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Sample records for ratio pyrometer system

  1. Design, Fabrication and Testing of an Infrared Ratio Pyrometer System for the Measurement of Gasifier Reaction Chamber Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Leininger

    2005-03-31

    Texaco was awarded contract DE-FC26-99FT40684 from the U.S. DOE to design, build, bench test and field test an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier temperature. The award occurred in two phases. Phase 1, which involved designing, building and bench testing, was completed in September 2000, and the Phase 1 report was issued in March 2001. Phase 2 was completed in 2005, and the results of the field test are contained in this final report. Two test campaigns were made. In the first one, the pyrometer was sighted into the gasifier. It performed well for a brief period of time and then experienced difficulties in keeping the sight tube open due to a slag accumulation which developed around the opening of the sight tube in the gasifier wall. In the second test campaign, the pyrometer was sighted into the top of the radiant syngas cooler through an unused soot blower lance. The pyrometer experienced no more problems with slag occlusions, and the readings were continuous and consistent. However, the pyrometer readings were 800 to 900 F lower than the gasifier thermocouple readings, which is consistent with computer simulations of the temperature distribution inside the radiant syngas cooler. In addition, the pyrometer readings were too sluggish to use for control purposes. Additional funds beyond what were available in this contract would be required to develop a solution that would allow the pyrometer to be used to measure the temperature inside the gasifier.

  2. Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quince, Asia N. (Inventor); Stein, Alexander (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A non-contact pyrometer and method for calibrating the same are provided. The pyrometer includes a radiation sensor configured to measure at least a portion of a radiance signal emitted from a target medium and output a voltage that is a function of an average of the absorbed radiance signal, and an optical window disposed proximate the radiation sensor and configured to control a wavelength range of the radiance signal that reaches the radiation sensor. The pyrometer may further include a reflective enclosure configured to receive the target medium therein, wherein the radiation sensor and the optical window are disposed within the reflective enclosure, an amplifier in communication with an output of the radiation sensor, and a data acquisition system in communication with an output of the amplifier.

  3. DESIGN, FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Leininger

    2001-03-31

    Reliable measurement of gasifier reaction chamber temperature is important for the proper operation of slagging, entrained-flow gasification processes. Historically, thermocouples have been used as the main measurement technique, with the temperature inferred from syngas methane concentration being used as a backup measurement. While these have been sufficient for plant operation in many cases, both techniques suffer from limitations. The response time of methane measurements is too slow to detect rapid upset conditions, and thermocouples are subject to long-term drift, as well as slag attack, which eventually leads to failure of the thermocouple. Texaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) has developed an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier reaction chamber temperature. This system has a faster response time than both methane and thermocouples, and has been demonstrated to provide reliable temperature measurements for longer periods of time when compared to thermocouples installed in the same MTC gasifier. In addition, the system can be applied to commercial gasifiers without any significant scale-up issues. The major equipment items, the purge system, and the safety shutdown system in a commercial plant are essentially identical to the prototypes at MTC. The desired result of this DOE program is ''a bench-scale prototype, either assembled or with critical components (laboratory) tested in a convincing manner.'' The prototype of the pyrometer system (including gasifier optical access port) that was designed, assembled and tested for this program, has had previous prototypes that have been built and successfully tested under actual coal and coke gasification conditions in three pilot units at MTC. It was the intent of the work performed under the auspices of this program to review and update the existing design, and to fabricate and bench test an updated system that can be field tested in one or more commercial gasifiers during a follow on phase

  4. PYROLASER - PYROLASER OPTICAL PYROMETER OPERATING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, F. E.

    1994-01-01

    The PYROLASER package is an operating system for the Pyrometer Instrument Company's Pyrolaser. There are 6 individual programs in the PYROLASER package: two main programs, two lower level subprograms, and two programs which, although independent, function predominantly as macros. The package provides a quick and easy way to setup, control, and program a standard Pyrolaser. Temperature and emissivity measurements may be either collected as if the Pyrolaser were in the manual operations mode, or displayed on real time strip charts and stored in standard spreadsheet format for post-test analysis. A shell is supplied to allow macros, which are test-specific, to be easily added to the system. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program provides full on-screen remote operation capabilities, thus allowing the user to operate the Pyrolaser from the computer just as it would be operated manually. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program also allows the use of "quick starts". Quick starts provide an easy way to permit routines to be used as setup macros for specific applications or tests. The specific procedures required for a test may be ordered in a sequence structure and then the sequence structure can be started with a simple button in the cluster structure provided. One quick start macro is provided for continuous Pyrolaser operation. A subprogram, Display Continuous Pyr Data, is used to display and store the resulting data output. Using this macro, the system is set up for continuous operation and the subprogram is called to display the data in real time on strip charts. The data is simultaneously stored in a spreadsheet format. The resulting spreadsheet file can be opened in any one of a number of commercially available spreadsheet programs. The Read Continuous Pyrometer program is provided as a continuously run subprogram for incorporation of the Pyrolaser software into a process control or feedback control scheme in a multi-component system. The program requires the

  5. Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sano, T.; Takabe, H.; Dono, S.; Ide, T.; Tanji, H.; Shiroshita, A.; Shibata, S.; Aoki, H.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.; Gregory, C. D.

    2012-10-15

    A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of {approx}10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)].

  6. Study of the Performance of a Streaked Optical Pyrometer System for Temperature Measurement of Shocked Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Zhebin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huige; Liu, Yonggang; Li, Zhichao; Li, Sanwei; Yang, Dong; Ding, Yongkun; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Guangyue; Zheng, Jian

    2014-06-01

    A streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) is developed and calibrated for the measurement of the temperature of shocked materials. In order to achieve a higher relative sensitivity, a one-channel scheme is adopted for the system. The system is calibrated with a shocked step-shaped aluminum sample in the SG-III prototype laser facility. The relation between the count number in the detection system and the sample temperature is thus obtained, which can be adopted to infer the temperature of any shocked materials in future experiments.

  7. Upgrades to the VISAR-streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) system on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, A. M.; Millot, M.; Seppala, L. G.; Frieders, G.; Zeid, Z.; Christensen, K.; Celliers, P. M.

    2015-08-01

    The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is a critical diagnostic in Inertial Confinement Fusion and High Energy Density research as it has the ability to track shock fronts or interfaces moving 0.1-100 km/s with great accuracy. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the VISAR has recently been used successfully for implosion tuning and equation of state measurements. However, the initial design of the companion Streaked Optical Pyrometer (SOP) to measure spectral radiance - hence shock temperature - suffers from large background levels and poor spatial resolution. We report on an upgrade to improve the spatial resolution in the 560-640nm band by using custom lenses and replacing the Dove prism with a K-mirror and implementing a gating-circuit for the streak camera to reduce background signal. We envision that upgraded SOP will provide high quality data collection matching NIF VISAR's standards.

  8. The use of optical pyrometers in axial flow turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, R. R.; Przirembel, H. R.; Clevenger, D. H.; Lang, J. L.

    1989-07-01

    An optical pyrometer system that can be used to measure metal temperatures over an extended range of temperature has been developed. Real-time flame discrimination permits accurate operation in the gas turbine environment with high flame content. This versatile capability has been used in a number of ways. In experimental engines, a fixed angle pyrometer has been used for turbine health monitoring for the automatic test stand abort system. Turbine blade creep capability has been improved by tailoring the burner profile based on measured blade temperatures. Fixed and traversing pyrometers were used extensively during engine development to map blade surface temperatures in order to assess cooling effectiveness and identify optimum configurations. Portable units have been used in turbine field inspections. A new low temperature pyrometer is being used as a diagnostic tool in the alternate turbopump design for the Space Shuttle main engine. Advanced engine designs will incorporate pyrometers in the engine control system to limit operation to safe temperatures.

  9. Measurement of turbine blade temperature using pyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Du, C.

    1985-09-01

    This paper presents the study of application of a self-made turbine blade pyrometer to measuring rotating turbine blade temperatures in a bed testing aeroengine. The study includes the temperature measuring principle and the pyrometer system; installation and adjustment of the double ball-floating type configuration optical head which goes through four different high temperatures bulkheads; and measurement of three kinds of temperature (the average blade temperature Ta, the average peak blade temperature Tap, and the maximum peak blade temperature Tmp) for all rotor blades of the turbine first stage. The experimental data analysis reveals that the first attempt of application of this pyrometer is successful. The measurement errors in the temperature range of 550-1200 C are within + or - 1 percent of calculated blade temperatures.

  10. A multicolor imaging pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Frank, Jonathan H.

    1989-01-01

    A multicolor imaging pyrometer was designed for accurately and precisely measuring the temperature distribution histories of small moving samples. The device projects six different color images of the sample onto a single charge coupled device array that provides an RS-170 video signal to a computerized frame grabber. The computer automatically selects which one of the six images provides useful data, and converts that information to a temperature map. By measuring the temperature of molten aluminum heated in a kiln, a breadboard version of the device was shown to provide high accuracy in difficult measurement situations. It is expected that this pyrometer will ultimately find application in measuring the temperature of materials undergoing radiant heating in a microgravity acoustic levitation furnace.

  11. Multicolor pyrometer for materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, M. B.; Frank, J.; Baker, J. E.; Foutter, R. R.; Beerman, H.; Allen, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), under contract to NASA JPL, during a 2.5-year SBIR Phase 2 Program. The program goals were to design, construct, and program a prototype passive imaging pyrometer capable of measuring, as accurately as possible, and controlling the temperature distribution across the surface of a moving object suspended in space. These goals were achieved and the instrument was delivered to JPL in November 1989. The pyrometer utilizes an optical system which operates at short wavelengths compared to the peak of the black-body spectrum for the temperature range of interest, thus minimizing errors associated with a lack of knowledge about the heated sample's emissivity. To cover temperatures from 900 to 2500 K, six wavelengths are available. The preferred wavelength for measurement of a particular temperature decreases as the temperature increases. Images at all six wavelengths are projected onto a single CCD camera concurrently. The camera and optical system have been calibrated to relate the measured intensity at each pixel to the temperature of the heated object. The output of the camera is digitized by a frame grabber installed in a personal computer and analyzed automatically to yield temperature information. The data can be used in a feedback loop to alter the status of computer-activated switches and thereby control a heating system.

  12. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  13. Temperature Measurement of a Glass Material Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Temperature measurement of a substance that is transparent using the traditional 1-color, 2-color and other pyrometers has been difficult. The radiation detected by pyrometers do not come from a well defined location in the transparent body. The multiwavelength pyrometer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center can measure the surface temperature of many materials. We show in this paper that it also measures the surface and a bulk subsurface temperature of transparent materials like glass.

  14. A Plenoptic Multi-Color Imaging Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Hutchins, William D.; Fahringer, Timothy; Thurow, Brian S.

    2017-01-01

    A three-color pyrometer has been developed based on plenoptic imaging technology. Three bandpass filters placed in front of a camera lens allow separate 2D images to be obtained on a single image sensor at three different and adjustable wavelengths selected by the user. Images were obtained of different black- or grey-bodies including a calibration furnace, a radiation heater, and a luminous sulfur match flame. The images obtained of the calibration furnace and radiation heater were processed to determine 2D temperature distributions. Calibration results in the furnace showed that the instrument can measure temperature with an accuracy and precision of 10 Kelvins between 1100 and 1350 K. Time-resolved 2D temperature measurements of the radiation heater are shown.

  15. Method and Apparatus for Polaradiometric Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abtahi, Ali A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A radiation pyrometer for measuring the true temperature of a body is provided by detecting and measuring thermal radiation from the body based on the principle that the effects of angular emission I(sub 1) and reflection I(sub 2) on the polarization states p and s of radiation are complementary such that upon detecting the combined partial polarization state components I(sub p) = I(sub 1p) + I(sub 2p) and I(sub s) = I(sub 1s) + I(sub 2s) and adjusting the intensity of the variable radiation source of the reflected radiation I(sub 2) until the combined partial radiation components I(sub p) and I(sub s) are equal, the effects of emissivity as well as diffusivity of the surface of the body are eliminated, thus obviating the need for any post processing of brightness temperature data.

  16. Optical pyrometer for the measurement of turbine blade surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpenel, M.; Wilhelm, J.

    An optical pyrometer with high spatial and temporal resolution has been developed to allow the determination of turbine blade surface temperature distributions in studies of blade cooling. The pyrometer is based on a water cooled metallic tube with a deflecting prism placed in front of a circular aperture which receives the infrared radiation emitted by a blade surface region as it passes by the probe. Blade temperature is determined from the measurement of the intensity of the sampled radiation, and the probe may be placed between turbine stages. The temperature field is reconstructed from averaged infrared intensity signals by computer, taking into account the emissivity of the surface examined as well as parasitic reflections of radiation from adjacent blades. The pyrometer has been applied to the determination of local transport coefficients on moving blades following the cutoff of blade cooling, and has been found simpler to use than techniques employing thermocouples.

  17. Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    1999-01-01

    The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.

  18. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty. PMID:24248279

  19. Temperature measurement in WTE boilers using suction pyrometers.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-11-15

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  20. Direct emissivity measurements on liquids and corrections to multi-color pyrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Optical pyrometry provides a means for non-contact temperature measurements whose accuracy depends on the accuracy with which specimen emittance is known. Two methods for obtaining the required emittance data are discussed in which the emittance is determined from measurements of the wavelength or polarization dependence of light emitted by the specimen. The spectral technique, multi-color pyrometry, yields apparent values for specimen emittance and temperature from emitted intensity measurements at two or more wavelengths. Emittance corrections cannot be eliminated by increasing the number of spectral intensity measurements required by an n-color pyrometer. Even if this were possible, the accuracy of temperature measurements by n-color pyrometry decreases with n such that pyrometers that require four intensity measurements would be impractical. In contrast, emittance values and corrections for one-color pyrometers can be accurately measured by the polarized light technique. The polarized light technique involves measurement of the degree of polarization for light emitted at an angle of 45 deg to the specimen normal. The reflectivities (r) for light polarized parallel (p) and normal (n) to the plane of emission are related by r(p) = r(n) squared. This leads to a simple relation between the intensity ratio for light emitted in the two polarized states and the emittance, i.e., e(n) = 2 - I(p)/I(n). The true specimen temperature is also obtained if absolute intensities are measured. Delvelopment of the polarized light technique in combination with one-color optical pyrometry is recommended to achieve accurate non-contact temperature measurements on liquids.

  1. Application of the Self Calibrating Emissivity and/or Transmissivity Independent Multiwavelength Pyrometer in an Intense Ambient Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The NASA self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer is a recent addition to the list of pyrometers used in remote temperature measurement in research and development. The older one-color, two-color, and the disappearing filament pyrometers, as well as the multicolor and early multiwavelength pyrometers, all do not operate successfully in situations in which strong ambient radiation coexists with radiation originating from the measured surface. In such situations radiation departing from the target surface arrives at the pyrometer together with radiation coming from another source either directly or through reflection. Unlike the other pyrometers, the self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer can still calibrate itself and measure the temperatures in this adverse environment.

  2. Multi-color pyrometer for materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Spencer, Mark N.; Wolk, Nancy E.; Werner, Jennifer S.; Miranda, Henry A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The design, construction and calibration of a computer-linked multicolor pyrometer is described. The device was constructed for ready adaptation to a spacecraft and for use in the control of thermal processes for manufacturing materials in space. The pyrometer actually uses only one color at a time, and is relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the heated object's emissivity because the product of the color and the temperature has been selected to be within a regime where the radiant energy emitted from the body increases very rapidly with temperature. The instrument was calibrated and shown to exceed its design goal of temperature measurements between 300 and 2000 C, and its accuracy in the face of imprecise knowledge of the hot object's emissivity was demonstrated.

  3. Use of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer in Several Elevated Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    2001-01-01

    A multiwavelength pyrometer was developed for applications unique to aerospace environments. It was shown to be a useful and versatile technique for measuring temperature, even when the emissivity is unknown. It has also been used to measure the surface temperatures of ceramic zircomia thermal barrier coatings and alumina. The close agreement between pyrometer and thin film thermocouple temperatures provided an independent check. Other applications of the multiwavelength pyrometer are simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurements of a transparent material, and combustion gas temperature measurement using a special probe interfaced to the multiwavelength pyrometer via an optical fiber. The multiwavelength pyrometer determined temperature by transforming the radiation spectrum in a broad wavelength region to produce a straight line (in a certain spectral region), whose intercept in the vertical axis gives the temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength independent emissivity. Though the two data points of a two-color pyrometer similarly processed would result immediately in a similar straight line to give the unknown temperature, the two-color pyrometer lacks the greater data redundancy of the multiwavelength pyrometer, which enables it to do so with improved accuracy. It also confirms that emissivity is indeed wavelength independent, as evidenced by a multitude of the data lying on a simple straight line. The multiwavelength pyrometer was also used to study the optical transmission properties of a nanostructured material from which a quadratic exponential functional frequency dependence of its spectral transmission was determined. Finally, by operating the multiwavelength pyrometer in a very wide field of view mode, the surface temperature distribution of a large hot surface was obtained through measurement of just a single radiation spectrum.

  4. An optical pyrometer to measure turbine blade surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpenel, M.; Wilhem, J.

    1985-09-01

    The development of a cooled infrared pyrometric probe, with a high spatial and temporal resolving power, made it possible to establish by pyrometric methods surface temperature charts of the mobile blades of a turbine. The use of a sensor with a 1 sec time constant yields a resulting power on the blade surface of the order of 2 sq mm. This sensor is cooled at -40 C, which ensures a good detectivity and temperature measurements above 450 C. A water cooled metallic tube, ending by a right angle deflecting prism, makes up the light guide of the pyrometer and can be inserted between the various turbine stages. The probe has been designed to withstand the pressure and temperature conditions prevailing in the turbine blade test section, and was subjected without damage to 20 bar and 2100 K. The use of this pyrometer with the expermental turbine specially designed for qualifying new blade cooling methods has shown that pyrometry involves difficulties connected to: the non-zero blade reflection coefficient (emissivity lower than 1); and the gas radiation due to the gases. The above difficulties were analyzed and solutions were proposed; in particular a correcting program for the temperatures was perfected which takes into account the blade to blade mutual reflections.

  5. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  6. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  7. High-resolution surface temperature measurements on rotating turbine blades with an infrared pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uguccini, O. W.; Pollack, F. G.

    1976-01-01

    A high-resolution pyrometer was developed and tested on a modified turbine engine. The pyrometer was used to obtain temperature profiles of the viewed surface of turbine blades in the engine at tip speeds up to 366 meters per second. The combination of coherent fiber optics, a silicon avalanche detector, and high-speed electronics enabled surface resolution of a spot diameter of 0.05 centimeter. The data, in the form of temperature profiles, was obtained in near real time as a hard copy output from a computer display terminal. Temperatures measured with the pyrometer and with thermocouples agreed within 2 percent at temperatures between 977 to 1144 K.

  8. Multi-spectral pyrometer for gas turbine blade temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi

    2014-09-01

    To achieve the highest possible turbine inlet temperature requires to accurately measuring the turbine blade temperature. If the temperature of blade frequent beyond the design limits, it will seriously reduce the service life. The problem for the accuracy of the temperature measurement includes the value of the target surface emissivity is unknown and the emissivity model is variability and the thermal radiation of the high temperature environment. In this paper, the multi-spectral pyrometer is designed provided mainly for range 500-1000°, and present a model corrected in terms of the error due to the reflected radiation only base on the turbine geometry and the physical properties of the material. Under different working conditions, the method can reduce the measurement error from the reflect radiation of vanes, make measurement closer to the actual temperature of the blade and calculating the corresponding model through genetic algorithm. The experiment shows that this method has higher accuracy measurements.

  9. Measuring Isotope Ratios Across the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Chris R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biology [1]. For the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, for example, the (sup 1)(sup 3)C/(sup 1)(sup 2)C ratio identifies it as a Mars (SNC) meteorite; the ??K/??Ar ratio tells us the last time the rock cooled to solid, namely 4 Gya; isotope ratios in (sup 3)He, (sup 2)(sup 1)Ne and (sup 3)?Ar show it was in space (cosmic ray exposure) for 10-20 million years; (sup 1)?C dating that it sat in Antarctica for 13,000 years before discovery; and clumped isotope analysis of (sup 1)?O(sup 1)(sup 3)C(sup 1)?O in its carbonate that it was formed at 18+/-4 ?C in a near-surface aqueous environment [2]. Solar System Formation

  10. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  11. Low temperature fiber optic pyrometer for fast time resolved temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.; Gaenshirt, D.; Kaiser, J.; Villnow, M.; Banda, M.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature Pyrometry at temperatures beyond 150°C is limited in the measurement speed due to slow pyroelectric detectors. To detect the circumferential temperature distribution of fast rotating machines a novel Fiber Optical Pyrometer Type is presented here.

  12. Multiwavelength Pyrometer Developed for Use at Elevated Temperatures in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel L.

    2003-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have developed a unique multiwavelength pyrometer for aerospace applications. It has been shown to be a useful and versatile instrument for measuring the surface temperatures of ceramic zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and alumina, even when their emissivity is unknown. The introduction of fiber optics into the pyrometer has greatly increased the ease of using this instrument. Direct comparison of measurements obtained using the pyrometer and thin film thermocouples on a sample provided independent verification of pyrometry temperature measurement. Application of the pyrometer has also included simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurement in a transparent material, the measurement of combustion gas temperatures in the flames of an atmospheric burner, the measurement of the temperature distribution appearing on a large surface from the recording of just a single radiation spectrum emitted from this nonuniform temperature surface, and the measurement of some optical properties for special aeronautical materials-such as nanostructured layers. The multiwavelength pyrometer temperature is obtained from a radiation spectrum recorded over a broad wavelength region by transforming it into a straight line segment(s) in part or all of the spectral region. The intercept of the line segment(s) with the vertical axis at zero wavelength gives the inverse of the temperature. In a two-color pyrometer, the two data points are also amenable to this analysis to determine the unknown temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength-independent emissivity. Its two (and minimum) pieces of data are sufficient to determine this straight line. However, a multiwavelength pyrometer not only has improved accuracy but also confirms that the wavelength-independent emissivity assumption is valid when a multitude of data points are shown to lie on a simple straight line.

  13. Evaluation and comparison of three IR detectors and three amplifier designs for a new, high-speed IR pyrometer

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Young, S. Borrora, A.W. Obst, J.R. Payton, A. Seifter

    2005-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a high-speed, four-wavelength, infrared (IR) pyrometer has been used for surface temperature measurements in shock-physics experiments for several years. The pyrometer uses solid state detectors and a single fiber-optic cable for transmission of light from the target surface to the detectors. This instrument has recently been redesigned for an upcoming experiment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Three different IR detectors (two HgCdTe variants as well as the existing InSb chip) were compared for sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio, and bandwidth. Of major concern was detector amplifier recovery time from overload saturation. In shock physics experiments, a short but very bright precursor frequently accompanies shock breakout (often from trapped air). This precursor can saturate the amplifier and may ''swamp-out'' the signal of interest before the amplifier recovers. With this in mind, we evaluated two new amplifier designs by the Perry Amplifier Company for linearity, signal-to-noise characteristics, gain, and saturation recovery time. This paper describes experimental setup for detector comparison and results obtained. Furthermore, we discuss new amplifier design and suitability for highspeed infrared pyrometry in shock physics experiments.

  14. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  15. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  16. Development of the blackbody probe type pyrometer, part 1. Experimental study on the fundamental characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisamatsu, Toru; Mori, Noriyuki; Hamamatsu, Teruhide; Abe, Toshio

    1988-06-01

    For the benefit of the monitoring and controlling high temperature equipment, such as a coal gasification furnace or a gas turbine, measuring the internal temperature of equipment is very important. The black body probe type pyrometer using cavity radiation was designed and studied to develop a pyrometer with high accuracy of measurement in very high temperature of nearly 2000 C or in the corrosive ambient atmosphere. This pyrometer has a small spherical cavity as a pseudo-blackbody at the tip of its probe. Temperature measurement with this pyrometer is carried out by measuring infrared radiation from the cavity. It was shown that the ceramic probe with microcavity can be manufactured by sintering an assembly of powder mouldings to one body. As a calibration result of this pyrometer using an electric furnace, the infrared radiation output of the probe conformed with one measured by a blackbody furnace for calibration with an error of + or - 1 percent or less. The accuracy of temperature measurement was as high as that of the thermocouple.

  17. Four-color imaging pyrometer for mapping temperatures of laser-based metal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagel, Daryl J.; Grossetete, Grant D.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Korey, Scott P.

    2016-05-01

    A 4-color imaging pyrometer was developed to investigate the thermal behavior of laser-based metal processes, specifically laser welding and laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel. The new instrument, coined a 2x pyrometer, consists of four, high-sensitivity silicon CMOS cameras configured as two independent 2-color pyrometers combined in a common hardware assembly. This coupling of pyrometers permitted low and high temperature regions to be targeted within the silicon response curve, thereby broadening the useable temperature range of the instrument. Also, by utilizing the high dynamic range features of the CMOS cameras, the response gap between the two wavelength bands can be bridged. Together these hardware and software enhancements are predicted to expand the real-time (60 fps) temperature response of the 2x pyrometer from 600 °C to 3500 °C. Initial results from a calibrated tungsten lamp confirm this increased response, thus making it attractive for measuring absolute temperatures of steel forming processes.

  18. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  19. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    DOE PAGES

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; ...

    2016-11-29

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology–traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40 nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP’s ~250-nm operating range ismore » then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. As a result, error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.« less

  20. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; Kendrick, J.; McCoy, C. A.; Polsin, D. N.; Boehly, T. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Millot, M.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40-nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP's ˜250-nm operating range is then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. Error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.

  1. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; Kendrick, J.; McCoy, C. A.; Polsin, D. N.; Boehly, T. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Millot, M.

    2016-11-29

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology–traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40 nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP’s ~250-nm operating range is then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. As a result, error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.

  2. Multi-channel optical pyrometer for sub-nanosecond temperature measurements at NDCX-I/II

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Waldron, W.L.

    2011-04-13

    We present a detailed technical description of a fast multi-channel pyrometer designed for warm-dense-matter (WDM) experiments with intense heavy ion beams at the neutralized-drift-compression-experiment linear accelerator (NDCX-I/II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The unique features of the described instrument are its sub-nanosecond temporal resolution (100 ps rise-time) and a broad range, 1,500 K - 12,000 K of measurable brightness temperatures in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. The working scheme, calibration procedure, experimental data obtained with the pyrometer and future applications are presented.

  3. In-flight particle pyrometer for thermal spray processes. Final report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-20

    The objective of the project was to produce an industrial hardened particle temperature sensor. In general the thermal spray community believes that the particle temperature and velocity prior to impact on the substrate are two of the predominant parameters which effect coating quality. Prior to the full scale prototyping of such an instrument it was necessary to firmly establish the relationship between operating parameters, particle temperature and coating characteristics. It was shown in the first year of this project that the characteristics and consistency of the coatings formed are directly determined by particle velocity and temperature at impact. For the HVOF spray process the authors have also shown that the particle velocity is determined primarily by chamber pressure, while stoichiometry (the ratio of oxygen to fuel) has a minor influence. Hence, particle velocity can be controlled by maintaining the chamber pressure at a set point. Particle temperature, on the other hand is primarily a function of stoichiometry. Therefore particle velocity and temperature can be independently controlled. In the second year (FY-94), an industrial hardened prototype particle temperature sensor (In-flight Particle Pyrometer) was produced. The IPP is a two-color radiation pyrometer incorporating improvements which make the device applicable to the measurement of in-flight temperature of particles over a wide range of operating conditions in thermal spray processes. The device is insensitive to particulate loading (particle feed rate), particle composition, particle size distribution, and provides an ensemble average particle temperature. The sensor head is compact and coupled to the electronics via a fiber optic cable. Fiber optic coupling allows maximum flexibility of deployment while providing isolation of the electronics from electromagnetic interference and the hot, particulate laden environment of a typical spray booth. The device is applicable to all thermal spray

  4. Self-balancing line-reversal pyrometer automatically measures gas temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D.

    1967-01-01

    Automatic line-reversal pyrometer measures gas temperatures from 2900 degrees to 4500 degrees R. The self-balancing device uses the sodium D-line but replaces the two conventional manual operations of the line-reversal method and can be used by semiskilled personnel.

  5. A high spatio-temporal resolution optical pyrometer at the ORION laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, Emma; Gumbrell, Edward T.; Fyrth, Jim; Luis, James D.; Skidmore, Jonathan W.; Patankar, Siddharth; Giltrap, Samuel; Smith, Roland

    2016-11-01

    A streaked pyrometer has been designed to measure the temperature of ≈100 μm diameter heated targets in the warm dense matter region. The diagnostic has picosecond time resolution. Spatial resolution is limited by the streak camera to 4 μm in one dimension; the imaging system has superior resolution of 1 μm. High light collection efficiency means that the diagnostic can transmit a measurable quantity of thermal emission at temperatures as low as 1 eV to the detector. This is achieved through the use of an f/1.4 objective, and a minimum number of reflecting and refracting surfaces to relay the image over 8 m with no vignetting over a 0.4 mm field of view with 12.5× magnification. All the system optics are highly corrected, to allow imaging with minimal aberrations over a broad spectral range. The detector is a highly sensitive Axis Photonique streak camera with a P820PSU streak tube. For the first time, two of these cameras have been absolutely calibrated at 1 ns and 2 ns sweep speeds under full operational conditions and over 8 spectral bands between 425 nm and 650 nm using a high-stability picosecond white light source. Over this range the cameras had a response which varied between 47 ± 8 and 14 ± 4 photons/count. The calibration of the optical imaging system makes absolute temperature measurements possible. Color temperature measurements are also possible due to the wide spectral range over which the system is calibrated; two different spectral bands can be imaged onto different parts of the photocathode of the same streak camera.

  6. Fast six-channel pyrometer for warm-dense-matter experiments with intense heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, P.A.; Kulish, M.I.; Mintsev, V.; Nikolaev, D.N.; Ternovoi, V.Ya.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Udrea, S.; Tahir, N.A.; Varentsov, D.; Hug, A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes a fast multi-channel radiation pyrometer that was developed for warmdense-matter experiments with intense heavy ion beams at Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI). The pyrometer is capable of measuring of brightness temperatures from 2000 K to 50000 K, at 6 wavelengths in visible and near-infrared parts of spectrum, with 5 nanosecond temporal resolution and several micrometers spatial resolution. The pyrometer's spectral discrimination technique is based on interference filters, which act as filters and mirrors to allow for simultaneous spectral discrimination of the same ray at multiple wavelengths.

  7. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-08-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

  8. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  9. 32-channel pyrometer with high dynamic range for studies of shocked nanothermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-01-01

    A 32-channel optical pyrometer has been developed for studying temperature dynamics of shock-initiated reactive materials with one nanosecond time resolution and high dynamic range. The pyrometer consists of a prism spectrograph which directs the spectrally-resolved emission to 32 fiber optics and 32 photomultiplier tubes and digitizers. Preliminary results show shock-initiated reactions of a nanothermite composite, nano CuO/Al in nitrocellulose binder, consists of three stages. The first stage occurred at 30 ns, right after the shock unloaded, the second stage at 100 ns and the third at 1 μs, and the temperatures ranged from 2100K to 3000K. Time-resolved emission spectra suggest hot spots formed during shock unloading, which initiated the bulk thermite/nitrocellulose reaction.

  10. Pyrometer mount for a closed-circuit thermal medium cooled gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Burns, James Lee; Fulton, John Robert

    2002-01-01

    A steam-cooled second-stage nozzle segment has an outer band and an outer cover defining a plenum therebetween for receiving cooling steam for flow through the nozzles to the inner band and cover therefor and return flow through the nozzles. To measure the temperature of the buckets of the stage forwardly of the nozzle stage, a pyrometer boss is electron beam-welded in an opening through the outer band and TIG-welded to the outer cover plate. By machining a hole through the boss and seating a linearly extending tube in the boss, a line of sight between a pyrometer mounted on the turbine frame and the buckets is provided whereby the temperature of the buckets can be ascertained. The welding of the boss to the outer band and outer cover enables steam flow through the plenum without leakage, while providing a line of sight through the outer cover and outer band to measure bucket temperature.

  11. Two-Step Calibration of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer for High Temperature Measurement Using a Quartz Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    There is no theoretical upper temperature limit for pyrometer application in temperature measurements. NASA Glenn's multiwavelength pyrometer can make measurements over wide temperature ranges. However, the radiation spectral response of the pyrometer's detector must be calibrated before any temperature measurement is attempted, and it is recommended that calibration be done at temperatures close to those for which measurements will be made. Calibration is a determination of the constants of proportionality at all wavelengths between the detector's output (voltage) and its input signals (usually from a blackbody radiation source) in order to convert detector output into radiation intensity. To measure high temperatures, the detectors are chosen to be sensitive in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers. A blackbody furnace equilibrated at around 1000 C is often used for this calibration. Though the detector may respond sensitively to short wavelengths radiation, a blackbody furnace at 1000 C emits only feebly at very short wavelengths. As a consequence, the calibration constants that result may not be the most accurate. For pyrometry calibration, a radiation source emitting strongly at the short wavelengths is preferred. We have chosen a quartz halogen lamp for this purpose.

  12. Near-infrared two-color pyrometer for determining ignition temperatures of metals and metal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K.; Branch, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A two-color pyrometer has been designed, constructed, and used to measure the ignition temperatures of metals and metal alloys. Cylindrical metal and metal alloy specimens were ignited by a focused cw CO2 laser beam in a cool, static, pure oxygen environment. The pyrometer operates in the near-infrared at two narrow spectral regions, with a nominal bandwidth of 10 nm centered at 0.9051 and 1.06 micron, and has a temperature range from 1000 to 4000 K. In the present design the temperature of a spot, about 0.5 mm in diameter, can be recorded with a maximum time resolution of 25 microseconds and with an accuracy of a few percent. Results of CO2 laser ignition of cylindrical specimens of 6061 aluminum alloy and 302 SS in a pure oxygen environment were obtained from the two-color pyrometer and were compared with those obtained from a thermocouple placed inside the specimen near the laser-irradiated surface.

  13. Concept of planetary gear system to control fluid mixture ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgroarty, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanical device senses and corrects for fluid flow departures from the selected flow ratio of two fluids. This system has been considered for control of rocket engine propellant mixture control but could find use wherever control of the flow ratio of any two fluids is desired.

  14. Radiation pyrometer for gas turbine blades. [in LOX turbopump engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohy, D. A.; Compton, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    A turbine blade temperature measuring system for liquid oxygen turbopumps is reported. The system includes a three mode, two-input optical signal processor, interconnecting cable, and four sensor heads. Two of the heads are aperture type, while the other two are lens type. This system is applicable to a temperature range of 1400 to 2200 F.

  15. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  16. SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT USING SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO ESTIMATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    systems by using signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ) estimation of the received signal. Such SNR estimates can be used to adaptively control important system...parameters whose design explicitly depends on SNR . The results of this investigation show, for certain types of systems, performance can indeed be...substantially improved by SNR estimation. The analysis of the report is basically in two parts. In the first part consideration is given to the design

  17. Remote Heat Flux Using a Self Calibration Multiwavelength Pyrometer and a Transparent Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    A self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer was used to conduct remote heat flux measurements using a transparent sapphire disk by determining the sapphire disk's front and back surface temperatures. Front surface temperature (Tfs) was obtained from detection of surface emitted radiation at long wavelengths (k = 6 gm). Back surface temperature (Tbs) was obtained from short wavelength (1 to 5 gm) radiation transmitted through the sapphire disk. The thermal conductivity of the sapphire disk and the heat transfer coefficients h, and h2 of its surfaces are determined experimentally. An analysis of the heat flux measurement is presented.

  18. DETECTION OF LOW-MASS-RATIO STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gullikson, Kevin; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    O- and B-type stars are often found in binary systems, but the low binary mass-ratio regime is relatively unexplored due to observational difficulties. Binary systems with low mass ratios may have formed through fragmentation of the circumstellar disk rather than molecular cloud core fragmentation. We describe a new technique sensitive to G- and K-type companions to early B stars, a mass ratio of roughly 0.1, using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra. We apply this technique to a sample of archived VLT/CRIRES observations of nearby B stars in the CO bandhead near 2300 nm. While there are no unambiguous binary detections in our sample, we identify HIP 92855 and HIP 26713 as binary candidates warranting follow-up observations. We use our non-detections to determine upper limits to the frequency of FGK stars orbiting early B-type primaries.

  19. Calibration of fiber-optic shock pyrometer using high-power coiled tungsten lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Comparison of all known calibration sources indicates that coiled standards of spectral irradiance, despite their very non-uniform brightness, are currently the best practical choice for accurate shock temperature measurements above 3000 K by optical pyrometry. We review all three documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to a coiled lamp and show that only one technique, with no fiber-optics employed, is free of major radiometric errors. We report the development of a new, accurate to 5% and precise to 1-1.5% calibration procedure for the modified Caltech 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution combined open beam and fiber-coupled instrument. A designated central area of an 0.7x demagnified image of 900 W coiled-coil lamp filament is used, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. The results of two slightly different cross-calibrations are reported and the procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of NewFocus 1801 amplified photodetectors. The most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic pyrometer using a coiled irradiance standard lamp are discussed. All these conditions are validated in actual radiometric tests and shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO.

  20. An evaluation of ratio systems in radioecological studies

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A.

    1996-02-01

    Replicate samples of soil, Juncus squarrosus and Calluna vulgaris were taken within a grid system on an organic peatland soil site in Ireland. A similar sampling survey was carried out on an organic rich forest soil site in Sweden, where Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea with corresponding soil samples were taken within a Picea abies stand. The data were used to investigate the relationship between soil and plant {sup 137}Cs content and to examine the validity of using ratios to describe this relationship. Findings from both countries were in agreement. There were no significant changes in plant {sup 137}Cs concentration associated with increasing soil content. When data from both countries were merged and treated as a single data set, a significant overall positive correlation (95% confidence level) between soil and plant {sup 137}Cs levels was observed. Concentration ratios and transfer factors were calculated for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K uptake from soils to plants. Both ratio types exhibited a clearly defined decrease associated with increasing soil concentrations for both radionuclides. Findings demonstrate serious problems with the use of ratios for the evaluation of radionuclide transfer. 28 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Empathizing, systemizing and finger length ratio in a Swedish sample.

    PubMed

    Von Horn, Agneta; Bäckman, Lisa; Davidsson, Thomas; Hansen, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    The Empathy- and Systemizing Quotients (EQ and SQ, respectively; Baron-Cohen, 2003) were determined in a Swedish sample consisting mainly of university undergraduates. Females had significantly higher EQ than males, who in turn scored higher on the SQ inventory. Gender explained 12-14% of the variation. Males were strikingly overrepresented in the group defined by a high SQ/low EQ profile or by a large SQ - EQ difference; females dominated among people with a low SQ/high EQ profile or by a large EQ - SQ difference. Students majoring in the natural sciences had higher SQs than psychology majors, but in both groups the gender difference in SQ and EQ was strong. For each participant a weighted composite score was generated by multivariate processing of the EQ and SQ data (Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis). These scores were associated in a sex-linked fashion to a biometric measure reflecting prenatal testosterone exposure, i.e. the ratio between index (2D)- and ring (4D) finger lengths. In males a high (female-typical) 2D:4D ratio predicted an enhanced tendency to empathize and a reduced tendency to systemize; in women, by contrast, the 2D:4D ratio was unrelated to these traits. The present research confirms earlier work of a gender difference in EQ and SQ. The difference appears robust as it appears as large in Sweden (a country with high cultural gender-equality) as in countries with considerably lower gender-equality.

  2. [Development of multi-target multi-spectral high-speed pyrometer].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peng; Dai, Jing-Min; Wang, Qing-Wei

    2008-11-01

    The plume temperature of a solid propellant rocket engine (SPRE) is a fundamental parameter in denoting combustion status. It is necessary to measure the temperature along both the axis and the radius of the engine. In order to measure the plume temperature distribution of a solid propellant rocket engine, the multi-spectral thermometry has been approved. Previously the pyrometer was developed in the Harbin Institute of Technology of China in 1999, which completed the measurement of SPRE plume temperature and its distribution with multi-spectral technique in aerospace model development for the first time. Following this experience, a new type of multi-target multi-spectral high-speed pyrometer used in the ground experiments of SPRE plume temperature measurement was developed. The main features of the instrument include the use of a dispersing prism and a photo-diode array to cover the entire spectral band of 0.4 to 1.1 microm. The optic fibers are used in order to collect and transmit the thermal radiation fluxes. The instrument can measure simultaneously the temperature and emissivity of eight spectra for six uniformly distributed points on the target surface, which are well defined by the hole on the field stop lens. A specially designed S/H (Sample/Hold) circuit, with 48 sample and hold units that were triggered with a signal, measures the multi-spectral and multi-target outputs. It can sample 48 signals with a less than 10ns time difference which is most important for the temperature calculation.

  3. Characterizing the Period Ratio Distribution of Kepler Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, James L.; Ragozzine, Darin

    2016-01-01

    Many of the exoplanetary systems discovered by the Kepler space telescope demonstrate unusual properties which need to be explored in order to better understand planetary system formation and evolution. Among these interesting properties is an excess in the number of planets orbiting in resonance or near-resonance with their neighbors. The prevailing assumption in the planetary sciences community is that these are real features of the exoplanet population, but many theories developed on this assumption produce a resonance structure quite different from what we see. In our work we explore the possibility that the actual resonances may not be as we observe them, and may instead be explained by a combination of real resonance features and/or observational bias resulting from geometric effects. In particular, if the near-resonant systems have a different inclination distribution than other systems, then it is possible for them to be over or under-represented.We analyze the existing Kepler data and generate models which approximately represent the empirical period ratio distribution. The 2:1 and 3:2 just-wide-of-resonance excesses are included in the model, along with the deficit of period ratios just short of the 2:1 resonance. We test the Kepler data set against these models using the Python emcee package in order to determine the best-fit parameters for each model. We then address the inclination distribution question by generating two-planet systems with different inclination distributions for the near-resonant systems. We use the CORBITS package (https://github.com/jbrakensiek/CORBITS, Brakensiek & Ragozzine, submitted) to determine the probability of detecting both planets in transit. These tests adjust the relative sizes of the resonance excesses as well as orbital parameters (primarily inclination and nodal alignments) in order to determine which combinations of parameters would create in an observational bias resulting in the resonance excesses seen in the

  4. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly proposed for embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side ('bevel') did produce up to 3dB more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side ('slant') produced up to 2dB more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron ('notch') produced up to 2dB increase in the noise. Having internal walls ('septae') within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  5. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  6. Extreme oxygen isotope ratios in the early Solar System.

    PubMed

    Aléon, Jérôme; Robert, François; Duprat, Jean; Derenne, Sylvie

    2005-09-15

    The origins of the building blocks of the Solar System can be studied using the isotopic composition of early planetary and meteoritic material. Oxygen isotopes in planetary materials show variations at the per cent level that are not related to the mass of the isotopes; rather, they result from the mixture of components having different nucleosynthetic or chemical origins. Isotopic variations reaching orders of magnitude in minute meteoritic grains are usually attributed to stellar nucleosynthesis before the birth of the Solar System, whereby different grains were contributed by different stars. Here we report the discovery of abundant silica-rich grains embedded in meteoritic organic matter, having the most extreme 18O/16O and 17O/16O ratios observed (both approximately 10(-1)) together with a solar silicon isotopic composition. Both O and Si isotopes indicate a single nucleosynthetic process. These compositions can be accounted for by one of two processes: a single exotic evolved star seeding the young Solar System, or irradiation of the circumsolar gas by high energy particles accelerated during an active phase of the young Sun. We favour the latter interpretation, because the observed compositions are usually not expected from nucleosynthetic processes in evolved stars, whereas they are predicted by the selective trapping of irradiation products.

  7. Emissivity measurements of opaque gray bodies up to 2000 °C by a dual-frequency pyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasetto, L.; Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.

    2008-11-01

    In the framework of the SPES project at LNL-INFN a method for emissivity measurements by a double-frequency pyrometer in the infrared region at high temperatures on opaque gray bodies of SiC and graphite is presented. The measurement method proposed in this work reveals a good fitting with literature values. Moreover, the effect of surface finishing on emissivity values has been investigated.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  13. Simulating extreme-mass-ratio systems in full general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a new method for numerically evolving the full Einstein field equations in situations where the spacetime is dominated by a known background solution. The technique leverages the knowledge of the background solution to subtract off its contribution to the truncation error, thereby more efficiently achieving a desired level of accuracy. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the radial infall of a solar-type star into supermassive black holes with mass ratios ≥106. The self-gravity of the star is thus consistently modeled within the context of general relativity, and the star’s interaction with the black hole computed with moderate computational cost, despite the over five orders of magnitude difference in gravitational potential (as defined by the ratio of mass to radius). We compute the tidal deformation of the star during infall, and the gravitational wave emission, finding the latter is close to the prediction of the point-particle limit.

  14. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  15. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  16. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  17. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fat’yanov, O. V. Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  18. An identification method for damping ratio in rotor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weimin; Li, Qihang; Gao, Jinji; Yao, Jianfei; Allaire, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Centrifugal compressor testing with magnetic bearing excitations is the last step to assure the compressor rotordynamic stability in the designed operating conditions. To meet the challenges of stability evaluation, a new method combining the rational polynomials method (RPM) with the weighted instrumental variables (WIV) estimator to fit the directional frequency response function (dFRF) is presented. Numerical simulation results show that the method suggested in this paper can identify the damping ratio of the first forward and backward modes with high accuracy, even in a severe noise environment. Experimental tests were conducted to study the effect of different bearing configurations on the stability of rotor. Furthermore, two example centrifugal compressors (a nine-stage straight-through and a six-stage back-to-back) were employed to verify the feasibility of identification method in industrial configurations as well.

  19. Temperature Measurement of a Miniature Ceramic Heater in the Presence of an Extended Interfering Background Radiation Source Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Temperature measurement of small (millimeter size) objects is generally difficult and demanding. Measurement involving ceramic materials using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which may vary with both temperature and wavelength. Pyrometry applications in an environment with an interfering radiation source of extended dimension adds extra complexity to the process. We show that the multiwavelength pyrometer successfully measured the temperatures of a millimeter (mm) size ceramic heater under these demanding conditions.

  20. Amplification ratio control system for copy number variation genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Philip A. I.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Abdollahi, Mohammed R.; Rodriguez, Santiago; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N. M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a generic design for ratiometric analysis suitable for determination of copy number variation (CNV) class of a gene. Following two initial sequence-specific PCR priming cycles, both ends of both amplicons (one test and one reference) in a duplex reaction, are all primed by the same universal primer (UP). Following each amplification denaturation step, the UP target and its reverse complement (UP′) in each strand form a hairpin. The bases immediately beyond the 3′-end of the UP and 5′ of UP′ are chosen such as not to base pair in the hairpin (otherwise priming is ablated). This hairpin creates a single constant environment for priming events and chaperones free 3′-ends of amplicon strands. The resultant ‘amplification ratio control system’ (ARCS) permits ratiometric representation of amplicons relative to the original template into PCR plateau phase. These advantages circumvent the need for real-time PCR for quantitation. Choice of different %(G+C) content for the target and reference amplicons allows liquid phase thermal melt discrimination and quantitation of amplicons. The design is generic, simple to set up and economical. Comparisons with real-time PCR and other techniques are made and CNV assays demonstrated for haptoglobin duplicon and ‘chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1’ gene. PMID:21300641

  1. Golden ratio: A subtle regulator in our body and cardiovascular system?

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Selcuk; Yalta, Kenan; Yetkin, Ertan

    2016-11-15

    Golden ratio, which is an irrational number and also named as the Greek letter Phi (φ), is defined as the ratio between two lines of unequal length, where the ratio of the lengths of the shorter to the longer is the same as the ratio between the lengths of the longer and the sum of the lengths. The so-called formula is a mathematical ratio and there exist a variety of examples in natural and man-made structures of great beauty. Moreover, golden ratio is expressed throughout the human body in some ways, including digits, uterus, teeth, and cardiovascular system. Although the association of Fibonacci series or golden ratio with systems and organs of human being has not been assessed in depth yet, the mainstream regulation of cardiovascular system seems to be associated with golden ratio. This raises the idea that there might have been a fine and subtle regulator in our body. In this article, we aimed to elaborate the relationship between the existence of golden ratio and the human body and to discuss the golden ratio and its association with cardiovascular system.

  2. The linear system theory's account of behavior maintained by variable-ratio schedules.

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J J; Wixted, J T

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical theory of linear systems, which has been used successfully to describe behavior maintained by variable-interval schedules, is extended to describe behavior maintained by variable-ratio schedules. The result of the analysis is a pair of equations, one of which expresses response rate on a variable-ratio schedule as a function of the mean ratio requirement (n) that the schedule arranges. The other equation expresses response rate on a variable-ratio schedule as a function of reinforcement rate. Both equations accurately describe existing data from variable-ratio schedules. The theory accounts for two additional characteristics of behavior maintained by variable-ratio schedules; namely, the appearance of strained, two-valued (i.e., zero or very rapid) responding at large ns, and the abrupt cessation of responding at a boundary n. The theory also accounts for differences between behavior on variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules, including (a) the occurrence of strained responding on variable-ratio but not on variable-interval schedules, (b) the abrupt cessation of responding on occurrence of higher response rates on variable-ratio than on variable-interval schedules. Furthermore, given data from a series of variable-interval schedules and from a series of concurrent variable-ratio variable-interval schedules, the theory permits quantitative prediction of many properties of behavior on single-alternative variable-ratio schedules. The linear system theory's combined account of behavior on variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules is superior to existing versions of six other mathematical theories of variable-interval and variable-ratio responding. PMID:3279150

  3. Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47°C to 85°C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5°C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

  4. Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of winter flounder collected from Rhode Island coastal systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA, including Narragansett Bay, Narrow River and three coastal lagoons. Fish collect...

  5. Performance of the Bowen ratio systems on a 22 deg slope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nie, D.; Flitcroft, I.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1990-01-01

    The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to assess the energy fluxes on inclined surfaces during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). Since air flow over sloping surface may differ from that over flat terrain, it is important to examine whether Bowen ratio measurements taken on sloping surfaces are valid. In this study, the suitability of using the Bowen ratio technique on sloping surfaces was tested by examining the assumptions that the technique requires for valid measurements. This was accomplished by studying the variation of Bowen ratio measurements along a selected slope at the FIFE site. In September 1988, four Bowen ratio systems were set up in a line along the 22 degree north-facing slope with northerly air flow (wind went up the slope). In July of 1989, six Bowen ratio systems were similarly installed with southerly air flow (the wind went down slope). Results indicated that, at distances between 10 to 40 meters from the top of the slope, no temperature or vapor pressure gradient parallel to the slope was detected. Uniform Bowen ratio values were obtained on the slope, and thus the sensible or latent heat flux should be similar along the slope. This indicates that the assumptions for valid flux measurements are reasonably met at the slope. The Bowen ratio technique should give the best estimates of the energy fluxes on slopes similar to that in this study.

  6. [Concept for Planning the Nurse-Patient Ratio and Nursing Fee Payment Linkage System].

    PubMed

    Lu, Meei-Shiow; Tseng, Hsiu-Yi; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Lin, Chiou-Fen

    2017-02-01

    This article describes the current situation in Taiwan with regard to the nurse-patient ratio and nursing fee payments, reviews the related policies and results in developed countries, and then proposes a plan for improving the domestic situation. Direct relationships exist between patient nursing quality and patient safety and the nurse-patient ratio as well as between nursing fee payments and the nurse-patient ratio. Therefore, in order to enhance the quality and safety of nursing care, it will be necessary to develop and institute a payment linkage system that links nursing fee payments to the nurse-patient ratio. This process requires public consensus and planning in order to institute an equitable and effective payment linkage system in the future.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in the muscle tissues of young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. These systems included three coastal lagoons (Ni...

  8. A system for estimating bowen ratio And evaporation from waste lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low cost system was deployed above a swine waste lagoon to obtain estimates of Bowen ratios and characterize lagoon temperatures. The system consisted of humidity and temperature sensors and anemometers deployed above the lagoon, water temperature sensors, and a meteorological station located by t...

  9. The Determination of Heat Capacity Ratios in a Simple Open System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Glen L.

    2007-01-01

    A virtually closed system is treated as open and compared to known results. The classic experiment of Clement and Desormes provides the conceptual framework for this open system approach in determining the molar heat capacity ratios, lambda. This alternate view, extends the theoretical treatment beyond the first law of thermodynamics for closed…

  10. Dynamic Modeling of Hydraulic Power Steering System with Variable Ratio Rack and Pinion Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nong; Wang, Miao

    A comprehensive mathematical model of a typical hydraulic power steering system equipped with variable ratio rack and pinion gear is developed. The steering system’s dynamic characteristics are investigated and its forced vibrations are compared with those obtained from a counterpart system with a constant ratio rack and pinion gear. The modeling details of the mechanism subsystem, hydraulic supply lines subsystem and the rotary spool valve subsystem are provided and included in the integrated steering system model. The numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of the nonlinear parametric steering system. From the comparison between simulated results and the experimental ones, it is shown that the model accurately integrates the boost characteristics of the rotary spool valve which is the key component of hydraulic power steering system. The variable ratio rack-pinion gear behaviors significantly differently from its constant ratio counterpart does. It significantly affects not only the system natural frequencies but also reduces vibrations under constant rate and ramp torque steering inputs. The developed steering model produces valid predictions of the system’s behavior and therfore could assist engineers in the design and analysis of integrated steering systems.

  11. Application of Taguchi methods to dual mixture ratio propulsion system optimization for SSTO vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit; Joyner, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. For a selected SSTO concept, a dual mixture ratio, staged combustion cycle engine that employs a number of innovative technologies was selected as the baseline propulsion system. A series of parametric trade studies are presented to optimize both a dual mixture ratio engine and a single mixture ratio engine of similar design and technology level. The effect of varying lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio, engine mode transition Mach number, mixture ratios, area ratios, and chamber pressure values on overall vehicle weight is examined. The sensitivity of the advanced SSTO vehicle to variations in each of these parameters is presented, taking into account the interaction of each of the parameters with each other. This parametric optimization and sensitivity study employs a Taguchi design method. The Taguchi method is an efficient approach for determining near-optimum design parameters using orthogonal matrices from design of experiments (DOE) theory. Using orthogonal matrices significantly reduces the number of experimental configurations to be studied. The effectiveness and limitations of the Taguchi method for propulsion/vehicle optimization studies as compared to traditional single-variable parametric trade studies is also discussed.

  12. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented.

  13. The analysis of signal-to-noise ratio of airborne LIDAR system under state of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Huang; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Yingchao; Ni, Guoqiang

    2010-11-01

    This article gives an overview of airborne LIDAR (laser light detection and ranging) system and its application. By analyzing the transmission and reception process of laser signal, the article constructs a model of echo signal of the LIDAR system, and gives some basic formulas which make up the relationship of signal-to-noise ratio, for example, the received power, the dark noise power and so on. And this article carefully studies and analyzes the impact of some important parameters in the equation on the signal-to-noise ratio, such as the atmospheric transmittance coefficient, the work distance. And the matlab software is used to simulate the detection environment, and obtains a series values of signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio under different circumstances such as sunny day, cloudy day, day, night. And the figures which describe how the SNR of LIDAR system is influenced by the critical factors are shown in the article. Finally according to the series values of signal-to-noise ratio and the figures, the SNR of LIDAR system decreases as the distance increases, and the atmospheric transmittance coefficient caused by bad weather, and also high work temperature drops the SNR. Depending on these conclusions, the LIDAR system will work even better.

  14. Optimal uniform-damping ratio controller for sequential design of multivariable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, Leang G.; Liu, Zhen; Sunkel, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An optimal uniform-damping ratio controller is developed for the sequential design of a multivariable control system so that the designed closed-loop poles of the respective multivariable system and reduced-order observer are exactly placed on the negative real axis and/or the boundaries of desired sectors with constant-damping ratios. The functions in the quadratic performance index to be minimized are chosen as a combination of the weighted outputs, reduced states and inputs. Also, the optimal uniform-damping ratio controller is a combination of optimal output-feedback and optimal reduced-order state-feedback controllers. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the design procedure.

  15. Depolarization ratio, SNR estimation, and polarization sensitivity analysis for a commercial Raman depolarization lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdikos, George; Georgoussis, George

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we focus on the estimation of the Signal-to-Noise (SNR) ratio of a 3-channel commercial (Raymetics) volcanic ash detection system, (LR111-D300), already operating in UK, and also, we perform a basic lidar polarization sensitivity analysis. The results show that SNR values are higher than 10 for ranges up to 13 km for daytime conditions. This is a quite good result compared with other values presented in bibliography and prove that such system is able to detect volcanic ash detection over a range of 20 km. We also assess the lidar polarization sensitivity and then, we estimate the linear depolarization ratio. By careful choice of the optical components (emitting and receiving optics), it has been shown that uncertainties of polarization states at receiver (and thus too depolarization ratio estimation) can be much reduced.

  16. DISK-PLANETS INTERACTIONS AND THE DIVERSITY OF PERIOD RATIOS IN KEPLER'S MULTI-PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Baruteau, Clement; Papaloizou, John C. B. E-mail: J.C.B.Papaloizou@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2013-11-20

    The Kepler mission is dramatically increasing the number of planets known in multi-planetary systems. Many adjacent planets have orbital period ratios near resonant values, with a tendency to be larger than required for exact first-order mean-motion resonances. This feature has been shown to be a natural outcome of orbital circularization of resonant planetary pairs due to star-planet tidal interactions. However, this feature holds in multi-planetary systems with periods longer than 10 days, in which tidal circularization is unlikely to provide efficient divergent evolution of the planets' orbits to explain these orbital period ratios. Gravitational interactions between planets and their parent protoplanetary disk may instead provide efficient divergent evolution. For a planet pair embedded in a disk, we show that interactions between a planet and the wake of its companion can reverse convergent migration and significantly increase the period ratio from a near-resonant value. Divergent evolution due to wake-planet interactions is particularly efficient when at least one of the planets opens a partial gap around its orbit. This mechanism could help account for the diversity of period ratios in Kepler's multiple systems from super-Earth to sub-Jovian planets with periods greater than about 10 days. Diversity is also expected for pairs of planets massive enough to merge their gap. The efficiency of wake-planet interactions is then much reduced, but convergent migration may stall with a variety of period ratios depending on the density structure in the common gap. This is illustrated for the Kepler-46 system, for which we reproduce the period ratio of Kepler-46b and c.

  17. Bionomic Exploitation of a Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiti, Alakes; Patra, Bibek; Samanta, G. P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article deals with the problem of combined harvesting of a Michaelis-Menten-type ratio-dependent predator-prey system. The problem of determining the optimal harvest policy is solved by invoking Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. Dynamic optimization of the harvest policy is studied by taking the combined harvest effort as a dynamic…

  18. Optimization of Gear Ratio in the Tidal Current Generation System based on Generated Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoi, Kazuhisa; Shiono, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuyuki

    It is possible to predict generating power of the tidal current generation, because of the tidal current's periodicity. Tidal current generation is more advantageous than other renewable energy sources, when the tidal current generation system is connected to the power system and operated. In this paper, we propose a method used to optimize the gear ratio and generator capacity, that is fundamental design items in the tidal current generation system which is composed of Darrieus type water turbine and squirrel-cage induction generator coupled with gear. The proposed method is applied to the tidal current generation system including the most large-sized turbine that we have developed and studied. This paper shows optimum gear ratio and generator capacity that make generated energy maximum, and verify effectiveness of the proposed method. The paper also proposes a method of selecting maximum generating current velocity in order to reduce the generator capacity, from the viewpoint of economics.

  19. Assessment of systemic inflammation with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Cemil, Bengü Çevirgen; Kurmuş, Gökçe Işıl; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous eruption of the skin and mucous membranes. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, it is believed that LP represents an inflammatory disorder. Neutrophil-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio is considered a systemic inflammatory marker that correlated with severity of the diseases. Aim To investigate whether N/L ratio increases in LP and may be an independent severity marker for LP lesions. Material and methods White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, N/L ratio, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were statistically compared between the patient (n = 55) and the control group (n = 48). The relationship of N/L ratio and the body surface area (BSA) was assessed. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and CRP were statistically higher in patients with LP than in controls (p < 0.0001). Our analysis revealed a significantly higher level of N/L ratio in patients with LP compared with controls, respectively (2.5 ±1.1 (1.2–7.3) vs. 1.4 ±0.4 (0.8–2.7), p < 0.0001). Body surface area (p = 0.001), CRP (p = 0.006), and ESR (p = 0.003) were identified as possible predictors of N/L ratio, but only BSA (p = 0.002) and ESR (p = 0.003) were found as significant independent predictors in a multiple linear regression model. Conclusions The inflammatory process in LP was supported by our results. N/L ratio may have an impact to show the inflammatory status in patients with LP as an inexpensive, simple and effective predictor. It may be used for the severity and treatment option of LP. But, N/L ratio and LP relationship could be confirmed by other large prospective studies. PMID:27512353

  20. On the modal damping ratios of shear-type structures equipped with Rayleigh damping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trombetti, T.; Silvestri, S.

    2006-04-01

    The effects of added manufactured viscous dampers upon shear-type structures are analytically investigated here for the class of Rayleigh damping systems. The definitions of mass proportional damping (MPD) and stiffness proportional damping (SPD) systems are briefly recalled and their physical counterpart is derived. From basic physics, a detailed mathematical demonstration that the first modal damping ratio of a structure equipped with the MPD system is always larger than the first modal damping ratio of a structure equipped with the SPD system is provided here. All results are derived for the class of structures characterised by constant values of lateral stiffness and storey mass, under the equal "total size" constraint. The paper also provides closed form demonstrations of other properties of modal damping ratios which further indicate that the MPD and the SPD systems are respectively characterised by the largest and the smallest damping efficiency among Rayleigh damping systems subjected to base excitation. A numerical application with realistic data corresponding to an actual seven-storey building structure is presented to illustrate and verify the theoretical findings.

  1. Evaluation of denitrification-nitrification biofilter systems in treating wastewater with low carbon: nitrogen ratios.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjin; Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Moonil; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage biological aerated/anoxic filter (BAF) system for denitrification-nitrification was developed to increase nitrogen removal in the treatment of municipal wastewater with low carbon:nitrogen (C/N) ratio [Formula: see text]. This system exhibited a high denitrification efficiency (67%), despite the low C/N ratio, and the ratio of reduced nitrate to consumed organic compounds was greater than the theoretical value due to the minimization of the conversion of organic carbon to biomass growth, the maintenance of low levels of dissolved oxygen in recycled water, and the maximization of use of organic carbon biosorbed inside biomass in the denitrification BAF. The maximum rate of nitrogen removal was achieved at a recycle ratio of 170%, and the headloss in two BAFs was maintained after a 24-h backwash. Biological nitrogen removal in a two-stage BAF system was possible in a short hydraulic retention time (1.2 h) because the maximum reaction rates of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in each column were achieved.

  2. Influence of tire dynamics on slip ratio estimation of independent driving wheel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianqiu; Song, Ziyou; Wei, Yintao; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-11-01

    The independent driving wheel system, which is composed of in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor(I-PMSM) and tire, is more convenient to estimate the slip ratio because the rotary speed of the rotor can be accurately measured. However, the ring speed of the tire ring doesn't equal to the rotor speed considering the tire deformation. For this reason, a deformable tire and a detailed I-PMSM are modeled by using Matlab/Simulink. Moreover, the tire/road contact interface(a slippery road) is accurately described by the non-linear relaxation length-based model and the Magic Formula pragmatic model. Based on the relatively accurate model, the error of slip ratio estimated by the rotor rotary speed is analyzed in both time and frequency domains when a quarter car is started by the I-PMSM with a definite target torque input curve. In addition, the natural frequencies(NFs) of the driving wheel system with variable parameters are illustrated to present the relationship between the slip ratio estimation error and the NF. According to this relationship, a low-pass filter, whose cut-off frequency corresponds to the NF, is proposed to eliminate the error in the estimated slip ratio. The analysis, concerning the effect of the driving wheel parameters and road conditions on slip ratio estimation, shows that the peak estimation error can be reduced up to 75% when the LPF is adopted. The robustness and effectiveness of the LPF are therefore validated. This paper builds up the deformable tire model and the detailed I-PMSM models, and analyzes the effect of the driving wheel parameters and road conditions on slip ratio estimation.

  3. Online process monitoring at quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding using a 3D-scanner with integrated pyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmailzl, A.; Steger, S.; Dostalek, M.; Hierl, S.

    2016-03-01

    Quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding is a well-known joining technique for thermoplastics and mainly used in the automotive as well as in the medical industry. For process control usually the so called set-path monitoring is used, where the weld is specified as "good" if the irradiation time is inside a defined confidence interval. However, the detection of small-sized gaps or thermal damaged zones is not possible with this technique. The analyzation of the weld seam temperature during welding offers the possibility to overcome this problem. In this approach a 3D-scanner is used instead of a scanner with flat-field optic. By using a pyrometer in combination with a 3D-scanner no color-corrected optic is needed in order to provide that laser- and detection-spot are concentric. Experimental studies on polyethylene T-joints have shown that the quality of the signal is adequate, despite the use of an optical setup with a long working distance and a small optical aperture. The effects on temperature are studied for defects like a gap in the joining zone. Therefore a notch was milled into the absorbent polymer. In case of producing housings for electronic parts the effect of an electrical wire between the joining partners is also investigated. Both defects can be identified by a local temperature deviation even at a feed rate of four meters per second. Furthermore a strategy for signal-processing is demonstrated. By this, remaining defects can be identified. Consequently an online detection of local defects is possible, which makes a dynamic process control feasible.

  4. Effect of COD/N ratio on removal performances in two subsurface wastewater infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Fei Jing Pan Deli Tong Linli Huang Long Yu Yafei Sun Shiyue Qi Yaoyao Huang, Hexin

    2017-01-24

    Dissolved oxygen (DO), removal of COD, TP and nitrogen in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs)with/without intermittent aeration under different influent COD/N ratios were investigated. Aerobic conditions were effectively developed in 50 cm depth of the matrix and anoxic or anaerobic conditions were not changed in 80 and 110 cm depth by intermittent aeration, which encouraged nitrification. Increased influent COD/N ratio led to lower COD and nitrogen removal in conventional SWISs. Sufficient carbon source in high COD/N ratio influent promoted denitrification with intermittent aeration. High removal rates of COD (95.68±0.21%), TP (92.02±0.28%), NH4+-N (99.33±0.05%) and TN (89.65±0.6%) were obtained with influent COD/N ratio of 12 in aerated SWISs. Under the COD/N ratio of 12 and 18, intermittent aeration boosted the growth and reproduction of nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. Meanwhile, nitrate and nitrite reductase activities with intermittent aeration were higher than that without aeration in 80 and 110 cm depth.

  5. Use of polarization to improve signal to clutter ratio in an outdoor active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontoura, Patrick F.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes the methodology and presents the results of the design of a polarization-sensitive system used to increase the signal-to-clutter ratio in a robust outdoor structured lighting sensor that uses standard CCD camera technology. This lighting sensor is intended to be used on an autonomous vehicle, looking down to the ground and horizontal to obstacles in an 8 foot range. The kinds of surfaces to be imaged are natural and man-made, such as asphalt, concrete, dirt and grass. The main problem for an outdoor eye-safe laser imaging system is that the reflected energy from background clutter tends to be brighter than the reflected laser energy. A narrow-band optical filter does not reduce significantly the background clutter in bright sunlight, and problems also occur when the surface is highly absorptive, like asphalt. Therefore, most of applications are limited to indoor and controlled outdoor conditions. A series of measurements was made for each of the materials studied in order to find the best configuration for the polarizing system and also to find out the potential improvement in the signal-to-clutter ratio (STC). This process was divided into three parts: characterization of the reflected sunlight, characterization of the reflected laser light, and measurement of the improvement in the STC. The results show that by using polarization properties it is possible to design an optical system that is able to increase the signal-to-clutter ratio from approximately 30% to 100% in the imaging system, depending on the kind of surface and on the incidence angle of the sunlight. The technique was also analyzed for indoor use, with the background clutter being the room illumination. For this specific case, polarization did not improve the signal-to-clutter ratio.

  6. A Method to Compensate for Display System Contrast Ratio Differences in Distributed Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    paper also describes a method used to remap all pixel colors and intensities with the adjustment algorithm during run-time, using plug-in shader ...range of chroma and intensities. Following PowerPoint color swatch analysis, the following method (Table 1) was selected as the most promising...Contrast Ratio Test Results Using the same test sphere, test equipment, and test methods in all three display systems yielded the following results

  7. On the origin of the flux ratio anomaly in quadruple lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2016-09-01

    We explore the origin of the flux ratio anomaly in quadruple lens systems. Using a semi-analytic method based on N-body simulations, we estimate the effect of a possible magnification perturbation caused by subhaloes with a mass scale of ≲109 h-1 M⊙ in lensing galaxy haloes. Taking into account astrometric shifts and assuming that the primary lens is described by a singular isothermal ellipsoid, the expected change to the flux ratios for a multiply lensed image is just a few per cent and the mean of the expected convergence perturbation at the effective Einstein radius of the lensing galaxy halo is <δκsub> = 0.003, corresponding to the mean of the ratio of a projected dark matter mass fraction in subhaloes at the effective Einstein radius = 0.006. In contrast, the expected change to the flux ratio caused by line-of-sight structures is typically ˜10 per cent and the mean of the convergence perturbation is <|δκlos|> = 0.008, corresponding to = 0.017. The contribution of the magnification perturbation caused by subhaloes is ˜40 per cent of the total at a source redshift zS = 0.7 and decreases monotonically in zS to ˜20 per cent at zS = 3.6. Assuming statistical isotropy, the convergence perturbation estimated from 11 observed quadruple lens systems has a positive correlation with the source redshift zS, which is much stronger than that with the lens redshift zL. This feature also supports that the flux ratio anomaly is caused mainly by line-of-sight structures rather than subhaloes. We also discuss a possible imprint of line-of-sight structures in the demagnification of minimum images due to locally underdense structures in the line of sight.

  8. Variable FOV optical illumination system with constant aspect ratio for 2-D array lasers diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, J.; de la Fuente, M. C.; Ibañez, C.

    2008-09-01

    In this contribution we present a compact system to create an illumination distribution with a constant aspect ratio 3:4 and FOV from 0.4 to 1 degree. Besides, the system must delivery 40 W from 170 individual laser diodes placed in a regular 2-D array distribution of 10 x 20 mm. The main problem that must be solved is the high asymmetry of the individual sources; emission divergence's ratio 3:73 (0.3 vs. 7.4 degree) combined with the flux holes due to the laser's heat drain. In one axis (divergence of 0.3º) the best design strategy approach is a Galileo telescope but in the other axis a collimator configuration is the best solution. To manage both solutions at the same time is the aim of this contribution. Unfortunately for the Galileo strategy, source dimensions are too large so aspheric surfaces are needed, and the collimator configuration requires an EFL that must change from 573 to 1432 mm. The presented solution uses a set of three fixed anamorphic lenses, two of them pure cylinders, combined with a wheel of anamorphic lenses that have the function to change the FOV of the system. The most important contribution of the design is to obtain a constant final ratio 3:4 from an initial ratio of 3:73 with no losses of energy. The proposed solution produces an illumination pattern with peaks and valleys lower than 40%. This pattern distribution might be unacceptable for a standard illumination solution. However, the actual FOV is used to illuminate far away targets thus air turbulence is enough to homogenize the distribution on the target.

  9. Performance Study of a Score-based Likelihood Ratio System for Forensic Fingermark Comparison.

    PubMed

    Leegwater, Anna Jeannette; Meuwly, Didier; Sjerps, Marjan; Vergeer, Peter; Alberink, Ivo

    2017-02-07

    In this article, the performance of a score-based likelihood ratio (LR) system for comparisons of fingerprints with fingermarks is studied. The system is based on an automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) comparison algorithm and focuses on fingerprint comparisons where the fingermarks contain 6-11 minutiae. The hypotheses under consideration are evaluated at the level of the person, not the finger. The LRs are presented with bootstrap intervals indicating the sampling uncertainty involved. Several aspects of the performance are measured: leave-one-out cross-validation is applied, and rates of misleading evidence are studied in two ways. A simulation study is performed to study the coverage of the bootstrap intervals. The results indicate that the evidential strength for same source comparisons that do not meet the Dutch twelve-point standard may be substantial. The methods used can be generalized to measure the performance of score-based LR systems in other fields of forensic science.

  10. A Consideration on Inertia-Ratio and Vibration Control of Two-Inertia System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takesue, Naoyuki; Furusho, Junji; Iwakoshi, Kunio

    Most Industrial robots are driven through reduction gears such as harmonic drives and RV gears. Since the exibility of the drive system, the vibratory behavior is caused duringthe operation. When the exibility is considered, the drive system of the robot joint can be modeled as a resonant mechanical system called two-inertia system. Two-inertia systems are the vibratory systems that have poles on/near the imaginary axis. Acceleration feedback and torque feedback are known as the vibration control methods of two-inertia systems. In this paper, we consider the two-inertia system with the feedbacks of motor-acceleration, load-acceleration and torsion-torque. It is shown that each feedback works to control the inertia-ratio of two-inertia system. Then, the control performances are compared. Torsion vibration in robot joint, which occurs owingto the accuracy of components and assembly error of gears at a certain speed of rotation, becomes a problem. In order to suppress the torsion vibration, each feedback is applied to the robot arm. As a result, the torsion vibrations are suppressed e ectively.

  11. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  12. Decentralized PID controller for TITO systems using characteristic ratio assignment with an experimental application.

    PubMed

    Hajare, V D; Patre, B M

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a decentralized PID controller design method for two input two output (TITO) systems with time delay using characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) method. The ability of CRA method to design controller for desired transient response has been explored for TITO systems. The design methodology uses an ideal decoupler to reduce the interaction. Each decoupled subsystem is reduced to first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model to design independent diagonal controllers. Based on specified overshoot and settling time, the controller parameters are computed using CRA method. To verify performance of the proposed controller, two benchmark simulation examples are presented. To demonstrate applicability of the proposed controller, experimentation is performed on real life interacting coupled tank level system.

  13. Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Karl E.; Valentine, John D.; Beauchamp, Brock R.

    2007-07-17

    A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

  14. ASAS J083241+2332.4: A NEW EXTREME LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Vivekananda Rao, P.; Choi, C. S.

    2016-03-15

    We present the R- and V-band CCD photometry and Hα line studies of an overcontact binary ASAS J083241+2332.4. The light curves exhibit totality along with a trace of the O’Connell effect. The photometric solution indicates that this system falls into the category of extreme low-mass ratio overcontact binaries with a mass ratio, q ∼ 0.06. Although a trace of the O’ Connell effect is observed, constancy of the Hα line along various phases suggest that a relatively higher magnetic activity is needed for it to show a prominent fill-in effect. The study of O–C variations reveals that the period of the binary shows a secular increase at the rate of dP/dt ∼ 0.0765 s years{sup −1}, which is superimposed by a low, but significant, sinusoidal modulation with a period of ∼8.25 years. Assuming that the sinusoidal variation is due to the presence of a third body, orbital elements have been derived. There exist three other similar systems, SX Crv, V857 Her, and E53, which have extremely low mass ratios and we conclude that ASAS J083241+2332.4 resembles SX Crv in many respects. Theoretical studies indicate that at a critical mass ratio range, q{sub critical} = 0.07–0.09, overcontact binaries should merge and form a fast rotating star, but it has been suggested that q{sub critical} can continue to fall up to 0.05 depending on the primary's mass and structure. Moreover, the obtained fill-out factors (50%–70%) indicate that mass loss is considerable and hydrodynamical simulations advocate that mass loss from L{sub 2} is mandatory for a successful merging process. Comprehensively, the results indicate that ASAS J083241+2332.4 is at a stage of merger. The pivotal role played by the subtle nature of the derived mass ratio in forming a rapidly rotating star has been discussed.

  15. A CRISPR-Cas9 sex-ratio distortion system for genetic control

    PubMed Central

    Galizi, Roberto; Hammond, Andrew; Kyrou, Kyros; Taxiarchi, Chrysanthi; Bernardini, Federica; O’Loughlin, Samantha M.; Papathanos, Philippos-Aris; Nolan, Tony; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Genetic control aims to reduce the ability of insect pest populations to cause harm via the release of modified insects. One strategy is to bias the reproductive sex ratio towards males so that a population decreases in size or is eliminated altogether due to a lack of females. We have shown previously that sex ratio distortion can be generated synthetically in the main human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, by selectively destroying the X-chromosome during spermatogenesis, through the activity of a naturally-occurring endonuclease that targets a repetitive rDNA sequence highly-conserved in a wide range of organisms. Here we describe a CRISPR-Cas9 sex distortion system that targets ribosomal sequences restricted to the member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Expression of Cas9 during spermatogenesis resulted in RNA-guided shredding of the X-chromosome during male meiosis and produced extreme male bias among progeny in the absence of any significant reduction in fertility. The flexibility of CRISPR-Cas9 combined with the availability of genomic data for a range of insects renders this strategy broadly applicable for the species-specific control of any pest or vector species with an XY sex-determination system by targeting sequences exclusive to the female sex chromosome. PMID:27484623

  16. Earliest rooting system and root : shoot ratio from a new Zosterophyllum plant.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shougang; Xue, Jinzhuang; Guo, Dali; Wang, Deming

    2010-01-01

    The enhanced chemical weathering by rooted vascular plants during the Silurian-Devonian period played a crucial role in altering global biogeochemical cycles and atmospheric environments; however, the documentation of early root morphology and physiology is scarce because the existing fossils are mostly incomplete. Here, we report an entire, uprooted specimen of a new Zosterophyllum Penhallow, named as Z. shengfengense, from the Early Devonian Xitun Formation (Lochkovian, c. 413 Myr old) of Yunnan, south China. This plant has the most ancient known record of a rooting system. The plant consists of aerial axes of 98 mm in height, showing a tufted habit, and a rhizome bearing a fibrous-like rooting system, c. 20 mm in length. The rhizome shows masses of branchings, which produce upwardly directed aerial axes and downwardly directed root-like axes. The completeness of Z. shengfengense made it possible to estimate the biomass allocation and root : shoot ratio. The root : shoot ratio of this early plant is estimated at a mean value of 0.028, and the root-like axes constitute only c. 3% of the total biomass. Zosterophyllum shengfengense was probably a semi-aquatic plant with efficient water use or a strong uptake capacity of the root-like axes.

  17. Corrected Optical Pyrometer Readings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-04-21

    2536 2045 2543 2050 2551 2055 2559 2060 2567 2065 2574 2070 2582 2075 2590 8 12 OBS TRU OeS TRU OeS TRU OBS TRU OBS TRU OeS TRU OaS TRU OBS TRU 2080...1570 1772 1575 1779 1580 1785 1585 1792 1590 1798 1595 1804 13 20 085 TRU OS TRU 066 TRU 06 TRU 05 TRU 088 TRU OBS TRU 088 TRU 1600 111 1605 1817 1610...90250 35500 90550 35600 90850 35700 91160 35800 91460 35900 91770 16000 92070 36100 92370 36200 92680 36300 92980 36400 93290 36500 93590 36600 93900

  18. Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

  19. A fast switching electrostatic deflector system for actinide isotopic ratio measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorko, Benjamin; Child, D. P.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.

    2010-04-01

    We have implemented a fast switching electrostatic system on the actinides beamline on the ANTARES accelerator at ANSTO, to improve the precision of analyses by accelerator mass spectrometry. This high-energy bouncing system is based on a pair of deflector plates, deflecting in the orbit plane, set at the entrance and exit of the analysing magnet. The design of deflector plates is unique, and it was modelled by SIMION in order to minimize field inhomogenity and fringe field effects. The pair of deflector plates are supplied by a high-voltage amplifier driven by an EPICS-enabled control unit, with two 4 W power supplies providing up to ±10 kV modulation. The high-energy bouncing system is synchronized with the existing low-energy bouncing system. To measure the isotopic ratio with the new system, the magnetic fields of the injector and analysing magnets are set to transmit selected isotopes along the beam line with zero voltage applied. The other isotopes of interest are transmitted by keeping the magnetic fields constant and modulating the voltages on the injector magnet chamber and on the high-energy deflector plates.

  20. Performance and limits of liquid chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for halogenated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilevska, Tetyana; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) has been an important step for the assessment of the origin and fate of compounds in environmental science.[1] Biologically or pharmaceutically important compounds often are not amenable for gas chromatographic separation because of high polarity and lacking volatility, thermostability. In 2004 liquid chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) became commercially available. LC-IRMS system intent a quantitative conversion of analytes separation into CO2 via wet oxidation with sodium persulfate in the presence of phosphoric acid while analytes are still dissolved in the aqueous liquid phase.[2] The aim of this study is to analyze the oxidation capacity of the interface of the LC-IRMS system and determine which parameters could improve oxidation of compounds which are resistant to persulfate oxidation. Oxidation capacity of the liquid chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry system was tested with halogenated acetic acid and a set of aromatic compounds with different substitutes. Acetic acid (AA) was taken as a model compound for complete oxidation and compared to the oxidation of other analytes on a molar basis. Correct values were obtained for di- and mono chlorinated and fluorinated and also for tribrominated acetic acid and for all studied aromatic compounds. Incomplete oxidation for trichloroacetic (TCAA) and trifluoroacetic (TFAA) acid was revealed with lower recovery compared to acetic acid and isotope fractionation leading to depleted carbon isotope composition compared to values obtained with an elementary analyzer connected to an isotope mass spectrometer Several optimization steps were tried in order to improve the oxidation of TCAA and TFAA: (i) increasing the concentration of the oxidizing agent, (ii) variation of flow rate of the oxidizing and acid solution, (iii) variation of flow rate of liquid chromatography pump (iv) addition of a catalyzer. These modifications lead to longer reaction time

  1. Benefit/Cost Ratio in Systems Engineering: Integrated Models, Tests, Design, and Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, C; Logan, R; Chidester, S; Foltz, M F

    2004-10-27

    We have previously described our methodology for quantification of risk and risk reduction, and the use of risk, quantified as a dollar value, in the Value Engineering and decision tradeoff process. In this work we extend our example theme of the safety of reactive materials during accidental impacts. We have begun to place the validation of our impact safety model into a systems engineering context. In that sense, we have made connections between the data and the trends in the data, our models of the impact safety process, and the implications regarding confidence levels and reliability based on given impact safety requirements. We have folded this information into a quantitative risk assessment, and shown the assessed risk reduction value of developing an even better model, with more model work or more experimental data or both. Since there is a cost incurred for either model improvement or testing, we have used a Benefit/Cost Ratio metric to quantify this, where Benefit is our quantification of assessed risk reduction, and cost is the cost of the new test data, code development, and model validation. This has left us with further questions posed for our evolving system engineering representation for impact safety and its implications. We had concluded that the Benefit/Cost Ratio for more model validation was high, but such improvement could take several paths. We show our progress along two such paths; simple and high fidelity modeling of the impact safety process, and the implications of our knowledge and assumptions of the probability distribution functions involved. At the other end of the systems engineering scale, we discuss the implications of our linkage from model validation to risk on our production plant operations. Naturally, the nature of most such methodologies is still evolving, and this work represents the views of the authors and not necessarily the views of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  2. A study on the optimal hydraulic loading rate and plant ratios in recirculation aquaponic system.

    PubMed

    Endut, Azizah; Jusoh, A; Ali, N; Wan Nik, W B; Hassan, A

    2010-03-01

    The growths of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were evaluated in recirculation aquaponic system (RAS). Fish production performance, plant growth and nutrient removal were measured and their dependence on hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was assessed. Fish production did not differ significantly between hydraulic loading rates. In contrast to the fish production, the water spinach yield was significantly higher in the lower hydraulic loading rate. Fish production, plant growth and percentage nutrient removal were highest at hydraulic loading rate of 1.28 m/day. The ratio of fish to plant production has been calculated to balance nutrient generation from fish with nutrient removal by plants and the optimum ratio was 15-42 gram of fish feed/m(2) of plant growing area. Each unit in RAS was evaluated in terms of oxygen demand. Using specified feeding regime, mass balance equations were applied to quantify the waste discharges from rearing tanks and treatment units. The waste discharged was found to be strongly dependent on hydraulic loading rate.

  3. Pilot Signal Design for Massive MIMO Systems: A Received Signal-To-Noise-Ratio-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Jungho; Kim, Donggun; Lee, Yuni; Sung, Youngchul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the pilot signal design for massive MIMO systems to maximize the training-based received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is considered under two channel models: block Gauss-Markov and block independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel models. First, it is shown that under the block Gauss-Markov channel model, the optimal pilot design problem reduces to a semi-definite programming (SDP) problem, which can be solved numerically by a standard convex optimization tool. Second, under the block i.i.d. channel model, an optimal solution is obtained in closed form. Numerical results show that the proposed method yields noticeably better performance than other existing pilot design methods in terms of received SNR.

  4. A multi-wavelength streak-optical-pyrometer for warm-dense matter experiments at NDCX-I and NDCX-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, P. A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multi-wavelength streak-optical-pyrometer (SOP) developed the for warm-dense-matter (WDM) experiments at the existing NDCX-I facility and the NDCX-II facility currently being commissioned at LBNL. The SOP served as the primary temperature diagnostic in the recent NDCX-I experiments, in which an intense K+ beam was used to heat different metal samples into WDM states. The SOP consists of a spectral grating (visible and near-infrared spectral range) and a fast, high-dynamic-range optical streak camera. The instrument is calibrated absolutely with a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp and can itself be considered as an absolutely calibrated, time-resolving spectrometer. The sample temperature is determined from fitting the recorded thermal spectrum into the Planck formula multiplied by a model of emissivity.

  5. The differential Howland current source with high signal to noise ratio for bioimpedance measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jinzhen; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Mengjun; Zhang, Weibo

    2014-05-15

    The stability and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the current source circuit are the important factors contributing to enhance the accuracy and sensitivity in bioimpedance measurement system. In this paper we propose a new differential Howland topology current source and evaluate its output characters by simulation and actual measurement. The results include (1) the output current and impedance in high frequencies are stabilized after compensation methods. And the stability of output current in the differential current source circuit (DCSC) is 0.2%. (2) The output impedance of two current circuits below the frequency of 200 KHz is above 1 MΩ, and below 1 MHz the output impedance can arrive to 200 KΩ. Then in total the output impedance of the DCSC is higher than that of the Howland current source circuit (HCSC). (3) The SNR of the DCSC are 85.64 dB and 65 dB in the simulation and actual measurement with 10 KHz, which illustrates that the DCSC effectively eliminates the common mode interference. (4) The maximum load in the DCSC is twice as much as that of the HCSC. Lastly a two-dimensional phantom electrical impedance tomography is well reconstructed with the proposed HCSC. Therefore, the measured performance shows that the DCSC can significantly improve the output impedance, the stability, the maximum load, and the SNR of the measurement system.

  6. Tap water isotope ratios reflect urban water system structure and dynamics across a semiarid metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, Yusuf; Brewer, Simon; Good, Stephen P.; Tipple, Brett J.; Ehleringer, James R.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-08-01

    Water extraction for anthropogenic use has become a major flux in the hydrological cycle. With increasing demand for water and challenges supplying it in the face of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand connections between human populations, climate, water extraction, water use, and its impacts. To understand these connections, we collected and analyzed stable isotopic ratios of more than 800 urban tap water samples in a series of semiannual water surveys (spring and fall, 2013-2015) across the Salt Lake Valley (SLV) of northern Utah. Consistent with previous work, we found that mean tap water had a lower 2H and 18O concentration than local precipitation, highlighting the importance of nearby montane winter precipitation as source water for the region. However, we observed strong and structured spatiotemporal variation in tap water isotopic compositions across the region which we attribute to complex distribution systems, varying water management practices and multiple sources used across the valley. Water from different sources was not used uniformly throughout the area and we identified significant correlation between water source and demographic parameters including population and income. Isotopic mass balance indicated significant interannual and intra-annual variability in water losses within the distribution network due to evaporation from surface water resources supplying the SLV. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of isotopes as an indicator of water management strategies and climate impacts within regional urban water systems, with potential utility for monitoring, regulation, forensic, and a range of water resource research.

  7. An electrically tunable optical zoom system using two composite liquid crystal lenses with a large zoom ratio.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Hung-Chun

    2011-02-28

    An electrically tunable-focusing optical zoom system using two composite LC lenses with a large zoom ratio is demonstrated. The optical principle is investigated. To enhance the electrically tunable focusing range of the negative lens power of the LC lens for a large zoom ratio, we adopted two composite LC lenses. Each composite LC lens consists of a sub-LC lens and a planar polymeric lens. The zoom ratio of the optical zooming system reaches ~7.9:1 and the object can be zoomed in or zoomed out continuously at the objective distance of infinity to 10 cm. The potential applications are cell phones, cameras, telescope and pico projectors.

  8. Enhancing Multiple-Transiting Planet System Validation with Transit Duration Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, E. B.; Prša, A.; Ragozzine, D.

    2011-09-01

    The recent discoveries of three planets transiting Kepler-9 (Holman et al. 2010; Torres et al. 2011), six densely packed planets transiting Kepler-11 (Lissauer et al. 2011), and a total of 170 stars with multiple transiting planet candidates (Borucki et al. 2011; Steffen et al. 2010) bode well for the future of multiple-transiting planet systems (MTPSs). For many faint (Kp>14) Kepler targets, traditional confirmation by radial velocities is not practical. Fortunately, detailed light curve analysis can eliminate the vast majority of false-positive scenarios and statistically validate such systems (Torres et al. 2011; Fressin et al. 2011). We explore the utility of the ratio of the observed transit durations in MTPSs for validating candidate MTPSs. After normalizing by a function of orbital periods, we obtain a parameter with a distribution centered on unity for multiple planets around the same star, but markedly different for certain blend scenarios. Using the Kepler Input Catalog and galactic stellar population models, we investigate these distributions through Monte Carlo simulations of four scenarios: 1) one star with two planets, 2) one star with one planet blended with an eclipsing binary, 3) two eclipsing binaries, and 4) two stars each with one planet. We discuss the utility of this statistics for in planet validation and estimating the false alarm probabilities for candidate systems identified by Kepler. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate. R.C.M. is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-0802270.

  9. Mobile lidar system for measurement of water vapor mixing ratio and ozone number density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Vapor Lidar was modified and extended to make differential absorption measurements of ozone. Water vapor measurements make use of a weak molecular scattering process known as Raman scattering. It is characterized by a shift in wavelength of the scattered beam of light relative to the incident one. Some of the energy of the incident photon is converted to vibrational or rotational energy within the molecule leaving the scattered photon shifted to a slightly longer wavelength. When performing water vapor measurements, profiles are acquired of water vapor mixing ratio from near the ground to beyond 7 km every 2 minutes. By forming a color composite image of the individual profiles, the spatial and temporal evolution of water vapor is visible with vertical resolution of 75 to 150m and temporal resolution of 2 minutes. The ozone lidar is intended for use as a cross calibration facility for other stationary ozone lidar systems. The ozone measurement employs the technique known as differential absorption. The backscattered laser radiation from two different wavelengths is measured. Successful measurements of 308 nm returns were made from 80 km with an averaging period of 6 hours. Using these data and a standard atmosphere density curve, an ozone number density profile was made which agrees very well with the standard ozone curve between 20 and 40 km.

  10. Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-<span class="hlt">Ratios</span> determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. SIMS studies of short-lived radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of short-lived radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic isotopes originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator isotope and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The cycle data also provide a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=218196','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=218196"><span>Effects of Different Eddy Covariance Correction Schemes on Energy Balance Closure and Comparisons with the Modified Bowen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eddy covariance (EC) and modified Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (MBR) <span class="hlt">systems</span> typically yield subtly different estimates of H, LE, and Fc. Our study analyzed the discrepancies between EC and MBR <span class="hlt">systems</span> by first considering the role of the data processing algorithm used to estimate fluxes using EC and later examinin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740026379','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740026379"><span>Computer experiments on periodic <span class="hlt">systems</span> identification using rotor blade transient flapping-torsion responses at high advance <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hohenemser, K. H.; Prelewicz, D. A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Systems</span> identification methods have recently been applied to rotorcraft to estimate stability derivatives from transient flight control response data. While these applications assumed a linear constant coefficient representation of the rotorcraft, the computer experiments described in this paper used transient responses in flap-bending and torsion of a rotor blade at high advance <span class="hlt">ratio</span> which is a rapidly time varying periodic <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3262755','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3262755"><span>Evaluation of an automated safety surveillance <span class="hlt">system</span> using risk adjusted sequential probability <span class="hlt">ratio</span> testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Automated adverse outcome surveillance tools and methods have potential utility in quality improvement and medical product surveillance activities. Their use for assessing hospital performance on the basis of patient outcomes has received little attention. We compared risk-adjusted sequential probability <span class="hlt">ratio</span> testing (RA-SPRT) implemented in an automated tool to Massachusetts public reports of 30-day mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods A total of 23,020 isolated adult coronary artery bypass surgery admissions performed in Massachusetts hospitals between January 1, 2002 and September 30, 2007 were retrospectively re-evaluated. The RA-SPRT method was implemented within an automated surveillance tool to identify hospital outliers in yearly increments. We used an overall type I error rate of 0.05, an overall type II error rate of 0.10, and a threshold that signaled if the odds of dying 30-days after surgery was at least twice than expected. Annual hospital outlier status, based on the state-reported classification, was considered the gold standard. An event was defined as at least one occurrence of a higher-than-expected hospital mortality rate during a given year. Results We examined a total of 83 hospital-year observations. The RA-SPRT method alerted 6 events among three hospitals for 30-day mortality compared with 5 events among two hospitals using the state public reports, yielding a sensitivity of 100% (5/5) and specificity of 98.8% (79/80). Conclusions The automated RA-SPRT method performed well, detecting all of the true institutional outliers with a small false positive alerting rate. Such a <span class="hlt">system</span> could provide confidential automated notification to local institutions in advance of public reporting providing opportunities for earlier quality improvement interventions. PMID:22168892</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730059886&hterms=strontium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dstrontium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730059886&hterms=strontium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dstrontium"><span>Chondrites - Initial strontium-87/strontium-86 <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and the early history of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wetherill, G. W.; Mark, R.; Lee-Hu, C.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A sodium-poor, calcium-rich inclusion in the carbonaceous chondrite Allende had a Sr-87/Sr-86 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at the time of its formation of 0.69880, as low a value as that found in any other meteorite. The higher Sr-87/Sr-86 <span class="hlt">ratios</span> found in ordinary chondrites indicate that their formation or isotopic equilibration occurred tens of millions of years later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22510502M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22510502M"><span>Implications for the False-positive Rate in Kepler Planet <span class="hlt">Systems</span> from Transit Duration <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, Eric B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Confirming transiting exoplanet candidates through traditional follow-up methods is challenging, especially for faint host stars. Most of Kepler's validated planets relied on statistical methods to separate true planets from false-positives. Multiple transiting planet <span class="hlt">systems</span> (MTPS) have been previously shown to have low false-positive rates and over 851 planets in MTPSs have been statistically validated so far (Lissauer et al. 2014; Rowe et al. 2014). We show that the period-normalized transit duration <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (ξ) offers additional information that can be used to establish the planetary nature of these <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We briefly discuss the observed distribution of ξ for the Q1-Q16 Kepler Candidate Search. We also utilize ξ to develop a Bayesian statistical framework combined with Monte Carlo methods to determine which pairs of planet candidates in a MTPS are consistent with the planet hypothesis for a sample of 676 MTPSs that include both candidate and confirmed planets. This analysis proves to be efficient and advantageous in that it only requires catalog-level bulk candidate properties and galactic population modeling to compute the probabilities of a myriad of stellar blend scenarios, without needing additional observational follow-up. Our results agree with the previous results of a low false-positive rate in the Kepler MTPSs. Out of our sample of 1,358 pairs of candidates, we find that about 100 pairs have a probability greater than 0.99 of being a MTPS associated with the target star, over 800 pairs have a probability greater than 0.99 of being a MTPS associated with the target star or another star blended in the photometric aperture. Further more, we find that well over a 1,000 pairs have a probability greater than 0.99 to be planetary in nature, either orbiting the same star or separately orbiting two different stars in the aperture. This implies, independently of any other estimates, that most of the MTPSs detected by Kepler are very likely to be planetary in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2007G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2007G"><span>Analysis of an employment of a gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> rate in CVT control <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grzegożek, W.; Szczepka, M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Continuously variable transmissions(CVTs) potentially ensure the selection of such a gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> that scooter fuel consumption can reach minimum value. Traditionally these CVT gearboxes are mechanically controlled, causing a gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to be an engine revs function. This solution does not ensure optimum gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. In this paper the solution for fuel optimal control problem is presented. The results obtained during brake stand research of scooter powertrains show the significant values of brake specific fuel consumption for the velocity that is maximum for a scooter according to highway code. With the introduction of CVT gearbox in which the selection of gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be controlled according to the worked out strategy the solution for fuel consumption problem is possible. Electromechanical actuators ensure the selection of a gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> independently of engine revs. Such type of construction solution makes working out the suitable control strategy that ensures decreasing of scooter fuel consumption possible. Presented strategies do not use precise optimization techniques. The CVT efficiency has a strong influence on transient operation. In the paper the control strategy owing to which fuel consumption decreases by over 40% is presented. The strategy was worked out on the basis of fuel consumption map for a defined scooter exploitation model. The possibilities of realization of the worked out strategy were tested on the brake test stand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23825332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23825332"><span>Immune <span class="hlt">system</span> stimulation increases the optimal dietary methionine to methionine plus cysteine <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in growing pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Litvak, N; Rakhshandeh, A; Htoo, J K; de Lange, C F M</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Chronic subclinical levels of disease occur frequently in intensive swine production and compromise nutrient use efficiency. Feeding additional Met plus Cys (M+C) has been implicated in improving the response of the animal to immune <span class="hlt">system</span> stimulation (ISS) because they can serve as substrates for generating compounds involved in the immune response, such as glutathione and acute phase proteins. A N-balance study was conducted to assess the optimal dietary Met to Met plus Cys <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (M:M+C) during ISS in 20-kg pigs. Thirty-six pigs were fed 800 g/d of 1 of 5 M+C-limiting diets, containing graded levels of M:M+C (0.42, 0.47, 0.52, 0.57, and 0.62) and supplying 2.5 g/d of M+C. After adaptation, N balances were determined sequentially during a 5-d prechallenge period and 2 ISS periods of 3 and 4 d, respectively. To induce ISS, pigs were injected intramuscularly with repeated and increasing doses of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Eye temperature and blood profile confirmed effective ISS. During ISS period 1, ISS reduced the mean N balance more severely than ISS period 2 (8.7 ± 0.3 vs. 9.6 ± 0.4 g/d; P < 0.001) and was less than the prechallenge period (10.0 ± 0.2 g/d; P < 0.001). An interactive effect of ISS and diet on N balance was observed (P < 0.001). Based on quadratic-plateau regression analysis, the optimal dietary M:M+C was 0.57 ± 0.03 and 0.59 ± 0.02 for the prechallenge period and ISS period 2, respectively. The optimal dietary M:M+C for ISS period 1 was found to be greater than 0.62, indicating that the optimal M:M+C is greater during ISS. It is suggested that this is the result of preferential use of Met during ISS. In conclusion, ISS results in an increase in the optimal dietary M:M+C in growing pigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.801a2063F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.801a2063F"><span>Frequency Analysis of Chaotic Flow in Transition to Turbulence in Taylor-Couette <span class="hlt">System</span> with Small Aspect <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujii, Tatsuya; Oishi, Yoshihiko; Kawai, Hideki; Kikura, Hiroshige; Stepanus Situmorang, Riky; Ambarita, Himsar</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Taylor-Couette flow with small aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> has characteristics such as the different vortex structure, because of a boundary layer of the upper and lower wall and the acceleration of the inner cylinder. In this study, the mechanism of Taylor-Couette <span class="hlt">system</span> with the small aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is measured and analyzed by using an ultrasound measurement and a numerical simulation. The process of transition to turbulent flow is observed by using a spectra analysis in a radial and an axial direction. The experimental and numerical results confirmed the characteristics of the broadband component in Taylor-Couette <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://surveillance.cancer.gov/help/joinpoint/setting-parameters/advanced-tab/jump-model-comparability-ratio/','NCI'); return false;" href="https://surveillance.cancer.gov/help/joinpoint/setting-parameters/advanced-tab/jump-model-comparability-ratio/"><span>Jump Model / Comparability <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Model — Joinpoint Help <span class="hlt">System</span> 4.4.0.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Jump Model / Comparability <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Model in the Joinpoint software provides a direct estimation of trend data (e.g. cancer rates) where there is a systematic scale change, which causes a “jump” in the rates, but is assumed not to affect the underlying trend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=269754&keyword=hi&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78742459&CFTOKEN=26962920','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=269754&keyword=hi&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78742459&CFTOKEN=26962920"><span>Nitrogen Isotope <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of Juvenile Winter Flounder as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to Estuarine <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nitrogen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine <span class="hlt">systems</span> (lagoons, river, bay) along the coast of Rhode Island, USA over a three-year period. Significant differences i...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790024500','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790024500"><span>Efficiency of tandem solar cell <span class="hlt">systems</span> as function of temperature and solar energy concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gokcen, N. A.; Loferski, J. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The results of a comprehensive theoretical analysis of tandem photovoltaic solar cells as a function of temperature and solar concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are presented. The overall efficiencies of tandem cell stacks consisting of as many as 24 cells having gaps in the 0.7 to 3.6 eV range were calculated for temperatures of 200, 300, 400, and 500 K and for illumination by an AMO solar spectrum having concentration <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of 1, 100, 500, and 1000 suns. For ideal diodes (A = B = 1), the calculations show that the optimized overall efficiency has a limiting value eta sub opt of approximately 70 percent for T = 200 K and C = 1000; for T = 300 K and C = 1000, this limiting efficiency approaches 60 percent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750004345','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750004345"><span>New theoretical models and <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging techniques associated with the NASA earth resources spectral information <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, R. K.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Four independent investigations are reported; in general these are concerned with improving and utilizing the correlation between the physical properties of natural materials as evidenced in laboratory spectra and spectral data collected by multispectral scanners. In one investigation, two theoretical models were devised that permit the calculation of spectral emittance spectra for rock and mineral surfaces of various particle sizes. The simpler of the two models can be used to qualitatively predict the effect of texture on the spectral emittance of rocks and minerals; it is also potentially useful as an aid in predicting the identification of natural atmospheric aerosol constituents. The second investigation determined, via an infrared <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging technique, the best pair of infrared filters for silicate rock-type discrimination. In a third investigation, laboratory spectra of natural materials were compressed into 11-digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> codes for use in feature selection, in searches for false alarm candidates, and eventually for use as training sets in completely automatic data processors. In the fourth investigation, general outlines of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> preprocessor and an automatic recognition map processor are developed for on-board data processing in the space shuttle era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NewA...51..128G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NewA...51..128G"><span>BVR photometric study of NSVS 2607629. A high mass-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> W-type W UMa <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gürol, Birol; Michel, Raul</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We present the results of our investigation of the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa-type binary <span class="hlt">system</span> NSVS 2607629 based on CCD BVRc light curves and their analysis with the Wilson-Devinney code. New times of minima and light elements have been determined. We find that, as seen in eccentric <span class="hlt">systems</span>, secondary minima do not occur at phase 0.5. According to our solution, the <span class="hlt">system</span> is found to be a high mass-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> W-type W UMa <span class="hlt">system</span>. Combining our photometric solution with the emprical relation obtained for W UMa type <span class="hlt">systems</span> by Dimitrov and Kjurkchieva (2015) we derive the masses and radii of the components of this eclipsing <span class="hlt">system</span> as M1 = 0.44M⊙ , M2 = 0.73M⊙ , R1 = 0.57R⊙ and R2 = 0.71R⊙ . The evolutionary state of the <span class="hlt">system</span> is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ApOpt..39..913S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ApOpt..39..913S"><span>Wide-angle narrow-bandpass optical detection <span class="hlt">system</span> optimally designed to have a large signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schweitzer, Naftali; Arieli, Yoel</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>A method for achieving optimal design of a wide-angle narrow-bandpass optical detection <span class="hlt">system</span> composed of a spherical interference filter and a circular photodetector is introduced. It was found that there is an optimal photodetector diameter that maximizes the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SNR) for a given filter configuration. We show how to optimize optical detection <span class="hlt">systems</span> based on spherical interference filters for all the important parameters simultaneously. The SNR values of these <span class="hlt">systems</span> are compared with the SNR values of spherical-step-filter-based detection <span class="hlt">systems</span>. When large silicon photodetectors are used, the two <span class="hlt">systems</span> have equal SNR values so that the more economical step-filter <span class="hlt">systems</span> are preferable. The results given here in the near-infrared region can be used for the optimization of any configuration of a detection <span class="hlt">system</span> based on a spherical interference filter and a silicon photodetector working at the same wavelength range, without further calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026799','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026799"><span>The 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of lacustrine carbonates and lake-level history of the Bonneville paleolake <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hart, W.S.; Quade, Jay; Madsen, D.B.; Kaufman, D.S.; Oviatt, Charles G.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Lakes in the Bonneville basin have fluctuated dramatically in response to changes in rainfall, temperature, and drainage diversion during the Quaternary. We analyzed tufas and shells from shorelines of known ages in order to develop a relation between 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of carbonates and lake level, which then can be used as a basis for constraining lake level from similar analyses on carbonates in cores. Carbonates from the late Quaternary shorelines yield the following average 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span>: 0.71173 for the Stansbury shoreline (22-20 14C ka; 1350 m), 0.71153 for the Bonneville shoreline (15.5-14.5 14C ka; 1550 m), 0.71175 for the Provo shoreline (14.4-14.0 14C ka; 1450 m), 0.71244 for the Gilbert shoreline (???10.3-10.9 14C ka; 1300 m), and 0.71469 for the modern Great Salt Lake (1280 m). These analyses show that the 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of lacustrine carbonates changes substantially at low- to mid-lake levels but is invariant at mid- to high-lake levels. Sr-isotope mixing models of Great Salt Lake and the Bonneville paleolake <span class="hlt">system</span> were constructed to explain these variations in 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> with change in lake level. Our model of the Bonneville <span class="hlt">system</span> produced a 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 0.71193, very close to the observed <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from high-shoreline tufa and shell. The model verifies that the integration of the southern Sevier and Beaver rivers with the Bear and others rivers in the north is responsible for the lower 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in Lake Bonneville compared to the modern Great Salt Lake. We also modeled the 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of Lake Bonneville with the upper Bear River diverted into the Snake River basin and obtained an 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 0.71414. Coincidentally, this <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is close to the observed <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for Great Salt Lake of 0.71469. This means that 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of >0.714 for carbonate can be produced by climatically induced low-lake conditions or by diversion of the upper Bear River out of the Bonneville basin. This model result also demonstrates that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19968467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19968467"><span>Planarians maintain a constant <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of different cell types during changes in body size by using the stem cell <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takeda, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Agata, Kiyokazu</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Planarians change in body size depending upon whether they are in feeding or starving conditions. To investigate how planarians regulate this flexible <span class="hlt">system</span>, the numbers of total cells and specific cell types were counted and compared among worms 2 mm to 9 mm in body length. The total cell number increased linearly with increasing body length, but the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of cell numbers between the head and the trunk portion was constant (1:3). Interestingly, counting the numbers of specific neurons in the eye and brain after immunostaining using cell type-specific antibodies revealed that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between different neuron types was constant regardless of the brain and body size. These results suggest that planarians can maintain proportionality while changing their body size by maintaining a constant <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of different cell types. To understand this <span class="hlt">system</span> and reveal how planarians restore the original <span class="hlt">ratio</span> during eye and brain regeneration, the numbers of specialized cells were Investigated during regeneration. The results further substantiate the existence of some form of "counting mechanism" that has the ability to regulate both the absolute and relative numbers of different cell types in complex organs such as the brain during cell turnover, starvation, and regeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21517455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21517455"><span>Moment <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and dynamic critical behavior of a reactive <span class="hlt">system</span> with several absorbing configurations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Andrade, M F; Figueiredo, W</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>We determine the critical behavior of a reactive model with many absorbing configurations. Monomers A and B land on the sites of a linear lattice and can react depending on the state of their nearest-neighbor sites. The probability of a reaction depends on temperature of the catalyst as well as on the energy coupling between pairs of nearest-neighbor monomers. We employ Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the moments of the order parameter of the model as a function of temperature. Some <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between pairs of moments are independent of temperature and are in the same universality class of the contact process. We also find the dynamical critical exponents of the model and we show that they are in the directed percolation universality class whatever the values of temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA601119','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA601119"><span>Investigation of Influence of Gas <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> on the Electron Temperature in TiN Magnetron Sputtering Deposition <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain Investigation of Influence of Gas <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> on the Electron Temperature in TiN Magnetron Sputtering ...Iran. In this work, a nanolayer of titanium nitride which produced by the magnetron sputtering <span class="hlt">system</span> is synthesized. Moreover the effect of...Direct current (DC) sputtering has become a very popular technique to develop a wide variety of thin films including nitrides. Using this method</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840020673','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840020673"><span>Wind tunnel tests of high-lift <span class="hlt">systems</span> for advanced transports using high-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> supercritical wings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift <span class="hlt">system</span> for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23044822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23044822"><span>Influence of D/A <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on photovoltaic performance of a highly efficient polymer solar cell <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Xia; Zhang, Maojie; Tan, Jiahui; Zhang, Shaoqing; Huo, Lijun; Hu, Wenping; Li, Yongfang; Hou, Jianhui</p> <p>2012-12-18</p> <p>A new copolymer PIDTDTQx based on indacenodithiophene and quinoxaline is synthesized and characterized. The correlation between the D/A <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, mobility, and photovoltaic properties, as well as morphology of the D/A blend based on a PIDTDTQx:PC(70) BM <span class="hlt">system</span> is investigated. The power conversion efficiency of the polymer solar cells based on PIDTDTQx/PC(70) BM (1:4, w/w) reaches 7.51%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA558401','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA558401"><span>Optimum Concentration <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Analysis Using Dynamic Thermal Model for Concentrated Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-22</p> <p>solar cells , the quantum efficiency β approaches unity for all wavelengths with energies greater than the...different semiconductor material solar cells , such as GaAs , InGaP, CdTe, and other high- efficiency cell materials to investigate the thermal properties...photovoltaic conversion, and CSP <span class="hlt">systems</span> represent the highest - efficiency solar energy <span class="hlt">systems</span> currently on the market [8]. The increased solar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895928','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895928"><span>The Role of Boron-Chloride and Noble Gas Isotope <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> in TVZ Geothermal <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hulston, J.R.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The model of the geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span> in which deep circulating groundwater containing noble gases, at air saturated water concentrations, mixes with hot fluids of mantle origin at depth, is extended to include the effect of interaction of the ascending fluid with both solid and gaseous phases of basement (or other) rocks en route to the surface. It is demonstrated that this interaction is responsible for most of the CO{sub 2} in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. It is proposed that the modeling of this interaction might be accomplished by techniques similar to those used for the understanding of the oxygen isotope shift found in geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The water rock interaction experiments of Ellis and Mahon (1964, 1967) provides some data on the kinetic rates for B and Cl dissolution from rocks likely to be encountered in the geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>, but further information on the behavior of B may be needed. If these problems can be overcome this modeling technique has promise for the estimation of the recharge of geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> and hence the sustainability of these <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22122891','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22122891"><span>DEEP, LOW MASS <span class="hlt">RATIO</span> OVERCONTACT BINARY <span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span>. XIII. DZ PISCIUM WITH INTRINSIC LIGHT VARIABILITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7({+-} 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC{sub 2} in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P{sub mod} = 11.89({+-} 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064({+-} 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43({+-}0.17) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J{sub spin}/J{sub orb} > 1/3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740012A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740012A"><span>Dynamics of ferrofluidic flow in the Taylor-Couette <span class="hlt">system</span> with a small aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We investigate fundamental nonlinear dynamics of ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette flow - flow confined be-tween two concentric independently rotating cylinders - consider small aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by solving the ferro-hydrodynamical equations, carrying out systematic bifurcation analysis. Without magnetic field, we find steady flow patterns, previously observed with a simple fluid, such as those containing normal one- or two vortex cells, as well as anomalous one-cell and twin-cell flow states. However, when a symmetry-breaking transverse magnetic field is present, all flow states exhibit stimulated, finite two-fold mode. Various bifurcations between steady and unsteady states can occur, corresponding to the transitions between the two-cell and one-cell states. While unsteady, axially oscillating flow states can arise, we also detect the emergence of new unsteady flow states. In particular, we uncover two new states: one contains only the azimuthally oscillating solution in the configuration of the twin-cell flow state, and an-other a rotating flow state. Topologically, these flow states are a limit cycle and a quasiperiodic solution on a two-torus, respectively. Emergence of new flow states in addition to observed ones with classical fluid, indicates that richer but potentially more controllable dynamics in ferrofluidic flows, as such flow states depend on the external magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5216369','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5216369"><span>Dynamics of ferrofluidic flow in the Taylor-Couette <span class="hlt">system</span> with a small aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We investigate fundamental nonlinear dynamics of ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette flow - flow confined be-tween two concentric independently rotating cylinders - consider small aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by solving the ferro-hydrodynamical equations, carrying out systematic bifurcation analysis. Without magnetic field, we find steady flow patterns, previously observed with a simple fluid, such as those containing normal one- or two vortex cells, as well as anomalous one-cell and twin-cell flow states. However, when a symmetry-breaking transverse magnetic field is present, all flow states exhibit stimulated, finite two-fold mode. Various bifurcations between steady and unsteady states can occur, corresponding to the transitions between the two-cell and one-cell states. While unsteady, axially oscillating flow states can arise, we also detect the emergence of new unsteady flow states. In particular, we uncover two new states: one contains only the azimuthally oscillating solution in the configuration of the twin-cell flow state, and an-other a rotating flow state. Topologically, these flow states are a limit cycle and a quasiperiodic solution on a two-torus, respectively. Emergence of new flow states in addition to observed ones with classical fluid, indicates that richer but potentially more controllable dynamics in ferrofluidic flows, as such flow states depend on the external magnetic field. PMID:28059129</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6989024','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6989024"><span>Review of the design and performance features of hvdc <span class="hlt">systems</span> connected to low short circuit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> ac <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thallam, R.S. )</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>The design and performance of an HVdc <span class="hlt">system</span> is significantly impacted by the relative strength of the ac <span class="hlt">system</span> to which it is connected. In this paper, design and performance features of ten HVdc <span class="hlt">systems</span> are discussed. All of these <span class="hlt">systems</span> are connected to ac <span class="hlt">systems</span> that are relatively weak compared to the rating of the dc <span class="hlt">system</span>. Six of these <span class="hlt">systems</span> are back-to-back, two are overhead lines, and two are undersea cable connections. AC and dc <span class="hlt">system</span> interaction problems and how they are addressed in the design and specification of each of these <span class="hlt">systems</span>, are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESD.....4...31R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESD.....4...31R"><span>The exponential eigenmodes of the carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span>, and their implications for <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of responses to forcings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raupach, M. R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Several basic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of responses to forcings in the carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span> are observed to be relatively steady. Examples include the CO2 airborne fraction (the fraction of the total anthropogenic CO2 emission flux that accumulates in the atmosphere) and the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> T/QE of warming (T) to cumulative total CO2 emissions (QE). This paper explores the reason for such near-constancy in the past, and its likely limitations in future. The contemporary carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span> is often approximated as a set of first-order linear <span class="hlt">systems</span>, for example in response-function descriptions. All such linear <span class="hlt">systems</span> have exponential eigenfunctions in time (an eigenfunction being one that, if applied to the <span class="hlt">system</span> as a forcing, produces a response of the same shape). This implies that, if the carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span> is idealised as a linear <span class="hlt">system</span> (Lin) forced by exponentially growing CO2 emissions (Exp), then all <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of responses to forcings are constant. Important cases are the CO2 airborne fraction (AF), the cumulative airborne fraction (CAF), other CO2 partition fractions and cumulative partition fractions into land and ocean stores, the CO2 sink uptake rate (kS, the combined land and ocean CO2 sink flux per unit excess atmospheric CO2), and the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> T/QE. Further, the AF and the CAF are equal. Since the Lin and Exp idealisations apply approximately to the carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span> over the past two centuries, the theory explains the observed near-constancy of the AF, CAF and T/QE in this period. A nonlinear carbon-climate model is used to explore how future breakdown of both the Lin and Exp idealisations will cause the AF, CAF and kS to depart significantly from constancy, in ways that depend on CO2 emissions scenarios. However, T/QE remains approximately constant in typical scenarios, because of compensating interactions between CO2 emissions trajectories, carbon-climate nonlinearities (in land-air and ocean-air carbon exchanges and CO2 radiative forcing), and emissions trajectories</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11707017D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11707017D"><span>Sensitivity of N/Z <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in projectile break-up of isobaric <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Russotto, P.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Baran, V.; Cap, T.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Francalanza, L.; Gnoffo, B.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Marquínez-Durán, G.; Maiolino, C.; Minniti, T.; Norella, S.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Wilczyński, J.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The binary break-up of projectile-like fragments in non central heavy-ion collisions follows different decay patterns, from equilibrated emission towards dynamical (prompt) fission. Recently, comparing two <span class="hlt">systems</span> with different N/Z in the entrance channel, it has been shown that the dynamical emission cross-section is enhanced for the most neutron rich <span class="hlt">system</span> while the statistical emission cross-section is independent from the isotopic composition. In order to understand this dependence and disentangle it from the initial size of the nuclei, we have studied the two isobaric <span class="hlt">systems</span> 124Xe+64 Zn and 124Xe+64 Ni at 35 A MeV (InKiIsSy experiment), in comparison with the previous studied reactions (124Sn +64 Ni and 112Sn +58 Ni) at the same bombarding energy. We present the first results evidencing a striking similar effect in the dynamical decay as a function of the N/Z of the target for equal size <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA627378','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA627378"><span>Ordered and Ultra-High Aspect <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Nanocapillary Arrays as a Model <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-13</p> <p>energy technologies such as photovoltaics, electrochemical capacitors and batteries, as well as a range of chemical technologies such as separations...potential distributions. Potentiostatic and linear sweep potentiometry during deep nanocapillary growth will be presented. Electrochemical impedance...during deep nanocapillary growth that exemplifies this as a model electrochemical <span class="hlt">system</span> for porous electrodes. Particularly the EIS response of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/611754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/611754"><span>36Cl/Cl <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>: preliminary measurements from the Coso Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nimz, G.J.; Moore, J.N.; Kasameyer, P.W.</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>The {sub 36}Cl/Cl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic structure, in determining the origins and age of waters within the <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and in differentiating the sources of chlorine (and other solutes) in the thermal waters. The {sub 36}Cl/Cl values for several geothermal water samples and reservoir host rock samples from the Coso, California geothermal field have been measured for these purposes. The results indicate that most of the chlorine is not derived from the dominant granitoid that host the geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>. If the chlorine was originally input into the Coso subsurface through meteoric recharge, that input occurred at least 1-1.25 million years ago. The results suggest that the thermal waters could be connate waters derived from sedimentary formations, presumably underlying and adjacent top the granitic rocks, which have recently migrated into the host rocks. Alternatively, most of the chlorine but not the water, may have recently input into the <span class="hlt">system</span> from magmatic sources. In either case, the results indicate that most of the chlorine in the thermal waters has existed within the granitoid host rocks for no more than about 100,00-200,00 years. this residence time for the chlorine is similar to residence times suggested by other researchers for chlorine in deep groundwaters of the Mono Basin north of the Coso field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62084&keyword=Exchange+AND+rate+AND+effects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78280996&CFTOKEN=76953179','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62084&keyword=Exchange+AND+rate+AND+effects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78280996&CFTOKEN=76953179"><span>RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER <span class="hlt">RATIOS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) <span class="hlt">system</span> was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4658067','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4658067"><span>Sedimentary Sulphur:Iron <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Indicates Vivianite Occurrence: A Study from Two Contrasting Freshwater <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rothe, Matthias; Kleeberg, Andreas; Grüneberg, Björn; Friese, Kurt; Pérez-Mayo, Manuel; Hupfer, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An increasing number of studies constrain the importance of iron for the long-term retention of phosphorus (P) under anoxic conditions, i.e. the formation of reduced iron phosphate minerals such as vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2⋅8H2O). Much remains unknown about vivianite formation, the factors controlling its occurrence, and its relevance for P burial during early sediment diagenesis. To study the occurrence of vivianite and to assess its relevance for P binding, surface sediments of two hydrologically contrasting waters were analysed by heavy-liquid separation and subsequent powder X-ray diffraction. In Lake Arendsee, vivianite was present in deeper sediment horizons and not in the uppermost layers with a sharp transition between vivianite and non-vivianite bearing layers. In contrast, in lowland river Lower Havel vivianite was present in the upper sediment layers and not in deeper horizons with a gradual transition between non-vivianite and vivianite bearing layers. In both waters, vivianite occurrence was accompanied by the presence of pyrite (FeS2). Vivianite formation was favoured by an elevated iron availability through a lower degree of sulphidisation and was present at a molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of total sulphur to reactive iron smaller than 1.1, only. A longer lasting burden of sediments by organic matter, i.e. due to eutrophication, favours the release of sulphides, and the formation of insoluble iron sulphides leading to a lack of available iron and to less or no vivianite formation. This weakening in sedimentary P retention, representing a negative feedback mechanism (P release) in terms of water quality, could be partly compensated by harmless Fe amendments. PMID:26599406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024516','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024516"><span>Selenium stable isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in California agricultural drainage water management <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Herbel, M.J.; Johnson, T.M.; Tanji, K.K.; Gao, S.; Bullen, T.D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Selenium stable isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are known to shift in predictable ways during various microbial, chemical, and biological processes, and can be used to better understand Se cycling in contaminated environments. In this study we used Se stable isotopes to discern the mechanisms controlling the transformation of oxidized, aqueous forms of Se to reduced, insoluble forms in sediments of Se-affected environments. We measured 80Se/76Se in surface waters, shallow ground waters, evaporites, digested plants and sediments, and sequential extracts from several sites where agricultural drainage water is processed in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Selenium isotope analyses of samples obtained from the Tulare Lake Drainage District flow-through wetland reveal small isotopic contrasts (mean difference 0.7%o) between surface water and reduced Se species in the underlying sediments. Selenium in aquatic macrophytes was very similar isotopically to the NaOH and Na2SO3 sediment extracts designed to recover soluble organic Se and Se(O), respectively. For the integrated on-farm drainage management sites, evaporite salts were slightly (approximately 0.6%o) enriched in the heavier isotope relative to the inferred parent waters, whereas surface soils were slightly (approximately 1.4%o) depleted. Bacterial or chemical reduction of Se(VI) or Se(IV) may be occurring at these sites, but the small isotopic contrasts suggest that other, less isotopically fractionating mechanisms are responsible for accumulation of reduced forms in the sediments. These findings provide evidence that Se assimilation by plants and algae followed by deposition and mineralization is the dominant transformation pathway responsible for accumulation of reduced forms of Se in the wetland sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12175032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12175032"><span>Selenium stable isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in California agricultural drainage water management <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herbel, Mitchell J; Johnson, Thomas M; Tanji, Kenneth K; Gao, Suduan; Bullen, Thomas D</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Selenium stable isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are known to shift in predictable ways during various microbial, chemical, and biological processes, and can be used to better understand Se cycling in contaminated environments. In this study we used Se stable isotopes to discern the mechanisms controlling the transformation of oxidized, aqueous forms of Se to reduced, insoluble forms in sediments of Se-affected environments. We measured 80Se/76Se in surface waters, shallow ground waters, evaporites, digested plants and sediments, and sequential extracts from several sites where agricultural drainage water is processed in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Selenium isotope analyses of samples obtained from the Tulare Lake Drainage District flow-through wetland reveal small isotopic contrasts (mean difference 0.7%) between surface water and reduced Se species in the underlying sediments. Selenium in aquatic macrophytes was very similar isotopically to the NaOH and Na2SO3 sediment extracts designed to recover soluble organic Se and Se(0), respectively. For the integrated on-farm drainage management sites, evaporite salts were slightly (approximately 0.6%) enriched in the heavier isotope relative to the inferred parent waters, whereas surface soils were slightly (approximately 1.4%) depleted. Bacterial or chemical reduction of Se(VI) or Se(IV) may be occurring at these sites, but the small isotopic contrasts suggest that other, less isotopically fractionating mechanisms are responsible for accumulation of reduced forms in the sediments. These findings provide evidence that Se assimilation by plants and algae followed by deposition and mineralization is the dominant transformation pathway responsible for accumulation of reduced forms of Se in the wetland sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16126515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16126515"><span>On-line <span class="hlt">systems</span> for continuous water and gas isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huber, Christof; Leuenberger, Markus</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>New continuous on-line techniques for water and air extracted from ice cores are developed. Water isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> determination on any of the water phases (water vapour, water, ice) is of great relevance in different research fields, such as climate and paleoclimate studies, geological surveys, and hydrological studies. The conventional techniques for water isotopes are available in different layouts but all of them are rather time-consuming. Here we report new fast on-line techniques that process water as well as ice samples. The analysis time is only approximately 5 min per sample which includes equilibration and processing. Measurement precision and accuracy are better than 0.1 per thousand and 1 per thousand for delta18O and deltaD, respectively, comparable to conventional techniques. The new on-line techniques are able to analyze a wide range of aqueous samples. This allows, for the first time, to make continuous isotope measurements on ice cores. Similarly, continuous and fast analysis of aqueous samples can be of great value for hydrological, geological and perhaps medical applications.Furthermore, a new technique for the on-line analysis of air isotopes extracted from ice cores is developed. This technique allows rapid analyses with high resolution of the main air components nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Measurement precision is comparable to precisions obtained by conventional techniques. It is now possible to measure delta15N and delta18O(atm) over entire ice cores helping to synchronize chronologies, to assess gas age-ice age differences, and to calibrate the paleothermometry for rapid temperature changes. This new on-line air extraction and analyzing technique complements the water methods in an ideal way as it separates the air from the melt-water of an ice sample. The remaining water waste flux can directly be analyzed by the water methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599406"><span>Sedimentary Sulphur:Iron <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Indicates Vivianite Occurrence: A Study from Two Contrasting Freshwater <span class="hlt">Systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rothe, Matthias; Kleeberg, Andreas; Grüneberg, Björn; Friese, Kurt; Pérez-Mayo, Manuel; Hupfer, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An increasing number of studies constrain the importance of iron for the long-term retention of phosphorus (P) under anoxic conditions, i.e. the formation of reduced iron phosphate minerals such as vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2⋅8H2O). Much remains unknown about vivianite formation, the factors controlling its occurrence, and its relevance for P burial during early sediment diagenesis. To study the occurrence of vivianite and to assess its relevance for P binding, surface sediments of two hydrologically contrasting waters were analysed by heavy-liquid separation and subsequent powder X-ray diffraction. In Lake Arendsee, vivianite was present in deeper sediment horizons and not in the uppermost layers with a sharp transition between vivianite and non-vivianite bearing layers. In contrast, in lowland river Lower Havel vivianite was present in the upper sediment layers and not in deeper horizons with a gradual transition between non-vivianite and vivianite bearing layers. In both waters, vivianite occurrence was accompanied by the presence of pyrite (FeS2). Vivianite formation was favoured by an elevated iron availability through a lower degree of sulphidisation and was present at a molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of total sulphur to reactive iron smaller than 1.1, only. A longer lasting burden of sediments by organic matter, i.e. due to eutrophication, favours the release of sulphides, and the formation of insoluble iron sulphides leading to a lack of available iron and to less or no vivianite formation. This weakening in sedimentary P retention, representing a negative feedback mechanism (P release) in terms of water quality, could be partly compensated by harmless Fe amendments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4463860','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4463860"><span>Row <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of Intercropping Maize and Soybean Can Affect Agronomic Efficiency of the <span class="hlt">System</span> and Subsequent Wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yitao; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jizong; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Shen; Zhai, Limei; Wang, Hongyuan; Lei, Qiuliang; Ren, Tianzhi; Yin, Changbin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Intercropping is regarded as an important agricultural practice to improve crop production and environmental quality in the regions with intensive agricultural production, e.g., northern China. To optimize agronomic advantage of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping <span class="hlt">system</span> compared to monoculture of maize, two sequential experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 was to screening the optimal cropping <span class="hlt">system</span> in summer that had the highest yields and economic benefits, and Experiment 2 was to identify the optimum row <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the intercrops selected from Experiment 1. Results of Experiment 1 showed that maize intercropping with soybean (maize || soybean) was the optimal cropping <span class="hlt">system</span> in summer. Compared to conventional monoculture of maize, maize || soybean had significant advantage in yield, economy, land utilization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and reducing soil nitrate nitrogen (N) accumulation, as well as better residual effect on the subsequent wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. Experiment 2 showed that intercropping <span class="hlt">systems</span> reduced use of N fertilizer per unit land area and increased relative biomass of intercropped maize, due to promoted photosynthetic efficiency of border rows and N utilization during symbiotic period. Intercropping advantage began to emerge at tasseling stage after N topdressing for maize. Among all treatments with different row <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, alternating four maize rows with six soybean rows (4M:6S) had the largest land equivalent <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (1.30), total N accumulation in crops (258 kg ha-1), and economic benefit (3,408 USD ha-1). Compared to maize monoculture, 4M:6S had significantly lower nitrate-N accumulation in soil both after harvest of maize and after harvest of the subsequent wheat, but it did not decrease yield of wheat. The most important advantage of 4M:6S was to increase biomass of intercropped maize and soybean, which further led to the increase of total N accumulation by crops as well as economic benefit. In conclusion, alternating</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061566"><span>Row <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of Intercropping Maize and Soybean Can Affect Agronomic Efficiency of the <span class="hlt">System</span> and Subsequent Wheat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yitao; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jizong; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Shen; Zhai, Limei; Wang, Hongyuan; Lei, Qiuliang; Ren, Tianzhi; Yin, Changbin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Intercropping is regarded as an important agricultural practice to improve crop production and environmental quality in the regions with intensive agricultural production, e.g., northern China. To optimize agronomic advantage of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping <span class="hlt">system</span> compared to monoculture of maize, two sequential experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 was to screening the optimal cropping <span class="hlt">system</span> in summer that had the highest yields and economic benefits, and Experiment 2 was to identify the optimum row <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the intercrops selected from Experiment 1. Results of Experiment 1 showed that maize intercropping with soybean (maize || soybean) was the optimal cropping <span class="hlt">system</span> in summer. Compared to conventional monoculture of maize, maize || soybean had significant advantage in yield, economy, land utilization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and reducing soil nitrate nitrogen (N) accumulation, as well as better residual effect on the subsequent wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. Experiment 2 showed that intercropping <span class="hlt">systems</span> reduced use of N fertilizer per unit land area and increased relative biomass of intercropped maize, due to promoted photosynthetic efficiency of border rows and N utilization during symbiotic period. Intercropping advantage began to emerge at tasseling stage after N topdressing for maize. Among all treatments with different row <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, alternating four maize rows with six soybean rows (4M:6S) had the largest land equivalent <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (1.30), total N accumulation in crops (258 kg ha(-1)), and economic benefit (3,408 USD ha(-1)). Compared to maize monoculture, 4M:6S had significantly lower nitrate-N accumulation in soil both after harvest of maize and after harvest of the subsequent wheat, but it did not decrease yield of wheat. The most important advantage of 4M:6S was to increase biomass of intercropped maize and soybean, which further led to the increase of total N accumulation by crops as well as economic benefit. In conclusion, alternating</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/202/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/202/"><span>USGS-NoGaDat - A global dataset of noble gas concentrations and their isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in volcanic <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Abedini, Atosa A.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The database (Version 1.0) is a MS-Excel file that contains close to 5,000 entries of published information on noble gas concentrations and isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from volcanic <span class="hlt">systems</span> in Mid-Ocean ridges, ocean islands, seamounts, and oceanic and continental arcs (location map). Where they were available we also included the isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of strontium, neodymium, and carbon. The database is sub-divided both into material sampled (e.g., volcanic glass, different minerals, fumarole, spring), and into different tectonic settings (MOR, ocean islands, volcanic arcs). Included is also a reference list in MS-Word and pdf from which the data was derived. The database extends previous compilations by Ozima (1994), Farley and Neroda (1998), and Graham (2002). The extended database allows scientists to test competing hypotheses, and it provides a framework for analysis of noble gas data during periods of volcanic unrest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4993921','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4993921"><span>Pretreatment Lymphocyte Monocyte <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Predicts Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Digestive <span class="hlt">System</span> Tumor: A Meta-Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Lishan; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Huiying; Liao, Yulin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose. The prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte monocyte <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (LMR) in digestive <span class="hlt">system</span> cancer patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker and assess its consistency in digestive <span class="hlt">system</span> tumors. Methods. We searched “PubMed,” “Embase,” and “CBM” for published eligible studies before June 2016 and conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled hazard <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (HRs) for disease recurrence and mortality focusing on LMR. Subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. A total of 22 cohort studies enrolling 12829 patients with digestive <span class="hlt">system</span> cancer were included. The summary results showed that lower LMR was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and tumor disease or recurrence-free survival (DFS/RFS) in analyses using the studies reporting HRs either by the univariate analyses (HR = 1.32, HR = 1.35, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.) or by multivariate analyses (HR = 1.21, HR = 1.18, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.). Conclusion. Our results support the fact that decreased LMR indicates worse prognosis in multiple digestive <span class="hlt">system</span> tumors. PMID:27594882</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092251"><span>CONSTRAINING MASS <span class="hlt">RATIO</span> AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pueyo, Laurent; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil; Monnier, John D.; Crepp, Justin; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Remi</p> <p>2012-09-20</p> <p>We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 {mu}m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A{sub V} = 8-12, with an effective temperature of {approx}4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S <span class="hlt">system</span> and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895475','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895475"><span>Development of Polymer Gel <span class="hlt">Systems</span> to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen</p> <p>2005-04-03</p> <p>Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied <span class="hlt">system</span> in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial <span class="hlt">system</span> conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980021287','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980021287"><span>Mechanical Design of High Lift <span class="hlt">Systems</span> for High Aspect <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Swept Wings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rudolph, Peter K. C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Ames Research Center is working to develop a methodology for the optimization and design of the high lift <span class="hlt">system</span> for future subsonic airliners with the involvement of two partners. Aerodynamic analysis methods for two dimensional and three dimensional wing performance with flaps and slats deployed are being developed through a grant with the aeronautical department of the University of California Davis, and a flap and slat mechanism design procedure is being developed through a contract with PKCR, Inc., of Seattle, WA. This report documents the work that has been completed in the contract with PKCR on mechanism design. Flap mechanism designs have been completed for seven (7) different mechanisms with a total of twelve (12) different layouts all for a common single slotted flap configuration. The seven mechanisms are as follows: Simple Hinge, Upside Down/Upright Four Bar Linkage (two layouts), Upside Down Four Bar Linkages (three versions), Airbus A330/340 Link/Track Mechanism, Airbus A320 Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), Boeing Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), and Boeing 767 Hinged Beam Four Bar Linkage. In addition, a single layout has been made to investigate the growth potential from a single slotted flap to a vane/main double slotted flap using the Boeing Link/Track Mechanism. All layouts show Fowler motion and gap progression of the flap from stowed to a fully deployed position, and evaluations based on spanwise continuity, fairing size and number, complexity, reliability and maintainability and weight as well as Fowler motion and gap progression are presented. For slat design, the options have been limited to mechanisms for a shallow leading edge slat. Three (3) different layouts are presented for maximum slat angles of 20 deg, 15 deg and 1O deg all mechanized with a rack and pinion drive similar to that on the Boeing 757 airplane. Based on the work of Ljungstroem in Sweden, this type of slat design appears to shift the lift curve so that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NPGD....2.1363K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NPGD....2.1363K"><span>Identifying non-normal and lognormal characteristics of temperature, mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, surface pressure, and wind for data assimilation <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kliewer, A. J.; Fletcher, S. J.; Jones, A. S.; Forsythe, J. M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Data assimilation <span class="hlt">systems</span> and retrieval <span class="hlt">systems</span> that are based upon a maximum likelihood estimation, many of which are in operational use, rely on the assumption that all of the errors and variables involved follow a normal distribution. This work develops a series of statistical tests to show that mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, temperature, wind and surface pressure follow non-normal, or in fact, lognormal distributions thus impacting the design-basis of many operational data assimilation and retrieval <span class="hlt">systems</span>. For this study one year of Global Forecast <span class="hlt">System</span> 00:00 UTC 6 h forecast were analyzed using statistical hypothesis tests. The motivation of this work is to identify the need to resolve whether or not the assumption of normality is valid and to give guidance for where and when a data assimilation <span class="hlt">system</span> or a retrieval <span class="hlt">system</span> needs to adapt its cost function to the mixed normal-lognormal distribution-based Bayesian model. The statistical methods of detection are based upon Shapiro-Wilk, Jarque-Bera and a χ2 test, and a new composite indicator using all three measures. Another method of detection fits distributions to the temporal-based histograms of temperature, mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and wind. The conclusion of this work is that there are persistent areas, times, and vertical levels where the normal assumption is not valid, and that the lognormal distribution-based Bayesian model is observationally justified to minimize the error for these conditions. The results herein suggest that comprehensive statistical climatologies may need to be developed to capture the non-normal traits of the 6 h forecast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012017','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012017"><span>A five-collector <span class="hlt">system</span> for the simultaneous measurement of argon isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in a static mass spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stacey, J.S.; Sherrill, N.D.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Lanphere, M.A.; Carpenter, N.V.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">system</span> is described that utilizes five separate Faraday-cup collector assemblies, aligned along the focal plane of a mass spectrometer, to collect simultaneous argon ion beams at masses 36-40. Each collector has its own electrometer amplifier and analog-to-digital measuring channel, the outputs of which are processed by a minicomputer that also controls the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer utilizes a 90?? sector magnetic analyzer with a radius of 23 cm, in which some degree of z-direction focussing is provided for all the ion beams by the fringe field of the magnet. Simultaneous measurement of the ion beams helps to eliminate mass-spectrometer memory as a significant source of measurement error during an analysis. Isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> stabilize between 7 and 9 s after sample admission into the spectrometer, and thereafter changes in the measured <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are linear, typically to within ??0.02%. Thus the multi-collector arrangement permits very short extrapolation times for computation of initial <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and also provides the advantages of simultaneous measurement of the ion currents in that errors due to variations in ion beam intensity are minimized. A complete analysis takes less than 10 min, so that sample throughput can be greatly enhanced. In this instrument, the factor limiting analytical precision now lies in short-term apparent variations in the interchannel calibration factors. ?? 1981.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26900970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26900970"><span>Strontium concentrations and isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in a forest-river <span class="hlt">system</span> in the South Qinling Mts., China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bu, Hongmei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa; Burford, Michele A</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>The concentrations of dissolved strontium (Sr) and isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in rainwater, river water, and water from forest soil are measured to investigate the contributions of these sources to a river during base flow conditions in the relatively pristine South Qinling Mountains, China. Dissolved Sr concentrations and (87)Sr/(86)Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> vary significantly between different water types (p < 0.01) suggesting that it is suitable for differentiating sources. Dissolved Sr is also positively correlated with most ions and a range of physicochemical parameters (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) in water samples including Ca(2+), Mg(2+), EC, and TDS (p < 0.001) indicating their similarities in the drivers of biogeochemical processes and common origins. The correlations between Sr isotopes and Ca/Na, Ca/K, and 1000/Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> suggest that three end-members of atmospheric inputs, carbonate and silicate weathering control the Sr water chemistry in the river water. Using the three-source mixing model, atmospheric inputs, carbonate, and silicate weathering contribute 74%, 20%, and 6% respectively to the dissolved Sr in the river water. This research has provided new insights into the contribution of sources of Sr to a river <span class="hlt">system</span> in a mountainous catchment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560379"><span>General measurement of optical <span class="hlt">system</span> aberrations with a continuously variable lateral shear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by a randomly encoded hybrid grating.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ling, Tong; Yang, Yongying; Liu, Dong; Yue, Xiumei; Jiang, Jiabin; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing</p> <p>2015-10-20</p> <p>A general lateral shearing interferometry method to measure the wavefront aberrations with a continuously variable shear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by the randomly encoded hybrid grating (REHG) is proposed. The REHG consists of a randomly encoded binary amplitude grating and a phase chessboard. Its Fraunhofer diffractions contain only four orders which are the ±1 orders in two orthogonal directions due to the combined modulation of the amplitude and phase. As a result, no orders selection mask is needed for the REHG and the shear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is continuously variable, which is beneficial to the variation of sensitivity and testing range for different requirements. To determine the fabrication tolerance of this hybrid grating, the analysis of the effects of different errors on the diffraction intensity distributions is carried out. Experiments have shown that the testing method can achieve a continuously variable shear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> with the same REHG, and the comparison with a ZYGO GPI interferometer exhibits that the aberration testing method by the REHG is highly precise and also has a good repeatability. This testing method by the REHG is available for general use in testing the aberrations of different optical <span class="hlt">systems</span> in situ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895104"><span>Development of Polymer Gel <span class="hlt">Systems</span> to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen</p> <p>2005-12-31</p> <p>Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied <span class="hlt">system</span> in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial <span class="hlt">system</span> conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20826801','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20826801"><span>A Neuro-Fuzzy Inference <span class="hlt">System</span> Combining Wavelet Denoising, Principal Component Analysis, and Sequential Probability <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Test for Sensor Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Na, Man Gyun; Oh, Seungrohk</p> <p>2002-11-15</p> <p>A neuro-fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span> combined with the wavelet denoising, principal component analysis (PCA), and sequential probability <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test (SPRT) methods has been developed to monitor the relevant sensor using the information of other sensors. The parameters of the neuro-fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span> that estimates the relevant sensor signal are optimized by a genetic algorithm and a least-squares algorithm. The wavelet denoising technique was applied to remove noise components in input signals into the neuro-fuzzy <span class="hlt">system</span>. By reducing the dimension of an input space into the neuro-fuzzy <span class="hlt">system</span> without losing a significant amount of information, the PCA was used to reduce the time necessary to train the neuro-fuzzy <span class="hlt">system</span>, simplify the structure of the neuro-fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span>, and also, make easy the selection of the input signals into the neuro-fuzzy <span class="hlt">system</span>. By using the residual signals between the estimated signals and the measured signals, the SPRT is applied to detect whether the sensors are degraded or not. The proposed sensor-monitoring algorithm was verified through applications to the pressurizer water level, the pressurizer pressure, and the hot-leg temperature sensors in pressurized water reactors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11674000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11674000"><span>Generalization of ionic partition diagrams to lipophilic compounds and to biphasic <span class="hlt">systems</span> with variable phase volume <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gobry, V; Ulmeanu, S; Reymond, F; Bouchard, G; Carrupt, P A; Testa, B; Girault, H H</p> <p>2001-10-31</p> <p>The ionic partition diagram methodology has been generalized to address both hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds and to consider biphasic <span class="hlt">systems</span> with variable phase volume <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. With this generalized approach electrochemical measurements of ion transfer potentials afford the determination of the standard partition coefficients of all forms of ionizable molecules, including the neutral form, as well as the evaluation of the dissociation constant of monoprotic substances. An interesting consequence of this approach is the definition of an extraction pK(a,ext) which is the apparent pK(a) of neutral acids and bases when dissolved in the organic phase.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823008','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823008"><span>DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL <span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span> TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL <span class="hlt">RATIOS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied <span class="hlt">system</span> in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16109626','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16109626"><span>Effect of the drug-excipient <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in matrix-type-controlled release <span class="hlt">systems</span>: computer simulation study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villalobos, Rafael; Ganem, Adriana; Cordero, Salomón; Vidales, Ana Maria; Domínguez, Armando</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>The main objective of this work is to study the drug release behavior from inert matrix <span class="hlt">systems</span> by using computer simulation. This study allowed us to propose a new statistical method to evaluate the drug percolation threshold as a function of the exposed surface area of the device. The matrix <span class="hlt">system</span> was simulated as a simple cubic lattice. The sites of the lattice were randomly occupied at various drug-excipient <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. By simulating a diffusive process, the drug was delivered from the matrix <span class="hlt">system</span>. The obtained release profiles were fitted to two different models: near the excipient percolation threshold, the square root of the time was well fitted, whereas close to (but above) the drug percolation threshold, the power law described accurately the release data. A relationship between the initial drug load and the amount of drug trapped inside the matrix <span class="hlt">system</span> at infinite time was found. This relationship was conveniently described by an error function. Percolation thresholds in the matrix <span class="hlt">systems</span> were determined from the latter relationship by using a nonlinear regression method. The assessment of percolation thresholds depends on the exposed surface area of the matrix <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Moreover, estimated percolation thresholds were in agreement with the predicted values stated in the percolation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17531272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17531272"><span>Production ecology of agroforestry <span class="hlt">systems</span>: a minimal mechanistic model and analytical derivation of the land equivalent <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keesman, K J; van der Werf, W; van Keulen, H</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, the yield and the land equivalent <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (LER) of a silvo-arable agroforestry (SAF) <span class="hlt">system</span>, containing one tree and one crop species, is analyzed analytically using a minimal mechanistic model describing the <span class="hlt">system</span> dynamics. Light competition between tree and crop is considered using light extinction functions. The tree leaf area is driven by annual increase in the number of leaf-bearing shoots with a seasonal cycle of bud burst, leaf expansion and senescence. The crop leaf area dynamics is driven by the solar radiation, heat sum and the dry matter allocation to the leaves. As a consequence of this, the model consists of six state equations expressing the temporal dynamics of: (1) tree biomass; (2) tree leaf area; (3) number of shoots per tree; (4) crop biomass; (5) crop leaf area index, and (6) heat sum. The main outputs of the model are the growth dynamics and final yields of trees and crops. Daily inputs are temperature and radiation. Planting densities, initial biomass of tree and crop species and growth parameters must be specified. The main parameters are those describing light interception, conversion to dry matter and leaf area. Given the crop cover and the tree parameters, it is shown that under potential growing conditions the land equivalent <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be explicitly expressed in terms of these parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21569029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21569029"><span>Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in three wolf-ungulate <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vucetich, John A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Smith, Douglas W; Peterson, Rolf O</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>1. Predation rate (PR) and kill rate are both fundamental statistics for understanding predation. However, relatively little is known about how these statistics relate to one another and how they relate to prey population dynamics. We assess these relationships across three <span class="hlt">systems</span> where wolf-prey dynamics have been observed for 41 years (Isle Royale), 19 years (Banff) and 12 years (Yellowstone). 2. To provide context for this empirical assessment, we developed theoretical predictions of the relationship between kill rate and PR under a broad range of predator-prey models including predator-dependent, <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-dependent and Lotka-Volterra dynamics. 3. The theoretical predictions indicate that kill rate can be related to PR in a variety of diverse ways (e.g. positive, negative, unrelated) that depend on the nature of predator-prey dynamics (e.g. structure of the functional response). These simulations also suggested that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of predator-to-prey is a good predictor of prey growth rate. That result motivated us to assess the empirical relationship between the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and prey growth rate for each of the three study sites. 4. The empirical relationships indicate that PR is not well predicted by kill rate, but is better predicted by the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of predator-to-prey. Kill rate is also a poor predictor of prey growth rate. However, PR and <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of predator-to-prey each explained significant portions of variation in prey growth rate for two of the three study sites. 5. Our analyses offer two general insights. First, Isle Royale, Banff and Yellowstone are similar insomuch as they all include wolves preying on large ungulates. However, they also differ in species diversity of predator and prey communities, exploitation by humans and the role of dispersal. Even with the benefit of our analysis, it remains difficult to judge whether to be more impressed by the similarities or differences. This difficulty nicely illustrates a fundamental property of ecological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22942605S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22942605S"><span><span class="hlt">Ratio</span> of Dust to Metal Abundance in Quasar Absorption Line <span class="hlt">Systems</span> from 1.9 < z < 3.3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stawinski, Stephanie; Malhotra, Sangeeta</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Measuring the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of dust to metal abundance in quasar absorption line <span class="hlt">systems</span> will provide insight to the chemical evolution of galaxies, dust formation, and dust properties in the early universe. Quasar absorption <span class="hlt">systems</span> allow us to study the abundance of dust from many different redshifts, in this project up to z ~ 3.3 for absorber redshift. The absorption bump at 2175 Å is a broad, but strong, dust feature within the UV-optical wavelength range. This feature, if detected, can be directly related to the optical depth of the dust in the absorbing <span class="hlt">systems</span>. However, the 2175 Å bump is very broad, having a full-width half-maximum approximately 350 * (1 + z) Å, and therefore hard to distinguish from a single spectrum. To find this bump, it is important to co-add many quasar spectra. In this project, we look at how the abundance of dust compares to that of metals for 105 quasar spectra with strong damped Lyman alpha <span class="hlt">systems</span> with absorber redshifts ranging from 1.9 < z < 3.3. From these spectra, we created a composite spectrum to analyze the 2175 Å bump and the absorption of heavy elements. We will present the results including the strength of the 2175 Å feature found in our composite spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3573946','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3573946"><span>Plant lighting <span class="hlt">system</span> with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting <span class="hlt">systems</span> therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED) technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting <span class="hlt">system</span> must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting <span class="hlt">system</span> that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD). The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD) in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%), which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting <span class="hlt">system</span>. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD) of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm) grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength), the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg) and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1) was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting <span class="hlt">system</span>, with a computer with a graphical user interface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583147','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583147"><span>HIGH FILL-OUT, EXTREME MASS <span class="hlt">RATIO</span> OVERCONTACT BINARY <span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span>. X. THE NEWLY DISCOVERED BINARY XY LEONIS MINORIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qian, S.-B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Bernasconi, L. E-mail: yygcn@163.com</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>The newly discovered short-period close binary star, XY LMi, has been monitored photometrically since 2006. Its light curves are typical EW-type light curves and show complete eclipses with durations of about 80 minutes. Photometric solutions were determined through an analysis of the complete B, V, R, and I light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. XY LMi is a high fill-out, extreme mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> overcontact binary <span class="hlt">system</span> with a mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of q = 0.148 and a fill-out factor of f = 74.1%, suggesting that it is in the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. As observed in other overcontact binary stars, evidence for the presence of two dark spots on both components is given. Based on our 19 epochs of eclipse times, we found that the orbital period of the overcontact binary is decreasing continuously at a rate of dP/dt = -1.67 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be caused by mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and/or angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind. The decrease of the orbital period may result in the increase of the fill-out, and finally, it will evolve into a single rapid-rotation star when the fluid surface reaches the outer critical Roche lobe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5461026','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5461026"><span>The <span class="hlt">system</span> SnTe-InSe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gurshumov, A.P.; Alidzhanov, M.A.; Aliev, A.S.; Gadzhiev, T.G.; Mamedov, N.A.</p> <p>1986-03-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the nature of the interaction and physicochemical properties of the alloys of the <span class="hlt">system</span> SnTe-InSe. The DTA was performed on an NTR-74 <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span>, XPA on a Dron-2.0 diffractometer and MSA on an MIM-7 metallographic microscope. The microhardness of the samples was determined on a PMT-3 microhardness tester. The congruently melting compound SnInTeSe and solid solutions based on the starting components are formed in the <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EPJAP..5231102B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EPJAP..5231102B"><span>Design of a high voltage input - output <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dc-dc converter dedicated to small power fuel cell <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Béthoux, O.; Cathelin, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Consuming chemical energy, fuel cells produce simultaneously heat, water and useful electrical power [J.M. Andújar, F. Segura, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 13, 2309 (2009)], [J. Larminie, A. Dicks, Fuel Cell <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Explained, 2nd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, 2003)]. As a matter of fact, the voltage generated by a fuel cell strongly depends on both the load power demand and the operating conditions. Besides, as a result of many design aspects, fuel cells are low voltage and high current electric generators. On the contrary, electric loads are commonly designed for small voltage swing and a high V/I <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in order to minimize Joule losses. Therefore, electric loads supplied by fuel cells are typically fed by means of an intermediate power voltage regulator. The specifications of such a power converter are to be able to step up the input voltage with a high <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 10 is a classic situation) and also to work with an excellent efficiency (in order to minimize its size, its weight and its losses) [A. Shahin, B. Huang, J.P. Martin, S. Pierfederici, B. Davat, Energy Conv. Manag. 51, 56 (2010)]. This paper deals with the design of this essential ancillary device. It intends to bring out the best structure for fulfilling this function. Several dc-dc converters with large voltage step-up <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are introduced. A topology based on a coupled inductor or tapped inductor is closely studied. A detailed modelling is performed with the purpose of providing designing rules. This model is validated with both simulation and implementation. The experimental prototype is based on the following specifications: the fuel cell output voltage ranges from a 50 V open-voltage to a 25 V rated voltage while the load requires a constant 250 V voltage. The studied coupled inductor converter is compared with a classic boost converter commonly used in this voltage elevating application. Even though the voltage regulator faces severe FC specifications, the measured efficiency reaches 96% at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5027403','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5027403"><span>Association between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, a new marker of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation, and restless legs syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Varım, Ceyhun; Acar, Bilgehan Atılgan; Uyanık, Mehmet Sevki; Acar, Turkan; Alagoz, Neslihan; Nalbant, Ahmet; Kaya, Tezcan; Ergenc, Hasan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is characterised by abnormal sensations in the legs as well as dysaesthesia. Although the aetiology of RLS has not yet been determined, it may be associated with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (NLR) is a new and simple marker indicating <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation and RLS through the use of the NLR. METHODS A total of 75 newly diagnosed patients with RLS and 56 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Baseline NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count by the absolute lymphocyte count. The NLRs of the two groups were compared. RESULTS There were no significant differences in gender and age between the two groups. The NLR was 1.96 ± 0.66 in the patient group and 1.67 ± 0.68 in the control group (p = 0.005). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value of NLR to predict RLS. The NLR was predictive at 1.58 with a 64% sensitivity and 50% specificity (95% confidence interval 0.55–0.74, area under curve 0.648 ± 0.05). The NLR was found to be statistically higher in patients with RLS and may be used to predict RLS. CONCLUSION The aetiology of RLS remains undetermined. The present study showed that <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation may play a role in RLS. However, RLS could also be associated with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammatory diseases. This relationship is supported by high NLR values, which are related to chronic <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation. PMID:27662970</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83b6104C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83b6104C"><span>Note: A signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> enhancement based on wafer light irradiation <span class="hlt">system</span> for optical modulation spectroscopy measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chouaib, H.; Kelly, P. V.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>We have recently found that the magnitude of the photoreflectance (PR) signal ΔR/R on silicon wafers depends on the duration of continuous probe or pump beams irradiation. This temporal behavior of the ΔR/R signal is attributed to the defects related electronic states at the Si/ SiO2 interface, which could be modified by the optical irradiation. Prior to the actual measurement, an optical irradiation of the silicon on insulator or ion implanted Si wafer can significantly enhance the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the PR intensity and, therefore, improve the goodness of fit. Such phenomena can be exclusively seen using a rapid detection <span class="hlt">system</span>. A new design of the method is reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900038584&hterms=Heuristic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DHeuristic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900038584&hterms=Heuristic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DHeuristic"><span>A heuristic approach to worst-case carrier-to-interference <span class="hlt">ratio</span> maximization in satellite <span class="hlt">system</span> synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reilly, Charles H.; Walton, Eric K.; Mata, Fernando; Mount-Campbell, Clark A.; Olen, Carl A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Consideration is given to the problem of allotting GEO locations to communication satellites so as to maximize the smallest aggregate carrier-to-interference (C/I) <span class="hlt">ratio</span> calculated at any test point (assumed earth station). The location allotted to each satellite must be within the satellite's service arc, and angular separation constraints are enforced for each pair of satellites to control single-entry EMI. Solutions to this satellite <span class="hlt">system</span> synthesis problem (SSSP) are found by embedding two heuristic procedures for the satellite location problem (SLP), in a binary search routine to find an estimate of the largest increment to the angular separation values that permits a feasible solution to SLP and SSSP. Numerical results for a 183-satellite, 208-beam example problem are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780020216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780020216"><span>Carrier-interference <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for frequency sharing between frequency-modulated amplitude-modulated-vestigial-sideband television <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, S. P.; Miller, E. F.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>For just perceptible interference, an FM television signal interfering with another FM television signal must have an average signal power that is 26 to 37 db less than the wanted signal power. For an AM-VSB television signal interfering with an FM television signal, the AM-VSB television's sync peak average power must be 18 to 31 db below the FM television signal's average power. Also, when an FM television signal interferes with an AM-VSB signal, the average signal power of the FM signal should be 56 to 59 db below the sync peak average power of the AM-VSB television signal. The range of power <span class="hlt">ratios</span> occur as a result of different TV scenes used in the tests and different FM-signal frequency deviations used. All tests were performed using 525 line, <span class="hlt">system</span> M, color-television signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1618..942A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1618..942A"><span>Scaling of volume to surface <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atanasov, Atanas Todorov</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface <span class="hlt">ratio</span> V×S-1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time Tgt(s) via growth rate v (m s-1): V×S-1 = vgr×Tr. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m3), minimum and maximum doubling time Tdt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program `Statistics' is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S-1 = 4.46ṡ10-11×Tdt was found, where vgr = 4.46×10-11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and growth rate vgr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×vgr>h/2π and Tdt×M×vgr2>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10-34 Jṡs is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span>?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22307966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22307966"><span>Scaling of volume to surface <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Atanasov, Atanas Todorov</p> <p>2014-10-06</p> <p>The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface <span class="hlt">ratio</span> V×S{sup −1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup −1}): V×S{sup −1} = v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup −1} = 4.46⋅10{sup −11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr} = 4.46×10{sup −11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2π and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup −34} J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span>?.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780015327','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780015327"><span>Signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass <span class="hlt">systems</span> with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication <span class="hlt">systems</span> where the mapping from the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many <span class="hlt">systems</span> through digital computer simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5342057','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5342057"><span>Lymph node <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-based staging <span class="hlt">system</span> as an alternative to the current TNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> to assess outcome in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction after surgical resection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Chuangui; Gao, Yongyin; Xiao, Xiangming; Tang, Peng; Duan, Xiaofeng; Yang, Mingjian; Jiang, Hongjing; Yu, Zhentao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of the hypothetical tumor-N-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> (rN)-metastasis (TrNM) staging <span class="hlt">system</span> in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). The clinical data of 387 AEG patients who received surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed. The optimal cut-off point of rN was calculated by the best cut-off approach using log-rank test. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regressions model were applied for univariate and multivariate survival analyses. A TrNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> based on rN was proposed. The discriminating ability of each staging was evaluated by using an adjusted hazard <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (HR) and a −2log likelihood. The prediction accuracy of the model was assessed by using the area under the curve (AUC) and the Harrell's C-index. The number of examined lymph nodes (LNs) was correlated with metastatic LNs (r = 0.322, P < 0.001) but not with rN (r = 0.098, P > 0.05). The optimal cut-points of rN were calculated as 0, 0~0.3, 0.3~0.6, and 0.6~1.0. Univariate analysis revealed that pN and rN classifications significantly influenced patients’ RFS and OS (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for significant factors revealed that rN was recognized as an independent risk factor. A larger HR, a smaller −2log likelihood and a larger prediction accuracy were obtained for rN and the modified TrNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span>. Taken together, our study demonstrates that the proposed N-<span class="hlt">ratio</span>-based TrNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> is more reliable than the TNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> in evaluating prognosis of AEG patients after curative resection. PMID:27517157</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27517157','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27517157"><span>Lymph node <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-based staging <span class="hlt">system</span> as an alternative to the current TNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> to assess outcome in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction after surgical resection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hongdian; Shang, Xiaobin; Chen, Chuangui; Gao, Yongyin; Xiao, Xiangming; Tang, Peng; Duan, Xiaofeng; Yang, Mingjian; Jiang, Hongjing; Yu, Zhentao</p> <p>2016-11-08</p> <p>This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of the hypothetical tumor-N-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> (rN)-metastasis (TrNM) staging <span class="hlt">system</span> in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). The clinical data of 387 AEG patients who received surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed. The optimal cut-off point of rN was calculated by the best cut-off approach using log-rank test. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regressions model were applied for univariate and multivariate survival analyses. A TrNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> based on rN was proposed. The discriminating ability of each staging was evaluated by using an adjusted hazard <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (HR) and a -2log likelihood. The prediction accuracy of the model was assessed by using the area under the curve (AUC) and the Harrell's C-index. The number of examined lymph nodes (LNs) was correlated with metastatic LNs (r = 0.322, P < 0.001) but not with rN (r = 0.098, P > 0.05). The optimal cut-points of rN were calculated as 0, 0~0.3, 0.3~0.6, and 0.6~1.0. Univariate analysis revealed that pN and rN classifications significantly influenced patients' RFS and OS (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for significant factors revealed that rN was recognized as an independent risk factor. A larger HR, a smaller -2log likelihood and a larger prediction accuracy were obtained for rN and the modified TrNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span>. Taken together, our study demonstrates that the proposed N-<span class="hlt">ratio</span>-based TrNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> is more reliable than the TNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> in evaluating prognosis of AEG patients after curative resection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026206','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026206"><span>Behavior of aircraft antiskid breaking <span class="hlt">systems</span> on dry and wet runway surfaces: A slip-<span class="hlt">ratio</span>-controlled <span class="hlt">system</span> with ground speed reference from unbraked nose wheel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An experimental investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to study the braking and cornering response of a slip <span class="hlt">ratio</span> controlled aircraft antiskid braking <span class="hlt">system</span> with ground speed reference derived from an unbraked nose wheel. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a DC-9 series 10 airplane. During maximum braking, the average <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the drag force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid <span class="hlt">system</span> to the maximum drag force friction coefficient available was higher on the dry surface than on damp and flooded surfaces, and was reduced with lighter vertical loads, higher yaw angles, and when new tire treads were replaced by worn treads. Similarly, the average <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of side force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to the maximum side force friction coefficient available to a freely rolling yawed tire decreased with increasing yaw angle, generally increased with ground speed, and decreased when tires with new treads were replaced by those with worn treads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....13587L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....13587L"><span>A Tropical Lake Breeze <span class="hlt">System</span> : The Effect on Surface NO, NO2, O3, and CO2 Mixing <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lima Moura, M. A.; Eça D'Almeida Rocha, C. H.; Trebs, I.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>During the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment 2001 (CLAIRE2001, July 2001), we investigated diel variations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO_2), ozone (O_3) and carbon dioxide (CO_2) mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> at Balbina Limnological Station (01^o55'994''S, 59^o28'071''W, Amazonia,Brazil). We applied sensitive and species-specific chemiluminescence (NO, NO_2, O_3) and NDIR (CO_2) analysers to record ambient mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> on 1 min intervals. Simultaneously, we extensively monitored (micro-)meteorological qauntities (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and -direction, thermal stratification, rainfall intensity, soil temperatures and moisture, as well as radiation fluxes (global, net, short wave, NO_2 photolysis, and photosynthetic active)). Balbina Limnological Station is located just a few hundred meters south of a 2.360 km^2 hydroelectric power dam (Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina) and about 100m north from the edge of a primary rainforest. Marked differences in surface albedo and heat storage capacity generate a local wind <span class="hlt">system</span>, the lake breeze, which advects air from the dam (09:00 to 15:00 local) and from the rainforest (18:00 to 06:00 local), respectively. Generally, we observed marked diel variations of NO, NO_2, O_3, and CO_2 (high/low levels during night/day) and O_3 (low/high levels during night/day). Especially in the tropics, this behaviour is usually related to (a) accumulation of soil emissions (NO, CO_2), chemical reactions (NO, from NO_2-O_3 reaction) and surface destruction (O_3) in a shallow and strong nocturnal boundary layer inversion, and (b) to soil emission (NO), photochemical reactions (NO-NO_2-O_3), dry deposition/plant uptake (NO_2, O_3, and CO_2) and strong turbulent vertical mixing in the daytime mixed layer. However, under the specific conditions of the lake breeze soil emission and dry deposition/ plant uptake can be neglected during daytime. Consequently, the investigation of daytime mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> can be confined to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SSEle.114..121M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SSEle.114..121M"><span>Effects of doping concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on electrical characterization in pseudomorphic HEMT-based MMIC switches for ICT <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mun, Jae-Kyoung; Oh, Jung-Hun; Sung, Ho-Kun; Wang, Cong</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The effects of the doping concentration <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between upper and lower silicon planar-doping layers on the DC and RF characteristics of the double planar doped pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) are investigated. From the device simulation, an increase of maximum extrinsic transconductance and a decrease of total on- and off-state capacitances are observed, as well as an increase of the upper to lower planar-doping concentration <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (UTLPDR), which give rise to an enhancement of the switching speed and isolation characteristics. On the basis of simulation results, two types of pHEMTs are fabricated with two different UTLPDRs of 4:1 and 1:2. After applying these two types' pHEMTs, single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) transmitter/receiver monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) switches are also designed and fabricated. The SPDT MMIC switch with a 4:1 UTLPDR shows an insertion loss of 0.58 dB, isolation of 40.2 dB, and switching speed of 100 ns, respectively, which correspondingly indicate a 0.23 dB lower insertion loss, 2.90 dB higher isolation and 2.5 times faster switching speed than those of 1:2 UTLPDR at frequency range of 2-6 GHz. From the simulation results and comparative studies, we propose that the UTLPDR must be greater than 4:1 for the best switching performance. With the abovementioned excellent performances, the proposed switch would be quite promising in the application of information and communications technology <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9448E..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9448E..03K"><span>Evaluating adaptation options of microcirculatory-tissue <span class="hlt">systems</span> based on the physiological link of nutritive blood flow and redox <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Dremin, Victor V.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Novikova, Irina N.; Zhu, Simian; Nabi, Ghulam; Litvinova, Karina S.; Baklanova, Anastasia P.; Bakshaliev, Ruslan M.; Ravcheev, Sergey A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Fluorescent spectroscopy (FS) is becoming more widely used in chemistry, biology, in various fields of medical technology and medicine in general. Many purulent wounds, burns and other destructive inflammatory processes are accompanied by changes in the fluorescent activity of the tissues, which occurs due to a misbalance in accumulation of natural fluorophores: FAD, NADH, lipofuscin, porphyrins, structural proteins, etc. The study of redox <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (RR), characterizing the metabolic processes, is important in the assessment of the metabolic activity ofmicrocirculatory-tissue <span class="hlt">systems</span> (MTS). However, one of the big problems of the FS method is still the correct interpretation of the data and the development of practical methods for its application in clinical medicine. To solve this problem and create new diagnostic criteria, we propose to evaluate the adaptive capacity of MTS using indicators of links between nutritive blood flow and redox <span class="hlt">ratio</span> during a physiological rest and functional load (occlusion test). As is known, these parameters (RR and nutritive blood flow) characterize the metabolic activity of tissues.We have performedan experimental study of the relationship between the RR, defined by FS, and nutritive blood flow, defined by the methods of laser Doppler flowmetry. Preliminary results in the study of a complex approach to diagnosis of the state of biological tissue were obtained. A positive relationship between the nutritive blood flow in the microcirculatory channel and RR of skin tissue is observed.The speed of change of metabolism in the phase of occlusion and reperfusion and duration of phase of recovery may be the criteria for adaptive capabilities of MTS, which has practical significance for physiology and medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24975492','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24975492"><span>Performance of the wet oxidation unit of the HPLC isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometry <span class="hlt">system</span> for halogenated compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilevska, Tetyana; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans Hermann</p> <p>2014-08-05</p> <p>The performance of liquid chromatography-isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) for polar halogenated compounds was evaluated. Oxidation capacity of the <span class="hlt">system</span> was tested with halogenated acetic acids and halogenated aromatic compounds. Acetic acid (AA) was selected as a reference compound for complete oxidation and compared on the molar basis to the oxidation of other analytes. The isotope values were proofed with calibrated δ(13)C values obtained with an elemental analyzer (EA). Correct isotope values were obtained for mono- and dichlorinated, fluorinated, and tribrominated acetic acids and also for aniline, phenol, benzene, bromobenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, pentafluorophenol, and nitrobenzene. Incomplete oxidation of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) resulted in lower recovery compared to AA (37% and 24%, respectively) and in isotopic shift compared to values obtained with EA (TCA Δδ(13)C(EA/LC-IRMS) = 8.8‰, TFA Δδ(13)C(EA/LC-IRMS) = 6.0‰). Improvement of oxidation by longer reaction time in the reactor and increase in the concentration of sulfate radicals did not lead to complete combustion of TCA and TFA needed for δ(13)C analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such highly chlorinated compounds were studied with the LC-IRMS <span class="hlt">system</span>. This work provides information for method development of LC-IRMS methods for halogenated contaminants that are known as potential threats to public health and the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10353466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10353466"><span>Flow cytometry of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytes: alterations of blood/CSF <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of lymphocyte subsets in inflammation disorders of human central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kleine, T O; Albrecht, J; Zöfel, P</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>Flow cytometry was adapted to measure lymphocytes in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The method was sufficiently precise, reproducible and accurate despite low cell counts. In lumbar CSF of controls with 500 to 3500 (10(3)/l) leukocytes, lymphocyte counts correlated with those in corresponding venous blood: blood/CSF <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of approximately 2000 : 1 were found for total T cells (CD3+) and CD3+ HLA-DR-, CD3+4+, CD3+8+ subsets, <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were increased for the lymphocyte subsets CD3+ HLA-DR+ < or = CD3+16+56+ < CD16+56+3- < CD8+3- < CD19+; CD8+4+ <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was half of CD3+ <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Data indicate selective barriers (blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers) to blood lymphocyte subsets which favor the transfer of T subsets. Correlation of the subset <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to the CD3+ <span class="hlt">ratio</span> indicates distinct barrier properties which changed differently with acute and subacute inflammations and neuroimmunological diseases of central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (CNS) in lumbar or ventricular CSF, but not with simple protein barrier disturbance. HLA DR+ T <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were higher than HLA DR- T <span class="hlt">ratios</span> only with controls and some neuroimmunological diseases. Lymphocyte barrier characteristics were related to protein leakage situated at the same barriers, indicating for the lymphocyte subsets selective transfer routes in control subjects and non-selective routes in patients with CNS inflammation where altered <span class="hlt">ratios</span> revealed a mixture of both routes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26417382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26417382"><span>Assessment of Knee Cartilage Stress Distribution and Deformation Using Motion Capture <span class="hlt">System</span> and Wearable Sensors for Force <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mijailovic, N; Vulovic, R; Milankovic, I; Radakovic, R; Filipovic, N; Peulic, A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge about the knee cartilage deformation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as well as the knee cartilage stress distribution is of particular importance in clinical studies due to the fact that these represent some of the basic indicators of cartilage state and that they also provide information about joint cartilage wear so medical doctors can predict when it is necessary to perform surgery on a patient. In this research, we apply various kinds of sensors such as a <span class="hlt">system</span> of infrared cameras and reflective markers, three-axis accelerometer, and force plate. The fluorescent marker and accelerometers are placed on the patient's hip, knee, and ankle, respectively. During a normal walk we are recording the space position of markers, acceleration, and ground reaction force by force plate. Measured data are included in the biomechanical model of the knee joint. Geometry for this model is defined from CT images. This model includes the impact of ground reaction forces, contact force between femur and tibia, patient body weight, ligaments, and muscle forces. The boundary conditions are created for the finite element method in order to noninvasively determine the cartilage stress distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18484123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18484123"><span>Supplementation with bypass fat in silvopastoral <span class="hlt">systems</span> diminishes the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of milk saturated/unsaturated fatty acids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahecha, L; Angulo, J; Salazar, B; Cerón, M; Gallo, J; Molina, C H; Molina, E J; Suárez, J F; Lopera, J J; Olivera, M</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>This study was conducted to evaluate if supplementing bypass fat to cows under silvopastoral <span class="hlt">systems</span>, increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in milk, thus improving the saturated/ unsaturated <span class="hlt">ratio</span> without a negative effect on total milk yield in fat or protein. Two concentrations of two different sources of bypass fat were evaluated for 40 days, each in a group of 24 multiparous Lucerna (Colombian breed) cows. A cross-over design of 8 Latin squares 3 x 3 was used. The variables submitted to analysis were body condition, daily milk production and milk composition. Body condition, milk yield and milk quality were not different but there was a significant decrease in the amount of saturated fatty acid in both experiments while the unsaturated fat increased significantly in experiment 1 and remained stable in experiment 2. Results, such as these have as far as we know, not been reported previously and they provide an approach for the improvement of milk as a "functional food".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24910170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24910170"><span>Allometric scaling of indirect effects: body size <span class="hlt">ratios</span> predict non-consumptive effects in multi-predator <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krenek, Lauren; Rudolf, Volker H W</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Non-consumptive effects (NCES) frequently lead to non-independent effects of multiple predators. While such emergent predator effects are ubiquitous in natural communities, the strength of these effects varies among studies and <span class="hlt">systems</span>, making it difficult to predict a priory how changes in predator diversity influence prey suppression. Thus, identifying general scaling rules which can explain this variation of non-independent effects is vital for modelling natural communities and how they respond to biodiversity loss. Body size is a key trait determining the nature and strength of ecological interactions. While great progress has been made using allometric relationships to predict the interaction strength of predator-prey pairs, it is unknown whether similar relationships explain variation in the strength of NCEs, and how they are related to consumptive effects. Here, we experimentally manipulate the relative size difference of multiple predators to determine whether NCEs follow general allometric scaling relationships in an aquatic multi-predator <span class="hlt">system</span>. Results demonstrate that the presence and strength of NCEs can vary dramatically across predator combinations. However, this variation scaled predictably with the size <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of predators, increasing the size difference among predators increased NCEs. This pattern was driven by a size-mediated shift in 'food web motif' from competition to intraguild predation and a positive correlation of NCEs and intraguild predation rate. Results indicate that models which assume that consumers have independent effects are particularly likely to make erroneous predictions when predators differ substantially in size, but simple allometric relationships of NCEs could be used to correct this bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23346733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23346733"><span>Nurse staff allocation by nurse patient <span class="hlt">ratio</span> vs. a computerized nurse dependency management <span class="hlt">system</span>: a comparative cost analysis of Australian and New Zealand hospitals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heslop, Liza; Plummer, Virginia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Coding, costing, and accounting for nursing care requirements in Australian public and private hospitals lacks systematic research. Nurse costing for two nurse staffing allocation methods--nurse patient <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and a computerized nurse dependency management <span class="hlt">system</span>--were compared. Retrospective nursing workload management data were obtained from hospital information <span class="hlt">systems</span> in 21 acute care public and private hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Descriptive statistics, cost analysis, and cost modeling were conducted for 103,269 shifts of nursing care. The comparison of costs for nursing staff by nurse-patient <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and by a computerized nurse dependency management <span class="hlt">system</span> demonstrated differences. The provision of nursing care using the computerized nurse dependency management <span class="hlt">system</span> was, overall, lower in cost than for nurse-patient <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034574','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034574"><span>DEEP, LOW-MASS <span class="hlt">RATIO</span> OVERCONTACT BINARY <span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span>. XII. CK BOOTIS WITH POSSIBLE CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY AND ADDITIONAL COMPANION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7({+-} 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67({+-} 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days({+-} 0.0009 days) and P{sub 3} = 24.16({+-} 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary <span class="hlt">system</span>. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 ({+-}0.80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J{sub spin} > (1/3)J{sub orb}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JVGR..331..102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JVGR..331..102L"><span>Tracing the circulation of groundwater in volcanic <span class="hlt">systems</span> using the 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span>: Application to Mt. Etna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liotta, Marcello; D'Alessandro, Walter; Arienzo, Ilenia; Longo, Manfredi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was investigated in groundwater circulating in the volcanic edifice of Mt. Etna in order to estimate the possible contribution of deep brines circulating in the sedimentary basement. Samples from 14 sites were collected and analyzed for their chemical composition and Sr-isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. While the most common approach of coupling 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> with the concentration of dissolved Sr is not effective in distinguishing between the deep brine and seawater contributions, we suggest that the Sr/Cl <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is a useful complementary parameter that needs to be considered when attempting to clearly identify the Sr sources. The obtained data indicate that the Sr-isotope signature of groundwater is determined by the volcanics hosting the aquifer. The volcanic isotopic signature is modified by very small amounts of brines (< 1%), characterized by a high concentration of Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span> typical of sedimentary environments, but only at sites where the groundwater circulates almost in contact with the sedimentary basement. Conversely, the contribution of seawater is completely ruled out since this should produce a higher concentration of chloride. The proposed approach is potentially very effective for tracing the circulation of groundwater not only at Mt. Etna but also at volcanic edifices that overlie a bedrock with different 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> as well as at volcanic islands where freshwater overlies seawater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4908873','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4908873"><span>Standardised incidence <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (SIRs) for cancer after renal transplant in <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus (SLE) and non-SLE recipients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Brar, Amarpali; Richardson, Carrie; Salifu, Moro O; Clarke, Ann; Bernatsky, Sasha; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Jindal, Rahul M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective We investigated malignancy risk after renal transplantation in patients with and without <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Using the United States Renal Data <span class="hlt">System</span> from 2001 to 2009, 143 652 renal transplant recipients with and without SLE contributed 585 420 patient-years of follow-up to determine incident cancers using Medicare claims codes. We calculated standardised incidence <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (SIRs) of cancer by group using age, sex, race/ethnicity-specific and calendar year-specific cancer rates compared with the US population. Results 10 160 cancers occurred at least 3 months after renal transplant. Overall cancer risk was increased in both SLE and non-SLE groups compared with the US general population, SIR 3.5 (95% CI 2.1 to 5.7) and SIR 3.7 (95% CI 2.4 to 5.7), respectively. Lip/oropharyngeal, Kaposi, neuroendocrine, thyroid, renal, cervical, lymphoma, liver, colorectal and breast cancers were increased in both groups, whereas only melanoma was increased in SLE and lung cancer was increased in non-SLE. In Cox regression analysis, SLE status (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.3) was not associated with increased risk of developing cancer, adjusted for other independent risk factors for developing cancer in renal transplant recipients. We found that smoking (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0), cytomegalovirus positivity at time of transplant (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4), white race (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) and older recipient age at time of transplantation (HR 1.0 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) were associated with an increased risk for development of cancer, whereas shorter time on dialysis, Epstein-Barr virus or HIV were associated with a lower risk for development of cancer. Conclusions Cancer risk in renal transplant recipients appeared similar in SLE and non-SLE subjects, aside from melanoma. Renal transplant recipients may need targeted counselling regarding surveillance and modifiable risk factors. PMID:27335659</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1068255','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1068255"><span>Fuel Cycle <span class="hlt">System</span> Analysis Implications of Sodium-Cooled Metal-Fueled Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ryan Clement; David W. Gerts</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>If advanced fuel cycles are to include a large number of fast reactors (FRs), what should be the transuranic (TRU) conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CR)? The nuclear energy era started with the assumption that they should be breeder reactors (CR > 1), but the full range of possible CRs eventually received attention. For example, during the recent U.S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, the proposal was burner reactors (CR < 1). Yet, more recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology's "Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle" proposed CR [approximately] 1. Meanwhile, the French company EDF remains focused on breeders. At least one of the reasons for the differences of approach is different fuel cycle objectives. To clarify matters, this paper analyzes the impact of TRU CR on many parameters relevant to fuel cycle <span class="hlt">systems</span> and therefore spans a broad range of topic areas. The analyses are based on a FR physics parameter scan of TRU CR from 0 to [approximately]1.8 in a sodium-cooled metal-fueled FR (SMFR), in which the fuel from uranium-oxide-fueled light water reactors (LWRs) is recycled directly to FRs and FRs displace LWRs in the fleet. In this instance, the FRs are sodium cooled and metal fueled. Generally, it is assumed that all TRU elements are recycled, which maximizes uranium ore utilization for a given TRU CR and waste radiotoxicity reduction and is consistent with the assumption of used metal fuel separated by electrochemical means. In these analyses, the fuel burnup was constrained by imposing a neutron fluence limit to fuel cladding to the same constant value. This paper first presents static, time-independent measures of performance for the LWR [right arrow] FR fuel cycle, including mass, heat, gamma emission, radiotoxicity, and the two figures of merit for materials for weapon attractiveness developed by C. Bathke et al. No new fuel cycle will achieve a static equilibrium in the foreseeable future. Therefore, additional analyses are shown with dynamic, time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27142982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27142982"><span>Extended likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test-based methods for signal detection in a drug class with application to FDA's adverse event reporting <span class="hlt">system</span> database.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yueqin; Yi, Min; Tiwari, Ram C</p> <p>2016-05-02</p> <p>A likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test, recently developed for the detection of signals of adverse events for a drug of interest in the FDA Adverse Events Reporting <span class="hlt">System</span> database, is extended to detect signals of adverse events simultaneously for all the drugs in a drug class. The extended likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test methods, based on Poisson model (Ext-LRT) and zero-inflated Poisson model (Ext-ZIP-LRT), are discussed and are analytically shown, like the likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test method, to control the type-I error and false discovery rate. Simulation studies are performed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Ext-LRT and Ext-ZIP-LRT. The proposed methods are applied to the Gadolinium drug class in FAERS database. An in-house likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test tool, incorporating the Ext-LRT methodology, is being developed in the Food and Drug Administration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24376030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24376030"><span>Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery <span class="hlt">systems</span> during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JPhy2...5.1649L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JPhy2...5.1649L"><span>Polymorphism of Lipid-Water <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Epitaxial Relationships, Area-per-Volume <span class="hlt">Ratios</span>, Polar-Apolar Partition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luzzati, Vittorio</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>The original purpose of this work was to seek an explanation of the empirical observation that pairs of phases in thermodynamic equilibrium often display an epitaxial relationship. Considering that the polar/apolar interfacial interactions appear to play a predominant role among all the forces that stabilize the phases, there is ground for the proposition that the two phases involved in any particular phase transition consist of structure elements whose area/volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is invariant. Volume and area of the structure elements can be expressed as functions of the water content and the cell parameters of the two coexisting phases: their values can thus be determined experimentally. The volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (structure elements)/(lipid molecules) is equivalent to a partition coefficient. These ideas were applied to a large variety of data available in the literature. The partition coefficient was found to display wide variations, remarkably correlated with the chemical and the physical parameters of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, suggesting that the segregation of the hydrocarbon chains away from the polar headgroups is not as sharp as it is commonly assumed. The notion of a variable polar/apolar partition is a novelty in the field; moreover, this partition coefficient may well turn into an interesting thermodynamic parameter. As to the significance of the epitaxial relationships, a search through the literature shows that its very existence has many exceptions. In order to explain these observations the conjecture is put forward that the epitaxial coincidences have a kinetic effect on the phase transitions. In particular, it is suggested that any transition involving epitaxially related phases is unlikely to display metastable states. The possibility is also evoked that a selective advantage (be it technological, biological or experimental) may be associated with the existence of epitaxial relationships. This conjecture is illustrated by several examples drawn from the literature. De nombreuses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23444944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23444944"><span>Your fate is in your hands? Handedness, digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (2D:4D), and selection to a national talent development <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baker, Joseph; Kungl, Ann-Marie; Pabst, Jan; Strauß, Bernd; Büsch, Dirk; Schorer, Jörg</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Over the past decade a small evidence base has highlighted the potential importance of seemingly innocuous variables related to one's hands, such as hand dominance and the relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D <span class="hlt">ratio</span>), to success in sport. This study compared 2D:4D digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and handedness among handball players selected to advance in a national talent development <span class="hlt">system</span> with those not selected. Participants included 480 youth handball players (240 females and 240 males) being considered as part of the talent selection programme for the German Youth National team. Hand dominance and digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> were compared to age-matched control data using standard t-tests. There was a greater proportion of left-handers compared to the normal population in males but not in females. There was also a lower digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in both females and males. However, there were no differences between those selected for the next stage of talent development and those not selected on either handedness or digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. These results add support for general effects for both digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and handedness in elite handball; however, these factors seem inadequate to explain talent selection decisions at this level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16532750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16532750"><span>Rule-based fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span> for estimating the influent COD/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and ammonia load to a sequencing batch reactor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Y J; Bae, H; Ko, J H; Poo, K M; Kim, S; Kim, C W; Woo, H J</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span> using sensor measurements was developed to estimate the influent COD/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and ammonia load. The sensors measured ORP, DO and pH. The sensor profiles had a close relationship with the influent COD/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and ammonia load. To confirm this operational knowledge for constructing a rule set, a correlation analysis was conducted. The results showed that a rule generation method based only on operational knowledge did not generate a sufficiently accurate relationship between sensor measurements and target variables. To compensate for this defect, a decision tree algorithm was used as a standardized method for rule generation. Given a set of inputs, this algorithm was used to determine the output variables. However, the generated rules could not estimate the continuous influent COD/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and ammonia load. Fuzzified rules and the fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span> were developed to overcome this problem. The fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span> estimated the influent COD/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and ammonia load quite well. When these results were compared to the results from a predictive polynomial neural network model, the fuzzy inference <span class="hlt">system</span> was more stable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5481272','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5481272"><span>Neutral beam interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> on TFTR using infrared pyrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Medley, S.S.; Kugel, H.W.; Kozub, T.A.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Young, K.M.</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>Although the region of the TFTR vacuum vessel wall which is susceptible to damage by neutral beam strike is armored with a mosaic of TiC-clad POCO graphite titles, at power deposition levels above 2.5 kW/cm/sup 2/ the armor surface temperature exceeds 1200/sup 0/C within 250 ms and itself becomes susceptible to damage. In order to protect the wall armor, a neutral beam interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> based on infrared pyrometry measurement of the armor surface temperature was installed on TFTR. For each beamline, a three-fiber-optic telescope views three areas of approx.30 cm diameter centered on the armor hot spots for the three ion sources. Each signal is fiber-optic coupled to a remote 900 nm <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> which feeds analog signals to the neutral beam interrupt circuits. The <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> is designed to interrupt each of the twelve ion sources independently within 10 ms of the temperature exceeding a threshold settable in the range of 500 to 2300/sup 0/C. A description of the <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> and its performance will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22088119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22088119"><span>Isotope-<span class="hlt">Ratio</span>-Monitoring Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (IRM-LCMS): First Results from a Moving Wire Interface <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brand, W A; Dobberstein, P</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Abstract A Liquid Chromatography-Combustion (LC-C) Interface, based on a moving wire technique, has been built and tested. The LC effluent is deposited onto a transport wire, which carries the sample through solvent evaporation and combustion ovens. CO(2) from the combustion step is analysed in an isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometer. Performance of the interface was tested by loop injections of sucrose and glucose into a liquid flow of methanol/water (80/20). Accuracy and precision of δ(13)C(PDB) < 1‰ was achieved for sample concentrations > 500 ng/ul (5μl loop), sufficient for studies at natural isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. In case of (13)C tracer applications the detection limit was determined to be about 20 pg carbon tracer (on wire).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA087768','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA087768"><span>Low Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wings of Aspect <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> 3 and 4 Equipped with High Lift <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>Trailing Edge in CCW Configuration without Tip Fence ................. ... 47 16 - Effect of a Nonround Coanda Trailing Edge on an Aspect <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> 3 Wing in...fence installed. Figure 16 summarizes the effect of the noncircular Coanda surface on the lift characteristics. The aerodynamic characteristics of the...that of the round Coanda trailing edge depending on the value of a and C Figure 17 is a crossplot of all of the CCW data showing the effect of a wing tip</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70150444','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70150444"><span>Regulation of gonadal sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine <span class="hlt">system</span> in zebrafish (Danio rerio)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23337033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23337033"><span>Regulation of gonadal sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine <span class="hlt">system</span> in zebrafish (Danio rerio).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Prakash; Patiño, Reynaldo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24779439','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24779439"><span>Single macroscopic pillars as model <span class="hlt">system</span> for bioinspired adhesives: influence of tip dimension, aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and tilt angle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Micciché, Maurizio; Arzt, Eduard; Kroner, Elmar</p> <p>2014-05-28</p> <p>The goal of our study is to better understand the design parameters of bioinspired dry adhesives inspired by geckos. For this, we fabricated single macroscopic pillars of 400 μm diameter with different aspect <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and different tip shapes (i.e., flat tips, spherical tips with different radii, and mushroom tips with different diameters). Tilt-angle-dependent adhesion measurements showed that although the tip shape of the pillars strongly influences the pull-off force, the pull-off strength is similar for flat and mushroom-shaped tips. We found no tilt-angle dependency of adhesion for spherical tip structures and, except for high tilt angle and low preload experiments, no tilt-angle effect for mushroom-tip pillars. For flat-tip pillars, we found a strong influence of tilt angle on adhesion, which decreased linearly with increasing aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The experiments show that for the tested aspect <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between 1 and 5, a linear decrease of tilt-angle dependency is found. The results of our studies will help to design bioinspired adhesives for application on smooth and rough surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ45011C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ45011C"><span>High Aspect <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Wrinkles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. For the synthetic <span class="hlt">systems</span>, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870012669','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870012669"><span>Automated measurement of the bit-error rate as a function of signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for microwave communications <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kerczewski, Robert J.; Daugherty, Elaine S.; Kramarchuk, Ihor</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The performance of microwave <span class="hlt">systems</span> and components for digital data transmission can be characterized by a plot of the bit-error rate as a function of the signal to noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (or E sub b/E sub o). Methods for the efficient automated measurement of bit-error rates and signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, are described. Noise measurement considerations and time requirements for measurement accuracy, as well as computer control and data processing methods, are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JPS...106..388C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JPS...106..388C"><span>Design options for achieving a rapidly variable heat-to-power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell <span class="hlt">system</span> (FCS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colella, Whitney</p> <p></p> <p>This article calls for a change in paradigm within the fuel cells industry such that it focuses less on solely maximizing a fuel cell's electrical efficiency, and more on a fuel cell <span class="hlt">system</span>'s (FCS) overall combined thermal and electrical efficiency, as defined in relation to the instantaneous demand for heat and electricity. Based on market needs in the power generation sector, it emphasizes the need to develop FCSs such that they can achieve a heat-to-power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> that can be rapidly varied. This article then delineates engineering methods to achieve a rapidly variable heat-to-power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for a combined heat and power (CHP) FCS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018341&hterms=carbon+dioxide+equilibrium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcarbon%2Bdioxide%2Bequilibrium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018341&hterms=carbon+dioxide+equilibrium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcarbon%2Bdioxide%2Bequilibrium"><span>Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Itoh, T.; Kubo, H.; Honda, H.; Tominaga, T.; Makide, Y.; Yakohata, A.; Sakai, H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span> are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling <span class="hlt">system</span> has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration is paid to the problem of contamination. Strict requirements are placed on the choice of materials and components, construction methods, cleaning techniques, vacuum integrity, and sampling procedures. An aluminum pressurized housing and a 4-m long inlet line are employed to prevent the sampling air from contamination by outgassing of sampling and control devices. The sampling is performed during the descent of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. Vertical profiles of mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and CH4 are given. Mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 in the stratosphere do not show the discernible effect of the increase of those in the ground level background, and decrease with altitude. Decreasing rate of CFCl3 is larger than that of CF2Cl2. CH4 mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, on the other hand, shows diffusive equilibrium, as the photodissociation cross section of CH4 is small and concentrations of OH radical and 0(sup I D) are low.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010792','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010792"><span>A dual-mode generalized likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> approach to self-reorganizing digital flight control <span class="hlt">system</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bueno, R.; Chow, E.; Gershwin, S. B.; Willsky, A. S.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The research is reported on the problems of failure detection and reliable <span class="hlt">system</span> design for digital aircraft control <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Failure modes, cross detection probability, wrong time detection, application of performance tools, and the GLR computer package are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26070521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26070521"><span>What radiologists need to know about the pulmonary-<span class="hlt">systemic</span> flow <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (Qp/Qs): what it is, how to calculate it, and what it is for.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marín Rodríguez, C; Sánchez Alegre, M L; Lancharro Zapata, Á; Alarcón Rodríguez, J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) provides abundant morphological and functional information in the study of congenital heart disease. The functional information includes pulmonary output and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> output; the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between these two (Qp/Qs) is the shunt fraction. After birth, in normal conditions the pulmonary output is practically identical to the <span class="hlt">systemic</span> output, so Qp/Qs = 1. In patients with « shunts » between the <span class="hlt">systemic</span> and pulmonary circulations, the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> changes, and the interpretation of these findings varies in function of the location of the shunt (intracardiac or extracardiac) and of the associated structural or postsurgical changes. We review the concept of Qp/Qs; the methods to calculate it, with special emphasis on cMRI; and the meaning of the results obtained. We place special emphasis on the relevance of these findings depending on the underlying disease and the treatment the patient has undergone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPSJ...86d4706R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPSJ...86d4706R"><span>Dipole Strength Calculation Based on Two-Level <span class="hlt">System</span> Approximation to Study Q/B-Band Intensity <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> of ZnTBP in Solvent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusydi, Febdian; Shukri, Ganes; Saputro, Adithya G.; Agusta, Mohammad K.; Dipojono, Hermawan K.; Suprijadi, Suprijadi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We study the Q/B-band dipole strength of zinc tetrabenzoporphyrin (ZnTBP) using density functional theory (DFT) in various solvents. The solvents are modeled using the polarized continuum model (PCM). The dipole strength calculations are approached by a two-level <span class="hlt">system</span>, where the Q-band is described by the HOMO → LUMO electronic transition and the B-band by the HOMO-1 → LUMO electronic transition. We compare the results with the experimental data of the Q/B-band intensity <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. We also perform time-dependent DFT coupled with PCM to calculate the Q/B-band oscillator strength <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of ZnTBP. The results of both methods show a general trend with respect to the experimental Q/B-band intensity <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in solvents, except for the calculation in the water solvent. Even so, the approximation is a good starting point for studying the UV-vis spectrum based on DFT study alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880004719','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880004719"><span>Design verification and fabrication of active control <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> wing, part 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcgehee, C. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control <span class="hlt">systems</span> compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control <span class="hlt">system</span> design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and an automatic flight control <span class="hlt">system</span>. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the <span class="hlt">systems</span> collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880004720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880004720"><span>Design verification and fabrication of active control <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> wing. Part 2: Appendices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcgehee, C. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control <span class="hlt">systems</span> compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control <span class="hlt">system</span> design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and an automatic flight control <span class="hlt">system</span>. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the <span class="hlt">systems</span> collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012smd..book...21E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012smd..book...21E"><span>Band Mechanism with Nonlinear Gear <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> for Gravity Force Balance: Design and Analysis in Total <span class="hlt">System</span> Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ebert, F.; Berger, M.</p> <p></p> <p>The application of band mechanisms offers a wide range of possibilities in designing concepts of modern guide mechanisms. The applied belt pulleys are designed as continuous convex cam disks and allow the application of different transmission functions. A large number of transmission functions can be generated with convex curve shapes. It takes a great deal of effort to determine the correct pulley curve and is difficult for engineers without special knowledge to calculate. The syntheses process of a nonlinear band mechanism is based on the relationships between the evolute and evolvente [1]. The evolute corresponds to the pulley curve and the evolvente corresponds, for example, to the curve of the fix point of a rocker arm. By applying this method in relation with the reverse kinematics and the maintenance of total band length, allowing to generate band mechanism with required curve of transmission <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Beside the comments of band mechanism construction and the mathematical method of resolution—the first part of the article explains a simple four bar mechanism of couch chest the total gravity force balance with band mechanism. Therefore, the essential computing steps and limits of the solving process will be explained. With this it is possible to calculate the nonlinear transmission <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of band mechanism with consideration of elastic band properties and inertia of bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1079425','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1079425"><span><span class="hlt">System</span> and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in a region remote from a borehole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves</p> <p>2012-10-16</p> <p>In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27232402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27232402"><span>Effects of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N <span class="hlt">ratios</span> on pollutants removal in the subsurface wastewater infiltration <span class="hlt">systems</span> with/without intermittent aeration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Siyu; Pan, Jing; Wu, Shiwei; Guo, Yijing; Yu, Jingxiao; Shan, Qingchi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The matrix oxidation reduction potential level, organic pollutants and nitrogen removal performances of eight subsurface wastewater infiltration <span class="hlt">systems</span> (SWISs) (four with intermittent aeration, four without intermittent aeration) fed with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 3, 6, 12 and 18 were investigated. Nitrification of non-aerated SWISs was poor due to oxygen deficiency while higher COD/N <span class="hlt">ratios</span> further led to lower COD and nitrogen removal rate. Intermittent aeration achieved almost complete nitrification, which successfully created aerobic conditions in the depth of 50 cm and did not change anoxic or anaerobic conditions in the depth of 80 and 110 cm. The sufficient carbon source in high COD/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> influent greatly promoted denitrification in SWISs with intermittent aeration. High average removal rates of COD (95.68%), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) (99.32%) and total nitrogen (TN) (89.65%) were obtained with influent COD/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 12 in aerated SWISs. The results suggest that intermittent aeration was a reliable option to achieve high nitrogen removal in SWISs, especially with high COD/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> wastewater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770006127','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770006127"><span>A dual-mode generalized likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> approach to self-reorganizing digital flight control <span class="hlt">system</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Analytic techniques have been developed for detecting and identifying abrupt changes in dynamic <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The GLR technique monitors the output of the Kalman filter and searches for the time that the failure occured, thus allowing it to be sensitive to new data and consequently increasing the chances for fast <span class="hlt">system</span> recovery following detection of a failure. All failure detections are based on functional redundancy. Performance tests of the F-8 aircraft flight control <span class="hlt">system</span> and computerized modelling of the technique are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866467','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866467"><span>Alkali injection <span class="hlt">system</span> with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for combustion of coal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Berry, Gregory F.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23186658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23186658"><span>Two-stage soil infiltration treatment <span class="hlt">system</span> for treating ammonium wastewaters of low COD/TN <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lei, Zhongfang; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) is ineffective to treat ammonium wastewaters of total nitrogen (TN) > 100 mg l(-1). This study applied a novel two-stage SIT process for effective TN removal from wastewaters of TN>100 mg l(-1) and of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 3.2-8.6. The wastewater was first fed into the soil column (stage 1) at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.06 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) for COD removal and total phosphorus (TP) immobilization. Then the effluent from stage 1 was fed individually into four soil columns (stage 2) at 0.02 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) of HLR with different proportions of raw wastewater as additional carbon source. Over the one-year field test, balanced nitrification and denitrification in the two-stage SIT revealed excellent TN removal (>90%) from the tested wastewaters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10136242','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10136242"><span>Tests of variable-band multilayers designed for investigating optimal signal-to-noise vs artifact signal <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography (DDSA) imaging <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyers, D.; Ho, A.; Li, Q.; Piestrup, M.; Rice, M.; Tatchyn, R.</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>In recent work, various design techniques were applied to investigate the feasibility of controlling the bandwidth and bandshape profiles of tungsten/boron-carbon (W/B{sub 4}C) and tungsten/silicon (W/Si) multilayers for optimizing their performance in synchrotron radiation based angiographical imaging <span class="hlt">systems</span> at 33 keV. Varied parameters included alternative spacing geometries, material thickness <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and numbers of layer pairs. Planar optics with nominal design reflectivities of 30%--94% and bandwidths ranging from 0.6%--10% were designed at the Stanford Radiation Laboratory, fabricated by the Ovonic Synthetic Materials Company, and characterized on Beam Line 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, in this paper we report selected results of these tests and review the possible use of the multilayers for determining optimal signal to noise vs. artifact signal <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in practical Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-534.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.534 - How does my <span class="hlt">system</span> use this data to calculate an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.534 How...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-536.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-536.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.536 - My <span class="hlt">system</span> has developed an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>; what must we do now?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.536 My...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-534.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.534 - How does my <span class="hlt">system</span> use this data to calculate an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.534 How...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-536.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-536.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.536 - My <span class="hlt">system</span> has developed an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>; what must we do now?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.536 My...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-536.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-536.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.536 - My <span class="hlt">system</span> has developed an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>; what must we do now?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.536 My...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-534.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.534 - How does my <span class="hlt">system</span> use this data to calculate an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.534 How...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-534.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.534 - How does my <span class="hlt">system</span> use this data to calculate an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.534 How...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-534.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.534 - How does my <span class="hlt">system</span> use this data to calculate an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.534 How...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-536.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-536.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.536 - My <span class="hlt">system</span> has developed an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>; what must we do now?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.536 My...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-536.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-536.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.536 - My <span class="hlt">system</span> has developed an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>; what must we do now?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.536 My...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850740"><span>Direct emissions of N2O, CO 2, and CH 4 from A/A/O bioreactor <span class="hlt">systems</span>: impact of influent C/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ren, Yangang; Wang, Jinhe; Xu, Li; Liu, Cui; Zong, Ruiqiang; Yu, Jianlin; Liang, Shuang</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Direct emissions of N2O, CO2, and CH4, three important greenhouse gases (GHGs), from biological sewage treatment process have attracted increasing attention worldwide, due to the increasing concern about climate change. Despite the tremendous efforts devoted to understanding GHG emission from biological sewage treatment process, the impact of influent C/N <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN), on an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A/A/O) bioreactor <span class="hlt">system</span> has not been investigated. In this work, the direct GHG emission from A/A/O bioreactor <span class="hlt">systems</span> fed with actual sewage was analyzed under different influent C/N <span class="hlt">ratios</span> over a 6-month period. The results showed that the variation in influent carbon (160 to 500 mg/L) and nitrogen load (35 to 95 mg/L) dramatically influenced pollutant removal efficiency and GHG production from this process. In the A/A/O bioreactor <span class="hlt">systems</span>, the GHG production increased from 26-39 to 112-173 g CO2-equivalent as influent C/N <span class="hlt">ratios</span> decreased from 10.3/10.7 to 3.5/3.8. Taking consideration of pollutant removal efficiency and direct biogenic GHG (N2O, CO2, and CH4) production, the optimum influent C/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was determined to be 7.1/7.5, at which a relatively high pollutant removal efficiency and meanwhile a low level of GHG production (30.4 g CO2-equivalent) can be achieved. Besides, mechanical aeration turned out to be the most significant factor influencing GHG emission from the A/A/O bioreactor <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895274','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895274"><span>High Resolution Imaging of the Anomalous Flux-<span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Gravitational Lens <span class="hlt">System</span> CLASS B2045+265: Dark Or Luminous Satellites?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKean, J.P.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; Flack, C.E.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Thompson, D.; Matthews, K.; Blandford, R.D.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Soifer, B.T.; /UC, Davis /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron. /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /Bemidji State U. /Caltech /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Cornell U., Astron. Dept.</p> <p>2006-11-10</p> <p>The existence of flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> anomalies between fold and cusp images in galaxy-scale strong-lens <span class="hlt">systems</span> has led to an interpretation based on the presence of a high mass-fraction of cold-dark-matter (CDM) substructures around galaxies, as predicted by numerical N-body simulations. These substructures can cause large perturbations of the image magnifications, leading to changes in the image flux <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. The flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> anomaly is particularly evident in the radio-loud quadruple gravitational lens <span class="hlt">system</span> CLASS B2045+265. In this paper, new high-resolution radio, optical, and infrared imaging of B2045+265 is presented which sheds more light on this anomaly and its possible causes. First, deep Very Long Baseline Array observations show very compact images, possibly with a hint of a jet, but with no evidence for differential scattering or scatter broadening. Hence, the flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> anomaly is unlikely to be caused by refractive scattering in either the Milky Way or the lens galaxy. Second, optical and infrared observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and through Adaptive-Optics imaging with the W. M. Keck Telescope, show a previously undiscovered object--interpreted as a (tidally disrupted) dwarf satellite based on its colors and slight extension--between the main lens galaxy and the three anomalous flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> images. Third, color variations in the early-type lens galaxy indicate recent star-formation, possibly the result of secondary infall of gas-rich satellites. A population of young galaxies around the lens <span class="hlt">system</span> could explain the previously discovered strong [O II] emission. However, spiral structure and/or normal star formation in the lens galaxy cannot be excluded. In light of these new data, we propose a lens model for the <span class="hlt">system</span>, including the observed dwarf satellite, which reproduces all positional and flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> constraints, without the need for additional CDM substructure. Although the model is peculiar in that the dwarf galaxy must be highly flattened</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.449.3043X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.449.3043X"><span>Evolutionary outcomes for pairs of planets undergoing orbital migration and circularization: second-order resonances and observed period <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in Kepler's planetary <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiang-Gruess, M.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In order to study the origin of the architectures of low-mass planetary <span class="hlt">systems</span>, we perform numerical surveys of the evolution of pairs of coplanar planets in the mass range (1-4) M⊕. These evolve for up to 2 × 107 yr under a range of orbital migration torques and circularization rates assumed to arise through interaction with a protoplanetary disc. Near the inner disc boundary, significant variations of viscosity, interaction with density waves or with the stellar magnetic field could occur and halt migration, but allow circularization to continue. This was modelled by modifying the migration and circularization rates. Runs terminated without an extended period of circularization in the absence of migration torques gave rise to either a collision, or a <span class="hlt">system</span> close to a resonance. These were mostly first order with a few per cent terminating in second-order resonances. Both planetary eccentricities were small <0.1 and all resonant angles liberated. This type of survey produced only a limited range of period <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and cannot reproduce Kepler observations. When circularization alone operates in the final stages, divergent migration occurs causing period <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to increase. Depending on its strength the whole period <span class="hlt">ratio</span> range between 1 and 2 can be obtained. A few <span class="hlt">systems</span> close to second-order commensurabilities also occur. In contrast to when arising through convergent migration, resonant trapping does not occur and resonant angles circulate. Thus, the behaviour of the resonant angles may indicate the form of migration that led to near resonance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22720415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22720415"><span>Optimization of factors with C/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and flocs biomass concentration in simulated aquaculture bio-flocs <span class="hlt">systems</span> by response surface methodology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruan, Yun-Jie; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiang-Yang</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The TAN (total ammonia nitrogen) removal efficiency was investigated in simulated aquaculture bio-flocs technology <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The response surface methodology that was applied with a central composite rotational design and two key operational parameters, flocs biomass concentration and C/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was varied in order to evaluate the <span class="hlt">system</span> performance and achieve the optimal operational conditions in this study. A polynomial linear regression model was found to quantitatively describe the relationship between the two variables and response values with adequate fitness in the simulate aquaculture bio-flocs <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The results showed that flocs biomass concentration and operational C/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> both had significant impacts on the response objectives, as well as the interactions between them. The optimal results attained from the model indicated that more than 90% TAN removal efficiency was achieved when the flocs biomass concentration and C/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> were around 2.0-2.5 (volatile suspended solids, g/l) and 13-16, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18774346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18774346"><span>Pepsin extraction from bovine stomach using aqueous two-phase <span class="hlt">systems</span>: molecular mechanism and influence of homogenate mass and phase volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Imelio, Natalia; Marini, Analía; Spelzini, Darío; Picó, Guillermo; Farruggia, Beatriz</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Pepsin partitioning, a gastric acid protease, in aqueous two-phase <span class="hlt">systems</span> of polyethyleneglycol/potassium phosphate, sodium citrate and ammonium sulphate was assayed using polyethylenglycol of different molecular mass. Pepsin was found to be partitioned towards the polymer-rich phase in all the <span class="hlt">systems</span>, which suggests an important protein-polymer interaction due to the highly hydrophobic character of the protein surface exposed to the solvent. The pepsin partitioning behavior was explained according to Timasheff's preferential interaction theory. The process was driven entropically with participation of structured water around the polyethyleneglycol ethylenic chains. The best pepsin recovery was observed in the <span class="hlt">systems</span> polyethyleneglycol molecular mass 600. These <span class="hlt">systems</span> were chosen in order to assay the bovine stomach homogenate partition and to compare different working conditions such as the top-bottom phase volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and homogenate proportions in the total <span class="hlt">system</span>. The best purification factors were obtained with PEG600/potassium phosphate with low top-bottom volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> using 15% of bovine stomach homogenate in the <span class="hlt">system</span> total mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22733807J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22733807J"><span>Characterizing the zone of influence of dark matter clumps on image positions and flux <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in gravitational lensing <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jyothisraj; Keeton, Charles R.; Brennan, Sean</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model of the universe predicts that there should be hundreds to thousands of clumps surrounding a massive galaxy. However, observations have shown that we only see dozens of dwarf galaxies and not the hundreds to thousands that are predicted. This means that either the CDM model prediction is wrong, or most of the substructure consists of dark matter that cannot be observed directly. Massive galaxies serve as natural gravitational lenses throughout the universe that allow us to indirectly observe these dark matter perturbations. Strong gravitational lensing occurs when these massive elliptical galaxies have the critical density required to bend light from a source located behind it and produce multiple images of that same source. Dark matter clumps located near these multiple images affect their positions and flux <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. We used lensing simulations to quantify how dark matter clumps affect image properties and to characterize this zone of influence through color maps of chi-squared values. Our results showed regions around each of the image positions that display significant perturbations for low mass clumps. For higher mass clumps, however, these distinct regions bleed together. We found that there is a correlation between the mass of the dark matter clump and the area it perturbs.This research has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1263280.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7260E..3KL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7260E..3KL"><span>ARGALI: an automatic cup-to-disc <span class="hlt">ratio</span> measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> for glaucoma detection and AnaLysIs framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; Wong, D. W. K.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Tan, N. M.; Wong, T. Y.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Glaucoma is an irreversible ocular disease leading to permanent blindness. However, early detection can be effective in slowing or halting the progression of the disease. Physiologically, glaucoma progression is quantified by increased excavation of the optic cup. This progression can be quantified in retinal fundus images via the optic cup to disc <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CDR), since in increased glaucomatous neuropathy, the relative size of the optic cup to the optic disc is increased. The ARGALI framework constitutes of various segmentation approaches employing level set, color intensity thresholds and ellipse fitting for the extraction of the optic cup and disc from retinal images as preliminary steps. Following this, different combinations of the obtained results are then utilized to calculate the corresponding CDR values. The individual results are subsequently fused using a neural network. The learning function of the neural network is trained with a set of 100 retinal images For testing, a separate set 40 images is then used to compare the obtained CDR against a clinically graded CDR, and it is shown that the neural network-based result performs better than the individual components, with 96% of the results within intra-observer variability. The results indicate good promise for the further development of ARGALI as a tool for the early detection of glaucoma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840023203','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840023203"><span>Preliminary engineering report for design of a subscale ejector/diffuser <span class="hlt">system</span> for high expansion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> space engine testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wojciechowski, C. J.; Kurzius, S. C.; Doktor, M. F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The design of a subscale jet engine driven ejector/diffuser <span class="hlt">system</span> is examined. Analytical results and preliminary design drawings and plans are included. Previously developed performance prediction techniques are verified. A safety analysis is performed to determine the mechanism for detonation suppression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.208..577P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.208..577P"><span>The inversion of spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> H/V in a layered <span class="hlt">system</span> using the diffuse field assumption (DFA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piña-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; García-Jerez, Antonio; Carmona, Enrique; Luzón, Francisco; Molina-Villegas, Juan C.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In order to evaluate the site effects on seismic ground motion and establish preventive measures to mitigate these effects, the dynamic characterization of sites is mandatory. Among the various geophysical tools aimed to this end, the horizontal to vertical spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (H/V) is a simple way to assess the dominant frequency of a site from seismic ambient noise. The aim of this communication is contributing to enhance the potential of this measurement with a novel method that allows extracting from the H/V the elastic properties of the subsoil, assumed here as a multilayer medium. For that purpose, we adopt the diffuse field assumption from both the experimental and the modelling perspectives. At the experimental end, the idea is to define general criteria that make the data processing closely supported by theory. On the modelling front, the challenge is to compute efficiently the imaginary part of Green's function. The Cauchy's residue theory in the horizontal wavenumber complex plane is the selected approach. This method allows both identifying the contributions of body and surface waves and computing them separately. This permits exploring the theoretical properties of the H/V under different compositions of the seismic ambient noise. This answers some questions that historically aroused and gives new insights into the H/V method. The efficient forward calculation is the prime ingredient of an inversion scheme based on both gradient and heuristic searches. The availability of efficient forward calculation of H/V allows exploring some relevant relationships between the H/V curves and the parameters. This allows generating useful criteria to speed up inversion. As in many inverse problems, the non-uniqueness issues also emerge here. A joint inversion method that considers also the dispersion curves of surface waves extracted from seismic ambient noise is presented and applied to experimental data. This joint scheme mitigates effectively the non-uniqueness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..429P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..429P"><span>The inversion of spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> H/V in a layered <span class="hlt">system</span> using the Diffuse Field Assumption (DFA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piña-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; García-Jerez, Antonio; Carmona, Enrique; Luzón, Francisco; Molina-Villegas, Juan C.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In order to evaluate the site effects on seismic ground motion and establish preventive measures to mitigate these effects, the dynamic characterization of sites is mandatory. Among the various geophysical tools aimed to this end, the horizontal to vertical spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (H/V) is a simple way to assess the dominant frequency of a site from seismic ambient noise. The aim of this communication is contributing to enhance the potential of this measurement with a novel method that allows extracting from the H/V the elastic properties of the subsoil, assumed here as a multilayer medium. For that purpose, we adopt the Diffuse Field Assumption from both the experimental and the modeling perspectives. At the experimental end, the idea is to define general criteria that make the data processing closely supported by theory. On the modeling front, the challenge is to compute efficiently the imaginary part of Green's function. The Cauchy's residue theory in the horizontal wavenumber complex plane is the selected approach. This method allows both identifying the contributions of body and surface waves and computing them separately. This permits exploring the theoretical properties of the H/V under different compositions of the seismic ambient noise. This answers some questions that historically aroused and gives new insights into the H/V method. The efficient forward calculation is the prime ingredient of an inversion scheme based on both gradient and heuristic searches. The availability of efficient forward calculation of H/V allows exploring some relevant relationships between the H/V curves and the parameters. This allows generating useful criteria to speed up inversion. As in many inverse problems, the non-uniqueness issues also emerge here. A joint inversion method that considers also the dispersion curves of surface waves extracted from seismic ambient noise is presented and applied to experimental data. This joint scheme mitigates effectively the non-uniqueness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392784"><span>Engineered high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> vertical nanotubes as a model <span class="hlt">system</span> for the investigation of catalytic methanol synthesis over Cu/ZnO.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Güder, Firat; Frei, Elias; Kücükbayrak, Umut M; Menzel, Andreas; Thomann, Ralf; Luptak, Roman; Hollaender, Bernd; Krossing, Ingo; Zacharias, Margit</p> <p>2014-02-12</p> <p>Catalytically synthesized methanol from H2 and CO2 using porous Cu/ZnO aggregates is a promising, carbon neutral, and renewable alternative to replace fossil fuel based transport fuels. However, the absence of surface-engineered model <span class="hlt">systems</span> to understand and improve the industrial Cu/ZnO catalyst poses a big technological gap in efforts to increase industrial methanol conversion efficiency. In this work, we report a novel process for the fabrication of patterned, vertically aligned high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> 1D nanostructures on Si that can be used as an engineered model catalyst. The proposed strategy employs near-field phase shift lithography (NF-PSL), deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to pattern, etch, and coat Si wafers to produce high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> 1D nanostructures. Using this method, we produced a model <span class="hlt">system</span> consisting of high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> Cu-decorated ZnO nanotubes (NTs) to investigate the morphological effects of ZnO catalyst support in comparison to the planar Cu/ZnO catalyst in terms of the catalytic reactions. The engineered catalysts performed 70 times better in activating CO2 than the industrial catalyst. In light of the obtained results, several important points are highlighted, and recommendations are made to achieve higher catalytic performance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21207036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21207036"><span>Leucocyte profiles and H/L <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in chicks of Red-tailed Tropicbirds reflect the ontogeny of the immune <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dehnhard, Nina; Quillfeldt, Petra; Hennicke, Janos C</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Immune defence is fundamentally important for the survival prospects of young animals. While innate immunity offers initial protection from a variety of pathogens, acquired immunity responds more specifically to pathogens, but is considered to be more costly and to respond slower. Moreover, the acquired immunity is not yet fully developed in neonatal chicks. Little is known about the ontogeny of the immune <span class="hlt">system</span> of wild birds. Long-lived seabirds, with their slow chick development, are good models to investigate how young birds invest in both arms of their immune <span class="hlt">system</span>. We determined leucocyte profiles and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda westralis) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Young chicks (N = 10) had significantly higher H/L <span class="hlt">ratios</span> than older chicks (N = 19), while adults (N = 47) showed intermediate values and did not differ from either chick age class. High H/L <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in young chicks were caused by high initial numbers of heterophils per 10,000 erythrocytes that declined with age. In contrast, the number of lymphocytes per 10,000 erythrocytes was similar for young and older chicks. These data suggest that young chicks invested heavily in innate immunity to protect themselves from pathogens, while investment into acquired immunity became more important in older chicks with a functional acquired immune response. Body condition did not have a significant influence on any leucocyte parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987GeCoA..51.1807R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987GeCoA..51.1807R"><span>Hydrogen isotope abundances in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Part II: Meteorites with terrestrial-like D / H <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robert, François; Javoy, Marc; Halbout, Jérôme; Dimon, Bernard; Merlivat, Liliane</p> <p>1987-07-01</p> <p>Hydrogen isotopic compositions were determined by progressive pyrolysis in type 6 to type 3 ordinary chondrites. A marked decrease in the isotopic composition patterns was observed at intermediate temperatures (250-300°C) and results from the pyrolysis of a D-depleted component. A δD value of-400‰ for this component can be inferred from a mathematical treatment of the H concentration release pattern. At higher temperatures (600 to 900°C) the bimodal δD pattern was observed in Hedjaz (L3-L6) with negative δD values, suggesting the presence of a carbonaceous chondrite-like organic polymer in this meteorite. A peak in the δD pattern was observed at high temperature in all the analyzed samples, suggesting that D-rich H is widespread among meteorites. A minimum of 50% of the total H is concentrated in the fine-grained particles (the "holy smoke") of equilibrated chondrites, reinforcing the idea that H is associated with the C. An internal correlation between the bulk isotopic composition of HT H 2 and the maximum measured D/H <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is interpreted as the result of either the mixing of two components (Model 1), namely a D-depleted H at -400‰ and a D-rich H at +5000‰, or a progressive isotopic fractionation of a D-depleted reservoir (Model 2). The first model (the favored one) implies that the two components were present in different proportions at the time of the formation of each meteorite, and that metamorphism has homogeneized the two phases. The uniqueness of the two isotopic end-members for all meteorites is not demonstrated. The second model relates the isotopic fractionation of the D-rich phase to the degree of equilibration of chondrites. All the isotopic variations reported in this work for ordinary chondrites can be explained quantitatively by either one of these two models. The upper and lower limits for the D/Hratios of the D-rich and of the D-depleted H in meteorites are calculated to be 1.1 × 10 -3 and 9 × 10 -5, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28371761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28371761"><span>Bioremediation of storage tank bottom sludge by using a two-stage composting <span class="hlt">system</span>: Effect of mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and nutrients addition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koolivand, Ali; Rajaei, Mohammad Sadegh; Ghanadzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Hamid; Godini, Kazem</p> <p>2017-03-21</p> <p>The effect of mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and nutrients addition on the efficiency of a two-stage composting <span class="hlt">system</span> in removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from storage tank bottom sludge (STBS) was investigated. The <span class="hlt">system</span> consisted of ten windrow piles as primary composting (PC) followed by four in-vessel reactors as secondary composting (SC). Various initial C/N/P and mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of STBS to immature compost (IC) were examined in the PC and SC for 12 and 6weeks, respectively. The removal rates of TPH in the two-stage <span class="hlt">system</span> (93.72-95.24%) were higher than those in the single-stage one. Depending on the experiments, TPH biodegradation fitted to the first- and second-order kinetics with the rate constants of 0.051-0.334d(-1) and 0.002-0.165gkg(-1)d(-1), respectively. The bacteria identified were Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Proteus sp. The study verified that a two-stage composting <span class="hlt">system</span> is effective in treating the STBS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864017"><span>Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase <span class="hlt">Systems</span> in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase <span class="hlt">systems</span>, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:27242816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20972260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20972260"><span>Sexual <span class="hlt">system</span>, sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and group living in the shrimp Thor amboinensis (De Man): relevance to resource-monopolization and sex-allocation theories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baeza, J A; Piantoni, C</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The sexual <span class="hlt">system</span> of the symbiotic shrimp Thor amboinensis is described, along with observations on sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and host-use pattern of different populations. We used a comprehensive approach to elucidate the previously unknown sexual <span class="hlt">system</span> of this shrimp. Dissections, scanning electron microscopy, size-frequency distribution analysis, and laboratory observations demonstrated that T. amboinensis is a protandric hermaphrodite: shrimp first mature as males and change into females later in life. Thor amboinensis inhabited the large and structurally heterogeneous sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus in large groups (up to 11 individuals) more frequently than expected by chance alone. Groups exhibited no particularly complex social structure and showed male-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> more frequently than expected by chance alone. The adult sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was male-biased in the four separate populations studied, one of them being thousands of kilometers apart from the others. This study supports predictions central to theories of resource monopolization and sex allocation. Dissections demonstrated that unusually large males were parasitized by an undescribed species of isopod (family Entoniscidae). Infestation rates were similarly low in both sexes (≈11%-12%). The available information suggests that T. amboinensis uses pure search promiscuity as a mating <span class="hlt">system</span>. This hypothesis needs to be formally tested with mating behavior observations and field measurements on the movement pattern of both sexes of the species. Further detailed studies on the lifestyle and sexual <span class="hlt">system</span> of all the species within this genus and the development of a molecular phylogeny are necessary to elucidate the evolutionary history of gender expression in the genus Thor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5298622','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5298622"><span>Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Actuator-Based Active Front Steering <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS <span class="hlt">system</span> with a variable gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS <span class="hlt">system</span>, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS <span class="hlt">system</span> is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28036037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28036037"><span>Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Actuator-Based Active Front Steering <span class="hlt">Systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao</p> <p>2016-12-28</p> <p>Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver's input. This paper proposes an AFS <span class="hlt">system</span> with a variable gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS <span class="hlt">system</span>, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS <span class="hlt">system</span> is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5239459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5239459"><span>Superiority of lymph node <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-based staging <span class="hlt">system</span> for prognostic prediction in 2575 patients with gastric cancer: validation analysis in a large single center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jia, Lu-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Liu, Kai; Wang, Yi-Gao; Xue, Lian; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of node <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (Nr), the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of metastatic to retrieved lymph nodes, and to investigate whether a modified staging <span class="hlt">system</span> based on Nr can improve prognostic ability for gastric cancer patients following gastrectomy. A total of 2572 patients were randomly divided into training set and validation set, and the cutoff points for Nr were produced using X-tile. The relationships between Nr and other clinicopathologic factors were analyzed, while survival prognostic discriminatory ability and accuracy were compared among different staging <span class="hlt">systems</span> by AIC and C-index in R program. Patients were categorized into four groups as follows: Nr0, Nr1: 0.00–0.15, Nr2: 0.15–0.40 and Nr3: > 0.40. Nr was significantly associated with clinicopathologic factors including macroscopic type, tumor differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, tumor size, T stage, N stage and TNM stage. Besides, for all patients, Nr and TNrM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> showed a smaller AIC and a larger C-index than that of N and TNM staging <span class="hlt">system</span>, respectively. Moreover, in subgroup analysis for patients with retrieved lymph nodes < 15, Nr was demonstrated to have a smaller AIC and a larger C-index than N staging <span class="hlt">system</span>. Furthermore, in validation analysis, Nr, categorized by our cutoff points, showed a larger C-index and a smaller AIC value than those produced in previous studies. Nr could be considered as a reliable prognostic factor, even in patients with insufficient (< 15) retrieved lymph nodes, and TNrM staging <span class="hlt">system</span> may improve the prognostic discriminatory ability and accuracy for gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy. PMID:27363014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.367..316L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.367..316L"><span>Performance of single and dual-polarized optically preamplified M-ary PPM <span class="hlt">systems</span> with finite extinction <span class="hlt">ratios</span> over FSO fading channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landolsi, Taha; Elrefaie, Aly F.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>M-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been considered in free-space optical (FSO) communications, optical fiber links, and passive optical networks. In this paper, we study the error performance of direct-detection optically preamplified M-ary PPM <span class="hlt">systems</span> over slowly fading FSO channels. The study considers the combined effects on the probability of bit error, Pb, of channel fading with a given scintillation index, σp2, the transmitter finite extinction <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, r, and the preamplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. We provide results for both single and dual-polarized <span class="hlt">systems</span> with symbol sizes M ∈ { 2, 4, …, 1024 } at Pb =10-4 and Pb =10-9. The fading models considered in this study are the exponential, log-normal, and gamma-gamma channels. For single-polarized <span class="hlt">systems</span> with infinite extinction <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, we provide closed-form expressions for the bit error probabilities for the three channel models. For the dual-polarized <span class="hlt">systems</span> we compute them numerically. The results indicate that gamma-gamma fading imposes a more severe penalty than the log-normal case. In this study, the power penalty at Pb =10-9 ranges between 1.8 and 14 dB for the log-normal channel, whereas it ranges between 2.2 and 30.7 dB for the gamma-gamma channel. The study also demonstrates that the power penalty due to the combined effects of transmitter finite r and channel fading is the sum of the penalty due to fading alone and the penalty due to a finite r alone, and that the power penalty for dual-polarized <span class="hlt">systems</span> is about 0.4 dB larger than single-polarized ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MART22004W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MART22004W"><span>Energy dependence of localization with interactions and disorder: The generalized inverse participation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of an ensemble of two-site Anderson-Hubbard <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wortis, Rachel; Perera, Jayanayana</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We explore the effect of interactions on novel features found in non-interacting disordered <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Johri and Bhatt [PRL 109 076402 (2012), PRB 86 125140 (2012)] showed that for non-interacting particles moving in a disordered potential Lifshitz states lead to a decrease in localization at the band edges. This is reflected in an abrupt decline in the inverse participation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> following a sharp peak. We consider an ensemble of two-site Anderson-Hubbard <span class="hlt">systems</span> and study a generalization of the inverse participation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> applicable to interacting <span class="hlt">systems</span>. With on-site Coulomb repulsion U, two types of resonances can occur: As in the non-interacting case, the potentials at the two sites may be similar. In addition, the potential at one site may differ from its neighbor by U. We demonstrate that these two types of resonance and the diversity of transitions in the interacting case result in much more varied dependence of localization on energy, with multiple local minima, including a strong suppression and more structure near the Fermi level. Opportunities for experimental observation are considered. NSERC of Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptEn..55g6110W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptEn..55g6110W"><span>Combined peak-to-average power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> reduction and physical layer security enhancement in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing visible-light communication <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Shoufa</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A physical encryption scheme for discrete Hartley transform (DHT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible-light communication (VLC) <span class="hlt">systems</span> using frequency domain chaos scrambling is proposed. In the scheme, the chaos scrambling, which is generated by a modified logistic mapping, is utilized to enhance the physical layer of security, and the DHT precoding is employed to reduce of OFDM signal for OFDM-based VLC. The influence of chaos scrambling on peak-to-average power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (PAPR) and bit error rate (BER) of <span class="hlt">systems</span> is studied. The experimental simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method for DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Furthermore, the influence of the proposed encryption to the PAPR and BER of <span class="hlt">systems</span> is evaluated. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme can protect the DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC from eavesdroppers, while keeping the good BER performance of DHT-precoded <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The BER performance of the encrypted and DHT-precoded <span class="hlt">system</span> is almost the same as that of the conventional DHT-precoded <span class="hlt">system</span> without encryption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28268627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28268627"><span>Detection of control or idle state with a likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test in asynchronous SSVEP-based brain-computer interface <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merino, Lenis M; Nayak, Tapsya; Hall, Garrett; Pack, Daniel J; Yufei Huang</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We consider the detection of the control or idle state in an asynchronous Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain computer interface <span class="hlt">system</span>. We propose a likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) scores calculated from the EEG measurements. The test exploits the state-specific distributions of CCA scores. The algorithm was tested on offline measurements from 42 participants and the results should a significant improvement in detection error rate over the support vector machine classifier. The proposed test is also shown to be robust against training sample size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5340793','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5340793"><span>Meta-analysis of the changes of peripheral blood regulatory T cell to CD4+ T cell <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in patients with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> sclerosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deng, Chuiwen; Li, Wenli; Chen, Si; Li, Yongzhe</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Current reports on the changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Tregs) to CD4+ T cell <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in <span class="hlt">systemic</span> sclerosis (SSc) patients are varied in their conclusions. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to identify the actual change in the proportion of peripheral Tregs in SSc. Three databases, namely EMBASE, ISI web of knowledge, and Pubmed were systematically searched for relevant literature. Approximately 250 SSc patients and controls from several studies were included in this analysis. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 2.0 software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results of the meta-analysis showed high degree of heterogeneity (I2 = 96.98), and a random-effect model was used in the subsequent analysis. The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of circulating Tregs to CD4+ T cell in SSc was lower than in controls, but not statistically significantly so (−0.61 ± 0.94, P = 0.52). Subgroup analysis did not identify any potential source of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis indicated that Tregs might play a less prominent immunosuppressive role in the immune <span class="hlt">system</span> in SSc patients, but needs further confirmation. PMID:28317890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...812..139K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...812..139K"><span>Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>. I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-dust Mass <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krüger, Harald; Strub, Peter; Grün, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium (ISM) surrounding our solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses interstellar dust data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of a population of “big” interstellar grains (up to 10-13 kg). The derived gas-to-dust-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of interstellar dust in the very local ISM. In this paper we analyze the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses interstellar dust measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of interstellar dust. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses interstellar dust data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modeling of the interstellar dust flow applied to Ulysses. We use the latest values for the interstellar hydrogen and helium densities, the interstellar helium flow speed of {v}{ISM∞ }=23.2 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of radiation pressure to gravity, β, calculated for astronomical silicates. We find a gas-to-dust mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in the local interstellar cloud of {R}{{g}/{{d}}}={193}-57+85, and a dust density of (2.1 ± 0.6) × 10-24 kg m-3. For a higher inflow speed of 26 {km} {{{s}}}-1, the gas-to-dust mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is 20% higher, and, accordingly, the dust density is lower by the same amount. The gas-to-dust mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> derived from our new analysis is compatible with the value most recently determined from astronomical observations. We confirm earlier results that the very local ISM contains “big” (i.e., ≈1 μm sized) interstellar grains. We find a dust density in the local ISM that is a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..235P.228A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..235P.228A"><span>Extreme oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in the early solar <span class="hlt">system</span>: a stellar encounter with the young Sun or irradiation in protosolar outflows?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aleon, J.; Robert, F.; Duprat, J.; Derenne, S.</p> <p></p> <p>The oxygen isotopic mapping by ion microprobe of the deuterium-rich acid insoluble organic macromolecule extracted from the Murchison meteorite revealed the presence of micrometersized silica-rich grains having extreme 18O/16O and 17O/16O <span class="hlt">ratios</span> ( ~ 10-1). Such extreme <span class="hlt">ratios</span> have previously been reported only once : in CO2 from the circumstellar enveloppe of the binary post-AGB star HR4049 (Cami & Yamamura 2001). However, by contrast with typical presolar interstellar grains preserved in primitive meteorites, which show a compositional scatter attributed to multiple stellar sources, 36 grains accounting for 1 ppm of the total meteorite show a mixing between a single endmember source of heavy oxygen and solar or close-to-solar oxygen. Silicon isotopes in these grains do not show any deviation from solar. These extremely unusual compositions are not explained by conventional stellar nucleosynthesis models. Neither interactions with Galactic Cosmic Rays, nor isotope selective photochemistry due to CO self-shielding, nor non-mass-dependant fractionations during chemical reactions can explain the observed compositions. However we show that irradiation of a gas of solar composition by particles with characteristics of 3He-rich impulsive solar flares can produce these compositions provided a selective chemical trapping of the nuclear-induced oxygen exists.We therefore propose two explanations for these extremely unusual oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in micrometer-sized silica-rich grains from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. (1) The young Sun encountered an exotic evolved star comparable to HR4049. (2) These compositions were produced in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> itself during an active phase of the young Sun by high energy particle irradiation of the circumsolar gas followed by a chemical trapping of the anomaly and condensation of SiO2-rich grains. A possible locale for the condensation of these grains may be energetic, SiO-rich protosolar outflows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4621724','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4621724"><span>Can mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count <span class="hlt">ratio</span> be used as a diagnostic marker for sepsis and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammatory response syndrome?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ates, Selma; Oksuz, Hafıze; Dogu, Bırsen; Bozkus, Fulsen; Ucmak, Hasan; Yanıt, Fadime</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: To determine whether the mean platelet volume (MPV) and MPV/platelet (PLT) values can be used in the study of sepsis and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Methods: In this retrospective case-controlled study, 69 sepsis, 69 SIRS patients, and 72 control group who were treated in the years 2012-2013 were reviewed, and both the MPV and MPV/PLT rates were evaluated in all groups at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Intensive Care Unit, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between sepsis, SIRS, and control groups when comparing the MPV and MPV/PLT <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (p<0.05), and no significant difference was found between sepsis and SIRS groups in terms of MPV and MPV/PLT <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (p>0.05). Mean platelet volume values for sepsis and control groups was 10.07/8.731 femtoliter (fL) (p=0.000), and 9.45/8.731 fL (p=0.000) for SIRS and control groups. In the group of sepsis patients, the MPV was found to be at cut-off 8.915, sensitivity 71%, and specificity 63.9%. In the group of patients with SIRS, MPV was found to be at cut-off 8.85, sensitivity 69.6%, and specificity 62.5%. For the MPV/PLT values, the specificity and sensitivity were found to be insignificant. Conclusion: This study shows that although there was no significant reduction in the PLT values between the sepsis and SIRS patients, the MPV and MPV/PLT <span class="hlt">ratio</span> values were found to have significant differences. However, the specificity and sensitivity of the values were not reliable standard to be used as a test. PMID:26446329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5093299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5093299"><span>Effect of Sulindac Binary <span class="hlt">System</span> on In Vitro and In Vivo Release Profiles: An Assessment of Polymer Type and Its <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The bioavailability of sulindac (SDC), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is low due to poor aqueous solubility and poor dissolution rate. For this reason it is necessary to enhance the solubility and enhance dissolution of the drug by dispersing SDC in polyethylene glycols 6000 (PEG 6000) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone 40000 (PVP 40000) matrices using the coevaporation technique. Studying the influence of SDC to polymer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on drug content, percent yield, particle size, and in vitro release was performed. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize any change in crystal habit of SDC in the prepared formulae. The anti-inflammatory effect of SDC was studied using the hind paw edema model. It was found that incorporation of SDC in PEG 6000 and PVP 40000 matrices resulted in improving the dissolution rate, which was found to depend on the polymer and its weight <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the drug. It is clearly obvious that the dissolution rate was remarkably improved in drug PVP 40000 molecular dispersions when compared to drug PEG 6000 <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Solid dispersion of SDC in PEG and PVP improved the anti-inflammatory effect of SDC and it was found that formula SDV5 exhibited a more pronounced inhibition of swelling than other formulae. PMID:27840824</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeCoA..73.3864H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeCoA..73.3864H"><span>Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing <span class="hlt">systems</span> using sulfur and oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span>: The example of oil reservoir souring control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had δ18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in δ18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5351355','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5351355"><span>Study the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with early endothelial dysfunction and its impact on cardiovascular <span class="hlt">system</span> by estimating urinary albumin creatinine <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Agrawal, Anand; Garg, Renu; Sahu, Dibakar; Kumar, Mukesh</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attribute to <span class="hlt">systemic</span> inflammation which is responsible for microalbuminuria reflecting endothelial dysfunction, could be a significant surrogate marker of potential cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: The aim of our study was to find out the possible association of COPD with early cardiovascular changes in the form of renal endothelial dysfunction. Settings and Design: Case–control, multi-group, cross-sectional hospital-based study was designed and conducted in the Department of Respiratory Medicine of BPS Government Medical College for Women, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat, Haryana. Subjects and Methods: The study included 150 subjects, comprising of three groups with each having 50 subjects: Group 1 – acute exacerbation of COPD, Group 2 – stable COPD patients, Group 3 – asymptomatic smokers. Pulmonary function test, urine albumin creatinine <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (UACR) and brachio-ankle pulse wave velocity were measured in all the subjects. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using SPSS ver 20 (IBM, USA) software. Continuous variables were compared by unpaired Student's t-test while correlation was measured by Pearson correlation test, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean urine albumin creatinine <span class="hlt">ratio</span> UACR value in acute exacerbation of COPD (283.30 mg/g; standard deviation [SD] ±871.98) was found significantly higher compare to control subjects (24.17 mg/g; SD ± 32.105;) P = 0.038. Besides this COPD patients with Type 2 respiratory failure having robust positive correlation in between UACR and arterial blood pH (r = 0.559; P = 0.030) while it was inverse and moderate with partial pressure of arterial oxygen (r = −0.470; P = 0.077). Conclusions: Acute state of COPD with or without Type 2 respiratory failure is having a significant impact on cardiovascular <span class="hlt">system</span> in the form of early microvascular changes. PMID:28360461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53h6104M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53h6104M"><span>New hybrid peak-to-average power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> reduction technique based on carrier interferometry codes and companding technique for optical direct-detection orthogonal frequency division multiplexing <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maivan, Lap; He, Jing; Chen, Ming; Mangone, Fall; Chen, Lin</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) <span class="hlt">systems</span>, the high peak-to-average power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (PAPR) will cause nonlinear effects in both electrical and optical devices and optical fiber transmission when the nonlinear amplifiers are employed. A new hybrid technique based on carrier interferometry codes and companding transform has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to reduce the high PAPR in an optical direct-detection optical OFDM <span class="hlt">system</span>. The proposed technique is then experimentally demonstrated and the results show the effectiveness of the new method. The PAPR of the hybrid signal has been reduced by about 5.7 dB when compared to the regular <span class="hlt">system</span> at a complementary cumulative distribution function of 10-4. At a bit error rate of 10-4, after transmission over 100-km single-mode fiber with a μ of 2, the receiver sensitivity is improved by 3.7, 4.2, and 5 dB with launch powers of 3, 6, and 9 dBm, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ExFl...57....5A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ExFl...57....5A"><span>Time-resolved stereo PIV measurements of the horseshoe vortex <span class="hlt">system</span> at multiple locations in a low-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> pin-fin array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Corey D.; Lynch, Stephen P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Pin-fin arrays are a type of cooling feature found in heat exchangers, with elements (generally cylindrical or square) that span between two endwalls. Flow around the pin-fins generates highly turbulent mixing that increases convective heat transfer from the pins to the cooling flow. At the junction of a pin-fin and the endwall, a complex flow known as the horseshoe vortex (HSV) <span class="hlt">system</span> is present. Although the HSV is a well-studied phenomenon, its behavior is not understood in the highly turbulent flow of a pin-fin array. Furthermore, the presence of close confining endwalls for low-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> (short) pin-fins may have an impact on HSV dynamics. The present study utilized time-resolved stereo particle image velocimetry to examine the fluid dynamics of the HSV <span class="hlt">system</span> in rows 1, 3, and 5 of a low-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> pin-fin array, for a range of Reynolds numbers. In the first row, instantaneous flowfields indicated a clearly defined HSV at the leading edge, with dynamics similar to previous studies of bluff-body junction flows. The time-averaged HSV <span class="hlt">system</span> moved closer to the pin with increasing Reynolds number, with more concentrated vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). For downstream rows, there was a significant increase in the amount of mid-channel vorticity, with levels on the same order as the value in the core of the HSV. The time-averaged HSV <span class="hlt">system</span> in downstream rows showed minimal variation with respect to either Reynolds number or row location. Regions of maximum streamwise and wall-normal turbulent fluctuations around the HSV were a result of its quasiperiodic oscillation between so-called backflow and zero-flow modes, which were present even in downstream rows despite the extremely high mid-channel turbulence. In the downstream rows, normalized TKE across the entire field of view decreased with increased Reynolds number, likely due to dissipation rates proportionally outpacing increases in mean channel velocity and Reynolds number. The flowfield</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867083','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867083"><span>High <span class="hlt">ratio</span> recirculating gas compressor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Weinbrecht, John F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A high <span class="hlt">ratio</span> positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation <span class="hlt">system</span> which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure <span class="hlt">ratios</span> without overheating of the compressor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7266983','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7266983"><span>High <span class="hlt">ratio</span> recirculating gas compressor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Weinbrecht, J.F.</p> <p>1989-08-22</p> <p>A high <span class="hlt">ratio</span> positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation <span class="hlt">system</span> which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure <span class="hlt">ratios</span> without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ743536.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ743536.pdf"><span>The Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hyde, Hartley</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> and the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974054"><span>Altered Th17 cells and Th17/regulatory T-cell <span class="hlt">ratios</span> indicate the subsequent conversion from undifferentiated connective tissue disease to definitive <span class="hlt">systemic</span> autoimmune disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szodoray, Peter; Nakken, Britt; Barath, Sandor; Csipo, Istvan; Nagy, Gabor; El-Hage, Fadi; Osnes, Liv T; Szegedi, Gyula; Bodolay, Edit</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A shift in the balance between Th17-cells and regulatory T-cells (Treg) is an important feature of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> autoimmune diseases (SAID), and may also contribute to their development. Hereby, we assessed the distribution of peripheral Th17 and Treg-cells in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), the forerunner of SAIDs and followed these parameters during the development towards definitive SAIDs. Fifty-one UCTD patients were investigated and followed-up for 3 years. Flow cytometry was used to identify and follow three cell-populations: Th17-cells (CD4+IL-17+ T-cells), natural regulatory T-cells (CD4(+)CD25(bright)FoxP3(+); nTregs) and IL-10 producing Type-1 regulatory T-cells (CD4+IL-10+ T-cells; Tr1). Altogether 37.3% of these patients progressed into SAIDs. Th17-cells were increased in UCTD vs. controls, which further increased in those, whom developed SAIDs eventually. The Th17/nTreg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> gradually increased from controls through UCTD patients, reaching the highest values in SAID-progressed patients. Regarding the Th17/Tr1 <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, a similar tendency was observed moreover Th17/Tr1 could distinguish between UCTD patients with, or without subsequent SAID progression in a very early UCTD stage. Various immunoserological markers showed association with Th17 and Th17/nTreg at baseline, indicating the consecutive development of a distinct SAID. The derailed Th17/Treg balance may contribute to disease progression therefore could function as a prognostic marker.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22446054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22446054"><span>The contrast study of anammox-denitrifying <span class="hlt">system</span> in two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) treating different low C/N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> sewage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Fan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin; Qiang, Hong; Zhang, Guangyi</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) based on different substrates (nitrite and nitrate) were constructed to study the environmental adaptability for temperature and organic matter of anammox-denitrifying <span class="hlt">system</span> and nitrogen removal performance. The two reactors were successfully operated for 200 days. The average removal rates of nitrogen and COD of R2 were 81% and 93%, respectively. Besides, the nitrogen removal rate of R1 was 95% under not more than 105 mg/l of COD. The experimental results indicated that the R2 based on nitrate had a good nitrogen removal performance at room temperature (25 °C). Additionally, the analysis results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the percentage compositions of anammox in R1 and R2 were 84% and 65% on day 189. Finally, the possible nitrogen removal model of anammox-denitrifying <span class="hlt">system</span> was constructed. According to nitrogen balance and C/N <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of denitrification, the nitrogen removal approaches of R1 and R2 were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........66F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........66F"><span>Design, fabrication and characterization of high-stroke high-aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> micro electro mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> deformable mirrors for adaptive optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez Rocha, Bautista</p> <p></p> <p>Adaptive optic (AO) <span class="hlt">systems</span> for next generation of extremely large telescopes (30--50 meter diameter primary mirrors) require high-stroke (10 microns), high-order (100x100) deformable mirrors at lower-cost than current technology. The required specifications are achievable with Micro Electro Mechanical <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (MEMS) devices fabricated with high-aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> processing techniques. This dissertation will review simulation results compared with displacement measurements of actuators utilizing a white-light interferometer. It will also review different actuator designs, materials and post-processing procedures fabricated in three different high-aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> processes, Microfabrica's Electrochemical Fabrication (EFAB(TM)), HT-Micro's Precision Fabrication Technology (HTPF(TM)), and Innovative Micro Technologies (IMT) fabrication process. These manufacturing processes allow high-precision multilayer fabrication and their sacrificial layer thicknesses can be specified by the designer, rather than by constraints of the fabrication process. Various types of high-stroke gold actuators for AO consisting of folded springs with rectangular and circular membranes as well as X-beam actuators supported diagonally by beams were designed, simulated, fabricated, and tested individually and as part of a continuous facesheet DM <span class="hlt">system</span>. The design, modeling and simulation of these actuators are compared to experimental measurements of their pull-in voltages, which characterizes their stiffness and maximum stroke. Vertical parallel plate ganged actuators fabricated with the EFAB(TM) process have a calculated pull-in voltage of 95V for a 600mum size device. In contrast, the pull-in voltages for the comb-drive actuators ranged from 55V for the large actuator, to 203V for the smallest actuator. Simulations and interferometer scans of actuator designs fabricated with HT-Micro's Precision Fabrication (HTPF(TM)) two wafer bonded process with different spring supports have shown the ability of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660525"><span>Separation of chemical constituents from three plant medicines by counter-current chromatography using a three-phase solvent <span class="hlt">system</span> at a novel <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Xiaoyi; Chao, Zhimao; Wang, Chun; Yu, Li</p> <p>2015-03-06</p> <p>A solvent <span class="hlt">system</span> of n-hexane, methyl acetate, acetonitrile, and water at a novel volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 4:3:4:4 forms three layers, i.e. upper phase (UP), middle phase (MP), and lower phase (LP), with a volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 1:1.20:1.42 at room temperature (25°C). All three two-phases from this three-phase solvent <span class="hlt">system</span> were successfully used to separate some chemical constituents from three plant medicines with counter-current chromatography (CCC). Eight coumarins (B1-B8) were obtained from petroleum ether extract of fresh roots of Angelica dahurica (Baizhi) with a stationary phase of UP and a mobile phase of LP. Six diarylheptanoids (L1-L6) were obtained from petroleum ether extract of dried rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum (Liangjiang) with a stationary phase of UP and a mobile phase of MP. Three chemical constituents (Z1-Z3) were obtained from ethyl acetate extract of fresh rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Zhimu) with a stationary phase of MP and a mobile phase of LP. Preparative HPLC was used for further purification if necessary. Seventeen chemical constituents were identified as oxypeucedanin hydrate (B1), byakangelicin (B2), byakangelicol (B3), bergapten (B4), oxypeucedanin (B5), imperatorin (B6), phellopterin (B7), isoimperatorin (B8), 5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone (L1), 7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L2), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (L3), 1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L4), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-4E,6E-dien-3-heptanone (L5), isomers of 1,7-diphenyl-3,5-heptandione and 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L6), mangiferin (Z1), timosaponin A-III (Z2), and 2,6,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (Z3) by means of MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR studies. Five compounds of B3, L3, L5, L6, and Z3 were isolated by CCC for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029484','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029484"><span>Material flows generated by <span class="hlt">pyromet</span> copper smelting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Goonan, T.G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Copper production through smelting generates large volumes of material flows. As copper contained in ore becomes copper contained in concentrate to be fed into the smelting process, it leaves behind an altered landscape, sometimes mine waste, and always mill tailings. Copper concentrate, fluxing materials, fuels, oxygen, recyclables, scrap and water are inputs to the process. Dust (recycled), gases - containing carbon dioxide (CO2) (dissipated) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) (mostly collected, transformed and sold) and slag (discarded or sold) - are among the significant process outputs. This article reports estimates of the flows of these input/output materials for a particular set of smelters studied in some countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5056169','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5056169"><span>Activation of Human Complement <span class="hlt">System</span> by Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Is Not Affected by Dextran/Fe <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>, Hydroxyl Modifications, and Crosslinking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K.; Holers, V. Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, S. Moein; Simberg, Dmitri</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement <span class="hlt">system</span>, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum. Using complement inhibitors and measuring levels of fluid phase markers (sC5b-9, C5a, and Bb), we found that the majority of human complement activation by SPIO is through the alternative pathways (AP). SPIO prepared with high dextran/iron <span class="hlt">ratio</span> showed some complement activation via calcium-sensitive pathways, but the AP was responsible for the bulk of complement activation and amplification. Activation via the AP required properdin, the positive regulator of the alternative C3bBb convertase. Modification of sugar alcohols of dextran with alkylating, acylating, or crosslinking agents did not overcome complement activation and C3 opsonization. These data demonstrate that human complement activation is independent of dextran modification of SPIO and suggest a crucial role of the AP in immune recognition of nano-assemblies in human serum. PMID:27777575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21630662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21630662"><span>A perspective for biowaivers of human bioequivalence studies on the basis of the combination of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of AUC to the dose and the biopharmaceutics classification <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakuma, Shinji; Tachiki, Hidehisa; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Fukui, Yasunobu; Takeuchi, Naohiro; Kumamoto, Kazuo; Satoh, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Emi; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Sugita, Masaru; Yamashita, Shinji</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of AUC to the dose (AUC/dose) was previously found as a parameter that predicts a risk of bioinequivalence of oral drug products. On the basis of the combination of this parameter and the biopharmaceutics classification <span class="hlt">system</span> (BCS), a perspective for biowaivers of human bioequivalence studies is discussed. Databases of bioequivalence studies using immediate-release solid oral dosage forms were disclosed by 6 Japanese generic pharmaceutical companies, and the number of subjects required for demonstrating bioequivalence between generic and reference products was plotted as a function of AUC/dose for each BCS category. A small variation in the number of subjects was constantly observed in bioequivalence studies using dosage forms containing an identical BCS class 1 or class 3 drug, even though formulations of the generic product differ between companies. The variation was extremely enlarged when the drugs were substituted with BCS class 2 drugs. Rate-determining steps in oral absorption of highly water-soluble BCS class 1 and class 3 drugs are independent of formulations when there is no significant difference in the in vitro dissolution profiles between formulations. The small variation observed for both BCS categories indicates that the number of subjects converges into one value for each drug. Our analysis indicates the appropriateness of biowaiver of bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing not only BCS class 1 drugs but also class 3 drugs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6500583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6500583"><span>Influence of fusion cell <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and cell plating density on production of human-human hybridomas secreting anti-DNA autoantibodies from patients with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Massicotte, H; Rauch, J; Shoenfeld, Y; Tannenbaum, H</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The utilization of one human lymphoblastoid cell line in fusion experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus (SLE) has made it possible to define efficient and reproducible conditions for the production of anti-DNA-secreting human-human hybridomas. This investigation, using the human lymphoblastoid cell line GM 4672 fused in the presence of 44% polyethylene glycol with lymphocytes from SLE patients, demonstrated a maximal yield of 22.8% hybridomas, 17% of which produced anti-DNA antibodies. We were able to define, in two independent laboratories, that the maximal yield of hybridomas occurred when the lymphocyte to GM 4672 cell <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was 1:1 and cells were seeded in 2.0 ml wells at a concentration of 4 X 10(5) cells/well. This report demonstrates the reproducibility of human-human hybridoma production with the GM 4672 cell line and the establishment of efficient conditions for the production of anti-DNA autoantibodies from SLE patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20155754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20155754"><span>A gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometry <span class="hlt">system</span> for high-precision deltaD measurements of atmospheric methane extracted from ice cores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bock, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Behrens, Melanie; Möller, Lars; Schneider, Robert; Sapart, Celia; Fischer, Hubertus</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>Air enclosures in polar ice cores represent the only direct paleoatmospheric archive. Analysis of the entrapped air provides clues to the climate <span class="hlt">system</span> of the past in decadal to centennial resolution. A wealth of information has been gained from measurements of concentrations of greenhouse gases; however, little is known about their isotopic composition. In particular, stable isotopologues (deltaD and delta(13)C) of methane (CH(4)) record valuable information on its global cycle as the different sources exhibit distinct carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition. However, CH(4) isotope analysis is limited by the large sample size required and the demanding analysis as high precision is required. Here we present a highly automated, high-precision online gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> monitoring mass spectrometry (GC/P/irmMS) technique for the analysis of deltaD(CH(4)). It includes gas extraction from ice, preconcentration, gas chromatographic separation and pyrolysis of CH(4) from roughly 500 g of ice with CH(4) concentrations as low as 350 ppbv. Ice samples with approximately 40 mL air and only approximately 1 nmol CH(4) can be measured with a precision of 3.4 per thousand. The precision for 65 mL air samples with recent atmospheric concentration is 1.5 per thousand. The CH(4) concentration can be obtained along with isotope data which is crucial for reporting ice core data on matched time scales and enables us to detect flaws in the measurement procedure. Custom-made script-based processing of MS raw and peak data enhance the <span class="hlt">system</span>'s performance with respect to stability, peak size dependency, hence precision and accuracy and last but not least time requirement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16964848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16964848"><span>Comparison of entrance exposure and signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between an SBDX prototype and a wide-beam cardiac angiographic <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Speidel, Michael A; Wilfley, Brian P; Star-Lack, Josh M; Heanue, Joseph A; Betts, Timothy D; Van Lysel, Michael S</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) <span class="hlt">system</span> uses an inverse geometry, narrow x-ray beam, and a 2-mm thick CdTe detector to improve the dose efficiency of the coronary angiographic procedure. Entrance exposure and large-area iodine signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SNR) were measured with the SBDX prototype and compared to that of a clinical cardiac interventional <span class="hlt">system</span> with image intensifier (II) and charge coupled device (CCD) camera (Philips H5000, MRC-200 x-ray tube, 72 kWp max). Phantoms were 18.6-35.0 cm acrylic with an iohexol-equivalent disk placed at midthickness (35 mg/cm2 iodine radiographic density). Imaging was performed at 15 frame/s, with the disk at mechanical isocenter and an 11-cm object-plane field width. The II/CCD <span class="hlt">system</span> was operated in cine mode with automatic exposure control. With the SBDX prototype at maximum x-ray output (120 kVp, 24.3 kWp), the SBDX SNR was 107%-69% of the II/CCD SNR, depending on phantom thickness, and the SBDX entrance exposure rate was 10.7-9.3 R/min (9.4-8.2 cGy/min air kerma). For phantoms where an equal-kVp imaging comparison was possible (> or = 23.3 cm), the SBDX SNR ranged from 47% to 69% of the II/CCD SNR while delivering 6% to 9% of the II/CCD entrance exposure rate. From these measurements it was determined that the relative SBDX entrance exposure at equal SNR would be 31%-16%. Results were consistent with a model for relative entrance exposure at equal SNR, which predicted a 3-7 times reduction in entrance exposure due to SBDX's comparatively low scatter fraction (5.5%-8.1% measured, including off-focus radiation), high detector detective quantum efficiency (66%-73%, measured from 70 to 120 kVp), and large entrance field area (1.7x - 2.3x, for the same object-plane field width). With improvements to the <span class="hlt">system</span> geometry, detector, and x-ray source, SBDX technology is projected to achieve conventional cine-quality SNR over a full range of patient thicknesses, with 5-10 times lower skin dose.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20853372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20853372"><span>Comparison of entrance exposure and signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between an SBDX prototype and a wide-beam cardiac angiographic <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Speidel, Michael A.; Wilfley, Brian P.; Star-Lack, Josh M.; Heanue, Joseph A.; Betts, Timothy D.; Van Lysel, Michael S.</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>The scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) <span class="hlt">system</span> uses an inverse geometry, narrow x-ray beam, and a 2-mm thick CdTe detector to improve the dose efficiency of the coronary angiographic procedure. Entrance exposure and large-area iodine signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SNR) were measured with the SBDX prototype and compared to that of a clinical cardiac interventional <span class="hlt">system</span> with image intensifier (II) and charge coupled device (CCD) camera (Philips H5000, MRC-200 x-ray tube, 72 kWp max). Phantoms were 18.6-35.0 cm acrylic with an iohexol-equivalent disk placed at midthickness (35 mg/cm{sup 2} iodine radiographic density). Imaging was performed at 15 frame/s, with the disk at mechanical isocenter and an 11-cm object-plane field width. The II/CCD <span class="hlt">system</span> was operated in cine mode with automatic exposure control. With the SBDX prototype at maximum x-ray output (120 kVp, 24.3 kWp), the SBDX SNR was 107%-69% of the II/CCD SNR, depending on phantom thickness, and the SBDX entrance exposure rate was 10.7-9.3 R/min (9.4-8.2 cGy/min air kerma). For phantoms where an equal-kVp imaging comparison was possible ({>=}23.3 cm), the SBDX SNR ranged from 47% to 69% of the II/CCD SNR while delivering 6% to 9% of the II/CCD entrance exposure rate. From these measurements it was determined that the relative SBDX entrance exposure at equal SNR would be 31%-16%. Results were consistent with a model for relative entrance exposure at equal SNR, which predicted a 3-7 times reduction in entrance exposure due to SBDX's comparatively low scatter fraction (5.5%-8.1% measured, including off-focus radiation), high detector detective quantum efficiency (66%-73%, measured from 70 to 120 kVp), and large entrance field area (1.7x-2.3x, for the same object-plane field width). With improvements to the <span class="hlt">system</span> geometry, detector, and x-ray source, SBDX technology is projected to achieve conventional cine-quality SNR over a full range of patient thicknesses, with 5-10 times lower skin dose.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JLwT...25.1447F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JLwT...25.1447F"><span>Influence of the Extinction <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> on the Intrachannel Nonlinear Distortion of 40-Gb/s Return-to-Zero Transmission <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Over Standard Fiber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fonseca, Daniel; Cartaxo, Adolfo V. T.; Monteiro, Paulo P.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The impact of the extinction <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (ER) on the performance of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero transmission <span class="hlt">system</span> over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) is presented. Several dispersion maps are analyzed in order to minimize the distortion due to the intrachannel nonlinear effects, namely, intrachannel cross-phase modulation and intrachannel four wave mixing (IFWM). The decrease of the ER until a specific value leads to an increase of the intensity distortion, which is mainly due to IFWM. As a consequence, two distinct transmission regimes are identified, depending on the input average power of each section and the ER of the optical signals. The first regime has previously been called the pseudolinear regime in the literature and occurs when high ERs are considered. The optimum dispersion map of this regime has a given optical precompensation and a total residual dispersion near zero. The second regime occurs with the decrease of the ER. Under such a circumstance, the optimum dispersion map obtained in the pseudolinear regime leads to significant degradation, which is mainly due to ghost pulses appearing in the symbol “0.” This effect can be reduced by a <span class="hlt">system</span> with residual dispersion that is significantly different from zero, leading to a detected eye pattern with low degradation in the symbol “0” but high timing jitter, which limits the use of such signals in feasible transmission <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We call this new regime pseudosolitonic as the intrachannel nonlinear effects are apparently reduced by the residual group velocity dispersion (as it is observed in the solitonic regime occurring at lower bit rates), but strong waveform degradation occurs along the SSMF transmission. The exact value of ER for which the change between the two transmission regimes is observed depends on the optical average power at the input of each section. A simple expression to predict the <span class="hlt">system</span> conditions (namely, ER, input average power of each section, and number of sections) for which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000409&hterms=systems+operating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsystems%2Boperating','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000409&hterms=systems+operating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsystems%2Boperating"><span>Pyrolaser Operating <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, Floyd E., III</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Software provides for control and acquisition of data from optical <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span>. There are six individual programs in PYROLASER package. Provides quick and easy way to set up, control, and program standard Pyrolaser. Temperature and emisivity measurements either collected as if Pyrolaser in manual operating mode or displayed on real-time strip charts and stored in standard spreadsheet format for posttest analysis. Shell supplied to allow macros, which are test-specific, added to <span class="hlt">system</span> easily. Written using Labview software for use on Macintosh-series computers running <span class="hlt">System</span> 6.0.3 or later, Sun Sparc-series computers running Open-Windows 3.0 or MIT's X Window <span class="hlt">System</span> (X11R4 or X11R5), and IBM PC or compatible computers running Microsoft Windows 3.1 or later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V41B3076S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V41B3076S"><span>Effect of the Na:K <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> on Melt Viscosity within the SiO2-NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4 <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, R. A.; Robert, G.; Guevarra, P.; Dreizler, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We synthesized eight compositions in the SiO2-NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4 <span class="hlt">system</span>, four along the feldspathoid join, and four along the pyroxene join, to test the effects of the Na:K <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on the viscosity and heat capacity of these melts. Na:K <span class="hlt">ratios</span> include [100:0], [75:25], [50:50], and [25:75]. Synthesis of each composition involved weighing and mixing powdered SiO2, Al2O3, Na2(CO3) and K2(CO3), slow decarbonation of samples in a Lindberg oven, and melting between 1100°C and 1745°C in a high-temperature box furnace. We measured the heat capacity of each sample, from room temperature to 1500°C, using a Netzsch 404 F1 Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter. We measured the viscosities of three of the feldspathoid compositions, NaAlSiO4, Na0.75K0.25AlSiO4, and Na0.5K0.5AlSiO4, and one of the pyroxene compositions, Na0.5K0.5AlSi2O6, in a Brookfield rotating viscometer at temperatures ranging from 1400°C to 1580°C. NaAlSiO4 has a calorimetric glass transition temperature (Tg) of 833°C, and a viscosity of 101.58 Pa.s at 1557°C. Na0.75K0.25AlSiO4 has a Tg of 830°C, and a viscosity of 101.80 Pa.s at 1568°C. Na0.5K0.5AlSi04 has a Tg of 864°C, and a viscosity of 102.12 Pa.s at 1556°C. Na0.25K0.75AlSi04 has a Tg of 912°C. NaAlSi2O6 has a Tg of 834°C. Na0.75K0.25AlSi2O6 has a Tg of 834°C. Na0.5K0.5AlSi2O6 has a Tg of 845°C, and a viscosity of 103.11 Pa.s at 1553°C. Na0.25K0.75AlSi2O6 has a Tg of 899°C. Increase in potassium results in an increase in the calorimetric glass transition temperature, for both the feldspathoid and pyroxene compositions. K-rich pyroxene compositions have a slightly lower Tg than K-rich feldspathoid compositions. In the high-temperature range, however, the viscosity of feldspathoid is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of pyroxene for the same Na:K <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 50:50. Additional experiments will be performed to determine the low-temperature viscosities of all samples using parallel-plate viscometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=offer+AND+acceptance&id=EJ551779','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=offer+AND+acceptance&id=EJ551779"><span>Offer/Acceptance <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Collins, Mimi</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as a measure of program…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11561363','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11561363"><span>Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: VI. Respiratory <span class="hlt">system</span> cancer standardized mortality <span class="hlt">ratios</span> adjusted for the confounding effect of cigarette smoking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marsh, G M; Buchanich, J M; Youk, A O</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>To date, the US cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber workers has provided no consistent evidence of a relationship between man-made vitreous fiber exposure and mortality from malignant or non-malignant respiratory disease. Nevertheless, there have been small, overall excesses in respiratory <span class="hlt">system</span> cancer (RSC) among workers from the fiberglass and rock/slag wool production plants included in the study that were unexplained by estimated worker exposures to respirable fiber or other agents present in the plants. The present investigation was designed to provide a quantitative estimate of the extent to which the overall excess in RSC mortality observed at the total cohort level among male fiberglass and rock/slag wool workers is a result of the positive confounding effects of cigarette smoking. Because cigarette-smoking data were neither available nor obtainable at the individual level for all members of the fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts, we used the "indirect" method to adjust RSC standardized mortality <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (SMRs) at the group (cohort and plant) level. Our adjustment suggested that cigarette smoking accounts for all of the 7% and 24% excesses in RSC observed, respectively, for the male fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts in the latest mortality updates. The same conclusion was reached regardless of which of several alternative formulations were used to adjust local rate-based RSC SMRs. We found that our smoking adjustments were robust with respect to several alternative characterizations and (with the exception of one fiberglass plant) produced adjusted RSC SMRs that were lower than their unadjusted counterparts. Further, all statistically significantly elevated unadjusted SMRs were reduced to not statistically significant levels. These results reaffirm that RSC SMRs based on US and local rates must take into account the potential confounding effects of cigarette smoking. They also suggest that the use of local county mortality rate-based SMRs may not</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740026752','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740026752"><span>High-response on-line gas analysis <span class="hlt">system</span> for hydrogen-reaction combustion products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Metzler, A. J.; Gaugler, R. E.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The results of testing an on-line quadrupole gas analyzer <span class="hlt">system</span> are reported. Gas samples were drawn from the exhaust of a hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen rocket which simulated the flow composition and dynamics at the combustor exit of a supersonic combustion ramjet engine. <span class="hlt">System</span> response time of less than 50 milliseconds was demonstrated, with analytical accuracy estimated to be + or - 5 percent. For more complex chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> with interfering atom patterns, analysis would be more difficult. A cooled-gas <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> probe was evaluated as a total temperature indicator and as the primary mass flow measuring element for the total sample flow rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RScI...81d6106B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RScI...81d6106B"><span>Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic <span class="hlt">system</span> for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bundesmann, C.; Tartz, M.; Scholze, F.; Leiter, H. J.; Scortecci, F.; Gnizdor, R. Y.; Neumann, H.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>We present an advanced diagnostic <span class="hlt">system</span> for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The <span class="hlt">system</span> uses a high-precision five-axis positioning <span class="hlt">system</span> with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic <span class="hlt">system</span> are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4180W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4180W"><span>Characterizing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions over a Wheat-based Cropping <span class="hlt">System</span> in the Northwest United States Using the Modified Bowen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Technique and Static Chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waldo, Sarah; Kostyanovsky, Kirill; O'Keeffe, Patrick; Pressley, Shelley; Huggins, Dave; Stockle, Claudio; Lamb, Brian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Agricultural soils are the primary source of N2O, which is created as a by-product of soil microbial processes. The production and emission of N2O is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, or "hot spots" and "hot moments". These behaviors, along with limitations in instrument sensitivity to N2O, are challenges in characterizing emissions. Many studies have monitored N2O emissions using either static chambers or micrometeorological measurements or the two methods together. The two techniques are complementary: chamber methods have a lower detection limit and are more reliable as their operation does not depend on atmospheric conditions, but may not capture spatial variability even with multiple chambers. Tower-based methods are subject to relatively high data loss due to non-ideal conditions and to less sensitive detection limits, but have a larger measurement footprint and can characterize field-scale emissions. This study aims to characterize a long-term, field-scale N2O budget over two winter wheat fields located in the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States, both in terms of an annual emission budget and in terms of understanding what causes hot moments. We combined continuous measurements of N2O emissions from a <span class="hlt">system</span> of sixteen automated, static chambers with tower-based measurements of N2O fluxes. We used the modified Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (MBR) technique with temperature as a tracer. Preliminary results indicate that freeze-thaw cycles in the winter make up a higher percentage of annual emissions than previously thought. Furthermore, comparison of the chamber results to the tower-based measurements imply that the chambers may be underestimating field-scale N2O fluxes because they are not adequately capturing hot spots of emissions. We are conducting ongoing work on how to integrate the two measurement techniques, as well as how the empirical measurements compare with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712834','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712834"><span>Further stratification of patients with multiple myeloma by International Staging <span class="hlt">System</span> in combination with <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of serum free κ to λ light chains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Yan; Sui, Weiwei; Deng, Shuhui; An, Gang; Wang, Yafei; Xie, Zhenqing; Yao, Hongjing; Zhu, Guoqing; Zou, Dehui; Qi, Junyuan; Hao, Mu; Zhao, Yaozhong; Wang, Jianxiang; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Lugui</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The serum free light chain (sFlc) levels were measured for 122 Chinese patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma (NDSMM), and κ/λ <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (rFlc) were calculated. The data were analyzed for the roles of sFlc and rFlc in the diagnosis and prognosis of MM. Abnormal sFlc and/or rFlc were detected in 99.2% of patients, demonstrating that the FLC assay is much more sensitive than the commonly used methods. Baseline sFlc and rFlc successfully predicted the overall survival (OS). The median OS was not reached (NR) versus 23 months for the low sFLC group (sFLC-κ < 180 mg/L or sFLC-λ < 592.5 mg/L) and high sFLC group (sFLC-κ ≥ 180 mg/L or sFLC-λ ≥ 592.5 mg/L) (p = 0.001), and NR versus 21 months for the low rFLC group (0.04 ≤ rFLC ≤ 25) and high rFLC group (p < 0.001), respectively. Interestingly, the significant differences in OS between the low and high rFLC groups were not changed by bortezomib chemotherapy. In addition, patients were further stratified by three novel poor-prognosis factors (β(2)-microglobulin [β2-MG] > 3.5 mg/L, albumin [ALB] < 35 g/L, rFLC > 25 or rFLC < 0.04) that were developed from combination of the rFlc with the International Staging <span class="hlt">System</span> (ISS): the low risk group (no factor), the low-intermediate risk group (one factor), the high-intermediate risk group (two factors) and the high risk group (three factors). The median OS for those groups was NR, NR, 24 months and 13 months, respectively (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the sFLC assay was highly sensitive in the diagnosis of MM in Chinese patients. The prognostic potential of the ISS may be improved with the addition of rFLC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19271597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19271597"><span>Evaluation of a modified early warning <span class="hlt">system</span> for acute medical admissions and comparison with C-reactive protein/albumin <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as a predictor of patient outcome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fairclough, Emily; Cairns, Eleanor; Hamilton, Jennifer; Kelly, Clive</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The modified early warning score (MEWS) was developed as a track and trigger tool for the prompt identification of seriously ill patients on an acute medical ward. This paper examines its value in the setting of an acute medical admissions unit (MAU) and compares it to biochemical markers of acute and chronic disease. Three hundred unselected acute admissions to the MAU of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Gateshead, were assessed. Correlations between MEWS score and C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin separately were assessed, and then the relationship between MEWS and the CRP/albumin <span class="hlt">ratio</span> across the age spectrum was examined. The findings demonstrated a strong correlation between the MEWS score and CRP/albumin <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (r=0.88, p<0.001) across the whole age spectrum. Length of stay correlated poorly with MEWS (r=0.08) and CRP/albumin <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (r=0.15). Overall mortality was 5% and was predicted by both tools, with a MEWS score of >4 (relative risk (RR)=7.8) outperforming a CRP/albumin of >2 (RR=2.6). MEWS remains the gold standard for assessing outcome in acute medical admissions, but does have limitations in the elderly (those aged over 70 years). A raised CRP/albumin <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was less sensitive for overall mortality than MEWS. It did, however, appear to be of greater value in the elderly, especially in those with acute exacerbations of chronic disease. Neither test accurately predicted length of stay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1089945.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1089945.pdf"><span>Discrimination Level of Students' <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>, Number of Students per Faculty Member and Article Scores Indicators According to Place of Turkish Universities in International Ranking <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Özkan, Metin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this research is to determine classification in which the level of accuracy in Turkish universities rankings is detected by the international assessments according to the independent variables PhD students <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, the number of students per faculty member and the article scores. The data of research were obtained from University Ranking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14719342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14719342"><span><span class="hlt">Ratio</span> imaging instrumentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dunn, Kenneth; Maxfield, Frederick R</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Using <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging to obtain quantitative information from microscope images is a powerful tool that has been used successfully in numerous studies. Although <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging reduces the effects of many parameters that can interfere with accurate measurements, it is not a panacea. In designing a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging experiment, all of the potential problems discussed in this chapter must be considered. Undoubtedly, other problems that were not discussed can also interfere with accurate and meaningful measurements. Many of the problems discussed here were observed in the authors' laboratories. In our experience there are no standard routines or methods that can foresee every problem before it has been encountered. Good experimental design can minimize problems, but the investigator must continue to be alert. Progress in instrumentation continues to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging. CCD cameras with 12- to 14-bit pixel depth are being used more frequently, and several confocal microscope manufacturers are now also using 12-bit digitization. The dramatic increase in the use of confocal microscopes over the past decade is now causing microscope manufacturers to more critically evaluate the effect of axial chromatic aberration in objectives, and recent designs to minimize this problem are being implemented. Other developments such as the use of AOTFs to attenuate laser lines extend the applicability of <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging. <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> imaging is clearly applicable to a wide range of cell biological problems beyond its widespread use for measuring ion concentrations. Imaginative but careful use of this technique should continue to provide novel insights into the properties of cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983163','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983163"><span>HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY2nd QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORTDevelop the theory connecting <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> and streak camera spectrometer data to the material properties of beam heatedtargets and compare to the data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>More, R.M.; Barnard, J. J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>This milestone has been accomplished. We have extended the theory that connects <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> and streak spectrometer data to material temperature on several fronts and have compared theory to NDCX-I experiments. For the case of NDCX-I, the data suggests that as the metallic foils are heated they break into droplets (cf. HIFS VNL Milestone Report FY 2009 Q4). Evaporation of the metallic surface will occur, but optical emission should be directly observable from the solid or liquid surface of the foil or from droplets. However, the emissivity of hot material may be changed from the cold material and interference effects will alter the spectrum emitted from small droplets. These effects have been incorporated into a theory of emission from droplets. We have measured emission using streaked spectrometry and together with theory of emission from heated droplets have inferred the temperature of a gold foil heated by the NDCX-I experiment. The intensity measured by the spectrometer is proportional to the emissivity times the blackbody intensity at the temperature of the foil or droplets. Traditionally, a functional form for the emissivity as a function of wavelength (such as a quadratic) is assumed and the three unknown emissivity parameters (for the case of a quadratic) and the temperature are obtained by minimizing the deviations from the fit. In the case of the NDCX-I experiment, two minima were obtained: at 7200 K and 2400 K. The best fit was at 7200 K. However, when the actual measured emissivity of gold was used and when the theoretical corrections for droplet interference effects were made for emission from droplets having radii in the range 0.2 to 2.0 microns, the corrected emissivity was consistent with the 2400 K value, whereas the fit emissivity at 7200 K shows no similarity to the corrected emissivity curves. Further, an estimate of the temperature obtained from beam heating is consistent with the lower value. This exercise proved to be a warning to be skeptical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1012421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1012421"><span>Formation and Evolution of the Disk <span class="hlt">System</span> of the Milky Way: [alpha/Fe] <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> and Kinematics of the SEGUE G-Dwarf Sample</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; An, Deokkeun; Ivezic, Zeljko; Just, Andreas; Rockosi, Constance M.; Morrison, Heather L.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Schonrich, Ralph; Bird, Jonathan; Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab /Case Western Reserve U.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>We employ measurements of the [{alpha}/Fe] <span class="hlt">ratio</span> fromlow-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectra of 17,500 G-type dwarfs included in SDSS Data Release 8, selected using simple and well-understood selection criteria, to separate them into likely thin- and thick-disk subsamples. This classification, based on chemistry, is strongly motivated by the bi-modal distribution of stars in the [{alpha}/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram. The resulting subsamples allow, for the first time, investigations of the kinematic behavior of thin- and thick-disk stars as a function of metallicity and position up to distances of 3 kpc from the Galactic plane. Both subsamples exhibit strong gradients of orbital rotational velocity with metallicity, but with opposite signs (-20 to -30 km s{sup -1} dex{sup -1} for the thin-disk population, and +40 to +50 km s{sup -1} dex{sup -1} for the thick-disk population). We find that the rotational velocity decreases with the distance from the plane for both disk components, with similar slopes (10 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1}), and a nearly constant difference in the mean rotational velocity of about 30 km s{sup -1}. The mean rotational velocity is uncorrelated with Galactocentric distance for the thin-disk subsample, and exhibits only a marginally significant correlation for the thick-disk subsample. Thick-disk stars exhibit a very strong trend of orbital eccentricity with metallicity (-0.2 dex{sup -1}), while the eccentricity does not change with metallicity for the thin-disk subsample. The eccentricity is almost independent of Galactocentric radius for the thin-disk stars, while a marginal gradient of the eccentricity with distance exists for the thick-disk population. Both subsamples possess similar trends of increasing eccentricity with distance from the Galactic plane, with a constant difference of about 0.1. The shapes of the overall distributions of orbital eccentricity for the thin- and thick-disk populations are quite different from one another, independent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18833568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18833568"><span>Digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in birds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AJ....118.1406L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AJ....118.1406L"><span>A Modified Magnitude <span class="hlt">System</span> that Produces Well-Behaved Magnitudes, Colors, and Errors Even for Low Signal-to-Noise <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lupton, Robert H.; Gunn, James E.; Szalay, Alexander S.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>We describe a modification of the usual definition of astronomical magnitudes, replacing the usual logarithm with an inverse hyperbolic sine function; we call these modified magnitudes ``asinh magnitudes.'' For objects detected at signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of greater than about 5, our modified definition is essentially identical to the traditional one; for fainter objects (including those with a formally negative flux), our definition is well behaved, tending to a definite value with finite errors as the flux goes to zero. This new definition is especially useful when considering the colors of faint objects, as the difference of two ``asinh'' magnitudes measures the usual flux <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for bright objects, while avoiding the problems caused by dividing two very uncertain values for faint objects. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey data products will use this scheme to express all magnitudes in their catalogs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020128','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020128"><span>Cruise performance of an isolated 1.15 pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> turbofan propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> simulator at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.85</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steffen, F. W.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>An isolated 1.15 pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> turbofan engine simulator was tested at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.85. At Mach 0.75 the net propulsive force of the fan and nacelle (excluding core thrust) was 73 percent of the ideal fan net thrust. Internal losses amounted to 7 percent, and external drag amounted to 20 percent of the ideal fan net thrust. External pressure and friction drag were about equal. The propulsive efficiency with a 90 percent efficient fan would have been 63 percent. For the aerodynamic characteristics of the nacelle that was tested, increasing the fan pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to approximately 1.35 would have resulted in a maximum propulsive efficiency of 67 percent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6143..243O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6143..243O"><span>Automated airway evaluation <span class="hlt">system</span> for multi-slice computed tomography using airway lumen diameter, airway wall thickness and broncho-arterial <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Lerallut, Jean-Francois</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Pulmonary diseases such as bronchiectasis, asthma, and emphysema are characterized by abnormalities in airway dimensions. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has become one of the primary means to depict these abnormalities, as the availability of high-resolution near-isotropic data makes it possible to evaluate airways at oblique angles to the scanner plane. However, currently, clinical evaluation of airways is typically limited to subjective visual inspection only: systematic evaluation of the airways to take advantage of high-resolution data has not proved practical without automation. We present an automated method to quantitatively evaluate airway lumen diameter, wall thickness and broncho-arterial <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. In addition, our method provides 3D visualization of these values, graphically illustrating the location and extent of disease. Our algorithm begins by automatic airway segmentation to extract paths to the distal airways, and to create a map of airway diameters. Normally, airway diameters decrease as paths progress distally; failure to taper indicates abnormal dilatation. Our approach monitors airway lumen diameters along each airway path in order to detect abnormal profiles, allowing even subtle degrees of pathologic dilatation to be identified. Our method also systematically computes the broncho-arterial <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at every terminal branch of the tree model, as a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> above 1 indicates potentially abnormal bronchial dilatation. Finally, the airway wall thickness is computed at corresponding locations. These measurements are used to highlight abnormal branches for closer inspection, and can be summed to compute a quantitative global score for the entire airway tree, allowing reproducible longitudinal assessment of disease severity. Preliminary tests on patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis demonstrated rapid identification of lack of tapering, which also was confirmed by corresponding demonstration of elevated broncho-arterial <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B13A0583T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B13A0583T"><span>Distribution of the 134Cs/137Cs <span class="hlt">ratio</span> around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using an unmanned helicopter radiation monitoring <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torii, T.; Nishizawa, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Many radioactive substances were released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011 in the atmosphere. A lot of short half-life nuclides which are 131I, 132Te (132I) and 133I, etc., in addition to longer half-lived nuclides such as 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated release amount of these nuclides from the reactor 1st to 3rd unit is reported, but it's found to be quite different in the short half-lived nuclides by the reactor units. Because the radioactivity <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 134Cs and 137Cs was slight different between the reactor units, it can be considered that the valuable source is obtained by the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in the environment around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station at the present stage when the nuclides with short half-lives had already decayed. We have measured high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum using an unmanned helicopter equipped with LaBr3(Ce) detector in a 3-km range from the power station which was near to the release source of the radioactive cesium. Because the LaBr3(Ce) detector has high resolution of gamma rays, the discrimination of many nuclides is possible. In addition, there is extremely much number of the data provided by the distribution measurement with the unmanned helicopter. Because a new map was illustrated by the analysis of the 134Cs/137Cs <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, we report the outline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27943155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27943155"><span>Effects of different <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of glucose to acetate on phosphorus removal and microbial community of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Ting; Mo, Chuangrong; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jian; An, Hongxue; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jianwei; Zhong, Yu; Zeng, Guangming</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this study, the effects of different <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of glucose to acetate on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) were investigated with regard to the changes of intercellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen, as well as microbial community. The experiments were carried out in five sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with glucose and/or acetate as carbon sources at the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of 0:100 %, 25:75 %, 50:50 %, 75:25 %, and 100:0 %. The experimental results showed that a highest phosphorus removal efficiency of 96.3 % was obtained with a mixture of glucose and acetate at the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 50:50 %, which should be attributed to more glycogen and polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) transformation in this reactor during the anaerobic condition. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of sludge samples taken from different anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) SBRs revealed that microbial community structures were distinctively different with a low similarity between each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1078057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1078057"><span>Weather-Corrected Performance <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Photovoltaic (PV) <span class="hlt">system</span> performance depends on both the quality of the <span class="hlt">system</span> and the weather. One simple way to communicate the <span class="hlt">system</span> performance is to use the performance <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (PR): the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual <span class="hlt">system</span> yield for flat-plate PV <span class="hlt">systems</span> is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual <span class="hlt">system</span> yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV <span class="hlt">system</span> efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual <span class="hlt">system</span> yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017051','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017051"><span>Spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method for measuring emissivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Watson, K.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method is based on the concept that although the spectral radiances are very sensitive to small changes in temperature the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are not. Only an approximate estimate of temperature is required thus, for example, we can determine the emissivity <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to an accuracy of 1% with a temperature estimate that is only accurate to 12.5 K. Selecting the maximum value of the channel brightness temperatures is an unbiased estimate. Laboratory and field spectral data are easily converted into spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> plots. The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method is limited by <span class="hlt">system</span> signal:noise and spectral band-width. The images can appear quite noisy because <span class="hlt">ratios</span> enhance high frequencies and may require spatial filtering. Atmospheric effects tend to rescale the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and require using an atmospheric model or a calibration site. ?? 1992.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6340920','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6340920"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Polak, J.C.</p> <p>1987-07-14</p> <p>A preselected multi-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> power transmission is described comprising: input means for transmitting drive forces; output means; first, second and third friction clutch means each selectively engageable with the input means for accepting drive forces. First input gear means drivingly connects with the first friction clutch means; second input gear means drivingly connects with the second friction clutch means; third input gear means drivingly connects with the third clutch means; first output gear means drivingly connects with the first input gear means; second output gear means drivingly connects with the first and second input gear means; third output means drivingly connects between the third input gear means and the output means; and one double-acting synchronizer clutch for selectively engaging the first output gear means with the output means and alternately the second output gear means with the output means. The first friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two forward drive <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between the input and output means. The second friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two other forward drive <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between the input and output means. The third friction clutch means is engageable to provide another forward drive <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between the input means and the output means; and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch is relieved of transmitting drive forces during the engagement of the third friction clutch means and being manipulable for alternate connection with either the first output gear or the second output gear while the third friction clutch means is engaged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11454201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11454201"><span>The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between CcdA and CcdB modulates the transcriptional repression of the ccd poison-antidote <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afif, H; Allali, N; Couturier, M; Van Melderen, L</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The ccd operon of the F plasmid encodes CcdB, a toxin targeting the essential gyrase of Escherichia coli, and CcdA, the unstable antidote that interacts with CcdB to neutralize its toxicity. Although work from our group and others has established that CcdA and CcdB are required for transcriptional repression of the operon, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The results presented here indicate that, although CcdA is the DNA-binding element of the CcdA-CcdB complex, the stoichiometry of the two proteins determines whether or not the complex binds to the ccd operator-promoter region. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we show that a (CcdA)2-(CcdB)2 complex binds DNA. The addition of extra CcdB to that protein-DNA complex completely abolishes DNA retardation. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between CcdA and CcdB regulates the repression state of the ccd operon. When the level of CcdA is superior or equal to that of CcdB, repression results. In contrast, derepression occurs when CcdB is in excess of CcdA. By ensuring an antidote-toxin <span class="hlt">ratio</span> greater than one, this mechanism could prevent the harmful effect of CcdB in plasmid-containing bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18819111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18819111"><span>A gas chromatography/combustion/isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometry <span class="hlt">system</span> for high-precision delta13C measurements of atmospheric methane extracted from ice core samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Behrens, Melanie; Schmitt, Jochen; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Bock, Michael; Richter, Ulrike C; Levin, Ingeborg; Fischer, Hubertus</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Past atmospheric composition can be reconstructed by the analysis of air enclosures in polar ice cores which archive ancient air in decadal to centennial resolution. Due to the different carbon isotopic signatures of different methane sources high-precision measurements of delta13CH4 in ice cores provide clues about the global methane cycle in the past. We developed a highly automated (continuous-flow) gas chromatography/combustion/isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) technique for ice core samples of approximately 200 g. The methane is melt-extracted using a purge-and-trap method, then separated from the main air constituents, combusted and measured as CO2 by a conventional isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometer. One CO2 working standard, one CH4 and two air reference gases are used to identify potential sources of isotope fractionation within the entire sample preparation process and to enhance the stability, reproducibility and accuracy of the measurement. After correction for gravitational fractionation, pre-industrial air samples from Greenland ice (1831 +/- 40 years) show a delta13C(VPDB) of -49.54 +/- 0.13 per thousand and Antarctic samples (1530 +/- 25 years) show a delta13C(VPDB) of -48.00 +/- 0.12 per thousand in good agreement with published data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..78..147P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..78..147P"><span>A Study on Usage of on-site Multi-monitoring <span class="hlt">System</span> in Laser Processing of Paper Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piili, Heidi</p> <p></p> <p>Laser technology provides advantages for paper material processing as it is non-contact method and provides freedom of geometry and reliable technology for non-stop production. Reason for low utilization of lasers in paper manufacturing is lack of published research. This is main reason to study utilization of on-site multi-monitoring <span class="hlt">system</span> (MMS) in characterization of interaction between laser beam and paper materials. Target of MMS is to be able to control processing of paper, but also to get better understanding of basic phenomena. Laser equipment used was TRUMPF TLF 2700 CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 μm) with power range of 190-2500 W. MMS consisted of spectrometer, <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> and active illumination imaging <span class="hlt">system</span>. This on-site study was carried out by treating dried kraft pulp (grammage of 67 g m-2) with different laser power levels, focal plane position settings and interaction times. It was concluded that spectrometer and <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> are best devices in MMS; set-up of them to laser process is easy, they detect data fast enough and analysis of data is easy afterwards. Active illumination imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> is capable for capturing images of different phases of interaction but analysis of images is time-consuming. When active illumination imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> is combined with spectrometer and <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> i.e. using of MMS, it reveals basic phenomena occurring during interaction. For example, it was noticed that holes created after laser exposure are formed gradually. Firstly, small hole is formed to interaction area and after that hole expands, until interaction is ended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........12C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........12C"><span>Estimating evapotranspiration using remote sensing: A hybrid approach between MODIS derived enhanced vegetation index, Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, and ground based micro-meteorological data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatterjee, Sumantra</p> <p></p> <p>We investigated water loss by evapotranspiration (ET) from the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) and the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) in southern California bordering the Colorado River collaborating with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.B.R.). We developed an empirical model to estimate ET for the entire PVID using satellite derived MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and ground based measurements of solar radiation and vapor pressure. We compared our predictions with U.S.B.R. estimates through statistical cross validation and showed they agree with an error less than 8%. We tested the same model for an alfalfa field inside PVID to check its applicability at a smaller spatial scale. We showed that the same model developed for PVID is the best model for estimating ET for the alfalfa field. We collected data from three Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> energy balance (BREB) towers installed in the invasive saltcedar (Tamarix spp) dominated riparian zone in the CNWR and a fourth tower in the alfalfa field in PVID. The riparian sites were selected according to different densities of vegetation. We collected data from these sites at various intervals during the period between June 2006 to November 2008. We reduced the errors associated with the Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> data using statistical procedures taking into account occasional instrument failures and problems inherent in the BREB method. Our results were consistent with vegetation density and estimates from MODIS EVI images. To estimate ET for larger patches of mixed vegetation we modified the crop coefficient equation and represented it in terms of EVI. Using this approach, we scaled the alfalfa field data to the entire PVID and compared the results with U.S.B.R. (2001-2007) estimates. We predicted ET well within the acceptable range established in the literature. We empirically developed ET models for the riparian tower sites to provide accurate point scale ET estimation and scaled for the entire riparian region in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SMaS...24l5005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SMaS...24l5005M"><span>Effect of particle aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in magnetorheology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morillas, Jose R.; Carreón-González, Elizabeth; de Vicente, Juan</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the influence of the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the dispersed particles in magnetorheology. Two <span class="hlt">systems</span> are studied: conventional magnetorheological fluids prepared by dispersion of nickel nanowires, and inverse ferrofluids prepared by dispersion of glass fibers in a ferrofluid. In both cases the apparent yield stress is found to increase with aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in contradiction to available models in the literature. Experimental observations demonstrate that the particle volume fraction within the aggregates initially increases with increasing the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the dispersed particles. When the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is further raised, a gel-like percolating structure forms inhibiting the formation of elongated clusters in the field direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26368888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26368888"><span>Airborne ultraviolet imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> for oil slick surveillance: oil-seawater contrast, imaging concept, signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, optical design, and optomechanical model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Zhenhua; Yu, Lei; Cao, Diansheng; Wu, Qingwen; Yu, Xiangyang; Lin, Guanyu</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The airborne ultraviolet imaging <span class="hlt">system</span>, which assesses oil slick areas better than visible and infrared optical <span class="hlt">systems</span>, was designed to monitor and track oil slicks in coastal regions. A model was built to achieve the upwelling radiance distribution of oil-covered sea and clean seawater, based on the radiance transfer software. With this model, the oil-seawater contrast, which affects the detection of oil-covered coastal areas, was obtained. The oil-seawater contrast, fundamental imaging concept, analog calculation of SNR, optical design, and optomechanical configuration of the airborne ultraviolet imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> are illustrated in this paper. The study of an airborne ultraviolet imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> with F-number 3.4 and a 40° field of view (FOV) in near ultraviolet channel (0.32-0.38 μm) was illustrated and better imaging quality was achieved. The ground sample distance (GSD) is from 0.35 to 0.7 m with flight height ranges from 0.5 to 1 km. Comparisons of detailed characteristics of the airborne ultraviolet imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> with the corresponding characteristics of previous ultraviolet <span class="hlt">systems</span> were tabulated, and these comparisons showed that this <span class="hlt">system</span> can achieve a wide FOV and a relative high SNR. A virtual mechanical prototype and tolerances analysis are illustrated in this paper to verify the performance of fabrication and assembly of the ultraviolet <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5271298','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5271298"><span>Peak power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> generator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Moyer, R.D.</p> <p></p> <p>A peak power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865625','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865625"><span>Peak power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> generator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Moyer, Robert D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A peak power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780009119','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780009119"><span>Low speed test of a high-bypass-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> with an asymmetric inlet designed for a tilt-nacelle V/STOL airplane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Syberg, J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A large scale model of a lift/cruise fan inlet designed for a tilt nacelle V/STOL airplane was tested with a high bypass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> turbofan. Testing was conducted at low freestream velocities with inlet angles of attack ranging from 0 deg to 120 deg. The operating limits for the nacelle were found to be related to inlet boundary layer separation. Small separations originating in the inlet diffuser cause little or no performance degradation. However, at sufficiently severe freestream conditions the separation changes abruptly to a lip separation. This change is associated with a significant reduction in nacelle net thrust as well as a sharp increase in fan blade vibratory stresses. Consequently, the onset of lip separation is regarded as the nacelle operating limit. The test verified that the asymmetric inlet design will provide high performance and stable operation at the design forward speed and angle of attack conditions. At some of these, however, operation near the lower end of the design inlet airflow range is not feasible due to the occurrence of lip separation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006948','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006948"><span>A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control <span class="hlt">System</span> to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap <span class="hlt">system</span> that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) <span class="hlt">system</span> offers a lighter-weight lift control <span class="hlt">system</span> having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control <span class="hlt">system</span> during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control <span class="hlt">system</span> is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20052295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20052295"><span>K(alpha) x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser <span class="hlt">system</span> with high contrast <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fourmaux, S; Serbanescu, C; Kincaid, R E; Krol, A; Kieffer, J C</p> <p>2008-12-12</p> <p>We report K(alpha) x-ray production with a high energy (110 mJ per pulse at 800 nm before compression/15 mJ at 400 nm after compression), high repetition rate (100 Hz), and high pulse contrast (better than 10(-9) at 400 nm) laser <span class="hlt">system</span>. To develop laser-based x-ray sources for biomedical imaging requires to use high-energy and high-power ultra-fast laser <span class="hlt">system</span> where compression is achieved under vacuum. Using this type of laser <span class="hlt">system</span>, we demonstrate long-term stability of the x-ray yield, conversion efficiency higher than 1.5 x 10(-5) with a Mo target, and the x-ray spot size close to the optical focal spot. This high-repetition K(alpha) x-ray source can be very useful for x-ray phase-contrast imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820000075&hterms=planetary+gear&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dplanetary%2Bgear','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820000075&hterms=planetary+gear&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dplanetary%2Bgear"><span>High-<span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Gear Train</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lefever, A. E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different <span class="hlt">ratios</span> is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear <span class="hlt">ratios</span> would be obtained from small mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92h5110P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92h5110P"><span>Energy dependence of localization with interactions and disorder: The generalized inverse participation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of an ensemble of two-site Anderson-Hubbard <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perera, J.; Wortis, R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>After Anderson's prediction of disorder-induced insulating behavior, extensive work found no singularities in the density of states of localized <span class="hlt">systems</span>. However, Johri and Bhatt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 076402 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.076402 and Phys. Rev. B 86, 125140 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.125140] recently uncovered the existence of a nonanalyticity in the density of states near the band edge of noninteracting <span class="hlt">systems</span> with bounded disorder, in an energy range outside that captured by previous work. Moreover, this feature marks the boundary of an energy range in which the localization is sharply suppressed. Given strong current interest in the effect of interactions on disordered <span class="hlt">systems</span>, we explore here the effect of a Hubbard U interaction on this behavior. We find that in ensembles of small <span class="hlt">systems</span> a cusp in the density of states persists and continues to be associated with a sharp suppression of the localization. We explore the origins of this behavior and discuss its connection with many-body localization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26540441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26540441"><span>Correlation between the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> improvement factor (KSNR) and clinical image quality for chest imaging with a computed radiography <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Saunderson, J R; Beavis, A W</p> <p>2015-12-07</p> <p>This work assessed the appropriateness of the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> improvement factor (KSNR) as a metric for the optimisation of computed radiography (CR) of the chest. The results of a previous study in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer simulated chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme to quantify the benefit of using an anti-scatter grid were used for the clinical image quality measurement (number of simulated patients  =  80). The KSNR was used to calculate the improvement in physical image quality measured in a physical chest phantom. KSNR correlation with VGAS was assessed as a function of chest region (lung, spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragm), and as a function of x-ray tube voltage in a given chest region. The correlation of the latter was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. VGAS and KSNR image quality metrics demonstrated no correlation in the lung region but did show correlation in the spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragmatic regions. However, there was no correlation as a function of tube voltage in any region; a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of  -0.93 (p  =  0.015) was found for lung, a coefficient (R) of  -0.95 (p  =  0.46) was found for spine, and a coefficient (R) of  -0.85 (p  =  0.015) was found for diaphragm. All demonstrate strong negative correlations indicating conflicting results, i.e. KSNR increases with tube voltage but VGAS decreases. Medical physicists should use the KSNR metric with caution when assessing any potential improvement in clinical chest image quality when introducing an anti-scatter grid for CR imaging, especially in the lung region. This metric may also be a limited descriptor of clinical chest image quality as a function of tube voltage when a grid is used routinely.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.9047M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.9047M"><span>Correlation between the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> improvement factor (KSNR) and clinical image quality for chest imaging with a computed radiography <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, C. S.; Wood, T. J.; Saunderson, J. R.; Beavis, A. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This work assessed the appropriateness of the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> improvement factor (KSNR) as a metric for the optimisation of computed radiography (CR) of the chest. The results of a previous study in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer simulated chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme to quantify the benefit of using an anti-scatter grid were used for the clinical image quality measurement (number of simulated patients  =  80). The KSNR was used to calculate the improvement in physical image quality measured in a physical chest phantom. KSNR correlation with VGAS was assessed as a function of chest region (lung, spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragm), and as a function of x-ray tube voltage in a given chest region. The correlation of the latter was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. VGAS and KSNR image quality metrics demonstrated no correlation in the lung region but did show correlation in the spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragmatic regions. However, there was no correlation as a function of tube voltage in any region; a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of  -0.93 (p  =  0.015) was found for lung, a coefficient (R) of  -0.95 (p  =  0.46) was found for spine, and a coefficient (R) of  -0.85 (p  =  0.015) was found for diaphragm. All demonstrate strong negative correlations indicating conflicting results, i.e. KSNR increases with tube voltage but VGAS decreases. Medical physicists should use the KSNR metric with caution when assessing any potential improvement in clinical chest image quality when introducing an anti-scatter grid for CR imaging, especially in the lung region. This metric may also be a limited descriptor of clinical chest image quality as a function of tube voltage when a grid is used routinely.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25972988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25972988"><span>Boolean network model for GPR142 against Type 2 diabetes and relative dynamic change <span class="hlt">ratio</span> analysis using <span class="hlt">systems</span> and biological circuits approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaushik, Aman Chandra; Sahi, Shakti</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Systems</span> biology addresses challenges in the analysis of genomics data, especially for complex genes and protein interactions using Meta data approach on various signaling pathways. In this paper, we report <span class="hlt">systems</span> biology and biological circuits approach to construct pathway and identify early gene and protein interactions for predicting GPR142 responses in Type 2 diabetes. The information regarding genes, proteins and other molecules involved in Type 2 diabetes were retrieved from literature and kinetic simulation of GPR142 was carried out in order to determine the dynamic interactions. The major objective of this work was to design a GPR142 biochemical pathway using both <span class="hlt">systems</span> biology as well as biological circuits synthetically. The term 'synthetically' refers to building biological circuits for cell signaling pathway especially for hormonal pathway disease. The focus of the paper is on logical components and logical circuits whereby using these applications users can create complex virtual circuits. Logic gates process represents only true or false and investigates whether biological regulatory circuits are active or inactive. The basic gates used are AND, NAND, OR, XOR and NOT gates and Integrated circuit composition of many such basic gates and some derived gates. Biological circuits may have a futuristic application in biomedical sciences which may involve placing a micro chip in human cells to modulate the down or up regulation of hormonal disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuScT..26k5008C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuScT..26k5008C"><span>A signal input coil made of superconducting thin film for improved signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in a high-Tc SQUID-based ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Kuen-Lin; Hsu, Chin-Wei; Ku, Yue-Bai; Chen, Hsin-Hsien; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wang, Li-Min; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Resonant coupling schemes are commonly used in SQUID-based ultra-low field (ULF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) <span class="hlt">systems</span> to couple the spin relaxation signals from samples to the SQUID. Generally, in NMR <span class="hlt">systems</span>, a resonant coupling scheme is composed of two solenoid coils which are made of enamel insulated wires and a capacitor connected in series. In this work, we tried to replace the metal solenoid input coil with a planar high-Tc superconducting spiral coil to improve the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SNR) of the ULF NMR signal. A measurement of the free induction decay signal of water protons was performed to demonstrate the improved performance of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. This improvement is due to the fact that the planar superconducting spiral coil possesses a higher mutual inductance with the SQUID. Therefore, it is a promising way to enhance the SNR of high-Tc SQUID-based ULF NMR/MRI <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850035360&hterms=fossil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfossil','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850035360&hterms=fossil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfossil"><span>Correlation of infrared reflectance <span class="hlt">ratios</span> at 2.3 microns/1.6 micron and 1.1 micron/1.6 micron with delta O-18 values delineating fossil hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the Idaho batholith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gillespie, A. R.; Criss, R. E.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Reflectance <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from laboratory spectra and airborne multispectral images are found to be strongly correlated with delta O-18 values of granite rocks in the Idaho batholith. The correlation is largely a result of interactions between hot water and rock, which lowered the delta O-18 values of the rocks and produced secondary hydrous material. Maps of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of reflectivities at 2.3 and 1.6 microns should delineate fossil hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> and provide estimates of alteration intensity. However, hydrous minerals produced during deuteric alteration or weathering cannot be unambiguously distinguished in remotely sensed images from the products of propylitic alteration without the use of narrow-band scanners. The reflectivity at 1.6 micron is strongly correlated with rock density and may be useful in distinguishing rock types in granitic terranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23M..05J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23M..05J"><span>Spatio-temporal variation in the tap water isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of Salt Lake City: a novel indicator of urban water <span class="hlt">system</span> structure and dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jameel, M. Y.; Bowen, G. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Public water supply <span class="hlt">systems</span> are the life-blood of urban areas. How we use urban water <span class="hlt">systems</span> affects more than human health and well-being. Our water use can alter a city's energy balance, including how much solar energy is absorbed as heat or reflected back into space. The severity of these effects, and the need to better understand connections between climate, water extraction, water use, and water use impacts, is strongest in areas of climatic aridity and substantial land-use change, such as the rapidly urbanizing areas of Utah. We have gathered and analyzed stable water isotope data from a series of semi-annual hydrological surveys (spring and fall, 2013 and 2014) in urban tap water sampled across the Salt Lake Valley. Our study has led to four major findings thus far: 1) Clear and substantial variation in tap water isotopic composition in space and time that can be linked to different water sources and management practices within the urban area, 2) There is a strong correlation between the range of observed isotope values and the population of water districts, reflecting use of water from multiple local and non-local sources in districts with high water demand, 3) Water isotopes reflect significant and variable loss of water due to evaporation of surface water resources and 4) Overall, tap water contains lower concentrations of the heavy H and O isotopes than does precipitation within the basin, reflecting the connection between city water supplies and mountain water sources. Our results highlight the utility of isotopic data as an indicator of heterogeneities within urban water <span class="hlt">systems</span>, management practices and their variation across a major metropolitan area, and effects of climate variability on urban water supplies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177794"><span>Usefulness of the organ culture <span class="hlt">system</span> when villous height/crypt depth <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, intraepithelial lymphocyte count, or serum antibody tests are not diagnostic for celiac disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picarelli, Antonio; Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Libanori, Valerio; Borghini, Raffaele; Salvi, Elisa; Donato, Giuseppe; Vitolo, Domenico; Tiberti, Antonio; Marcheggiano, Adriana; Bassotti, Gabrio; Corazziari, Enrico</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The existence of mild forms of celiac disease (CD) can make the histology-based diagnosis difficult to reach. Since anti-endomysium (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) are detectable in culture supernatants of duodenal biopsies from CD patients, our aim was to assess if this <span class="hlt">system</span> can support the histology in the diagnostic work-up. A total of 559 suspected CD patients underwent serum EMA/anti-tTG detection, upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsy sampling, histologic analysis, and organ culture to detect EMA/anti-tTG in supernatants. A subgroup of 30 patients with organ culture positive results were put on a gluten-free diet (GFD). Their gluten-dependency was evaluated by the psychological general well-being and beck depression inventory indexes. Statistical analysis was performed by Cohen k inter-test, Friedman test, and Dunn multiple comparison. Two hundred forty-one out of 559 (43.1%) patients showed intestinal villous atrophy, whereas serum and organ culture EMA/anti-tTG were positive in 293/559 (52.4%) and 334/559 (59.7%) patients, respectively. The strength of agreement resulted good for serology vs histology (k = 0.730), good for organ culture vs histology (k = 0.662), and very good for serology vs organ culture (k = 0.852). After 12 months of GFD, psychological general well-being index significantly increased, and beck depression inventory index significantly decreased (P < 0.001 for each one). Data highlight the organ culture <span class="hlt">system</span> as a useful tool to assist the histology in diagnosing CD, mainly in cases without villous atrophy or in seronegative patients. The marked improvement in quality of life after a GFD further supports the reliability of this <span class="hlt">system</span> in diagnosing CD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB..tmp...60J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB..tmp...60J"><span>Phase Equilibria in the <span class="hlt">System</span> "FeO"-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO at Different CaO/SiO2 <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jang, Kyoung-oh; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jinming; Xu, Haifa; Wang, Geoff; Zhao, Baojun</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The "FeO"-containing slags play an important role in the operation of an ironmaking blast furnace (BF), in particular the primary slags such as the <span class="hlt">system</span> "FeO"-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-2 mass pct MgO with CaO/SiO2 weight <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 saturated with metallic iron. To investigate the characteristics of such a slag <span class="hlt">system</span> and its behavior in BF, the phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the slag <span class="hlt">system</span> have been experimentally determined using the high-temperature equilibration and quenching technique followed by an electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). Isotherms between 1553 K and 1603 K (1280 °C and 1330 °C) were determined in the primary phase fields of dicalcium silicate, melilite, spinel, and monoxide [(Mg,Fe2+)O]. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of (CaO + SiO2)-Al2O3-"FeO" with a fixed MgO concentration at 2 mass pct and at CaO/SiO2 <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 have been discussed, respectively, simplifying the complexity of the slag <span class="hlt">system</span> for easy understanding and applying in BF operation. It was found that the liquidus temperatures increase in melilite and spinel primary phase fields, but decrease in dicalcium silicate and monoxide primary phase fields with increasing Al2O3/(CaO + SiO2) <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. In addition, the liquidus temperatures decrease with increasing "FeO" concentration in dicalcium silicate and melilite primary phase fields, while showing an increasing trend in the spinel and monoxide primary phase fields. The data resulted from this study can be used to improve and optimize currently available database of thermodynamic models used in FactSage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036960','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036960"><span>Using Cl/Br <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and other indicators to assess potential impacts on groundwater quality from septic <span class="hlt">systems</span>: A review and examples from principal aquifers in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Katz, B.G.; Eberts, S.M.; Kauffman, L.J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A detailed review was made of chemical indicators used to identify impacts from septic tanks on groundwater quality. Potential impacts from septic tank leachate on groundwater quality were assessed using the mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of chloride-bromide (Cl/Br), concentrations of selected chemical constituents, and ancillary information (land use, census data, well depth, soil characteristics) for wells in principal aquifers of the United States. Chemical data were evaluated from 1848 domestic wells in 19 aquifers, 121 public-supply wells in 6 aquifers, and associated monitoring wells in four aquifers and their overlying hydrogeologic units. Based on previously reported Cl/Br <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, statistical comparisons between targeted wells (where Cl/Br <span class="hlt">ratios</span> range from 400 to 1100 and Cl concentrations range from 20 to 100 mg/L) and non-targeted wells indicated that shallow targeted monitoring and domestic wells (0.5. mg/L) shallow groundwater from target domestic wells, relative to non-target wells (1.5. mg/L), corresponded to significantly higher potassium, boron, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and sulfate concentrations, which may also indicate the influence of septic-tank effluent. Impacts on groundwater quality from septic <span class="hlt">systems</span> were most evident for the Eastern Glacial Deposits aquifer and the Northern High Plains aquifer that were associated with the number of housing units using septic tanks, high permeability of overlying sediments, mostly oxic conditions, and shallow wells. Overall, little or no influence from septic <span class="hlt">systems</span> were found for water samples from the deeper public-supply wells.The Cl/Br <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is a useful first-level screening tool for assessing possible septic tank influence in water from shallow wells (<20 m) with the range of 400-1100. The use of this <span class="hlt">ratio</span> would be enhanced with information on other chloride sources, temporal variability of chloride and bromide concentrations in shallow groundwater, knowledge of septic-<span class="hlt">system</span> age and maintenance, and the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000624&hterms=Natural+gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DNatural%2Bgas','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000624&hterms=Natural+gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DNatural%2Bgas"><span>Controlling Gas-Flow Mass <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morris, Brian G.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Proposed <span class="hlt">system</span> automatically controls proportions of gases flowing in supply lines. Conceived for control of oxidizer-to-fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in new gaseous-propellant rocket engines. Gas-flow control <span class="hlt">system</span> measures temperatures and pressures at various points. From data, calculates control voltages for electronic pressure regulators for oxygen and hydrogen. <span class="hlt">System</span> includes commercially available components. Applicable to control of mass <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in such gaseous industrial processes as chemical-vapor depostion of semiconductor materials and in automotive engines operating on compressed natural gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18764632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18764632"><span>Negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> materials via isotropic interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rechtsman, Mikael C; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore</p> <p>2008-08-22</p> <p>We show that under tension a classical many-body <span class="hlt">system</span> with only isotropic pair interactions in a crystalline state can, counterintuitively, have a negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, or auxetic behavior. We derive the conditions under which the triangular lattice in two dimensions and lattices with cubic symmetry in three dimensions exhibit a negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. In the former case, the simple Lennard-Jones potential can give rise to auxetic behavior. In the latter case, a negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be exhibited even when the material is constrained to be elastically isotropic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080790"><span>[The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of hormones of <span class="hlt">system</span> "hypophysis - thyroid" with level of dopamine and cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate of males in European north].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tipisova, E V; Molodovskaia, I N</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The study sampling consisted of 96 males from Arkhangelsk and 52 males from village of Nes. The examination was carried out to find out predominant regulative effect of dopamine on the <span class="hlt">system</span> "hypophysis - thyroid" depending on territory of residence. In males of Zapolyarye, against the background of higher levels of T4, fT3 and TSH and cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate in blood occurs decreasing of levels of thyroglobulin and dopamine in comparison with males of circumpolar territories in case of registration of positive correlation between levels of dopamine and fT3. In males from circumpolar territories age-related decreasing of range of variations of level of dopamine and fT4 under increase of concentration of TSH was registered. At that, negative correlation between content of dopamine and T4 was registered. The age-related dynamics of alteration of level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate with tendency to increase in males of Zapolyarye at the age of 36-60 years in comparison with age group of 22-35 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000211&hterms=21021&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D21021','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000211&hterms=21021&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D21021"><span>Automated Signal-to-Noise <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pineda, J. E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Computer-controlled spectrum analysis gives rapid results for communication <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Locates carrier signal in intermediate-frequency band and measures both carrier amplitude and amplitude of noise in several channels near carrier frequency. Computer then computes <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of signal to average noise. Because measurements and calculations are rapid, <span class="hlt">system</span> used in fading communication channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375708"><span>Low porosity metallic periodic structures with negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Michael; Francesconi, Luca; Gerendás, Miklós; Shanian, Ali; Carson, Carl; Bertoldi, Katia</p> <p>2014-04-16</p> <p>Auxetic behavior in low porosity metallic structures is demonstrated via a simple <span class="hlt">system</span> of orthogonal elliptical voids. In this minimal 2D <span class="hlt">system</span>, the Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be effectively controlled by changing the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the voids. In this way, large negative values of Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be achieved, indicating an effective strategy for designing auxetic structures with desired porosity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ECSS...38..219T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ECSS...38..219T"><span>Application of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope and C/N <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> as Source Indicators of Organic Matter Provenance in Estuarine <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Evidence from the Tay Estuary, Scotland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thornton, S. F.; McManus, J.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>The source of particulate organic matter (POM) in lacustrine and estuarine sediments from the Tay River catchment has been evaluated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope and elemental C/N <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. The δ 13C, δ 15N and C/N compositions of POM from the two environments (respectively -25·4 to -28·0%, 0·2 to 4·0%, 12·17 to 19·5 and -23·2 to -26·6%, 2·6 to 10·6%, 9·03 to 15·71) were statistically distinct, enabling, by use of a simple two component mixing equation, assessment of the ability of each tracer to estimate the terrigenous flux to the estuarine organic matter pool. Estuarial mixing of terrigenous, indigenous estuarine and marine derived organics, recorded by δ 13C data, was only partly confirmed by equivalent δ 15N and C/N compositions which reflected greater control by organic matter diagenesis and biological processing. Limited data indicate sewage derived contributions are insignificant. Of the three tracers employed, only δ 13C <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are reliable as provenance indicators. Both δ 15N and C/N <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are limited because the original POM source signature may be lost or overprinted by biochemical alteration prior to and/or soon after deposition. The simultaneous application of these tracers provides substantially more information regarding the source, quality and turnover of sedimentary POM in these contrasting <span class="hlt">systems</span> than could be achieved using one technique alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25049171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25049171"><span>The effect of SiO₂/Al₂O₃ <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO₂-Al₂O₃-CaO-MgO-Na₂O-K₂O <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr</p> <p>2015-01-05</p> <p>Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of SiO₂/Al₂O₃. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO₂-Al₂O₃-CaO-MgO-Na₂O-K₂O <span class="hlt">system</span> were examined. The only variable is the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K₂O, Na₂O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO₂/Al₂O₃ <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPB.269.1910O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPB.269.1910O"><span><span class="hlt">Ratio</span> estimation in SIMS analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogliore, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The determination of an isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of <span class="hlt">ratios</span> collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated <span class="hlt">ratio</span> that is approximately equal to the true <span class="hlt">ratio</span> divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. This bias does not decrease as the number of <span class="hlt">ratios</span> used in the average increases. By summing all counts in the numerator isotope, then dividing by the sum of counts in the denominator isotope, the estimated <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is less biased: the bias is approximately equal to the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> divided by the summed counts of the denominator isotope over the entire measurement. We propose a third <span class="hlt">ratio</span> estimator (Beale's estimator) that can be used when the bias from the summed counts is unacceptably large for the hypothesis being tested. We derive expressions for the variance of these <span class="hlt">ratio</span> estimators as well as the conditions under which they are normally distributed. Finally, we investigate a SIMS dataset showing the effects of <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias, and discuss proper <span class="hlt">ratio</span> estimation for SIMS analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..159I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.118..159I"><span>Spatial and temporal infaunal dynamics of the Blanes submarine canyon-slope <span class="hlt">system</span> (NW Mediterranean); changes in nematode standing stocks, feeding types and gender-life stage <span class="hlt">ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Romano, Chiara; Coenjaerts, Johan; Mar Flexas, M.; Zúñiga, Diana; Martin, Daniel</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p> governed by trophic conditions over longer periods of time in relatively food-rich environments such as canyons. We hypothesize that food pulses in a dynamic and topographical heterogeneous environment such as canyons regulate nematode size distributions, rather than long-term food availability. Feeding type distributions in the Blanes Canyon did not clearly resemble those from other canyon <span class="hlt">systems</span>, apart from the spring assemblage at one station in the head of the canyon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211631W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211631W"><span>The 238U/235U isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the Earth and the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>: Constrains from a gravimetrically calibrated U double spike and implications for absolute Pb-Pb ages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weyer, Stefan; Noordmann, Janine; Brennecka, Greg; Richter, Stephan</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 238U and 235U, the two primordial U isotopes, has been assumed to be constant on Earth and in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. The commonly accepted value for the 238U/235U <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, which has been used in Pb-Pb dating for the last ~ 30 years, was 137.88. Within the last few years, it has been shown that 1) there are considerable U isotope variations (~1.3‰) within terrestrial material produced by isotope fractionation during chemical reactions [1-3] and 2) there are even larger isotope variations (at least 3.5‰) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meoteorites that define the currently accepted age of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> [4]. These findings are dramatic for geochronology, as a known 238U/235U is a requirement for Pb-Pb dating, the most precise dating technique for absolute ages. As 238U/235U variations can greatly affect the reported absolute Pb-Pb age, understanding and accurately measuring variation of the 238U/235U <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in various materials is critical, With these new findings, the questions also arises of "How well do we know the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>?" and "How accurate can absolute Pb-Pb ages be?" Our results using a gravimetrically calibrated 233U/236U double spike IRMM 3636 [5] indicate that the U standard NBL 950a, which was commonly used to define the excepted "natural" 238U/235U isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, has a slightly lower 238U/235U of 137.836 ± 0.024. This value is indistinguishable from the U isotope compositions for NBL 960 and NBL112A, which have been determined by several laboratories, also using the newly calibrated U double spike IRMM 3636 [6]. These findings provide new implications about the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Basalts display a very tight range of U isotope variations (~0.25-0.32‰ relative to SRM 950a). Their U isotope composition is also very similar to that of chondrites [4], which however appear to show a slightly larger spread. Accepting terrestrial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhD...42r5503R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhD...42r5503R"><span>Evaluation of the effect of the stoichiometric <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of Ca/Cu on the electrical and microstructural properties of the CaCu3Ti4O12 polycrystalline <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramírez, M. A.; Bueno, P. R.; Tararam, R.; Cavalheiro, A. A.; Longo, E.; Varela, J. A.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The structural, microstructural, non-ohmic and dielectric properties of perovskite-type CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) with Ca/Cu stoichiometries of 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 are discussed. The 1/3 Ca/Cu <span class="hlt">ratio</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> presents very high dielectric permittivity (~9000 at 10 kHz) and a low non-ohmic property (α = 9), whereas the 1/1 Ca/Cu <span class="hlt">ratio</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> shows the opposite effect, i.e. the dielectric permittivity decreases (2740 at 10 kHz) and the non-ohmic property increases (α = 42), indicating that these properties are not directly correlated. The results of this work reinforce the idea that the greatest contribution to the very high permittivity is caused by the presence of planar defects inside the CCTO grains, generating internal nanometric domains associated with stacking faults, according to the nanoscale barrier layer capacitance model proposed very recently in the literature [1]. The non-ohmic property is related to the presence and distribution of phases such as CaTiO3 (CTO) and CuO, segregated or precipitated at the grain boundary, which generate large numbers of electrically active interfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12396200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12396200"><span>Lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and depolarization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for cirrus clouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai</p> <p>2002-10-20</p> <p>We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, the optical depth, and the depolarization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar <span class="hlt">ratios</span> compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> with the lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was also reported. The lidar and depolarization <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428076"><span>Reactivity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for organotin copolymer <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Newehy, Mohamed H; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Al-Hazmi, Ali Mohsen Ali</p> <p>2010-04-15</p> <p>Di(tri-n-butyltin) itaconate (DTBTI) and monoethyl tributyltin fumarate (METBTF) were synthesized as organotin monomers. The organotin monomers were copolymerized with styrene (ST) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) via a free radical polymerization technique. The overall conversion was kept low (<or=15% wt/wt) for all studied samples and the copolymer composition was determined from tin analysis. The synthesized monomers and copolymers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcSpe.126...93V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcSpe.126...93V"><span>Development of procedure for measurement of Pb isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in seawater by application of seaFAST sample pre-treatment <span class="hlt">system</span> and Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vassileva, Emilia; Wysocka, Irena</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic Pb in the oceans, derived from high-temperature industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration can have an isotopic signature distinct from naturally occurring Pb, supplied by rock weathering. To identify the different pollution sources accurately and to quantify their relative contributions, Pb isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are widely used. Due to the high salt content (approximately 3.5% of total dissolved solids) and very low levels of Pb (typically from 1 to 100 ng L- 1) in seawater the determination of Pb isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> requires preliminary matrix separation and analyte preconcentration. An analytical protocol for the measurements of Pb isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in seawater combining seaFAST sample pre-treatment <span class="hlt">system</span> and Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF ICP-MS) was developed. The application of seaFAST <span class="hlt">system</span> was advantageous, because of its completely closed working cycle and small volumes of chemicals introduced in pre-treatment step, resulting in very low detection limits and procedural blanks. The preconcentration/matrix separation step was also of crucial importance for minimizing the isobaric and matrix interferences, coming from the seawater. In order to differentiate between anthropogenic and natural Pb sources, particular attention was paid to the determination of 204Pb isotope because of its implication in some geological interpretations. The validation of the analytical procedure was effectuated according to the recommendations of the ISO/IEC 17025 standard. The method was validated by processing the common Pb isotope reference material NIST SRM 981. All major sources of uncertainty were identified and propagated together following the ISO/GUM guidelines. The estimation of the total uncertainty associated to each measurement result was fundamental tool for sorting the main sources of possible biases. The developed analytical procedure was applied to the coastal and open seawater samples, collected in different regions of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996E%26PSL.144..505S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996E%26PSL.144..505S"><span>Helium isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in Ethiopian Rift basalts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scarsi, P.; Craig, H.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Helium isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were measured in olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts from basalts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley and Afar Depression between 6° and 15°N and 37° and 43°E. 3He/4He <span class="hlt">ratios</span> range from 6 to 17 times the atmospheric value (RA = 1.4 × 10-6), that is, from <span class="hlt">ratios</span> less than typical MORB (depleted mantle) helium (R/RA= 8 ± 1) to <span class="hlt">ratios</span> similar to high-3He hotspots and to the Yellowstone hotspot (R/RA= 16.5). The high 3He/4He <span class="hlt">ratios</span> occur all along the Ethiopian Rift and well up into the Afar Depression, with a maximum value of 17.0 RA at 8°N in the Rift Axis and a high value of 14.2 RA in the central Tat'Ali sector of the Afar Depression. The <span class="hlt">ratios</span> decrease to MORB-like values near the edge of the Red Sea, and to sub-MORB <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (5-6 RA) at the northern end of the Rift (Zula Peninsula) and at the southern end, at lakes Abaya and Chamo. The Ethiopian Rift provides the only continental hotspot terrain in which helium isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> can be compared in detail between volcanic lavas and associated geothermal and volcanic gases, a primary motivation for this work. Comparison with our previously measured <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in fluids and gases (range 2-15 RA) shows excellent agreement in the areas sampled for both lavas and fluids, and indicates that high-temperature volcanic fluids can be used for establishing helium isotope signatures in such terrains. The high-3He values in both fluids and basalts show that a Primitive Mantle (PM) component is required and that a Lower Mantle High-3He plume is strongly involved as a driving force in the rifting process of the East African Rift <span class="hlt">System</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28009000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28009000"><span>Sex <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; Sam Ma, Zhanshan</p> <p>2016-12-23</p> <p>There are three sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> strategies (SRS) in nature-male-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, female-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and, equal sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton's local mate competition (LMC) and Clark's local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC &LRC) in the field of SRS research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5180242','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5180242"><span>Sex <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There are three sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, female-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and, equal sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...639807W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...639807W"><span>Sex <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>There are three sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, female-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and, equal sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000519&hterms=gigi&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgigi','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000519&hterms=gigi&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgigi"><span>Software For Computing Image <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yates, Gigi L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">RATIO</span>_TOOL is interactive computer program for viewing and analyzing large sets of multispectral image data created by imaging spectrometer. Uses <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between intensities in different spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within multispectral image. Each image band viewed iteratively, or selected image band of set of data requested and displayed. When image <span class="hlt">ratios</span> computed, result displayed as grayscale image. Written in C Language.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27460748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27460748"><span>Prevalence odds <span class="hlt">ratio</span> versus prevalence <span class="hlt">ratio</span>: choice comes with consequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A; Cutter, Gary R</p> <p>2016-12-30</p> <p>Odds <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, risk <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and prevalence <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are some of the measures of association which are often reported in research studies quantifying the relationship between an independent variable and the outcome of interest. There has been much debate on the issue of which measure is appropriate to report depending on the study design. However, the literature on selecting a particular category of the outcome to be modeled and/or change in reference group for categorical independent variables and the effect on statistical significance, although known, is scantly discussed nor published with examples. In this article, we provide an example of a cross-sectional study wherein prevalence <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was chosen over (Prevalence) odds <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and demonstrate the analytic implications of the choice of category to be modeled and choice of reference level for independent variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6832674','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6832674"><span>Air/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> controller</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.</p> <p>1980-12-23</p> <p>An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for maximum acceleration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4585238','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4585238"><span>The diversity of the N2O reducers matters for the N2O:N2 denitrification end-product <span class="hlt">ratio</span> across an annual and a perennial cropping <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Domeignoz-Horta, Luiz A.; Spor, Aymé; Bru, David; Breuil, Marie-Christine; Bizouard, Florian; Léonard, Joël; Philippot, Laurent</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Agriculture is the main source of terrestrial emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas and the main cause of ozone layer depletion. The reduction of N2O into N2 by microorganisms carrying the nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ) is the only biological process known to eliminate this greenhouse gas. Recent studies showed that a previously unknown clade of N2O-reducers was related to the capacity of the soil to act as an N2O sink, opening the way for new strategies to mitigate emissions. Here, we investigated whether the agricultural practices could differently influence the two N2O reducer clades with consequences for denitrification end-products. The abundance of N2O-reducers and producers was quantified by real-time PCR, and the diversity of both nosZ clades was determined by 454 pyrosequencing. Potential N2O production and potential denitrification activity were used to calculate the denitrification gaseous end-product <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Overall, the results showed limited differences between management practices but there were significant differences between cropping <span class="hlt">systems</span> in both the abundance and structure of the nosZII community, as well as in the [rN2O/r(N2O+N2)] <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. More limited differences were observed in the nosZI community, suggesting that the newly identified nosZII clade is more sensitive than nosZI to environmental changes. Potential denitrification activity and potential N2O production were explained mainly by the soil properties while the diversity of the nosZII clade on its own explained 26% of the denitrification end-product <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, which highlights the importance of understanding the ecology of this newly identified clade of N2O reducers for mitigation strategies. PMID:26441904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441904"><span>The diversity of the N2O reducers matters for the N2O:N2 denitrification end-product <span class="hlt">ratio</span> across an annual and a perennial cropping <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Domeignoz-Horta, Luiz A; Spor, Aymé; Bru, David; Breuil, Marie-Christine; Bizouard, Florian; Léonard, Joël; Philippot, Laurent</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Agriculture is the main source of terrestrial emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas and the main cause of ozone layer depletion. The reduction of N2O into N2 by microorganisms carrying the nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ) is the only biological process known to eliminate this greenhouse gas. Recent studies showed that a previously unknown clade of N2O-reducers was related to the capacity of the soil to act as an N2O sink, opening the way for new strategies to mitigate emissions. Here, we investigated whether the agricultural practices could differently influence the two N2O reducer clades with consequences for denitrification end-products. The abundance of N2O-reducers and producers was quantified by real-time PCR, and the diversity of both nosZ clades was determined by 454 pyrosequencing. Potential N2O production and potential denitrification activity were used to calculate the denitrification gaseous end-product <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Overall, the results showed limited differences between management practices but there were significant differences between cropping <span class="hlt">systems</span> in both the abundance and structure of the nosZII community, as well as in the [rN2O/r(N2O+N2)] <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. More limited differences were observed in the nosZI community, suggesting that the newly identified nosZII clade is more sensitive than nosZI to environmental changes. Potential denitrification activity and potential N2O production were explained mainly by the soil properties while the diversity of the nosZII clade on its own explained 26% of the denitrification end-product <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, which highlights the importance of understanding the ecology of this newly identified clade of N2O reducers for mitigation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23..108D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23..108D"><span>The mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in spectroscopic binaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ducati, J. R.; Penteado, E. M.; Turcati, R.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>The process of formation of binary and multiple stars is not yet fully understood. Possibilities range from simultaneous processes of condensation from the primeval nebula, to isolated star formation and eventual capture to form a double <span class="hlt">system</span>. Models exist that predict success probabilities for each theoretical process, and comparison with observational data is crucial. Spectroscopic binaries are specially suited to be used as observational data, since several biases that can arise from general catalogues of binary stars can be avoided, including dominance of <span class="hlt">systems</span> with large separations between components. A very important parameter in these studies is the mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, the quocient of the masses of primary and secundary members. The histogram of mass <span class="hlt">ratios</span> provides crucial information to models of binary formation, linked to condensation processes and evolutionaty rates.In this case, spectroscopic binaries can be chosen as the observational sample, provided that the spectrum of the primary is from a non-evolved, main-sequence star,whose mass can be derived reliably from its spectral type. Defining an adequate limiting magnitude (6.5), one avoids bias from eclipsing <span class="hlt">systems</span> with high inclinations, since nearly all <span class="hlt">systems</span> up to 6.5 mag were detected. In this paper, a critical review is presented of the existing methods for deriving the distribution of the mass <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from spectroscopic binary orbital data. After showing the incorrectness of some results published in the litterature, the available data (Batten's 8th Catalogue, 1989) is discussed. Simulations for several distributions of mass <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (constant, quadratic, etc) are performed. It is shown that the existing data permits only to assert that the spectroscopic binaries with small mass <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (q < 0.4) are more frequent that those with large mass <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (q = 0.9 to 1.0).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf"><span>7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... Regulatory Information System” distributed by NAIC, 120 West 12th St., Kansas City, MO 64105-1925; (b) Three... Regulatory Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (IRIS) <span class="hlt">ratios</span> found in §§ 400.170(d)(1)(ii) and 400.170(d)(2) (i), (ii),...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3688532','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3688532"><span>The Th17/Treg <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>, IL-1RA and sCD14 Levels in Primary HIV Infection Predict the T-cell Activation Set Point in the Absence of <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Microbial Translocation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chevalier, Mathieu F.; Petitjean, Gaël; Dunyach-Rémy, Catherine; Didier, Céline; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Manea, Maria Elena; Campa, Pauline; Meyer, Laurence; Rouzioux, Christine; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Weiss, Laurence</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Impairment of the intestinal barrier and subsequent microbial translocation (MT) may be involved in chronic immune activation, which plays a central role in HIV pathogenesis. Th17 cells are critical to prevent MT. The aim of the study was to investigate, in patients with primary HIV infection (PHI), the early relationship between the Th17/Treg <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, monocyte activation and MT and their impact on the T-cell activation set point, which is known to predict disease progression. 27 patients with early PHI were included in a prospective longitudinal study and followed-up for 6 months. At baseline, the Th17/Treg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> strongly negatively correlated with the proportion of activated CD8 T cells expressing CD38/HLA-DR or Ki-67. Also, the Th17/Treg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was negatively related to viral load and plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA, two markers of monocyte activation. In untreated patients, the Th17/Treg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at baseline negatively correlated with CD8 T-cell activation at month 6 defining the T-cell activation set point (% HLA-DR+CD38+ and %Ki-67+). Soluble CD14 and IL-1RA plasma levels also predicted the T-cell activation set point. Levels of I-FABP, a marker of mucosal damages, were similar to healthy controls at baseline but increased at month 6. No decrease in anti-endotoxin core antibody (EndoCAb) and no peptidoglycan were detected during PHI. In addition, 16S rDNA was only detected at low levels in 2 out 27 patients at baseline and in one additional patient at M6. Altogether, data support the hypothesis that T-cell and monocyte activation in PHI are not primarily driven by <span class="hlt">systemic</span> MT but rather by viral replication. Moreover, the “innate immune set point” defined by the early levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA might be powerful early surrogate markers for disease progression and should be considered for use in clinical practice. PMID:23818854</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183349','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183349"><span><span class="hlt">System</span> and method for investigating sub-surface features and 3D imaging of non-linear property, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity <span class="hlt">ratio</span> VP/VS of a rock formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.</p> <p>2015-06-02</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">system</span> and a method for generating a three-dimensional image of a rock formation, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity <span class="hlt">ratio</span> VP/VS of a rock formation are provided. A first acoustic signal includes a first plurality of pulses. A second acoustic signal from a second source includes a second plurality of pulses. A detected signal returning to the borehole includes a signal generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic signals in a non-linear mixing zone within an intersection volume. The received signal is processed to extract the signal over noise and/or signals resulting from linear interaction and the three dimensional image of is generated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19369009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19369009"><span>Sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in the most-selective elite US undergraduate colleges and universities are consistent with the hypothesis that modern educational <span class="hlt">systems</span> increasingly select for conscientious personality compared with intelligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charlton, Bruce G</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The main predictors of examination results and educational achievement in modern societies are intelligence (IQ - or general factor 'g' intelligence) and the personality trait termed 'Conscientiousness' (C). I have previously argued that increased use of continuous assessment (e.g. course work rather than timed and supervised examinations) and increased duration of the educational process implies that modern educational <span class="hlt">systems</span> have become increasingly selective for the personality trait of Conscientiousness and consequently less selective for IQ. I have tested this prediction (in a preliminary fashion) by looking at the sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in the most selective elite US universities. My two main assumptions are: (1) that a greater proportion of individuals with very high intelligence are men than women, and (2) that women are more conscientious than men. To estimate the proportion of men and women expected at highly-selective schools, I performed demonstration calculations based on three plausible estimates of male and female IQ averages and standard deviations. The expected percentage of men at elite undergraduate colleges (selecting students with IQ above 130 - i.e. in the top 2% of the population) were 66%, 61% and 74%. When these estimates were compared with the sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> at 33 elite colleges and universities, only two technical institutes had more than 60% men. Elite US colleges and universities therefore seem to be selecting primarily on the basis of something other than IQ - probably conscientiousness. There is a 'missing population' of very high IQ men who are not being admitted to the most selective and prestigious undergraduate schools, probably because their high school educational qualifications and evaluations are too low. This analysis is therefore consistent with the hypothesis that modern educational <span class="hlt">systems</span> tend to select more strongly for Conscientiousness than for IQ. The implication is that modern undergraduates at the most-selective US schools are not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010467','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010467"><span>Pressure <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> to Thermal Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> factor. The pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> factor is the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5836812','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5836812"><span>Continually variable transmission having fixed <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and variable <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moan, R.D</p> <p>1989-06-06</p> <p>This patent describes a transmission for producing a stepless, continually variable range of <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of the speed of its output to its input comprising: a fluid coupling having an impeller adapted for connection to a power source and a turbine hydrodynamically connected to the impeller; as planetary gearset having a ring gear, a sun gear, a first set of planet pinions meshing with the sun gear, a second set of planet pinions meshing with the first set of pinions and with the ring gear, and a pinion carrier on which the first and second sets of pinions are rotatably supported; first drive means drivable connecting the turbine and the sun gear for producing a variable speed <span class="hlt">ratio</span> therebetween having a range between an underdrive <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and an overdrive <span class="hlt">ratio</span>; second drive means drivably connecting the impeller and the ring gear for producing a fixed speed <span class="hlt">ratio</span> therebetween; a first clutch means for drivably connecting and disconnecting the ring gear and the second drive means; and a second clutch means for drivably connecting and disconnecting the first drive means and the pinion carrier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138601"><span>A strategy for the separation of diterpenoid isomers from the root of Aralia continentalis by countercurrent chromatography: The distribution <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as a substitute for the partition coefficient and a three-phase solvent <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Kyoung Jin; Song, Kwang Ho; Choi, Wonmin; Kim, Yeong Shik</p> <p>2015-08-07</p> <p>Aralia continentalis (Araliaceae) is widely used as a medicinal plant in East Asia. Previous studies have indicated that diterpenoid isomers (kaurenoic acid, continentalic acid, and ent-continentalic acid) are the major bioactive compounds of this plant. A new strategy was developed to alleviate difficulties in the separation of these isomers from this plant. A three-phase solvent <span class="hlt">system</span> was applied to separate the isomers, and furthermore, the distribution <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (Kc) was introduced as a substitute for the partition coefficient (KD). For compounds exhibiting a single equilibrium, their distributions in two immiscible phases were only affected by the partition coefficient of each solute. However, compounds that have a dissociating functional group (e.g., -COOH) are involved in two types of equilibrium in the two-phase <span class="hlt">system</span>. In this case, the partitioning behaviors of the solutes are greatly affected by the pH of the solution. A mathematical prediction was applied for adjusting the solutions to the proper pH values. To prevent non-used phase (medium phase) waste, both the stationary phase (upper phase) and mobile phase (lower phase) were prepared on-demand without pre-saturation with the application of (1)H NMR. Each fraction obtained was collected and dried, yielding the following diterpenoid isomers from the 50mg injected sample: kaurenoic acid (19.7mg, yield: 39%) and ent-continentalic acid (21.3mg, yield: 42%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022697','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022697"><span>Low-speed tests of a high-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span>, supercritical-wing transport model equipped with a high-lift flap <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Langley 4- by 7-meter and Ames 12-foot pressure tunnels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Kjelgaard, S. O.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel was used to determine the effects of Reynolds number on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced, high-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span>, supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span, leading edge slat and part span, double slotted, trailing edge flaps. The model had a wing span of 7.5 ft and was tested through a free stream Reynolds number range from 1.3 to 6.0 x 10 to 6th power per foot at a Mach number of 0.20. Prior to the Ames tests, an investigation was also conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.3 x 10 to 6th power per foot with the model mounted on an Ames strut support <span class="hlt">system</span> and on the Langley sting support <span class="hlt">system</span> to determine strut interference corrections. The data obtained from the Langley tests were also used to compare the aerodynamic charactertistics of the rather stiff, 7.5-ft-span steel wing model tested during this investigation and the larger, and rather flexible, 12-ft-span aluminum-wing model tested during a previous investigation. During the tests in both the Langley and Ames tunnels, the model was tested with six basic wing configurations: (1) cruise; (2) climb (slats only extended); (3) 15 deg take-off flaps; (4) 30 deg take-off flaps; (5) 45 deg landing flaps; and (6) 60 deg landing flaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53k5105C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53k5105C"><span>Design of an ultrasmall aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> concentrator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Ying; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) can be employed to improve the efficiency of solar cells and reduce the <span class="hlt">system</span> cost of power generation, which is the primary part of the CPV <span class="hlt">system</span>. Based on the demands for the concentrators to have an ultrathin and ultralight design, a design of ultrasmall aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> concentrators is proposed. The concentrator is formed by a lens array and a freeform reflector to precisely control the light. The solar cell is placed at the side of the concentrator, which greatly reduces the overall thickness of the concentrator. The design can reduce the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of concentrator by a considerable amount. The freeform reflector can shape the light beam and achieve a uniform distribution of light energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8963E..14L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8963E..14L"><span>In-line process control for laser welding of titanium by high dynamic range <span class="hlt">ratio</span> pyrometry and plasma spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Baselt, T.; Rudek, F.; Maschke, R.; Basan, F.; Hartmann, P.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The production of complex titanium components for various industries using laser welding processes has received growing attention in recent years. It is important to know whether the result of the cohesive joint meets the quality requirements of standardization and ultimately the customer requirements. Erroneous weld seams can have fatal consequences especially in the field of car manufacturing and medicine technology. To meet these requirements, a real-time process control <span class="hlt">system</span> has been developed which determines the welding quality through a locally resolved temperature profile. By analyzing the resulting weld plasma received data is used to verify the stability of the laser welding process. The determination of the temperature profile is done by the detection of the emitted electromagnetic radiation from the material in a range of 500 nm to 1100 nm. As detectors, special high dynamic range CMOS cameras are used. As the emissivity of titanium depends on the wavelength, the surface and the angle of radiation, measuring the temperature is a problem. To solve these a special <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> setting with two cameras is used. That enables the compensation of these effects by calculating the difference between the respective pixels on simultaneously recorded images. Two spectral regions with the same emissivity are detected. Therefore the degree of emission and surface effects are compensated and canceled out of the calculation. Using the spatially resolved temperature distribution the weld geometry can be determined and the laser process can be controlled. The active readjustment of parameters such as laser power, feed rate and inert gas injection increases the quality of the welding process and decreases the number of defective goods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22934579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22934579"><span>An improved prediction of the human in vivo intestinal permeability and BCS class of drugs using the in vitro permeability <span class="hlt">ratio</span> obtained for rat intestine using an Ussing chamber <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Hong; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Shim, Won-Sik; Shim, Chang-Koo</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The Biopharmaceutics Classification <span class="hlt">System</span> (BCS) was developed to facilitate estimation of the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drugs from human intestinal permeability and solubility. However, the measurement of human in vivo intestinal permeability, unlike that of solubility, is problematic and inefficient. Thus, rat in vitro intestinal permeability results obtained via the Ussing chamber technique are often used instead. However, these data could be unreliable due to difficulty in maintaining the viability of the dissected intestinal membrane in the Ussing chamber. Therefore, a more efficient method to obtain a reliable in vitro permeability is mandatory. Here, we propose a new approach by introducing a novel factor called the permeability <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (PR). Basically, PR is a rat in vitro intestinal permeability obtained from the Ussing chamber, which is then corrected by the permeability of lucifer yellow, a paracellular permeability marker. To prove the validity of the method, 12 model drugs representing different BCS classes were tested, and the correlation with human in vivo intestinal permeability was high. More importantly, the new method perfectly classified all 12 model drugs. The results indicate that PR is a reliable factor with high correlation to human in vivo intestinal permeability, which can further be used to accurately predict the BCS classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hominids&pg=2&id=EJ471626','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hominids&pg=2&id=EJ471626"><span>A <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Explanation for Evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Riss, Pam Helfers</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819182','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819182"><span>Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. It has been reported that the digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8821E..0HL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8821E..0HL"><span>Thin solar concentrator with high concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Jhe-Syuan; Liang, Chao-Wen</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Solar concentrators are often used in conjunction with III-V multi-junction solar cells for cost reduction and efficiency improvement purposes. High flux concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, high optical efficiency and high manufacture tolerance are the key features required for a successful solar concentrator design. This paper describes a novel solar concentrator that combines the concepts, and thus the advantages, of both the refractive type ad reflective type. The proposed concentrator design adopts the Etendue-cascading concept that allows the light beams from all the concentric annular entrance pupils to be collected and transferred to the solar cell with minimal loss. This concept enables the <span class="hlt">system</span> to perform near its Etendue-Limit and have a high concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span> simultaneously. Thereby reducing the costs of solar cells and therefor achieves a better the per watts cost. The concentrator demonstrated has a thing aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 0.19 with a zero back focal distance. The numerical aperture at the solar cell immersed inside the dielectric concentrator is as high as 1.33 achieving a unprecedented high optical concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span> design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1020562','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1020562"><span>Energy Balance Bowen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Station (EBBR) Handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cook, DR</p> <p>2011-02-23</p> <p>The energy balance Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (EBBR) <span class="hlt">system</span> produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the <span class="hlt">system</span> is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1245976','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1245976"><span>Energy Balance Bowen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (EBBR) Handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cook, D. R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Energy Balance Bowen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (EBBR) <span class="hlt">system</span> produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the <span class="hlt">system</span> is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27878080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27878080"><span>Intragenomic conflict produces sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dynamics that favor maternal sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> distorters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rood, Elaine S; Freedberg, Steven</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Maternal sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> distorters (MSDs) are selfish elements that enhance their transmission by biasing their host's sex allocation in favor of females. While previous models have predicted that the female-biased populations resulting from sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> distortion can benefit from enhanced productivity, these models neglect Fisherian selection for nuclear suppressors, an unrealistic assumption in most <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We used individual-based computer simulation modeling to explore the intragenomic conflict between sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> distorters and their suppressors and explored the impacts of these dynamics on population-level competition between species characterized by MSDs and those lacking them. The conflict between distorters and suppressors was capable of producing large cyclical fluctuations in the population sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and reproductive rate. Despite fitness costs associated with the distorters and suppressors, MSD populations often exhibited enhanced productivity and outcompeted non-MSD populations in single and multiple-population competition simulations. Notably, the conflict itself is beneficial to the success of populations, as sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> oscillations limit the competitive deficits associated with prolonged periods of male rarity. Although intragenomic conflict has been historically viewed as deleterious to populations, our results suggest that distorter-suppressor conflict can provide population-level advantages, potentially helping to explain the persistence of sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> distorters in a range of taxa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26038228','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26038228"><span>Estimating diversity via frequency <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willis, Amy; Bunge, John</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We wish to estimate the total number of classes in a population based on sample counts, especially in the presence of high latent diversity. Drawing on probability theory that characterizes distributions on the integers by <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of consecutive probabilities, we construct a nonlinear regression model for the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of consecutive frequency counts. This allows us to predict the unobserved count and hence estimate the total diversity. We believe that this is the first approach to depart from the classical mixed Poisson model in this problem. Our method is geometrically intuitive and yields good fits to data with reasonable standard errors. It is especially well-suited to analyzing high diversity datasets derived from next-generation sequencing in microbial ecology. We demonstrate the method's performance in this context and via simulation, and we present a dataset for which our method outperforms all competitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9206029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9206029"><span>Models of <span class="hlt">ratio</span> schedule performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bizo, L A; Killeen, P R</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on <span class="hlt">ratio</span> reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engendered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter alpha (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter delta (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on <span class="hlt">ratio</span> schedules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.509a2092C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.509a2092C"><span>Strange Baryon to Meson <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cuautle, Eleazar; Ayala, Alejandro</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present a model to compute baryon and meson transverse momentum distributions, and their <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The model allows to compute the probability to form colorless bound states of either two or three quarks as functions of the evolving density during the collision. The qualitative differences of the baryon to meson <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for different collision energies and for different particle species can be associated to the different density dependent probabilities and to the combinatorial factors which in turn depend on whether the quarks forming the bound states are heavy or light. We compare to experimental data and show that we obtain a good description up to intermediate values of pt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692165','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692165"><span>Sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in bumble bees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bourke, A. F. G.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The median proportion of investment in females among 11 populations of seven bumble bee (Bombus) species was 0.32 (range 0.07 to 0.64). By contrast, two species of workerless social parasites in the related genus Psithyrus had female-biased sex allocation, the reasons for which remain unclear. Male-biased sex allocation in Bombus contradicts the predictions of Trivers and Hare's sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> model for the social Hymenoptera, which are that the population sex investment <span class="hlt">ratio</span> should be 0.5 (1:1) under queen control and 0.75 (3:1 females:males) under worker control (assuming single, once-mated, outbred queens and non-reproductive workers). Male bias in Bombus does not appear to be either an artefact, or purely the result of symbiotic sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> distorters. According to modifications of the Trivers–Hare model, the level of worker male-production in Bombus is insufficient to account for observed levels of male bias. There is also no evidence that male bias arises from either local resource competition (related females compete for resources) or local mate enhancement (related males cooperate in securing mates). Bulmer presented models predicting sexual selection for protandry (males are produced before females) in annual social Hymenoptera and, as a consequence (given some parameter values), male-biased sex allocation. Bumble bees fit the assumptions of Bulmer's models and are protandrous. These models therefore represent the best current explanation for the bees' male-biased sex investment <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. This conclusion suggests that the relative timing of the production of the sexes strongly influences sex allocation in the social Hymenoptera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1012971','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1012971"><span>Segregation <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> in Alport's Syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MacNeill, Elizabeth; Shaw, Richard F.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Pooled data of 35 pedigrees for Alport's syndrome were analysed. Affected to normal <span class="hlt">ratios</span> among the offspring of heterozgyous fathers and mothers were tabulated. Offspring of heterozygous mothers were tabulated separately where the mother showed symptoms of the disease and where she was asymptomatic. Three current theories on the inheritance of Alport's syndrome are considered and discussed. Each theory fails to account fully for the known facts. A non-chromosomal agent has not yet been excluded for this intriguing disease. PMID:4697851</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.730..509M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.730..509M"><span>ESTADIUS: A High Motion "One Arcsec" Daytime Attitude Estimation <span class="hlt">System</span> for Stratospheric Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montel, J.; Andre, Y.; Mirc, F.; Etcheto, P.; Evrard, J.; Bray, N.; Saccoccio, M.; Tomasini, L.; Perot, E.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>ESTADIUS is an autonomous, accurate and daytime attitude estimation <span class="hlt">system</span>, for stratospheric balloons that require a high level of attitude measurement and stability. The <span class="hlt">system</span> has been developed by CNES. ESTADIUS is based on star sensor an <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> data fusion within an extended Kalman filter. The star sensor is composed of a 16 MPixels visible-CCD camera and a large aperture camera lens (focal length of 135mm, aperture f/1.8, 10ºx15º field of view or FOV) which provides very accurate stars measurements due to very low pixel angular size. This also allows detecting stars against a bright sky background. The <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> is a 0.01º/h performance class Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG). The <span class="hlt">system</span> is adapted to work down to an altitude of ~25km, even under high cinematic conditions. Key elements of ESTADIUS are: daytime conditions use (as well as night time), autonomy (automatic recognition of constellations), high angular rate robustness (a few deg/s thanks to the high performance of attitude propagation), stray-light robustness (thanks to a high performance baffle), high accuracy (<1", 1σ). Four stratospheric qualification flights were very successfully performed in 2010/2011 and 2013/2014 in Kiruna (Sweden) and Timmins (Canada). ESTADIUS will allow long stratospheric flights with a unique attitude estimation <span class="hlt">system</span> avoiding the restriction of night/day conditions at launch. The first operational flight of ESTADIUS will be in 2015 for the PILOT scientific missions (led by IRAP and CNES in France). Further balloon missions such as CIDRE will use the <span class="hlt">system</span> ESTADIUS is probably the first autonomous, large FOV, daytime stellar attitude measurement <span class="hlt">system</span>. This paper details the technical features and in-flight results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1014534','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1014534"><span>Envera Variable Compression <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Charles Mendler</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Balance+AND+sheet&pg=5&id=EJ268456','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Balance+AND+sheet&pg=5&id=EJ268456"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Minter, John; And Others</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The ways in which <span class="hlt">ratio</span> analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of <span class="hlt">ratios</span> considered include balance sheet <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, net operating <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and contribution and demand <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/890560','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/890560"><span>Low conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> fuel studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, M. A.</p> <p>2006-02-28</p> <p>Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3166523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3166523"><span>Increased testosterone to cortisol <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in psychopathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Glenn, Andrea L.; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.; Gao, Yu; Granger, Douglas A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Only a few studies have examined hormones in psychopathy and results have been mixed. It has been suggested that since hormone <span class="hlt">systems</span> are highly interconnected, it may be important to examine multiple <span class="hlt">systems</span> simultaneously to gain a clearer picture of how hormones work together to predispose for a certain construct. In the present study, we attempt to clarify the role of the hormones cortisol and testosterone in psychopathy by examining both hormones in a community sample of 178 adults demonstrating a wide range of psychopathy scores. Results showed that psychopathy scores were associated with an increased <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of testosterone (baseline) to cortisol responsivity to a stressor. Psychopathy was not associated with either of these measures independently, or with baseline cortisol levels. These findings suggest that these highly interconnected hormone <span class="hlt">systems</span> may work in concert to predispose to psychopathy. PMID:21133509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6501832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6501832"><span>Activity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of thorium daughters in vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Sha, J.Y.; Essling, M.A.; Pedersen, J.C.; Slane, J.M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A computerized method of least squares has been used to analyze the /sup 228/Ac and /sup 212/Pb-/sup 212/Bi and daughter ..gamma..-ray spectra obtained in vivo from 133 former workers at a thorium refinery. In addition, the exhalation rate of /sup 220/Rn was determined for each subject and expressed as pCi of emanating /sup 224/Ra. This value was added to the /sup 212/Pb value determined from the ..gamma..-ray measurements to obtain the total /sup 224/Ra present, and the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of /sup 224/Ra to /sup 228/Ac was calculated. Values of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> ranged from 0.52 +- 0.32 to 2.1 +- 1.7, with a weighted mean of 0.92 +- 0.17. However, it appears that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> observed in a given case is characteristic for that case alone; the computed mean value may not be meaningful. The least squares fitting procedure and the overall calibration of the counting <span class="hlt">system</span> were validated by measurements of /sup 224/Ra in the lungs of one subject postmortem, compared with results obtained from the same subject in vivo. 6 references, 5 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSDD....6..145I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSDD....6..145I"><span>Vehicular Slip <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Control Using Nonlinear Control Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikeda, Yuichi; Nakajima, Takashi; Chida, Yuichi</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, we discuss integrated vehicle slip <span class="hlt">ratio</span> control under both deceleration and acceleration without the need for controller switching, and also propose a design method for such an integrated slip <span class="hlt">ratio</span> controller based on the slip <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dynamics. When a vehicle switches from acceleration to deceleration and vice versa, the slip <span class="hlt">ratio</span> varies discontinuously. Here, the slip <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is approximated to a continuous function by using a sigmoid function. And a controller is then designed by using feedback linearization based on the approximated slip <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The stability of the designed control <span class="hlt">system</span> is proven by Lyapunov stability theorem. Furthermore, we propose a robust control method based on a disturbance observer and sliding mode control theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified through numerical simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.167...93E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.167...93E"><span>Coupled Ge/Si and Ge isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> as geochemical tracers of seafloor hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>: Case studies at Loihi Seamount and East Pacific Rise 9°50‧N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Escoube, Raphaelle; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Edwards, Katrina; Glazer, Brian; Donard, Olivier F. X.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) exhibit similar geochemical behavior in marine environments but are variably enriched in seafloor hydrothermal fluids relative to seawater. In this study, Ge isotope and Ge/Si <span class="hlt">ratio</span> systematics were investigated in low temperature hydrothermal vents from Loihi Seamount (Pacific Ocean, 18°54‧N, 155°15‧W) and results were compared to high-temperature vents from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°50‧N. Loihi offers the opportunity to understand contrasting Ge and Si behavior in low temperature seafloor hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> characterized by abundant Fe oxyhydroxide deposition at the seafloor. The results show that both Ge/Si and δ74/70Ge in hydrothermal fluids are fractionated relative to the basaltic host rocks. The enrichment in Ge vs. Si relative to fresh basalts, together with Ge isotope fractionation (Δ74/70Gefluid-basalt up to 1.15‰ at EPR 9°50‧N and 1.64‰ at Loihi) are best explained by the precipitation of minerals (e.g. quartz and Fe-sulfides) during higher temperature seawater-rock reactions in the subsurface. The study of Fe-rich hydrothermal deposits at Loihi, largely composed of Fe-oxyhydroxides, shows that Ge isotopes are also fractionated upon mineral precipitation at the seafloor. We obtained an average Ge isotope fractionation factor between Fe-oxyhydroxide (ferrihydrite) and dissolved Ge in the fluid of -2.0 ± 0.6‰ (2sd), and a maximum value of -3.6 ± 0.6‰ (2sd), which is consistent with recent theoretical and experimental studies. The study of a hydrothermal chimney at Bio 9 vent at EPR 9°50‧N also demonstrates that Ge isotopes are fractionated by approximately -5.6 ± 0.6‰ (2sd) during precipitation of metal sulfides under hydrothermal conditions. Using combined Ge/Si and estimated Ge isotope signatures of Ge sinks and sources in seawater, we propose a preliminary oceanic budget of Ge which reveals that an important sink, referred as the "missing Ge sink", may correspond to Ge sequestration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864068','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864068"><span>Variable <span class="hlt">ratio</span> regenerative braking device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hoppie, Lyle O.</p> <p>1981-12-15</p> <p>Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1101&pg=3&id=ED218806','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1101&pg=3&id=ED218806"><span>School Staffing <span class="hlt">Ratios</span>, 1981-82. ERS Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.</p> <p></p> <p>Intended to make possible the comparison of staffing patterns in one school <span class="hlt">system</span> with those in <span class="hlt">systems</span> of similar enrollment size and expenditure level, this report was developed through a national survey of 1,101 school <span class="hlt">systems</span> conducted in 1981-82. Included are pupil-staff and teacher-staff <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for individual positions and aggregate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Body+AND+measurements+AND+males&pg=4&id=EJ642140','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Body+AND+measurements+AND+males&pg=4&id=EJ642140"><span>Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> in Intercollegiate Athletes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) <span class="hlt">ratio</span> among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q <span class="hlt">ratio</span> increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for sport or side of body. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.459.3282W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.459.3282W"><span>Carbon to oxygen <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in extrasolar planetesimals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, David J.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Farihi, Jay; Koester, Detlev</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Observations of small extrasolar planets with a wide range of densities imply a variety of planetary compositions and structures. Currently, the only technique to measure the bulk composition of extrasolar planetary <span class="hlt">systems</span> is the analysis of planetary debris accreting on to white dwarfs, analogous to abundance studies of meteorites. We present measurements of the carbon and oxygen abundances in the debris of planetesimals at ten white dwarfs observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, along with C/O <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of debris in six <span class="hlt">systems</span> with previously reported abundances. We find no evidence for carbon-rich planetesimals, with C/O < 0.8 by number in all 16 <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Our results place an upper limit on the occurrence of carbon-rich <span class="hlt">systems</span> at <17 per cent with a 2σ confidence level. The range of C/O of the planetesimals is consistent with that found in the Solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, and appears to follow a bimodal distribution: a group similar to the CI chondrites, with log (< C/O >) = -0.92, and oxygen-rich objects with C/O less than or equal to that of the bulk Earth. The latter group may have a higher mass fraction of water than the Earth, increasing their relative oxygen abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol6-sec1602-170-14.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol6-sec1602-170-14.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1602.170-14 - FEHB-specific medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation. 1602.170-14 Section 1602.170-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations <span class="hlt">System</span>... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-14 FEHB-specific medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation. (a) Medical Loss <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (MLR) means the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of plan incurred claims, including...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol6-sec1602-170-14.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol6-sec1602-170-14.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1602.170-14 - FEHB-specific medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation. 1602.170-14 Section 1602.170-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations <span class="hlt">System</span>... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-14 FEHB-specific medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation. (a) Medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (MLR) means the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of plan incurred claims, including...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol6-sec1602-170-14.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol6-sec1602-170-14.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1602.170-14 - FEHB-specific medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation. 1602.170-14 Section 1602.170-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations <span class="hlt">System</span>... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms § 1602.170-14 FEHB-specific medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation. (a) Medical Loss <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (MLR) means the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of plan incurred claims, including...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol6-sec1602-170-14.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol6-sec1602-170-14.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1602.170-14 - FEHB-specific medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation. 1602.170-14 Section 1602.170-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations <span class="hlt">System</span>... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-14 FEHB-specific medical loss <span class="hlt">ratio</span> threshold calculation. (a) Medical Loss <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (MLR) means the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of plan incurred claims, including...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008759','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008759"><span>Noise of Embedded High Aspect <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Nozzles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bridges, James E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A family of high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> nozzles were designed to provide a parametric database of canonical embedded propulsion concepts. Nozzle throat geometries with aspect <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were chosen, all with convergent nozzle areas. The transition from the typical round duct to the rectangular nozzle was designed very carefully to produce a flow at the nozzle exit that was uniform and free from swirl. Once the basic rectangular nozzles were designed, external features common to embedded propulsion <span class="hlt">systems</span> were added: extended lower lip (a.k.a. bevel, aft deck), differing sidewalls, and chevrons. For the latter detailed Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were made to predict the thrust performance and to optimize parameters such as bevel length, and chevron penetration and azimuthal curvature. Seventeen of these nozzles were fabricated at a scale providing a 2.13 inch diameter equivalent area throat." ! The seventeen nozzles were tested for far-field noise and a few data were presented here on the effect of aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, bevel length, and chevron count and penetration. The sound field of the 2:1 aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> rectangular jet was very nearly axisymmetric, but the 4:1 and 8:1 were not, the noise on their minor axes being louder than the major axes. Adding bevel length increased the noise of these nozzles, especially on their minor axes, both toward the long and short sides of the beveled nozzle. Chevrons were only added to the 2:1 rectangular jet. Adding 4 chevrons per wide side produced some decrease at aft angles, but increased the high frequency noise at right angles to the jet flow. This trend increased with increasing chevron penetration. Doubling the number of chevrons while maintaining their penetration decreased these effects. Empirical models of the parametric effect of these nozzles were constructed and quantify the trends stated above." Because it is the objective of the Supersonics Project that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983AcSpe..38..791V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983AcSpe..38..791V"><span>Temperature-controlled electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry using a pyrometric feedback <span class="hlt">system</span> in conjunction with a background monitoring device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Deijck, W.; Roelofsen, A. M.; Pieters, H. J.; Herber, R. F. M.</p> <p></p> <p>The construction of a temperature-controlled feedback <span class="hlt">system</span> for electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) using an optical <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> applied to the atomization stage is described. The <span class="hlt">system</span> was used in conjunction with a fast-response background monitoring device. The heating rate of the furnace amounted to 1400° s -1 with a reproducibility better than 1%. The precision of the temperature control at a steady state temperature of 2000°C was 0.1%. The analytical improvements offered by the present <span class="hlt">system</span> have been demonstrated by the determination of cadmium and lead in blood and finally by the determination of lead in serum. Both the sensitivity and the precision of the method have been improved. The accuracy of the method was checked by determining the lead content for a number of scrum samples both by ETA-AAS and differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) and proved to be satisfactory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20005711','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20005711"><span>Measurement of fatigue crack closure for negative stress <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Romeiro, F.F.J.; Domingos, C.A.; Freitas, M.J.M. de</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>The concept of fatigue crack closure, introduced in the 60's by Elber, has been used to explain a wide range of positive stress <span class="hlt">ratio</span> crack propagation results (R {ge} 0). Less attention has been given to fatigue loading for negative stress <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (R {lt} 0). In this work the results of crack propagation tests of middle-crack tension M(T) specimens of a normalized medium carbon steel DIN Ck 45 for a wide range of stress <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from 0.7 {ge} R {ge} {minus}3 are presented. Crack closure loads were measured with the compliance technique at test frequency, using a data acquisition <span class="hlt">system</span>. Negative crack closure loads were found for negative stress <span class="hlt">ratios</span> R {le} {minus}1, which can explain higher crack propagation rates and accelerations in crack growth during variable-amplitude tests where compressive loads of different stress <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013325','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013325"><span>The C-12/C-13 <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> as a Chemistry Indicator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wirstroem, Eva; Geppert, Wolf; Persson, Carina; Charnley, Steven</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of elements are considered powerful tools, e.g. in tracing the origin of solar <span class="hlt">system</span> body materials, or the degree of nucleosynthesis processing throughout the Galaxy. In interstellar molecules, some isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> like H/D and C-12/C-13 can also be used as indicators of their chemical origin. Isotope fractionation in gas-phase chemical reactions and gas-dust interaction makes observations of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between C-12 and C-13 isotopologues suitable to distinguish between different formation scenarios. We will present observations of the C-12/C-13 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in methanol and formaldehyde towards a sample of embedded, massive young stellar objects. In relation to this we also present results from theoretical modeling showing the usefulness of the C-12/C-13 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as a chemistry indicator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2827768','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2827768"><span>The basic reproductive <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Manapat, Michael L.; Chen, Irene A.; Nowak, Martin A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Template-directed polymerization of nucleotides is believed to be a pathway for the replication of genetic material in the earliest cells. We assume that activated monomers are produced by prebiotic chemistry. These monomers can undergo spontaneous polymerization, a <span class="hlt">system</span> that we call “prelife.” Adding template-directed polymerization changes the equilibrium structure of prelife if the rate constants meet certain criteria. In particular, if the basic reproductive <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of sequences of a certain length exceeds one, then those sequences can attain high abundance. Furthermore, if many sequences replicate, then the longest sequences can reach high abundance even if the basic reproductive <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of all sequences are less than one. We call this phenomenon “subcritical life.” Subcritical life suggests that sequences long enough to be ribozymes can become abundant even if replication is relatively inefficient. Our work on the evolution of replication has interesting parallels to infection dynamics. Life (replication) can be seen as an infection of prelife. PMID:20034501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991890"><span>Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Theoretically, the transuranic conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding <span class="hlt">ratio</span> ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the <span class="hlt">system</span> equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P31B1796M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P31B1796M"><span>Implications of the Nitrogen Isotope <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> in Titan's Atmosphere for the Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> in Ammonia in Comets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandt, K.; Mousis, O.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The D/H <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of water measured in solar <span class="hlt">system</span> bodies has been established as a tool for determining the conditions under which bodies such as comets or icy moons formed. This <span class="hlt">ratio</span> varies significantly and indicates complex thermal and chemical evolution of the solar nebula during solar <span class="hlt">system</span> and planetary formation. Nitrogen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> also vary significantly, and in some but not all cases correlate to D/H <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, but are poorly understood. Nitrogen in the solar nebula was primarily in the form of atomic and molecular nitrogen. The isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (14N/15N) of this reservoir is expected to be ~435 based on the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> measured in Jupiter's atmosphere, because the atmosphere of Jupiter is made up of gas captured from the solar nebula (Owen et al., 2001). The terrestrial atmospheric <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is 272, which is close to the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> measured in the Earth's mantle. This may be the primordial <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for nitrogen delivered to Earth depending on the amount of exchange between the atmosphere and the mantle and any atmospheric fractionation processes that may have influenced the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> over time. Comets are a possible source of nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere (Hutsmekers et al., 2009), although chondrites have also been suggested as a source (Marty, 2012). In the case of comets, nitrogen would have been essentially retained in the form of ammonia (Mousis et al., 2012), which is the most abundant form of nitrogen in comets. The nitrogen in Titan's atmosphere is expected to have originated as ammonia hydrates and converted to N2 early in Titan's history (Atreya et al., 1978). The nitrogen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in Titan's atmosphere is ~170, which is significantly enriched in the heavy isotope compared to the terrestrial value. We will discuss the evolution of the nitrogen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in Titan's atmosphere (Mandt et al., 2009), the limits of the primordial <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in ammonia, and the implications for this <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for the isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in ammonia in comets that should be measured by the ROSINA instrument</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019322','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019322"><span>High/variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> O2/H2 engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adams, A.; Parsley, R. C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Vehicle/engine analysis studies have identified the High/Dual Mixture <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> O2/H2 Engine cycle as a leading candidate for an advanced Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span>. This cycle is designed to allow operation at a higher than normal O/F <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 12 during liftoff and then transition to a more optimum O/F <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 6 at altitude. While operation at high mixture <span class="hlt">ratios</span> lowers specific impulse, the resultant high propellant bulk density and high power density combine to minimize the influence of atmospheric drag and low altitude gravitational forces. Transition to a lower mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at altitude then provides improved specific impulse relative to a single mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engine that must select a mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> that is balanced for both low and high altitude operation. This combination of increased altitude specific impulse and high propellant bulk density more than offsets the compromised low altitude performance and results in an overall mission benefit. Two areas of technical concern relative to the execution of this dual mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> cycle concept are addressed. First, actions required to transition from high to low mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are examined, including an assessment of the main chamber environment as the main chamber mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> passes through stoichiometric. Secondly, two approaches to meet a requirement for high turbine power at high mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> condition are examined. One approach uses high turbine temperature to produce the power and requires cooled turbines. The other approach incorporates an oxidizer-rich preburner to increase turbine work capability via increased turbine mass flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019253','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019253"><span>A theoretically based determination of bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> fetch requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stannard, D.I.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Determination of fetch requirements for accurate Bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> measurements of latent- and sensible-heat fluxes is more involved than for eddy-correlation measurements because Bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> sensors are located at two heights, rather than just one. A simple solution to the diffusion equation is used to derive an expression for Bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> fetch requirements, downwind of a step change in surface fluxes. These requirements are then compared to eddy-correlation fetch requirements based on the same diffusion equation solution. When the eddy-correlation and upper Bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> sensor heights are equal, and the available energy upwind and downwind of the step change is constant, the Bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> method requires less fetch than does eddy correlation. Differences in fetch requirements between the two methods are greatest over relatively smooth surfaces. Bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> fetch can be reduced significantly by lowering the lower sensor, as well as the upper sensor. The Bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> fetch model was tested using data from a field experiment where multiple Bowen-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> were deployed simultaneously at various fetches and heights above a field of bermudagrass. Initial comparisons were poor, but improved greatly when the model was modified (and operated numerically) to account for the large roughness of the upwind cotton field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhyA..357..543X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhyA..357..543X"><span>How required reserve <span class="hlt">ratio</span> affects distribution and velocity of money</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking <span class="hlt">system</span> is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ261959.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ261959.pdf"><span>A Librarian's Primer on Financial <span class="hlt">Ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kerbel, Sandra Sandor</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. An annotated list of five basic sources for <span class="hlt">ratios</span> is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23815649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23815649"><span>Evolutionarily stable sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and mutation load.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hough, Josh; Immler, Simone; Barrett, Spencer C H; Otto, Sarah P</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, but biased sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019323','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019323"><span>Variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> performance through nitrogen augmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Beichel, R.; Obrien, C. J.; Bair, E. K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>High/variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> O2/H2 candidate engine cycles are examined for earth-to-orbit vehicle application. Engine performance and power balance information are presented for the candidate cycles relative to chamber pressure, bulk density, and mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Included in the cycle screening are concepts where a third fluid (liquid nitrogen) is used to achieve a variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> over the trajectory from liftoff to earth orbit. The third fluid cycles offer a very low risk, fully reusable, low operation cost alternative to high/variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bipropellant cycles. Variable mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engines with extendible nozzle are slightly lower performing than a single mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engine (MR = 7:1) with extendible nozzle. Dual expander engines (MR = 7:1) have slightly better performance than the single mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engine. Dual fuel dual expander engines offer a 16 percent improvement over the single mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4814..222J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4814..222J"><span>Autonomous shipboard infrared radiometer <span class="hlt">system</span> for in situ validation of satellite SST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jessup, Andrew T.; Fogelberg, Ruth A.; Minnett, Peter</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>Over the past 4 years, we have developed and extensively deployed the Calibrated, InfraRed, In situ Measurement <span class="hlt">System</span>, or CIRIMS, for at-sea validation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST). The project is funded by the NASA EOS Validation Program for validation of SST from MODIS, the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, aboard the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites. The design goals include autonomous operation at sea for up to 6 months and an accuracy of +/-0.1°C. One of the most challenging aspects of the design is protection against the marine environment. We use commercially available infrared <span class="hlt">pyrometers</span> and a precision blackbody housed in a temperature-controlled enclosure. The sensors are calibrated at regular interval using a cylindro-cone target immersed in temperature-controlled water bath, which allows the calibration points to follow the ocean surface temperature. An upward-looking <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> measures sky radiance in order to correct for the non-unity emissivity of water, which can introduce an error of up to 0.5°C. As part of our design strategy, we have evaluated the use of an infrared transparent window to completely protect the sensor and calibration blackbody from the marine environment. A total of three units have been fabricated and deployed at sea for over 700 days since 1998. We give an overview of the design and report on the performance of the CIRIMS in comparison to the Marine-Atmosphere Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) which is the primary in situ validation instrument for MODIS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820005270','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820005270"><span>Effect of fuel-air-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> nonuniformity on emissions of nitrogen oxides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lyons, V. J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The inlet fuel-air <span class="hlt">ratio</span> nonuniformity is studied to deterine how nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are affected. An increase in NOx emissions with increased fuel-air <span class="hlt">ratio</span> nonuniformity for average equivalence <span class="hlt">ratios</span> less than 0.7 and a decrease in NOx emissions for average equivalence <span class="hlt">ratios</span> near stoichiometric is predicted. The degree of uniformityy of fuel-air <span class="hlt">ratio</span> profiles that is necessary to achieve NOx emissions goals for actual engines that use lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion <span class="hlt">systems</span> is determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000244&hterms=gun&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgun','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000244&hterms=gun&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgun"><span>Spray Gun With Constant Mixing <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simpson, William G.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow <span class="hlt">ratio</span> near 1:1 (or another desired <span class="hlt">ratio</span>) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=land+AND+size&pg=6&id=ED267720','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=land+AND+size&pg=6&id=ED267720"><span>Management <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> 1. For Colleges & Universities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Minter, John, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ratios</span> that enable colleges and universities to select other institutions for comparison are presented. The <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and underlying data also enable colleges to rank order institutions and to calculate means, quartiles, and ranges for these groups. The data are based on FY 1983 U.S. Department of Education Statistics. The <span class="hlt">ratios</span> summarize the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf"><span>7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. The sixteen qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span> include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol6-sec567-8.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol6-sec567-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol1-sec167-8.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol1-sec167-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf"><span>7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. The sixteen qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span> include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol5-sec390-467.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol5-sec390-467.pdf"><span>12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf"><span>7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. The sixteen qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span> include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol5-sec390-467.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol5-sec390-467.pdf"><span>12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol6-sec400-162.pdf"><span>7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. The sixteen qualification <span class="hlt">ratios</span> include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol5-sec567-8.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol5-sec567-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol5-sec390-467.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol5-sec390-467.pdf"><span>12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title12-vol5-sec567-8.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title12-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title12-vol5-sec567-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol1-sec167-8.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol1-sec167-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol1-sec167-8.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol1-sec167-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol6-sec567-8.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol6-sec567-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol6-sec567-8.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol6-sec567-8.pdf"><span>12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022168','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022168"><span>A leading edge heating array and a flat surface heating array: Final design. [for testing the thermal protection <span class="hlt">system</span> of the space shuttle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A heating array is described for testing full-scale sections of the leading edge and lower fuselage surfaces of the shuttle. The heating array was designed to provide a tool for development and acceptance testing of leading edge segments and large flat sections of the main body thermal protection <span class="hlt">system</span>. The array was designed using a variable length module concept to meet test requirements using interchangeable components from one test configuration in another configuration. Heat generating modules and heat absorbing modules were employed to achieve the thermal gradient around the leading edge. A support was developed to hold the modules to form an envelope around a variety of leading edges; to supply coolant to each module; the support structure and to hold the modules in the flat surface heater configuration. An optical <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> mounted within the array was designed to monitor specimen surface temperatures without altering the test article's surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015244','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015244"><span>Development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated <span class="hlt">systems</span> required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rey, Charles A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated <span class="hlt">systems</span> required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements are discussed. Efforts were directed towards the following task areas: design and development of a High Temperature Acoustic Levitator (HAL) for containerless processing and property measurements at high temperatures; testing of the HAL module to establish this technology for use as a positioning device for microgravity uses; construction and evaluation of a brassboard hot wall Acoustic Levitation Furnace; construction and evaluation of a noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) <span class="hlt">system</span> based on AGEMA thermal imaging camera; construction of a prototype Division of Amplitude Polarimetric <span class="hlt">Pyrometer</span> for NCTM of levitated specimens; evaluation of and recommendations for techniques to control contamination in containerless materials processing chambers; and evaluation of techniques for heating specimens to high temperatures for containerless materials experimentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075895','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075895"><span>Transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> improvement for beam based plasma accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl</p> <p>2012-12-21</p> <p>Increasing the transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of wakefield accelerating <span class="hlt">systems</span> improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of beam based plasma <span class="hlt">systems</span> has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15878265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15878265"><span>Electrophysiological <span class="hlt">ratio</span> markers for the balance between reward and punishment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schutter, Dennis J L G; Van Honk, Jack</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>It has been argued that prototypical forms of psychopathology result from an imbalance in reward and punishment <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Recent studies suggest that the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between slower and faster waves of the electroencephalogram (EEG) index this motivational balance and might therefore have diagnostic value for psychopathology. To scrutinize this notion, the present study investigated whether resting state EEG <span class="hlt">ratios</span> would predict decision making on the Iowa gambling task (Iowa-GT), a well-known marker for motivational imbalance. A resting state EEG recording was acquired followed by the Iowa-GT in twenty-eight healthy right-handed volunteers. Results showed that higher versus lower EEG <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were associated with disadvantageous versus advantageous decision making strategies indicating motivational imbalances in reward- and punishment-driven behavior, respectively. This finding provides the first direct evidence that the electrophysiologically derived EEG <span class="hlt">ratios</span> can serve as biological markers for balance and imbalance in motivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28346894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28346894"><span>The Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in people with multiple sclerosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalron, Alon</p> <p>2017-03-14</p> <p>Postural control relies on the integration of inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular <span class="hlt">systems</span> which are frequently impaired in people with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS). In this situation, examining the Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be useful. This parameter can be interpreted as a gross indicator of a vestibular and proprioceptive contribution to postural control. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study was to examine whether the Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> differs between MS fallers, non-fallers and neurological disability levels. In addition, we clarified the association between the Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> values with validated gait and the balance tests in PwMS. Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> values were calculated according to the sway rate, total sway area and center of pressure (CoP) path length. The patient group included 542 PwMS (337 women) with a mean age of 42.3 (S.D=13.8). In terms of fall status, significant differences were observed between the faller (n=287) and non-faller (n=255) groups solely in terms of the Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-ellipse sway area: 2.76 (S.D=2.46) vs. 2.24 (S.D=2.01), P-value=0.01. A significant increase in the Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was found between the severe group (n=50), the very mild (n=245), mild (n=186) and moderate (n=61) groups for each of the three Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> quotients. Significant weak correlation scores were found between the Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-ellipse sway area and all walking and balance outcome measures; the Pearson's rho ranged from 0.172 to 0.270. The present data suggest that an elevated Romberg <span class="hlt">ratio</span> quotient, especially according to the sway area, is an indicator of poor walking and balance capabilities in PwMS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936329','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936329"><span>Eccentric crank variable compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawrence, Keith Edward; Moser, William Elliott; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Knox, Kevin Jay</p> <p>2008-05-13</p> <p>A variable compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24315798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24315798"><span>Force dynamics in fixed-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> schedules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pinkston, Jonathan W; McBee, Lindsey N</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Fixed-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> schedules are widely used in behavioral research. Although fixed-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> schedules often conjure up relationships to work and effort, little is known about effort-related measures in these schedules. Early research had shown that force and effort of operant behavior vary systematically during the execution of <span class="hlt">ratio</span> schedules, and the goal of the present study was to revisit early research on force dynamics in fixed-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> schedules. Four rats earned sucrose by pressing an isometric force transducer. Presses produced sucrose after ten or twenty responses. In general, the force of responses increased then decreased systematically across the <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The possibility that decreases in force during <span class="hlt">ratio</span> execution was due to a trade-off with the differential reinforcement of short inter-response times (IRT) was investigated in an additional condition where sucrose was made available according to a tandem fixed-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> 19 inter-response (IRT)> t schedule. The tandem IRT requirement did not eliminate decreasing trends in force across the <span class="hlt">ratio</span>; unexpectedly, the tandem requirement did eliminate increases in force early in the <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, which may reflect sequence-level organization operating in the control of force dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840009157&hterms=Solar+panel+output&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Bpanel%2Boutput','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840009157&hterms=Solar+panel+output&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Bpanel%2Boutput"><span>Low concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span> solar array structural configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nalbandian, S. J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The design and structural properties of a low concentration <span class="hlt">ratio</span> solar array are discussed. The assembled module consists of six interconnected containers which are compactly stowed in a volume of 3.24 m(3) for delivery to orbit by the shuttle. The containers deploy in accordian fashion into a rectangular area of 19.4 x 68 meters and can be attached to the user spacecraft along the longitudinal centerline of the end container housing. Five rotary incremental actuators requiring about 8 watts each will execute the 180-degree rotation at each joint. Deployable masts (three per side) are used to extend endcaps from the housing in both directions. Each direction is extended by three masts requiring about 780 watts for about 27 minutes. Concentrator elements are extended by the endcaps and are supported by cable <span class="hlt">systems</span> that are connected between the housings and endcaps. These power generating elements contain reflector panels which concentrate light onto the solar panels consisting of an aluminum radiator with solar cells positioned within the element base formed by the reflectors. A flat wire harness collects the power output of individual elements for transfer to the module container housing harnesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693873"><span>Quantification of neocortical <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in stem primates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, Adam; Bloch, Jonathan I; Silcox, Mary T</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Extant euprimates (=crown primates) have a characteristically expanded neocortical region of the brain relative to that of other mammals, but the timing of that expansion in their evolutionary history is poorly resolved. Examination of anatomical landmarks on fossil endocasts of Eocene euprimates suggests that significant neocortical expansion relative to contemporaneous mammals was already underway. Here, we provide quantitative estimates of neocorticalization in stem primates (plesiadapiforms) relevant to the question of whether relative neocortical expansion was uniquely characteristic of the crown primate radiation. <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of neocortex to endocast surface areas were calculated for plesiadapiforms using measurements from virtual endocasts of the paromomyid Ignacius graybullianus (early Eocene, Wyoming) and the microsyopid Microsyops annectens (middle Eocene, Wyoming). These data are similar to a published estimate for the plesiadapid, Plesiadapis tricuspidens, but contrast with those calculated for early Tertiary euprimates in being within the 95% confidence intervals for archaic mammals generally. Interpretation of these values is complicated by the paucity of sampled endocasts for older stem primates and euarchontogliran outgroups, as well as by a combination of effects related to temporal trends, allometry, and taxon-unique specializations. Regardless, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift in brain organization occurred in the first euprimates, likely in association with elaborations to the visual <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21336689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21336689"><span>Child underreporting, fertility, and sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imbalance in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goodkind, Daniel</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Child underreporting is often neglected in studies of fertility and sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imbalance in China. To improve estimates of these measures, I use intercensal comparisons to identify a rise in underreporting, which followed the increased enforcement and penalization under the birth planning <span class="hlt">system</span> in 1991. A new triangulation of evidence indicates that about 19% of children at ages 0-4 were unreported in the 2000 census, more than double that of the 1990 census. This evidence contradicts assumptions underlying the fertility estimates of most recent studies. Yet, the analysis also suggests that China's fertility in the late 1990s (and perhaps beyond) was below officially adjusted levels. I then conduct a similar intercensal analysis of sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of births and children, which are the world's highest primarily because of prenatal sex selection. However, given excess underreporting of young daughters, especially pronounced just after 1990, estimated <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are lower than reported <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. Sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in areas with a "1.5-child" policy are especially distorted because of excess daughter underreporting, as well as sex-linked stopping rules and other factors, although it is unclear whether such policies increase use of prenatal sex selection. China's sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at birth, once it is standardized by birth order, fell between 2000 and 2005 and showed a continuing excess in urban China, not rural China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JAir...31..591C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JAir...31..591C"><span>Physics of Coanda jet detachment at high-pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cornelius, Kenneth C.; Lucius, Gerald A.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>Experimental measurements of surface pressure for an underexpanded two-dimensional supersonic Coanda flow with static conditions exterior to the jet flow was obtained for a fixed slot height to a radius <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 0.04. The data demonstrate that an oblique shock forms near the jet exit plane which vectors the jet flow from the curved surface at a pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 7.6. The jet detachment occurs at a pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> which is a function of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of slot height to cylinder radius. An increase in the pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to 11.5 before jet detachment has been demonstrated by the translation of the upper wall providing for a converging-diverging geometry. The physics of the Coanda expansion and the jet detachment are qualitatively described using an optical schlieren <span class="hlt">system</span>. A compressible inviscid model was derived analytically to demonstrate the variation in Mach number and surface pressure as a function of the geometric parameters with increasing pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14751729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14751729"><span>Measurement of Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of dental composite restorative materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chung, Sew Meng; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Koh, Wee Kiat; Tsai, Kuo Tsing; Lim, Chwee Teck</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the Poisson <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of resin-based dental composites using a static tensile test method. Materials used in this investigation were from the same manufacturer (3M ESPE) and included microfill (A110), minifill (Z100 and Filtek Z250), polyacid-modified (F2000), and flowable (Filtek Flowable [FF]) composites. The Poisson <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the materials were determined after 1 week conditioning in water at 37 degrees C. The tensile test was performed with using a uniaxial testing <span class="hlt">system</span> at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analysed using one-way ANOVA/post-hoc Scheffe's test and Pearson's correlation test at significance level of 0.05. Mean Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (n=8) ranged from 0.302 to 0.393. The Poisson <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of FF was significantly higher than all other composites evaluated, and the Poisson <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of A110 was higher than Z100, Z250 and F2000. The Poisson <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is higher for materials with lower filler volume fraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23252707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23252707"><span>Caste <span class="hlt">ratios</span> affect the reproductive output of social trematode colonies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamiya, T; Poulin, R</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Intraspecific phenotypic diversification in social organisms often leads to formation of physical castes which are morphologically specialized for particular tasks within the colony. The optimal caste allocation theory argues that specialized morphological castes are efficient at specific tasks, and hence different caste <span class="hlt">ratios</span> should affect the ergonomic efficiency, hence reproductive output of the colony. However, the reproductive output of different caste <span class="hlt">ratios</span> has been documented in few species of insects with equivocal support for the theory. This study investigated whether the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of nonreproductive and reproductive morphs affect the reproductive output of a recently discovered social trematode, Philophthalmus sp., in which the nonreproductive members are hypothesized to be defensive specialists. A census of natural infections and a manipulative in vitro experiment demonstrated a positive association between the reproductive output of trematode colonies and the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of nonreproductive to reproductive morphs in the presence of an intra-host trematode competitor, Maritrema novaezealandensis. On the contrary, without the competitor, reproductive output was negatively associated with the proportion of nonreproductive castes in colonies. Our findings demonstrate for the first time a clear fitness benefit associated with the nonreproductive castes in the presence of a competitor while illustrating the cost of maintaining such morphs in noncompetitive situations. Although the proximate mechanisms controlling caste <span class="hlt">ratio</span> remain unclear in this trematode <span class="hlt">system</span>, this study supports the prediction that the fitness of colonies is influenced by the composition of specialized functional morphs in social organisms, suggesting a potential for adaptive shifts of caste <span class="hlt">ratios</span> over evolutionary time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000419&hterms=surface+cleanliness&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsurface%2Bcleanliness','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000419&hterms=surface+cleanliness&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsurface%2Bcleanliness"><span>Calculating Obscuration <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> Of Contaminated Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barengoltz, Jack B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Equations derived to estimate obscuration <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of surfaces contaminated by particles. <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> is fraction of surface area covered by particles. Useful as index of cleanliness in clean-room operations in manufacturing of semiconductor devices, magnetic recording media, optical devices, and pharmaceutical and biotechnological products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366010"><span>The effects of nurse to patient <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patterson, Jennifer</p> <p></p> <p>This article examines the literature on nurse to patient <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to establish the impact on both patients and staff of understaffing on hospital wards. It discusses theories on ideal staff to patient <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and the resource implications of these, and recommends a number of dynamic and innovative ways to allocate staff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/3796924','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/3796924"><span>Sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in pheasant research and management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dale, F.H.</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are of primary importance in interpretation of extensive studies of pheasant populations. They are necessary for converting crowing-cock indices to population estimates even where annual trends are to be studied in the same area. Reliability of population estimates from hunting season kill of pheasants suffers primarily from inability to estimate sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> accurately. Fall sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is an index to production and where adult sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are divergent can serve as a good check on production per hen. Age <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of cocks cannot be interpreted directly as an index of productivity, even within the boundaries of one state, unless adult sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are known. The relationship between observed and actual sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> varies significantly from season to season and according to the method of observation. In view of their importance in population studies and the lack of reliability of present methods, it is believed that intensive studies on techniques for obtaining sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are a major need in pheasant research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=graph&pg=4&id=EJ1029558','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=graph&pg=4&id=EJ1029558"><span>CCSSM Challenge: Graphing <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> and Proportion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Mintos, Alexia; Krawczyk, Kathryn</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A renewed emphasis was placed on <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and proportional reasoning in the middle grades in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The expectation for students includes the ability to not only compute and then compare and interpret the results of computations in context but also interpret <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and proportions as they are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26521052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26521052"><span>How to use and interpret hormone <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Hormone <span class="hlt">ratios</span> have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of <span class="hlt">ratios</span> is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of <span class="hlt">ratios</span> lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone <span class="hlt">ratios</span> as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to <span class="hlt">ratio</span> analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17778807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17778807"><span>Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sackett, W M</p> <p>1966-11-04</p> <p>The Th(230): Pa(231) activity <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1226792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1226792"><span>Tower Water-Vapor Mixing <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281710','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281710"><span>Negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in rippled graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qin, Huasong; Sun, Yu; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Li, Mengjie; Liu, Yilun</p> <p>2017-03-10</p> <p>In this work, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of rippling on the Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of graphene. Due to the atomic scale thickness of graphene, out-of-plane ripples are generated in free standing graphene with topological defects (e.g. heptagons and pentagons) to release the in-plane deformation energy. Through MD simulations, we have found that the Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of rippled graphene decreases upon increasing its aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> η (amplitude over wavelength). For the rippled graphene sheet η = 0.188, a negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of -0.38 is observed for a tensile strain up to 8%, while the Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for η = 0.066 is almost zero. During uniaxial tension, the ripples gradually become flat, thus the Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of rippled graphene is determined by the competing factors of the intrinsic positive Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of graphene and the negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> due to the de-wrinkling effect. Besides, the rippled graphene exhibits excellent fracture strength and toughness. With the combination of its auxetic and excellent mechanical properties, rippled graphene may possess potential for application in nano-devices and nanomaterials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Osmosis&pg=5&id=EJ318949','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Osmosis&pg=5&id=EJ318949"><span>Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barrett, D. R. B.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ276962.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ276962.pdf"><span>The Divine <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> and Golden Rectangles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cooper, Martin</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>, and the nature of this <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22974995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22974995"><span>Human behaviour: sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and the city.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Székely, Áron; Székely, Tamás</p> <p>2012-09-11</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of males to females in a population is known to influence the behaviour, life histories and demography of animals. A recent experimental study finds that sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> also affects human economic behaviour, and in a manner consistent with evolutionary theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=current+AND+ratio+AND+analysis&pg=5&id=EJ695613','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=current+AND+ratio+AND+analysis&pg=5&id=EJ695613"><span>Empirical Analysis of Drill <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burns, M.K.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Providing students an appropriate level of challenge, called the instructional level, is an important component of effective instruction. Research regarding the optimal <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of known to unknown items for drill tasks has been inconsistent. The author of the current article conducted an empirical metaanalysis of research on drill <span class="hlt">ratios</span> by using…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/972613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/972613"><span>High Transformer <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in collinear wakefield accelerators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22463241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22463241"><span>Duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of cooperative molecular motors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span>), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5969438','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5969438"><span>Scavenging <span class="hlt">ratios</span> based on inflow air concentrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davis, W.E.; Dana, M.T.; Lee, R.N.; Slinn, W.G.N.; Thorp, J.M.</p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p>Scavenging <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were calculated from field measurements made during April 1985. Event precipitation samples were collected at the surface, but air chemistry measurements in the air mass feeding the precipitation were made from an aircraft. In contrast, <span class="hlt">ratios</span> calculated in previous studies have used air concentration and precipitation chemistry data from only surface measurements. Average scavenging <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were calculated for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, total sulfate, total nitrate, and total ammonium for 5 events; the geometric mean of these scavenging <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5}, 5.6 {times} 10{sup 6}, 4.3 {times} 10{sup 5}, 3.4 {times} 10{sup 5}, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6}, and 9.7 {times} 10{sup 4}, respectively. These means are similar to but less variable than previous <span class="hlt">ratios</span> formed using only surface data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000139"><span>Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of individual metal nanowires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Eoin K; Bellew, Allen T; Sader, John E; Boland, John J</p> <p>2014-07-07</p> <p>The measurement of Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of nanomaterials is extremely challenging. Here we report a lateral atomic force microscope experimental method to electromechanically measure the Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and gauge factor of individual nanowires. Under elastic loading conditions we monitor the four-point resistance of individual metallic nanowires as a function of strain and different levels of electrical stress. We determine the gauge factor of individual wires and directly measure the Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> using a model that is independently validated for macroscopic wires. For macroscopic wires and nickel nanowires we find Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratios</span> that closely correspond to bulk values, whereas for silver nanowires significant deviations from the bulk silver value are observed. Moreover, repeated measurements on individual silver nanowires at different levels of mechanical and electrical stress yield a small spread in Poisson <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, with a range of mean values for different wires, all of which are distinct from the bulk value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..85b1904D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..85b1904D"><span>Duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of cooperative molecular motors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span>), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990720','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990720"><span>Equity Theory <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> as Causal Schemas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity <span class="hlt">ratios</span> serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes. PMID:27594846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.4893S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.4893S"><span>Atmospheric helium isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span>: Possible temporal and spatial variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sano, Yuji; Furukawa, Yukiko; Takahata, Naoto</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The atmospheric 3He/ 4He <span class="hlt">ratio</span> has been considered to be constant on a global scale, because the residence time of helium is significantly longer than the mixing time in the atmosphere. However, this <span class="hlt">ratio</span> may be decreasing with time owing to the anthropogenic release of crustal helium from oil and natural gas wells, although this observation has been disputed. Here, we present the 3He/ 4He <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of old air trapped in historical slags in Japan and of modern surface air samples collected at various sites around the world, measured with a newly developed analytical <span class="hlt">system</span>. In air helium extracted from metallurgical slag found at refineries in operation between AD 1603 and 1907 in Japan, we determined a mean 3He/ 4He <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of (5106 ± 108) × 10 -5 R HESJ (where R HESJ is the 3He/ 4He <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the Helium Standard of Japan), which is consistent with the previously reported value of (5077 ± 59) × 10 -5 R HESJ for historical slags in France and United Arab Emirates and about 4% higher than that of average modern air, (4901 ± 4) × 10 -5 R HESJ. This result implies that the air 3He/ 4He <span class="hlt">ratio</span> has decreased with time as expected by anthropogenic causes. Our modern surface air samples revealed that the 3He/ 4He <span class="hlt">ratio</span> increases from north to south at a rate of (0.16 ± 0.08) × 10 -5 R HESJ/degree of latitude, suggesting that the low 3He/ 4He <span class="hlt">ratio</span> originates in high-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere, which is consistent with the fact that most fossil fuel is extracted and consumed in the northern hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099654"><span>Why <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence is (still) a bad model of predation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abrams, Peter A</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The history of the idea that predation rates are functions of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of prey density to predator density, known as <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence, is reviewed and updated. When the term was introduced in 1989, it was already known that higher predator abundance often reduced an individual predator's average intake rate of prey. However, the idea that this effect was a universally applicable inverse proportionality was new. That idea was widely criticized in many articles in the early 1990s, and many of these criticisms have never been addressed. Nevertheless, <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence seems to be gaining in popularity and is the subject of a recent monograph by the originators. This article revisits the most important objections to this theory, and assesses to what extent they have been answered by the theory's proponents. In this process, several new objections are raised. The counterarguments begin with the lack of a plausible, generally applicable mechanism that could produce <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence. They include the fact that <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence is a special case of predator-density effects, which, in turn, are only one of many non-prey species effects that influence the consumption rate of a particular prey. The proclaimed simplicity advantage of <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence is at best small and is outweighed by its disadvantages; it predicts biologically implausible phenomena, and cannot easily be extended to describe multi-species <span class="hlt">systems</span>, trait-mediated interactions, coevolution, and a number of other important ecological phenomena. Any potential small simplicity advantage disappears with corrections to remove unrealistic low-density dynamics caused by <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence. The frequent occurrence of strong predator dependence does not make <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependence a better 'default' model of predation than prey dependence, and empirical studies of the full range of non-prey species effects on the consumption rates of predators are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP011343','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP011343"><span>Measurement of Contrast <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> for 3D Display</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>stereoscopic, autostereoscopic , 3D , display ABSTRACT 3D image display devices have wide applications in medical and entertainment areas. Binocular (stereoscopic...and <span class="hlt">system</span> crosstalk. In many 3D display <span class="hlt">systems</span> viewer’ crosstalk is an important issue for good performance, especial in autostereoscopic display...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11343 TITLE: Measurement of Contrast <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> for 3D Display</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935239"><span>CALIPSO lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> retrieval over the ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Josset, Damien; Rogers, Raymond; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali; Zhai, Peng-Wang</p> <p>2011-09-12</p> <p>We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1128967','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1128967"><span>Sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in relation to fathers' occupations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dickinson, H O; Parker, L</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of children varies between fathers of different occupations. METHODS: The sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the number of boys to the number of girls at birth) was calculated in relation to paternal occupation in the cohort of all 253,433 live births in Cumbria, north west England, from 1950-89. Exact binomial confidence intervals were used to estimate whether the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in each occupational category was significantly different from that for the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: There were fewer occupational categories with significantly different sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> at the 5% level than expected by chance alone, assuming the same binomial distribution of sexes at birth within each paternal occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation of the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> with fathers' occupations was not found. There is some evidence that the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> shows less variance than expected under a binomial model which assumes independence of the sex of each child; a possible explanation of this may be parental preference for limiting family size after children of both sexes have been born or some other factor which results in children within a family being more likely to be of both sexes rather than the same sex. PMID:9470894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015693&hterms=ratio&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dratio','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015693&hterms=ratio&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dratio"><span>CALIPSO Lidar <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Retrieval Over the Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Josset, Damien B.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali H.; Zhai, Peng-Wang</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830003829','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830003829"><span>Hybrid LTA vehicle controllability as affected by buoyancy <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meyers, D. N.; Kubicki, P.; Tarczynski, T.; Fairbanks, A.; Piasecki, F. N.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The zero and low speed controllability of heavy lift airships under various wind conditions as affected by the buoyancy <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are investigated. A series of three hybrid LTA vehicls were examined, each having a dynamic thrust <span class="hlt">system</span> comprised of four H-34 helicopters, but with buoyant envelopes of different volumes (and hence buoyancies), and with varying percentage of helium inflation and varying useful loads (hence gross weights). Buoyancy <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, B, was thus examined varying from approximately 0.44 to 1.39. For values of B greater than 1.0, the dynamic thrusters must supply negative thrust (i.e. downward).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.120..778R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.120..778R"><span>Vibrational branching <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in photoionization of CO and N2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rathbone, G. J.; Rao, R. M.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Wang, Kwanghsi; McKoy, V.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We report results of experimental and theoretical studies of the vibrational branching <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for CO 4σ-1 photoionization from 20 to 185 eV. Comparison with results for the 2σu-1 channel of the isoelectronic N2 molecule shows the branching <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for these two <span class="hlt">systems</span> to be qualitatively different due to the underlying scattering dynamics: CO has a shape resonance at low energy but lacks a Cooper minimum at higher energies whereas the situation is reversed for N2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311854"><span>Testing the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of two poisson rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gu, Kangxia; Ng, Hon Keung Tony; Tang, Man Lai; Schucany, William R</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>In this paper we compare the properties of four different general approaches for testing the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of two Poisson rates. Asymptotically normal tests, tests based on approximate p -values, exact conditional tests, and a likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test are considered. The properties and power performance of these tests are studied by a Monte Carlo simulation experiment. Sample size calculation formulae are given for each of the test procedures and their validities are studied. Some recommendations favoring the likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and certain asymptotic tests are based on these simulation results. Finally, all of the test procedures are illustrated with two real life medical examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013261','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013261"><span>Experimental evaluation of blockage <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and plenum evacuation <span class="hlt">system</span> flow effects on pressure distribution for bodies of revolution in 0.1 scale model test section of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed altitude wind tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burley, Richard R.; Harrington, Douglas E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An experimental investigation was conducted in the slotted test section of the 0.1-scale model of the proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel to evaluate wall interference effects at tunnel Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.95 on bodies of revolution with blockage rates of 0.43, 3, 6, and 12 percent. The amount of flow that had to be removed from the plenum chamber (which surrounded the slotted test section) by the plenum evacuation <span class="hlt">system</span> (PES) to eliminate wall interference effects was determined. The effectiveness of tunnel reentry flaps in removing flow from the plenum chamber was examined. The 0.43-percent blockage model was the only one free of wall interference effects with no PES flow. Surface pressures on the forward part of the other models were greater than interference-free results and were not influenced by PES flow. Interference-free results were achieved on the aft part of the 3- and 6-percent blockage models with the proper amount of PES flow. The required PES flow was substantially reduced by opening the reentry flaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..337C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..337C"><span>Oxidative <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (OR) of UK peats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The oxidative <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion <span class="hlt">system</span>. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1237522','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1237522"><span>Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lindgren, Eric R.; Durbin, Samuel; Wilke, Jason; Margraf, J.; Dunn, T. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27378610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27378610"><span>Negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> in Modern Functional Materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Chuanwei; Chen, Lang</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Materials with negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> attract considerable attention due to their underlying intriguing physical properties and numerous promising applications, particularly in stringent environments such as aerospace and defense areas, because of their unconventional mechanical enhancements. Recent progress in materials with a negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are reviewed here, with the current state of research regarding both theory and experiment. The inter-relationship between the underlying structure and a negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is discussed in functional materials, including macroscopic bulk, low-dimensional nanoscale particles, films, sheets, or tubes. The coexistence and correlations with other negative indexes (such as negative compressibility and negative thermal expansion) are also addressed. Finally, open questions and future research opportunities are proposed for functional materials with negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bicycle&pg=7&id=EJ673753','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bicycle&pg=7&id=EJ673753"><span>Doing Mathematics with Bicycle Gear <span class="hlt">Ratios</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stump, Sheryl L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Describes an activity in which students examine bicycle chain-rings, cogs, and gear <span class="hlt">ratios</span> as a means of exploring algebraic relationships, data collection, scatter plots, and lines of best fit. (KHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpA.134..621P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpA.134..621P"><span>The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of SiO2/Al2O3. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O <span class="hlt">system</span> were examined. The only variable is the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO2/Al2O3 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950030751&hterms=Charon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCharon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950030751&hterms=Charon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCharon"><span>The Charon-Pluto mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> from MKO astrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Young, L. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Elliot, J. L.; Tholen, D. J.; Buie, M. W.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Using the University of Hawaii (UH) 2.2-m telescope, we obtained charge coupled device (CCD) images of Pluto as it passed through a single field of 10 stars during 6 nights of Charon's 6.4-day orbital period. From these data, Charon's orbital semimajor axis is found to be 19,460 +/- 58 km, which is consistent with the recent measurement by Null et al. (1993), of 19,405 +/- 86 km. Our semimajor axis implies a <span class="hlt">system</span> mass of (14.32 +/- 0.13) x 10(exp 24) g. From the motions of Pluto and Charon around their barycenter, we find that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of Charon's mass to Pluto's is 0.1566 +/- 0.0035, indicating that the bodies both have densities near 2 g/cc. Our <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is nearly twice that of Null et al., who find a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 0.0837 +/- 0.0147. Possible reasons for the large discrepancy are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898343"><span>Determination of Bromine Stable Isotope <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> from Saline Solutions by "Wet Plasma" MC-ICPMS Including a Comparison between High- and Low-Resolution Modes, and Three Introduction <span class="hlt">Systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Louvat, Pascale; Bonifacie, Magali; Giunta, Thomas; Michel, Agnès; Coleman, Max</p> <p>2016-04-05</p> <p>We describe a novel method for measuring stable bromine isotope compositions in saline solutions such as seawater, brines, and formation waters. Bromine is extracted from the samples by ion exchange chromatography on anion exchange resin AG 1-X4 with NH4NO3 and measured by MC-ICP-MS in wet plasma conditions. Sample introduction through a small spray chamber provided good sensitivity and stability of the Br signal compared to direct injection (d-DIHEN) and desolvation (APEX). NH4NO3 media allowed fast (<3 min) washing of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. Despite Ar2H(+) spectral interference on (81)Br(+), for the first time low-resolution mode (with appropriate tuning of Ar2H(+)/(81)Br(+) sensitivity) gave higher precision (81)Br/(79)Br measurements than high-resolution (HR), due to the narrowness of the (81)Br(+) plateau in HR mode and to slight mass drifting with time. Additionally, 1 μg Br is the lower amount needed for a triplicate determination of δ(81)Br by MC-ICP-MS, with reproducibility often < ± 0.1‰ (2 SD). Four HBr solutions were prepared by evaporation/condensation in order to obtain in-house reference solutions with 3‰ variations in δ(81)Br and to assess the reproducibility and accuracy of the method. Long-term (>3 years) reproducibility between ± 0.11 and ± 0.27‰ (2 SD) was obtained for the four HBr solutions, the international standard reference material NIST SRM 977 (δ(81)BrSMOB = -0.65 ± 1.1‰, 1 SD), and seawaters (synthetic and natural). The accuracy of the MC-ICP-MS method was validated by comparing the δ(81)Br obtained for these solutions with dual-inlet IRMS measurements on CH3Br gas. Finally, the method was successfully applied to 22 natural samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/171192','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/171192"><span>Three-dimensional stereo by photometric <span class="hlt">ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of <span class="hlt">ratio</span> images can be produced, one for the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of left-hand images and one for the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric <span class="hlt">ratios</span> composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric <span class="hlt">ratio</span> with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric <span class="hlt">ratios</span> along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008413','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008413"><span>Approaches to high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> triangulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Posenau, M.-A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In aerospace computational fluid dynamics calculations, high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, or stretched, triangulations are necessary to adequately resolve the features of a viscous flow around bodies. In this paper, we explore alternatives to the Delaunay triangulation which can be used to generate high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> triangulations of point sets. The method is based on a variation of the lifting map concept which derives Delaunay triangulations from convex hull calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044154','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044154"><span>Plutonium isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> variations in North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steiner, Robert E; La Mont, Stephen P; Eisele, William F; Fresquez, Philip R; Mc Naughton, Michael; Whicker, Jeffrey J</p> <p>2010-12-14</p> <p>Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom <span class="hlt">ratios</span> measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356805','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356805"><span>The HNC/HCN <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in star-forming regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graninger, Dawn M.; Öberg, Karin I.; Herbst, Eric; Vasyunin, Anton I.</p> <p>2014-05-20</p> <p>HNC and HCN, typically used as dense gas tracers in molecular clouds, are a pair of isomers that have great potential as a temperature probe because of temperature dependent, isomer-specific formation and destruction pathways. Previous observations of the HNC/HCN abundance <span class="hlt">ratio</span> show that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> decreases with increasing temperature, something that standard astrochemical models cannot reproduce. We have undertaken a detailed parameter study on which environmental characteristics and chemical reactions affect the HNC/HCN <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and can thus contribute to the observed dependence. Using existing gas and gas-grain models updated with new reactions and reaction barriers, we find that in static models the H + HNC gas-phase reaction regulates the HNC/HCN <span class="hlt">ratio</span> under all conditions, except for very early times. We quantitatively constrain the combinations of H abundance and H + HNC reaction barrier that can explain the observed HNC/HCN temperature dependence and discuss the implications in light of new quantum chemical calculations. In warm-up models, gas-grain chemistry contributes significantly to the predicted HNC/HCN <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and understanding the dynamics of star formation is therefore key to model the HNC/HCN <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..134...61K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..134...61K"><span>Isotopic <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of nitrogen on Titan: Photochemical interpretation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Nitrogen isotope fractionation in predissociation of N2 (Liang et al., 2007) is combined with production of N(4S), N(2D), and N+ in dissociation and dissociative ionization by the solar EUV photons, photoelectrons, magnetospheric electrons and protons, and cosmic rays from the photochemical model. The calculated 14N/15N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in nitriles is 57, in excellent agreement with the observed <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in HCN. Loss of nitrogen in condensation and polymerization of nitriles is 392 g cm-2 Byr-1 with nitrogen isotope fractionation factor of 2.8. Loss of nitrogen by sputtering is 57 g cm-2 Byr-1 (De La Haye et al., 2007) with fractionation factor of 0.73 (Mandt et al., 2014). If the current loss was constant throughout the age of the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>, then the initial 14N/15N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on Titan is 129, similar to 127±32 for ammonia in comets (Rousselot et al., 2014). However, the solar EUV and wind were stronger from the young Sun, and this tends to further reduce the initial 14N/15N <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Nevertheless uncertainties of the problem and of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in comets support the idea that nitrogen on Titan appeared as ammonia ice with 14N/15N similar to that in comets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30..311T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30..311T"><span>Microzooplankton regulation of surface ocean POC:PON <span class="hlt">ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Talmy, D.; Martiny, A. C.; Hill, C.; Hickman, A. E.; Follows, M. J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The elemental composition of particulate organic matter in the surface ocean significantly affects the efficiency of the ocean's store of carbon. Though the elemental composition of primary producers is an important factor, recent observations from the western North Atlantic Ocean revealed that carbon-to-nitrogen <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (C:N) of phytoplankton were significantly higher than the relatively homeostatic <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the total particulate pool (particulate organic carbon:particulate organic nitrogen; POC:PON). Here we use an idealized ecosystem model to show how interactions between primary and secondary producers maintain the mean composition of surface particulates and the difference between primary producers and bulk material. Idealized physiological models of phytoplankton and microzooplankton, constrained by laboratory data, reveal contrasting autotrophic and heterotrophic responses to nitrogen limitation: under nitrogen limitation, phytoplankton accumulate carbon in carbohydrates and lipids while microzooplankton deplete internal C reserves to fuel respiration. Global ecosystem simulations yield hypothetical global distributions of phytoplankton and microzooplankton C:N <span class="hlt">ratio</span> predicting elevated phytoplankton C:N <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in the high-light, low-nutrient regions of the ocean despite a lower, homeostatic POC:PON <span class="hlt">ratio</span> due to respiration of excess carbon in <span class="hlt">systems</span> subject to top-down control. The model qualitatively captures and provides a simple interpretation for, a global compilation of surface ocean POC:PON data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381178','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381178"><span>Aided Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Serum Fucosylated Haptoglobin <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shang, Shuxin; Li, Wei; Qin, Xue; Zhang, Shu; Liu, Yinkun</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Aberrant fucosylation plays a functional role in regulating ontogeny and celluar differentiation and are differentially regulated in cancerous condition, which could provide hallmarks for cancer diagnostics and surveillance. We previously developed a magnetic beads-based lectin ELISA <span class="hlt">system</span> to measure fucosylated haptoglobin (Hp), which has been reported to be a cancer biomarker through a series of glycoproteomic analysis. In this study, serum fucosylated Hp <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were measured using our ELISA kit in a separate cohort of 260 patients independently, including 130 healthy controls and 130 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fucosylated Hp /Hp <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (levels of fucosylated Hp /levels of protein Hp) and ELISA Index (OD value of fucosylated Hp /OD value of protein Hp) were calculated respectively to reflect Hp fucosylation level on its protein level. Our data showed that fucosylated Hp /Hp <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (AUC=0.8449) and ELISA Index (AUC=0.8581) had better performance in distinguishing HCC from controls, which indicated that fucosylated Hp <span class="hlt">ratios</span> could improve the diagnosis and prediction of HCC even with a low level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Additionally, the combination analysis of AFP and fucosylated Hp <span class="hlt">ratios</span> increased the AUC value for HCC diagnosis. PMID:28382152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4902709','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4902709"><span>Sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> at birth after induced abortion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Urquia, Marcelo L.; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O’Campo, Patricia J.; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H.; Henry, David A.; Ray, Joel G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Skewed male:female <span class="hlt">ratios</span> at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. Methods: We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant <span class="hlt">ratios</span> with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Results: Male:female infant <span class="hlt">ratios</span> did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75–2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant <span class="hlt">ratio</span> after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26–2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44–3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02–7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in subsequent births. Interpretation: High male:female <span class="hlt">ratios</span> observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27067818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983AnGeo...1..129F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983AnGeo...1..129F"><span>D/H <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in meteorites - Some results and implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fallick, A. E.; Hinton, R. W.; McNaughton, N. J.; Pillinger, C. T.</p> <p>1983-04-01</p> <p>The D/H <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in carbonaceous chondrites and in highly unequilibrated ordinary chondrites is investigated. The phenomenon of D enrichment in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> is discussed, and the results of D/H-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> studies using different methods are reviewed extensively. The question of the localization of highly D-enriched phases is considered. D/H <span class="hlt">ratios</span> determined in bulk samples and in HF acid residues after stepwise pyrolysis/oxidation at 200-1000 C are reported for the CM2 meteorite Murchison and the Antarctic meteorite ALHA 77214; bulk-sample stepwise-pyrolysis data are given for the LL3 meteorite Krymka. No relative D enrichment of acid-insoluble phases was detected, and no D-enriched phases were found in the Krymka sample. It is inferred that the lack of isotopic homogenization in H-bearing species D-enriched by ion-molecule reactions in cold interstellar clouds is evidence against extensive thermal processing and hence in favor of a cold-accretion rather than a hot-nebula-condensation model of solar-<span class="hlt">system</span> formation. Further implications of H/D <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for cosmogony are suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364055"><span>TOWARD A UNIQUE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC <span class="hlt">RATIO</span> IN COMETARY ICES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rousselot, Philippe; Cordier, Daniel; Mousis, Olivier; Pirali, Olivier; Vervloet, Michel; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Gruet, Sébastien; Jehin, Emmanuël; Hutsemékers, Damien; Manfroid, Jean; Arpigny, Claude; Decock, Alice</p> <p>2014-01-10</p> <p>Determination of the nitrogen isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in different bodies of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> provides important information regarding the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>'s origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in comets due to the {sup 15}NH{sub 2} radical produced by the photodissociation of {sup 15}NH{sub 3}. Analysis of our data has permitted us to measure the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N isotopic <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in comets for a molecule carrying the amine (-NH) functional group. This <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, within the error, appears similar to that measured in comets in the HCN molecule and the CN radical, and lower than the protosolar value, suggesting that N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} result from the separation of nitrogen into two distinct reservoirs in the solar nebula. This <span class="hlt">ratio</span> also appears similar to that measured in Titan's atmospheric N{sub 2}, supporting the hypothesis that, if the latter is representative of its primordial value in NH{sub 3}, these bodies were assembled from building blocks sharing a common formation location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94s5129Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94s5129Y"><span>Dimensionless <span class="hlt">ratios</span>: Characteristics of quantum liquids and their phase transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Yi-Cong; Chen, Yang-Yang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Römer, Rudolf A.; Guan, Xi-Wen</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Dimensionless <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of physical properties can characterize low-temperature phases in a wide variety of materials. As such, the Wilson <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (WR), the Kadowaki-Woods <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and the Wiedemann-Franz law capture essential features of Fermi liquids in metals, heavy fermions, etc. Here we prove that the phases of many-body interacting multicomponent quantum liquids in one dimension (1D) can be described by WRs based on the compressibility, susceptibility, and specific heat associated with each component. These WRs arise due to additivity rules within subsystems reminiscent of the rules for multiresistor networks in series and parallel—a novel and useful characteristic of multicomponent Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids (TLL) independent of microscopic details of the <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Using experimentally realized multispecies cold atomic gases as examples, we prove that the Wilson <span class="hlt">ratios</span> uniquely identify phases of TLL, while providing universal scaling relations at the boundaries between phases. Their values within a phase are solely determined by the stiffnesses and sound velocities of subsystems and identify the internal degrees of freedom of said phase such as its spin degeneracy. This finding can be directly applied to a wide range of 1D many-body <span class="hlt">systems</span> and reveals deep physical insights into recent experimental measurements of the universal thermodynamics in ultracold atoms and spins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572878','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572878"><span>Prosimian Primates Show <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Dependence in Spontaneous Quantity Discriminations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Sarah M.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number <span class="hlt">system</span> (ANS) and the object file <span class="hlt">system</span> in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of non-human animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object file <span class="hlt">system</span> is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object file <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We found that prosimian primates consistently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> regardless of whether both values were small (≤3), both values were large (>3), or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of non-human primates. PMID:23420691</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S11B2349W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S11B2349W"><span>Examining Earthquake Scaling Via Event <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walter, W. R.; Yoo, S.; Mayeda, K. M.; Gok, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A challenge with using corner frequency to interpret stress parameter scaling is that stress drop and apparent stress are related to the cube of the corner frequency. In practice this leads to high levels of uncertainty in measured stress from since the uncertainty in measuring the corner frequency is cubed to determine uncertainty in the stress parameters. We develop a new approach using the low and high frequency levels of spectral <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between two closely located events recorded at the same stations. This approach has a number of advantages over more traditional corner frequency fitting, either in spectral <span class="hlt">ratios</span> or individual spectra. First, if the bandwidth of the spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is sufficient, the levels can be measured at many individual frequency points and averaged, reducing the measurement error. Second the apparent stress (and stress drop) are related to the high frequency level to the 3/2 power so the measurement uncertainty is not as amplified as when using the corner frequency. Finally, if the bandwidth is sufficiently broad to determine both the spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> low and high frequency levels, the apparent stress (or stress drop) <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be determined without the need to use any other measurements (e.g., moment, fault area), which of course have their own measurement uncertainties. We will show a number examples taken from a wide variety of crustal earthquake sequences. Example of the sigmoid formed by a spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between two hypothetical events for two different cases of stress scaling using the models described in this paper. Event 1 is Mw 6.0 event and event 2 is an Mw 4.0 event. In the self-similar case both have an apparent stress of 3 MPa, in the non-self-similar case the large event apparent stress is 3 MPA and the smaller one is 1 MPa. Note that <span class="hlt">ratio</span> reaches different constant levels. The low frequency level (LVL) is the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the moments and high frequency level (HFL) depends on the stress parameters. In this paper we derive the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7902E..0EI','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7902E..0EI"><span>Autofluorescence <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging of human colonic adenomas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Imaizumi, Katsuichi; Harada, Yoshinori; Wakabayashi, Naoki; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Dai, Ping; Tanaka, Hideo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Recently autofluorescence imaging (AFI) endoscopy, visualizing tissue fluorescence in combination with reflected light, has been adopted as a technique for detecting neoplasms in the colon and other organs. However, autofluorescence colonoscopy is not infallible, and improvement of the detection method can be expected to enhance the performance. Colonic mucosa contains metabolism-related fluorophores, such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which may be useful for visualizing neoplasia in autofluorescence endoscopy. We examined sliced cross-sections of endoscopically resected tubular adenomas under a microscope. Fluorescence images acquired at 365-nm excitation (F365ex) and 405-nm excitation (F405ex), and reflectance images acquired at 550 nm (R550) were obtained. Fluorescence <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (F365ex/F405ex) images and reflectance/fluorescence <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (R550/F405ex) images were calculated from the acquired images. The fluorescence <span class="hlt">ratio</span> images could distinguish adenomatous mucosa from normal mucosa more clearly than the reflectance/fluorescence <span class="hlt">ratio</span> images. The results showed that the autofluorescence <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging is a potential technique for increasing the diagnostic power of autofluorescence endoscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6821649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6821649"><span>Globin chain synthesis <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in sideroblastic anaemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peters, R E; May, A; Jacobs, A</p> <p>1983-02-01</p> <p>Globin synthesis <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were measured on reticulocytes from nine patients with primary acquired sideroblastic anaemia (SA), four patients with hereditary or congenital SA, two patients with secondary acquired SA and three patients with iron deficiency (ID). Ten of the samples from patients with SA and all the samples from patients with ID had normal <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. Samples from three patients had significantly abnormal <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, one from a patient with SA and acquired Hb H disease (alpha/beta 0 X 26), one from a patient with secondary acquired SA (alpha/beta 0 X 88), and one from a patient who went on to develop acute myeloblastic leukaemia (alpha/beta 1 X 36). Globin synthesis was stimulated by 100 microM haem similarly in normal, SA and ID reticulocytes. Any limitation of globin synthesis in SA and ID is therefore not easily reversible by adding haem. Inhibition of haem synthesis in nonsideroblastic reticulocytes using 4 mM isonicotinic acid hydrazide for 1 h incubation affected neither total globin synthesis nor the alpha/beta <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. These results contradict the view that decreased haem synthesis decreases globin chain synthesis and decreases the alpha/beta globin chain synthesis <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in human reticulocytes. Previously reported findings that haem could reverse globin chain synthesis inhibition in SA were good evidence for a primary deficiency of haem synthesis in the erythroblasts of these patients. Our inability to substantiate these findings emphasizes the need for a re-evaluation of the aetiology of sideroblastic anaemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412499V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412499V"><span>Circular-polarization <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for aggregates of spherical particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Virkki, A.; Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>A basic strategy for observing a small solar-<span class="hlt">system</span> object using radar is to measure the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency for a circularly polarized transmitted wave, in the same and opposite senses of circular polarization. The measurement can be repeated for differing orientations and plane-of-sky directions of the object. The circular-polarization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> μ is the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the echo power in the same circular-polarization state (SC) to that in the opposite circular-polarization state (OC). The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> μ is often the most important physical observable with the radar technique, as it provides the best indications for wavelength-scale complexity of the surface. At the typical transmitter frequencies of 2380 MHz or 8495 MHz, the wavelengths are 12.6 cm or 3.5 cm, respectively. We model electromagnetic scattering from closely-packed random aggregates of spheres imitating the structure of an asteroid's regolith. Both scattering and absorption of the electromagnetic wave are treated. The Multiple-Sphere T -Matrix Method computer software (MSTM; D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, JQSRT 112, 1282, 2011) is utilized to study how different parameters affect the circular-polarization <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, e.g., the size distribution and electric permittivities of the spherical particles forming the different aggregates. Our primary goal is to see if the computed circular-polarization <span class="hlt">ratios</span> can be linked to the observational data of asteroids detected with radar. The results of the simulations show striking structure for the circular-polarization <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as a function of the size parameter and the electric permittivity of the medium. Also differences between aggregates of monodisperse and polydisperse spheres clearly exist: the aggregates consisting of polydisperse spherical particles, and hence, showing more complex structure and surface, result in circular-polarization <span class="hlt">ratios</span> higher than the aggregates of monodisperse spherical particles, probably due to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/341261','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/341261"><span>Retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for privatization waste feed delivery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peters, B.B.</p> <p>1998-03-04</p> <p>The purpose for this document is to provide the basis for the retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component <span class="hlt">ratios</span> specified in the <span class="hlt">System</span> Specification for the Double-Shell Tank <span class="hlt">System</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10050906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10050906"><span>Isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> determination in boron analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sah, R N; Brown, P H</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Traditionally, boron (B) isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> have been determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and, to some extent, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Both TIMS and SIMS use a high-resolution mass analyzer, but differ in analyte ionization methods. TIMS uses electrons from a hot filament, whereas SIMS employs an energetic primary ion beam of Ga+, Cs+, or O- for analyte ionization. TIMS can be used in negative or positive ion modes with high sensitivity and precision of B isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> determination. However, isobaric interferences may be a problem, if the sample is not well purified and/or memory of the previous sample is not removed. Time-consuming sample preparation, analyte (B) purification, and sample determination processes limit the applications of TIMS for routine analyses. SIMS can determine B and its isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in intact solid samples without destroying them, but has poorer resolution and sensitivity than TIMS, and is difficult to standardize for biological samples. Development of plasma-source mass spectrometry (MS) enabled the determination of B concentration and isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> without requiring sample purification. Commonly used plasma-source MS uses an Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) as an ionization device interfaced to a low-resolution quadrupole mass analyzer. The quadrupole ICP-MS is less precise than TIMS and SIMS, but is a popular method for B isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> determination because of its speed and convenience. B determination by ICP-MS suffers no spectroscopic interferences. However, sample matrices, memory effects, and some instrument parameters may affect the accuracy and precision of B isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> determination if adequate precautions are not taken. New generations of plasma-source MS instruments using high-resolution mass analyzers provide better sensitivity and precision than the currently used quadrupole ICP-MS. Because of the convenience and high sample throughput, the high-resolution ICP-MS is expected to be the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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