their concentrations (measured as volume fraction, ∅) and thermal conductivities, k, were tested. A calibration curve was developed to relate particle concentration, ∅, to thermal conductivity, k, using this set of MRF samples with known concentration. The particle concentration, ∅, in the MRF column was then monitored by measuring thermal conductivities (k) at a fixed location and using this calibration relationship. Finally, sedimentation rate in the MRF column was determined by examining how particle concentration varied with time. The sedimentation rate measured in the MRF column was validated using visual observation of mudline (boundary between the topmost clarified fluid zone and MRF below).

  9. Evaluation of a strapless heart rate monitor during simulated flight tasks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Fu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Pilots are under high task demands during flight. Monitoring pilot's physiological status is very important in the evaluation of pilot's workload and flight safety. Recently, physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded into a watch that can be used without a conventional chest strap. This makes it possible to unobtrusively monitor, log and transmit pilot's physiological measurements such as heart rate (HR) during flight tasks. The purpose of this study is to validate HR recorded by a strapless heart rate watch against criterion ECG-derived HR. Ten commercial pilots (mean ± SD : age: 39.1 ± 7.8 years; total flight hours 7173.2 ± 5270.9 hr) performed three routinely trained flight tasks in a full flight simulator: wind shear go-around (WG), takeoff and climb (TC), and hydraulic failure (HF). For all tasks combined (overall) and for each task, differences between the heart rate watch measurements and the criterion data were small (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.71 beats/min [-0.85, -0.57]; WG: -0.90 beats/min [-1.15, -0.65]; TC: -0.69 beats/min [-0.98, -0.40]; HF: -0.61 beats/min [-0.80, -0.42]). There were high correlations between the heart rate watch measurements and the ECG-derived HR for all tasks (r ≥ 0.97, SEE < 3). Bland-Altman plots also show high agreements between the watch measurements and the criterion HR. These results suggest that the strapless heart rate watch provides valid measurements of HR during simulated flight tasks and could be a useful tool for pilot workload evaluation.

  10. Methods for monitoring corals and crustose coralline algae to quantify in-situ calcification rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jennifer M.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don

    2013-01-01

    The potential effect of global climate change on calcifying marine organisms, such as scleractinian (reef-building) corals, is becoming increasingly evident. Understanding the process of coral calcification and establishing baseline calcification rates are necessary to detect future changes in growth resulting from climate change or other stressors. Here we describe the methods used to establish a network of calcification-monitoring stations along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract in 2009. In addition to detailing the initial setup and periodic monitoring of calcification stations, we discuss the utility and success of our design and offer suggestions for future deployments. Stations were designed such that whole coral colonies were securely attached to fixed apparati (n = 10 at each site) on the seafloor but also could be easily removed and reattached as needed for periodic weighing. Corals were weighed every 6 months, using the buoyant weight technique, to determine calcification rates in situ. Sites were visited in May and November to obtain winter and summer rates, respectively, and identify seasonal patterns in calcification. Calcification rates of the crustose coralline algal community also were measured by affixing commercially available plastic tiles, deployed vertically, at each station. Colonization by invertebrates and fleshy algae on the tiles was low, indicating relative specificity for the crustose coralline algal community. We also describe a new, nonlethal technique for sampling the corals, used following the completion of the monitoring period, in which two slabs were obtained from the center of each colony. Sampled corals were reattached to the seafloor, and most corals had completely recovered within 6 months. The station design and sampling methods described herein provide an effective approach to assessing coral and crustose coralline algal calcification rates across time and space, offering the ability to quantify the potential effects of

  11. Monitoring of Heart and Breathing Rates Using Dual Cameras on a Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunyoung; Kong, Youngsun; Reyes, Bersain; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H

    2016-01-01

    Some smartphones have the capability to process video streams from both the front- and rear-facing cameras simultaneously. This paper proposes a new monitoring method for simultaneous estimation of heart and breathing rates using dual cameras of a smartphone. The proposed approach estimates heart rates using a rear-facing camera, while at the same time breathing rates are estimated using a non-contact front-facing camera. For heart rate estimation, a simple application protocol is used to analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with the rear camera. The breathing rate is estimated from non-contact video recordings from both chest and abdominal motions. Reference breathing rates were measured by a respiration belt placed around the chest and abdomen of a subject; reference heart rates (HR) were determined using the standard electrocardiogram. An automated selection of either the chest or abdominal video signal was determined by choosing the signal with a greater autocorrelation value. The breathing rate was then determined by selecting the dominant peak in the power spectrum. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, data were collected from 11 healthy subjects. The breathing ranges spanned both low and high frequencies (6-60 breaths/min), and the results show that the average median errors from the reflectance imaging on the chest and the abdominal walls based on choosing the maximum spectral peak were 1.43% and 1.62%, respectively. Similarly, HR estimates were also found to be accurate.

  12. Passive fetal heart rate monitoring apparatus and method with enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen A. (Inventor); Livingston, David L. (Inventor); Pretlow, Robert A., III (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for acquiring signals emitted by a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats and determining a fetal heart rate is presented. Multiple sensor signals are outputted by a passive fetal heart rate monitoring sensor. Multiple parallel nonlinear filters filter these multiple sensor signals to identify fetal heart beats in the signal data. A processor determines a fetal heart rate based on these identified fetal heart beats. The processor includes the use of a figure of merit weighting of heart rate estimates based on the identified heart beats from each filter for each signal. The fetal heart rate thus determined is outputted to a display, storage, or communications channel. A method for enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination includes acquiring signals from a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats from the signals by multiple parallel nonlinear filtering, and determining a fetal heart rate based on the identified fetal heart beats. A figure of merit operation in this method provides for weighting a plurality of fetal heart rate estimates based on the identified fetal heart beats and selecting the highest ranking fetal heart rate estimate.

  13. Passive fetal heart rate monitoring apparatus and method with enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen A. (Inventor); Livingston, David L. (Inventor); Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for acquiring signals emitted by a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats and determining a fetal heart rate. Multiple sensor signals are outputted by a passive fetal heart rate monitoring sensor. Multiple parallel nonlinear filters filter these multiple sensor signals to identify fetal heart beats in the signal data. A processor determines a fetal heart rate based on these identified fetal heart beats. The processor includes the use of a figure of merit weighting of heart rate estimates based on the identified heart beats from each filter for each signal. The fetal heart rate thus determined is outputted to a display, storage, or communications channel. A method for enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination includes acquiring signals from a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats from the signals by multiple parallel nonlinear filtering, and determining a fetal heart rate based on the identified fetal heart beats. A figure of merit operation in this method provides for weighting a plurality of fetal heart rate estimates based on the identified fetal heart beats and selecting the highest ranking fetal heart rate estimate.

  14. Reliability of a rating procedure to monitor industry self-regulation codes governing alcohol advertising content.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Xuan, Ziming; Proctor, Dwayne

    2008-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop reliable procedures to monitor the content of alcohol advertisements broadcast on television and in other media, and to detect violations of the content guidelines of the alcohol industry's self-regulation codes. A set of rating-scale items was developed to measure the content guidelines of the 1997 version of the U.S. Beer Institute Code. Six focus groups were conducted with 60 college students to evaluate the face validity of the items and the feasibility of the procedure. A test-retest reliability study was then conducted with 74 participants, who rated five alcohol advertisements on two occasions separated by 1 week. Average correlations across all advertisements using three reliability statistics (r, rho, and kappa) were almost all statistically significant and the kappas were good for most items, which indicated high test-retest agreement. We also found high interrater reliabilities (intraclass correlations) among raters for item-level and guideline-level violations, indicating that regardless of the specific item, raters were consistent in their general evaluations of the advertisements. Naïve (untrained) raters can provide consistent (reliable) ratings of the main content guidelines proposed in the U.S. Beer Institute Code. The rating procedure may have future applications for monitoring compliance with industry self-regulation codes and for conducting research on the ways in which alcohol advertisements are perceived by young adults and other vulnerable populations.

  15. Usefulness of Acoustic Monitoring of Respiratory Rate in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Shingo; Nakae, Hirohiko; Imai, Jin; Sawamoto, Kana; Kijima, Maiko; Tsukune, Yoko; Uchida, Tetsufumi; Igarashi, Muneki; Koike, Jun; Matsushima, Masashi; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Mine, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The study assessed the usefulness of a recently developed method for respiratory rate (RR) monitoring in patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) under deep sedation. Methods. Study subjects comprised 182 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer or gastric cancer undergoing ESD. The usefulness of acoustic RR monitoring was assessed by retrospectively reviewing the patients' records for age, gender, height, weight, past history, serum creatinine, RR before ESD, and total dose of sedative. Results. Respiratory suppression was present in 37.9% of (69/182) patients. Continuous monitoring of RR led to detection of respiratory suppression in all these patients. RR alone was decreased in 24 patients, whereas both RR and blood oxygen saturation were decreased in 45 patients. Univariate analysis showed female gender, height, weight, and RR before treatment to be significantly associated with respiratory suppression. Multivariate analysis showed RR before treatment to be the only significant independent predictor [odds ratio (OR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–0.95, and P = 0.006] of respiratory suppression. Conclusion. In this study, the difference in RR before treatment between patients with and without respiratory suppression was subtle. Therefore, we suggest that acoustic RR monitoring should be considered in patients undergoing ESD under sedation to prevent serious respiratory complications. PMID:26858748

  16. Usefulness of Acoustic Monitoring of Respiratory Rate in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Tsuda, Shingo; Nakae, Hirohiko; Imai, Jin; Sawamoto, Kana; Kijima, Maiko; Tsukune, Yoko; Uchida, Tetsufumi; Igarashi, Muneki; Koike, Jun; Matsushima, Masashi; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Mine, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The study assessed the usefulness of a recently developed method for respiratory rate (RR) monitoring in patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) under deep sedation. Methods. Study subjects comprised 182 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer or gastric cancer undergoing ESD. The usefulness of acoustic RR monitoring was assessed by retrospectively reviewing the patients' records for age, gender, height, weight, past history, serum creatinine, RR before ESD, and total dose of sedative. Results. Respiratory suppression was present in 37.9% of (69/182) patients. Continuous monitoring of RR led to detection of respiratory suppression in all these patients. RR alone was decreased in 24 patients, whereas both RR and blood oxygen saturation were decreased in 45 patients. Univariate analysis showed female gender, height, weight, and RR before treatment to be significantly associated with respiratory suppression. Multivariate analysis showed RR before treatment to be the only significant independent predictor [odds ratio (OR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.95, and P = 0.006] of respiratory suppression. Conclusion. In this study, the difference in RR before treatment between patients with and without respiratory suppression was subtle. Therefore, we suggest that acoustic RR monitoring should be considered in patients undergoing ESD under sedation to prevent serious respiratory complications.

  17. Monitoring fetal heart rate during pregnancy: contributions from advanced signal processing and wearable technology.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Maria G; Fanelli, Andrea; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  18. Why don't nurses monitor the respiratory rates of patients?

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jacqueline

    Early warning systems (EWS) are being introduced to acute ward areas across the country to support the early recognition of patients at risk of developing a critical illness. All the systems are based on the monitoring of physiological observations of pulse, blood pressure, temperature, respirations and consciousness level. The main problem identified when attempting to introduce an early warning system to the acute general ward areas in one hospital was the general paucity of monitoring of patients observations by the nursing team. Respiratory rate was identified as the one parameter which nursing staff recorded less than 50% of the time. This qualitative study used focus groups in an attempt to understand the reasons behind the paucity in patient observation practice and explore the nurses' values and beliefs about patient monitoring within the context of care. The study identified four major factors associated with the paucity of patient monitoring: organization of nursing care activities, development of nursing observation skills, clinical decision making processes and equipment management issues.

  19. Monitoring Fetal Heart Rate during Pregnancy: Contributions from Advanced Signal Processing and Wearable Technology

    PubMed Central

    Signorini, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring. PMID:24639886

  20. OLAM: A wearable, non-contact sensor for continuous heart-rate and activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Albright, Ryan K; Goska, Benjamin J; Hagen, Tory M; Chi, Mike Y; Cauwenberghs, G; Chiang, Patrick Y

    2011-01-01

    A wearable, multi-modal sensor is presented that can non-invasively monitor a patient's activity level and heart function concurrently for more than a week. The 4 in(2) sensor incorporates both a non-contact heartrate sensor and a 5-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU), allowing simultaneous heart, respiration, and movement monitoring without requiring physical contact with the skin [1]. Hence, this Oregon State University Life and Activity Monitor (OLAM) provides the unique opportunity to combine motion data with heart-rate information, enabling assessment of actual physical activity beyond conventional movement sensors. OLAM also provides a unique platform for non-contact sensing, enabling the filtering of movement artifacts generated by the non-contact capacitive interface, using the IMU data as a movement noise channel. Intended to be used in clinical trials for weeks at a time with no physician intervention, the OLAM allows continuous non-invasive monitoring of patients, providing the opportunity for long-term observation into a patient's physical activity and subtle longitudinal changes.

  1. Groundwater Recharge in Juniper Woodlands: Insights from Long-Term Monitoring of Cave Drip Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, B. P.; Sun, Z.; Munster, C.; Owens, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Edwards Plateau in Central Texas covers some 230,000 square kilometers. It is underlain by limestone and dolomite, and these karst parent materials give the region its distinct hydrologic character. Although the climate is semiarid, springs are abundant and support many perennial rivers. In particular, the Edwards Plateau is the source area for the prolific and regionally important Edwards Aquifer, the main water source for much of central Texas. Compared with other semiarid regions, the Edwards Plateau has abundant water resources; but an expanding population is now taxing those resources, and ways are being sought to increase groundwater recharge. Over the past 150 years, the expansion of juniper and oak have turned the Plateau into a shrub-dominated semiarid rangeland-a legacy of the historical overgrazing that took place from around 1880 to 1950. Many believe that reducing this woodland cover would lead to higher groundwater recharge. We undertook our study to try to understand the influence of juniper on groundwater recharge. For six years, we monitored drip rates in caves underlying juniper forests (these rates are surrogate measurements for groundwater recharge). After four years of monitoring, we removed the juniper from the study site and continued monitoring. Surprisingly, our results indicate that removing the trees had a negative effect on recharge. Several mechanisms may contribute to the reduction in recharge: for example, surface runoff increased following removal of the trees; and it is possible that the trees assist recharge by funneling water to their roots, hastening its movement through the substrate.

  2. Validity of a heart rate monitor during work in the laboratory and on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, A. D. Jr; Lee, S. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space flight. Three different comparisons were made. The first compared HRM data to simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of varying heart rates that were generated by an ECG simulator. The second compared HRM data to ECG recordings collected during work sessions of 14 subjects in the laboratory. Finally, ECG downlink and HRM data were compared in four astronauts who performed cycle exercise during space flight. The data were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were that the HRM recorded virtually identical heart rates compared with ECG recordings for the data set generated by an ECG simulator. The regression equation for the relationship between ECG versus HRM heart rate data during work in the laboratory was: ECG HR = 0.99 x (HRM) + 0.82 (r2 = 0.99). Finally, the agreement between ECG downlink data and HRM data during space flight was also very high, with the regression equation being: Downlink ECG HR = 1.05 x (HRM) -5.71 (r2 = 0.99). The results of this study indicate that the HRM provides accurate data and may be used to reliably obtain valid data regarding heart rate responses during work.

  3. Validity of a heart rate monitor during work in the laboratory and on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, A. D. Jr; Lee, S. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space flight. Three different comparisons were made. The first compared HRM data to simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of varying heart rates that were generated by an ECG simulator. The second compared HRM data to ECG recordings collected during work sessions of 14 subjects in the laboratory. Finally, ECG downlink and HRM data were compared in four astronauts who performed cycle exercise during space flight. The data were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were that the HRM recorded virtually identical heart rates compared with ECG recordings for the data set generated by an ECG simulator. The regression equation for the relationship between ECG versus HRM heart rate data during work in the laboratory was: ECG HR = 0.99 x (HRM) + 0.82 (r2 = 0.99). Finally, the agreement between ECG downlink data and HRM data during space flight was also very high, with the regression equation being: Downlink ECG HR = 1.05 x (HRM) -5.71 (r2 = 0.99). The results of this study indicate that the HRM provides accurate data and may be used to reliably obtain valid data regarding heart rate responses during work.

  4. Cardiovascular oscillations at the bedside: early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using heart rate characteristics monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, J. Randall; Delos, John B.; Flower, Abigail A.; Cao, Hanqing; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Richman, Joshua S.; Lake, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and non-linear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician. PMID:22026974

  5. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P.; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-01-01

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests. PMID:24167281

  6. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests.

  7. Objective monitoring of physical activity using motion sensors and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Freedson, P S; Miller, K

    2000-06-01

    Although neither motion sensors nor heart rate are perfect markers of physical activity, they certainly eliminate subjectivity of obtaining physical activity information. The objective method of choice depends on how the measurement will be used. For example, if walking behavior is the desired outcome, then a pedometer may be sufficient. If patterns and intensity of activity over longer periods of times such as a week or longer are needed, then an accelerometer with large memory capacity should be selected. In the future, efforts should be directed towards developing an objective motion sensor as inexpensive as a pedometer but with the data acquisition capabilities of the CSA or Tritrac accelerometer. Providing simultaneous heart rate with motion is also recommended to further verify that elevated heart rate does in fact represent a physical activity response. As the cost of the electronic components continues to decrease, these activity monitor configurations may become possible.

  8. Social support at work, heart rate, and cortisol: a self-monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Evans, O; Steptoe, A

    2001-10-01

    This study assessed the influence of work social support on self-monitored heart rate, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol recorded on 3 work days and 2 leisure days from 61 nurses and 32 accountants (40 men, 53 women). Heart rate and blood pressure were higher during the day at work than in the evening or on leisure days. Cortisol was higher on leisure than work days and was lower in the evening than in the day. Low social support at work was associated with elevated heart rate during the daytime and evening of work days, an effect that persisted after controlling for psychological distress, age, sex, smoking, and physical activity. Work social support was not related to cortisol on work days, but on leisure days cortisol was elevated among individuals reporting high social support. There were few differences between men and women, and no important occupational effects.

  9. Attachable Pulse Sensors Integrated with Inorganic Optoelectronic Devices for Monitoring Heart Rates at Various Body Locations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juho; Kim, Namyun; Kwon, Minjeong; Lee, Jongho

    2017-08-09

    Monitoring cardiovascular signals such as heart rate and blood flow provides critically important healthcare information about patients under medical care. However, when the sensors are worn for extended times, the sensors sometimes require higher mechanical compatibility with soft deformable tissues. In this paper, we report an attachable and flexible pulse sensor (bending radius: 2.4 mm), integrated with micro-inorganic photodetectors (thickness: 4.1 μm, photocurrent: 8.99 μA under 1.5 mW/cm(2)) and a red light emitting diode (620 nm), to monitor vital signals for extended times. Operating in a reflection mode, it can be attached and measure heart pulse waveforms from various locations on the human body including the finger, fingertip, nail, and forearm. The small form factor also enables integration on a finger ring. Electrical and mechanical performance assessments demonstrated the practical feasibility of the concept.

  10. Development of a piezopolymer pressure sensor for a portable fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Pretlow, R. A.; Stoughton, J. W.; Baker, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A piezopolymer pressure sensor has been developed for service in a portable fetal heart rate monitor, which will permit an expectant mother to perform the fetal nonstress test, a standard predelivery test, in her home. Several sensors are mounted in an array on a belt worn by the mother. The sensor design conforms to the distinctive features of the fetal heart tone, namely, the acoustic signature, frequency spectrum, signal amplitude, and localization. The components of a sensor serve to fulfill five functions: signal detection, acceleration cancellation, acoustical isolation, electrical shielding, and electrical isolation of the mother. A theoretical analysis of the sensor response yields a numerical value for the sensor sensitivity, which is compared to experiment in an in vitro sensor calibration. Finally, an in vivo test on patients within the last six weeks of term reveals that nonstress test recordings from the acoustic monitor compare well with those obtained from conventional ultrasound.

  11. Development of a piezopolymer pressure sensor for a portable fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Pretlow, R. A.; Stoughton, J. W.; Baker, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A piezopolymer pressure sensor has been developed for service in a portable fetal heart rate monitor, which will permit an expectant mother to perform the fetal nonstress test, a standard predelivery test, in her home. Several sensors are mounted in an array on a belt worn by the mother. The sensor design conforms to the distinctive features of the fetal heart tone, namely, the acoustic signature, frequency spectrum, signal amplitude, and localization. The components of a sensor serve to fulfill five functions: signal detection, acceleration cancellation, acoustical isolation, electrical shielding, and electrical isolation of the mother. A theoretical analysis of the sensor response yields a numerical value for the sensor sensitivity, which is compared to experiment in an in vitro sensor calibration. Finally, an in vivo test on patients within the last six weeks of term reveals that nonstress test recordings from the acoustic monitor compare well with those obtained from conventional ultrasound.

  12. Statistical characterization of Strong and Mid Solar Flares and Sun EUV rate monitoring with GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte-Moreno, Enric; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Beniguel, Yannick; Orus-Perez, Raul; Prieto-Cerdeira, Roberto; Schlueter, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The global network of permanent Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers has become an useful and affordable way of monitoring the Solar EUV flux rate, especially -for the time being- in the context of Major and Mid geoeffective intensity Solar Flares (M. Hernandez-Pajares et al., Space Weather, doi:10.1029/2012SW000826, 2012). In fact the maturity of this technique (GNSS Solar FLAre Indicator, GSFLAI) has allowed to incorporate it in operational real-time (RT) conditions, thanks to the availability of global GNSS datastreams from the RT International GNSS Network (M. Caissy et al, GPS World, June 1, 2012), and performed in the context of the MONITOR and MONITOR2 ESA-funded projects (Y. Beniguel et al., NAVITEC Proc., 978-1-4673-2011-5 IEEE, 2012). The main goal of this presentation is to summarize a detailed recent study of the statistical properties of Solar Flares (E. Monte and M. Hernandez-Pajares, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2014JA020206, 2014) by considering the GNSS proxy of EUV rate (GSFLAI parameter) computed independently each 30 seconds during the whole last solar cycle. An statistical model has been characterized that explains the empirical results such as (a) the persistence and presence of bursts of solar flares and (b) their long tail peak values of the solar flux variation, which can be characterized by: (1) A fractional Brownian model for the long-term dependence, and (2), a power law distribution for the time series extreme values. Finally, an update of the Solar Flares' occurrence during the recent months of Solar Activity, gathered in RT within MONITOR2 project, will close the paper.

  13. Oxygen saturation and heart rate monitoring during a single session of early rehabilitation after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Sala, Vittorio; Petrucci, Lucia; Monteleone, Serena; Dall'Angelo, Anna; Miracca, Stefania; Conte, Teresa; Carlisi, Ettore; Ricotti, Susanna; D'Armini, Andrea M; Dalla Toffola, Elena

    2016-02-01

    Early rehabilitation after cardiac surgery aims to prevent immobilization, to reduce the effects of surgery on the respiratory function and to facilitate the recovery of autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADL), after discharge. Nevertheless the optimal perioperative physical therapy care for patients undergoing cardiac surgery is not well established. Moreover, most of the studies monitored peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) during surgery or focused only on their recovery after rehabilitation and not on their pathways during a session of exercises. To monitor peripheral oxygen saturation and HR before, during and at the end of a single session of early rehabilitation after cardiac surgery, so testing our protocol's safety. A case series. Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, inpatients. Forty-eight consecutive inpatients (35 M), mean age 61 years, with cardiovascular disease (CVD), who underwent cardiac surgery. We monitored SpO2%, HR, systemic blood pressure (BP), pain in the thoracic wound (VAS) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during the rehabilitation session after weaning from oxygen therapy. During all phases mean SpO2 was 94% (±1.8) and mean HR was 85 bpm (±13.3). Number of desaturation events were 14 in total and mean of % of time with SpO2<90% was 3 (±6.5) during all the rehabilitative session. Moreover, mean BP after reaching the sitting position was 124.7 (±11.9)/78.6 (±8.4) and after ambulation was 131.5 (±11.5)/82.9 (±7.3). The monitoring peripheral oxygen saturation and HR during and not only before and at the end of a standardized early rehabilitation session helped us to ensure the safety of our protocol. Because of its feasibility, safety and reproducibility our rehabilitation treatment has been applied to different types of surgical inpatients in order to limit the negative consequences of immobilization.

  14. [Monitor of ECG signal and heart rate using a mobile phone with Bluetooth communication protocol].

    PubMed

    Becerra-Luna, Brayans; Dávila-García, Rodrigo; Salgado-Rodríguez, Paola; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Infante-Vázquez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    To develop a portable signal monitoring equipment for electrocardiography (ECG) and heart rate (HR), communicated with a mobile phone using the Bluetooth (BT) communication protocol for display of the signal on screen. A monitoring system was designed in which the electronic section performs the ECG signal acquisition, as well as amplification, filtering, analog to digital conversion and transmission of the ECG and HR using BT. Two programs were developed for the system. The first one calculates HR through QRS identification and sends the ECG signals and HR to the mobile, and the second program is an application to acquire and display them on the mobile screen. We developed a portable electronic system powered by a 9 volt battery, with amplification and bandwidth meeting the international standards for ECG monitoring. The QRS complex identification was performed using the second derivative algorithm, while the programs allow sending and receiving information from the ECG and HR via BT, and viewing it on the mobile screen. The monitoring is feasible within distances of 15 m and it has been tested in various mobiles telephones of brands Nokia®, Sony Ericsson® and Samsung®. This system shows an alternative for mobile monitoring using BT and Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) programming. It allows the register of the ECG trace and HR, and it can be implemented in different phones. Copyright © 2011 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. E-bra with nanosensors, smart electronics and smart phone communication network for heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Rai, Pratyush; Kegley, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Heart related ailments have been a major cause for deaths in both men and women in United States. Since 1985, more women than men have died due to cardiac or cardiovascular ailments for reasons that are not well understood as yet. Lack of a deterministic understanding of this phenomenon makes continuous real time monitoring of cardiovascular health the best approach for both early detection of pathophysiological changes and events indicative of chronic cardiovascular diseases in women. This approach requires sensor systems to be seamlessly mounted on day to day clothing for women. With this application in focus, this paper describes a e-bra platform for sensors towards heart rate monitoring. The sensors, nanomaterial or textile based dry electrodes, capture the heart activity signals in form Electrocardiograph (ECG) and relay it to a compact textile mountable amplifier-wireless transmitter module for relay to a smart phone. The ECG signal, acquired on the smart phone, can be transmitted to the cyber space for post processing. As an example, the paper discusses the heart rate estimation and heart rate variability. The data flow from sensor to smart phone to server (cyber infrastructure) has been discussed. The cyber infrastructure based signal post processing offers an opportunity for automated emergency response that can be initiated from the server or the smartphone itself. Detailed protocols for both the scenarios have been presented and their relevance to the present emergency healthcare response system has been discussed.

  16. Hysteresis of heart rate and heat exchange of fasting and postprandial savannah monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus).

    PubMed

    Zaar, Morten; Larsen, Einer; Wang, Tobias

    2004-04-01

    Reptiles are ectothermic, but regulate body temperatures (T(b)) by behavioural and physiological means. Body temperature has profound effects on virtually all physiological functions. It is well known that heating occurs faster than cooling, which seems to correlate with changes in cutaneous perfusion. Increased cutaneous perfusion, and hence elevated cardiac output, during heating is reflected in an increased heart rate (f(H)), and f(H), at a given T(b), is normally higher during heating compared to cooling ('hysteresis of heart rate'). Digestion is associated with an increased metabolic rate. This is associated with an elevated f(H) and many species of reptiles also exhibited a behavioural selection of higher T(b) during digestion. Here, we examine whether digestion affects the rate of heating and cooling as well as the hysteresis of heart rate in savannah monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus). Fasting lizards were studied after 5 days of food deprivation while digesting lizards were studied approximately 24 h after ingesting dead mice that equalled 10% of their body mass. Heart rate was measured while T(b) increased from 28 to 38 degrees C under a heat lamp and while T(b) decreased during a subsequent cooling phase. The lizards exhibited hysteresis of heart rate, and heating occurred faster than cooling. Feeding led to an increased f(H) (approximately 20 min(-1) irrespective of T(b)), but did not affect the rate of temperature change during heating or cooling. Therefore, it is likely that the increased blood flows during digestion are distributed exclusively to visceral organs and that the thermal conductance remains unaffected by the elevated metabolic rate during digestion.

  17. Evaluating and monitoring treatment response in depression using measurement-based assessment and rating scales.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2013-07-01

    Even with many treatment options available for major depressive disorder, many patients fail to achieve remission and return to their presymptomatic levels of functioning at work, in leisure activities, and in relationships. Throughout treatment, clinicians should implement measurement-based care by systematically monitoring patients' response using self-rated scales, such as the PHQ-9, QIDS-SR, or BDI. By tracking depressive symptoms, as well as suicidality, treatment adherence, and side effects, clinicians can adjust treatment to help patients achieve the best outcomes. Measurement-based care enables clinicians to make informed decisions at critical points throughout the treatment process and to involve patients in making those decisions.

  18. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    PubMed

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-07

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  19. Heart Rate monitoring during physical exercise using wrist-type photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amirhosein Khas; Moradi, Parsa; Malihi, Mahan; Karimi, Sajjad; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring using wrist-type using photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals during subjects' intensive exercises is a challenging problem, since signals are strongly affected by motion artifacts caused by unexpected movements. This paper presents a method that uses both time and frequency characteristics of signals; using sparse signal reconstruction for high-resolution spectrum estimation. Experimental results on type data sets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at peak speed of 15 km/hour. The results have a performance with the average absolute error being 1.80 beat per minute.

  20. Leak rate estimation of a resistive plate chamber gap by monitoring absolute pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, S.; Datar, V. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2016-11-01

    The differential pressure of a conventional manometer is highly dependent on the atmospheric pressure. The measurements with a manometer for an extended time period show a large variation due to solar atmospheric tides. However, the measurements of absolute pressure, both outside and inside of a resistive plate chamber (RPC), are independent of each other. By monitoring the absolute pressures, both outside and inside of a RPC, along with the temperature, its leakage rate can be estimated. During the test period, the supporting button spacers inside a RPC may get detached due to some manufacturing defect. This effect can be detected clearly by observing the sudden fall of pressure inside the chamber.

  1. Evaluation of accuracy and reliability of PulseOn optical heart rate monitoring device.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Parak, Jakub; Tarniceriu, Adrian; Renevey, Philippe; Bertschi, Mattia; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-08-01

    PulseOn is a wrist-worn optical heart rate (HR) monitor based on photoplethysmography. It utilizes multi-wavelength technology and optimized sensor geometry to monitor blood flow at different depths of skin tissue, and it dynamically adapts to an optimal measurement depth in different conditions. Movement artefacts are reduced by adaptive movement-cancellation algorithms and optimized mechanics, which stabilize the sensor-to-skin contact. In this paper, we evaluated the accuracy and reliability of PulseOn technology against ECG-derived HR in laboratory conditions during a wide range of physical activities and also during outdoor sports. In addition, we compared the performance to another on-the-shelf wrist-worn consumer product Mio LINK(®). The results showed PulseOn reliability (% of time with error <;10bpm) of 94.5% with accuracy (100% - mean absolute percentage error) 96.6% as compared to ECG (vs 86.6% and 94.4% for Mio LINK(®), correspondingly) during laboratory protocol. Similar or better reliability and accuracy was seen during normal outdoor sports activities. The results show that PulseOn provides reliability and accuracy similar to traditional chest strap ECG HR monitors during cardiovascular exercise.

  2. Septicemia mortality reduction in neonates in a heart rate characteristics monitoring trial

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Karen D.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Kaufman, David A.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Kattwinkel, John; Porcelli, Peter J.; Navarrete, Cristina T.; Bancalari, Eduardo; Aschner, Judy L.; Walker, M. Whit; Perez, Jose A.; Palmer, Charles; Lake, Douglas E.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Moorman, J. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal heart rate characteristics (HRC) wax and wane in early stages of culture-positive, late-onset septicemia (LOS) in patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Continuously monitoring an HRC index leads to a reduction in mortality among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We hypothesized that the reduction in mortality was due to a decrease in septicemia-associated mortality. Methods This is a secondary analysis of clinical and HRC data from 2989 VLBW infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of HRC monitoring in 9 NICUs from 2004–2010. Results LOS was diagnosed 974 times in 700 patients, and the incidence and distribution of organisms were similar in HRC display and non-display groups. Mortality within 30 days of LOS was lower in the HRC display compared to the non-display group (11.8% vs 19.6%, RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43, 0.87, p<0.01), but mortality reduction was not statistically significant for patients without LOS. There were fewer large, abrupt increases in the HRC index in the days leading up to LOS diagnosis in infants whose HRC index was displayed. Conclusions Continuous HRC monitoring is associated with a lower septicemia-associated mortality in VLBW infants, possibly due to diagnosis earlier in the course of illness. PMID:23942558

  3. Monitoring copper toxicity in natural phytoplankton assemblages: application of Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Patricia; Beiras, Ricardo; Fernández, Emilio

    2010-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted with natural coastal phytoplankton assemblages exposed to [Cu] within the range 5-80 microg L(-1). The effect of Cu on several biological variables such as chlorophyll a concentration, particle size distribution, O2-production and fluorescence variables recorded by a Fast Repetition Rate fluorometer was monitored during 72 h. Variable fluorescence (Fv) was the most sensitive and rapid among all the variables tested. This work contributes to reinforce the use of fluorescence endpoints in ecotoxicological studies by proving their ecological relevance through relationships found between fluorescence and population-level responses as growth rate and gross O2 production. The lowest calculated EC10 was 2.65 microg L(-1), concentration commonly exceeded in polluted waters.

  4. Monitoring of radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chia-Ho; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Tou-Rong; Weng, Jui-Hung; Kao, Pan-Fu; Dong, Shang-Lung; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of radiation dose around the nuclear medicine site is an important study issue. In this study, TLD-100H radiation dosimeters were used to measure the ambient radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site in order to investigate the latent hot zones of radiation exposure. Results of this study showed that the radiation doses measured from all piping and storage systems were comparable to the background dose. A relatively high dose was observed at the single bend point of waste water piping of the PET/CT. Another important finding was the unexpected high dose rates observed at the non-restricted waiting area (NRWA) of SPECT. To conclude, this study provides useful information for further determination of an appropriate dose reduction strategy to achieve the ALARA principle in a clinical nuclear medicine site.

  5. The non-contact monitoring of heart and respiratory rates using laser irradiation: an experimental simultaneous monitoring with and without clothes during biochemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Ishizuka, T; Ishihara, M; Ishihara, M; Matsumura, K; Kikuchi, M; Kurita, A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contact method to evaluate the heart and respiratory rates simultaneously using a single optical sensor which can be used without the removal of clothes before a decontamination procedure in biochemical hazards. We measured the heart and respiratory rates with and without clothes to assess the vital sign monitoring before decontamination. In order to monitor the heart and respiratory rates of rabbits simultaneously, the respiratory and cardiac peaks were separated using fast Fourier transform from a 5 mW helium-neon laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) reflected off the chest walls of rabbits. A cloth (50 mm x 50 mm, 2 mm thick) was placed on the chest of the rabbits to simulate the vital sign monitoring with clothes. The heart rate measured using this method agreed with the rate derived from an electrocardiogram (r = 0.82, p<0.05). The respiratory rate correlated with the manually measured respirator rate (r = 0.93, p<0.05). This method appears promising as a non-contact method for monitoring the heart and respiratory rates of patients under biochemically hazardous conditions.

  6. Photoplethysmography respiratory rate monitoring in patients receiving procedural sedation and analgesia for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Touw, Hugo R W; Verheul, Milou H; Tuinman, Pieter R; Smit, Jeroen; Thöne, Deirdre; Schober, Patrick; Boer, Christa

    2016-05-28

    The value of capnography during procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) for the detection of hypoxaemia during upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopic procedures is limited. Photoplethysmography respiratory rate (RRp) monitoring may provide a useful alternative, but the level of agreement with capnography during PSA is unknown. We therefore investigated the level of agreement between the RRp and capnography-based RR (RRc) during PSA for UGI endoscopy. This study included patients undergoing PSA for UGI endoscopy procedures. Pulse oximetry (SpO2) and RRc were recorded in combination with Nellcor 2.0 (RRp) monitoring (Covidien, USA). Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the level of agreement between RRc and RRp. Episodes of apnoea, defined as no detection of exhaled CO2 for minimal 36 s, and hypoxaemia, defined as an SpO2 < 92 %, were registered. A total of 1054 min of data from 26 patients were analysed. Bland-Altman analysis between the RRc and RRp revealed a bias of 2.25 ± 5.41 breath rate per minute (brpm), with limits of agreement from -8.35 to 12.84 brpm for an RR ≥ 4 brpm. A total of 67 apnoea events were detected. In 21 % of all apnoea events, the patient became hypoxaemic. Hypoxaemia occurred 42 times with a median length of 34 (19-141) s, and was preceded in 34 % of the cases by apnoea and in 64 % by an RRc ≥ 8 brpm. In 81 % of all apnoea events, photoplethysmography registered an RRp ≥ 4 brpm. We found a low level of agreement between capnography and the plethysmography respiratory rate during procedural sedation for UGI endoscopy. Moreover, respiratory rate derived from both the capnogram and photoplethysmogram showed a limited ability to provide warning signs for a hypoxaemic event during the sedation procedure.

  7. In-Ear Audio Wearable: Measurement of Heart and Breathing Rates for Health and Safety Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alexis; Voix, Jeremie

    2017-06-27

    This paper examines the integration of a non-invasive vital sign monitoring feature into the workers' hearing protection devices (HPDs) by using a microphone positioned within the earcanal under the HPD. 25 test-subjects were asked to breathe at various rhythms and intensities and these realistic sound events were recorded in the earcanal. Digital signal processing algorithms were then developed to assess heart and breathing rates. Finally, to test the robustness of theses algorithms in noisy work environments, industrial noise was added to the in-ear recorded signals and an adaptive denoising filter was used. The developed algorithms show an absolute mean error of 4.3 beats per minute (BPM) and 2.7 cycles per minute (CPM). The mean difference estimate are -0.44 BPM with a limit of agreement (LoA) interval of -14.3 to 13.4 BPM and 2.40 CPM with a LoA interval of -2.62 to 7.48 CPM. Excellent denoising is achieved with the adaptive filter, able to cope with ambient sound pressure levels of up to 110 dB SPL, resulting in a small error for heart rate detection, but a much larger error for breathing rate detection. Extraction of the heart and breathing rates from an acoustical measurement in the occluded earcanal under an HPD is possible and can even be conducted in the presence of a high level of ambient noise. This proof of concept enables the development of a wide range of non-invasive health and safety monitoring audio wearables for industrial workplaces and life-critical applications where HPDs are used.

  8. Wearable wireless heart rate monitor for continuous long-term variability studies.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Prototyping of a home care system for activity surveillance and sleep assessment targeted to elderly people involves the compromise of wearing comfort and measurement performance. We propose a wearable heart rate variability monitor connected via wireless digital link to a home-embedded infrastructure of multimodal health surveillance system. The coin-size wearable recorder acquires and processes the electrocardiogram and sends annotated tachogram data accordingly to the subject's status and programed schedule. Thanks to remote programmability, in case of predefined thresholds excess, the recorder response is immediate, whereas the regular reports are organized in packets and delivered in bulk in short transmission sessions. This approach significantly reduces the data rate and the energy required to supply the communication module. The prototype weighting 11.2 g is based on the ARM7 (Atmel Corporate Headquarters 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA, USA) processor running at 18 MHz and with a 300-mA h rechargeable battery allows for up to 10 days of seamless tachogram monitoring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison between red, green and blue light reflection photoplethysmography for heart rate monitoring during motion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyoung; Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Rolfe, Peter; Tanaka, Shinobu; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2013-01-01

    Reflection photoplethysmography (PPG) using 530 nm (green) wavelength light has the potential to be a superior method for monitoring heart rate (HR) during normal daily life due to its relative freedom from artifacts. However, little is known about the accuracy of pulse rate (PR) measured by 530 nm light PPG during motion. Therefore, we compared the HR measured by electrocadiography (ECG) as a reference with PR measured by 530, 645 (red), and 470 nm (blue) wavelength light PPG during baseline and while performing hand waving in 12 participants. In addition, we examined the change of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by motion for each of the three wavelengths used for the PPG. The results showed that the limit of agreement in Bland-Altman plots between the HR measured by ECG and PR measured by 530 nm light PPG (±0.61 bpm) was smaller than that achieved when using 645 and 470 nm light PPG (±3.20 bpm and ±2.23 bpm, respectively). The ΔSNR (the difference between baseline and task values) of 530 and 470nm light PPG was significantly smaller than ΔSNR for red light PPG. In conclusion, 530 nm light PPG could be a more suitable method than 645 and 470nm light PPG for monitoring HR in normal daily life.

  10. Monitoring Inequities in Self-Rated Health Over the Life Course in Population Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anne W.; Baum, Fran E.; Hiller, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of social mobility and to assess the use of socioeconomic indicators in monitoring health inequities over time, we examined the association of self-rated health with socioeconomic position over the life course. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional telephone survey (n = 2999) that included life-course socioeconomic indicators and from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system (n = 26 400). Social mobility variables, each with 4 possible intergenerational trajectories, were constructed from family financial situation and housing tenure during childhood and adulthood. Results. Low socioeconomic position during both childhood and adulthood and improved financial situation in adulthood were associated with a reduced prevalence of excellent or very good health. Trends over time indicated that socioeconomic disadvantage in adulthood was associated with poorer self-rated health. Conclusions. Our results support policies aiming to improve family financial situation during childhood and housing tenure across the life course. Inclusion of life-course socioeconomic measures in surveillance systems would enable monitoring of health inequities trends among socially mobile groups. PMID:19197081

  11. Energy expenditure estimate by heart-rate monitor and a portable electromagnetic coils system.

    PubMed

    Gastinger, Steven; Nicolas, Guillaume; Sorel, Anthony; Sefati, Hamid; Prioux, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this article was to compare 2 portable devices (a heart-rate monitor and an electromagnetic-coil system) that evaluate 2 different physiological parameters--heart rate (HR) and ventilation (VE)--with the objective of estimating energy expenditure (EE). The authors set out to prove that VE is a more pertinent setting than HR to estimate EE during light to moderate activities (sitting and standing at rest and walking at 4, 5, and 6 km/hr). Eleven healthy men were recruited to take part in this study (27.6 ± 5.4 yr, 73.7 ± 9.7 kg). The authors determined the relationships between HR and EE and between VE and EE during light to moderate activities. They compared EE measured by indirect calorimetry (EEREF) with EE estimated by HR monitor (EEHR) and EE estimated by electromagnetic coils (EEMAG) in upright sitting and standing positions and during walking exercises. They compared EEREF with EEHR and EEMAG. The results showed no significant difference between the values of EEREF and EEMAG. However, they showed several significant differences between the values of EEREF and EEHR (for standing at rest and walking at 5 and 6 km/hr). These results showed that the electromagnetic-coil system seems to be more accurate than the HR monitor to estimate EE at rest and during exercise. Taking into consideration these results, it would be interesting to associate the parameters VE and HR to estimate EE. Furthermore, a new version of the electromagnetic-coil device was recently developed and provides the possibility to perform measurement under daily life conditions.

  12. Quality assessment of HER2 testing by monitoring of positivity rates.

    PubMed

    Choritz, Harald; Büsche, Guntram; Kreipe, Hans

    2011-09-01

    Interlaboratory variation in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing provides a challenge for targeted therapy in breast and gastric cancer. Assessment of positivity rates among laboratories could help monitor their performance and define reference values for positivity rates to be expected in a geographic region. Pathologists regularly determined the number of HER2-positive cases (HER2 3+, HER2 2+/amplified or amplified) in their laboratory, and figures were continuously entered into a central website. The overall positivity rate of each participant was calculated and compared with the average rates of all other institutes (n = 42). A total of 18,081 test results on breast cancer and 982 on gastric cancer were entered into the system. Positivity rates for HER2 in breast cancer ranged from 7.6% to 31.6%. Statistically, the results from six institutions qualified as outliers (p < 0.000005). From the remaining institutions encompassing 10,916 assessments, the mean proportion of positive cases was 16.7 ± 3.2% (99% confidence interval 16.6-16.8). The results from six institutions were in between the 95% and 99.5% confidence intervals. For gastric cancer, there was one outlier and the mean positivity rate was 23.2 ± 5.7%. The proportion of HER2-positive breast cancer cases is considerably lower than could have been expected from published studies. By assessing the positivity rates and comparing them with that of all breast or gastric cancers in a given population, pathologists will be alerted to a potential systematic error in their laboratory assay, causative for over- or underestimation of cancer cases suited for anti-HER2 therapy.

  13. Comparison of Erosion Rates Estimated by Sediment Budget Techniques and Suspended Sediment Monitoring and Regulatory Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, M.; Eads, R.

    2007-12-01

    Watersheds in the northern California Coast Range have been designated as "impaired" with respect to water quality because of excessive sediment loads and/or high water temperature. Sediment budget techniques have typically been used by regulatory authorities to estimate current erosion rates and to develop targets for future desired erosion rates. This study examines erosion rates estimated by various methods for portions of the Gualala River watershed, designated as having water quality impaired by sediment under provisions of the Clean Water Act Section 303(d), located in northwest Sonoma County (~90 miles north of San Francisco). The watershed is underlain by Jurassic age sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan formation. The San Andreas Fault passes through the western edge of watershed, and other active faults are present. A substantial portion of the watershed is mantled by rock slides and earth flows, many of which are considered dormant. The Coast Range is geologically young, and rapid rates of uplift are believed to have contributed to high erosion rates. This study compares quantitative erosion rate estimates developed at different spatial and temporal scales. It is motivated by a proposed vineyard development project in the watershed, and the need to document conditions in the project area, assess project environmental impacts and meet regulatory requirements pertaining to water quality. Erosion rate estimates were previously developed using sediment budget techniques for relatively large drainage areas (~100 to 1,000 km2) by the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board and US EPA and by the California Geological Survey. In this study, similar sediment budget techniques were used for smaller watersheds (~3 to 8 km2), and were supplemented by a suspended sediment monitoring program utilizing Turbidity Threshold Sampling techniques (as described in a companion study in this session). The duration of the monitoring program to date

  14. Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L

    2012-01-01

    1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250 000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16 h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9 Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls

  15. A rate-based transcutaneous CO2 sensor for noninvasive respiration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, M; Ge, X; Kostov, Y; Luu, P; Tolosa, L; Woo, H; Viscardi, R; Falk, S; Potts, R; Rao, G

    2015-05-01

    The pain and risk of infection associated with invasive blood sampling for blood gas measurements necessitate the search for reliable noninvasive techniques. In this work we developed a novel rate-based noninvasive method for a safe and fast assessment of respiratory status. A small sampler was built to collect the gases diffusing out of the skin. It was connected to a CO2 sensor through gas-impermeable tubing. During a measurement, the CO2 initially present in the sampler was first removed by purging it with nitrogen. The gases in the system were then recirculated between the sampler and the CO2 sensor, and the CO2 diffusion rate into the sampler was measured. Because the measurement is based on the initial transcutaneous diffusion rate, reaching mass transfer equilibrium and heating the skin is no longer required, thus, making it much faster and safer than traditional method. A series of designed experiments were performed to analyze the effect of the measurement parameters such as sampler size, measurement location, subject positions, and movement. After the factor analysis tests, the prototype was sent to a level IV NICU for clinical trial. The results show that the measured initial rate of increase in CO2 partial pressure is linearly correlated with the corresponding arterial blood gas measurements. The new approach can be used as a trending tool, making frequent blood sampling unnecessary for respiratory status monitoring.

  16. Radon exhalation rates from building materials using electret ion chamber radon monitors in accumulators.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Stieff, Frederick

    2009-08-01

    An electret ion chamber (EIC) radon monitor in a sealed accumulator measures the integrated average radon concentration at the end of the accumulation duration. Theoretical equations have been derived to relate such radon concentrations (Bq m(-3) ) to the radon emanation rate (Bq d(-1)) from building materials enclosed in the accumulator. As an illustration, a 4-L sealable glass jar has been used as an accumulator to calculate the radon emanation rate from different granite samples. The radon emanation rate was converted into radon flux (Bq mm(-2) d(-1)) by dividing the emanation rate by surface area of the sample. Fluxes measured on typical, commercially available granites ranged from 20-30 Bq m(-2) d(-1). These results are similar to the results reported in the literature. The lower limit of detection for a 2-d measurement works out to be 7 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Equations derived can also be used for other sealable accumulators and other integrating detectors, such as alpha track detectors.

  17. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen, Temperature and Respiration Rate of Horticultural Crops Post Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Edwards, Gareth; Green, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In order to design optimal packages, it is of pivotal importance to determine the rate at which harvested fresh fruits and vegetables consume oxygen. The respiration rate of oxygen (RRO2) is determined by measuring the consumed oxygen per hour per kg plant material, and the rate is highly influenced by temperature and gas composition. Traditionally, RRO2 has been determined at discrete time intervals. In this study, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) were used to determine RRO2 continuously in plant material (fresh cut broccoli florets) at 5 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C and at modified gas compositions (decreasing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide levels). Furthermore, the WSN enabled concomitant determination of oxygen and temperature in the very close vicinity of the plant material. This information proved a very close relationship between changes in temperature and respiration rate. The applied WSNs were unable to determine oxygen levels lower than 5% and carbon dioxide was not determined. Despite these drawbacks in relation to respiration analysis, the WSNs offer a new possibility to do continuous measurement of RRO2 in post harvest research, thereby investigating the close relation between temperature and RRO2. The conclusions are that WSNs have the potential to be used as a monitor of RRO2 of plant material after harvest, during storage and packaging, thereby leading to optimized consumer products. PMID:22164085

  18. Calibration of Passive Samplers for the Monitoring of Pharmaceuticals in Water-Sampling Rate Variation.

    PubMed

    Męczykowska, Hanna; Kobylis, Paulina; Stepnowski, Piotr; Caban, Magda

    2017-05-04

    Passive sampling is one of the most efficient methods of monitoring pharmaceuticals in environmental water. The reliability of the process relies on a correctly performed calibration experiment and a well-defined sampling rate (Rs) for target analytes. Therefore, in this review the state-of-the-art methods of passive sampler calibration for the most popular pharmaceuticals: antibiotics, hormones, β-blockers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), along with the sampling rate variation, were presented. The advantages and difficulties in laboratory and field calibration were pointed out, according to the needs of control of the exact conditions. Sampling rate calculating equations and all the factors affecting the Rs value - temperature, flow, pH, salinity of the donor phase and biofouling - were discussed. Moreover, various calibration parameters gathered from the literature published in the last 16 years, including the device types, were tabled and compared. What is evident is that the sampling rate values for pharmaceuticals are impacted by several factors, whose influence is still unclear and unpredictable, while there is a big gap in experimental data. It appears that the calibration procedure needs to be improved, for example, there is a significant deficiency of PRCs (Performance Reference Compounds) for pharmaceuticals. One of the suggestions is to introduce correction factors for Rs values estimated in laboratory conditions.

  19. Measuring glow discharge polymerization coating rates with a quartz crystal monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, E. T.; Schoff, M.; Greenwood, A.; Castillo, E.; Ravelo, N.

    2016-10-01

    Glow discharge polymerization (GDP) is a well-established method for fabricating the thin-walled polymer shells of targets used in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion. The GDP coating rate is slow, maxing out at approximately 0.5 μm/hr, and varies in time and with changes in system parameters. A quartz crystal monitor (QCM) was installed into a GDP coating apparatus in order to measure the coating rate and thickness in situ by relating shifts in quartz oscillation frequency to changes in mass on the quartz crystal's surface, namely the GDP coating. Further investigation of the quartz crystal surface, post-GDP treatment, revealed that coating thickness was also radially dependent. Subsequent modelling of the thickness and coating rate was performed. The QCM was able to measure and quantify the effects of various system parameters on the GDP coating rate such that optimal coating conditions could be suggested to minimize coating times. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and NA0001808.

  20. Use of Audible and Chart-recorded Ultrasonography to Monitor Fetal Heart Rate and Uterine Blood Flow Parameters in Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of audible chart-recorded doppler ultrasonography (DUS) to monitor both uterine blood flow and fetal heart rate (FHR) during pregnancy in dairy cattle. Possible applications of DUS include the monitoring of fetal distress when a pregnancy be...

  1. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  2. Use of Audible and Chart-recorded Ultrasonography to Monitor Fetal Heart Rate and Uterine Blood Flow Parameters in Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of audible chart-recorded doppler ultrasonography (DUS) to monitor both uterine blood flow and fetal heart rate (FHR) during pregnancy in dairy cattle. Possible applications of DUS include the monitoring of fetal distress when a pregnancy be...

  3. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  4. Evaluation of the Recovery Rate of Different Swabs for Microbial Environmental Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Goverde, Marcel; Willrodt, Julian; Staerk, Alexandra

    Contact plates, dipslides, and swabs are used for the microbiological monitoring of surfaces in controlled environments such as pharmaceutical clean rooms. In the present study, three different swab types using two different methods (direct streaking on agar versus elution followed by membrane filtration) were evaluated. In a first study, representative surfaces in pharmaceutical clean rooms were artificially inoculated using three different environmental strains (in vitro study). In a second study, a naturally inoculated floor was swabbed with the same three swab types, again using the two different recovery methods (in situ study). With the in vitro study, clear differences were found between the three swab types as well as between the two recovery methods. In addition, recovery rate of the swab type was dependent on the recovery method (interactive effect). One swab type showed a higher recovery rate with direct streaking on agar, while the other swab type showed better results using the elution/membrane filtration method. This difference can be explained by the fact that both swabs were each developed for their specific application. The type of surface also had a highly significant effect on the recovery rates. Recovery on stainless steel was better than for the other surfaces, while lexan had the lowest recovery rate. From the three different strains applied in the in vitro study, Micrococcus luteus had significantly higher recovery results compared to the other two strains (Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus brasiliensis). The differences in recovery between the swab type and recovery method were less pronounced in the in situ study. In particular, the recovery of the swab type depending on the recovery method was not found. In conclusion, if swabs are to be used for environmental monitoring, their suitability should first be evaluated. This can be approached with artificially inoculated surfaces. However, naturally inoculated surfaces might be more

  5. Simultaneous monitoring of maternal and fetal heart rate variability during labor in relation with fetal gender.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Fernandes, Diana; Pinto, Paula; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Bernardes, João

    2017-08-21

    Male gender is considered a risk factor for several adverse perinatal outcomes. Fetal gender effect on fetal heart rate (FHR) has been subject of several studies with contradictory results. The importance of maternal heart rate (MHR) monitoring during labor has also been investigated, but less is known about the effect of fetal gender on MHR. The aim of this study is to simultaneously assess maternal and FHR variability during labor in relation with fetal gender. Simultaneous MHR and FHR recordings were obtained from 44 singleton term pregnancies during the last 2 hr of labor (H1, H2 ). Heart rate tracings were analyzed using linear (time- and frequency-domain) and nonlinear indices. Both linear and nonlinear components were considered in assessing FHR and MHR interaction, including cross-sample entropy (cross-SampEn). Mothers carrying male fetuses (n = 22) had significantly higher values for linear indices related with MHR average and variability and sympatho-vagal balance, while the opposite occurred in the high-frequency component and most nonlinear indices. Significant differences in FHR were only observed in H1 with higher entropy values in female fetuses. Assessing the differences between FHR and MHR, statistically significant differences were obtained in most nonlinear indices between genders. A significantly higher cross-SampEn was observed in mothers carrying female fetuses (n = 22), denoting lower synchrony or similarity between MHR and FHR. The variability of MHR and the synchrony/similarity between MHR and FHR vary with respect to fetal gender during labor. These findings suggest that fetal gender needs to be taken into account when simultaneously monitoring MHR and FHR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Source concentration and count rate effects for a nuclear waste monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) recently developed and deployed a passive total-count γ-ray logging system to monitor subsurface plumes of nuclear waste at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington. High count rate effects for the three thallium-activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors were investigated because zones of intense radiation are frequently encountered. Total count rates and "filtered" count rates were determined from γ-ray spectra collected by logging DOE-GJO natural-uranium-bearing calibration standards. Each filtered rate was calculated by dividing the counts in the part of the spectrum above 570 keV by the counting time. Filtered count rates were linear in relation to uranium concentration, even for high uranium concentrations, but total count rates for high uranium concentrations fell below the values predicted by extrapolating the count-rate-versus-uranium-concentration graphs that were nearly linear at lower concentrations. The physics of low energy photon absorption explains why the total count rate did not rise in proportion to the uranium concentration. Low energy photons contribute significantly to the total count and, within calibration standard media, the rate of creation of such photons is proportional to the uranium concentration. However, the low energy photon flux does not grow linearly with the uranium concentration because of the Z effect: An increase in the Z (average atomic number) of a medium is accompanied by a large increase in the fraction of low energy photons absorbed in the medium. Elevated Z values are obviously associated with elevated uranium concentrations because uranium has a high atomic number. Logging systems with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors that are also operated by DOE-GJO to assess nuclear waste at the Hanford Site are calibrated using DOE uranium-bearing standards. With spectra associated with uranium activities higher than about 2000 pCi/g, line

  7. [On-line monitoring of oxygen uptake rate and its application in hybridoma culture].

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiang; Mi, Li; Li, Ling; Wang, Xian-Hui; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2003-09-01

    On-line analysis and control are critical for the optimization of product yields in animal cell culture. The close monitor of viable cell number helps to gain a better insight into the metabolism and to refine culture strategy. In this study, we use the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) to estimate the number of viable cell and the OUR-based feed-back control strategy for nutrients feeding to improve the efficiency of cell culture. A hybridoma cell line (HAb18) was cultured in fed-batch and perfusion model using serum free medium in 5L CelliGen Plus bioreactor (NBS Co., American) and 5L Biostat B bioreactor (Braun Co., Germany). The system and the method for online monitoring OUR in bioreactors, based on the dynamic measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO), were developed. The method of on-line cell concentration estimation was established based on the relationship between the growth of the hybridoma and the uptake rate of oxygen. This method was then used to determine OUR and the concentrations of cell, antibody, glucose, lactate, glutamine and ammonia in the bioreactors at given times. The relationship between OUR and nutrients metabolism was studied and OUR-based feed-back control strategy, which used the state deltaOUR = 0 as the regulation point, was established and used to control the rates of nutrients or medium feeding rate in the perfusion culture. The results showed that there was close relationship between OUR, concentration of live cells, productivity of antibody and consumption of glutamine. The sudden decrease in OUR may be caused by glutamine depletion, and with different delay times, the viable cell concentration and antibody productivity also decreased. The further analysis revealed the linear relationship between OUR and the density of live cells in the exponential growth phase as qOUR = (0.103 +/- 0.028) x 10(-12) mol/cell/h. These findings can be applied to the on-line detection of live cell density. Our study also indicated that by adjusting the perfusion

  8. Combining GPS with heart rate monitoring to measure physical activity in children: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J Scott; Badland, Hannah M; Schofield, Grant

    2009-09-01

    The recent development of global positioning system (GPS) receivers with integrated heart rate (HR) monitoring has provided a new method for estimating the energy expenditure associated with children's movement. The purpose of this feasibility study was to trial a combination of GPS surveillance and HR monitoring in 39 primary-aged children from New Zealand. Spatial location and HR data were recorded during a school lunch break using an integrated GPS/HR receiver (1Hz). Children averaged a total distance of 1.10+/-0.56km at speeds ranging from 0 to 18.6kmh(-1). Activity patterns were characterised by short bursts of moderate to high speeds followed by longer periods of slow speeds. In addition, boys averaged higher speeds than girls (1.77+/-0.62kmh(-1) and 1.36+/-0.50kmh(-1), respectively; p=0.003). The percentage of time spent at 0kmh(-1) (stationary) ranged from 0.1% to 21.3% with a mean of 6.4+/-4.6%. These data suggest that while children were relatively active during the lunch period, they spent a substantial portion of time engaged in slow or stationary physical activities. Furthermore, associations between HR, average speed, and stationary time demonstrated that children who moved at faster speeds expended more energy than those who moved at slower speeds. We conclude that the combined approach of GPS and HR monitoring is a promising new method for investigating children's play-related energy expenditure. There is also scope to integrate GPS data with geographic information systems to examine where children play and accumulate physical activity.

  9. Parents of preschoolers: expert media recommendations and ratings knowledge, media-effects beliefs, and monitoring practices.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jeanne B; Brouwer, Jason; Curtiss, Kathleen; McBroom, Evan

    2009-03-01

    Given the increase in screen media targeted at the very young, the purpose of this study was to examine preschooler parents' knowledge about expert recommendations for young children's screen media experience, their knowledge of specific screen media ratings, their beliefs about screen media effects, and actual monitoring practices. Parents of 94 children <5 years of age (mean age: 2.95 years) were surveyed. Questionnaires were distributed in day care centers and completed at the parents' convenience. The questionnaire included background questions about parental education, age and gender of child, and parents' perceptions of their child's favorite television show and favorite video or computer game. Eleven multiple-choice questions assessed the respondent's knowledge of expert recommendations for screen media for preschoolers and the meaning of television and video game content ratings. Fourteen questions addressed the typical amount of their preschooler's screen media exposure, parental rules regarding screen media use, and parents' beliefs about appropriate use of screen media for preschoolers. Preschoolers were exposed to an average of approximately 12 hours of screen media in a typical week. Parents believe that media do have either short- or long-term effects on preschoolers. Performance on factual questions was poor (mean score: 2.83 of 11). In particular, only 34% of the parents correctly identified the expert recommendation for children >2 years of age. Parents should continue to be educated about the need for preschoolers to participate in activities that promote language development, socialization, imagination, and physical activity. Although professionals should work to improve the ratings, and ultimately to implement a universal ratings system for all screen media, parents need to be encouraged to improve their understanding of current recommendations for screen media exposure and television and video game ratings.

  10. Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring interpretation in labour: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Maso, G; Piccoli, M; De Seta, F; Parolin, S; Banco, R; Camacho Mattos, L; Bogatti, P; Alberico, S

    2015-02-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) has been introduced in the obstetrics practice as a test to identify the first signs of fetal deterioration, allowing a prompt intervention to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, results from clinical trials fail to demonstrate a clear benefit with the use of EFM. No decrease in the incidence of cerebral palsy due to intrapartum asphyxia has been achieved and a significant increase in the rate of operative deliveries and in medico-legal litigations has been observed instead. Despite the lack of evidence supporting its safety and effectiveness, this method is routinely used in the clinical practice and periodical updated guidelines to standardize the method of interpretation and proper actions are proposed. However, limitations still exist and the unavoidable consequences are the increasing rate of caesarean delivery, partly due to a defensive attitude in medical choices, and medico-legal litigations for presumed inappropriate evaluation in case of perinatal adverse event. While Obstetrics Societies are trying to "fight" the rise in caesarean section rates, intrapartum EFM tracings are taken in the court proceedings as one of the main evidences in case of adverse event. The aim of this review is to discuss the limitations of guidelines dealing with intrapartum EFM and the pathophysiological basis to assess the suspicious tracings which represent the most observed and critical issue of EFM interpretation.

  11. Exercise heart rate monitors for anxiety treatment in a rural primary care setting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Houser, Melissa Marotta; Rosen, Lee; Seagrave, Martha P; Grabowski, Don; Matthew, John D; Craig, William A P

    2013-10-01

    Rural patients with anxiety often lack access to traditional biofeedback modalities. Exercise heart rate monitors (HRMs) are tools used in the fitness industry to provide athletes with feedback on heart rate and regulatory breathing strategies. HRMs are inexpensive, discrete, and publicly accessible. This randomized controlled pilot study explored whether use of HRMs for biofeedback during guided mindfulness, diaphragmatic breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation techniques could facilitate anxiety reduction as compared to these techniques alone. Fifty-three rural anxiety patients were randomized to HRM or control groups for four weekly 20-minute, scripted sessions with a non-behaviorist wherein they practiced these techniques; the HRM group received feedback on their heart rate response. The HRM group had significantly greater improvement in state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and self-efficacy (General Self Efficacy Scale), and a greater percentage of the group indicated that they "felt in control of their anxiety." This pilot study demonstrates that this novel, inexpensive, and accessible tool may be a useful clinical intervention for anxiety and can be easily incorporated by both behaviorists and non-behaviorist primary care clinicians into individual or group biofeedback treatment for patients with anxiety. This tool has additional potential for patients to use for anxiety self-management. Further study with a larger sample and blinded design is warranted.

  12. The Promise and Challenges of High Rate GNSS for Environmental Monitoring and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, John

    2017-04-01

    The decadal vision Global Geodetic Observing System recognizes the potential of high rate real time GNSS for environmental monitoring. The GGOS initiated a program to advance GNSS real time high rate measurements to augment seismic and other sensor systems for earthquake and tsunami early warning. High rate multi-GNSS networks can provide ionospheric tomography for the detection and tracking of land, ocean and atmospheric gravity waves that can provide coastal warning of tsunamis induced by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, severe weather and other catastrophic events. NASA has collaborated on a microsatellite constellation of GPS receivers to measure ocean surface roughness to improve severe storm tracking and a equatorial system of GPS occultation receivers to measure ionospheric and atmospheric dynamics. Systems such as these will be significantly enhanced by the availability of a four fold increase in GNSS satellite systems with new and enhanced signal structures and by the densification of regional multi-GNSS networks. These new GNSS capabilities will rely upon improved and cost effective communications infrastructure for a network of coordinated real time analysis centers with input to national warning systems. Most important, the implementation of these new real time GNSS capabilities will rely upon the broad international support for the sharing of real time GNSS much as is done in weather and seismic observing systems and as supported by the Committee of Experts on UN Global Geodetic Information Management (UNGGIM).

  13. Variable input observer for structural health monitoring of high-rate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jonathan; Laflamme, Simon; Cao, Liang; Dodson, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    The development of high-rate structural health monitoring methods is intended to provide damage detection on timescales of 10 µs -10ms where speed of detection is critical to maintain structural integrity. Here, a novel Variable Input Observer (VIO) coupled with an adaptive observer is proposed as a potential solution for complex high-rate problems. The VIO is designed to adapt its input space based on real-time identification of the system's essential dynamics. By selecting appropriate time-delayed coordinates defined by both a time delay and an embedding dimension, the proper input space is chosen which allows more accurate estimations of the current state and a reduction of the convergence rate. The optimal time-delay is estimated based on mutual information, and the embedding dimension is based on false nearest neighbors. A simulation of the VIO is conducted on a two degree-of-freedom system with simulated damage. Results are compared with an adaptive Luenberger observer, a fixed time-delay observer, and a Kalman Filter. Under its preliminary design, the VIO converges significantly faster than the Luenberger and fixed observer. It performed similarly to the Kalman Filter in terms of convergence, but with greater accuracy.

  14. [ECG monitoring in full-term infants. Analysis of the rhythm and variability of heart rate].

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, M; Falsini, G; Lazzerini, S; Giani, I; Rosati, C; Mantini, G; Grazzini, M

    1993-01-01

    Heart Rate (HR) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) depend on the neural control to the heart. HRV can be measured from 24-hours function. Little information is available on cardiac rhythm and on autonomic nervous control to the heart at birth. The aims of the study weew: 1) to study the cardiac rhythm in healthy newborn babies; 2) to asses the normal values for HRV at birth. We studied 20 full term healthy newborn babies. Newborns underwent 24-hours ECG-Holter monitoring. Analysis was performed by a 750 A Del Mar Avionics Analyzer. We determined: Heart Rate (HR), number of extrasystoles, Standard Deviation of all R-R intervals over 24 hours (SDNN) and mean hourly HRV (HRVM). Results about HRV were matched with those of 50 healthy adults. 1) Average HR in the newborn babies was 108 (range: 55-198); we found high prevalence of supraventricular extrasystoles. 2) We determined reference value for HRV. SDNN was 55 +/- 17 ms in newborns. SDNN of adults was 132 +/- 25 ms (44% higher than in newborns; p < 0.001). HRVM was 46 +/- 14 ms in newborns and 76 +/- 14 ms (p < 0.001). 1) Larger intervals of HR in newborn babies compared to literature data and an high prevalence of supraventricular arrhythmias in full term healthy newborn babies. 2) Reference values for HRV in newborn babies. The low values of HRV confirm the immaturity of autonomic cardiac control.

  15. Fiber optic based heart-rate and pulse pressure shape monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinos, D.; Dehipawala, S.; Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Musa, M.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2012-01-01

    Macro-bending fiber optic based heart-rate and pulse pressure shape monitors have been fabricated and tested for non-invasive measurement. Study of fiber bending loss and its stability and variations are very important especially for sensor designs based on optical fiber bending. Wavelengths from 1300 nm to 1550 nm have been used with fabrication based on multimode fiber, single mode fiber, and photonic crystal fiber. The smallest studied curvature would demand the use of single mode standard fibers. The collected data series show high quality suitable for random series analysis. Fractal property of optically measured pulse pressure data has been observed to correlate with physical activity. Correlation to EKG signal suggests that the fabricated monitors are capable of measuring the differential time delays at wrist and leg locations. The difference in time delay could be used to formulate a velocity parameter for diagnostics. The pulse shape information collected by the fiber sensor provides additional parameters for the analysis of the fractal nature of the heart. The application to real time measurement of blood vessel stiffness with this optical non-invasive fiber sensor is discussed.

  16. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jang-Ho; Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Jung Wook; Youm, Se-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR) monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW) into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG) device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future. PMID:26389912

  17. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jang-Ho; Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Jung Wook; Youm, Se-Kyoung

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR) monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW) into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG) device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future.

  18. Using heart rate monitors for personal wellness--the user experience perspective.

    PubMed

    Ahtinen, Aino; Mantyjarvi, Jani; Hakkila, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a user study of the heart rate monitors (HRM), which is a commonly used personal wellness technology. HRMs have been used over several years for adjusting the exercise level and in the advanced form, also for measuring the users' fitness level and its progress. The user study included interviews with the HRM users and a survey with over 860 active or former users. We identified four different types of HRM users based on the current usage activity and their perceived progress of usage motivation within time, and compared their perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses related to HRMs. The findings provide valuable information for understanding the end-user needs and background knowledge for developing personal wellness technologies and applications further.

  19. 1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts and drive shafts. This power system drove the tumblers which cleaned chain in building #7. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  20. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  1. 2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing over dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  2. Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown here are two of the six aluminum statues of postal delivery men - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Immunotherapy Shown Safe in Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Trial

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_167692.html Immunotherapy Shown Safe in Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Trial Next step is to see if ... and Human Services. More Health News on Diabetes Diabetes Type 1 Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes ...

  4. Detail of southeast corner and pipes, shown along California Avenue; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southeast corner and pipes, shown along California Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Chromatic dispersion monitoring for multiple modulation formats and data rates using sideband optical filtering and asynchronous amplitude sampling technique.

    PubMed

    Khan, F N; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao; Wai, P K A

    2011-01-17

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a low-cost technique for chromatic dispersion (CD) monitoring in various return-to-zero (RZ) amplitude and phase-modulated systems at different data rates by analyzing the asynchronously sampled amplitudes of two vestigial sideband (VSB) signals. The proposed technique graphically represents the CD induced-effects in a scatter plot of which a parameter is extracted to monitor CD and is resilient to OSNR variations. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate good monitoring ranges and sensitivities for various modulation formats at different data rates without any modification of the monitoring hardware. The influence of first-order polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) on the accuracy of proposed monitoring technique is also investigated.

  6. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein to monitor treatment outcomes in diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Suzanne Av; Jupiter, Daniel C; Mithani, Moez; La Fontaine, Javier; Davis, Kathryn E; Lavery, Lawrence A

    2017-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the inflammatory markers, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), in monitoring treatment of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. We screened 150 charts of patients admitted to our hospital with diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO), confirmed by positive results of bone culture and/or histopathology. We included patients who had an initial ESR/CRP within 72 hours of admission and two reported follow-up values. We dichotomised patients based on the outcomes wound healing, re-infection, recurrent ulceration, re-hospitalisation, additional surgery, re-amputation and death, all within 12 months, and analysed the trajectories of the markers over time. Our primary outcome, DFO remission, was defined as wound healing within 12 months of follow-up without re-infection. We included 122 subjects; 65 patients (53·3%) had a combination of positive culture and histopathology. Factors associated with DFO remission (n = 46) were a lower white blood count (WBC) at admission (P = 0·006) and a higher glomerular filtration rate (GFR, P = 0·049). Factors associated with healing were a lower WBC (P = 0·004), a higher GFR (P = 0·01), longer wound duration before admission (P = 0·01), location of the ulcer on the great toe (P = 0·01) and higher glycated haemoglobin (P = 0·03). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated no associations between DFO remission and other variables collected. Trajectories of the inflammatory markers showed an association between stagnating values of ESR and CRP and poor clinical outcomes. In this study population, the trajectories of both ESR and CRP during 12 months follow-up suggest a predictive role of both inflammatory markers when monitoring treatment of DFO. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  8. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  9. Seismicity rates of slow, intermediate, and fast spreading ridges: Insights from long-term hydroacoustic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Haxel, J. H.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Goslin, J.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean basin earthquakes recorded on NOAA/OSU and U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays are used to evaluate long-term volcano-tectonic seismicity levels from segments of the fast-spreading rate East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 20° S-20° N, intermediate-spreading rate Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) from 39° -52° N and Galapagos Rift (GR) from 90° -103° W, and the slow-spreading northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from 5° -60° N. The hydrophones record the acoustic energy of seafloor earthquakes that propagate along the ocean sound channel with little attenuation over large distances. Frequency-magnitude relationships (Bohnenstiehl et al., 2002; Dziak et al., 2004) indicate the hydrophone catalogs are complete in these regions to body-wave magnitude ˜2.5 (EPR and GR), 2.5 (JdFR), and 3.0 (MAR), an improvement of 1.5 to 2 units over the land-based seismic catalogs for mid-ocean ridge systems. Using the hydrophone earthquake catalog, we will compare seismicity rates of the JdFR (12 years of data), to seismicity rates along the GR (6 years) and EPR (6 years) and MAR (4 years of data from 5° -39° N; 16 months from 39° -60° N). During these monitoring periods, five confirmed seafloor spreading events (four of which were associated with magmatic activity) were recorded on discrete JdFR segments, while 6 possible magmatic events were observed on the EPR, one on the GR, and one on the MAR. Empirical orthogonal functions will be used to elucidate the space-time patterns of seismicity and compare between the various spreading rates ridges, as well as to investigate the recurrence rate of seafloor spreading events present. In addition, single-link cluster analysis (SLC; Frolich and Davis, 1990) will be used to de-cluster the earthquake databases to reduce the effects of aftershock sequences and magmatic swarms, allowing us to evaluate how overall plate motion and changes in spreading rate effect levels of seismicity between ridge segments and different ridge systems. Preliminary

  10. Accuracy of a Wrist-Worn Wearable Device for Monitoring Heart Rates in Hospital Inpatients: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Ryan R; Boyd, J Gordon; Maslove, David M

    2016-09-20

    As the sensing capabilities of wearable devices improve, there is increasing interest in their application in medical settings. Capabilities such as heart rate monitoring may be useful in hospitalized patients as a means of enhancing routine monitoring or as part of an early warning system to detect clinical deterioration. To evaluate the accuracy of heart rate monitoring by a personal fitness tracker (PFT) among hospital inpatients. We conducted a prospective observational study of 50 stable patients in the intensive care unit who each completed 24 hours of heart rate monitoring using a wrist-worn PFT. Accuracy of heart rate recordings was compared with gold standard measurements derived from continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) monitoring. The accuracy of heart rates measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2.R) was also measured as a positive control. On a per-patient basis, PFT-derived heart rate values were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring (average bias of -1.14 beats per minute [bpm], with limits of agreement of 24 bpm). By comparison, Spo2.R recordings produced more accurate values (average bias of +0.15 bpm, limits of agreement of 13 bpm, P<.001 as compared with PFT). Personal fitness tracker device performance was significantly better in patients in sinus rhythm than in those who were not (average bias -0.99 bpm vs -5.02 bpm, P=.02). Personal fitness tracker-derived heart rates were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring in real-world testing and not as accurate as Spo2.R-derived heart rates. Performance was worse among patients who were not in sinus rhythm. Further clinical evaluation is indicated to see if PFTs can augment early warning systems in hospitals. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02527408; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02527408 (Archived by WebCite at  http://www.webcitation.org/6kOFez3on).

  11. Fermi gamma-ray burst monitor detector performance at very high counting rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Fishman, G. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Xiong, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor consists of 12 sodium iodide and 2 bismuth germanate scintillation detectors designed to enhance the scientific returns from Fermi in the study of γ-ray bursts. It has a fixed non-paralyzing dead time of 2.604 μs for each detected event except for those in the overflow channel of the 12 bit analog to digital converter of each detector, which have a longer dead time of 10.42 μs. At very high counting rates the pulse pile-up effect in the detectors leads to spectral distortions and also to additional event losses. These effects are relevant for the spectral analysis of high-flux astrophysical events such as gamma-ray bursts, soft gamma repeaters and solar flares, as well as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. In this paper we present the results of post-launch tests using engineering detectors and equipment on the ground, along with detailed simulations of these effects at very high counting rates. The simulations enable us to assess the qualitative and quantitative changes in spectral shapes and event losses at different count rates. The observed spectra at various count rates using high intensity radioactive sources such as Cs137 and Co60 agree well with the simulated spectra. We also re-test the analytical model developed previously to correct for the pulse pile-up effects in GBM detectors. We also study the expected spectral distortions of specific spectral models commonly used in GRB analysis, including the Band model and power-law models with and without a high-energy cutoff.

  12. Determination of first-order degradation rate constants from monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Christof; Chen, Cui; Gronewold, Jan; Kolditz, Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, different strategies for estimating first-order degradation rate constants from measured field data are compared by application to multiple, synthetic, contaminant plumes. The plumes were generated by numerical simulation of contaminant transport and degradation in virtual heterogeneous aquifers. These sites were then individually and independently investigated on the computer by installation of extensive networks of observation wells. From the data measured at the wells, that is, contaminant concentrations, hydraulic conductivities, and heads, first-order degradation rates were estimated by three 1D centerline methods, which use only measurements located on the plume axis, and a two-dimensional method, which uses all concentration measurements available downgradient from the contaminant source. Results for both strategies show that the true rate constant used for the numerical simulation of the plumes in general tends to be overestimated. Overestimation is stronger for narrow plumes from small source zones, with an average overestimation factor of about 5 and single values ranging from 0.5 to 20, decreasing for wider plumes, with an average overestimation factor of about 2 and similar spread. Reasons for this overestimation are identified in the velocity calculation, the dispersivity parameterization, and off-centerline measurements. For narrow plumes, the one- and the two-dimensional strategies show approximately the same amount of overestimation. For wider plumes, however, incorporation of all measurements in the two-dimensional approach reduces the estimation error. No significant relation between the number of observation wells in the monitoring network and the quality of the estimated rate constant is found for the two-dimensional approach.

  13. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  14. Heart Rate Variability Monitoring during Sleep Based on Capacitively Coupled Textile Electrodes on a Bed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Ji; Hwang, Su Hwan; Yoon, Hee Nam; Lee, Won Kyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed and tested a capacitively coupled electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement system using conductive textiles on a bed, for long-term healthcare monitoring. The system, which was designed to measure ECG in a bed with no constraints of sleep position and posture, included a foam layer to increase the contact region with the curvature of the body and a cover to ensure durability and easy installation. Nine healthy subjects participated in the experiment during polysomnography (PSG), and the heart rate (HR) coverage and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed to evaluate the system. The experimental results showed that the mean of R-peak coverage was 98.0% (95.5%–99.7%), and the normalized errors of HRV time and spectral measures between the Ag/AgCl system and our system ranged from 0.15% to 4.20%. The root mean square errors for inter-beat (RR) intervals and HR were 1.36 ms and 0.09 bpm, respectively. We also showed the potential of our developed system for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wake detection as well as for recording of abnormal states. PMID:26007716

  15. Toward the improvement in fetal monitoring during labor with the inclusion of maternal heart rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Manuela; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Bernardes, João

    2016-04-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is used routinely in labor, but conventional methods have a limited capacity to detect fetal hypoxia/acidosis. An exploratory study was performed on the simultaneous assessment of maternal heart rate (MHR) and FHR variability, to evaluate their evolution during labor and their capacity to detect newborn acidemia. MHR and FHR were simultaneously recorded in 51 singleton term pregnancies during the last two hours of labor and compared with newborn umbilical artery blood (UAB) pH. Linear/nonlinear indices were computed separately for MHR and FHR. Interaction between MHR and FHR was quantified through the same indices on FHR-MHR and through their correlation and cross-entropy. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis included nonparametric confidence intervals and statistical tests, receiver operating characteristic curves and linear discriminant analysis. Progression of labor was associated with a significant increase in most MHR and FHR linear indices, whereas entropy indices decreased. FHR alone and in combination with MHR as FHR-MHR evidenced the highest auROC values for prediction of fetal acidemia, with 0.76 and 0.88 for the UAB pH thresholds 7.20 and 7.15, respectively. The inclusion of MHR on bivariate analysis achieved sensitivity and specificity values of nearly 100 and 89.1%, respectively. These results suggest that simultaneous analysis of MHR and FHR may improve the identification of fetal acidemia compared with FHR alone, namely during the last hour of labor.

  16. Subsidence rate monitoring of Aghajari oil field based on Differential SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, N. Fouladi; Sahebi, M. R.; Matkan, A. A.; Roostaei, M.

    2013-06-01

    Land subsidence, due to natural or anthropogenic processes, causes significant costs in both economic and structural aspects. That part of subsidence observed most is the result of human activities, which relates to underground exploitation. Since the gradual surface deformation is a consequence of hydrocarbon reservoirs extraction, the process of displacement monitoring is amongst the petroleum industry priorities. Nowadays, Differential SAR Interferometry, in which satellite images are utilized for elevation change detection and analysis - in a millimetre scale, has proved to be a more real-time and cost-effective technology in contrast to the traditional surveying method. In this study, surface displacements in Aghajari oil field, i.e. one of the most industrious Iranian hydrocarbon sites, are being examined using radar observations. As in a number of interferograms, the production wells inspection reveals that surface deformation signals develop likely due to extraction in a period of several months. In other words, different subsidence or uplift rates and deformation styles occur locally depending on the geological conditions and excavation rates in place.

  17. Computerized fetal heart rate monitoring after vibroacoustic stimulation in the anencephalic fetus.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Jin; Park, Seon-Hye; Kim, Young-Jae; Hoh, Jeong-Kyu; Park, Young-Sun; Park, Moon-Il

    2010-09-01

    To quantify changes in fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters after vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) and to evaluate the usefulness of VAS testing (VAST) in anencephalic fetuses. Our findings may also help to clarify the route(s) of vibration and sound transmission during VAST. We obtained the antepartum FHR tracings of 16 anencephalic fetuses, including both the nonstress test (NST) and VAST. Using a computerized monitoring system, HYFM, we determined all FHR parameters from data collected for 10 min before and 10 min after VAS, at successive gestational stages. We observed three false reactive responses at term. The false reactive rate for VAST (3/16) was higher than that for NST (1/16). No FHR parameters increased significantly after VAS except for the number of fetal movements (FM), which increased significantly in all gestational groups (25th-32nd and 33rd-40th weeks). These findings call attention to an increased probability of a false reactive response in VAST analysis, when the fetus is affected by a CNS disorder. Increased numbers of FM after VAS suggest that the vibratory pathway is more likely to elicit fetal response than the auditory pathway in this setting, and that the vibratory stimulation travels by subcortical rather than by cortical pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Development and evaluation of the ambulatory relative metabolic rate (RMR) realtime monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Yoshino, K; Takano, K; Shigeta, S

    1985-11-01

    Development of an ambulatory RMR monitoring system for evaluating the physical work-load is presented. This system can be used under special conditions where it is difficult to use the traditional "Douglas" method. The main features of this system are: Using an improved turbin-spirometer to measure expiratory gas volume, data-processing procedure is simplified by converting a 0.1 iota expiratory gas volume to an electric pulse signal. Utilizing a Galvanic-cell type sensor, a kind of porlarograph electrode, to measure oxygen concentration in expiratory gas, the temperature of the electrode is maintained constantly at 40 degrees C in order to stabilize the output of the sensor against change in environmental and expiratory gas temperature. To improve the accuracy measurement of oxygen concentration and to prevent the teflon membrane at the top of the electrode from chilling and vibrating by direct expiratory gas flow, the bypass stream line is led to the electrode and a small portion of expiratory gas is introduced to measure oxygen concentration. It is possible to measure the time-sequential RMR value for several hours by minimizing and lightening the measuring instruments. It is possible to measure the time-sequential changing characteristics of the physical work-load (RMR), heart rate, breathing rate, and skin temperature under the actual work environment by a telemetring or portable recording method.

  19. Assessment of skeletal muscle fatigue of road maintenance workers based on heart rate monitoring and myotonometry

    PubMed Central

    Roja, Zenija; Kalkis, Valdis; Vain, Arved; Kalkis, Henrijs; Eglite, Maija

    2006-01-01

    Objective This research work is dedicated to occupational health problems caused by ergonomic risks. The research object was road building industry, where workers have to work very intensively, have long work hours, are working in forced/constrained work postures and overstrain during the work specific parts of their bodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work heaviness degree and to estimate the muscle fatigue of workers after one week work cycle. The study group consisted of 10 road construction and maintenance workers and 10 pavers aged between 20 and 60 years. Methods Physical load were analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR), work postures (OWAS) and perceived exertion (RPE). Assessments of the muscles strain and functional state (tone) were carried out using myotonometric (MYO) measurements. The reliability of the statistical processing of heart rate monitoring and myotonometry data was determined using correlating analysis. Results This study showed that that road construction and repairing works should be considered as a hard work according to average metabolic energy consumption 8.1 ± 1.5 kcal/min; paving, in its turn, was a moderately hard work according to 7.2 ± 1.1 kcal/min. Several muscle tone levels were identified allowing subdivision of workers into three conditional categories basing on muscle tone and fatigue: I – absolute muscle relaxation and ability to relax; II – a state of equilibrium, when muscles are able to adapt to the work load and are partly able to relax; and III – muscle fatigue and increased tone. It was also found out that the increase of muscle tone and fatigue mainly depend on workers physical preparedness and length of service, and less – on their age. Conclusion We have concluded that a complex ergonomic analysis consisting of heart rate monitoring, assessment of compulsive working postures and myotonometry is appropriate to assess the work heaviness degree and can provide prognosis of occupational pathology

  20. Assessment of skeletal muscle fatigue of road maintenance workers based on heart rate monitoring and myotonometry.

    PubMed

    Roja, Zenija; Kalkis, Valdis; Vain, Arved; Kalkis, Henrijs; Eglite, Maija

    2006-07-27

    This research work is dedicated to occupational health problems caused by ergonomic risks. The research object was road building industry, where workers have to work very intensively, have long work hours, are working in forced/constrained work postures and overstrain during the work specific parts of their bodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work heaviness degree and to estimate the muscle fatigue of workers after one week work cycle. The study group consisted of 10 road construction and maintenance workers and 10 pavers aged between 20 and 60 years. Physical load were analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR), work postures (OWAS) and perceived exertion (RPE). Assessments of the muscles strain and functional state (tone) were carried out using myotonometric (MYO) measurements. The reliability of the statistical processing of heart rate monitoring and myotonometry data was determined using correlating analysis. This study showed that that road construction and repairing works should be considered as a hard work according to average metabolic energy consumption 8.1 +/- 1.5 kcal/min; paving, in its turn, was a moderately hard work according to 7.2 +/- 1.1 kcal/min. Several muscle tone levels were identified allowing subdivision of workers into three conditional categories basing on muscle tone and fatigue: I--absolute muscle relaxation and ability to relax; II--a state of equilibrium, when muscles are able to adapt to the work load and are partly able to relax; and III--muscle fatigue and increased tone. It was also found out that the increase of muscle tone and fatigue mainly depend on workers physical preparedness and length of service, and less on their age. We have concluded that a complex ergonomic analysis consisting of heart rate monitoring, assessment of compulsive working postures and myotonometry is appropriate to assess the work heaviness degree and can provide prognosis of occupational pathology or work-related musculoskeletal disorders for the

  1. Assessment of continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an addition to a pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Susan P; Pyke, Joshua; Taenzer, Andreas H

    2016-05-03

    Technology advances make it possible to consider continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an integral component of physiologic surveillance systems. This study explores technical and logistical aspects of augmenting pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance systems with continuous respiratory rate monitoring and offers some insight into the impact on patient deterioration detection that may result. Acoustic respiratory rate sensors were introduced to a general care pulse oximetry-based surveillance system with respiratory rate alarms deactivated. Simulation was used after 4324 patient days to determine appropriate alarm thresholds for respiratory rate, which were then activated. Data were collected for an additional 4382 patient days. Physiologic parameters, alarm data, sensor utilization and patient/staff feedback were collected throughout the study and analyzed. No notable technical or workflow issues were observed. Sensor utilization was 57 %, with patient refusal leading reasons for nonuse (22.7 %). With respiratory rate alarm thresholds set to 6 and 40 breaths/min., the majority of nurse pager clinical notifications were triggered by low oxygen saturation values (43 %), followed by low respiratory rate values (21 %) and low pulse rate values (13 %). Mean respiratory rate collected was 16.6 ± 3.8 breaths/min. The vast majority (82 %) of low oxygen saturation states coincided with normal respiration rates of 12-20 breaths/min. Continuous respiratory rate monitoring can be successfully added to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system without significant technical, logistical or workflow issues and is moderately well-tolerated by patients. Respiratory rate sensor alarms did not significantly impact overall system alarm burden. Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation distributions suggest adding continuous respiratory rate monitoring to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system may not significantly improve patient deterioration detection.

  2. Creating Abbreviated Rating Scales to Monitor Classroom Inattention-Overactivity, Aggression, and Peer Conflict: Reliability, Validity, and Treatment Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Rating scales developed to measure child emotional and behavioral problems typically are so long as to make their use in progress monitoring impractical in typical school settings. This study examined two methods of selecting items from existing rating scales to create shorter instruments for use in assessing response to intervention. The…

  3. GROUND WATER ISSUE - CALCULATION AND USE OF FIRST-ORDER RATE CONSTANTS FOR MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue paper explains when and how to apply first-order attenuation rate constant calculations in monitored natural attenuation (MNA) studies. First-order attenuation rate constant calculations can be an important tool for evaluating natural attenuation processes at ground-wa...

  4. Creating Abbreviated Rating Scales to Monitor Classroom Inattention-Overactivity, Aggression, and Peer Conflict: Reliability, Validity, and Treatment Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Rating scales developed to measure child emotional and behavioral problems typically are so long as to make their use in progress monitoring impractical in typical school settings. This study examined two methods of selecting items from existing rating scales to create shorter instruments for use in assessing response to intervention. The…

  5. The effect of corrosion induced surface morphology changes on ultrasonically monitored corrosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

    2016-11-01

    Corrosion rates obtained by very frequent (daily) measurements with permanently installed ultrasonic sensors have been shown to be highly inaccurate when changes in surface morphology lead to ultrasonic signal distortion. In this paper the accuracy of ultrasonically estimated corrosion rates (mean wall thickness loss) by means of standard signal processing methods (peak to peak—P2P, first arrival—FA, cross correlation—XC) was investigated and a novel thickness extraction algorithm (adaptive cross-correlation—AXC) is presented. All of the algorithms were tested on simulated ultrasonic data that was obtained by modelling the surface geometry evolution coupled with a fast ultrasonic signal simulator based on the distributed point source method. The performance of each algorithm could then be determined by comparing the actual known mean thickness losses of the simulated surfaces to the values that each algorithm returned. The results showed that AXC is the best of the investigated processing algorithms. For spatially random thickness loss 90% of AXC estimated thickness trends were within -10 to +25% of the actual mean loss rate (e.g. 0.75-1.1 mm year-1 would be measured for a 1 mm year-1 actual mean loss rate). The other algorithms (P2P, FA, XC) exhibited error distributions that were 5-10 times larger. All algorithms performed worse in scenarios where wall loss was not distributed randomly in space (spatially correlated thickness loss occured) and where the overall rms of the surface was either growing or declining. However, on these surfaces AXC also outperformed the other algorithms and showed almost an order of magnitude improvement compared to them.

  6. Does rating of perceived exertion result in target exercise intensity during interval training in cardiac rehabilitation? A study of the Borg scale versus a heart rate monitor.

    PubMed

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Forbord, Siv Hege; Karlsen, Trine; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2014-09-01

    To assess whether rating of perceived exertion using the Borg 6-20 scale is a valid method for achieving target exercise intensity during high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. A single-group cross-over design. Ten participants (56 (6.5) years) who were enrolled in a high-intensity interval training cardiac rehabilitation program were recruited. A target exercise intensity of Borg 17 (very hard) was used for exercise intensity guidance in the initial four exercise sessions that took place before a cardiopulmonary exercise test, as in usual care rehabilitation. The heart rate was recorded and blinded to the participants. After performing the test, the participants were then instructed using heart rate monitors openly for exercise guidance in four subsequent exercise sessions, at an intensity corresponding to 85-95% of peak heart rate. The mean exercise intensity during high-intensity bouts was 82% (6%) of peak heart rate for the rating of perceived exertion and 85% (6%) using heart rate monitors (p=0.005). Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis with a mean bias showed a bias of 2.97 (-2.08, 8.02) percentage points for the two methods. Exercise intensity was highly repeatable with intra-class correlations of 0.95 (95% CI 0.86-0.99, p<0.001) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-0.99, p<0.001) in the exercise sessions using rating of perceived exertion and percentage of peak heart rate for intensity control, respectively. Rating of perceived exertion results in an exercise intensity below target during high-intensity interval training bouts in cardiac rehabilitation. Heart rate monitoring should be used for accurate intensity guidance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    PubMed

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2017-10-10

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  8. Can we improve the clinical utility of respiratory rate as a monitored vital sign?

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangyou; Reisner, Andrew T; Gribok, Andrei; McKenna, Thomas M; Reifman, Jaques

    2009-06-01

    Respiratory rate (RR) is a basic vital sign, measured and monitored throughout a wide spectrum of health care settings, although RR is historically difficult to measure in a reliable fashion. We explore an automated method that computes RR only during intervals of clean, regular, and consistent respiration and investigate its diagnostic use in a retrospective analysis of prehospital trauma casualties. At least 5 s of basic vital signs, including heart rate, RR, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures, were continuously collected from 326 spontaneously breathing trauma casualties during helicopter transport to a level I trauma center. "Reliable" RR data were identified retrospectively using automated algorithms. The diagnostic performances of reliable versus standard RR were evaluated by calculation of the receiver operating characteristic curves using the maximum-likelihood method and comparison of the summary areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). Respiratory rate shows significant data-reliability differences. For identifying prehospital casualties who subsequently receive a respiratory intervention (hospital intubation or tube thoracotomy), standard RR yields an AUC of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.69), whereas reliable RR yields an AUC of 0.67 (0.57-0.77), P < 0.05. For identifying casualties subsequently diagnosed with a major hemorrhagic injury and requiring blood transfusion, standard RR yields an AUC of 0.60 (0.49-0.70), whereas reliable RR yields 0.77 (0.67-0.85), P < 0.001. Reliable RR, as determined by an automated algorithm, is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of respiratory pathology and major hemorrhage in a trauma population. It may be a useful input to a wide variety of clinical scores and automated decision-support algorithms.

  9. Contextual view of building 271 from across the river shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 271 from across the river shown at center between coal sheds at left and building 91 at right; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat at center level. Juices mix and flow and left lower level. Copper kettles are down below view level. Looking toward front of building. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  11. 83. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: CISTERN TOWER, BOILER CHIMNEY AND LARGE CHIMNEYS FROM BISCUIT KILNS 4 & 5. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-9. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  12. 9. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: CISTERN TOWER, BOILER CHIMNEY AND LARGE CHIMNEYS FROM BISCUIT KILNS 4 & 5. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  13. 1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE FIRST STEP IN A SIX-STEP PROCESS TO ANALYZE URINE SAMPLES FOR PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM CONTAMINATION. IN THIS STEP, NITRIC ACID IS ADDED TO SAMPLE, AND THE SAMPLE IS BOILED DOWN TO A WHITE POWDER. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Edison upright phonographs are stored throughout the third floor; shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Edison upright phonographs are stored throughout the third floor; shown here are also storage cabinets containing parts for 1929 Edison radios. Cabinets also contain partial experimental apparatus from other parts of the laboratory. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  15. 2. VIEW NORTHEAST DETAIL OF BRIDGE TRUSSES, NEW TRACK SHOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHEAST- DETAIL OF BRIDGE TRUSSES, NEW TRACK SHOWN ADJACENT TO BRIDGE. - National Docks Branch Bridge N.D.2F, Spans former Central Railroad of New Jersey , west of New Jersey Turnpike, north of Communipaw Avenue near Johnson Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  16. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m(-2) BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) VO2max). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The inter-subject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min(-1) per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p=0.026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p=0.574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p=0.032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p=0.026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  17. Heart Rate Characteristic index monitoring for blood stream infection in an NICU: A 3-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Sarah A.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Grunwald, Lisa; Stark, Ann R.; Reese, Jeff; Walsh, William; Wynn, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood stream infection (BSI) among Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) infants is a frequent problem associated with poor outcomes. Monitoring for abnormal heart rate characteristics (HRC) may decrease infant mortality by alerting clinicians to sepsis before it becomes clinically apparent. Methods HRC scores were acquired using the HRC (HeRO) monitor system from Medical Predictive Science Corporation and entered into the electronic medical record by bedside staff. We retrospectively analyzed HRC scores recorded twice daily in the medical record during a 30-month period (January 1, 2010 through June 30, 2012) for infants in the NICU at the Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital at Vanderbilt. We identified infants that met CDC criteria for late-onset BSI (>3 days of life) during the study period. Results During the study period, we recorded 127,673 HRC scores from 2384 infants. We identified 46 infants with BSI. Although 8% (9701/127,673) of the HRC scores were ≥2 and 1% (1387/127,673) were ≥5, BSI (at any time) was observed in just 5% of patients with HRC scores ≥2, and 9% of patients with HRC scores ≥5. Of infants with BSI, 5/46 (11%) had at least one HRC score ≥5 and 17/46 (37%) had at least one score ≥2 recorded in the 48 hour period prior to the evaluation that resulted in the first positive blood culture of the episode. Conclusion In our single center retrospective study, elevated HRC scores had limited ability to detect BSI. BSI was infrequent at any time during hospitalization in infants with significantly elevated HRC scores. PMID:26518312

  18. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N-N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/-) or percentage of RR 50+/- that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58-30.8 mg/m3 during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m3). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  19. The readout of the LHC beam luminosity monitor: Accurate shower energy measurements at a 40 MHz repetition rate

    SciTech Connect

    Manfredi, P.F.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Traversi, G.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, A.; Turner, W.C.; Datte, P.S.; Millaud, J.E.

    2003-05-10

    The LHC beam luminosity monitor is based on the following principle. The neutrals that originate in LHC at every PP interaction create showers in the absorbers placed in front of the cryogenic separation dipoles. The shower energy, as it can be measured by suitable detectors in the absorbers is proportional to the number of neutral particles and, therefore, to the luminosity. This principle lends itself to a luminosity measurement on a bunch-by-bunch basis. However, detector and front-end electronics must comply with extremely stringent requirements. To make the bunch-by-bunch measurement feasible, their speed of operation must match the 40 MHz bunch repetition rate of LHC. Besides, in the actual operation the detector must stand extremely high radiation doses. The front-end electronics, to survive, must be located at some distance from the region of high radiation field, which means that a properly terminated, low-noise, cable connection is needed between detector and front-end electronics. After briefly reviewing the solutions that have been adopted for the detector and the front-end electronics and the results that have been obtained so far in tests on the beam, the latest version of the instrument in describe in detail. It will be shown how a clever detector design, a suitable front-end conception based on the use of a ''cold resistance'' cable termination and a careful low-noise design, along with the use of an effective deconvolution algorithm, make the luminosity measurement possible on a bunch-by-bunch basis at the LHC bunch repetition rates.

  20. 59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of two large, unused, waste water settling tanks (near the city of New Haven, at some distance from the lock site). All members have been laid up with contemporary separating ties between them to ensure complete wetting during storage. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  1. SHOWN WITH NURSE - ASTRONAUT EDWARD H. WHITE II - MISC. - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-01

    S65-29657 (June 1965) --- Gemini-4 prime crew, astronauts Edward H. White II (left), and James A. McDivitt are shown with Lt. Dolores (Dee) O'Hare, US Air Force, Center Medical Office, Flight Medicine Branch, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Lieutenant O'Hare has served during several spaceflights as official medical nurse for the astronaut crew members on the missions.

  2. Final Report Real Time Monitoring of Rates of Subsurface Microbial Activity Associated with Natural Attenuation and Electron Donor Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2016-03-22

    The project was successful in developing new sensing technologies for monitoring rates of microbial activity in soils and sediments and also developed a novel proof-of-concept for monitoring the presence of bioavailable concentrations of a diversity of metabolites and toxic components in sedimentary environments. These studies led not only to publications in the peer-reviewed literature, but also two patent applications and a start-up company.

  3. Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James A.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p < 0.001). As monitoring time progressed, mean differences between the subspecies were no longer significant. High RR over monitoring time was associated with high lactate concentration. Antillean manatees had higher overall lactate values ([mean ± SD] 20.6 ± 7.8 mmol/L) than Florida manatees (13.7 ± 6.7 mmol/L; p < 0.001). We recommend monitoring manatee OT, HR, and RR during capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.

  4. Utility of the Conconi's heart rate deflection to monitor the intensity of aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Passelergue, Philippe A; Cormery, Bruno; Lac, Gérard; Léger, Luc A

    2006-02-01

    The Conconi's heart-rate deflection point (HRd) in the heart rate (HR)/speed curve is often used to set aerobic training loads. Training could either be set in percentage running speed or HR at HRd. In order to establish the limits and usefulness of various aerobic-training modalities for intermediate athletic level (physical-education students), acute responses were analyzed while running for a typical 40-minute training session. Speed, HR, lactate, and cortisol were thus recorded during training at 90 and 100% of running speed (RS: n = 14) and HR (HR: n = 16) at HRd (90% running speed [RS90], 100% running speed [RS100], 90% HR [HR90], and 100% HR [HR100]). During constant HR training, RS decreases while HR drifts upward during constant RS training. Half of the subjects can not finish the 40-minute RS100 session. For HR90, RS90, HR100, and RS100, average intensities are 67, 69, 74.9, and 77% maximal aerobic speed (multistage test), respectively. This study indicates that (1) training at HR100 and RS100 is more appropriate to improve high-intensity metabolic capacities (increased cortisol and lactate) while RS100 is too difficult to be maintained for 40 minutes for subjects at that level at least, (2) training at HR90, however, is better to improve endurance and capacity to do a large amount of work considering cortisol and lactate homeostasis, and (3) training at a constant HR using a HR monitor is a good method to control the intensity of the training with subjects not used to pacing themselves with the split-time approach.

  5. Correlation between annual gravity changes monitored by GRACE and background seismicity rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Y.; Yamada, K.

    2016-12-01

    GRACE(Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) has monitored global gravity changes after 2002.Indeed the gravity changes include signals of mass redistribution by M9-classmega-earthquakes (Han et al., 2006; Matsuo and Heki, 2011) and uplift by a deep earthquake (Tanaka et al., 2015),but most of them represent water mass movements (ex. Wahr et al., 2004). Water mass movements around the surfacemay affect earthquake occurrences via surface loads or pore pressure increases (ex. Ellsworth, 2013).Thus we examine the relation between temporal gravity changes and earthquake occurrences in a global scale. We use the GRACE level-3 data (for land) analyzed by UTCSR. The observation period is from April, 2002to January, 2015. The sampling interval is about 1 month. For deficient data, we linearly interpolate themfrom the last and next data. Then we estimate linear trends and amplitudes of annual changes. We also use seismicity catalogue data from USGS and select earthquakes over M4 and whose focal depths areshallower than 30 km. In order to exclude effects of aftershocks of large earthquakes, we extractbackground seismicity µ in the ETAS model (Ogata, 1988). We need sufficient numbers of earthquakesin each spatial grid for stable estimation. Therefore we first separate the surface of the Earth intolarge spatial grids and next select grids where mean values of the earthquake numberswere over three per month. We estimated the background seismicity rates, the linear gravity trends, andthe amplitudes of the annual gravity changes in the selected grids. We find that the correlation coefficient between the background seismicity rate and the annual gravity change is about 0.60 (p-value is 0.002), whereas that of the linear gravity trend between the background seismicity rateis about -0.03. This result implies that annual water movements truly affected the earthquake occurrences, butsecular movements did not.

  6. Patterns of physical activity determined by heart rate monitoring among diabetic children

    PubMed Central

    Massin, M; Lebrethon, M; Rocour, D; Gerard, P; Bourguignon, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged to participate in physical activity because exercise can benefit insulin sensitivity and improve known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Methods: Physical activity patterns of 127 children and adolescents with stable type 1 diabetes were investigated by 24 hour continuous heart rate monitoring. The percentage of heart rate reserve was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. The results were compared with normative data. Results: Diabetic preschoolchildren accumulated 192.7 (78.1), 39.1 (24.3), and 21.3 (9.4) minutes/day (mean (SD)) of light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, respectively. At the same activity levels, diabetic schoolchildren accumulated 168.9 (76.7), 37.9 (15.9), and 19.0 (14.8) minutes/day, and diabetic teenagers accumulated 166.3 (67.5), 45.6 (26.9), and 25.2 (15.3) minutes/day. Diabetic schoolchildren were significantly more active than healthy peers when considering moderate activity; diabetic teenagers were significantly more active when considering moderate and vigorous activity. There was a negative correlation between the most recent glycated haemoglobin and the time spent in light activities in schoolchildren, and a negative correlation between mean glycated haemoglobin for one year and time spent in light and moderate activities in schoolchildren. Conclusion: The majority of our diabetic patients meet the classical paediatric guidelines for physical activity and compare favourably with their healthy peers. PMID:15941770

  7. Forehead reflectance photoplethysmography to monitor heart rate: preliminary results from neonatal patients.

    PubMed

    Grubb, M R; Carpenter, J; Crowe, J A; Teoh, J; Marlow, N; Ward, C; Mann, C; Sharkey, D; Hayes-Gill, B R

    2014-05-01

    Around 5%-10% of newborn babies require some form of resuscitation at birth and heart rate (HR) is the best guide of efficacy. We report the development and first trial of a device that continuously monitors neonatal HR, with a view to deployment in the delivery room to guide newborn resuscitation. The device uses forehead reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) with modulated light and lock-in detection. Forehead fixation has numerous advantages including ease of sensor placement, whilst perfusion at the forehead is better maintained in comparison to the extremities. Green light (525 nm) was used, in preference to the more usual red or infrared wavelengths, to optimize the amplitude of the pulsatile signal. Experimental results are presented showing simultaneous PPG and electrocardiogram (ECG) HRs from babies (n = 77), gestational age 26-42 weeks, on a neonatal intensive care unit. In babies ⩾32 weeks gestation, the median reliability was 97.7% at ±10 bpm and the limits of agreement (LOA) between PPG and ECG were +8.39 bpm and -8.39 bpm. In babies <32 weeks gestation, the median reliability was 94.8% at ±10 bpm and the LOA were +11.53 bpm and -12.01 bpm. Clinical evaluation during newborn deliveries is now underway.

  8. Use of heart rate variability in monitoring stress and recovery in judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Morales, José; Alamo, Juan M; García-Massó, Xavier; Buscà, Bernat; López, Jose L; Serra-Añó, Pilar; González, Luís-Millán

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of different judo training loads on heart rate variability (HRV) measurements, to determine if they can be used as valid indicators in monitoring stress and recovery in judo athletes. Fourteen male national-standard judo athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups, and each group followed a different type of training, namely, a high training load (HTL) and a moderate training load program (MTL). Data collection included HRV measurements, a Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-SPORT), and strength measurements, 4 weeks before and after the training program. The HTL group had lower square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR intervals, very low frequency, high frequency, short-term variability, short-range scaling exponents, general recovery, sport-specific recovery, general stress, maximum strength, maximum power, and higher low/high frequency ratio at posttest compared with pretest (p ≤ 0.05). The HTL group showed lower short-range and long-range scaling exponents, general recovery, sport-specific recovery, and higher general stress than the MTL group in posttest measurements (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, judo athletes enrolled in an HTL program showed an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system with decreased vagal modulation, together with a decrease in strength parameters, higher markers for stress, and a lower perception of recovery.

  9. Skylab 3 crewmen shown eating in Orbital Workshop wardroom

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-01

    S73-31705 (1 Aug. 1973) --- The three Skylab 3 crewmen are shown eating in the Orbital Workshop (OWS) wardroom of the Skylab space station in Earth orbit, in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the OWS. Astronaut Alan L. Bean (right), commander, illustrates eating under zero-gravity conditions upsidedown. The two other crewmen are scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott (left), science pilot; and astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Note: Signal conditioning of a hot-film anemometer for a periodic flow rate monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Federico; Tagliaferri, Cristian

    2011-12-01

    A flow monitoring system based on a constant temperature hot-film anemometer is presented. The device has been designed to monitor a dispensing process of extremely low quantities of adhesive material. The monitoring device presented in this paper is useful in industrial applications where exact flow speed tracking is not needed, but reliability and tolerance to parameters variability are essential. During the design of the device, problems related to the physical characteristic of the calorimetric sensor, in particular its thermal capacitance, and to the periodic nature of the monitored flow have been taken into account and suitable solutions have been implemented. The schematic representation of the monitoring device together with the experimental results obtained by monitoring fluids with different physical characteristics are presented.

  11. Is the Polar F6 heart rate monitor less accurate during aerobic bench stepping because of arm movements?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Lisa K; Crixell, Sylvia H; Price, Larry R

    2014-07-01

    Because of the well-documented linear relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate is commonly used to estimate energy expenditure during exercise. However, previous research suggests that heart rate increases without a concomitant rise in VO2 when arm movements are added to exercise. If so, this could impact the accuracy of heart rate monitors in estimating energy expenditure during combined arm and leg exercise. This study compared the cardiorespiratory responses to a bench step aerobics routine performed with and without arm movements and evaluated whether the accuracy of the Polar F6 heart rate monitor in predicting energy expenditure was impacted by the inclusion of arm movements. Thirty-two women performed the same routine with and without arm movements while stepping up and down off of a 15.24-cm bench at a cadence of 128 b·min-1. Heart rate and VO2 increased, whereas oxygen pulse (VO2·heart rate-1) decreased when arm movements were added (p < 0.001). However, the differences between the energy expenditure estimated by the Polar F6 heart rate monitor and the energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry were similar during the same aerobic bench stepping routine performed with and without arms (Δ∼2 kCal·min-1, p ≥ 0.05). Results confirm that arm movements during aerobic bench stepping elicit a disproportionate rise in heart rate relative to V[Combining Dot Above]O2. However, results do not support that these movements increase the prediction error in energy expenditure, as the Polar F6 heart rate monitor over predicted energy expenditure when arm movements were involved and when they were not involved.

  12. FETAL HEART RATE MONITORING PATTERNS IN WOMEN WITH AMNIOTIC FLUID PROTEOMIC PROFILES INDICATIVE OF INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya; Cackovic, Michael; Pettker, Christian M.; Dulay, Antonette T.; Bahtiyar, Mert Ozan; Zambrano, Eduardo; Martin, Ryan; Norwitz, Errol R.; Bhandari, Vineet; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that abnormal fetal heart rate monitoring patterns (FHR-MP) occur more often in pregnancies complicated by intra-amniotic inflammation. Therefore, our objective was to examine the relationships between FHR-MP abnormalities, intra-amniotic inflammation and/or infection, acute histological chorioamnionitis and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in pregnancies complicated by preterm birth. Additionally, the ability of various FHR-MPs to predict EONS was investigated. FHR-MP from 87 singleton premature neonates delivered within 48 hours from amniocentesis [gestational age: 28.9 ± 3.3 weeks] were analyzed blindly using strict NICHD criteria. Strips were evaluated at three time points: at admission, at amniocentesis and prior to delivery. Intra-amniotic inflammation was established based on a previously validated proteomic fingerprint (MR score). Diagnoses of histological chorioamnionitis and EONS were based on well-recognized pathological, clinical and laboratory criteria. We determined that fetuses of women with severe intra-amniotic inflammation had a higher FHR baseline throughout the entire monitoring period and an increased frequency of a non-reactive FHR-MP at admission. Of all FHR-MP, a non-reassuring test at admission had 32% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 73% positive predictive value, 77% negative predictive value, and 76% accuracy in predicting EONS. Although a non-reassuring FHR-MP at admission was significantly associated with EONS after correcting for gestational age (OR: 5.6 [95%CI: 1.2–26.2], p=0.030), the majority of the neonates that developed EONS had an overall reassuring FHR-MP. Non-reassuring FHR-MPs at either amniocentesis or delivery had no association with EONS. We conclude that in cases complicated by preterm birth, a non-reassuring FHR-MP at the initial evaluation is a specific but not a sensitive predictor of EONS. An abnormal FHR-MP can thus raise the level of awareness that a fetus with EONS may be born, but is not a

  13. Extent of Texas Flooding Shown in New NASA Map

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, created this Flood Proxy Map depicting areas of Southeastern Texas that are likely flooded as a result of Hurricane Harvey, shown by light blue pixels. The map is derived from synthetic aperture radar amplitude images from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 satellite, taken before (July 30, 2017) and after (August 27, 2017) Hurricane Harvey made landfall. The map covers an area of 135 square miles (350 square kilometers). Each pixel measures about 538 square feet (50 square meters). Local ground observations provided anecdotal preliminary validation. This flood proxy map should be used as guidance to identify areas that are likely flooded, and may be less reliable over urban areas. ALOS-2 data were accessed through the International Charter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21928

  14. Revealing invisible photonic printing: colorful pattern shown by water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Dong, Z. Q.; Chen, Y.; Hu, X. B.; Zhu, X. R.; Zhu, Z. G.; Qian, S. H.; Shih, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Patterning and displaying of photonic crystals are critical for building advanced photonic materials. We developed a monolayered colloidal crystal (MCC) based photonic material through a mask-assistant photo-polymerization process. Polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles were firstly assembled on the glass slide to form highly ordered MCC, this template is invisible and could diffract visible light when infiltrated by solvent. This reversibly displaying property was successfully maintained after the MCC was surrounding by a polymer layer via photo-polymerization, meanwhile a pattern could also be printed on the polymer with the help of a mask. Such photonic printing could be reversibly shown and hidden, revealing the colorful pattern was mainly due to the non-uniform cross-linking density of the polymer.

  15. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct service...

  16. Monitoring changes in physical performance with heart rate measures in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M; Simpson, M B; Al Haddad, H; Bourdon, P C; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the validity of using exercise heart rate (HRex), HR recovery (HRR) and post-exercise HR variability (HRV) during and after a submaximal running test to predict changes in physical performance over an entire competitive season in highly trained young soccer players. Sixty-five complete data sets were analyzed comparing two consecutive testing sessions (3-4 months apart) collected on 46 players (age 15.1 ± 1.5 years). Physical performance tests included a 5-min run at 9 km h(-1) followed by a seated 5-min recovery period to measure HRex, HRR and HRV, a counter movement jump, acceleration and maximal sprinting speed obtained during a 40-m sprint with 10-m splits, repeated-sprint performance and an incremental running test to estimate maximal cardiorespiratory function (end test velocity V (Vam-Eval)). Possible changes in physical performance were examined for the players presenting a substantial change in HR measures over two consecutive testing sessions (greater than 3, 13 and 10% for HRex, HRR and HRV, respectively). A decrease in HRex or increase in HRV was associated with likely improvements in V (Vam-Eval); opposite changes led to unclear changes in V (Vam-Eval). Moderate relationships were also found between individual changes in HRR and sprint [r = 0.39, 90% CL (0.07;0.64)] and repeated-sprint performance [r = -0.38 (-0.05;-0.64)]. To conclude, while monitoring HRex and HRV was effective in tracking improvements in V (Vam-Eval), changes in HRR were moderately associated with changes in (repeated-)sprint performance. The present data also question the use of HRex and HRV as systematic markers of physical performance decrements in youth soccer players.

  17. Accuracy of a Wrist-Worn Wearable Device for Monitoring Heart Rates in Hospital Inpatients: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Ryan R; Boyd, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background As the sensing capabilities of wearable devices improve, there is increasing interest in their application in medical settings. Capabilities such as heart rate monitoring may be useful in hospitalized patients as a means of enhancing routine monitoring or as part of an early warning system to detect clinical deterioration. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of heart rate monitoring by a personal fitness tracker (PFT) among hospital inpatients. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of 50 stable patients in the intensive care unit who each completed 24 hours of heart rate monitoring using a wrist-worn PFT. Accuracy of heart rate recordings was compared with gold standard measurements derived from continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) monitoring. The accuracy of heart rates measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2.R) was also measured as a positive control. Results On a per-patient basis, PFT-derived heart rate values were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring (average bias of −1.14 beats per minute [bpm], with limits of agreement of 24 bpm). By comparison, Spo2.R recordings produced more accurate values (average bias of +0.15 bpm, limits of agreement of 13 bpm, P<.001 as compared with PFT). Personal fitness tracker device performance was significantly better in patients in sinus rhythm than in those who were not (average bias −0.99 bpm vs −5.02 bpm, P=.02). Conclusions Personal fitness tracker–derived heart rates were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring in real-world testing and not as accurate as Spo2.R-derived heart rates. Performance was worse among patients who were not in sinus rhythm. Further clinical evaluation is indicated to see if PFTs can augment early warning systems in hospitals. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02527408; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02527408 (Archived by WebCite at  http://www.webcitation.org/6kOFez3on) PMID:27651304

  18. Gear Durability Shown To Be Improved by Superfinishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krautz, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Gears, bearings, and similar mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. At the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, we postulated that the fatigue lives of gears could be improved by providing smoother tooth surfaces. A superfinishing process was applied to a set of conventionally ground, aerospace-quality gears. This process produced a highly polished, mirrorlike surface as shown in the preceding photograph. The surface fatigue lives of both superfinished and conventionally ground gears were measured by experiments. The superfinished gears survived about four times longer than the conventionally ground gears. These superfinished gears were produced from conventionally ground, aerospace-quality gears whose geometry had been inspected. The gears were superfinished by placing them in a vibrating bath consisting of water, detergent, abrasive powder, and small pieces of zinc. Upon removal from the bath, the surfaces were highly polished, as depicted in the preceding photograph. The gears were again inspected, and dimensional measurements made before and after the superfinishing operation were compared. Superfinishing removed the peaks of the grinding marks and left a much smoother surface. Profile and spacing checks proved that the overall gear tooth shape was not affected in any harmful way. Superfinishing uniformly removed approximately 2.5 microns from each surface.

  19. White matter development during adolescence as shown by diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Schmithorst, Vincent J; Yuan, Weihong

    2010-02-01

    Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) with age and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD) with age, findings primarily due to decreasing radial diffusivity with age. However, results of studies vary as to the regional specificity of such age-related changes, likely due in part to methodological issues. Another general trend is for FA to positively correlate and MD to negatively correlate with cognitive function. This trend is however region-specific, task-specific, and population-specific; some studies have in fact found negative correlations of FA and positive correlations of MD in specific regions with specific measures of cognitive performance. There are also published reports of sexual dimorphism in white matter development, indicating differing developmental trajectories between males and females as well as differing relationships developmentally between white matter architecture and cognitive function. There is a need for more research to further elucidate the development of white matter and its relation to cognitive function during this critical developmental period. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  1. A rapid, non-destructive methodology to monitor activity of sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete based on H2S uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Wells, Tony; Keller, Jurg

    2014-08-01

    Many existing methods to monitor the corrosion of concrete in sewers are either very slow or destructive measurements. To overcome these limitations, a rapid, non-invasive methodology was developed to monitor the sulfide-induced corrosion process on concrete through the measurement of the H2S uptake rates of concrete at various corrosion stages. The H2S uptake rate for a concrete coupon was determined by measuring the gaseous H2S concentrations over time in a temperature- and humidity-controlled gas-tight reactor. The reliability of this method was evaluated by carrying out repeated tests on different concrete coupons previously exposed to 50 ppm of H2S, at 30 °C and 100% relative humidity for over 32 months. The H2S uptake measurements showed good reproducibility. It was also shown that a severely corroded coupon exhibited higher sulfide uptake rates than a less corroded coupon. This could be explained by the corrosion layer in the more corroded coupon having a higher biological sulfide oxidation activity than the less corroded coupon. Additionally, temperature changes had a stronger effect on the uptake rate of the heavily corroded coupon compared to the less corroded coupon. A corrosion rate of 8.9 ± 0.5 mm/year, estimated from the H2S uptake results, agreed well with the corrosion rate observed in real sewers under similar conditions. The method could be applied to investigate important factors affecting sulfide-induced concrete corrosion, particularly temperature, fluctuating gaseous H2S concentrations, oxygen concentrations, surface pH and relative humidity.

  2. An approach to remote monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) using microwave radar during a calculation task.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Matsui, Takemi; Sugawara, Keitaro; Asao, Takafumi; Kotani, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Recently, nonrestrictive and noninvasive sensing techniques to measure vital signs have been actively researched and developed. This study aimed to develop a prototype system to monitor cardiac activity using microwave radar without making contact with the body and without removing clothing--namely, a completely noncontact, remote monitoring system. In addition, heart rate and changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during simple mental arithmetic tasks were observed with the prototype system. The prototype system has a microwave Doppler radar antenna with 24 GHz frequency and approximately 7 mW output power. The experiments were conducted with seven subjects (23.00±0.82 years). We found that the prototype system captured heart rate and HRV precisely. The strong relationship between the heart rates during tasks (r=0.96), LF (cross-correlation=0.76), and LF/HF (cross-correlation=0.73) of HRV calculated from the prototype system and from electrocardiograph (ECG) measurements were confirmed. The proposed completely noncontact, remote method appears promising for future monitoring of cardiac activity as an indicator of changes in mental workload in workplaces.

  3. A wearable vital signs monitor at the ear for continuous heart rate and pulse transit time measurements.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Eric S; He, David Da; Sodini, Charles G

    2012-01-01

    A continuous, wearable and wireless vital signs monitor at the ear is demonstrated. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. The device monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG) in a single lead configuration, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) with a MEMS triaxial accelerometer, and the photoplethysmograms (PPG) with 660 nm and 940 nm LED sources and a static photocurrent subtraction analog front end. Clinical tests are conducted, including Valsalva and head-up tilt maneuvers. Peak timing intervals between the ECG, BCG and PPG are extracted and are shown to relate to pre-ejection period and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pulse Transit Time (PTT) extracted from cross-correlation between the PPG and BCG shows improved results compared to the pulse arrival time (PAT) method for tracking changes in MAP.

  4. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  5. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  6. A systematic review of goal directed fluid therapy: rating of evidence for goals and monitoring methods.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Heath; Mittal, Anubhav; Haydock, Matthew D; van den Heever, Marc; Devaud, Marcello; Windsor, John A

    2014-04-01

    To review the literature on goal directed fluid therapy and evaluate the quality of evidence for each combination of goal and monitoring method. A search of major digital databases and hand search of references was conducted. All studies assessing the clinical utility of a specific fluid therapy goal or set of goals using any monitoring method were included. Data was extracted using a pre-determined pro forma and papers were evaluated using GRADE principles to assess evidence quality. Eighty-one papers met the inclusion criteria, investigating 31 goals and 22 methods for monitoring fluid therapy in 13052 patients. In total there were 118 different goal/method combinations. Goals with high evidence quality were central venous lactate and stroke volume index. Goals with moderate quality evidence were sublingual microcirculation flow, the oxygen extraction ratio, cardiac index, cardiac output, and SVC collapsibility index. This review has highlighted the plethora of goals and methods for monitoring fluid therapy. Strikingly, there is scant high quality evidence, in particular for non-invasive G/M combinations in non-operative and non-intensive care settings. There is an urgent need to address this research gap, which will be helped by methodologies to compare utility of G/M combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific heat flow rate: an on-line monitor and potential control variable of specific metabolic rate in animal cell culture that combines microcalorimetry with dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guan, Y; Evans, P M; Kemp, R B

    1998-06-05

    One of the requirements for enhanced productivity by the animal culture systems used in biotechnology is the direct assessment of the metabolic rate by on-line biosensors. Based on the fact that cell growth is associated with an enthalpy change, it is shown that the specific heat flow rate is stoichiometrically related to the net specific rates of substrates, products, and indeed to specific growth rate, and therefore a direct reflection of metabolic rate. Heat flow rate measured by conduction calorimetry has a technical advantage over estimates for many material flows which require assays at a minimum of two discrete times to give the rate. In order to make heat flow rate specific to the amount of the living cellular system, it would be advantageous to divide it by viable biomass. This requirement has been fulfilled by combining a continuous flow microcalorimeter ex situ with a dielectric spectroscope in situ, the latter measuring the viable cell mass volume fraction. The quality of the resulting biosensor for specific heat flow rate was illustrated using batch cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO 320) producing recombinant human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) during growth in a stirred tank bioreactor under fully aerobic conditions. The measuring scatter of the probe was decreased significantly by applying the moving average technique to the two participant signals. It was demonstrated that the total metabolic rate of the cells, as indicated by the specific heat flow rate sensor, decreased with increasing time in batch culture, coincident with the decline in the two major substrates, glucose and glutamine, and the accumulation of the by-products, ammonia and lactate. Furthermore, the specific heat flow rate was an earlier indicator of substrate depletion than the flow rate alone. The calorimetric-respirometric ratio showed the intensive participation of anaerobic processes during growth and the related IFN-gamma production. Specific heat flow rate was

  8. Lowering Cost Share May Improve Rates of Home Glucose Monitoring Among Patients with Diabetes Using Insulin.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yiqiong; Agiro, Abiy; Bowman, Kevin; DeVries, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Not much is known about the extent to which lower cost share for blood glucose strips is associated with persistent filling. To evaluate the relationship between cost sharing for blood glucose testing strips and continued use of testing strips. This is a retrospective observational study using medical and pharmacy claims data integrated with laboratory hemoglobin A1c (A1c) values for patients using insulin and blood glucose testing strips. Diabetic patients using insulin who had at least 1 fill of blood glucose testing strips between 2010 and 2012 were included. Patients were divided into a low cost-share group (out-of-pocket cost percentage of total testing strip costs over a 1-year period from the initial fill < 20%; n = 3,575) and a high cost-share group (out-of-pocket cost percentage ≥ 20%; n = 3,580). We compared the likelihood of continued testing strip fills after the initial fill between the 2 groups by using modified Poisson regression models. Patients with low cost share had higher rates of continued testing strip fills compared with those with high cost share (89% vs. 82%, P < 0.001). Lower cost share was associated with greater probability of continued fills (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P < 0.001). Other patient characteristics associated with continued fills included type 1 diabetes diagnosis, types of insulin regimens, and health insurance plan type. In a subset analysis of patients whose A1c values at baseline were above the target level (8%) set by the National Committee for Quality Assurance guidelines, we saw a slight increase in magnitude of relationship between cost share and continued fills (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.10, P < 0.01). There was a statistically significant association between cost share for testing strips and continued blood glucose self-monitoring. Among patients not achieving A1c control at baseline, there was an increase in the magnitude of relationship. Lowering cost share for testing strips can

  9. Development of a flow rate monitoring method for the wearable ventricular assist device driver.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Kentaro; Homma, Akihiko; Sumikura, Hirohito; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Koichi; Katano, Kazuo; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-06-01

    Our research institute has been working on the development of a compact wearable drive unit for an extracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) with a pneumatically driven pump. A method for checking the pump blood flow on the side of the drive unit without modifying the existing blood pump and impairing the portability of it will be useful. In this study, to calculate the pump flow rate indirectly from measuring the flow rate of the driving air of the VAD air chamber, we conducted experiments using a mock circuit to investigate the correlation between the air flow rate and the pump flow rate as well as its accuracy and error factors. The pump flow rate was measured using an ultrasonic flow meter at the inflow and outflow tube, and the air flow was measured using a thermal mass flow meter at the driveline. Similarity in the instantaneous waveform was confirmed between the air flow rate in the driveline and the pump flow rate. Some limitations of this technique were indicated by consideration of the error factors. A significant correlation was found between the average pump flow rate in the ejecting direction and the average air flow rate in the ejecting direction (R2 = 0.704-0.856), and the air flow rate in the filling direction (R2 = 0.947-0.971). It was demonstrated that the average pump flow rate was estimated exactly in a wide range of drive conditions using the air flow of the filling phase.

  10. Dependence of the neutron monitor count rate and time delay distribution on the rigidity spectrum of primary cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeard, P.-S.; Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Nuntiyakul, W.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Neutron monitors are the premier instruments for precisely tracking time variations in the Galactic cosmic ray flux at GeV-range energies above the geomagnetic cutoff at the location of measurement. Recently, a new capability has been developed to record and analyze the neutron time delay distribution (related to neutron multiplicity) to infer variations in the cosmic ray spectrum as well. In particular, from time delay histograms we can determine the leader fraction L, defined as the fraction of neutrons that did not follow a previous neutron detection in the same tube from the same atmospheric secondary particle. Using data taken during 2000-2007 by a shipborne neutron monitor latitude survey, we observe a strong dependence of the count rate and L on the geomagnetic cutoff. We have modeled this dependence using Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and in the neutron monitor. We present new yield functions for the count rate of a neutron monitor at sea level. The simulation results show a variation of L with geomagnetic cutoff as observed by the latitude survey, confirming that these changes in L can be attributed to changes in the cosmic ray spectrum arriving at Earth's atmosphere. We also observe a variation in L with time at a fixed cutoff, which reflects the evolution of the cosmic ray spectrum with the sunspot cycle, known as solar modulation.

  11. Absolute rate parameters for the reaction of ground state atomic oxygen with carbonyl sulfide. [using O(3P) monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, R. B.; Stief, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The rate parameters for the reaction of O(3P) with carbonyl sulfide, O(3P) + OCS yields CO + SO have been determined directly by monitoring O(3P) using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The value for k sub 1 was measured over a temperature range of 263 - 502 K and the data were fitted to an Arrhenuis expression with good linearity.

  12. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    SciTech Connect

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M.

    2015-07-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  13. Assessing Hemorrhage Severity with Continuous Automatic Heart-Rate-Complexity Monitoring in Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-02

    transfusion of shed blood (TSB, n=7); or endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) (Pryor Medical , Arvada, CO) for up to 60 minutes followed...Batchinsky5; 1Untied States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, 2San Antonio Mili- tary Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX...automatic HRC mea- surements by the Aesculon monitor (Cardiotronic-Osypka Medical , USA) are asso- ciated with hemodynamic status and mortality. Methods

  14. From cardiac to respiratory rate, from cardiac sounds to pulse velocity: a noncontact unified approach for the monitoring of vital signs by means of optical vibrocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; De Melis, M.; Morbiducci, U.; Segers, P.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we report experimental data obtained using a novel, non contact and unified approach for the monitoring of some important vital parameters: Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, Respiration Rate, Filling Time, Pulse Transit Time. The measurement approach - named optical vibrocardiography (VCG) - has been recently described by some of the authors for what concerns the assessment of a single parameter or measurement and technical aspects. Here, we discuss the experimental setup realized to operate optical VCG in order to measure the previously cited vital parameters. We present two novel configurations for the assessment of the respiration rate and the pulse transit time. The quantities measured by optical VCG have been compared with the ones measured with golden standard instrumentations; the comparison reference instruments has shown differences with no statistical and clinical significance. Optical VCG therefore can be considered a valid, fully non-contact measurement method for the assessment of vital signs, with the additional advantage that such parameters can be assessed using one single instrument instead of a set of dedicated devices.

  15. The use of crowdsourcing for dietary self-monitoring: crowdsourced ratings of food pictures are comparable to ratings by trained observers.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Helander, Elina E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Perez-Macias, Jose Maria; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-04-01

    Crowdsourcing dietary ratings for food photographs, which uses the input of several users to provide feedback, has potential to assist with dietary self-monitoring. This study assessed how closely crowdsourced ratings of foods and beverages contained in 450 pictures from the Eatery mobile app as rated by peer users (fellow Eatery app users) (n = 5006 peers, mean 18.4 peer ratings/photo) using a simple 'healthiness' scale were related to the ratings of the same pictures by trained observers (raters). In addition, the foods and beverages present in each picture were categorized and the impact on the peer rating scale by food/beverage category was examined. Raters were trained to provide a 'healthiness' score using criteria from the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines. The average of all three raters' scores was highly correlated with the peer healthiness score for all photos (r = 0.88, p<0.001). Using a multivariate linear model (R(2) = 0.73) to examine the association of peer healthiness scores with foods and beverages present in photos, peer ratings were in the hypothesized direction for both foods/beverages to increase and ones to limit. Photos with fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes, nuts, and seeds (borderline at p = 0.06) were all associated with higher peer healthiness scores, and processed foods (borderline at p = 0.06), food from fast food restaurants, refined grains, red meat, cheese, savory snacks, sweets/desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with lower peer healthiness scores. The findings suggest that crowdsourcing holds potential to provide basic feedback on overall diet quality to users utilizing a low burden approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. How accurate are the wrist-based heart rate monitors during walking and running activities? Are they accurate enough?

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyun-Sung; Dinkel, Danae M; Noble, John M; Lee, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart rate (HR) monitors are valuable devices for fitness-orientated individuals. There has been a vast influx of optical sensing blood flow monitors claiming to provide accurate HR during physical activities. These monitors are worn on the arm and wrist to detect HR with photoplethysmography (PPG) techniques. Little is known about the validity of these wearable activity trackers. Aim Validate the Scosche Rhythm (SR), Mio Alpha (MA), Fitbit Charge HR (FH), Basis Peak (BP), Microsoft Band (MB), and TomTom Runner Cardio (TT) wireless HR monitors. Methods 50 volunteers (males: n=32, age 19–43 years; females: n=18, age 19–38 years) participated. All monitors were worn simultaneously in a randomised configuration. The Polar RS400 HR chest strap was the criterion measure. A treadmill protocol of one 30 min bout of continuous walking and running at 3.2, 4.8, 6.4, 8.0, and 9.6 km/h (5 min at each protocol speed) with HR manually recorded every minute was completed. Results For group comparisons, the mean absolute percentage error values were: 3.3%, 3.6%, 4.0%, 4.6%, 4.8% and 6.2% for TT, BP, RH, MA, MB and FH, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was observed: r=0.959 (TT), r=0.956 (MB), r=0.954 (BP), r=0.933 (FH), r=0.930 (RH) and r=0.929 (MA). Results from 95% equivalency testing showed monitors were found to be equivalent to those of the criterion HR (±10% equivalence zone: 98.15–119.96). Conclusions The results demonstrate that the wearable activity trackers provide an accurate measurement of HR during walking and running activities. PMID:27900173

  17. TROIKA: a general framework for heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during intensive physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhilin; Pi, Zhouyue; Liu, Benyuan

    2015-02-01

    Heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during subjects' intensive exercise is a difficult problem, since the signals are contaminated by extremely strong motion artifacts caused by subjects' hand movements. So far few works have studied this problem. In this study, a general framework, termed TROIKA, is proposed, which consists of signal decomposiTion for denoising, sparse signal RecOnstructIon for high-resolution spectrum estimation, and spectral peaK trAcking with verification. The TROIKA framework has high estimation accuracy and is robust to strong motion artifacts. Many variants can be straightforwardly derived from this framework. Experimental results on datasets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at the peak speed of 15 km/h showed that the average absolute error of heart rate estimation was 2.34 beat per minute, and the Pearson correlation between the estimates and the ground truth of heart rate was 0.992. This framework is of great values to wearable devices such as smartwatches which use PPG signals to monitor heart rate for fitness.

  18. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  19. Leak Rate Test for a Fiber Beam Monitor Contained in a Vacuum for the Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mara, Bridget; Lane, Noel; Gross, Eisen; Gray, Frederick; Muon g-2 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.14 parts per million (ppm). The measurement will build on the Brookhaven-based E821 experiment, which yielded results suggesting new physics such as supersymmetry. The Fiber Beam Monitors (FBMs) are used in the experiment to determine the position and observe the motion of a muon beam and monitor the properties of the beam over time. The FBMs support a 9 cm × 8 cm ``harp'' with 7 scintillating fibers separated from each other by 13 mm, each with a diameter of 0.5 mm. The experiment requires a vacuum of less than 1 ×10-6 Torr to prevent trapping of electrons ionized from the residual gas by the electrostatic quadrupoles. To meet this requirement the FBMs must have a leak rate of less than 5 ×10-5 Torr L/s. We have constructed a vacuum system to simulate these conditions and have determined the leak rate of the FBMs within the constructed vacuum apparatus. This leak rate will be reported, along with preliminary results from tests of the light output from the scintillating fibers. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.14 parts per million (ppm). The measurement will build on the Brookhaven-based E821 experiment, which yielded results suggesting new physics such as supersymmetry. The Fiber Beam Monitors (FBMs) are used in the experiment to determine the position and observe the motion of a muon beam and monitor the properties of the beam over time. The FBMs support a 9 cm × 8 cm ``harp'' with 7 scintillating fibers separated from each other by 13 mm, each with a diameter of 0.5 mm. The experiment requires a vacuum of less than 1 ×10-6 Torr to prevent trapping of electrons ionized from the residual gas by the electrostatic quadrupoles. To meet this requirement the FBMs must have a leak rate of less than 5 ×10-5 Torr L/s. We have constructed a vacuum system to simulate these conditions

  20. Comparative evaluation of susceptibility to motion artifact in different wearable systems for monitoring respiratory rate.

    PubMed

    Lanatà, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Nardini, Elena; Loriga, Giannicola; Paradiso, Rita; De-Rossi, Danilo

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to comparatively evaluate the performance of different wearable systems based on indirect breathing monitoring in terms of susceptibility to motion artifacts. These performances are compared with direct respiratory measurements using a spirometer, which is accurate, reliable, and less sensitive to movement artifacts, but cannot be integrated into truly wearable form. Experiments were carried out on four indirect methods implemented into wearable systems, inductive plethysmography, impedance plethysmography, piezoresistive pneumography, and piezoelectric pneumography, to ascertain the performance of each of them in terms of noise due to movement artifacts, as well as to study the effects of different movements or gestures during each test. A group of volunteers was asked to wear all of the breath monitoring systems simultaneously along with the face mask of the spirometer while carrying out four physical exercises in a gym under controlled conditions. Data are analyzed in the time and frequency domain to estimate the frequency respiration from each wearable system and compare it with those of the spirometer. Results confirmed that all the wearable systems are somehow affected by movement artifacts, but statistical investigation showed that for most of the physical exercises, three out of four, piezoelectric pneumography provided best performance in terms of robustness and reduced susceptibility to movement artifacts.

  1. A multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to accurately monitor heart rate against motion artefact during exercise.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-10-12

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from -15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  2. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate. PMID:26473860

  3. Ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in monitor lizards: males grow for a longer period, but not at a faster rate.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Frýdlová, Petra; Hnízdo, Jan; Simková, Olga; Cikánová, Veronika; Velenský, Petr

    2010-12-01

    Monitor lizards belong to the largest and the most sexually dimorphic lizards in terms of size, making this group an ideal model for studies analyzing ontogenetic causes of sexual dimorphism. Understanding of these ontogenetic factors is essential to the current discussion concerning patterns of sexual dimorphism in animals. We examined the ontogenetic trajectories of body weight and snout-vent length to analyze the emergence of sexual size dimorphism. Experimental animals were 22 males and 13 females of mangrove-dwelling monitors (Varanus indicus) hatched at the Prague Zoo. They were regularly weighed and measured up to the age of 33-40 months, and subsequently sexed by ultrasonographic imaging. The logistic growth equation was used to describe and analyze the observed growth patterns. Our results confirm considerable sexual size dimorphism in the mangrove monitor. The mean asymptotic body weight of males was nearly three times higher than that of females. As the body size of male and female hatchlings is almost equal, and the growth rate parameter (K) of the logistic growth equation as well as the absolute growth rate up to the age of 12 months do not differ between the sexes, size differences between fully grown males and females should be attributed to timing of the postnatal growth. Males continue to grow several months after they reach the age when the growth of females is already reduced. Therefore, the sexual size dimorphism emerges and sharply increases at this period.

  4. Can we improve the early detection of atrial fibrillation in a stroke unit? Detection rate of a monitor with integrated detection software.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Manso, Juan Jose; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes, Blanca; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Sanz-Cuesta, Borja Enrique; Prefasi, Daniel; Juarez-Martin, Belén; Navarro-Parias, Azahara; Parrilla-Novo, Pilar; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2016-02-01

    It is unknown whether monitors that include atrial fibrillation recognition software (AF-RS) increase the rate of early atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in acute stroke. We aimed to evaluate the AF detection rate of an AF-RS monitor and compare it with standard monitoring. This was a retrospective, single-centre observational study conducted on consecutive patients with acute transient ischaemic attack or brain infarction attended in a stroke unit (SU) with six beds. Five beds had a standard monitor with a three-lead electrocardiogram (ECG)-tracing monitor that did not automatically detect AF, and one bed had a 12-lead ECG monitor with integrated AF-RS. All patients were monitored for at least 24 h and underwent a daily ECG during their stay in the SU. In case of unknown stroke aetiology, the patients underwent 24 h Holter monitoring. A total of 76 patients were included: 59 patients in the standard monitor group and 17 patients in the AF-RS monitor group. The mean age was 72.11 (±13.09) years, and 59.2% were men. A total of 20 new cases of AF were identified. The AF-RS monitor showed a higher rate of AF detection than the standard devices (57.1% vs 7.7%, p=0.031). The AF-RS monitor showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of 57.1%, 100%, 100% and 76.9%, respectively. For the standard monitors, these values were 7.7%, 100%, 100% and 79.3%, respectively. The monitor with AF-RS demonstrated a higher detection rate for AF than standard ECG monitoring in acute stroke patients in a SU. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  5. High frame rate ultrasound monitoring of high intensity focused ultrasound-induced temperature changes: a novel asynchronous approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Huang, Sheng-Min; Li, Meng-Lin

    2010-11-01

    When applying diagnostic ultrasound to guide focused ultrasound (FUS) thermal therapy, high frame rate ultrasonic temperature monitoring is valuable in better treatment control and dose monitoring. However, one of the potential problems encountered when performing ultrasonic temperature monitoring of a FUS procedure is interference between the FUS and imaging systems. Potential means of overcoming this problem include the switch between the FUS system and the imaging system (limited by a reduced frame rate of thermal imaging) or the development of complex synchronization protocols between the FUS therapeutic system and the ultrasonic imaging apparatus (limited by implementation efforts both for software and hardware designs, and low potential for widespread diffusion). In this paper, we apply an asynchronous idea to retrieving high frame rate and FUS-interference-free thermal imaging during FUS thermal therapy. Tone-burst delivery mode of the FUS energy is employed in our method, and the imaging and FUS systems are purposely operated in an asynchronous manner. Such asynchronous operation causes FUS interference to saturate sequential image frames at different A-lines; thus clean A-lines from several image frames can be extracted by a total energy-thresholding technique and then combined to reconstruct interference-free B-mode images at a high frame rate for temperature estimation. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by phantom experiments. Relationships of the FUS duty-cycle with the maximum reconstructed frame rate of thermal imaging and the corresponding maximum temperature increase are also studied. Its performance was also evaluated and compared with the existing manually synchronous and synchronous approaches. By proper selection of the FUS duty-cycle, using our method, the frame rate of thermal imaging can be increased up to tenfold compared with that provided by the manually synchronous approach. Our method is capable of pushing the frame

  6. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films and...

  7. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films and...

  8. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films and...

  9. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films and...

  10. Photoplethysmographic imaging via spectrally demultiplexed erythema fluctuation analysis for remote heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Chung, Audrey G.; Chwyl, Brendan; Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wang, Xiao Yu; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Traditional photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems use the red, green, and blue (RGB) broadband measurements of a consumer digital camera to remotely estimate a patients heart rate; however, these broadband RGB signals are often corrupted by ambient noise, making the extraction of subtle fluctuations indicative of heart rate difficult. Therefore, the use of narrow-band spectral measurements can significantly improve the accuracy. We propose a novel digital spectral demultiplexing (DSD) method to infer narrow-band spectral information from acquired broadband RGB measurements in order to estimate heart rate via the computation of motion- compensated skin erythema fluctuation. Using high-resolution video recordings of human participants, multiple measurement locations are automatically identified on the cheeks of an individual, and motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are acquired at each measurement location over time via measurement location tracking. The motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are spectrally demultiplexed using a non-linear inverse model based on the spectral sensitivity of the camera's detector. A PPG signal is then computed from the demultiplexed narrow-band spectral information via skin erythema fluctuation analysis, with improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing for reliable remote heart rate measurements. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under ambient lighting conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system achieves robust and accurate heart rate measurements and can provide additional information about the participant beyond the capabilities of traditional PPGI methods.

  11. Animal-based welfare monitoring: using keeper ratings as an assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Whitham, Jessica C; Wielebnowski, Nadja

    2009-11-01

    Zoological institutions are in urgent need of identifying and implementing welfare assessment tools that allow for ongoing, quantitative monitoring of individual animal well-being. Although the American Zoological Association's (AZA) Animal Welfare Committee (AWC) promotes the use of such tools in internal review processes, current approaches to institutional welfare assessment are resource-based and outline the resources, environmental parameters and "best practices" recommended for promoting good welfare in a species in general. We highlight the value of incorporating animal-based monitoring tools that capture the individual animal's perspective and subjective experiences, including positive events and feelings, by validating zookeepers' qualitative assessments. We present evidence that, across a variety of species, caretakers' assessments of traits related to the well-being of individual animals can be both reliable and valid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that among researchers investigating the welfare of farm, laboratory, companion and even zoo animals, support already exists for developing and validating instruments that objectively evaluate the qualitative assessments of caretakers. Finally, we outline a process currently being evaluated at Brookfield Zoo for developing, validating and testing a cost-effective, user-friendly monitoring tool that will help to quantify keepers' qualitative assessments of individual well-being and can be integrated into daily operations. This tool (i.e. species-specific Welfare Score Sheets designed through consultation with animal experts) will result in weekly scores of individual well-being that are expected to provide a first indicator of welfare issues in the collection. Specifically, scores can be reviewed during regular workgroup meetings to identify welfare issues proactively, to assess whether particular conditions, practices or events impact individual well-being, and finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of efforts

  12. Cyclostationarity-based joint monitoring of symbol-rate, frequency offset, CD and OSNR for Nyquist WDM superchannels.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Maria; Sato, Masaki; Thomsen, Benn

    2015-10-05

    Software-defined transceivers can be reconfigured based on demand and existing channel impairments, and as such, monitoring of both signal and channel parameters is necessary. We demonstrate a novel joint estimation method suitable for spectrally efficient Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), based on the cyclostationary property of linearly modulated signals, exploited both in the frequency and time domains. Using a Nyquist superchannel composed of three 10 GBaud channels, we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous monitoring of symbol-rate with 100% accuracy, roll-off, frequency offset (FO), chromatic dispersion (CD) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) with root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of 20%, 4 MHz, 200 ps/nm and 1.5 dB respectively, when the roll-off factor is larger than 0.06 for DP-QPSK and 0.3 for DP-16QAM.

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring for drugs used in the treatment of substance-related disorders: literature review using a therapeutic drug monitoring appropriateness rating scale.

    PubMed

    Brünen, Sonja; Vincent, Philippe D; Baumann, Pierre; Hiemke, Christoph; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of drugs for the treatment of substance-related disorders is moderate at best. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could be an instrument to improve outcomes. Because TDM for most of those drugs is not established, the authors reviewed the literature and built a rating scale to detect the potential added value of TDM for these pharmacologic agents. A literature search was performed for acamprosate, bupropion, buprenorphine, clomethiazole, disulfiram, methadone, naltrexone, and varenicline. The rating scale included 22 items and was divided in five categories: efficacy, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, patient characteristics, and cost-effectiveness. Three reference substances with established TDM were similarly assessed for comparison: clozapine, lithium, and nortriptyline. The three reference substances achieved scores of 15, 12, and 14 points, respectively. Drugs for treatment of substance-related disorders achieved 3 to 17 points, 17 for methadone, 11 for buprenorphine, 10 for disulfiram, also 10 for naltrexone for the indication opioid-dependence and 9 for the indication alcohol dependence as well as bupropion, 7 points for acamprosate, 6 points for clomethiazole, and 3 for varenicline. It is concluded that systematic evaluation of drug- and patient-related variables with the new rating scale can estimate the appropriateness of TDM. Because their rating revealed similar scores as the three reference drugs, it is proposed that TDM should be established for bupropion, buprenorphine, disulfiram or a metabolite, methadone, and naltrexone. An objective rating of drug- and patient-related characteristics could help laboratories focus their method development on the most likely drugs to require TDM along with a thorough drug use evaluation.

  14. The relationship of electronically monitored physical activity to blood pressure, heart rate, and the circadian blood pressure profile.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, G A; White, W B; McCabe, E J; Giacco, S

    2000-03-01

    We studied how closely changes in electronically monitored physical activity are reflected in changes in blood pressure and heart rate in a group of untreated hypertensive subjects. Thirty-nine hypertensive patients (office blood pressure > 140/ 90 mm Hg) of mean age 57 +/- 10 years (mean +/-SD) wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor and a wrist actigraph simultaneously. Both average and peak activity for 5 min before each valid blood pressure reading were determined, as was average activity for awake and sleep periods, determined by patient kept diaries. For the overall group, awake and 24-h activities were inversely correlated to age (n = 39, r = -0.42; P = 0.01 and n = 39, r = -0.38; P = 0.01, respectively). No correlation was found between group awake activity and group-average blood pressure or heart rate. For individual patients, there was marked variation in the degree of correlation between awake activity measures (both peak and average) and blood pressure and heart rate. The strongest positive correlation was between activity levels and the heart rate-pressure product. Nondipper profile hypertensives had higher sleep activity than dipper hypertensives (44 +/- 28 units/min v 25 +/- 20 units/min, df = 37, t = 2.12; P = 0.04), but awake activity levels were similar. The higher sleep activity remained after adjustment for age. These findings indicate that the relationship between actigraphic activity and hemodynamic parameters is highly variable and that the rate-pressure product is the strongest correlate of short-term activity. Furthermore, hypertensives with the nondipper profile have higher sleep activity than dipper hypertensives. These findings stress the need for further study into the role of day-to-day activity in determining ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability.

  15. Static magnetic field influence on rat brain function detected by heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Veliks, Viktors; Ceihnere, Edīte; Svikis, Igors; Aivars, Juris

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) on rat brain structures that control autonomic functions, specifically heart rate and heart rhythmicity. The experiments were carried out on 44 male Wistar rats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. SMF was induced using samarium-cobalt fused magnets (20 x 20 x 10 mm in size) placed bitemporally. Magnetic induction intensity was 100 mT on the surface of the head. Duration of magnetic field application was 15 min. An electrocardiogram was recorded from limb lead II, and both heart rate (average duration of cardiac cycles) and heart rhythmicity were analyzed before and after SMF application. SMF evoked changes in both heart rate and rhythm in 80% of the animals; the predominant effects were bradycardia and disappearance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. However, the effectiveness of SMF in large measure depends on both functional peculiarities and functional activities of brain autonomic centers.

  16. Monitoring baseline suspended sediment in forested basins: the effects of sampling on suspended sediment rating curves

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Abstract - Rating curves are widely used for directly assessing changes in the suspended sediment delivery process and indirectly for estimating total yields. Four sampling methods were simulated-over a 31-day record of suspended sediment from the North Fork of the Mad River near Korbel, California. The position and size of the four groups of plotted slope/intercept...

  17. A systematic review of novel technology for monitoring infant and newborn heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kevat, Ajay C; Bullen, Denise V R; Davis, Peter G; Kamlin, C Omar F

    2017-02-15

    Heart rate (HR) is a vital sign for assessing the need for resuscitation. We performed a systematic review of studies assessing novel methods of measuring HR in newborns and infants in the neonatal unit. Two investigators completed independent literature searches. Identified papers were independently evaluated, and relevant data were extracted and analysed.

  18. A mathematical method for extracting cell secretion rate from affinity biosensors continuously monitoring cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yandong; Zhou, Qing; Matharu, Zimple; Liu, Ying; Kwa, Timothy; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously developed miniature aptasensors that may be integrated at the site of a small group of cells for continuous detection of cell secreted molecules such as inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In a system such as this, the signal measured at the sensor surfaces is a complex function of transport, reaction, as well as of cellular activity. Herein, we report on the development of a mathematical framework for extracting cell production rates from binding curves generated with affinity biosensors. This framework consisted of a diffusion-reaction model coupled to a root finding algorithm for determining cell production rates values causing convergence of a predetermined criterion. To experimentally validate model predictions, we deployed a microfluidic device with an integrated biosensor for measuring the IFN-γ release from CD4 T cells. We found close agreement between secretion rate observed theoretically and those observed experimentally. After taking into account the differences in sensor geometry and reaction kinetics, the method for cell secretion rate determination described in this paper may be broadly applied to any biosensor continuously measuring cellular activity. PMID:24803956

  19. FreezeFramer: A prototype tool to monitor stress and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Samir; Hilton, Brian; Li, Haiqing; Hassan, Taimur; Tulu, Bengisu; McCraty, Rollin

    2007-10-11

    This paper describes the design, architecture, and implementation of a software application, FreezeFramer, developed to help individuals manage stress. The application measures heart rate variability through a finger or earlobe clip-on sensor that reads pulse information. While a detailed subjective evaluation is on going, system performance analyses are reported here.

  20. Online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in bottom spray fluid bed coating--development and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-16

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop a visiometric process analyzer for online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process. The secondary purpose is to investigate the influences of partition gap and air accelerator insert size on particle mass flow rate using the developed visiometric process analyzer. Particle movement in the region between the product chamber and partition column was captured using a high speed camera. Mean particle velocity and number of particles in the images were determined by particle image velocimetry and morphological image processing method respectively. Mass flow rate was calculated using particle velocity, number of particles in the images, particle density and size information. Particle velocity and number findings were validated using image tracking and manual particle counting techniques respectively. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method was accurate. Partition gap was found to influence particle mass flow rate by limiting the rate of solids flux into the partition column; the air accelerator insert was found to influence particle mass flow rate by a Venturi effect. Partition gap and air accelerator insert diameter needed to be adjusted accordingly in relation to the other variability sources and diameter of coating cores respectively. The potential, challenges and possible solutions of the proposed visiometric process analyzer were further discussed.

  1. Study of Artifact-Resistive Technology Based on a Novel Dual Photoplethysmography Method for Wearable Pulse Rate Monitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Congcong; Feng, Jingjie; Hu, Jun; Ye, Xuesong

    2016-03-01

    Pulse rate is one of the major physiological parameters for monitoring of cardiovascular conditions or excise states during daily life. However it is difficult to precisely measure the exact pulse rates as photoplethysmography (PPG) is easy to be affected by motion artifacts. Instead of using accelerometers followed by algorithms such as least mean square (LMS), recursive least square (RLS) and independent component analysis (ICA) or other equipment such as complex laser systems to measure displacement directly, a novel motion artifact estimation method which had lower computational complexity and higher signal dynamic range was studied and implemented, where a differential channel following green and red light PPG channels was applied to reduce the motion artifact caused by displacement of light emitting diode (LED), photo diode (PD) and tissue deformation before the analog signal was converted to digital form. A miniaturized, battery powered wrist worn artifact-resistive pulse rates monitoring system (PRMS) was presented to verify the proposed method. Four kinds of motions were performed and the results showed that the differential channel improved the morphology of the PPG signal and appeared to be artifact resistive during motions through light intensity control and high gain-phase consistency circuit design here.

  2. High-rate RTK and PPP multi-GNSS positioning for small-scale dynamic displacements monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Sieradzki, Rafał; Baryła, Radosław; Wielgosz, Pawel

    2017-04-01

    The monitoring of dynamic displacements and deformations of engineering structures such as buildings, towers and bridges is of great interest due to several practical and theoretical reasons. The most important is to provide information required for safe maintenance of the constructions. High temporal resolution and precision of GNSS observations predestine this technology to be applied to most demanding application in terms of accuracy, availability and reliability. GNSS technique supported by appropriate processing methodology may meet the specific demands and requirements of ground and structures monitoring. Thus, high-rate multi-GNSS signals may be used as reliable source of information on dynamic displacements of ground and engineering structures, also in real time applications. In this study we present initial results of application of precise relative GNSS positioning for detection of small scale (cm level) high temporal resolution dynamic displacements. Methodology and algorithms applied in self-developed software allowing for relative positioning using high-rate dual-frequency phase and pseudorange GPS+Galileo observations are also given. Additionally, an approach was also made to use the Precise Point Positioning technique to such application. In the experiment were used the observations obtained from high-rate (20 Hz) geodetic receivers. The dynamic displacements were simulated using specially constructed device moving GNSS antenna with dedicated amplitude and frequency. The obtained results indicate on possibility of detection of dynamic displacements of the GNSS antenna even at the level of few millimetres using both relative and Precise Point Positioning techniques after suitable signals processing.

  3. Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Yo; Bormuth, Volker; Wong, Jerome; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dugué, Guillaume P; Feltz, Anne; Dieudonné, Stéphane

    2008-08-30

    Two-photon microscopy offers the promise of monitoring brain activity at multiple locations within intact tissue. However, serial sampling of voxels has been difficult to reconcile with millisecond timescales characteristic of neuronal activity. This is due to the conflicting constraints of scanning speed and signal amplitude. The recent use of acousto-optic deflector scanning to implement random-access multiphoton microscopy (RAMP) potentially allows to preserve long illumination dwell times while sampling multiple points-of-interest at high rates. However, the real-life abilities of RAMP microscopy regarding sensitivity and phototoxicity issues, which have so far impeded prolonged optical recordings at high frame rates, have not been assessed. Here, we describe the design, implementation and characterisation of an optimised RAMP microscope. We demonstrate the application of the microscope by monitoring calcium transients in Purkinje cells and cortical pyramidal cell dendrites and spines. We quantify the illumination constraints imposed by phototoxicity and show that stable continuous high-rate recordings can be obtained. During these recordings the fluorescence signal is large enough to detect spikes with a temporal resolution limited only by the calcium dye dynamics, improving upon previous techniques by at least an order of magnitude.

  4. Monitoring trends in under-5 mortality rates through national birth history surveys.

    PubMed

    Korenromp, E L; Arnold, F; Williams, B G; Nahlen, B L; Snow, R W

    2004-12-01

    We assessed whether Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), a large and high-quality source of under-5 mortality estimates in developing countries, would be able to detect reductions in under-5 mortality as established in global child health goals. Mortality estimates from 41 DHS conducted in African countries between 1986 and 2002, for the interval of 0-4 years preceding each survey (with a mean time lag of 2.5 years), were reviewed. The median relative error on national mortality rates was 4.4%. In multivariate regression, the relative error decreased with increasing sample size, increasing fertility rates, and increasing mortality rates. The error increased with the magnitude of the survey design effect, which resulted from cluster sampling. With levels of precision observed in previous surveys, reductions in all-cause under-5 mortality rates between two subsequent surveys of 15% or more would be detectable. The detection of smaller mortality reductions would require increases in sample size, from a current median of 7060 to over 20,000 women. Across the actual surveys conducted between 1986 and 2002, varying mortality trends were apparent at a national scale, but only around half of these were statistically significant. The interpretation of changes in under-5 mortality rates between subsequent surveys needs to take into account statistical significance. DHS birth history surveys with their present sampling design would be able to statistically confirm under-5 mortality reductions in African countries if true reductions were 15% or larger, and are highly relevant to tracking progress towards existing international child health targets.

  5. A novel inter-fibre light coupling sensor probe using plastic optical fibre for ethanol concentration monitoring at initial production rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Sanober F.; Lewis, Elfed; Pembroke, J. Tony; Chowdhry, Bhawani S.

    2017-04-01

    A novel, low cost and highly sensitive optical fibre probe sensor for concentration measurement of ethanol solvent (C2H5OH) corresponding to bio-ethanol production rate by an algae is reported. The principle of operation of the sensor is based on inter-fibre light coupling through an evanescent field interaction to couple the light between two multimode fibres mounted parallel to each other at a minimum possible separation i.e. < 1mm. The sensor was fabricated using a low cost 1000um plastic optical fibre (POF) and was characterized for real time measurement in the broadband spectrum including visible and near infra-red. The wavelength dependency of this sensor design was also investigated by post processing analysis of real time data and hence the optimum wavelength range determined. The proposed sensor has shown significant response in the range of 0.005 - 0.1 %v/v (%volume/volume or volume concentration) which depicts the high sensitivity for monitoring very minute changes in concentration corresponding refractive index changes of the solution. Numerically, sensor has shown the sensitivity of 21945 intensity counts/%v/v or 109.7 counts per every 0.0050 %v/v.

  6. Variability of the human heart rate as a diagnostic instrument obtained by mean of a wireless monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barajas Mauricio, Sánchez; Hernández González, Martha Alicia; Figueroa Vega, Nicte; Malacara Hernández, Juan Manuel; Fraga Teodoro, Córdova

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: Heart rate variability (HRV) is the cyclic measurement of RR intervals between normal beats. Aim: To determine the VFC via a wireless Polar monitor. Material and methods: 100 symptomatic menopausal women were studied for measurements of HRV were I post a Polar RS400 Watch four hrs. Results: Obtained through the fast Fourier transform, the frequency domain HRV low frequency (LF) 0.04-0.15 Hz, high frequency (HF) 0.15-0.4Hz and the ratio LF / HF. Conclusion: obtaining HRV is important for cardiovascular autonomic assessment in menopausal women.

  7. Unobtrusive monitoring of heart rate using a cost-effective speckle-based SI-POF remote sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, P. J.; Montero, D. S.; Tapetado, A.; Vázquez, C.

    2017-03-01

    A novel speckle-based sensing technique for cost-effective heart-rate monitoring is demonstrated. This technique detects periodical changes in the spatial distribution of energy on the speckle pattern at the output of a Step-Index Polymer Optical Fiber (SI-POF) lead by using a low-cost webcam. The scheme operates in reflective configuration thus performing a centralized interrogation unit scheme. The prototype has been integrated into a mattress and its functionality has been tested with 5 different patients lying on the mattress in different positions without direct contact with the fiber sensing lead.

  8. The effect of textile-based inductive coil sensor positions for heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hye Ran; Lee, Young-Jae; Gi, Sunok; Khang, Seonah; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Min-Gyu; Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2014-02-01

    In the research related to heart rate measurement, few studies have been done using magnetic-induced conductivity sensing methods to measure the heart rate. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the position of a textile-based inductive coil sensor on the measurement of the heart rate. In order to assess the capability of the textile-based inductive coil sensor and the repeatability of measured cardiac muscle contractions, we proposed a new quality index based on the morphology of measured signals using a textile-based inductive coil sensor. We initially explored eight potential positions of the inductive sensor in a pilot experiment, followed by three sensor positions in the main experiment. A simultaneously measured electrocardiography (ECG) signal (Lead II) which was used as a reference signal for a comparison of the R-peak location with signals obtained from selected positions of the textile-based inductive coil sensor. The result of the main experiment indicated that the total quality index obtained from the sensor position 'P3', which was located 3 cm away from the left side from the center front line on the chest circumference line, was the highest (QI value = 1.30) among the three positions across all the subjects. This finding led us to conclude that (1) the position of the textile-based inductive coil sensor significantly affected the quality of the measurement results, and that (2) P3 would be the most appropriate position for the textile-based inductive coil sensor for heart rate measurements based on the magnetic-induced conductivity sensing principle.

  9. Monitoring forest/non-forest land use conversion rates with annual inventory data

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch; Paul C. Van Deusen

    2012-01-01

    The transitioning of land from forest to other uses is of increasing interest as urban areas expand and the world’s population continues to grow. Also of interest, but less recognized, is the transitioning of land from other uses into forest. In this paper, we show how rates of conversion from forest to non-forest and non-forest to forest can be estimated in the US...

  10. Monitoring the impact of the indoor air quality on silver cultural heritage objects using passive and continuous corrosion rate assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    `t Hart, Lucy; Storme, Patrick; Anaf, Willemien; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik; Dorriné, Walter; Janssens, Koen; de Wael, Karolien; Schalm, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    There is a long tradition in evaluating industrial atmospheres by measuring the corrosion rate of exposed metal coupons. The heritage community also uses this method, but the interpretation of the corrosion rate often lacks clarity due to the low corrosivity in indoor museum environments. This investigation explores the possibilities and drawbacks of different silver corrosion rate assessments. The corrosion rate is determined by three approaches: (1) chemical characterization of metal coupons using analytical techniques such as electrochemical measurements, SEM-EDX, XRD, and µ-Raman spectroscopy, (2) continuous corrosion monitoring methods based on electrical resistivity loss of a corroding nm-sized metal wire and weight gain of a corroding silver coated quartz crystal, and (3) characterization of the visual degradation of the metal coupons. This study confirms that subtle differences in corrosivity between locations inside a museum can be determined on condition that the same corrosion rate assessment is used. However, the impact of the coupon orientation with respect to the prevailing direction of air circulation can be substantially larger than the impact of the coupon location.

  11. The Telltale Heartbeat: Heart-Rate Monitors are Taking New Shapes.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The pulse rate has long been considered a basic and essential window on a person?s general physical condition. A racing heart could mean a person is at risk for a heart attack or, conversely, simply stressed, excited, or exercising. An erratic heartbeat could be a sign of a thyroid condition or, rather, just an indication that a person has indulged in one too many cups of coffee that morning. A slow pulse, on the other hand, could be a sign of a serious electrical problem within the organ or suggest, to the contrary, that a heart is as strong as an ox.

  12. Monitoring and condition-based maintenance with abrupt change in a system's deterioration rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouladirad, Mitra; Grall, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the maintenance of a system which undergoes a change in its deterioration rate is considered. The time of change of regime and the parameters after the change are unknown. To deal with unknown change time and unknown parameters, a detection procedure based on a suitable online change detection algorithm is used. The paper proposes a maintenance decision rule versus detection policy in order to minimise the long-run average maintenance cost, and the performances of this policy are studied through numerical implementations.

  13. Field uptake rates of hydrophobic organic contaminants by semipermeable membrane devices: environmental monitoring considerations.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Borghini, F; Corral, A; Grimalt, J O

    2004-11-01

    The uptake rates of selected hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--a polyethylene layflat containing the lipid triolein--were investigated under natural conditions. SPMDs were exposed in three sampling sites (industrial, urban, and agricultural areas) in the Tajo River (Toledo, Spain) for 5, 11 and 20 d. The organochlorine compounds 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in the SPMDs deployed in the three sampling sites. A linear uptake rate was found for DDTs and for 4-Cl- and 5-Cl-substituted PCB congeners in all sampling sites. Concentrations of HCHs (80.3 ng g(-1) SPMD for alpha-HCH and 109 ng g(-1) SPMD for gamma-HCH after 20 d of exposure) increased according to a linear uptake rate in the SPMDs deployed in the sampling site located in the agricultural area. Likewise, a marked increase of total PAH concentration (up to 300 ng g(-1) SPMD after 20 d of exposure) was solely found in the sampling site situated near a thermoelectric power station. Examination of individual PAHs revealed that PAHs with log K(OW) between 4.2 and 5.7 displayed a linear uptake rate over the 20 d of exposure. Water concentrations (ng L(-1)) of HCB (0.80-2.48), lindane (1.30-11.5), 4,4'-DDT (0.61-2.02), 4,4'-DDE (6.89-11.6) and total PAHs (12.0-26.7) estimated by a linear uptake kinetic model were found to be high in comparison with other polluted aquatic systems, and similar to concentrations in other Spanish rivers. Our results suggest that SPMD kinetic uptake studies in the natural environment are recommended for identifying point-pollution sources, and that shorter times of SPMD exposure (approximately 1 week) are desirable to minimize one of the main problems of field SPMD deployment, i.e., the biofouling, which negatively affects the estimation of the dissolved HOC

  14. A remote compact sensor for the real-time monitoring of human heartbeat and respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Jung Han Choi; Dong Kyun Kim

    2009-06-01

    A remote compact sensor system for the detection of human vital signs (heartbeat and respiration rate) is presented. The frequency band of 24 GHz is employed for remote sensing. For the compact size, the developed sensor uses a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave with a single antenna. The sensor system is composed of radio-frequency circuits, a signal conditioning block, a data-acquisition unit, and a signal-processing part. The peak detection of the power spectral density with a tracking algorithm is utilized for the real-time detection of human vital signs. The measurement result is compared with the commercial fingertip sensor. The comparison result shows excellent agreement.

  15. Laser reflector arrangement on H2A-lRE satellite for monitoring spin rate and optical degradation.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Toshimichi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Hidekazu

    2002-09-20

    We devised a unique array of cube-corner reflectors on a spherical satellite so that laser ranging could be used to detect the spin rate and the optical degradation. On the H2A-LRE satellite, there are reflectors made of synthetic silica and ones made of BK7 glass. We report that the degradation of the BK7 reflectors, as well as the spin rate of the satellite, can be monitored through a spectral analysis of laser-ranging data. The center-of-mass correction of the Laser Ranging Equipment satellite was calculated at 210 +/- 10 mm for all possible systems and throughout the degradation process of the BK7 reflectors.

  16. A novel online method to monitor autonomic nervous activity based on arterial wall impedance and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Kutluk, Abdugheni; Tsuji, Toshio; Ukawa, Teiji; Nakamura, Ryuji; Saeki, Noboru; Yoshizumi, Masao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2010-04-01

    This paper proposes a new method of evaluating autonomic nervous activity using the mechanical impedance of arterial walls and heart rate variability. The cardiovascular system is indispensable to life maintenance functions, and homeostasis is maintained by the autonomic nervous system. Accordingly, it is very important to be able to make diagnosis based on autonomic nervous activity within the body's circulation. The proposed method was evaluated in surgical operations; the mechanical impedance of the arterial wall was estimated from arterial blood pressure and a photoplethysmogram, and heart rate variability was estimated using electrocardiogram R-R interval spectral analysis. In this paper, we monitored autonomic nervous system activity using the proposed system during endoscopic transthoracic sympathetic block surgery in eight patients with hyperhidrosis. The experimental results indicated that the proposed system can be used to estimate autonomic nervous activity in response to events during operations.

  17. Methodological and experimental study of the relationship between displacement rate of landslide and GNSS strategy for deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Piras, Marco; Allasia, Paolo; Dabove, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The use of GNSS for landslide monitoring is not a novelty. In the field of large slope instabilities, where the phenomena are usually wide and the use of complex monitoring networks is needed, often a continuous monitoring is required. In this case, the installed GNSS solution is composed by a dual frequency receiver, with a solar power and with a radio connection to a ground station, where the measurement sessions of the rovers are collected and processed. The management of the collected data is the most critical aspect because the approach, which is commonly used, assumes a fixed position of the GNSS antenna during the acquisition time window. When the landslide is active, the position shift of the point can be considered insignificant for the low displacement rate, but together with the increase of the velocity, the GNSS time series processing becomes a crucial aspect to obtain reliable and enough accurate measurements. Starting from real case studies as the Italian large slope instabilities of Montaguto (Avellino, Italy) and Mont de La Saxe (Courmayeur, Italy), we focused on the presence of different kinematic domains with dissimilar displacement behaviors and velocities. In particular, the range of velocities registered during the main active periods ranges from several millimeters/day up to several meters/day, so the strategy for the GNSS processing data must be very different. Methodology for data acquisition (continuous or windowed) and its duration, type of receivers and antenna used (single or dual frequency, GPS or GNSS, mass market or geodetic), data processing strategies (i.e. single epoch, kinematic), and eventually GNSS network services are fundamental factors, which may favor one or another solution, according to time, economy and infrastructure readiness in the field. In the greater part of these studies, the choices were made based on the experience of responsible in the similar conditions. Starting from the behavior of real cases previously cited

  18. Monitoring the Restart of a High-Rate Wastewater Disposal Well in the Val d'Agri Oilfield (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gori, P.; Improta, L.; Moretti, M.; Colasanti, G.; Criscuoli, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri Quaternary basin in the Southern Apennine range of Italy hosts the largest inland oil field in Europe. Wastewater coming from the oil exploitation is re-injected by a high-rate disposal well into strongly fractured limestones of the hydrocarbon carbonate reservoir. Disposal activity has induced micro-seismicity since the beginning of injection in June 2006. Around 220 small magnitude events (ML < 2.3) were recorded between 2006 and 2013 by the trigger-mode monitoring local network managed by the oil company and by the National Seismic Network of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The induced micro-seismicity illuminated a pre-existing high-angle fault located 1 km below the well. Since June 2006, wastewater has been re-injected with only short interruptions due acid stimulations. In January 2015 disposal activity was halted due to technical operations in the oil refinery and wastewater injection restarted after two weeks. We installed 5 short-period stations within 10 km of the disposal well to carefully monitor the re-start phase and the subsequent 3 months of disposal activity. This temporary network was complemented by stations of the National Seismic Network giving this final configuration:9 stations within 10 km of the well with the closest station 2 km apart, 13 stations within 20 km. Here we report on the preliminary analysis of the local earthquake recorded during the survey focusing on the events occurred in the injection area. The seismicity rate is compared with injection data.In spite of the dense network, we found that the rate of induced seismicity (both the number and energy of events) is very low when compared to the seismicity recorded during the first 5 years of injection activity carried out with comparable rate and pressure.

  19. A Simple and Reliable Setup for Monitoring Corrosion Rate of Steel Rebars in Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Jibran, Mohammed Abdul Azeem; Azad, Abul Kalam

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in the measurement of the rate of corrosion of steel in concrete depends on many factors. The high resistivity of concrete makes the polarization data erroneous due to the Ohmic drop. The other source of error is the use of an arbitrarily assumed value of the Stern-Geary constant for calculating corrosion current density. This paper presents the outcomes of a research work conducted to develop a reliable and low-cost experimental setup and a simple calculation procedure that can be utilised to calculate the corrosion current density considering the Ohmic drop compensation and the actual value of the Stern-Geary constants calculated using the polarization data. The measurements conducted on specimens corroded to different levels indicate the usefulness of the developed setup to determine the corrosion current density with and without Ohmic drop compensation. PMID:24526907

  20. Laser process monitoring and automatic control at kHz rates through inline coherent imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Laser processing can achieve high transverse precision but control of the axial penetration depth in percussion drilling and keyhole welding has proved problematic. Processing can be highly stochastic (due to plasma, gas and melt flow dynamics). Normal imaging techniques can provide only minimal depth information and may be blinded by intense backscatter, black body and plasma emission. Inline coherent imaging (ICI) provides in situ, micron-scale depth measurements of laser machining processes at >300 kHz without any requirement for sample transparency or specialized geometry. The imaging beam is delivered coaxially with the laser processing beam facilitating integration into most laser processing platforms. With the ability to image deep (multi-mm) into high aspect features at high acquisition rates, ICI is a promising tool for both process development and online control of laser manufacturing systems.

  1. A simple and reliable setup for monitoring corrosion rate of steel rebars in concrete.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Jibran, Mohammed Abdul Azeem; Azad, Abul Kalam; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in the measurement of the rate of corrosion of steel in concrete depends on many factors. The high resistivity of concrete makes the polarization data erroneous due to the Ohmic drop. The other source of error is the use of an arbitrarily assumed value of the Stern-Geary constant for calculating corrosion current density. This paper presents the outcomes of a research work conducted to develop a reliable and low-cost experimental setup and a simple calculation procedure that can be utilised to calculate the corrosion current density considering the Ohmic drop compensation and the actual value of the Stern-Geary constants calculated using the polarization data. The measurements conducted on specimens corroded to different levels indicate the usefulness of the developed setup to determine the corrosion current density with and without Ohmic drop compensation.

  2. A novel wearable apnea dive computer for continuous plethysmographic monitoring of oxygen saturation and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kuch, Benjamin; Koss, Bernhard; Dujic, Zeljko; Buttazzo, Giorgio; Sieber, Arne

    2010-03-01

    We describe the development of a novel wrist-mounted apnea dive computer. The device is able to measure and display transcutaneous oxygen saturation, heart rate, plethysmographic pulse waveform, depth, time and temperature during breath-hold dives. All measurements are stored in an external memory chip. The data-processing software reads from the chip and writes the processed data into a comma-separated values file which can be analysed by applications such as Microsoft Excel™ or Open Office™. The housing is waterproof and pressure-resistant to more than 20 bar (2.026 MPa) (breath-hold divers have already exceeded 200 metres' sea water depth). It is compact, lightweight, has low power requirements and is easy to use.

  3. Heart rate variability to monitor performance in elite athletes: Criticalities and avoidable pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Lucini, Daniela; Marchetti, Ilaria; Spataro, Antonio; Malacarne, Mara; Benzi, Manuela; Tamorri, Stefano; Sala, Roberto; Pagani, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Spectral analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a simple, non-invasive technique that is widely used in sport to assess sympatho-vagal regulation of the heart. Its employment is increasing partly due to the rising usage of wearable devices. However data acquisition using these devices may be suboptimal because they cannot discriminate between sinus and non-sinus beats and do not record any data regarding respiratory frequency. This information is mandatory for a correct clinical interpretation. This study involved 974 elite athletes, all of them underwent a complete autonomic assessment, by way of Autoregressive HRV analysis. In 91 subjects (9% of the total population) we observed criticalities of either cardiac rhythm or respiration. Through perusal of one-lead ECG analysis we observed that 77 subjects had atrial or ventricular ectopy, i.e. conditions which impair stationarity and sinus rhythm. Running anyway autonomic nervous system analysis in this population, we observed that RR variance and raw values of LF and HF regions are significantly higher in arrhythmic subjects. In addition 14 subjects had slow (about 6 breath/min, 0.1Hz) respiration. This condition clouds the separation between LF from HF spectral regions of RR interval variability, respectively markers of the prevalent sympathetic and vagal modulation of SA node and of their synergistic interaction. Caution must be payed when assessing HRV with non-ECG wearable devices. Recording ECG signal and ensuring that respiratory rate is higher than 10 breath/min are both prerequisites for a more reliable analysis of HRV particularly in athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  5. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 solar mass per year. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar mass per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  6. MICROST: A mixed approach for heart rate monitoring during intensive physical exercise using wrist-type PPG Signals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shilin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The performance of heart rate (HR) monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals is strongly influenced by motion artifacts (MAs), since the intensive physical exercises are common in real world. Few works focus on this study so far because of unsatisfying quality of corrupted PPG signals. In this paper, we propose an accurate and efficient strategy, named MICROST, which estimates heart rate based on a mixed approach. The MICROST framework is designed as a MIxed algorithm which consists of acceleration Classification (AC), fiRst-frame prOcessing and heuriStic Tracking. Experimental results using recordings from 12 subjects during fast running and intensive movement showed the average absolute error of heart rate estimation was 2.58 beat per minute (BPM), and the Pearson correlation between the estimates and the ground-truth of heart rate was 0.988. We discuss our approach in real time to face the applications of wearable devices such as smart-watches in reality.

  7. A machine learning approach to improve contactless heart rate monitoring using a webcam.

    PubMed

    Monkaresi, Hamed; Calvo, Rafael A; Yan, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Unobtrusive, contactless recordings of physiological signals are very important for many health and human-computer interaction applications. Most current systems require sensors which intrusively touch the user's skin. Recent advances in contact-free physiological signals open the door to many new types of applications. This technology promises to measure heart rate (HR) and respiration using video only. The effectiveness of this technology, its limitations, and ways of overcoming them deserves particular attention. In this paper, we evaluate this technique for measuring HR in a controlled situation, in a naturalistic computer interaction session, and in an exercise situation. For comparison, HR was measured simultaneously using an electrocardiography device during all sessions. The results replicated the published results in controlled situations, but show that they cannot yet be considered as a valid measure of HR in naturalistic human-computer interaction. We propose a machine learning approach to improve the accuracy of HR detection in naturalistic measurements. The results demonstrate that the root mean squared error is reduced from 43.76 to 3.64 beats/min using the proposed method.

  8. A low perfusion rate microreactor for continuous monitoring of enzyme characteristics: application to glucose oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Venema, K.; van Berkel, W. J. H.; Korf, J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver the reactants and the device was linked on-line to an electrochemical detector. The microreactor was used for on-line preparation of apoglucose oxidase in strong acid and its subsequent reactivation with flavin adenine dinucleotide. In addition we describe a miniaturized version of the microreactor used to assess several characteristics of femtomole to attomole amounts of glucose oxidase. A low negative potential over the electrodes was used when ferrocene was the mediator in combination with horseradish peroxidase, ensuring the absence of oxidation of electro-active compounds in biological fluids. A low backpressure at very low flow rates is an advantage, which increases the sensitivity. A variety of further applications of the microreactor are suggested. Figure Preparation of apoGOx and restoration of enzyme activity using a soluton of FAD PMID:17909761

  9. Monitoring of expiratory flow rates and lung volumes during a high altitude expedition.

    PubMed

    Fischer, R; Lang, S M; Bergner, A; Huber, R M

    2005-11-16

    Data on lung volumes and changes in flow-volume spirometry at high altitude are few and do not provide comprehensive assessment of the occurring changes. This study characterizes alterations of the forced expiratory flow-volume curve (FEFV-curve) and lung volumes at increasing altitude. FEFV-curve and lung volumes at increasing altitude were characterized by daily assessment of peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal expiratory flow rates (MEF 25, 50, 75) at 25%, 50% and 75% of the FEFV-curve with a portable spirometer (turbinometric method) three times a day during an expedition to Mustagh Ata (7545m) in 15 healthy mountaineers. With increasing altitude FVC and FEV1 were reduced by up to 25% (74.8% / 74.6% of baseline) and MEF25 was reduced to 81.5% of baseline values. PEF initially increased up to 4451m and returned to baseline values above 5000m. After descent below 2000m, all values normalized within one day. There were weak negative correlations between AMSS and FEV1, FVC and PEF (r = -0.23, p<0.001). We found increasing pulmonary restriction at high altitude without a marked reduction of PEF. Assessment of the FEFV-curve at high altitudes with a portable spirometer is a practical method reflecting the true field situation and may provide clinically relevant information (impending pulmonary edema).

  10. Are Currently Available Wearable Devices for Activity Tracking and Heart Rate Monitoring Accurate, Precise, and Medically Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    El-Amrawy, Fatema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The new wave of wireless technologies, fitness trackers, and body sensor devices can have great impact on healthcare systems and the quality of life. However, there have not been enough studies to prove the accuracy and precision of these trackers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and overall performance of seventeen wearable devices currently available compared with direct observation of step counts and heart rate monitoring. Methods Each participant in this study used three accelerometers at a time, running the three corresponding applications of each tracker on an Android or iOS device simultaneously. Each participant was instructed to walk 200, 500, and 1,000 steps. Each set was repeated 40 times. Data was recorded after each trial, and the mean step count, standard deviation, accuracy, and precision were estimated for each tracker. Heart rate was measured by all trackers (if applicable), which support heart rate monitoring, and compared to a positive control, the Onyx Vantage 9590 professional clinical pulse oximeter. Results The accuracy of the tested products ranged between 79.8% and 99.1%, while the coefficient of variation (precision) ranged between 4% and 17.5%. MisFit Shine showed the highest accuracy and precision (along with Qualcomm Toq), while Samsung Gear 2 showed the lowest accuracy, and Jawbone UP showed the lowest precision. However, Xiaomi Mi band showed the best package compared to its price. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of the selected fitness trackers are reasonable and can indicate the average level of activity and thus average energy expenditure. PMID:26618039

  11. Using two detectors concurrently to monitor ambient dose equivalent rates in vehicle surveys of radiocesium contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Minoru; Shibamichi, Masaru; Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Mitsuhiro; Saegusa, Jun; Yoneya, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    In response to the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), vehicle-borne monitoring was used to map radiation levels for radiological protection of the public. By convention measurements from vehicle-borne surveys are converted to the ambient dose equivalent rate at 1 m height in the absence of the vehicle. This allows for comparison with results from other types of survey, including surveys with hand-held or airborne instruments. To improve the accuracy of the converted results from vehicle-borne surveys, we investigated combining measurements from two detectors mounted on the vehicle at different heights above the ground. A dual-detector setup was added to a JAEA monitoring car and compared against hand-held survey meter measurements in Fukushima Prefecture. The results obtained by combining measurements from two detectors were within ±20% of the hand-held reference measurements. The mean absolute percentage deviation from the reference measurements was 7.2%. The combined results from the two detectors were more accurate than those from either the roof-mounted detector, or the detector inside the vehicle, taken alone. One issue with vehicle-borne surveys is that ambient dose equivalent rates above roads are not necessarily representative of adjacent areas. This is because radiocesium is often deficient on asphalt surfaces, as it is easily scrubbed off by rain, wind and vehicle tires. To tackle this issue, we investigated mounting heights for vehicle-borne detectors using Monte Carlo gamma-ray simulations. When radiocesium is deficient on a road compared to the adjacent land, mounting detectors high on vehicles yields results closer to the values adjacent to the road. The ratio of ambient dose equivalent rates reported by detectors mounted at different heights in a dual-detector setup indicates whether radiocesium is deficient on the road compared to the adjacent land. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal heart rate monitoring device in term pregnant women in rural Southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Atukunda, Esther C; Ngonzi, Joseph; Boatin, Adeline; Wylie, Blair J; Haberer, Jessica E

    2017-06-08

    Over 3 million stillbirths occur annually in sub Saharan Africa; most occur intrapartum and are largely preventable. The standard of care for fetal heart rate (FHR) assessment in most sub-Saharan African settings is a Pinard Stethoscope, limiting observation to one person, at one point in time. We aimed to test the functionality and acceptability of a wireless FHR monitor that could allow for expanded monitoring capacity in rural Southwestern Uganda. In a mixed method prospective study, we enrolled 1) non-laboring healthy term pregnant women to wear the device for 30 min and 2) non-study clinicians to observe its use. The battery-powered prototype uses Doppler technology to measure fetal cardiotocographs (CTG), which are displayed via an android device and wirelessly transmit to cloud storage where they are accessible via a password protected website. Prototype functionality was assessed by the ability to obtain and transmit a 30-min CTG. Three obstetricians independently rated CTGs for readability and agreement between raters was calculated. All participants completed interviews on acceptability. Fifty pregnant women and 7 clinicians were enrolled. 46 (92.0%) CTGs were successfully recorded and stored. Mean scores for readability were 4.71, 4.71 and 4.83 (out of 5) with high agreement (intra class correlation 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91). All pregnant women reported liking or really liking the device, as well as high levels of comfort, flexibility and usefulness of the prototype; all would recommend it to others. Clinicians described the prototype as portable, flexible, easy-to-use and a time saver. Adequate education for clinicians and women also seemed to improve correct usage and minimise concerns on safety of the device. This prototype wireless FHR monitor functioned well in a low-resource setting and was found to be acceptable and useful to both pregnant women and clinicians. The device also seemed to have potential to improve the experience of the users

  13. Regional differences in rates of HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Canada: Insights and implications for antiretroviral care in high income countries.

    PubMed

    Raboud, Janet M; Loutfy, Mona R; Su, DeSheng; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Klein, Marina B; Cooper, Curtis; Machouf, Nima; Rourke, Sean; Walmsley, Sharon; Rachlis, Anita; Harrigan, P Richard; Smieja, Marek; Tsoukas, Christos; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2010-02-25

    Viral load (VL) monitoring is an essential component of the care of HIV positive individuals. Rates of VL monitoring have been shown to vary by HIV risk factor and clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences among regions in Canada in the rates of VL testing of HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), where the testing is available without financial barriers under the coverage of provincial health insurance programs. The Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) is a collaboration of nine Canadian cohorts of HIV-positive individuals who initiated cART after January 1, 2000. The study included participants with at least one year of follow-up. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) regression models were used to determine the effect of geographic region on (1) the occurrence of an interval of 9 months or more between two consecutive recorded VL tests and (2) the number of days between VL tests, after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Overall and regional annual rates of VL testing were also reported. 3,648 individuals were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 42.9 months and a median of 15 VL tests. In multivariable GEE logistic regression models, gaps in VL testing >9 months were more likely in Quebec (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.72, p < 0.0001) and Ontario (OR = 1.78, p < 0.0001) than in British Columbia and among injection drug users (OR = 1.68, p < 0.0001) and were less likely among older individuals (OR = 0.77 per 10 years, p < 0.0001), among men having sex with men (OR = 0.62, p < 0.0001), within the first year of cART (OR = 0.15, p < 0.0001), among individuals on cART at the time of the blood draw (OR = 0.34, p < 0.0001) and among individuals with VL < 50 copies/ml at the previous visit (OR = 0.56, p < .0001). Significant variation in rates of VL testing and the probability of a significant gap in testing were related to geographic region, HIV risk factor

  14. Regional differences in rates of HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Canada: Insights and implications for antiretroviral care in high income countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Viral load (VL) monitoring is an essential component of the care of HIV positive individuals. Rates of VL monitoring have been shown to vary by HIV risk factor and clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences among regions in Canada in the rates of VL testing of HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), where the testing is available without financial barriers under the coverage of provincial health insurance programs. Methods The Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) is a collaboration of nine Canadian cohorts of HIV-positive individuals who initiated cART after January 1, 2000. The study included participants with at least one year of follow-up. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) regression models were used to determine the effect of geographic region on (1) the occurrence of an interval of 9 months or more between two consecutive recorded VL tests and (2) the number of days between VL tests, after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Overall and regional annual rates of VL testing were also reported. Results 3,648 individuals were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 42.9 months and a median of 15 VL tests. In multivariable GEE logistic regression models, gaps in VL testing >9 months were more likely in Quebec (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.72, p < 0.0001) and Ontario (OR = 1.78, p < 0.0001) than in British Columbia and among injection drug users (OR = 1.68, p < 0.0001) and were less likely among older individuals (OR = 0.77 per 10 years, p < 0.0001), among men having sex with men (OR = 0.62, p < 0.0001), within the first year of cART (OR = 0.15, p < 0.0001), among individuals on cART at the time of the blood draw (OR = 0.34, p < 0.0001) and among individuals with VL < 50 copies/ml at the previous visit (OR = 0.56, p < .0001). Conclusions Significant variation in rates of VL testing and the probability of a significant gap in testing were related

  15. Monitoring Athletic Training Status Through Autonomic Heart Rate Regulation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bellenger, Clint R; Fuller, Joel T; Thomson, Rebecca L; Davison, Kade; Robertson, Eileen Y; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-10-01

    Autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR) as an indicator of the body's ability to adapt to an exercise stimulus has been evaluated in many studies through HR variability (HRV) and post-exercise HR recovery (HRR). Recently, HR acceleration has also been investigated. The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of negative adaptations to endurance training (i.e., a period of overreaching leading to attenuated performance) and positive adaptations (i.e., training leading to improved performance) on autonomic HR regulation in endurance-trained athletes. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Academic Search Premier databases from inception until April 2015. Included articles examined the effects of endurance training leading to increased or decreased exercise performance on four measures of autonomic HR regulation: resting and post-exercise HRV [vagal-related indices of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal R-R intervals (RMSSD), high frequency power (HFP) and the standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) only], and post-exercise HRR and HR acceleration. Of the 5377 records retrieved, 27 studies were included in the systematic review and 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Studies inducing increases in performance showed small increases in resting RMSSD [standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.58; P < 0.001], HFP (SMD = 0.55; P < 0.001) and SD1 (SMD = 0.23; P = 0.16), and moderate increases in post-exercise RMSSD (SMD = 0.60; P < 0.001), HFP (SMD = 0.90; P < 0.04), SD1 (SMD = 1.20; P = 0.04), and post-exercise HRR (SMD = 0.63; P = 0.002). A large increase in HR acceleration (SMD = 1.34) was found in the single study assessing this parameter. Studies inducing decreases in performance showed a small increase in resting RMSSD (SMD = 0.26; P = 0.01), but trivial changes in resting HFP (SMD = 0.04; P

  16. What Are We Drinking? Beverages Shown in Adolescents' Favorite Television Shows.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed, using a detailed coding instrument. Beverage incidents (ie, beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks, and coffee. Characters were coded with regard to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general, or adult audience. χ(2) tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0 to 25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSBs. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across characters' age groups. Almost half of young adults' (49.2%) or adults' (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSBs) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the adoption of unhealthy beverage behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of

  17. Non-labeled monitoring of targeted liposome interactions with a model receptor surface: effect of flow rate and water content.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huamin; Tuppurainen, Jussi-Pekka; Lehtinen, Julia; Viitala, Tapani; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2013-11-20

    In this study, we present a novel in vitro approach that utilizes two surface-sensitive and label-free techniques, i.e. surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), to study the interfacial events during liposome-target surface interactions. The flow channels of SPR and QCM devices were first synchronized via hydrodynamic modeling. Biotin-streptavidin was used as a model pair and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were utilized as model surfaces for targeted liposome-surface interaction studies. The interactions between biotin-liposomes and the streptavidin-biotin-SAM surfaces were investigated under controlled shear flows using the synchronized SPR and QCM devices. The response of the liposome interaction was monitored as a function of the flow rate. The affinity and the amount of bound liposome indicated that the increased flow rate improved the binding of the targeted liposomes to the model membrane surfaces. The combined use of the synchronized SPR and QCM devices for nanoparticle interaction studies clearly demonstrates the effect of the flow rate (or the shear stress) on the liposome binding. Our results suggest that the binding of liposomes to the model membranes is flow rate and shear stress regulated. Thus, the flow rate (or the shear stress), which is usually neglected, should be taken into account during the development and optimization of targeted liposome formulations. In addition, the water content within the liposome layer (including the water inside the liposomes and the water between the liposomes) had a significant influence on the visco-elasticity and the binding kinetics to the SAM surfaces.

  18. Real‐time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device

    PubMed Central

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real‐time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time‐course data for bulk and peri‐cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non‐invasive and label‐free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non‐invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell−1 s−1, and 5 and 35 amol cell−1 s−1 were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non‐invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell‐based therapies. PMID:27214658

  19. Real-time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device.

    PubMed

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real-time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time-course data for bulk and peri-cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non-invasive and label-free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non-invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell(-1) s(-1) , and 5 and 35 amol cell(-1) s(-1) were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non-invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell-based therapies.

  20. Towards development of a mobile RF Doppler sensor for continuous heart rate variability and blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Insoo Kim; Bhagat, Yusuf A

    2016-08-01

    The standard in noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement is an inflatable cuff device based on the oscillometric method, which poses several practical challenges for continuous BP monitoring. Here, we present a novel ultra-wide band RF Doppler radar sensor for next-generation mobile interface for the purpose of characterizing fluid flow speeds, and for ultimately measuring cuffless blood flow in the human wrist. The system takes advantage of the 7.1~10.5 GHz ultra-wide band signals which can reduce transceiver complexity and power consumption overhead. Moreover, results obtained from hardware development, antenna design and human wrist modeling, and subsequent phantom development are reported. Our comprehensive lab bench system setup with a peristaltic pump was capable of characterizing various speed flow components during a linear velocity sweep of 5~62 cm/s. The sensor holds potential for providing estimates of heart rate and blood pressure.

  1. Monitoring minute ventilation versus respiratory rate to measure the adequacy of ventilation in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Holley, Katherine; MacNabb, C Marshall; Georgiadis, Paige; Minasyan, Hayk; Shukla, Anurag; Mathews, Donald

    2016-02-01

    Endoscopic procedures performed under conscious sedation require careful monitoring of respiratory status to prevent adverse outcomes. This study utilizes a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) that provides continuous real-time measurements of minute ventilation (MV), tidal volume and respiratory rate (RR) to assess the adequacy of ventilation during endoscopy. Digital respiratory traces were collected from 51 patients undergoing upper endoscopy with propofol sedation using an impedance-based RVM. Baseline MV for each patient was derived from a 30 s period of quiet breathing prior to sedation (MVBASELINE). Capnography data were also collected. Because RR from capnography was frequently unavailable, the RVM RR's were used for analysis. RR rate values were compared the MV measurements and sensitivity and specificity of RR to predict inadequate ventilation (MV <40 % MVBASELINE) were calculated. Initial analysis revealed that there is a weak correlation between an MV measurement and its corresponding RR measurement (r = 0.05). If MV is an actual indictor of respiratory performance, using RR as a proxy is grossly inadequate. Simulating a variety of RR alarm conditions [4-8 breaths/min (bpm)] showed that a substantial fraction of low MV measurements (MV <40 % MVBASELINE) went undetected (at 8 bpm, >70 % low MV measurements were missed; at 6 bpm, >82 % were missed; and at 4 bpm, >90 % were missed). A cut-off of 6 bpm had a sensitivity of only 18.2 %; while <40 % of all RR alarms would have coincided with a low MV (39.4 % PPV). Low RR measurements alone do not reflect episodes of low MV and are not sufficient for accurate assessment of respiratory status. RVM provides a new way to collect MV measurements which provide more comprehensive data than RR alone. Further work is ongoing to evaluate the use of MV data during procedural sedation.

  2. Effect of combined movement and heart rate monitor placement on physical activity estimates during treadmill locomotion and free-living.

    PubMed

    Brage, Søren; Brage, Niels; Ekelund, Ulf; Luan, Jian'an; Franks, Paul W; Froberg, Karsten; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2006-03-01

    A placement effect on activity measures from movement sensors has been reported during treadmill and free-living activity. Positioning of electrodes may impact on movement artifact susceptibility as well as surface ECG waveform amplitudes and thus potentially on the precision by which heart rate (HR) is ascertained from such ECG traces. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which placement of the combined HR and movement sensor, Actiheart, influences measurement of HR and movement, and estimates of energy expenditure. A total of 24 participants (20-39 years, 45-109 kg, 1.54-2.05 m, 19-29 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Whilst wearing two monitors, one placed at the level of the third intercostal space (upper position) and one just below the apex of the sternum (lower position), study participants performed level walking, incline walking, and level running on treadmill, and completed at least one day of free-living monitoring. Placement differences in HR data quality, movement counts, and energy expenditure (estimated from combined HR and movement) were analyzed with regression techniques. Quality of HR data was generally higher when monitors were placed in the lower position. This effect was more pronounced in men during both treadmill activity (relative risk, RR [95% CI] of noisy HR data in upper vs. lower position, RR=1.3[0.3; 5.6] in women, RR=174[14; 2,156] in men) and during free-living (RR=1.2[0.4; 3.3] in women, RR=25[9.6; 67] in men). There were minor placement differences (< or =8%) in movement counts only in women during incline walking and running. During free-living, no placement effect on counts was observed. In all test scenarios, estimates of energy expenditure from the two positions were not significantly different. Positioning the Actiheart at the level below the sternum may yield cleaner HR data. Regardless of which position is used, this has little or no effect on movement counts and energy expenditure estimates, which is encouraging

  3. Monitoring alkylphenols in water using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS): Determining sampling rates via the extraction of PES membranes and Oasis beads.

    PubMed

    Silvani, Ludovica; Riccardi, Carmela; Eek, Espen; Papini, Marco Petrangeli; Morin, Nicolas A O; Cornelissen, Gerard; Oen, Amy M P; Hale, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) have previously been used to monitor alkylphenol (AP) contamination in water and produced water. However, only the sorbent receiving phase of the POCIS (Oasis beads) is traditionally analyzed, thus limiting the use of POCIS for monitoring a range of APs with varying hydrophobicity. Here a "pharmaceutical" POCIS was calibrated in the laboratory using a static renewal setup for APs (from 2-ethylphenol to 4-n-nonylphenol) with varying hydrophobicity (log Kow between 2.47 and 5.76). The POCIS sampler was calibrated over its 28 day integrative regime and sampling rates (Rs) were determined. Uptake was shown to be a function of AP hydrophobicity where compounds with log Kow < 4 were preferentially accumulated in Oasis beads, and compounds with log Kow > 5 were preferentially accumulated in the PES membranes. A lag phase (over a 24 h period) before uptake in to the PES membranes occurred was evident. This work demonstrates that the analysis of both POCIS phases is vital in order to correctly determine environmentally relevant concentrations owing to the fact that for APs with log Kow ≤ 4 uptake, to the PES membranes and the Oasis beads, involves different processes compared to APs with log Kow ≥ 4. The extraction of both the POCIS matrices is thus recommended in order to assess the concentration of hydrophobic APs (log Kow ≥ 4), as well as hydrophilic APs, most effectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring global rates of biodiversity change: challenges that arise in meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2010 goals

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Andy

    2005-01-01

    By agreeing to strive for ‘a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity’ by the year 2010, political leaders at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (held in Johannesburg, South Africa) presented conservation scientists with a great opportunity, but also one of their most significant challenges. This is an extremely exciting and laudable development, but this reporting process could be made yet more powerful if it incorporates, from the outset, independent scientific assessment of the measures, how they are analysed, and practical ways of plugging key gaps. This input is crucial if the measures are to be widely owned, credible and robust to the vigorous external scrutiny to which they will doubtless be exposed. Assessing how rates of biodiversity loss have changed from current levels by 2010 will require that a given attribute has been measured at least three times; however, most habitats, species, populations and ecosystem services have not been assessed even once. Furthermore, the best data on which to base estimates of biodiversity loss are biased towards the charismatic vertebrate species; unfortunately, these supply minimal services to the human economy. We have to find ways to redress this taxonomic imbalance and expand our analyses to consider the vast diversity of invertebrate, fungal and microbial species that play a role in determining human health and economic welfare. In the first part of this paper I will use examples from local and regional monitoring of biological diversity to examine the desired properties of ‘ideal indicators’. I will then change focus and examine an initial framework that asks how we might monitor changes in the economic goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. I will use this exercise to examine how the set of possible indicators given by the Convention on Biological Diversity might be modified in ways that provide a more critical assay of the economic value of

  5. Reservoir depletion at The Geysers geothermal area, California, shown by four-dimensional seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunasekera, R.C.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive geothermal exploitation at The Geysers geothermal area, California, induces myriads of small-magnitude earthquakes that are monitored by a dense, permanent, local seismometer network. Using this network, tomographic inversions were performed for the three-dimensional Vp and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for April 1991, February 1993, December 1994, October 1996, and August 1998. The extensive low-Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir grew in strength from a maximum of 9% to a maximum of 13.4% during the 7-year study period. This is attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. This decreases Vp by increasing compressibility, and increases Vs because of reduction in pore pressure and the drying of argillaceous minerals, e.g., illite, which increase the shear modulus. These effects serendipitously combine to lower Vp/Vs, resulting in a strong overall effect that provides a convenient tool for monitoring reservoir depletion. Variations in the Vp and Vs fields indicate that water depletion is the dominant process in the central part of the exploited reservoir, and pressure reduction and mineral drying in the northwest and southeast parts of the reservoir. The rate at which the Vp/Vs anomaly grew in strength in the period 1991-1998 suggests most of the original anomaly was caused by exploitation. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective geothermal reservoir depletion monitoring tool and can potentially provide information about depletion in parts of the reservoir that have not been drilled.

  6. Developing a Change-Sensitive Brief Behavior Rating Scale as a Progress Monitoring Tool for Social Behavior: An Example Using the Social Skills Rating System--Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Cook, Clayton R.; Collins, Tai; Dart, Evan; Rasetshwane, Kutlo; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Research has been unsuccessful at revealing an analogue to curriculum-based measurement in the area of progress monitoring for social behavior. As a result, there is a need to develop change-sensitive, technically adequate, feasible progress monitoring tools for social behavior that represent general outcome measures of performance. The purpose of…

  7. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Livingstone, M.B.; Prentice, A.M.; Coward, W.A.; Ceesay, S.M.; Strain, J.J.; McKenna, P.G.; Nevin, G.B.; Barker, M.E.; Hickey, R.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE.

  8. Comparison of two systems for long-term heart rate variability monitoring in free-living conditions - a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective A number of small portable systems that can measure HRV are available to address questions related to autonomic regulation in free-living subjects. However, ambulatory HRV measurements obtained through use of these systems have not previously been validated against standard clinical measurements such as Holter recordings. The objective of this study was to validate HRV obtained using a commonly used system, Actiheart, during occupational and leisure-time activities. Method Full-day ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) signals were recorded from 8 females simultaneously using Actiheart and Holter recorders, and signals were processed to RR-interval time series. Segments of 5-minute duration were sampled every 30 minutes, and spectral components of the heart rate variability were calculated. Actiheart and Holter values were compared using Deming regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Results In total, 489 segments were available with an HRV value from both Actiheart and Holter recordings after filtering out segments with >10% interpolated beats. No systematic differences between Actiheart and Holter HRV were found. The random deviations between Actiheart and Holter were comparable to the repeatability standard deviation between consecutive Holter measurements. Discussion The results show that Actiheart is suited as a stand-alone ambulatory method for heart rate variability monitoring during occupational and leisure-time activities. PMID:21481282

  9. Crisis of Japanese Vascular Flora Shown By Quantifying Extinction Risks for 1618 Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Taku; Takenaka, Akio; Ishihama, Fumiko; Fujita, Taku; Ogawa, Makoto; Katsuyama, Teruo; Kadono, Yasuro; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Serizawa, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Hideki; Takamiya, Masayuki; Fujii, Shinji; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Muneda, Kazuo; Yokota, Masatsugu; Yonekura, Koji; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2014-01-01

    Although many people have expressed alarm that we are witnessing a mass extinction, few projections have been quantified, owing to limited availability of time-series data on threatened organisms, especially plants. To quantify the risk of extinction, we need to monitor changes in population size over time for as many species as possible. Here, we present the world's first quantitative projection of plant species loss at a national level, with stochastic simulations based on the results of population censuses of 1618 threatened plant taxa in 3574 map cells of ca. 100 km2. More than 500 lay botanists helped monitor those taxa in 1994–1995 and in 2003–2004. We projected that between 370 and 561 vascular plant taxa will go extinct in Japan during the next century if past trends of population decline continue. This extinction rate is approximately two to three times the global rate. Using time-series data, we show that existing national protected areas (PAs) covering ca. 7% of Japan will not adequately prevent population declines: even core PAs can protect at best <60% of local populations from decline. Thus, the Aichi Biodiversity Target to expand PAs to 17% of land (and inland water) areas, as committed to by many national governments, is not enough: only 29.2% of currently threatened species will become non-threatened under the assumption that probability of protection success by PAs is 0.5, which our assessment shows is realistic. In countries where volunteers can be organized to monitor threatened taxa, censuses using our method should be able to quantify how fast we are losing species and to assess how effective current conservation measures such as PAs are in preventing species extinction. PMID:24922311

  10. Crisis of Japanese vascular flora shown by quantifying extinction risks for 1618 taxa.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Taku; Takenaka, Akio; Ishihama, Fumiko; Fujita, Taku; Ogawa, Makoto; Katsuyama, Teruo; Kadono, Yasuro; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Serizawa, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Hideki; Takamiya, Masayuki; Fujii, Shinji; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Muneda, Kazuo; Yokota, Masatsugu; Yonekura, Koji; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2014-01-01

    Although many people have expressed alarm that we are witnessing a mass extinction, few projections have been quantified, owing to limited availability of time-series data on threatened organisms, especially plants. To quantify the risk of extinction, we need to monitor changes in population size over time for as many species as possible. Here, we present the world's first quantitative projection of plant species loss at a national level, with stochastic simulations based on the results of population censuses of 1618 threatened plant taxa in 3574 map cells of ca. 100 km2. More than 500 lay botanists helped monitor those taxa in 1994-1995 and in 2003-2004. We projected that between 370 and 561 vascular plant taxa will go extinct in Japan during the next century if past trends of population decline continue. This extinction rate is approximately two to three times the global rate. Using time-series data, we show that existing national protected areas (PAs) covering ca. 7% of Japan will not adequately prevent population declines: even core PAs can protect at best <60% of local populations from decline. Thus, the Aichi Biodiversity Target to expand PAs to 17% of land (and inland water) areas, as committed to by many national governments, is not enough: only 29.2% of currently threatened species will become non-threatened under the assumption that probability of protection success by PAs is 0.5, which our assessment shows is realistic. In countries where volunteers can be organized to monitor threatened taxa, censuses using our method should be able to quantify how fast we are losing species and to assess how effective current conservation measures such as PAs are in preventing species extinction.

  11. Running and Metabolic Demands of Elite Rugby Union Assessed Using Traditional, Metabolic Power, and Heart Rate Monitoring Methods

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Romain; Paillard, Thierry; Lyons, Mark; McGrath, David; Maurelli, Olivier; Prioux, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to analyze elite rugby union game demands using 3 different approaches: traditional, metabolic and heart rate-based methods (2) to explore the relationship between these methods and (3) to explore positional differences between the backs and forwards players. Time motion analysis and game demands of fourteen professional players (24.1 ± 3.4 y), over 5 European challenge cup games, were analyzed. Thresholds of 14.4 km·h-1, 20 W.kg-1 and 85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) were set for high-intensity efforts across the three methods. The mean % of HRmax was 80.6 ± 4.3 % while 42.2 ± 16.5% of game time was spent above 85% of HRmax with no significant differences between the forwards and the backs. Our findings also show that the backs cover greater distances at high-speed than forwards (% difference: +35.2 ± 6.6%; p<0.01) while the forwards cover more distance than the backs (+26.8 ± 5.7%; p<0.05) in moderate-speed zone (10-14.4 km·h-1). However, no significant difference in high-metabolic power distance was found between the backs and forwards. Indeed, the high-metabolic power distances were greater than high-speed running distances of 24.8 ± 17.1% for the backs, and 53.4 ± 16.0% for the forwards with a significant difference (+29.6 ± 6.0% for the forwards; p<0.001) between the two groups. Nevertheless, nearly perfect correlations were found between the total distance assessed using the traditional approach and the metabolic power approach (r = 0.98). Furthermore, there is a strong association (r = 0.93) between the high-speed running distance (assessed using the traditional approach) and the high-metabolic power distance. The HR monitoring methods demonstrate clearly the high physiological demands of professional rugby games. The traditional and the metabolic-power approaches shows a close correlation concerning their relative values, nevertheless the difference in absolute values especially for the high-intensity thresholds

  12. A Pressure Sensing System for Heart Rate Monitoring with Polymer-Based Pressure Sensors and an Anti-Interference Post Processing Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yi; Li, Cheng; Wang, Zhe; Mi, Wentian; Li, Yuxing; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate measurement is a basic and important issue for either medical diagnosis or daily health monitoring. In this work great efforts have been focused on realizing a portable, comfortable and low cost solution for long-term domestic heart rate monitoring. A tiny but efficient measurement system composed of a polymer-based flexible pressure sensor and an analog anti-interference readout circuit is proposed; manufactured and tested. The proposed polymer-based pressure sensor has a linear response and high sensitivity of 13.4 kPa−1. With the circuit’s outstanding capability in removing interference caused by body movement and the highly sensitive flexible sensor device, comfortable long-term heart rate monitoring becomes more realistic. Comparative tests prove that the proposed system has equivalent capability (accuracy: <3%) in heart rate measurement to the commercial product. PMID:25648708

  13. A novel machine learning-enabled framework for instantaneous heart rate monitoring from motion-artifact-corrupted electrocardiogram signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxue; Zhou, Dian; Zeng, Xuan

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel machine learning-enabled framework to robustly monitor the instantaneous heart rate (IHR) from wrist-electrocardiography (ECG) signals continuously and heavily corrupted by random motion artifacts in wearable applications. The framework includes two stages, i.e. heartbeat identification and refinement, respectively. In the first stage, an adaptive threshold-based auto-segmentation approach is proposed to select out heartbeat candidates, including the real heartbeats and large amounts of motion-artifact-induced interferential spikes. Then twenty-six features are extracted for each candidate in time, spatial, frequency and statistical domains, and evaluated by a spare support vector machine (SVM) to select out ten critical features which can effectively reveal residual heartbeat information. Afterwards, an SVM model, created on the training data using the selected feature set, is applied to find high confident heartbeats from a large number of candidates in the testing data. In the second stage, the SVM classification results are further refined by two steps: (1) a rule-based classifier with two attributes named 'continuity check' and 'locality check' for outlier (false positives) removal, and (2) a heartbeat interpolation strategy for missing-heartbeat (false negatives) recovery. The framework is evaluated on a wrist-ECG dataset acquired by a semi-customized platform and also a public dataset. When the signal-to-noise ratio is as low as  -7 dB, the mean absolute error of the estimated IHR is 1.4 beats per minute (BPM) and the root mean square error is 6.5 BPM. The proposed framework greatly outperforms well-established approaches, demonstrating that it can effectively identify the heartbeats from ECG signals continuously corrupted by intense motion artifacts and robustly estimate the IHR. This study is expected to contribute to robust long-term wearable IHR monitoring for pervasive heart health and fitness management.

  14. Luminance level of a monitor: influence on detectability and detection rate of breast cancer in 2D mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemelmans, Frédéric; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Chesterman, Frédérique; Kimpe, Tom; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate lesion detectability and reading time as a function of luminance level of the monitor. Material and Methods: 3D mass models and microcalcification clusters were simulated into ROIs of for processing mammograms. Randomly selected ROIs were subdivided in three groups according to their background glandularity: high (>30%), medium (15-30%) and low (<15%). 6 non-spiculated masses (9 - 11mm), 6 spiculated masses (5 - 7mm) and 6 microcalcification clusters (2 - 4mm) were scaled in 3D to create a range of sizes. The linear attenuation coefficient (AC) of the masses was adjusted from 100% glandular tissue to 90%, 80%, 70%, to create different contrasts. Six physicists read the full database on Barco's Coronis Uniti monitor for four different luminance levels (300, 800, 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2), using a 4-AFC tool. Percentage correct (PC) and time were computed for all different conditions. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate the effect of luminance on PC and time. A multi-factorial analysis was performed using MANOVA.. Results: Paired t-test indicated a statistically significant difference for the average time per session between 300 and 1200; 800 and 1200; 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2, for all participants combined. There was no effect on PC. MANOVA denoted significantly lower reading times for high glandularity images at 1200 Cd/m2. Both types of masses were significantly faster detected at 1200 Cd/m2, for the contrast study. In the size study, microcalcification clusters and spiculated masses had a significantly higher detection rate at 1200 Cd/m2. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a significant decrease in reading time, while detectability remained constant.

  15. Patterns of physical activity defined by continuous heart rate monitoring among children from Liège.

    PubMed

    Massin, M M; Bourguignont, A; Lepage, Ph; Gérard, P

    2004-01-01

    Health benefits of a physically active lifestyle are well documented. We therefore investigated the physical activity patterns of 200 children from Liège. They were monitored continuously using a 24-hour Holter monitoring system during normal weekdays and the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. Preschool children attained 184.3+/-54.2, 40.7+/-16.1, 15.8+/-6.9 and 6.0+/-7.2 minutes/day (mean+/-SD) between 20% to 40%, 40% to 50%, 50% to 60%, and greater than 60% of HRR, respectively. At the same %HRR intensities, schoolchildren attained 165.6+/-74.6, 32.1+/-12.1, 15.8+/-6.7 and 7.0+/-5.9 minutes/day, and teenagers attained 159.2+/-68.3, 32.1+/-23.5, 13.1+/-6.0 and 6.1+/-6.3 minutes/day. Age was a significant predictor of the intercept and slope of the time spent in physical activity and %HRR relationship. In Liège the average youth accumulates +/-30 to 40 minutes/day of moderate-intensity physical activity and +/-20 minutes/day of high-intensity physical activity. Those children meet the classical revised guidelines for physical activity but do not compare favourably with children from elsewhere. On the other hand, they get more than 2 1/2 to 3 hours/day of low-intensity physical activity. Our findings suggest that children from Liège are not engaged in sedentary behaviour but do not experience the ideal amount and type of physical activity classically believed to benefit the cardiopulmonary system. Public health strategies should be adapted to our findings.

  16. Highly wearable cuff-less blood pressure and heart rate monitoring with single-arm electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxue; Zhou, Dian; Zeng, Xuan

    2017-02-06

    Long-term continuous systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) monitors are of tremendous value to medical (cardiovascular, circulatory and cerebrovascular management), wellness (emotional and stress tracking) and fitness (performance monitoring) applications, but face several major impediments, such as poor wearability, lack of widely accepted robust SBP models and insufficient proofing of the generalization ability of calibrated models. This paper proposes a wearable cuff-less electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG)-based SBP and HR monitoring system and many efforts are made focusing on above challenges. Firstly, both ECG/PPG sensors are integrated into a single-arm band to provide a super wearability. A highly convenient but challenging single-lead configuration is proposed for weak single-arm-ECG acquisition, instead of placing the electrodes on the chest, or two wrists. Secondly, to identify heartbeats and estimate HR from the motion artifacts-sensitive weak arm-ECG, a machine learning-enabled framework is applied. Then ECG-PPG heartbeat pairs are determined for pulse transit time (PTT) measurement. Thirdly, a PTT&HR-SBP model is applied for SBP estimation, which is also compared with many PTT-SBP models to demonstrate the necessity to introduce HR information in model establishment. Fourthly, the fitted SBP models are further evaluated on the unseen data to illustrate the generalization ability. A customized hardware prototype was established and a dataset collected from ten volunteers was acquired to evaluate the proof-of-concept system. The semi-customized prototype successfully acquired from the left upper arm the PPG signal, and the weak ECG signal, the amplitude of which is only around 10% of that of the chest-ECG. The HR estimation has a mean absolute error (MAE) and a root mean square error (RMSE) of only 0.21 and 1.20 beats per min, respectively. Through the comparative analysis, the PTT&HR-SBP models significantly outperform

  17. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure

    PubMed Central

    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context. PMID:27247646

  18. Field validation of cable monitoring and rating system (CMARS) laboratory model. Semi-annual report, 1 May 1979-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Englehardt, J.; Harris, H.; Kasny, E.; Orifice, D.; Patton, R.; Sottovia, P.

    1980-01-01

    One year of research on validating the performance of the Cable Monitoring and Rating System (CMARS) is reported. The performance testing was conducted on underground 230-kV and 345-kV pipe type cable circuits owned by the New Jersey Public Service Electric and Gas Co. Laser temperature monitoring systems and a data acquisition system were installed. Software installation and development is discussed. The CMARS testing program is described. (LCL)

  19. Field measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of rapid stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a solar-powered, field time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The rapid deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone

  20. Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected

  1. Merapi 2010 eruption-Chronology and extrusion rates monitored with satellite radar and used in eruption forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, John S.; Schneider, David J.; Griswold, Julia P.; Keeler, Ronald H.; Burton, William C.; Noyles, Christopher; Newhall, Christopher G.; Ratdomopurbo, Antonius

    2013-07-01

    Despite dense cloud cover, satellite-borne commercial Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) enabled frequent monitoring of Merapi volcano's 2010 eruption. Near-real-time interpretation of images derived from the amplitude of the SAR signals and timely delivery of these interpretations to those responsible for warnings, allowed satellite remote sensing for the first time to play an equal role with in situ seismic, geodetic and gas monitoring in guiding life-saving decisions during a major volcanic crisis. Our remotely sensed data provide an observational chronology for the main phase of the 2010 eruption, which lasted 12 days (26 October-7 November, 2010). Unlike the prolonged low-rate and relatively low explosivity dome-forming and collapse eruptions of recent decades at Merapi, the eruption began with an explosive eruption that produced a new summit crater on 26 October and was accompanied by an ash column and pyroclastic flows that extended 8 km down the flanks. This initial explosive event was followed by smaller explosive eruptions on 29 October-1 November, then by a period of rapid dome growth on 1-4 November, which produced a summit lava dome with a volume of ~ 5 × 106 m3. A paroxysmal VEI 4 magmatic eruption (with ash column to 17 km altitude) destroyed this dome, greatly enlarged the new summit crater and produced extensive pyroclastic flows (to ~ 16 km radial distance in the Gendol drainage) and surges during the night of 4-5 November. The paroxysmal eruption was followed by a period of jetting of gas and tephra and by a second short period (12 h) of rapid dome growth on 6 November. The eruption ended with low-level ash and steam emissions that buried the 6 November dome with tephra and continued at low levels until seismicity decreased to background levels by about 23 November. Our near-real-time commercial SAR documented the explosive events on 26 October and 4-5 November and high rates of dome growth (> 25 m3 s- 1). An event tree analysis for the previous

  2. Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite Monitoring of the Postperihelion Water Production Rate of Comet C/1999 T1 (MCNaught-Hartley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensch, F.; Bergin, E. A.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Melnick, G. J.; Biver, N.

    2004-07-01

    We present observations of the pure rotational transition 110-->101 of ortho-H2O vapor at 556.936 GHz made with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) for comet C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley). The emission was monitored during the postperihelion phase from (UT) 2001 February 2.00 to 11.07 and February 23.01 to April 5.95 for a Sun-comet distance, rh, ranging from 1.41 to 2.05 AU. The water production rate, QH2O, derived from the observations depends on the assumptions regarding the electron abundance in the coma. We obtain QH2O~4×1028 s-1 for the observations made in the first week of February (rh~1.4 AU) using a model in which the electron abundance has been normalized to the in situ measurements obtained in 1P/Halley. The value of QH2O decreases for larger rh, and we derive ~1.5×1028 s-1 for the observations made at rh~2 AU in the last week of 2001 March. The inferred water production rate is larger by ~40% for a radiative transfer model with the electron abundance reduced by 80% because of the reduced excitation of water by electron collisions in this model. A comparison to literature data suggests that the SWAS results derived with the smaller electron abundance are in better agreement with independent measurements of QH2O obtained from observations of H2O photodissociation products. A χ2 fit to the variation of QH2O with the heliocentric distance gives a power-law index of -3.0+/-0.5 (statistical) +/-0.1 (systematic).

  3. Monitoring weekly heart rate variability in futsal players during the preseason: the importance of maintaining high vagal activity.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Fabio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Rabelo, Felipe N; Flatt, Andrew A; Esco, Michael R; Bertollo, Maurizio; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the weekly natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal inter-beat (RR) intervals (ln RMSSDWeekly) and its coefficient of variation (ln RMSSDCV) in response to 5 weeks of preseason training in professional male futsal players. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between ln RMSSDWeekly and ln RMSSDCV. The ln RMSSD is a measure of cardiac-vagal activity, and ln RMSSDCV represents the perturbations of cardiac autonomic homeostasis, which may be useful for assessing how athletes are coping with training. Ten futsal players had their resting ln RMSSD recorded prior to the first daily training session on four out of approximately five regular training days · week(-1). Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was quantified for all training sessions. Despite weekly sRPE varying between 3455 ± 300 and 5243 ± 463 arbitrary units (a.u.), the group changes in ln RMSSDWeekly were rated as unclear (using magnitude-based inference), although large inter-individual variability in ln RMSSD responses was observed. The ln RMSSDCV in weeks 4 and 5 were likely lower than the previous weeks. A large and significant negative correlation (r = -0.53; CI 90%: -0.36; -0.67) was found between ln RMSSD and ln RMSSDCV. Therefore, monitoring individual ln RMSSD responses is suggested since large inter-individual variations may exist in response to futsal training. In addition, higher values of ln RMSSD are associated with lower oscillations of cardiac autonomic activity.

  4. A Robust Random Forest-Based Approach for Heart Rate Monitoring Using Photoplethysmography Signal Contaminated by Intense Motion Artifacts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yalan; He, Wenwen; Cheng, Yunfei; Huang, Wenxia; Zhang, Zhilin

    2017-02-16

    The estimation of heart rate (HR) based on wearable devices is of interest in fitness. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a promising approach to estimate HR due to low cost; however, it is easily corrupted by motion artifacts (MA). In this work, a robust approach based on random forest is proposed for accurately estimating HR from the photoplethysmography signal contaminated by intense motion artifacts, consisting of two stages. Stage 1 proposes a hybrid method to effectively remove MA with a low computation complexity, where two MA removal algorithms are combined by an accurate binary decision algorithm whose aim is to decide whether or not to adopt the second MA removal algorithm. Stage 2 proposes a random forest-based spectral peak-tracking algorithm, whose aim is to locate the spectral peak corresponding to HR, formulating the problem of spectral peak tracking into a pattern classification problem. Experiments on the PPG datasets including 22 subjects used in the 2015 IEEE Signal Processing Cup showed that the proposed approach achieved the average absolute error of 1.65 beats per minute (BPM) on the 22 PPG datasets. Compared to state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed approach has better accuracy and robustness to intense motion artifacts, indicating its potential use in wearable sensors for health monitoring and fitness tracking.

  5. Evaluation of a new monitoring device for arterial blood pressure and heart rate measurement by automatic sphygmomanometry.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, P; Morel, D; Forster, A; Suter, P M

    1982-12-01

    Measurements of arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) using a new non-invasive automatic apparatus were compared with the BP and HR values obtained with an invasive technique, i.e. arterial catheter and pressure transducer. This new device consists of a self-inflating BP cuff and of a microphone which converts Korotkoff sounds into digital values. The comparison was made on 400 measurements in 10 surgical intensive-care patients during 18 hours after open heart surgery. Systolic pressure was underestimated by the new device by 13 +/- 20 mm Hg/1.7 +/- 2.6 kPa (means +/- SD) and the linear correlation coefficient between the non-invasive and the invasive technique was r = 0.70. Diastolic pressure was overestimated by 9.4 +/- 12.0 mmHg (1.2 +/- 1.5 kPa) with an r = 0.63. HR was also underestimated by 7 +/- 17 heart beats per minute (r = 0.58). We conclude that this new device is not adequate for monitoring intensive-care patients, not so much because of the differences noted between the invasive and the non-invasive measurements, but in particular because there are no alarms, no mean arterial pressure measurement and also because it gives aberrant results once out of twenty measurements.

  6. Comparison of the heart rate-monitoring and factorial methods: assessment of energy expenditure in highland and coastal Ecuadoreans.

    PubMed

    Leonard, W R; Katzmarzyk, P T; Stephen, M A; Ross, A G

    1995-05-01

    Accurate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) are critical to studies of the nutritional adaptation of human populations. This study compared the standard factorial method with the recently developed flex-HR technique in a sample of 32 adults (16 males, 16 females) from rural, agricultural communities of highland and coastal Ecuador. Although energy expenditures obtained from the two methods were highly correlated (r = 0.759, P < 0.0001), the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU factorial method significantly underestimated TDEE relative to the heart rate-monitoring technique (10.27 +/- 2.54 compared with 11.91 +/- 3.96 MJ/d, P < 0.001). The degree of underestimation was greater in males, who had higher energy expenditures. Similarly, underestimation was greater in the highland farmers, who were studied during a period of heavy agricultural work. The differences in energy expenditure estimates translated into a 10% difference in estimated energy adequacy. Additional research is needed to identify the potential sources of bias in the factorial method and to further develop other techniques for accurately estimating energy expenditure under field conditions.

  7. Monitoring Temperature and Heart Rate during Surgical Field Implantation of PTT-100 Satellite Transmitters in Greenland Sea Birds.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Andersen, Steen; Mosbech, Anders; Flagstad, Annette; Merkel, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Information on cloacae temperature (CT), heart rate (HR), Isoflurane use, and oxygen flow was collected during field implantation of Platform Terminal Transmitters (PTT-) 100 satellite transmitters in Greenland sea birds. Information was obtained from 14 intracoelomic and 5 subcutaneous implantations in thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and 9 intracoelomic implantations in common eiders (Somateria mollissima). CT decreased in the order subcutaneous murres > intracoelomic eiders > intracoelomic murres due to the explorative exposure to the surroundings and increased heat loss (murres smaller than eiders) and were preheated to 35°C. During all implantations, heat loss was prevented using electric heat and rescue blankets. Regarding HR, the fluctuations were most pronounced during the intracoelomic murre implantations as a result of lower PTT temperature and lower body size leading to more pronounced digital manipulations and stimulation of the pelvic nerve plexus. Based on these results, we therefore suggest that HR and CT are carefully monitored in order to adjust anaesthesia and recommend the use of an electric heat blanket and preheating of PTTs to body temperature in order to prevent unnecessary heat loss causing physiological stress to the birds.

  8. A Robust Random Forest-Based Approach for Heart Rate Monitoring Using Photoplethysmography Signal Contaminated by Intense Motion Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yalan; He, Wenwen; Cheng, Yunfei; Huang, Wenxia; Zhang, Zhilin

    2017-01-01

    The estimation of heart rate (HR) based on wearable devices is of interest in fitness. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a promising approach to estimate HR due to low cost; however, it is easily corrupted by motion artifacts (MA). In this work, a robust approach based on random forest is proposed for accurately estimating HR from the photoplethysmography signal contaminated by intense motion artifacts, consisting of two stages. Stage 1 proposes a hybrid method to effectively remove MA with a low computation complexity, where two MA removal algorithms are combined by an accurate binary decision algorithm whose aim is to decide whether or not to adopt the second MA removal algorithm. Stage 2 proposes a random forest-based spectral peak-tracking algorithm, whose aim is to locate the spectral peak corresponding to HR, formulating the problem of spectral peak tracking into a pattern classification problem. Experiments on the PPG datasets including 22 subjects used in the 2015 IEEE Signal Processing Cup showed that the proposed approach achieved the average absolute error of 1.65 beats per minute (BPM) on the 22 PPG datasets. Compared to state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed approach has better accuracy and robustness to intense motion artifacts, indicating its potential use in wearable sensors for health monitoring and fitness tracking. PMID:28212327

  9. Multiple conductances in the large K+ channel from Chara corallina shown by a transient analysis method.

    PubMed Central

    Tyerman, S D; Terry, B R; Findlay, G P

    1992-01-01

    The large conductance K+ channel in the tonoplast of Chara corallina has subconductance states (substates). We describe a method that detects substates by monitoring the time derivative of channel current. Substates near to the full conductance tend to have long durations and high probabilities, while those of smaller amplitude occur with less probability and short duration. The substate pattern is similar in cell-attached, inside-out and outside-out patches over a range of temperatures. The pattern changes at high Ca2+ concentration (10 mol m-3) on the cytoplasmic face of inside-out patches. One substate at approximately 50% of the full conductance is characterized by a high frequency of transitions from the full conductance level. This midstate conductance is not a constant proportion of the full conductance but changes as a function of membrane potential difference (p.d.) showing strong inward rectification. We suggest that the channel is a single pore that can change conformation and/or charge profile to give different conductances. The mean durations of the full conductance level and the midstate decrease as the membrane p.d. becomes more negative. Programs for analysis of channel kinetics based on an half-amplitude detection criterion are shown to be unsuitable for analysis of the K+ channel. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:1504245

  10. An accurate derivation of the air dose-rate and the deposition concentration distribution by aerial monitoring in a low level contaminated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Sugita, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) have been conducting aerial monitoring to investigate the distribution of radioactive cesium dispersed into the atmosphere after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), Tokyo Electric Power Company. Distribution maps of the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition concentration on the ground are prepared using spectrum obtained by aerial monitoring. The radioactive cesium deposition is derived from its dose rate, which is calculated by excluding the dose rate of the background radiation due to natural radionuclides from the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground. The first step of the current method of calculating the dose rate due to natural radionuclides is calculate the ratio of the total count rate of areas where no radioactive cesium is detected and the count rate of regions with energy levels of 1,400 keV or higher (BG-Index). Next, calculate the air dose rate of radioactive cesium by multiplying the BG-Index and the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher for the area where the radioactive cesium is distributed. In high dose-rate areas, however, the count rate of the 1,365-keV peak of Cs-134, though small, is included in the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher, which could cause an overestimation of the air dose rate of natural radionuclides. We developed a method for accurately evaluating the distribution maps of natural air dose-rate by excluding the effect of radioactive cesium, even in contaminated areas, and obtained the accurate air dose-rate map attributed the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground. Furthermore, the natural dose-rate distribution throughout Japan has been obtained by this method.

  11. Effect of trap design, chemical lure, carbon dioxide release rate, and source of carbon dioxide on efficacy of bed bug monitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Bed bugs, (Cimex lectularius L.), are difficult to find because of their nocturnal and secretive behavior. In recent years, a number of monitors containing carbon dioxide (CO2), chemical lures, heat, or both, to attract bed bugs have been developed for detecting bed bugs. Ineffective trap design, lack of attraction of chemical lures, high cost of the CO2 delivery system, or insufficient CO release rates are some factors that limited the wide adoption of these monitors. To develop an affordable and effective monitor, we conducted a series of laboratory and field tests. Specifically, we tested a new pitfall trap design, a chemical lure mixture, different CO2 release rates, and a sugar and yeast mixture as CO2 source. Results show the new pitfall trap design was significantly more effective than Climbup insect interceptor, the most effective passive monitor available in the market for bed bugs. The experimental chemical lure mixture increased Climbup insect interceptor catch by 2.2 times. Results exhibit a distinct positive relationship between the CO2 release rates and bed bug trap catches. There were no significant differences between CO2 derived from cylinders and CO2 generated from sugar and yeast mixture in their attractiveness to bed bugs. The findings suggest an effective and affordable monitor can be made incorporating the new pitfall trap design, a sugar and yeast mixture, and a chemical lure.

  12. Metabolic profile analysis of a single developing zebrafish embryo via monitoring of oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Huang, Kuo-Sheng; Yu, Chu-Hung; Gong, Hong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A combination of a microfluidic device with a light modulation system was developed to detect the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of a single developing zebrafish embryo via phase-based phosphorescence lifetime detection. The microfluidic device combines two components: an array of glass microwells containing Pt(II) octaethylporphyrin as an oxygen-sensitive luminescent layer and a microfluidic module with pneumatically actuated glass lids above the microwells to controllably seal the microwells of interest. The total basal respiration (OCR, in pmol O2/min/embryo) of a single developing zebrafish embryo inside a sealed microwell has been successfully measured from the blastula stage (3 h post-fertilization, 3 hpf) through the hatching stage (48 hpf). The total basal respiration increased in a linear and reproducible fashion with embryonic age. Sequentially adding pharmacological inhibitors of bioenergetic pathways allows us to perform respiratory measurements of a single zebrafish embryo at key developmental stages and thus monitor changes in mitochondrial function in vivo that are coordinated with embryonic development. We have successfully measured the metabolic profiles of a single developing zebrafish embryo from 3 hpf to 48 hpf inside a microfluidic device. The total basal respiration is partitioned into the non-mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial respiration, respiration due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover, and respiration due to proton leak. The changes in these respirations are correlated with zebrafish embryonic development stages. Our proposed platform provides the potential for studying bioenergetic metabolism in a developing organism and for a wide range of biomedical applications that relate mitochondrial physiology and disease.

  13. Continuous heart rate variability monitoring through complex demodulation implemented with the fast Fourier transform and its inverse.

    PubMed

    Burguera, M; Gandía, R; Chorro, F J; García-Civera, R; Ruiz, R; López-Merino, V

    1995-07-01

    A new method for the analysis of 24-hour heart rate variability (HRV) using complex demodulation (CDM) implemented with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and its inverse is described. In a control group with palpitations and dizzy spells (n = 30, 47.2 +/- 16.7 years) the relationship between HRV parameters and subject age was investigated. CDM was used to obtain the amplitude and frequency of the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) oscillations for 8 diurnal hours and 4 nocturnal hours. Differences between the two periods were seen in the LF/HF ratio (2.2 +/- 0.6 vs 1.5 +/- 0.6; P < 0.0001), HF amplitudes (12 +/- 6 vs 17 +/- 7 normalized units, P < 0.05), and in the mean frequency of the LF oscillations (0.078 +/- 0.008 vs 0.073 +/- 0.007 Hz, P < 0.01). During the daytime, age was inversely correlated to HF amplitude (r = -0.60), directly correlated to HF mean central frequency (r = 0.40), inversely correlated to LF amplitude (r = -0.55), and likewise inversely correlated to LF mean central frequency (r = -0.74, P < 0.001). At night, age was only inversely correlated to HF amplitude and to LF mean central frequency. Continuous HRV monitoring through CDM implemented with the FFT and its inverse differentiates the periods of diurnal activity and nocturnal rest as an expression of two different activity states of the autonomic nervous system. It allows nonstationary analysis, and separately provides mean and instantaneous oscillation amplitude and frequency. Subject age is not equally related to mean amplitude and frequency of a given oscillation.

  14. The effectiveness of session rating of perceived exertion to monitor resistance training load in acute burns patients.

    PubMed

    Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Gittings, Paul M; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W

    2017-02-01

    Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a method frequently utilised in exercise and sports science to quantify training load of an entire aerobic exercise session. It has also been demonstrated that session-RPE is a valid and reliable method to quantify training load during resistance exercise, in healthy and athletic populations. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of session-RPE as a method to quantify exercise intensity during resistance training in patients with acute burns. Twenty burns patients (mean age=31.65 (±10.09) years), with a mean TBSA of 16.4% (range=6-40%) were recruited for this study. Patients were randomly allocated to the resistance training (n=10) or control group (n=10). All patients completed a four week resistance training programme. Training load (session-RPE×session duration), resistance training session-volume and pre-exercise pain were recorded for each exercise session. The influence of; age, gender, %TBSA, exercise group (resistance training vs. control), pre-exercise pain, resistance training history and session-volume on training load were analysed using a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Session-volume did not influence training load in the final regression model, however training load was significantly greater in the resistance training group, compared with the control group (p<0.001). Pre-exercise pain significantly influenced training load, where increasing pain was associated with a higher session-RPE (p=0.004). Further research is indicated to determine the exact relationship between pain, resistance training history, exercise intensity and session-RPE and training load before it can be used as a method to monitor and prescribe resistance training load in acute burns patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Twenty-Four Hour Non-Invasive Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Monitoring in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stuebner, Eva; Vichayanrat, Ekawat; Low, David A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Isenmann, Stefan; Haensch, Carl-Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Non-motor symptoms are now commonly recognized in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and can include dysautonomia. Impairment of cardiovascular autonomic function can occur at any stage of PD but is typically prevalent in advanced stages or related to (anti-Parkinsonian) drugs and can result in atypical blood pressure (BP) readings and related symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension (OH) and supine hypertension. OH is usually diagnosed with a head-up-tilt test (HUT) or an (active) standing test (also known as Schellong test) in the laboratory, but 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a home setting may have several advantages, such as providing an overview of symptoms in daily life alongside pathophysiology as well as assessment of treatment interventions. This, however, is only possible if ABPM is administrated correctly and an autonomic protocol (including a diary) is followed which will be discussed in this review. A 24-h ABPM does not only allow the detection of OH, if it is present, but also the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction during and after various daily stimuli, such as postprandial and alcohol dependent hypotension, as well as exercise and drug induced hypotension. Furthermore, information about the circadian rhythm of BP and heart rate (HR) can be obtained and establish whether or not a patient has a fall of BP at night (i.e., “dipper” vs. non-“dipper”). The information about nocturnal BP may also allow the investigation or detection of disorders such as sleep dysfunction, nocturnal movement disorders, and obstructive sleep apnea, which are common in PD. Additionally, a 24-h ABPM should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of OH therapy. This review will outline the methodology of 24 h ABPM in PD, summarize findings of such studies in PD, and briefly consider common daily stimuli that might affect 24 h ABPM. PMID:23720648

  16. Metabolic profile analysis of a single developing zebrafish embryo via monitoring of oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Huang, Kuo-Sheng; Yu, Chu-Hung; Gong, Hong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A combination of a microfluidic device with a light modulation system was developed to detect the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of a single developing zebrafish embryo via phase-based phosphorescence lifetime detection. The microfluidic device combines two components: an array of glass microwells containing Pt(II) octaethylporphyrin as an oxygen-sensitive luminescent layer and a microfluidic module with pneumatically actuated glass lids above the microwells to controllably seal the microwells of interest. The total basal respiration (OCR, in pmol O2/min/embryo) of a single developing zebrafish embryo inside a sealed microwell has been successfully measured from the blastula stage (3 h post-fertilization, 3 hpf) through the hatching stage (48 hpf). The total basal respiration increased in a linear and reproducible fashion with embryonic age. Sequentially adding pharmacological inhibitors of bioenergetic pathways allows us to perform respiratory measurements of a single zebrafish embryo at key developmental stages and thus monitor changes in mitochondrial function in vivo that are coordinated with embryonic development. We have successfully measured the metabolic profiles of a single developing zebrafish embryo from 3 hpf to 48 hpf inside a microfluidic device. The total basal respiration is partitioned into the non-mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial respiration, respiration due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover, and respiration due to proton leak. The changes in these respirations are correlated with zebrafish embryonic development stages. Our proposed platform provides the potential for studying bioenergetic metabolism in a developing organism and for a wide range of biomedical applications that relate mitochondrial physiology and disease. PMID:24396541

  17. Project TwEATs: a feasibility study testing the use of automated text messaging to monitor appetite ratings in a free-living population

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Yuen, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    There are no standardized methods for monitoring appetite in free-living populations. Fifteen participants tested a computer-automated text-messaging system designed to track hunger ratings over seven days. Participants were sent text-messages (SMS) hourly and instructed to reply during waking hours with their current hunger rating. Of 168 SMS, 0.6-7.1% were undelivered, varying by mobile service provider, On average 12 SMS responses were received daily with minor variations by observation day or day of the week. Compliance was over 74% and 93% of the ratings were received within 30-minutes. Automated text-messaging is a feasible method to monitor appetite ratings in this population. PMID:21251941

  18. Running and Metabolic Demands of Elite Rugby Union Assessed Using Traditional, Metabolic Power, and Heart Rate Monitoring Methods.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Romain; Paillard, Thierry; Lyons, Mark; McGrath, David; Maurelli, Olivier; Prioux, Jacques

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to analyze elite rugby union game demands using 3 different approaches: traditional, metabolic and heart rate-based methods (2) to explore the relationship between these methods and (3) to explore positional differences between the backs and forwards players. Time motion analysis and game demands of fourteen professional players (24.1 ± 3.4 y), over 5 European challenge cup games, were analyzed. Thresholds of 14.4 km·h(-1), 20 W.kg(-1) and 85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) were set for high-intensity efforts across the three methods. The mean % of HRmax was 80.6 ± 4.3 % while 42.2 ± 16.5% of game time was spent above 85% of HRmax with no significant differences between the forwards and the backs. Our findings also show that the backs cover greater distances at high-speed than forwards (% difference: +35.2 ± 6.6%; p<0.01) while the forwards cover more distance than the backs (+26.8 ± 5.7%; p<0.05) in moderate-speed zone (10-14.4 km·h(-1)). However, no significant difference in high-metabolic power distance was found between the backs and forwards. Indeed, the high-metabolic power distances were greater than high-speed running distances of 24.8 ± 17.1% for the backs, and 53.4 ± 16.0% for the forwards with a significant difference (+29.6 ± 6.0% for the forwards; p<0.001) between the two groups. Nevertheless, nearly perfect correlations were found between the total distance assessed using the traditional approach and the metabolic power approach (r = 0.98). Furthermore, there is a strong association (r = 0.93) between the high-speed running distance (assessed using the traditional approach) and the high-metabolic power distance. The HR monitoring methods demonstrate clearly the high physiological demands of professional rugby games. The traditional and the metabolic-power approaches shows a close correlation concerning their relative values, nevertheless the difference in absolute values especially for the high

  19. Emilio Segre' Observatory and expected time-variations in neutron monitor total and multiplicities counting rates caused by cosmic ray particle energy change in the periods of thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    In the first part of paper we give short description of the Israelo-Italian Emilio Segre' Observatory (33°18.3‧N, 35°47.2‧E, 2025 m above sea level, Rc=10.8 GV), established in June 1998. In the second part, on the basis of theoretical model (Dorman & Dorman 1995, 1999; Dorman et al. 1995) of atmospheric electric field effect in the neutron monitor total counting rate and counting rates of different neutron multiplicities, we calculate the expected cosmic ray time variations in the different channels of 6NM-64 neutron monitor of Emilio Segre' Observatory in the periods before and during thunderstorms. Our calculations show that one-minute data of 6NM-64 neutron monitor of Emilio Segre' Observatory and one minute data of EFS-1000 sensor of atmospheric electric field can be used for obtaining important information on atmospheric electric field space-time distribution.

  20. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22.

    PubMed

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  1. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Lopes, I.

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  2. A New Approach for the Determination of Dose Rate and Radioactivity for Detected Gamma Nuclides Using an Environmental Radiation Monitor Based on an NaI(Tl) Detector.

    PubMed

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kim, Chang-Jong; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Wanno; Chang, Hyon-Sock; Chung, Kun Ho

    2017-10-01

    To expand the application of dose rate spectroscopy to the environment, the method using an environmental radiation monitor (ERM) based on a 3' × 3' NaI(Tl) detector was used to perform real-time monitoring of the dose rate and radioactivity for detected gamma nuclides in the ground around an ERM. Full-energy absorption peaks in the energy spectrum for dose rate were first identified to calculate the individual dose rates of Bi, Ac, Tl, and K distributed in the ground through interference correction because of the finite energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) detector used in an ERM. The radioactivity of the four natural radionuclides was then calculated from the in situ calibration factor-that is, the dose rate per unit curie-of the used ERM for the geometry of the ground in infinite half-space, which was theoretically estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. By an intercomparison using a portable HPGe and samples taken from the ground around an ERM, this method to calculate the dose rate and radioactivity of four nuclides using an ERM was experimentally verified and finally applied to remotely monitor them in real-time in the area in which the ERM had been installed.

  3. The development of a high count rate neutron flux monitoring channel using silicon carbide semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisi Fard, Mehdi

    In this dissertation, a fast neutron flux-monitoring channel, which is based on the use of SiC semiconductor detectors is designed, modeled and experimentally evaluated as a power monitor for the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactors. A detailed mathematical model of the SiC diode detector and the electronic processing channel is developed using TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice simulation codes. The flux monitoring channel is tested at the OSU Research Reactor. The response of the SiC neutron-monitoring channel to neutrons is in close agreement to simulation results. Linearity of the channel response to thermal and fast neutron fluxes, pulse height spectrum of the channel, energy calibration of the channel and the detector degradation in a fast neutron flux are presented. Along with the model of the neutron monitoring channel, a Simulink model of the GT-MHR core has been developed to evaluate the power monitoring requirements for the GT-MHR that are most demanding for the SiC diode power monitoring system. The Simulink model is validated against a RELAP5 model of the GT-MHR. This dyanamic model is used to simulate reactor transients at the full power and at the start up, in order to identify the response time requirements of the GT-MHR. Based on the response time requirements that have been identified by the Simulink model and properties of the monitoring channel, several locations in the central reflector and the reactor cavity are identified to place the detector. The detector lifetime and dynamic range of the monitoring channel at the detector locations are calculated. The channel dynamic range in the GT-MHR central reflector covers four decades of the reactor power. However, the detector does not survive for a reactor refueling cycle in the central reflector. In the reactor cavity, the detector operates sufficiently long; however, the dynamic range of the channel is smaller than the dynamic range of the channel in the central reflector.

  4. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  5. Complicated feature of atmospheric aerosols shown in the yellow sand events in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Makiko

    It is well known that aerosol has a significant potential to the earth's climate. The aerosol distributions in Asia are very complex due to the increasing emissions of small anthropogenic particles associated with economic growth and large dust particles called yellow sands transported on the westerly wind from the continental desert areas. In this study, aerosol properties in the yellow sand events are focused and analyzed from comprehensive aspects. Yellow sand events have often happened in spring. Therefore they have been called 'spring haze' involving an expectation of coming spring to Japan. However the recent yellow sand events are too heavy and too severe to call 'spring haze' due to the increasing of desert areas and contamination with the anthropogenic emissions. The sun/sky photometry has been undertaken at NASA/AERONET stations in Osaka, Shirahama and Noto in Japan. Suspended particulate matter (PM) and OBC (Optical Black Carbon) have been simultaneously measured there. The simultaneous monitoring of aerosols and PM provides such a relation between them as there is a linear correlation between PM concentrations and AOT, which indicates that AOT can be estimated from PM data, and vice versa. It is found that the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) during aerosol event is more than double its usual value, and fine anthropogenic particles dominate even during dust events in Japan. It is of interest to mention that yellow sand events in Japan seem to be caused by a mixture of non-absorbing coarse dust and other small haze particles, especially shown in the event in May 2007. A new instrument of NIES/LIDAR network to be set at AERONET/Osaka station in March 2008 is expected to provide us with the vertical distribution of yellow sand particles. Furthermore the model simulations with SPRINTARS/AGCM/CCSR/NIES/FRCGC and satellite data will be available for our better understanding of the beyond pollution of the atmosphere.

  6. The impact of telehealth monitoring on acute care hospitalization rates and emergency department visit rates for patients using home health skilled nursing care.

    PubMed

    Woods, Landace W; Snow, Susan W

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the design and results of a study to demonstrate the impact of telemonitoring on acute care hospitalization (ACH) and emergency department (ED) visit rates for a Medicare-certified home health agency (HHA). Sociodemographic characteristics did not significantly differ between patients in the baseline, control, and intervention groups. Patients in the telemonitoring group had a statistically lower rate of ACH and ED visit rates. Telemonitoring may be an effective strategy for HHAs to reduce hospitalization and ED visits for patients with cardiac and/or respiratory conditions.

  7. Validation of heart rate derived from a physiological status monitor-embedded compression shirt against criterion ECG.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, B A; Boland, D M; Carney, J; Abrazado, M; Smith, D L; Cooper, C B

    2014-01-01

    Firefighters are subject to extreme environments and high physical demands when performing duty-related tasks. Recently, physiological status monitors (PSM) have been embedded into a compression shirt to enable firefighters to measure, visualize, log, and transmit vital metrics such as heart rate (HR) to aid in cardiovascular risk identification and mitigation, thereby attempting to improve the health, fitness, and safety of this population. The purpose of this study was to validate HR recorded by the PSM-embedded compression shirt against a criterion standard laboratory ECG-derived HR when worn concurrently with structural firefighting personal protective equipment (PPE) during four simulated firefighting activities. Ten healthy, college-age men (mean ± SD: age: 21 ± 1 yr; body mass: 91 ± 10 kg; body mass index: 26.9 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) completed four tasks that are routinely performed during firefighting operations: outdoor fast-paced walking (FW), treadmill walking (TW), searching/crawling (SC), and ascending/descending stairs (AD). They wore the PSM-embedded compression shirt under structural firefighting PPE. HR was recorded concurrently by the PSM-embedded compression shirt and a portable metabolic measurement system accompanied with a standard 12-lead electrocardiograph that was used to provide criterion measures of HR. For all four tasks combined there was very high correlation of PSM and ECG HR (r > 0.99; SEE 0.84 /min) with a mean difference (bias) of -0.02 /min and limits of agreement of -0.07 to 0.02 /min. For individual tasks, the correlations were also high (r-values = 0.99; SEE 0.81-0.89). The mean bias (limits of agreement) was: FW 0.03 (-0.09 to 0.14); TW 0.04 (-0.05 to 0.12); SC -0.01 (-0.12 to 0.10); AD -0.13 (-0.21 to -0.04) /min. These findings demonstrate that the PSM-embedded compression shirt provides a valid measure of HR during simulated firefighting activities when compared with a standard 12-lead ECG.

  8. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-12-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris.

  9. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-01-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris. PMID:2271347

  10. Method of joint bit rate/modulation format identification and optical performance monitoring using asynchronous delay-tap sampling for radio-over-fiber systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesmi, Latifa; Menif, Mourad

    2016-08-01

    In the context of carrying a wide variety of modulation formats and data rates for home networks, the study covers the radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology, where the need for an alternative way of management, automated fault diagnosis, and formats identification is expressed. Also, RoF signals in an optical link are impaired by various linear and nonlinear effects including chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion, amplified spontaneous emission noise, and so on. Hence, for this purpose, we investigated the sampling method based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling in conjunction with a cross-correlation function for the joint bit rate/modulation format identification and optical performance monitoring. Three modulation formats with different data rates are used to demonstrate the validity of this technique, where the identification accuracy and the monitoring ranges reached high values.

  11. Vesicular transport and apotransferrin in intestinal iron absorption, as shown in the Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Mizue; Linder, Maria C

    2006-02-01

    The potential roles of vesicular transport and apotransferrin (entering from the blood) in intestinal Fe absorption were investigated using Caco-2 cell monolayers with tight junctions in bicameral chambers as a model. As shown previously, addition of 39 microM apotransferrin (apoTf) to the basolateral fluid during absorption studies markedly stimulated overall transport of 1 microM (59)Fe from the apical to the basal chamber and stimulated its basolateral release from prelabeled cells, implicating endo- and exocytosis. Rates of transport more than doubled. Uptake was also stimulated, but only 20%. Specific inhibitors of aspects of vesicular trafficking were applied to determine their potential effects on uptake, retention, and basolateral (overall) transport of (59)Fe. Nocodazole and 5'-(4-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl)-adenosine each reduced uptake and basolateral transport up to 50%. Brefeldin A inhibited about 10%. Tyrphostin A8 (AG10) reduced uptake 35% but markedly stimulated basolateral efflux, particularly that dependent on apoTf. Cooling of cells to 4 degrees C (which causes depolymerization of microtubules and lowers energy availability) profoundly inhibited uptake and basolateral transfer of Fe (7- to 12-fold). Apical efflux (which was substantial) was not temperature affected. Our results support the involvement of apoTf cycling in intestinal Fe absorption and indicate that as much as half of the iron uses apoTf and non-apoTf-dependent vesicular pathways to cross the basolateral membrane and brush border of enterocytes.

  12. Monitoring the Rate Solvolytic Decomposition of Benzenediazonium Tetrafluoroborate in Aqueous Media Using a pH Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Floyd L.

    2005-01-01

    A lab rotary experiment using the pH measurements of an aqueous solution to monitor the course of a solvolytic reaction was conducted. This experiment allowed the students to gain experience in taking precise pH measurement, to use nonlinear analysis techniques for analyzing kinetic data and to use the Arrhenius equation for determination of…

  13. Towards a Performance Based Measure of Metacognitive Knowledge Monitoring: Relationships with Self-Reports and Behavior Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund; Everson, Howard T.; Laitusis, Vytas

    A knowledge monitoring assessment (KMA) was developed and evaluated. The KMA, which evaluates how well students distinguish between what they know and do not know by comparing their knowledge estimates to test performance, is partially performance based and may be group or computer administered and objectively scored. Participants were 462…

  14. Monitoring the Rate Solvolytic Decomposition of Benzenediazonium Tetrafluoroborate in Aqueous Media Using a pH Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Floyd L.

    2005-01-01

    A lab rotary experiment using the pH measurements of an aqueous solution to monitor the course of a solvolytic reaction was conducted. This experiment allowed the students to gain experience in taking precise pH measurement, to use nonlinear analysis techniques for analyzing kinetic data and to use the Arrhenius equation for determination of…

  15. A Simplified Approach to Monitoring and Reporting Student Transitions with a Focus on Retention and Graduation Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Joseph G.; Miller, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a tracking model for monitoring and reporting student transitions through the college years. Develops and illustrates the model by following a mythical class of 500 freshmen and 380 transfer students from matriculation to attrition or graduation. The model focuses on sequences of semesters rather than on freshman, sophomore, junior, and…

  16. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Erin E; Golaszewski, Natalie M; Bartholomew, John B

    2017-03-16

    Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225. Validity was assessed using 2 criterion devices: HR chest strap and a metabolic cart. Participants completed a 10-minute seated baseline assessment; separate 4-minute stages of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity treadmill exercises; and a 10-minute seated recovery period. Data from devices were compared with each criterion via two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bland-Altman analysis. Differences are expressed in mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). For the Apple Watch, HR MAPE was between 1.14% and 6.70%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.78), during baseline (P=.76), or vigorous intensity (P=.84); lower HR readings were measured during light intensity (P=.03), moderate intensity (P=.001), and recovery (P=.004). EE MAPE was between 14.07% and 210.84%. The device measured higher EE at all stages (P<.01). For the Fitbit device, the HR MAPE was between 2.38% and 16.99%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.67) or during moderate intensity (P=.34); lower HR readings were measured during baseline, vigorous intensity, and recovery (P<.001) and higher HR during light intensity (P<.001). EE MAPE was between 16.85% and 84.98%. The device measured higher EE at baseline (P=.003), light intensity (P<.001), and moderate intensity (P=.001). EE was not significantly different at vigorous (P=.70

  17. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Erin E; Golaszewski, Natalie M

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. Methods A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225. Validity was assessed using 2 criterion devices: HR chest strap and a metabolic cart. Participants completed a 10-minute seated baseline assessment; separate 4-minute stages of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity treadmill exercises; and a 10-minute seated recovery period. Data from devices were compared with each criterion via two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bland-Altman analysis. Differences are expressed in mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results For the Apple Watch, HR MAPE was between 1.14% and 6.70%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.78), during baseline (P=.76), or vigorous intensity (P=.84); lower HR readings were measured during light intensity (P=.03), moderate intensity (P=.001), and recovery (P=.004). EE MAPE was between 14.07% and 210.84%. The device measured higher EE at all stages (P<.01). For the Fitbit device, the HR MAPE was between 2.38% and 16.99%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.67) or during moderate intensity (P=.34); lower HR readings were measured during baseline, vigorous intensity, and recovery (P<.001) and higher HR during light intensity (P<.001). EE MAPE was between 16.85% and 84.98%. The device measured higher EE at baseline (P=.003), light intensity (P<.001), and moderate intensity (P=.001). EE was not

  18. Application of x-ray sensors for in-line and non-invasive monitoring of mass flow rate in continuous tablet manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Sudarshan; Troscinski, Rachel; Schmall, Nicholas; Lim, Jongmook; Nagy, Zoltan; Reklaitis, Gintaras

    2017-08-31

    The progress in continuous downstream manufacturing of oral solid doses demands effective real-time process management, with monitoring at its core. This study evaluates the feasibility of using a commercial sensor to measure the mass flow rate of the particulates, a critical process variable in continuous manufacturing. The sensor independently measures x-ray attenuation and cross-correlation velocimetry of particulate flow in real-time. Steady-state flow rates of blends comprised primarily of acetaminophen and microcrystalline-cellulose are monitored using the sensor, with simultaneous weighing scale measurements, in order to calibrate the sensor and investigate the measurement accuracy. The free-fall flow measurement of the powder and granule blends in a conduit is linearly proportional to the x-ray attenuation. Relative standard deviations (RSD) of ∼3-7% for 1 second monitoring are observed and a measurement error of approximately 5% suggest the usability of the sensor for real-time monitoring. The sensor measurement is robust for operational variations in composition, addition of lubricant or glidant and reuse of material for PAT tool calibration. The measurement RSD depends on particulate flow dynamics at the sensor location. This requires experimental evaluation for a given material at the sensor location, in order to capture the flow dynamics of the particulate stream through the sensor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SAFETY MONITORING ON THE EFFICACY ANALYSIS IN LARGE PHASE III GROUP SEQUENTIAL TRIALS WITH NON-TRIVIAL SAFETY EVENT RATE

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yanqiu; Palesch, Yuko Y.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Zhao, Wenle

    2015-01-01

    In Phase III clinical trials for life-threatening conditions, some serious but expected adverse events, such as early deaths or congestive heart failure, are often treated as the secondary or co-primary endpoint, and are closely monitored by the data and safety monitoring committee. A naïve group sequential design for such a study is to specify univariate statistical boundaries for the efficacy and safety endpoints separately, and then implement the two boundaries during the study, even though the two endpoints are typically correlated. One problem with this naïve design, which has been noted in the statistical literature, is the potential loss of power. In this paper, we develop an analytical tool to evaluate this negative impact for trials with non-trivial safety event rates, particularly when the safety monitoring is informal. Using a bivariate binary power function for the group sequential design with a random effect component to account for subjective decision making in safety monitoring, we demonstrate how, under common conditions, the power loss in the naïve design can be substantial. This tool may be helpful to entities such as the data and safety monitoring committees when they wish to deviate from the pre-specified stopping boundaries based on safety measures. PMID:26010228

  20. Non-contact heart rate monitoring method for elderly people In bed with random body motions using 24 GHz dual radars located beneath the mattress in clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, M; Yoshida, Y; Kubota, M; Kurita, A; Matsui, T

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a non-contact heart rate monitoring system for elderly people In bed using two radars placed on the bed base. The system is designed to increase accuracy despite body motion noise and change of body position and sleeping posture In bed. In order to achieve this, we combined an automatic gaIn control (AGC) method with a real-time radar-output channel selection method which is based on a spectrum shape analysis (SSA). Field tests were carried out with elderly subjects at a nursing home. The accuracy was maintained because the system successfully avoided the null detection point (NDP) problem, respiratory harmonic interference and intermodulation problems. The heart rate accuracy (r = 0.703) was higher than that of the conventional method. The system was proved to be effective In monitoring vital signs without the need for any physical contact with the subjects.

  1. Observations of the UARS Particle Environment Monitor and computation of ionization rates in the middle and upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Biard, J. C.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rees, M. H.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.; Nightingale, R. W.; Imhof, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present observations made by the Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) instruments during the geomagnetic storm of 8-9 November, 1991. Ionization and energy deposition rates as functions of altitude in the middle and upper atmosphere by incident electrons and positive ions in the storm interval are computed. The suite of PEM instruments provides a systematic measurement of energetic particles and their associated X-rays over an energy range not fully covered by previous satellite missions.

  2. Observations of the UARS Particle Environment Monitor and computation of ionization rates in the middle and upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Biard, J. C.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rees, M. H.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.; Nightingale, R. W.; Imhof, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present observations made by the Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) instruments during the geomagnetic storm of 8-9 November, 1991. Ionization and energy deposition rates as functions of altitude in the middle and upper atmosphere by incident electrons and positive ions in the storm interval are computed. The suite of PEM instruments provides a systematic measurement of energetic particles and their associated X-rays over an energy range not fully covered by previous satellite missions.

  3. Use of wind-up fetal Doppler versus Pinard for fetal heart rate intermittent monitoring in labour: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, R; Bassani, D G; Jagau, A; Muwanguzi, P; Montgomery, A L; Lawn, J E

    2015-01-30

    In resource-poor settings, the standard of care to inform labour management is the partograph plus Pinard stethoscope for intermittent fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring. We compared FHR monitoring in labour using a novel, robust wind-up handheld Doppler with the Pinard as a primary screening tool for abnormal FHR on perinatal outcomes. Prospective equally randomised clinical trial. The labour and delivery unit of a teaching hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Of the 2042 eligible antenatal women, 1971 women in active term labour, following uncomplicated pregnancies, were randomised to either the standard of care or not. Intermittent FHR monitoring using Doppler. Incidence of FHR abnormality detection, intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal mortality prior to discharge. Age, parity, gestational age, mode of delivery and newborn weight were similar between study groups. In the Doppler group, there was a significantly higher rate of FHR abnormalities detected (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.61, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.30). However, in this group, there were also higher though not statistically significant rates of intrapartum stillbirths (IRR=3.94, 0.44 to 35.24) and neonatal deaths (IRR=1.38, 0.44 to 4.34). Routine monitoring with a handheld Doppler increased the identification of FHR abnormalities in labour; however, our trial did not find evidence that this leads to a decrease in the incidence of intrapartum stillbirth or neonatal death. Clinical Trails.gov (1000031587). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder-Continuous heart rate and movement monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively-measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 bipolar disorder outpatients. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk acceleration (ACC). Symptoms were clinically rated using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Compared to patients in a euthymic state, patients in a manic had significantly higher AEE. Compared to patients in a depressive state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher ACC and AEE. There was a significant diurnal variation in ACC and AEE between affective states. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the severity of manic symptoms and ACC and AEE, respectively. This first study measuring psychomotor activity during different affective states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states. PMID:26832835

  5. AREA MONITORING OF AMBIENT DOSE RATES IN PARTS OF SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA USING A GPS-INTEGRATED RADIATION SURVEY METER.

    PubMed

    Okeyode, I C; Rabiu, J A; Alatise, O O; Makinde, V; Akinboro, F G; Al-Azmi, D; Mustapha, A O

    2017-04-01

    A radiation monitoring system comprising a Geiger-Muller counter connected to a smart phone via Bluetooth was used for a dose rate survey in some parts of south-western Nigeria. The smart phone has the Geographical Positioning System, which provides the navigation information and saves it along with the dose rate data. A large number of data points was obtained that shows the dose rate distribution within the region. The results show that the ambient dose rates in the region range from 60 to 520 nSv -1 and showed a bias that is attributable to the influence of geology on the ambient radiation dose in the region. The geology influence was demonstrated by superimposing the dose rate plot and the geological map of the area. The potential applications of the device in determining baseline information and in area monitoring, e.g. for lost or abandoned sources, radioactive materials stockpiles, etc., were discussed in the article, particularly against the background of Nigeria's plan to develop its nuclear power program. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of mining rate on the working face with high-intensity mining based on microseismic monitoring: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Yang, Tian-hong; Liu, Hong-lei; Hou, Xian-gang; Wang, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Serious geological disasters and environmental damage have been caused by the high-intensity mining in Western China. The mining rate of the working face is one of the important factors of high-intensity mining. In order to study the effect of mining rate on the working face in high-intensity mining, we introduced the microseismic (MS) monitoring system in Xiaojihan coal mine, which is a typical high-intensity mine in Western China. This research indicates that the number of MS events and the stress redistribution zones induced by coal excavation reduced with the increase in mining rate. Consequently, the volume of rock with inelastic change and failure zones decreased. Since the uniformity of stress redistribution was even worse, the energy release was unstable and dynamic geological disasters could occur. Determining the reasonable mining rate of a working face by analyzing the characteristics of MS parameters is feasible, and could provide some technical guidance for mining production activities.

  7. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  8. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  9. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  10. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  11. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  12. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  13. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6151-1 - Time and place for paying tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Time and Place for Paying Tax Place and Due Date for Payment of Tax § 301.6151-1 Time and place for paying tax shown on returns. For... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and place for paying tax shown on returns...

  15. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  16. A Behaviorally-Anchored Rating System to Monitor Treatment Integrity for Community Clinicians Using the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren M.; Garner, Bryan R.; Malek, Karen L.; Godley, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a process for training raters to reliably rate clinicians delivering the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a national dissemination project. The unique A-CRA coding system uses specific behavioral anchors throughout its 73 procedure components. Five randomly selected raters each rated "passing"…

  17. Application of a combined global positioning and heart rate monitoring system in jumper horses during an official competition - A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Marilena; Giudice, Elisabetta; Rizzo, Maria; Congiu, Fulvio; Zumbo, Alessandro; Arfuso, Francesca; Di Pietro, Simona; Bruschetta, Daniele; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined global positioning system (GPS)/heart rate (HR) monitoring system is a valuable tool to assess, step by step, the physiological response of HR and its relationship with speed in healthy horses competing in an official show jumping class. Six mares performing a standardised warm-up and jumping course were monitored using a HR/GPS device. Venous blood lactate (BL), assessed before and after exercise, showed a significant increase (P = 0.0004) following the physical effort. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant changes in HR throughout the experimental period. The analysis of HR data recorded during the warm-up jumping stage showed significantly higher HR (P = 0.001) in the recovery period compared to the related jumping phase. Shifting the fence height from 100 cm to 125 cm during the warm-up jumps was also found to cause a significant increase (P = 0.016) in HR. According to these preliminary results, the simultaneous logging of heart rate and speed has the potential to be a reliable and powerful technique for field testing that can help in the monitoring of the horse's response to jumping effort during training and competition.

  18. The fetal heart rate collaborative practice project: situational awareness in electronic fetal monitoring-a Kaiser Permanente Perinatal Patient Safety Program Initiative.

    PubMed

    MacEachin, S Rachel; Lopez, Connie M; Powell, Kimberly J; Corbett, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring has historically been interpreted with wide variation between and within disciplines on the obstetric healthcare team. This leads to inconsistent decision making in response to tracing interpretation. To implement a multidisciplinary electronic fetal monitoring training program, utilizing the best evidence available, enabling standardization of fetal heart rate interpretation to promote patient safety. Local multidisciplinary expertise along with an outside consultant collaborated over a series of meetings to create a multimedia instructional electronic fetal monitoring training program. After production was complete, a series of conferences attended by nurses, certified nurse midwives, and physician champions, from each hospital, attended to learn how to facilitate training at their own perinatal units. All healthcare personnel across the Kaiser Permanente perinatal program were trained in NICHD nomenclature, emergency response, interpretation guidelines, and how to create local collaborative practice agreements. Metrics for program effectiveness were measured through program evaluations from attendees, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Program evaluations rendered very positive scores from both physicians and clinicians. Comparing baseline to 4 years later, the perception of safety from the staff has increased over 10% in 5 out of the 6 factors analyzed. Active participation from all disciplines in this training series has highlighted the importance of teamwork and communication. The Fetal Heart Rate Collaborative Practice Project continues to evolve utilizing other educational modalities, such as online EFM education and unit-based interdisciplinary tracing reviews.

  19. Astronauts Scott and Irwin shown on Lunar Roving Vehicle at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronauts David R. Scott (right), commander, and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, are shown on the Lunar Roving Vehicle at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity simlations.

  20. Real time monitoring of pulsatile change in hemoglobin concentrations of cerebral tissue by a portable tissue oximeter with a 10-Hz sampling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, Toshikazu; Chihara, Eiichi; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    1997-12-01

    A portable CW tissue oximeter of a 10-Hz sampling rate was developed for examination of pulsatile components of the output signals as a mean of checking the signal reliability during long-term monitoring. Feasible studies were performed on a healthy subject. Changes in Hb and HbO2 signals of cerebral tissue were continuously measured by placing a photoprobe on the forehead during 6-hour sleep. Pulsatile changes in Hb and HbO2 were steadily observed over a whole period of the recording. The phase relation of pulsation in Hb and HbO2 was almost inverse. Not only information for reliable monitoring but also physiological parameters with respect to cerebral circulation and metabolism could be obtained by measuring the pulsatile components.

  1. Real time monitoring of pulsatile change in hemoglobin concentrations of cerebral tissue by a portable tissue oximeter with a 10-Hz sampling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, Toshikazu; Chihara, Eiichi; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    A portable CW tissue oximeter of a 10-Hz sampling rate was developed for examination of pulsatile components of the output signals as a mean of checking the signal reliability during long-term monitoring. Feasible studies were performed on a healthy subject. Changes in Hb and HbO2 signals of cerebral tissue were continuously measured by placing a photoprobe on the forehead during 6-hour sleep. Pulsatile changes in Hb and HbO2 were steadily observed over a whole period of the recording. The phase relation of pulsation in Hb and HbO2 was almost inverse. Not only information for reliable monitoring but also physiological parameters with respect to cerebral circulation and metabolism could be obtained by measuring the pulsatile components.

  2. A BRIEF NOTE ON THE VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION SCALE IN MONITORING EXERCISE INTENSITY AMONG CHINESE OLDER ADULTS IN HONG KONG.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pak-Kwong; Zhao, Yanan; Liu, Jing-Dong; Quach, Binh

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of the Cantonese Borg 6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale in monitoring exercise intensity among Chinese older adults. A total of 40 apparently healthy older adults (16 men, 24 women; M age=69.8 yr., SD=4.56) performed two trials of three intermittent exercise tests administered in random order using the cycle ergometer. Results revealed significant differences of RPE, HR, and VO2 between different workloads, and there were moderate to high correlations between RPE and HR and VO2, respectively. Results also found moderate consistency of RPE between Trial 1 and Trial 2. These indicated that the Cantonese 6-20 RPE scale can be used as a valid and reliable tool for monitoring exercise intensity among the Chinese older adults.

  3. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and methods for monitoring the dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2006-03-28

    A scanned, pulsed, focused laser irradiation apparatus can measure and image the photocurrent collection resulting from a dose-rate equivalent exposure to infrared laser light across an entire silicon die. Comparisons of dose-rate response images or time-delay images from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems allows precise identification of those specific age-affected circuit structures within a device that merit further quantitative analysis with targeted materials or electrical testing techniques. Another embodiment of the invention comprises a broad-beam, dose rate-equivalent exposure apparatus. The broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. This embodiment can be combined with the synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into a device under test to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure.

  4. Concurrent validity of resting pulse-rate measurements: a comparison of 2 smartphone applications, the polar H7 belt monitor, and a pulse oximeter with bluetooth.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Scott W; Kolber, Morey J; Ernst, Michael P

    2015-05-01

    Pulse rate is commonly measured manually or with commercial wrist or belt monitors. More recently, pulse-rate monitoring has become convenient with the use of mobile technology that allows monitoring through a smartphone camera. This optical technology offers many benefits, although the clinimetric properties have not been extensively studied. Observational study of reliability Setting: University kinesiology laboratory. 30 healthy, recreationally active adults. Concurrent measurement of pulse rate using 2 smartphone applications (fingertip, face-scan,) with the Polar H7 belt and pulse oximeter. Average resting pulse rate for 5 min in 3 positions (supine, sitting, and prone). Concurrent validity in supine and standing was good between the 2 applications and the Polar H7 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] .80-.98) and pulse oximeter (ICC .82-.98). For sitting, the validity was good between the fingertip application, Polar H7 (ICC .97), and pulse oximeter (ICC .97). The face-scan application had moderate validity with the Polar H7 (ICC .74) and pulse oximeter (ICC .69). The minimal detectable change (MDC90) between the fingertip application and Polar H7 ranged from 1.38 to 4.36 beats/min (BPM) and from 0.69 to 2.97 BPM for the pulse oximeter with both positions. The MDC90 between the face-scan application and Polar H7 ranged from 11.88 to 12.83 BPM and from 0.59 to 17.72 BPM for the pulse oximeter. The 95% limits of agreement suggest that the fingertip application may vary between 2.40 and 3.59 BPM with the Polar H7 and between 3.40 and 3.42 BPM with the pulse oximeter. The face-scan application may vary between 3.46 and 3.52 BPM with the Polar H7 and between 2.54 and 3.46 BPM with the pulse oximeter. Pulse-rate measurements may be effective using a fingertip application, belt monitor, and pulse oximeter. The fingertip scanner showed superior results compared with the face scanner, which only demonstrated modest validity compared with the Polar H7 and pulse

  5. Assessment of the inhibition of Dengue virus infection by carrageenan via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Yi-Syun; Wu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic device combined with a light modulation system was developed to assess the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on Dengue virus (DENV) infection via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates (OCRs). Measuring cellular OCRs, which can reflect cellular metabolic activity, enabled us to monitor the process of viral infection in real time and to rapidly determine the antiviral activity of potential drugs/chemical compounds. The time variation of the cellular OCR of single cells that were infected in situ by DENV at different multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) values was first successfully measured within a microfluidic device. The influence of the timing of carrageenan treatment on DENV infection was then examined by real-time monitoring of cellular OCRs in three groups. Cells that were pre-treated with carrageenan and then infected with DENV served as a pre-treatment group, cells to which carrageenan was added simultaneously with DENV served as a virucide group, and cells that were pre-infected with DENV and then treated with carrageenan served as a post-treatment group. By monitoring cellular OCRs, we could rapidly evaluate the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on DENV infection, obtaining a result within 7 h and showing that carrageenan had strong and effective anti-DENV activity in the three groups. In particular, a strong inhibitory effect was observed in the virucide group. Moreover, once the virus enters host cells in the post-treatment group, the immediate treatment with carrageenan for the infected cells has higher efficiency of antiviral activity. Our proposed platform enables to perform time-course or dose-response measurements of changes in cellular metabolic activity caused by diseases, chemical compounds, and drugs via monitoring of the cellular OCR, with rapid and real-time detection. This approach provides the potential to study a wide range of biological applications in cell-based biosensing, toxicology, and drug discovery

  6. Activable enriched stable isotope iron-58 for monitoring absorption rate of juvenile athletes for iron: a case study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qinfang; Chai, Zhifang; Feng, Weiyu; Chen, Jidi; Zhang, Peiqun; Pan, Jianxiang

    2002-09-01

    Activable enriched stable isotopes can play a unique role in studies of nutritional status, metabolism, absorption rates, and bioavailability of minerals. As a practical example, eight juvenile athletes were selected to test the absorption rates of iron during training and non-training periods by enriched stable isotope of Fe-58 (enriched degree: 51.1%) via activation analysis Fe-58 (n, gamma) Fe-59 of the collected feces samples. The results indicated that the average iron absorption rates of the juvenile athletes with and without training are 9.1 +/- 2.8 and 11.9 +/- 4.7%, respectively, which implies that the long-term endurance training with high intensity makes the iron absorption rate of athletes lower. In the meantime, the comparison of the activable enriched isotope technique with atomic absorption spectrometry was performed, which showed that the former was better than the latter in reliability and sensitivity. It is because this nuclear method can distinguish the exogenous and endogenous iron in the samples, but not for non-nuclear methods.

  7. Reliability and Validity of a Single Item Rating Scale to Monitor Medication Adherence for People Living with HIV and Lower Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Finitsis, David J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Monitoring medication adherence in clinical and research settings may be especially challenging for people with lower literacy skills. OBJECTIVE The current study examined the measurement properties of a single item rating scale for assessing medication adherence in a sample of 468 people living with HIV and lower health literacy skills. METHODS Participants completed two versions (computerized and telephone interview) of a single item rating scale (SIRS) as well as unannounced monthly pill counts. We also collected measures of common correlates of adherence and obtained participants’ HIV RNA viral load from medical records. RESULTS Results indicated that the SIRS is time stable over one month (r = .46 to .52). There was limited evidence for modality effects between the computerized and phone administered SIRS. Associations with unannounced pill counts demonstrated concurrent and predictive validity of the SIRS, and criterion-related validity by associations with viral load. However, the SIRS also demonstrated inflated adherence estimates relative to unannounced pill counts and these discrepancies were greatest for persons of lower income and who reported alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS A simple single item rating scale to monitor medication adherence may therefore be reliable and valid for use with people challenged by lower literacy skills in both clinical and research settings. PMID:25777184

  8. On-line monitoring of oxygen as a method to qualify the oxygen consumption rate of wines.

    PubMed

    Nevares, Ignacio; Martínez-Martínez, Víctor; Martínez-Gil, Ana; Martín, Roberto; Laurie, V Felipe; Del Álamo-Sanza, María

    2017-08-15

    Measuring the oxygen content during winemaking and bottle storage has become increasingly popular due to its impact on the sensory quality and longevity of wines. Nevertheless, only a few attempts to describe the kinetics of oxygen consumption based on the chemical composition of wines have been published. Therefore, this study proposes firstly a new fitting approach describing oxygen consuming kinetics and secondly the use of an Artificial Neural Network approach to describe and compare the oxygen avidity of wines according to their basic chemical composition (i.e. the content of ethanol, titratable acidity, total sulfur dioxide, total phenolics, iron and copper). The results showed no significant differences in the oxygen consumption rate between white and red wines, and allowed the sorting of the wines studied according to their oxygen consumption rate.

  9. Measuring Rate Constants for Reactions of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate CH_2OO by Monitoring the OH Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingdi; Bayes, Kyle D.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2014-06-01

    Criegee radicals are important atmospheric intermediates formed from ozonolysis of alkenes. It potentially contributes to the atmospheric oxidation cycle mainly by generating OH radicals through unimolecular decomposition. In this work, we focus on studying the unimolecular decomposition reaction of the smallest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO), which was generated by reacting CH2I with O2. While generating the CH2OO molecule by reacting CH2I with O2, significant amounts of the OH radical were observed by laser-induced fluorescence. The addition of molecules known to react with CH2OO increased the observed decay rates of the OH signal. Using the OH signals as a proxy for the CH2OO concentration, the rate constant for the reaction of hexafluoroacetone with CH2OO was determined. The rate constant for the reaction of SO2 with CH2OO showed no pressure dependence over the range of 50 to 200 Torr. This work provides the direct experimental evidence for the unimolecular decomposition of CH2OO, and possible mechanisms of CH2OO have been investigated by this multidimensional study.

  10. Measuring rate constants for reactions of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) by monitoring the OH radical.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingdi; Bayes, Kyle D; Sander, Stanley P

    2014-01-30

    While generating the CH2OO molecule by reacting CH2I with O2, significant amounts of the OH radical were observed by laser-induced fluorescence. At least two different processes formed OH. A fast process was probably initiated by a reaction of vibrationally hot CH2I radicals. The second process appeared to be associated with the decay of the CH2OO molecule. The addition of molecules known to react with CH2OO increased the observed decay rates of the OH signal. Using the OH signals as a proxy for the CH2OO concentration, the rate constant for the reaction of hexafluoroacetone with CH2OO was determined to be (3.33 ± 0.27) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with the value measured by Taatjes et al.1 The rate constant for the reaction of SO2 with CH2OO, (3.53 ± 0.29) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), showed no pressure dependence over the range of 50-200 Torr and was in agreement with the value at 4 Torr reported by Welz et al.

  11. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  12. 2. SOUTH SIDE (REMAINDER NOT SHOWN IN HH1), OBLIQUE VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH SIDE (REMAINDER NOT SHOWN IN HH-1), OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH OF CENTER OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. LOADING DOOR AT FAR LEFT IS SAME LOADING DOOR AS AT RIGHT IN HH-1. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633,...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633,...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  18. 32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD231. BEHIND WALL FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD-2-31. BEHIND WALL FRAMING IS SAMPLING ROOM WITH WOOD SAMPLING ELEVATOR. CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ON LEFT (SOUTH). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  19. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure § 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  20. 26 CFR 54.6151-1 - Time and place for paying of tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of tax shown on returns. Effective for any Form 8928 that is due on or after January 1, 2010, the tax... assessment or notice and demand, be paid to the internal revenue officer with whom the return is filed at the...

  1. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal experiment control and monitor software user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment Control and Monitor (EC&M) software was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenter's terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various investigations by government agencies, universities, and industry. The EC&M software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitoring (C&PM) software system of the HBR-LET. The EC&M software allows users to initialize, control, and monitor the instrumentation within the HBR-LET using a predefined sequence of commands. Besides instrument control, the C&PM software system is also responsible for computer communication between the HBR-LET and the ACTS NASA Ground Station and for uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during rain fade events. The EC&M Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189160) outlines the commands required to install and operate the EC&M software. Input and output file descriptions, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed in the document.

  2. In-situ Real-Time Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compound Exposure and Heart Rate Variability for Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Kumano, Hiroaki; Sakabe, Kou; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    In-situ real-time monitoring of volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure and heart rate variability (HRV) were conducted for eight multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients using a VOC monitor, a Holter monitor, and a time-activity questionnaire for 24 h to identify the relationship between VOC exposure, biological effects, and subjective symptoms in actual life. The results revealed no significantly different parameters for averaged values such as VOC concentration, HF (high frequency), and LF (low frequency) to HF ratio compared with previous data from healthy subjects (Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 4127–4138). Significant negative correlations for four subjects were observed between HF and amounts of VOC change. These results suggest that some patients show inhibition of parasympathetic activities along with VOC exposure as observed in healthy subjects. Comparing the parameters during subjective symptoms and normal condition, VOC concentration and/or VOC change were high except for one subject. HF values were low for five subjects during subjective symptoms. Examining the time-series data for VOC exposure and HF of each subject showed that the subjective symptoms, VOC exposure, and HF seemed well related in some symptoms. Based on these characteristics, prevention measures of symptoms for each subject may be proposed. PMID:26445055

  3. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal experiment control and monitor software maintenance manual, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment Control and Monitor (EC&M) software was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenter's terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various investigations by government agencies, universities, and industry. The EC&M software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitoring (C&PM) software system of the HBR-LET. The EC&M software allows users to initialize, control, and monitor the instrumentation within the HBR-LET using a predefined sequence of commands. Besides instrument control, the C&PM software system is also responsible for computer communication between the HBR-LET and the ACTS NASA Ground Station and for uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during rain fade events. The EC&M Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189160) outlines the commands required to install and operate the EC&M software. Input and output file descriptions, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed in the document. The EC&M Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189161) is a programmer's guide that describes current implementation of the EC&M software from a technical perspective. An overview of the EC&M software, computer algorithms, format representation, and computer hardware configuration are included in the manual.

  4. Nuclear power plant prestressed concrete containment vessel structure monitoring during integrated leakage rate test using three kinds of fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kaixing; Li, Jinke; Kong, Xianglong; Sun, Changsen; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    After years of operation, the safety of the prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) structure of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is an important aspect. In order to detect the strength degradation and the structure deformation, several sensors such as vibrating wire strain gauge, invar wires and pendulums were installed in PCCV. However, the amounts of sensors above are limited due to the cost. Due to the well durability of fiber optic sensors, three kinds of fiber optic sensors were chosen to install on the surface of PCCV to monitor the deformation during Integrated Leakage Rate Test (ILRT). The three kinds of fiber optic sensors which had their own advantages and disadvantages are Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), white light interferometry (WLI) and Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA). According to the measuring data, the three fiber optic sensors worked well during the ILRT. After the ILRT, the monitoring strain was recoverable thus the PCCV was still in the elastic stage. If these three kinds of fiber optic sensors are widely used in the PCCV, the unusual deformations are easier to detect. As a consequence, the three fiber optic sensors have good potential in the structure health monitoring of PCCV.

  5. The evaluation of a low resolution fourier transform infrared (FTIR) gas analyser for monitoring of solvent emission rates under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, J; Niemelä, R

    1999-12-01

    The applicability of a low resolution (8 cm-1) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) gas analyser with an absorption path length of 3 m was evaluated for the on-line monitoring of organic solvent mixture emissions in a flexographic ink manufacturing plant. The on-line monitoring revealed that the highest variations of solvent concentrations, up to three decades, occurred in the exhaust air. The FTIR analyser with a dynamic range of four decades covers well the concentration ranges typically found in the exhaust air and in the workroom air of ink manufacturing plants. The average emission rate of solvent mixture based on a sampling period of two days was 1.8 kg h-1 consisting of mainly ethanol (70%), ethyl acetate (15%) and propan-2-ol (11%). The detection limits of the analyser for the solvent compounds ranged from 0.3 to 4.3 mg m-3 and the measurement uncertainty was less than 10% in the concentration range of 8-15,000 mg m-3. These characteristics make the apparatus appropriate for most industrial hygiene applications. An FTIR spectrophotometer, equipped with an multipoint sampling unit, facilitates rapid identification of solvent components, real-time display of concentration data relevant to workroom air and environment monitoring as well as process control. Furthermore, the on-line concentration information enabled a rapid selection of representative sampling locations. The spectrophotometer is transportable, rugged and relatively simple to calibrate even in a hostile industrial environment.

  6. Neural response dynamics of spiking and local field potential activity depend on CRT monitor refresh rate in the tree shrew primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Veit, Julia; Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor

    2011-11-01

    Entrainment of neural activity to luminance impulses during the refresh of cathode ray tube monitor displays has been observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) of humans and macaque monkeys. This entrainment is of interest because it tends to temporally align and thus synchronize neural responses at the millisecond timescale. Here we show that, in tree shrew V1, both spiking and local field potential activity are also entrained at cathode ray tube refresh rates of 120, 90, and 60 Hz, with weakest but still significant entrainment even at 120 Hz, and strongest entrainment occurring in cortical input layer IV. For both luminance increments ("white" stimuli) and decrements ("black" stimuli), refresh rate had a strong impact on the temporal dynamics of the neural response for subsequent luminance impulses. Whereas there was rapid, strong attenuation of spikes and local field potential to prolonged visual stimuli composed of luminance impulses presented at 120 Hz, attenuation was nearly absent at 60-Hz refresh rate. In addition, neural onset latencies were shortest at 120 Hz and substantially increased, by ∼15 ms, at 60 Hz. In terms of neural response amplitude, black responses dominated white responses at all three refresh rates. However, black/white differences were much larger at 60 Hz than at higher refresh rates, suggesting a mechanism that is sensitive to stimulus timing. Taken together, our findings reveal many similarities between V1 of macaque and tree shrew, while underscoring a greater temporal sensitivity of the tree shrew visual system.

  7. Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Guechi, Youcef; Pichot, Amélie; Frasca, Denis; Rayeh-Pelardy, Fatima; Lardeur, Jean-Yves; Mimoz, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    To compare respiration rate measurement by an acoustic method and thoracic impedance to capnometry as the reference method, in patients at the Emergency Department after drug or alcoholic poisoning. In this observational study, 30 patients aged 18 or older, hospitalized at the Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning, without any contraindication to a face mask and/or a cervical acoustic sensor, were included in the study. They benefited from a simultaneous recording of their respiration rate by the acoustic method (RRa(®), Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA, USA), by thoracic impedance (Philips Intellivue(®) MP2, Suresnes, France) and by capnometry (Capnostream(®) 20, Oridion, Jerusalem, Israël) through a face mask (Capnomask(®), Mediplus Ltd, Raleigh, NC, USA) for 40-60 min. Of the 86,578 triplets collected, 77,155 (89.1%) were exploitable. Median (range) respiration rate measured by capnometry was 18 (7-29) bpm. Compared to capnometry, bias and limits of agreement were 0.1 ± 3.8 bpm for the acoustic method and 0.3 ± 5.5 bpm for thoracic impedance. The proportions of RR values collected by acoustic method or by thoracic impedance which differed over 10 or 20% during more than 15 s, compared to capnometry, were 8.3 versus 14.3, and 1.5 versus 3.8%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The acoustic sensor had to be repositioned on three patients. For 11 patients, the Capnomask(®) was removed several times. In patients with drug or alcoholic poisoning, the acoustic method seems more accurate than thoracic impedance and better tolerated than face mask capnometry.

  8. Dissolution behavior of chemically amplified resist for advanced mask- and NIL mold-making as studied by dissolution rate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi, Kazumasa; Oono, Kazuto; Negishi, Yoshiyuki; Inokuchi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Keishi; Tamura, Akira

    2006-05-01

    The dissolution behaviors of chemically amplified resists for electron beam lithography (EB CARs) have been investigated using the technique of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. We report the first direct measurement of the dissolution rate of EB CARs and the comparison with CAR of using KrF exposure in wafer fabrication. The EB CAR for nano-imprint lithography mold making was also evaluated by this technique, and then resolved 50 nm line and space patterns using conventional 50 KV variable shape beam writing system. The understanding of dissolution kinetics of EB CARs is capable of designing high performance resists in near future.

  9. Centers for Disease Control light traps for monitoring Anopheles arabiensis human biting rates in an area with low vector density and high insecticide-treated bed net use.

    PubMed

    Fornadel, Christen M; Norris, Laura C; Norris, Douglas E

    2010-10-01

    Human landing catches (HLCs) are currently the preferred method to determine vector human biting rates (HBRs), which are key determinants of entomologic inoculation rates and important measures for assessing the impact of vector control efforts. Although HLCs are the most direct means of establishing HBRs, they are labor-intensive, and their use is facing increasing ethical concerns. The relationship between Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and HLC collections was evaluated in Macha, Zambia during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rainy seasons. A CDC light trap captured on average 1.91 (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.28) times as many An. arabiensis per night as an indoor HLC. Additionally, nets treated with deltamethrin did not affect the numbers of An. arabiensis collected. Our results suggest that in regions where use of vector control interventions is high and vector densities are low, CDC light traps can be used to monitor An. arabiensis HBRs.

  10. Region Hit by Large Pakistan Quake as Shown by NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On September 24 at 11:29 GMT, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake struck in south-central Pakistan at a relatively shallow depth of 20 kilometers. The earthquake occurred as the result of oblique strike-slip motion, consistent with rupture within the Eurasian tectonic plate. Tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi as well as Karachi in Pakistan. Even though the immediate area to the epicenter is sparsely populated, the majority of houses are of mud brick construction and damage is expected to be extensive. The perspective view, looking to the east, shows the location of the epicenter in Pakistan's Makran fold belt. The image is centered near 27 degrees north latitude, 65.5 degrees east longitude, and was acquired December 13, 2012. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on Terra. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. More information

  11. An investigation towards real time dose rate monitoring, and fuel rod detection in a First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah F; Monk, Stephen D; Riaz, Zahid

    2014-12-01

    The First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP) is located on the Sellafield Nuclear Site, housing legacy spent Magnox nuclear fuel. Some of which has since corroded, forming a layer of Corroded Magnox Sludge (CMS) creating one of the largest decommissioning challenges the UK has faced. In this work the composition, physical properties and potentially high hazard nature of CMS are discussed, as are the gamma emission spectra of spent Magnox fuel rods typical of the ilk stored. We assess the potential use of a RadLine gamma detector to dose rate map this area and provide fuel rod detection. RadLine consists of a small scintillator, fibre optic cable and photon counter. The probe has the unusual advantage of not being electrically active and therefore fully submersible underwater, with the option to deploy hundreds of metres in length. Our experimental method encompasses general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP, where we describe the modelling of CMS and pond liquor in comprehensive detail, including their radiological spectrum, chemical composition data, and physical properties. This investigation concludes that the maximum energy deposited within the scintillator crystal due to ambient CMS corresponds to a dose rate of 5.65Gy h(-1), thus above this value positive detection of a fuel rod would be anticipated. It is additionally established that the detectable region is within a 20cm range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Field Metabolic Rate and PCB Adipose Tissue Deposition Efficiency in East Greenland Polar Bears Derived from Contaminant Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J.; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2′,4,4′,55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears. PMID:25101837

  13. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  14. Monitor activity, temperature and heart rate with a mouse telemeter to be used for animal research on board the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Essen, G.; Masseling, B. H. C. J.; Jansen, M.; van Loon, J.

    2005-08-01

    In-flight animal research is necessary when we want to learn more about the role of gravity or the lack thereof during orbital flights on the (human) body. In the preparation for such experiments we developed STAR, Space Telemetry for Animal Research, a wireless and battery-less mouse biometric telemeter capable of monitoring the heart rate, body temperature and animal activity in grouped housed animals. The system is capable to monitor up to 20 animals simultaneously.To verify the application of the telemeter accelerometers, by which activity is measured, we flew a subset of the telemeter system on board the International Space Station in the framework of the Dutch Soyuz Mission, DELTA that flew in April 2004.Goals to be achieved during this mission were:- To test the accelerometers of STAR under microgravity conditions with the same electrical circuit functions- Get the electronic circuit space qualified.We showed that the accelerometers act similar on Earth as in flight under microgravity conditions. Therefore, from this part of the study, we may conclude that the accelerometers are suitable for use in the implant currently under development. Recently, the first in vivo experiments showed reliable body temperature and heart rate data.In general we might conclude that the STAR-system is suitable to be implemented in animal research, both in space and on ground.

  15. On-Site Determination and Monitoring of Real-Time Fluence Delivery for an Operating UV Reactor Based on a True Fluence Rate Detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengkai; Li, Wentao; Qiang, Zhimin; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2017-07-18

    At present, on-site fluence (distribution) determination and monitoring of an operating UV system represent a considerable challenge. The recently developed microfluorescent silica detector (MFSD) is able to measure the approximate true fluence rate (FR) at a fixed position in a UV reactor that can be compared with a FR model directly. Hence it has provided a connection between model calculation and real-time fluence determination. In this study, an on-site determination and monitoring method of fluence delivery for an operating UV reactor was developed. True FR detectors, a UV transmittance (UVT) meter, and a flow rate meter were used for fundamental measurements. The fluence distribution, as well as reduction equivalent fluence (REF), 10th percentile dose in the UV fluence distribution (F10), minimum fluence (Fmin), and mean fluence (Fmean) of a test reactor, was calculated in advance by the combined use of computational fluid dynamics and FR field modeling. A field test was carried out on the test reactor for disinfection of a secondary water supply. The estimated real-time REF, F10, Fmin, and Fmean decreased 73.6%, 71.4%, 69.6%, and 72.9%, respectively, during a 6-month period, which was attributable to lamp output attenuation and sleeve fouling. The results were analyzed with synchronous data from a previously developed triparameter UV monitoring system and water temperature sensor. This study allowed demonstration of an accurate method for on-site, real-time fluence determination which could be used to enhance the security and public confidence of UV-based water treatment processes.

  16. Estimation and monitoring heat discharge rates using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data: a case study in Unzen geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Md. B.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Bromely, Chris J.

    2012-10-01

    The Unzen geothermal field, our study area is active fumaroles, situated in Shimabara Peninsula of Kyushu Island in Japan. Our prime objectives were (1) to estimate radiative heat flux (RHF), (2) to calculate approximately heat discharge rate (HDR) using the relationship of radiative heat flux with the total heat loss derived from two geothermal field studies and (3) finally, to monitor RHF as well as HDR in our study area using seven sets of Landsat 7 ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We used the NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) method for spectral emissivity estimation, the mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation analyzing those satellite TIR images for RHF. We obtained a desired strong correlation of LST above ambient with RHF using random samples. We estimated that the maximum RHF was about 251 W/m2 in 2005 and minimum was about 27 W/m2 in 2001. The highest total RHF was about 39.1 MW in 2005 and lowest was about 12 MW in 2001 in our study region. We discovered that the estimated RHF was about 15.7 % of HDR from our studies. We applied this percentage to estimate heat discharge rate in Unzen geothermal area. The monitoring results showed a single fold trend of HDR from 2000 to 2009 with highest about 252 MW in 2005 and lowest about 78 MW in 2001. In conclusion, TIR remote sensing is thought as the best option for monitoring heat losses from fumaroles with high efficiency and low cost.

  17. Interventions shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4–12 Years Old *

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are ‘executive functions,’ including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children’s executive functions – computerized training, non-computerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. Central to all these is repeated practice and constantly challenging executive functions. Children with worse executive functions initially, benefit most; thus early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  18. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-08-19

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children's executive functions: computerized training, noncomputerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. All successful programs involve repeated practice and progressively increase the challenge to executive functions. Children with worse executive functions benefit most from these activities; thus, early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga).

  19. Phase-rectified signal averaging for intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is related to acidaemia at birth.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, A; Papageorghiou, A T; Payne, S J; Moulden, M; Redman, C W G

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA), measured in antepartum fetal heart rate (FHR) traces, may sensitively indicate fetal status; however, its value has not been assessed during labour. We determined whether PRSA relates to acidaemia in labour, and compare its performance to short-term variation (STV), a related computerised FHR feature. Historical cohort. Large UK teaching hospital. All 7568 Oxford deliveries that met the study criteria from April 1993 to February 2008. We analysed the last 30 minutes of the FHR and associated outcomes of infants. We used computerised analysis to calculate PRSA decelerative capacity (DC(PRSA)), and its ability to predict umbilical arterial blood pH ≤ 7.05 using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and event rate estimates (EveREst). We compared DC(PRSA) with STV calculated on the same traces. Umbilical arterial blood pH ≤ 7.05. We found that PRSA could be measured in all cases. DC(PRSA) predicted acidaemia significantly better than STV: the area under the ROC curve was 0.665 (95% CI 0.632-0.699) for DC(PRSA), and 0.606 (0.573-0.639) for STV (P = 0.007). EveREst plots showed that in the worst fifth centile of cases, the incidence of low pH was 17.75% for DC(PRSA) but 11.00% for STV (P < 0.001). DC(PRSA) was not highly correlated with STV. DC(PRSA) of the FHR can be measured in labour, and appears to predict acidaemia more accurately than STV. Further prospective evaluation is warranted to assess whether this could be clinically useful. The weak correlation between DC(PRSA) and STV suggests that they could be combined in multivariate FHR analyses. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Heart rate variability parameters and fetal movement complement fetal behavioral states detection via magnetography to monitor neurovegetative development

    PubMed Central

    Brändle, Johanna; Preissl, Hubert; Draganova, Rossitza; Ortiz, Erick; Kagan, Karl O.; Abele, Harald; Brucker, Sara Y.; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Fetal behavioral states are defined by fetal movement and heart rate variability (HRV). At 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) the distinction of four fetal behavioral states represented by combinations of quiet or active sleep or awakeness is possible. Prior to 32 weeks, only periods of fetal activity and quiesence can be distinguished. The increasing synchronization of fetal movement and HRV reflects the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) control. Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) detects fetal heart activity at high temporal resolution, enabling the calculation of HRV parameters. This study combined the criteria of fetal movement with the HRV analysis to complete the criteria for fetal state detection. HRV parameters were calculated including the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal R–R interval (SDNN), the mean square of successive differences of the R–R intervals (RMSSD, SDNN/RMSSD ratio, and permutation entropy (PE) to gain information about the developing influence of the ANS within each fetal state. In this study, 55 magnetocardiograms from healthy fetuses of 24–41 weeks’ GA were recorded for up to 45 min using a fetal biomagnetometer. Fetal states were classified based on HRV and movement detection. HRV parameters were calculated for each state. Before GA 32 weeks, 58.4% quiescence and 41.6% activity cycles were observed. Later, 24% quiet sleep state (1F), 65.4% active sleep state (2F), and 10.6% active awake state (4F) were observed. SDNN increased over gestation. Changes of HRV parameters between the fetal behavioral states, especially between 1F and 4F, were statistically significant. Increasing fetal activity was confirmed by a decrease in PE complexity measures. The fHRV parameters support the differentiation between states and indicate the development of autonomous nervous control of heart rate function. PMID:25904855

  1. BDS Precise Point Positioning for Seismic Displacements Monitoring: Benefit from the High-Rate Satellite Clock Corrections.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tao; Su, Xing; Fang, Rongxin; Xie, Xin; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-12-20

    In order to satisfy the requirement of high-rate high-precision applications, 1 Hz BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) satellite clock corrections are generated based on precise orbit products, and the quality of the generated clock products is assessed by comparing with those from the other analysis centers. The comparisons show that the root mean square (RMS) of clock errors of geostationary Earth orbits (GEO) is about 0.63 ns, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbits (IGSO) and medium Earth orbits (MEO) are about 0.2-0.3 ns and 0.1 ns, respectively. Then, the 1 Hz clock products are used for BDS precise point positioning (PPP) to retrieve seismic displacements of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. The derived seismic displacements from BDS PPP are consistent with those from the Global Positioning System (GPS) PPP, with RMS of 0.29, 0.38, and 1.08 cm in east, north, and vertical components, respectively. In addition, the BDS PPP solutions with different clock intervals of 1 s, 5 s, 30 s, and 300 s are processed and compared with each other. The results demonstrate that PPP with 300 s clock intervals is the worst and that with 1 s clock interval is the best. For the scenario of 5 s clock intervals, the precision of PPP solutions is almost the same to 1 s results. Considering the time consumption of clock estimates, we suggest that 5 s clock interval is competent for high-rate BDS solutions.

  2. BDS Precise Point Positioning for Seismic Displacements Monitoring: Benefit from the High-Rate Satellite Clock Corrections

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Tao; Su, Xing; Fang, Rongxin; Xie, Xin; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-01-01

    In order to satisfy the requirement of high-rate high-precision applications, 1 Hz BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) satellite clock corrections are generated based on precise orbit products, and the quality of the generated clock products is assessed by comparing with those from the other analysis centers. The comparisons show that the root mean square (RMS) of clock errors of geostationary Earth orbits (GEO) is about 0.63 ns, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbits (IGSO) and medium Earth orbits (MEO) are about 0.2–0.3 ns and 0.1 ns, respectively. Then, the 1 Hz clock products are used for BDS precise point positioning (PPP) to retrieve seismic displacements of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. The derived seismic displacements from BDS PPP are consistent with those from the Global Positioning System (GPS) PPP, with RMS of 0.29, 0.38, and 1.08 cm in east, north, and vertical components, respectively. In addition, the BDS PPP solutions with different clock intervals of 1 s, 5 s, 30 s, and 300 s are processed and compared with each other. The results demonstrate that PPP with 300 s clock intervals is the worst and that with 1 s clock interval is the best. For the scenario of 5 s clock intervals, the precision of PPP solutions is almost the same to 1 s results. Considering the time consumption of clock estimates, we suggest that 5 s clock interval is competent for high-rate BDS solutions. PMID:27999384

  3. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  4. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID33G101, ANOTHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID-33-G-101, ANOTHER VIEW. PERSONNEL DOORWAY INTO CHAMBER IDENTIFIES SODIUM HAZARD AND POSSIBILITY OF INERT GAS. LIQUID SODIUM COOLANT WAS USED IN A SPECIAL ETR LOOP ADAPTED FOR IT IN 1972. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Monitoring Academic and Social Skills in Elementary School: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Classroom Performance Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldarella, Paul; Larsen, Ross A. A.; Williams, Leslie; Wehby, Joseph H.; Wills, Howard; Kamps, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Numerous well-validated academic progress monitoring tools are used in schools, but there are fewer behavioral progress monitoring measures available. Some brief behavior rating scales have been shown to be effective in monitoring students' progress, but most focus only on students' social skills and do not address critical academic-related…

  6. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  7. A sequential tape monitor for toluene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Rando, R J; Duvoisin, P F; Abdel-Kader, H; Hammad, Y Y

    1987-06-01

    An electronic microcircuit controller has been designed to convert a commercially available continuous tape monitor for toluene diisocyanate (TDI) into a sequential sampler in order to eliminate deficiencies in response and resolution of fluctuating TDI concentrations. The modified monitor will collect up to fourteen 12-min samples per work shift. The sensitivity of the monitor was doubled approximately by the inclusion of a blue filter in the optics of the reader unit. Recalibration of several modified monitors indicated a wide range in response to TDI necessitating individual calibrations. No significant difference in response to the 2,4 and 2,6 isomers of toluene diisocyanate was noted for modified personal monitors, in contrast to a 25% lower response to 2,6-TDI by an area monitor in which the same detection tape was used. The modified monitor has shown a reliability rate of about 90% during a three-year field survey of TDI exposures.

  8. Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.

    PubMed

    Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed.

  9. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  10. SeismoGeodesy: Combination of High Rate, Real-time GNSS and Accelerometer Observations and Rapid Seismic Event Notification for Earth Quake Early Warning and Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael; Zimakov, Leonid; Moessmer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Scientific GNSS networks are moving towards a model of real-time data acquisition, epoch-by-epoch storage integrity, and on-board real-time position and displacement calculations. This new paradigm allows the integration of real-time, high-rate GNSS displacement information with acceleration and velocity data to create very high-rate displacement records. The mating of these two instruments allows the creation of a new, very high-rate (200 Hz) displacement observable that has the full-scale displacement characteristics of GNSS and high-precision dynamic motions of seismic technologies. It is envisioned that these new observables can be used for earthquake early warning studies, volcano monitoring, and critical infrastructure monitoring applications. Our presentation will focus on the characteristics of GNSS, seismic, and strong motion sensors in high dynamic environments, including historic earthquakes replicated on a shake table over a range of displacements and frequencies. We will explore the optimum integration of these sensors from a filtering perspective including simple harmonic impulses over varying frequencies and amplitudes and under the dynamic conditions of various earthquake scenarios. We will also explore the tradeoffs between various GNSS processing schemes including real-time precise point positioning (PPP) and real-time kinematic (RTK) as applied to seismogeodesy. In addition we will discuss implementation of a Rapid Seismic Event Notification System that provides quick delivery of digital data from seismic stations to the acquisition and processing center and a full data integrity model for real-time earthquake notification that provides warning prior to significant ground shaking.

  11. Io Shown in Lambertian Equal Area Projection and in Approximately Natural Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    NASA's Voyager 1 computer color mosaics, shown in approximately natural color and in Lambertian equal-area projections, show the Eastern (left) and Western (right) hemispheres of Io. This innermost of Jupiter's 4 major satellites is the most volcanically active object in the solar system. Io is 2263 mi (3640 km) in diameter, making it a little bigger than Earth's moon. Almost all the features visible here have volcanic origins, including several calderas and eruption plumes that were active at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00318

  12. High rate GPS positioning , JASON altimetry and marine gravimetry : monitoring the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) through the DRAKE campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melachroinos, S. A.; Biancale, R.; Menard, Y.; Sarrailh, M.

    2008-12-01

    geodetic data set. The high rate GPS SSH solutions are derived using two different GPS kinematic software, GINS (CNES) and TRACK (MIT).

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: importance of sampling rate and duration--48 versus 24 hours--on the accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fontao, María J; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2013-03-01

    Independent prospective studies have found that ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is more closely correlated with target organ damage and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than clinic BP measurement. This is based on studies in which BP was sampled every 15-30 min for ≤24 h, without taking into account that reproducibility of any estimated parameter from a time series to be potentially used for CVD risk assessment might depend more on monitoring duration than on sampling rate. Herein, we evaluated the influence of duration (48 vs. 24 h) and sampling rate of BP measurements (form every 20-30 min up to every 2 h) on the prognostic value of ABPM-derived parameters. We prospectively studied 3344 subjects (1718 men/1626 women), 52.6 ± 14.5 yrs of age, during a median follow-up of 5.6 yrs. Those with hypertension at baseline were randomized to ingest all their prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or ≥1 of them at bedtime. At baseline, BP was measured at 20-min intervals from 07:00 to 23:00 h and at 30-min intervals at night for 48 h, and physical activity was simultaneously monitored every min by wrist actigraphy to accurately derive the awake and asleep BP means. Identical assessment was scheduled annually and more frequently (quarterly) if treatment adjustment was required. ABPM profiles were modified to generate time series of identical 48-h duration but with data sampled at 1- or 2-h intervals, or shorter, i.e., first 24 h, time series with data sampled at the original rate (daytime 20-min intervals/nighttime 30-min intervals). Bland-Altman plots indicated that the range of individual differences in the estimated awake and asleep systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) means between the original and modified ABPM profiles was up to 3-fold smaller for data sampled every 1 h for 48 h than for data sampled every 20-30 min for the first 24 h. Reduction of ABPM duration to just 24 h resulted in error of the

  14. Individual external dose monitoring of all citizens of Date City by passive dosimeter 5 to 51 months after the Fukushima NPP accident (series): 1. Comparison of individual dose with ambient dose rate monitored by aircraft surveys.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Makoto; Hayano, Ryugo

    2016-12-06

    Date (da'te) City in Fukushima Prefecture has conducted a population-wide individual dose monitoring program after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, which provides a unique and comprehensive data set of the individual doses of citizens. The purpose of this paper, the first in the series, is to establish a method for estimating effective doses based on the available ambient dose rate survey data. We thus examined the relationship between the individual external doses and the corresponding ambient doses assessed from airborne surveys. The results show that the individual doses were about 0.15 times the ambient doses, the coefficient of 0.15 being a factor of 4 smaller than the value employed by the Japanese government, throughout the period of the airborne surveys used. The method obtained in this study could aid in the prediction of individual doses in the early phase of future radiological accidents involving large-scale contamination.

  15. Catalysis of PAH biodegradation by humic acid shown in synchrotron infrared studies

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Nieman, Karl; Sorensen, Darwin L.; Miller, Charles D.; Martin, Michael C.; Borch, Thomas; McKinney, Wayne R.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2001-09-26

    The role of humic acid (HA) in the biodegradation of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been the subject of controversy, particularly in unsaturated environments. By utilizing an infrared spectromicroscope and a very bright, nondestructive synchrotron photon source, we monitored in situ and, over time, the influence of HA on the progression of degradation of pyrene (a model PAH) by a bacterial colony on a magnetite surface. Our results indicate that HA dramatically shortens the onset time for PAH biodegradation from 168 to 2 h. In the absence of HA, it takes the bacteria about 168 h to produce sufficient glycolipids to solubilize pyrene and make it bioavailable for biodegradation. These results will have large implications for the bioremediation of contaminated soils.

  16. Mental Health Problems of Dutch Youth with Hearing Loss as Shown on the Youth Self Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eldik, Theo

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among youth with hearing loss was assessed with an adjusted version of the Dutch rendition of the Youth Self Report, or YSR (Achenbach, 1991). The sample totaled 202 youth, aged 11?18 years, with auditory disabilities. The prevalence rates of externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and moderate to…

  17. Tropical Controls on the CO2 Atmospheric Growth Rate 2010-2011 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M. M.; Brix, H.; Gurney, K. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variations in the atmospheric growth rate of CO2 have been attributed to the tropical regions and the controls are correlated with temperature anomalies. We investigate the spatial drivers of the atmospheric growth rate and the processes controlling them over the exceptional period of 2010-2011. This period was marked by a marked shift from an El Nino to La Nina period resulting in historically high sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Atlantic leading to serious droughts in the Amazon. However, in 2011, unusual precipitation in Australia was linked to gross primary productivity anomalies in semi-arid regions. We use satellite observations of CO2, CO, and solar induced fluorescence assimilated into the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux) to attribute the atmospheric growth rate to global, spatially resolved fluxes. This system is based upon observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2­-Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model. The system is used to compute regional tropical and extra-tropical fluxes and quantify the role of biomass burning and gross primary productivity in controlling those fluxes.

  18. An 8.12 μW wavelet denoising chip for PPG detection and portable heart rate monitoring in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Li; Xu, Zhang; Peng, Li; Xiaohui, Hu; Hongda, Chen

    2016-05-01

    A low power wavelet denoising chip for photoplethysmography (PPG) detection and portable heart rate monitoring is presented. To eliminate noise and improve detection accuracy, Harr wavelet (HWT) is chosen as the processing tool. An optimized finite impulse response structure is proposed to lower the computational complexity of proposed algorithm, which is benefit for reducing the power consumption of proposed chip. The modulus maxima pair location module is design to accurately locate the PPG peaks. A clock control unit is designed to further reduce the power consumption of the proposed chip. Fabricated with the 0.18 μm N-well CMOS 1P6M technology, the power consumption of proposed chip is only 8.12 μW in 1 V voltage supply. Validated with PPG signals in multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care databases and signals acquired by the wrist photoelectric volume detection front end, the proposed chip can accurately detect PPG signals. The average sensitivity and positive prediction are 99.91% and 100%, respectively.

  19. An appraisal of the use of an infrared digital monitoring system for long-term measurement of heart rate in reptilian embryos.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Marina R; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of heart rate (fH) in embryonic reptiles has previously imposed some degree of invasive treatment on the developing embryo. Recently a non-invasive technique of fH detection from intact eggs was developed for commercial avian breeders and has since been used in biological research. This device uses infrared light, enabling it to detect heartbeats in very early embryos. However, infrared light is a source of heat and extended enclosure of an egg in the device is likely to affect temperature with consequent effects on physiological processes, including fH. We studied the effect of use of the monitor on the temperature of eggs and on fH in two species of reptiles, the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Egg temperature increased from a room temperature of 27-28 °C, by 26% in turtles and 14% in iguanas over 1h of enclosure, resulting in an increase in fH of 76-81% in turtles and 35-50% iguanas. These effects on fH can either be avoided by brief enclosure of each egg in the monitor or measured and accounted for during the design of long-term experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The development of hurricane Inez, 1966, as shown by satellite nighttime radiometric and daytime television coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A complete documentation of Numbus 2 High Resolution infrared Radiometer data and ESSA-1 and 3 television photographs is presented for the life-time of Hurricane Inez, 1966. Ten computer produced radiation charts were analyzed in order to delineate the three dimensional cloud structure during the formative, mature and dissipating stages of this tropical cyclone. Time sections were drawn throughout the storm's life cycle to relate the warm core development and upper level outflow of the storm with their respective cloud canopies, as shown by the radiation data. Aerial reconnaissance weather reports, radar photographs and conventional weather analyses were used to complement the satellite data. A computer program was utilized to accept Nimbus 2 HRIR equivalent blackbody temperatures within historical maximum and minimum sea surface temperature limits over the tropical Atlantic Ocean.