Science.gov

Sample records for ratios log ft

  1. Transfer Entropy as a Log-Likelihood Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Lionel; Bossomaier, Terry

    2012-09-01

    Transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between joint processes, has steadily gained popularity in the analysis of complex stochastic dynamics in diverse fields, including the neurosciences, ecology, climatology, and econometrics. We show that for a broad class of predictive models, the log-likelihood ratio test statistic for the null hypothesis of zero transfer entropy is a consistent estimator for the transfer entropy itself. For finite Markov chains, furthermore, no explicit model is required. In the general case, an asymptotic χ2 distribution is established for the transfer entropy estimator. The result generalizes the equivalence in the Gaussian case of transfer entropy and Granger causality, a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression, and establishes a fundamental connection between directed information transfer and causality in the Wiener-Granger sense.

  2. Transfer entropy as a log-likelihood ratio.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lionel; Bossomaier, Terry

    2012-09-28

    Transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between joint processes, has steadily gained popularity in the analysis of complex stochastic dynamics in diverse fields, including the neurosciences, ecology, climatology, and econometrics. We show that for a broad class of predictive models, the log-likelihood ratio test statistic for the null hypothesis of zero transfer entropy is a consistent estimator for the transfer entropy itself. For finite Markov chains, furthermore, no explicit model is required. In the general case, an asymptotic χ2 distribution is established for the transfer entropy estimator. The result generalizes the equivalence in the Gaussian case of transfer entropy and Granger causality, a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression, and establishes a fundamental connection between directed information transfer and causality in the Wiener-Granger sense.

  3. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  4. Is Log Ratio a Good Value for Measuring Return in Stock Investments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ultsch, Alfred

    Measuring the rate of return is an important issue for theory and practice of investments in the stock market. A common measure for rate of return is the logarithm of the ratio of successive prices (LogRatio). In this paper it is shown that LogRatio as well as arithmetic return rate (Ratio) have several disadvantages. As an alternative relative differences (RelDiff) are proposed to measure return. The stability against numerical and rounding errors of RelDiff is much better than for LogRatios and Ratio). RelDiff values are identical to LogRatios and Return for small absolutes. The usage of RelDiff maps returns to a finite range. For most subsequent analyses this is a big advantage. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on daily return rates of a large set of actual stocks. It is shown that returns can be modeled with a very simple mixture of distributions in great precision using Relative differences.

  5. Logging Affects Fledgling Sex Ratios and Baseline Corticosterone in a Forest Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Leshyk, Rhiannon; Nol, Erica; Burke, Dawn M.; Burness, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Silviculture (logging) creates a disturbance to forested environments. The degree to which forests are modified depends on the logging prescription and forest stand characteristics. In this study we compared the effects of two methods of group-selection (“moderate” and “heavy”) silviculture (GSS) and undisturbed reference stands on stress and offspring sex ratios of a forest interior species, the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada. Blood samples were taken from nestlings for corticosterone and molecular sexing. We found that logging creates a disturbance that is stressful for nestling Ovenbirds, as illustrated by elevated baseline corticosterone in cut sites. Ovenbirds nesting in undisturbed reference forest produce fewer male offspring per brood (proportion male = 30%) while logging with progressively greater forest disturbance, shifted the offspring sex ratio towards males (proportion male: moderate = 50%, heavy = 70%). If Ovenbirds in undisturbed forests usually produce female-biased broods, then the production of males as a result of logging may disrupt population viability. We recommend a broad examination of nestling sex ratios in response to anthropogenic disturbance to determine the generality of our findings. PMID:22432000

  6. FT3/FT4 ratio predicts non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of metabolic parameters in patients with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gökmen, Fatma Yahyaoğlu; Ahbab, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Hayriye Esra; Türker, Betül Çavuşoğlu; Çetin, Faik; Türker, Fatih; Mamaç, Rabia Yahyaoğlu; Yenigün, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of metabolic parameters and thyroid dysfunction on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The current study evaluated a total of 115 patients, 75 female and 40 male. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were applied to all participants. Hypothyroidism was considered at a thyroid stimulating hormone level ≥ 4.1 mIU/L. Patients with euthyroidism and patients with hypothyroidism were compared. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The participants were further compared with regard to the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Logistic regression modeling was performed to identify the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and independent variables, such as metabolic parameters and insulin resistance. RESULTS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was identified in 69 patients. The mean waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and FT3/FT4 ratio (p=0.01) values were significantly higher in the patients with NAFLD compared to those without it. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that FT3/FT4 ratio, waist circumference and insulin resistance were independent risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance, enlarged waist circumference, elevated body mass index, higher FT3/FT4 ratio and hypertriglyceridemia are independent risk factors for NADLF, whereas hypothyroidism is not directly related to the condition. PMID:27166773

  7. Practical approach to estimate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using Passey's algorithm without sonic log in horizontal well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas evaluation process can be summarized as the selection of sweep spot intervals in the vertical borehole and determination of hydraulic fracturing zones in horizontal borehole. Brittleness index used in the selection of hydraulic fracturing interval is calculated from dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of wireline logging and MWD/LWD data. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated from the sonic and density log data, and therefore the MWD/LWD in the horizontal borehole should be included sonic log to estimate the dynamic elastic constants. This paper proposes a practical method to estimate the elastic moduli based on Passey's algorithm if we can't use the LWD sonic log in the horizontal borehole. To estimate the TOC (Total Organic Content) using the sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log using Passey's algorithm we use the relationship between Delta log R values and core derived-LOM (Level of Maturity) data. Dynamic elastic constants in the horizontal well, i.e. in case of sweet spot zones, can be estimated using the relationships between P-wave velocity and elastic constants in the vertical well, and similarity between the calculated Delta log R values from sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log, respectively. From two Passey's algorithms such as sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log relationships in the vertical well, we can derive the P-wave velocity equating the two Passey's algorithms based on the similarity. Then we can derive the dynamic elastic constants using the relationships between P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic constants. Finally we can estimate the brittleness index from the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We expect that this practical method can be effectively applied if we can't use the LWD sonic logging data of the horizontal borehole.

  8. The ratio method of estimating water resistivity and TDS from resistivity logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    It is a general belief that useful estimates of total dissolved solids concentrations of ground water cannot be made from borehole geophysical logs. A case study of estimating total dissolved solids concentration of ground water in the local area using the ratio method yielded estimates with an average error of less than 25 percent. The results do not support the hypothesis that useful estimates of total dissolved solids concentration cannot be made from borehole geophysical logs. The case study included a comparison of estimates of total dissolved solids concentration utilizing a resistivity of the mud input versus using resistivity of the mud filtrate input. Estimates made using resistivity of mud had a correlation coefficient of 0.97 whereas estimates using resistivity of mud filtrate had a correlation coefficient of only 0.27. The results from the case study suggest that at least in some cases the resistivity of the mud (Rm) produce a better estimate of the resistivity of water (Rw) in the fully flushed zone than an estimate using the resistivity of the mud filtrate Rmf. The ratio method can be easily used to estimate ground-water resistivity and total dissolved solids concentration of the formation water based only on data from resistivity logs. The advantage of the method is that data on porosity, cementation exponent, temperature, and volume of clay are not required. The method, which has been used by the oil industry to crudely estimate water resistivity, is based in part on the ratio of the resistivity of a fully water-saturated formation to the resistivity of the fully flushed zone adjacent to the annulus in a mud-filled borehole. The method, which is very robust, requires only an estimate of the resistivity of a fully water-saturated formation from a deep looking induction or resistivity log, an estimate of the resistivity of the fully flushed zone from a microresistivity or short normal log, and a measurement of resistivity of the mud or mud filtrate

  9. MICCLLR: Multiple-Instance Learning Using Class Conditional Log Likelihood Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Manzalawy, Yasser; Honavar, Vasant

    Multiple-instance learning (MIL) is a generalization of the supervised learning problem where each training observation is a labeled bag of unlabeled instances. Several supervised learning algorithms have been successfully adapted for the multiple-instance learning settings. We explore the adaptation of the Naive Bayes (NB) classifier and the utilization of its sufficient statistics for developing novel multiple-instance learning methods. Specifically, we introduce MICCLLR (multiple-instance class conditional log likelihood ratio), a method for mapping each bag of instances as a single meta-instance using class conditional log likelihood ratio statistics such that any supervised base classifier can be applied to the meta-data. The results of our experiments with MICCLLR using different base classifiers suggest that no single base classifier consistently outperforms other base classifiers on all data sets. We show that a substantial improvement in performance is obtained using an ensemble of MICCLLR classifiers trained using different base learners. We also show that an extra gain in classification accuracy is obtained by applying AdaBoost.M1 to weak MICCLLR classifiers. Overall, our results suggest that the predictive performance of the three proposed variants of MICCLLR are competitive to some of the state-of-the-art MIL methods.

  10. A Planar Approximation for the Least Reliable Bit Log-likelihood Ratio of 8-PSK Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesling, William H.; Vanderaar, Mark J.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum decoding of component codes in block coded modulation (BCM) schemes requires the use of the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) as the signal metric. An approximation to the LLR for the least reliable bit (LRB) in an 8-PSK modulation based on planar equations with fixed point arithmetic is developed that is both accurate and easily realizable for practical BCM schemes. Through an error power analysis and an example simulation it is shown that the approximation results in 0.06 dB in degradation over the exact expression at an E(sub s)/N(sub o) of 10 dB. It is also shown that the approximation can be realized in combinatorial logic using roughly 7300 transistors. This compares favorably to a look up table approach in typical systems.

  11. Acoustic attenuation logging using centroid frequency shift and amplitude ratio methods: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Y.; Harris, J.M.; Chen, X.

    1994-12-31

    The centroid frequency shift method is proposed to estimate seismic attenuation from full waveform acoustic logs. This approach along with the amplitude ratio method is applied to investigate the attenuation properties of the P head wave in fluid-filled boreholes. The generalized reflection and transmission coefficients method is used to perform forward modeling. The authors suggest an empirical formula to describe the frequency-dependent geometrical spreading of the P-wave in a borehole. They simulate a more realistic borehole by including a mudcake and an invaded zone which are modeled by a large number of radially symmetric thin layers. The numerical tests show that this invaded zone exhibits very strong influence on the attenuation measurement.

  12. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  13. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework. PMID:25126485

  14. Reducing Monte Carlo error in the Bayesian estimation of risk ratios using log-binomial regression models.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Diego; Cano, Juan A; Chirlaque, María D

    2015-08-30

    In cohort studies, binary outcomes are very often analyzed by logistic regression. However, it is well known that when the goal is to estimate a risk ratio, the logistic regression is inappropriate if the outcome is common. In these cases, a log-binomial regression model is preferable. On the other hand, the estimation of the regression coefficients of the log-binomial model is difficult owing to the constraints that must be imposed on these coefficients. Bayesian methods allow a straightforward approach for log-binomial regression models and produce smaller mean squared errors in the estimation of risk ratios than the frequentist methods, and the posterior inferences can be obtained using the software WinBUGS. However, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in WinBUGS can lead to large Monte Carlo errors in the approximations to the posterior inferences because they produce correlated simulations, and the accuracy of the approximations are inversely related to this correlation. To reduce correlation and to improve accuracy, we propose a reparameterization based on a Poisson model and a sampling algorithm coded in R.

  15. Reducing Monte Carlo error in the Bayesian estimation of risk ratios using log-binomial regression models.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Diego; Cano, Juan A; Chirlaque, María D

    2015-08-30

    In cohort studies, binary outcomes are very often analyzed by logistic regression. However, it is well known that when the goal is to estimate a risk ratio, the logistic regression is inappropriate if the outcome is common. In these cases, a log-binomial regression model is preferable. On the other hand, the estimation of the regression coefficients of the log-binomial model is difficult owing to the constraints that must be imposed on these coefficients. Bayesian methods allow a straightforward approach for log-binomial regression models and produce smaller mean squared errors in the estimation of risk ratios than the frequentist methods, and the posterior inferences can be obtained using the software WinBUGS. However, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in WinBUGS can lead to large Monte Carlo errors in the approximations to the posterior inferences because they produce correlated simulations, and the accuracy of the approximations are inversely related to this correlation. To reduce correlation and to improve accuracy, we propose a reparameterization based on a Poisson model and a sampling algorithm coded in R. PMID:25944082

  16. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  17. The atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio [log(TG)/HDL-C] is associated with residual vascular risk, beta-cell function loss and microangiopathy in type 2 diabetes females

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD), defined as low HDL-C plus elevated triglycerides (TG), comorbid to T2DM, increases cardiometabolic risk for CAD even when LDL-C is at target. In T2DM males, AD was shown to correlate with β-cell function loss, yet it is not established whether this applies across gender. Aim To establish the prevalence and severity of AD in T2DM females, and to determine how it relates to cardiometabolic phenotype, glucose homeostasis, micro- and macrovascular complications, and 10-year absolute CV risk (UKPDS Risk Engine). Methods 340 T2DM females were ranked according to quintiles (Q) of the continuous variable log(TG)/HDL-C, with AD prevalence defined as HDL-C <50 mg.dL-1 plus TG ≥150 mg.dL-1, and β-cell function assessed with HOMA. Results AD prevalence was 35%; mean HDL-C and TG were 52 (15) and 160 (105) mg.dL-1. AD was significantly related to central fat, metabolic syndrome, sedentarity and skeletal sarcopenia, as well as to hsCRP, fibrinogen, uric acid, cystatin-C, Big ET-1, and 10-year UKPDS CV risk. AD correlated stepwise with lower β-cell function and hyperbolic product, and with accelerated loss of residual insulin secretion, higher HbA1c and prevalent microangiopathy. Conclusions log(TG)/HDL-C is a simple means to grade AD and residual macrovascular risk in T2DM females. This ratio associates with major non-LDL cardiometabolic variables and ranks predicted CAD risk. In addition, log(TG)/HDL-C identifies worsening glucose homeostasis, poorer glycemic control, and prevalent microangiopathy. PMID:23046637

  18. Carbon isotope ratios in logged and unlogged boreal forests: Examination of the potential for determining wildlife habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Robert

    1996-03-01

    Due to assimilation of recycled CO2 from litter decomposition and photosynthetic changes in carbon fractionation at low light levels, the foliage at the base of a forest is often more depleted in13C compared to that exposed to the atmosphere in either the canopy or in open clearings. This is referred to as the canopy effect. African research has indicated that these habitat differences in foliar δ13C can be substantial enough to affect the carbon isotope ratios of resident fauna. Previous work documenting a 30-year chronology on moose teeth from Isle Royale National Park indicated a progressive depletion in13C and suggested that this could be due to forest regrowth following extensive burning. The present study examined the assumption implicit in this hypothesis that foliar δ13C varies between open and closed boreal forest sites. I found a marginal canopy effect of 2‰ δ13C difference between upper canopy and ground flora for a forest in northwestern Ontario and an average difference of 1.2‰ in under- and mid-story vegetation between closed forests and open clear-cuts. Because of these small differences, the utility of carbon isotope analysis in quantifying temporally integrated exploitation of deforested habitats will be low for northern boreal locations. In denser forests, such as those in the tropics or western North American where the canopy effect can be expected to be much greater, δ13C analysis may still offer some promise for determining selection by wildlife of disturbed habitats.

  19. Theoretical study on the amplitude ratio of the seismoelectric field to the Stoneley wave and the formation tortuosity estimation from seismoelectric logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Wei; Yin, Chenggang; Wang, Jun; Cui, Naigang; Hu, Hengshan; Wang, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Seismoelectric logging has potential applications in exploring the porous formation characteristics. In this study, we theoretically address how the amplitudes of the Stoneley wave and its accompanying borehole seismoelectric field depend on the porous formation parameters such as porosity, permeability and tortuosity. We calculate the ratio of the electric field amplitude to the pressure amplitude (REP amplitude) for the low-frequency Stoneley wave of different formations and find that the REP amplitude is sensitive to porosity and tortuosity but insensitive to permeability. To confirm this conclusion, we derive the approximate expression of the REP amplitude in the wavenumber-frequency domain which shows that the REP amplitude is dependent on tortuosity but independent of permeability. This contradicts the result concluded by previous researchers from experiments that the REP amplitude is directly proportional to the permeability. The reason is probably attributed to the fact that the rock samples with different permeabilities typically have different tortuosities. Since the REP amplitude is sensitive to tortuosity, we propose a method of estimating formation tortuosity from seismoelectric logs. It is implemented by using the REP amplitude and the wavenumber of the Stoneley wave at a given frequency when the porosity and the pore fluid viscosity and salinity are known. We test the method by estimating the tortuosities from the synthetic seismoelectric waveforms in different formations. The result shows that the errors relative to the input tortuosities are lower than 5.0 per cent without considering the uncertainties of other input parameters.

  20. Microcomputer log analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, C.

    1984-04-01

    A comprehensive friendly log analysis system for use on a microcomputer requires only average log analysis skills. Most systems require both log analysis and computer professional for operation. This one has many capabilities: (1) data entry is handled by office personnel after minimal training; (2) entered data is filed and cataloged for future retrieval and analysis; (3) the system can handle more than 9,000,000 ft (2700 km) of log data in over 60,000 files; (4) all data can be edited; (5) searches and listings can be made using factors such as formation names; (6) facsimile reproductions can be made of any log on file; (7) a screening program turns the system into a sophisticated hand calculator to quickly determine zones of interest; and (8) up to 1100 ft (335 m) of contiguous data from a well can be analyzed in one run. Innovative features include: (1) a discriminating factor to separate reservoirs for individual attention concerning rock type, fluid content and potential reserves; and (2) a written report of each reservoir using artificial intelligence. The report discusses, among other things, the rock type and its consistency, comparing the system finding with the geologist's opinion. Differences between the two will elicit alternative analyses.

  1. Bending-fatigue damage-detection on notched-tooth spiral-bevel gears using the average-log-ratio, ALR, algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Jason A.; Mark, William D.

    2014-02-01

    The frequency-domain ALR (average-log-ratio) damage-detection algorithm [MSSP 24 (2010) 2807-2823] is utilized to illustrate damage detection and progression on notched-tooth spiral-bevel gears. Use of equal weighting of increases or decreases of individual rotational-harmonic amplitudes caused by damage, for early ALR detections, is substantiated. Continuously improving statistical reliability of ALR is documented by using increasing numbers of rotational-harmonic amplitude-ratios and increasing numbers of waveforms in the synchronous averaging. Sensitivity of the ALR algorithm to incipient damage is observed to be comparable to that obtained from the kurtosis-based Figure of Merit 4 (FM4). In contrast to FM4, ALR is shown to monotonically increase with increasing damage and running time. Interestingly, this diagnostic technique can be implemented with remarkably low analog-to-digital conversion rates. Computation of ALR for differing torque levels shows strong indications of weakening tooth-stiffness and increasing tooth-plastic-deformation. ALR computation utilizing tooth-rotational-location windowing also is illustrated.

  2. Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on a 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 725 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Using Vaned Passage Casing Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    A 1.294 pressure ratio, 725 ft/sec tip speed, variable pitch low noise fan was designed and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Wind Tunnel. The design included a casing treatment that used recirculation to extend the fan stall line and provide an acceptable operating range. Overall aerodynamic experimental results are presented for this low tip speed, low noise fan without casing treatment as well as using several variants of the casing treatment that moved the air extraction and insertion axial locations. Measurements were made to assess effects on performance, operability, and noise. An unusual instability was discovered near the design operating line and is documented in the fan operating range. Measurements were made to compare stall margin improvements as well as measure the performance impact of the casing treatments. Experimental results in the presence of simulated inlet distortion, via screens, are presented for the baseline and recirculation casing treatment configurations. Estimates are made for the quantity of recirculation weight flow based on limited instrumentation in the recirculation system along with discussion of results and conclusions

  3. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  4. Frequency-domain assessment of gear-tooth bending-fatigue damage-progression using the average-log-ratio, ALR, algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, William D.; Hines, Jason A.

    2014-04-01

    Frequency-domain (rotational-harmonic) behavior of the average-log-ratio, ALR, gear-damage detection algorithm [MSSP 24 (2010) 2807-2823] [18] is utilized to explain behavior caused by tooth-bending-fatigue damage progression. For spur and helical gears, the strongest bending-fatigue damage contributions are typically found in the rotational-harmonic region below the tooth-meshing fundamental harmonic, where ALR increases almost monotonically with increasing damage. However, when the combined elastic/plastic deformation of a damaged tooth or teeth exceeds tooth tip/root/end relief magnitude, at tooth-contact initiation and/or termination, the lowest-order transmission-error discontinuity is changed from slope discontinuity to step discontinuity, resulting in transmission-error high-frequency (rotational-harmonic n) behavior changing from proportional to 1/n2 to proportional to 1/n, therefore indicating progression to severe damage. Decomposition of the ALR damage-detection metric into rotational-harmonic frequency bands using accelerometer recordings from a notched-tooth spiral-bevel gear test illustrates the above-described behavior, thereby showing increasing stages of damage progression prior to complete gear failure.

  5. Realtime logging

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.; Kashuba, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) logging services have become an important new source of drilling and geological information on wildcats and some development wells. Sensors located within the bottomhole assembly, barely a few feet above the bit, make measurements on the formation, the borehole and the drill string itself. The MWD measurements are electronically processed and stored in the logging tool downhole. Simple MWD logging systems must wait until after tripping out of the hole for the MWD data to be downloaded from the logging tool to a surface computer in order for logs to be produced. This method is acceptable for some formation evaluation problems. But when well control, directional or completion decisions must be made, the benefit of MWD logging data is obtained only if the downhole measurements are available to the engineer in realtime.

  6. Transaction Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

  7. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  8. A new approach for assessing the state of environment using isometric log-ratio transformation and outlier detection for computation of mean PCDD/F patterns in biota.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, René

    2015-01-01

    To assess the state of the environment, various compartments are examined as part of monitoring programs. Within monitoring, a special focus is on chemical pollution. One of the most toxic substances ever synthesized is the well-known dioxin 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetra-chlor-dibenzo-dioxin). Other PCDD/F (polychlorinated-dibenzo-dioxin and furan) can act toxic too. They are ubiquitary and persistent in various environmental compartments. Assessing the state of environment requires knowledge of typical local patterns of PCDD/F for as many compartments as possible. For various species of wild animals and plants (so called biota), I present the mean local congenere profiles of ubiquitary PCDD/F contamination reflecting typical patterns and levels of environmental burden for various years. Trends in time series of means can indicate success or failure of a measure of PCDD/F reduction. For short time series of mean patterns, it can be hard to detect trends. A new approach regarding proportions of outliers in the corresponding annual cross-sectional data sets in parallel can help detect decreasing or increasing environmental burden and support analysis of time series. Further, in this article, the true structure of PCDD/F data in biota is revealed, that is, the compositional data structure. It prevents direct application of statistical standard procedures to the data rendering results of statistical analysis meaningless. Results indicate that the compositional data structure of PCDD/F in biota is of great interest and should be taken into account in future studies. Isometric log-ratio (ilr) transformation is used, providing data statistical standard procedures that can be applied too. Focusing on the identification of typical PCDD/F patterns in biota, outliers are removed from annual data since they represent an extraordinary situation in the environment. Identification of outliers yields two advantages. First, typical (mean) profiles and levels of PCDD/F contamination

  9. Noise data from tests of a 1.83 meter (6-ft-) diameter variable-pitch 1.2-pressure-ratio fan (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Friedman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic data for a 1.83-meter (6-ft.) diameter fan suitable for a quiet engine for short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft are documented. The QF-9 rotor blades had an adjustable pitch feature which provided a means for testing at several rotor blade setting angles, including one for reverse thrust. The fan stage incorporated features for low noise. Far-field noise around the fan was measured without acoustic suppression over a range of operating conditions for six different rotor blade setting angles in the forward thrust configuration, and for one in the reverse configuration. Complete results of one-third-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Also included are power spectra, data referred to the source, and sideline perceived noise levels.

  10. Comprehensive Report of Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 806 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    A large scale model representative of an advanced ducted propulsor-type, low-noise, very high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics, aerodynamic performance, and off-design operability in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The test was part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and un-powered core passage were simulated. As might be expected, the effect of stall management casing treatment was a performance penalty. Reducing the recirculating flow at the fan tip reduced the penalty while still providing sufficient stall margin. Two fans were tested with the same aerodynamic design; one with graphite composite material, and the other with solid titanium. There were surprising performance differences between the two fans, though both blades showed some indication of transitional flow near the tips. Though the pressure and temperature ratios were low for this fan design, the techniques used to improve thermocouple measurement accuracy gave repeatable data with adiabatic efficiencies agreeing within 1 percent. The measured fan adiabatic efficiency at simulated takeoff conditions was 93.7 percent and matched the design intent.

  11. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a variable-pitch 1.83-meter-(6-ft) diameter 1.20-pressure-ratio fan stage (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Far field noise data and related aerodynamic performance are presented for a variable pitch fan stage having characteristics suitable for low noise, STOL engine application. However, no acoustic suppression material was used in the flow passages. The fan was externally driven by an electric motor. Tests were made at several forward thrust rotor blade pitch angles and one for reverse thrust. Fan speed was varied from 60 to 120 percent of takeoff (design) speed, and exhaust nozzles having areas 92 to 105 percent of design were tested. The fan noise level was at a minimum at the design rotor blade pitch angles of 64 deg for takeoff thrust and at 57 deg for approach (50 percent takeoff thrust). Perceived noise along a 152.4-m sideline reached 100.1 PNdb for the takeoff (design) configuration for a stage pressure ratio of 1.17 and thrust of 57,600 N. For reverse thrust the PNL values were 4 to 5 PNdb above the takeoff values at comparable fan speeds.

  12. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  13. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  14. A comparison of CBL, RBT, and PET logs in a test well with induced channels

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, L.E.; Standley, T.E.; Tello, L.N.; Alford, G.T.

    1988-09-01

    The introduction of new ultrasonic and ratio logging techniques has dramatically transformed cement evaluation. Previous methods (cement bond logs (CBL's)) that used a low-frequency (approx. = 20 x 10/sup 3/-recycle/sec (approx. = 20-kHz)) acoustic signal and a single-transmitter/dual-receiver combination suffered from inherent measurement problems. To eliminate several of the CBL problems a new dual-transmitter/multireceiver acoustic measurement tool, the ratio bond tool (RBT), has been introduced. The RBT measures attenuation directly through ratiometric techniques, is self-calibrating, and is much less sensitive to tool centralization. For cement evaluation across ''fast formation'' intervals, a 1-ft (0.33-m) -spaced transmitter/receiver signal amplitude is measured. A ''logging well'' has been constructed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate downhole tool response to cement channels. This test well was constructed with numerous sizes and weights of casings and has specially constructed flaws on the casing circumference to produce channels of variable lengths and widths. A detailed analysis of the ability of the CBL, RBT, and PET logs to detect these channels is presented.

  15. Log-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, J.R.

    1982-11-23

    A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

  16. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  17. Log N-log S is inconclusive

    SciTech Connect

    Klebesadel, R.W.; Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  18. LogScope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  19. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  20. DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Emilia, D.A.; Allen, J.W.; Chessmore, R.B.; Wilson, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 ..mu..CGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 ..mu..CGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists.

  1. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  2. Log-Tool

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the logmore » file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.« less

  3. SCD-HeFT: Use of RR Interval Statistics for Long-term Risk Stratification for Arrhythmic Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Au-yeung, Wan-tai M.; Reinhall, Per; Poole, Jeanne E.; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Fletcher, Ross D.; Moore, Hans J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.; Bardy, Gust H.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the SCD-HeFT a significant fraction of the congestive heart failure (CHF) patients ultimately did not die suddenly from arrhythmic causes. CHF patients will benefit from better tools to identify if ICD therapy is needed. Objective To identify predictor variables from baseline SCD-HeFT patients’ RR intervals that correlate to arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD) and mortality and to design an ICD therapy screening test. Methods Ten predictor variables were extracted from pre-randomization Holter data from 475 patients enrolled in the SCD-HeFT ICD arm using novel and traditional heart rate variability methods. All variables were correlated to SCD using Mann Whitney-Wilcoxon test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. ICD therapy screening tests were designed by minimizing the cost of false classifications. Survival analysis, including log-rank test and Cox models, was also performed. Results α1 and α2 from detrended fluctuation analysis, the ratio of low to high frequency power, the number of PVCs per hour and heart rate turbulence slope are all statistically significant for predicting the occurrences of SCD (p<0.001) and survival (log-rank p<0.01). The most powerful multivariate predictor tool using the Cox Proportional Hazards was α2 with a hazard ratio of 0.0465 (95% CI: 0.00528 – 0.409, p<0.01). Conclusion Predictor variables from RR intervals correlate to the occurrences of SCD and distinguish survival among SCD-HeFT ICD patients. We believe SCD prediction models should incorporate Holter based RR interval analysis to refine ICD patient selection especially in removing patients who are unlikely to benefit from ICD therapy. PMID:26096609

  4. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  5. What's new in well logging and formation evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prensky, S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

  6. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  7. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  8. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  9. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1984-05-01

    Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

  11. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  12. Logs Perl Module

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  13. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  14. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  15. Energy saving and endurance log for a log building

    SciTech Connect

    Dolata, G.

    1987-03-17

    A log is described for construction of a log building which comprises: an elongated peeled log of substantially uniform diameter along its length with parallel end faces, a bottom surface of the log having a concave surface configuration centered on a diametrical line of the log, a rounded top surface directly opposite from the concave bottom surface which mates with a concave surface of another log when placed upon the rounded top surface, a vertically extending longitudinal slot in the top surface of the log that extends the length of the log, a vertically extending longitudinal slot along at least one side of the log with the slot extending vertically substantially parallel with the diametrical line with the slot being formed outwardly of the concave surface, the log including at least one butt end, the butt end including an end slot along the diametrical line which extends from a top of the log down through the butt end to the concave surface; and the butt includes at least one short, longitudinally extending arcuate groove near an outer surface of the log which extends from a line juxtaposed the end slot down to at least one longitudinal slot in the log.

  16. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  17. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  18. Study effects of geopressured-geothermal subsurface environment on elastic properties of Texas Gulf Coast sandstones and shales using well logs, core data, and velocity surveys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, A.R.

    1980-05-01

    Relations between porosity and permeability for the Pleasant Bayou wells were determined from conventional core data. Porosities from the time average equations required compaction correction factors of 1.9 in hydropressured sandstones and 1.0 in geopressured sandstones. Best average prmeabilities in the geopressured zone were found in the primary production interval 14,687 to 14,716 ft (4477 to 4485 m). Average density gradients were 2.106 x 10/sup -3/ and 2.688 x 10/sup -3/ (gm/cm/sup 3/)/100 ft in sandstones and shales respectively. Compressional (P-wave) and shear (S-wave) velocities from the long-spaced sonic log and bulk densities from the formation density log were used to compute in-situ elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, V/sub p//V/sub s/, and bulk compressibility in two intervals of deep geopressured sandstone and shale in No. 2 Pleasant Bayou. Most computed values of these parameters seem reasonable. Improved accuracy of travel times from the long-spaced sonic log should permit more accurate depth-to-time correlation with seismic data.

  19. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  20. My Journey with Learning Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Learning logs, or reading response logs, have long been established as an effective reading strategy that helps students learn from text (Atwell, 1987; Blough & Berman, 1991; Calkins, 1986; Commander & Smith, 1996; Kuhrt & Farris, 1990; Reed, 1988; Sanders, 1985). In this paper, the author describes her experiences using learning logs as a…

  1. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  2. Improved production log interpretation in horizontal wells using pulsed neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.L.; Kohring, J.J.; North, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Production log flow profiles provide a valuable tool to evaluate well and reservoir performance. Horizontal wellbores and their associated completion designs present several challenges to profile interpretation for conventional production logging sensors and techniques. A unique approach combining pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data with conventional production logging measurements is providing improved flow profile answers in slotted liner, horizontal well completions on the North Slope of Alaska. Identifying and eliminating undesirable gas production is one of the chief goals of production logging on the North Slope. This process becomes difficult in horizontal wellbores as fluid segregation affects the area investigated by the various logging sensors and also the velocities of the individual phases. Typical slotted liner completions further complicate analysis as fluids are able to flow in the liner/openhole annulus. Analysis of PNC log data provides two good qualitative indicators of formation permeability. The first technique is derived from the difference of the formation sigma response before and after injecting a high-capture cross-section borax solution. The second technique uses the difference of the formation sigma response and the formation porosity measured while injecting the formation with crude or seawater. Further analysis of PNC log runs show that the two techniques closely correlate with production flow profiles under solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) conditions. These two techniques in combination with conventional production logging measurements of temperature, capacitance, pressure, and spinner improve flow profile results. PNC results can be combined with temperature and pressure data in the absence of valid spinner data to provide an approximate flow profile. These techniques have been used to successfully determine profiles in both cemented and slotted liner completions with GORs in excess of 15,000 scf/bbl.

  3. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and DFT calculations of melaminium perchlorate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-08-01

    Melaminium perchlorate monohydrate (MPM), an organic material has been synthesized by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that MPM crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. FTIR and FT Raman spectra are recorded at room temperature. Functional group assignment has been made for the melaminium cations and perchlorate anions. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with experimental values. The assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are analyzed directly from Firefly program log files and graphically illustrated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The theoretically constructed FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of MPM coincide with the experimental one. The chemical structure of the compound has been established by 1H and 13C NMR spectra. No detectable signal was observed during powder test for second harmonic generation.

  4. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  5. Memory logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P. )

    1993-01-01

    A suite of memory logging tools is being developed for slim-hole, high-temperature applications. The first tool will measure pressure and temperature, and it is especially designed to be a low-cost, but very precise, device. This tool will be smart in the sense that it can make [open quotes]decisions[close quotes] downhole. A second tool will measure the gamma-ray emissions from formation material, and it will be an indicator of lithology. A fluid sampling tool will complement the spectral gamma tool in that is will further constrain the lithology by identifying dissolved formation materials. Plans are being made to integrate the tool responses into formation parameters of interest through cooperative efforts between geothermal operators and scientific drilling programs.

  6. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  7. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  8. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  9. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  11. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  12. Stratigraphy and geophysical logs from a corehole drilled to bedrock at Robins Point, J-Field, Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous core was recovered from a 961-foot- deep stratigraphic corehole at Robins Point, located at the southeastern tip of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula, Harford County, Maryland. A 2-inch- diameter ground-water-quality observation well was installed with the screen set at a depth of 392 to 402 feet (ft). Geophysical logs obtained from thecorehole include: natural gamma, multipoint normal resistivity (16-inch and 64-inch), 4-ft-guard focused resistivity, acoustic (sonic) velocity, and caliper. Pollen analysis of 34 samples provided relativestratigraphic ages. Lithologies encountered in ascending order (surface elevation 4 ft above mean sea level), include: 72.4 ft of weatheredmetamorphic rock and saprolie, 711.4 ft of lower and upper Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic deposits, and 145.9 ft of Pleistocene and 31.3 ft of Holocene(?) fluvial and estuarine deposits. Aquifers and confining units identified include, in descending order: 41.8 ft of surficial aquifer, 90.9 ft of upper paleochannel confining unit, 28.8 ft of paleochannel confined aquifer, 15.7 ft of lower paleochannel confining unit, 123.7 ft of Upper Patapsco aquifer, 44.6 ft of Upper Patapsco confining unit, 92.8 ft of Middle Patapsco aquifer, 57.3 ft of Lower Patapsco confining unit, 151.7 ft of Lower Patapsco aquifer, 115.4 ft of Potomac confining unit, 126.4 ft of Patuxent aquifer, an aquifer of 23.4 ft of saprolite, and 48.7 ft of weathered-rock/saprolite confining unit.

  13. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  14. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield. PMID:26136765

  15. Geologic logs of geotechnical cores from the subsurface Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, Katherine L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Tinsley, John C.; Gatti, Emma; Pagenkopp, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents and summarizes descriptive geologic logs of geotechnical cores collected from 2009–12 in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, by the California Department of Water Resources. Graphic logs are presented for 1,785.7 ft of retained cores from 56 borehole sites throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Most core sections are from a depth of ~100–200 feet. Cores primarily contain mud, silt, and sand lithologies. Tephra (volcanic ash and pumice), paleosols, and gravels are also documented in some core sections. Geologic observations contained in the core logs in this report provide stratigraphic context for subsequent sampling and data for future chronostratigraphic subsurface correlations.

  16. Enhanced carbon-oxygen log interpretations using supplemental log curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Jacobson, L.A.; Fox, P.

    1994-12-31

    Supplemental measurements from induced nuclear spectrometry tools are examined to demonstrate what additional information they provide about the well and reservoir conditions. Logs in shut-in wells from Indonesia provide examples of oxygen activation measurements showing cross-flow from one reservoir to another via open perforations. Leaking squeezed perforations were also observed. An example from Alaska shows radioactive scale build-up in the casing which spectral analysis identifies as a mixture of uranium and thorium salts. Another log, where the casing fluid was replaced with crude oil, demonstrates a technique for identifying cement channels. Logs from Nigeria comparing oil saturation estimates before and after a squeeze operation illustrate the effect of casing fluid flushing of the formation through open perforations. Understanding the diagnostic character of these curves leads to higher confidence in the overall log interpretation process.

  17. Effects of selective logging on tropical forest tree growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, Adelaine Michela E. S.; Miller, Scott D.; de Sousa, Cleilim Albert D.; Menton, Mary C.; Maia, Augusto R.; Da Rocha, Humberto R.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-03-01

    We combined measurements of tree growth and carbon dioxide exchange to investigate the effects of selective logging on the Aboveground Live Biomass (AGLB) of a tropical rain forest in the Amazon. Most of the measurements began at least 10 months before logging and continued at least 36 months after logging. The logging removed ˜15% of the trees with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) greater than 35 cm, which resulted in an instantaneous 10% reduction in AGLB. Both wood production and mortality increased following logging, while Gross Primary Production (GPP) was unchanged. The ratio of wood production to GPP (the wood Carbon Use Efficiency or wood CUE) more than doubled following logging. Small trees (10 cm < DBH < 35 cm) accounted for most of the enhanced wood production. Medium trees (35 cm < DBH < 55 cm) that were within 30 m of canopy gaps created by the logging also showed increased growth. The patterns of enhanced growth are most consistent with logging-induced increases in light availability. The AGLB continued to decline over the study, as mortality outpaced wood production. Wood CUE and mortality remained elevated throughout the 3 years of postlogging measurements. The future trajectory of AGLB and the forest's carbon balance are uncertain, and will depend on how long it takes for heterotrophic respiration, mortality, and CUE to return to prelogging levels.

  18. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  19. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 80.409 Section 80.409... MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.409 Station logs. (a) General requirements. Logs must be established and properly maintained as follows: (1) The log must be kept in an orderly manner. The log may...

  20. Experiment 2062: Packer Stimulation of the Intermediate Portion of EE-3A (Below 12,000 FT)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.; Kelkar, Sharad

    1985-07-11

    The deepest EE-3A interval stimulated during Expt. 2061 did not connect to EE-2, but rather extended a fractured region downwards some 300 m below the bottom of EE-3A. Therefore, the decision has been made to abandon for now the bottom 600 feet of EE-3A, and to stimulate the three flowing fractures between 12,050 ft and 12,200 ft identified by temperature logging prior to Expt. 2059 (our successful Memorial Day reservoir connection experiment).

  1. Slurry F-T reactor hydrodynamics and scale-up

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.N.; O'Dowd, W.; Ruether, J.A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Shah, Y.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbons by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over a catalyst via the indirect liquefaction route has only been demonstrated on a commercial scale in fixed-bed and entrained-bed reactors. The slurry reactor has been found to offer important advantages, such as low H/sub 2//CO feed ratios and isothermal stability on the laboratory and pilot-plant scale. Recent findings concerning slurry bubble column hydrodynamics are presented, and their relevance to slurry F-T reactor design and scale-up are discussed. The need for optimization of a slurry F-T reactor is apparent owing in large part to the nonselective formation of products on the catalyst, and the influence of hydrodynamics on the overall conversion of reactants. In this regard, the important transport resistances in the formation of products, and the influence of reactor dimensions on reactor performance are discussed. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Depth dependent multiple logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, A. P. S.; Angehrn, J. A.; Dienglewicz, A. M.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-12-03

    An improved well logging technique is provided for more accurately deriving and correlating a plurality of measurements made during a single traversal of a logging instrument through subsurface formations. In one exemplary embodiment, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving a more accurate and precise measurement of depth at which real-time logging measurements are made, and in particular for correcting anomalies occurring in the depth indication from cable stretch, yo-yo of the sonde in the borehole and the like. The more accurate and precise depth measurement is then utilized for generating well logging measurements on a depth-dependent basis, deriving at least some of such measurements in digital form and alternately transmitting to the surface digital and analog representations of such measurements. Furthermore, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving measurements of subsurface earth formation from a plurality of logging instruments combined in a single tool, wherein such measurements are made during a single pass through a borehole with the resultant measurement data correlatively merged, recorded and displayed.

  3. APS logDaemon and client library

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.; Kowalkowski, J.

    1995-12-13

    This document serves as a User`s Manual and Reference for the logDaemon and client library. This package provides a general distributed message logging system. A logDaemon may be started anywhere on a subnet. A client which has linked in the client library is provided functions to open a connection to the logDaemon, log messages, and close the connection. The logDaemon maintains one or more log files (in simple ASCII or SDDS format) and an e-mail list based on specifications in a configuration file. Incoming messages are logged to the appropriate file and/or result in e-mail being sent.

  4. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  5. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  6. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

    2006-08-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious.

  7. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  8. High-temperature logging for basic development of HDR reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.; Pettitt, R.A.; Miles, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The second phase of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Development Program at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, consists of two boreholes, directionally-drilled in a northeast direction, inclined at an angle of 35/sup 0/, with a vertical separation of 365 m (1200 ft). The two boreholes will be connected by 12 to 15 vertical parallel fractures to make a geothermal reservoir calculated to produce 20 MW(e) for 20 years. Accurate temperature measurements, borehole caliper logs, and directional surveys are required for the successful development and operation of this man-made system. Obtaining these data is extremely difficult because of the bottom hole static temperature of 335/sup 0/C (635/sup 0/F) at a depth of 4660 m (15,289 ft), the 35/sup 0/ deviation, the abrasive formation, and the presence of sticky drilling residue products. The efforts during July, August, and September 1980, to obtain these data are presented as a case history. The temperature logs and borehole directional survey produced realistic results; but the borehole caliper measurements were inconsistent and unreliable, due to the developmental stage of the caliper tools.

  9. Tests pits for calibrating well logging equipment in fractured hard-rock environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.H.; LaDelfe, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration facility consists of three pits containing fine-grained granite, coarse-grained granite, and medium-grained metamorphosed granodiorite. Each pit contains large quarried blocks of rock that are 8 ft octagons and form a 20 ft stack. The blocks are saturated with water and sealed in watertight fiberglass containers that are recessed so that the top of the upper block is approximately level with the ground. The blocks contain simulated fractures that are formed by the joints between the blocks and by saw cuts at several locations. Cored boreholes through the blocks are 7 7/8 in. in diameter, with a fiberglass-cased ''rat hole'' extending 30 ft below the bottom block. Laboratory and well logging studies (United States Geological Society, Schlumberger, and Dresser Atlas logs) have been made to determine the physical properties of rocks in the three pits, and preliminary results are reported. Porosities of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 1 ft intervals in the three pits range from 0.00 to 0.90%, densities from 2.64 to 2.79 g/cm/sup 3/, and sonic velocities from 18,700 to 22,500 ft/sec. Radio-element of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 5 ft intervals from these test pits range from 0.62 to 4.08% K (potassium) content, from 0.34 to 5.01 ppM RaeU (uranium) content and from 0.46 to 19.6 ppM Th (thorium) content. Access to the pits for calibrating well logging equipment can be arranged by contacting the United States Geological Survey (phone number 303-236-5913) in Denver, Colorado. 4 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  11. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  12. Statistical log analysis made practical

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

  13. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  15. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  16. A LABORATORY log(gf) MEASUREMENT OF THE Ti II 15873.84 Å H-BAND LINE IN SUPPORT OF SDSS-III APOGEE

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Shetrone, M. D. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu

    2014-06-01

    The SDSS-III APOGEE collaboration has identified a single useable line in the H-band spectra of APOGEE target stars arising from a singly ionized species. This line of Ti II (λ{sub air} = 15873.84 Å) is therefore of great importance for use in stellar surface gravity, or log(g), determinations via the Saha equation. While a theoretical estimate of the line strength exists, to date no laboratory measurement of the line strength has been reported. Herein we report an absolute laboratory transition probability measurement for this important Ti II line. A relative line strength measurement is made of the Ti II H-band line of interest and a reference line with a previously reported absolute transition probability. This ratio is measured using multiple spectra of a high-current water-cooled HC lamp recorded with a calibrated FT-IR spectrometer.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, congener profiles, and ratios in the fat tissue, eggs, and plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentina) from the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie, USA.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, H; Fisher, S W; Estenik, J; Kidekhel, R; Stromberg, P

    2006-08-01

    >40 congeners (0.001 < p < 0.05). The distribution ratios determined for these congeners from the slope of the regression lines averaged 1.235 +/- 0.279, 0.430 +/- 0.170, and 0.387 +/- 0.115, respectively. The plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized concentration ratios for these congeners averaged 0.012 +/- 0.006. Both egg-FT and plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized ratios regressed against log K(ow) showed significant decreases, with increasing log K(ow), indicating greater accumulation of highly chlorinated congeners in FT than in other compartments. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents ranged from 0.007 ng/g at reference sites to 0.060 ng/g at contaminated sites and from 0.099 to 1.992 ng/g in plasma and eggs, respectively. In both plasma and eggs, coplanar-CBs were the major contributors to total toxic equivalents (TEQs). Eggs from all contaminated sites had TEQs that exceeded the lowest observed effect level TEQs proposed for bald eagle chicks, in addition to high SigmaPCB levels at some of these sites, especially the Ottawa and Maumee River sites, indicate potentially increased risk to turtles and possibly other wildlife species inhabiting these ecosystems. Significant correlations of total PCBs and individual congeners between FT, eggs, and plasma indicate that blood sampling can provide a good nonlethal measure of PCB exposure and can be used to monitor environmental contamination. PMID:16583258

  18. Is FT3 by radioligandassay (RLA) superior in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (HT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bottger, I.G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    Based upon our routine experience with more than 50,000/15,000 patients having been examined by FT4/FT3 RLA the authors reported a comparable clinical value of routine parameters for free thyroid hormones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of FT3 by RLA in borderline HT (BHT) in more detail. Two groups of patients were studied prospectively: group I: BHT, 48 sera, HT was suspected on grounds of clinical, scintigraphical and ultrasonic findings, no therapy. Subgroup Ia: negative TRH test (TSH before and after 200 ..mu..g TRH i.v. 0.8 mU/1), T4, FT4, T4/TBG ratio and T3 in the normal range (NR), 22 sera. Subgroup Ib: T3 (NR: 1.6 - 3.6 pmol/1): 3.7 - 3.9 and/or FT4 and/or T4/TBG ratio elevated, 26 sera. Group II: thyroid ablated patients with thyroid carcinoma on TSH-suppressive 1-T4 medication (200 ..mu..g/day) with a negative TRH test, no obvious symptoms of HT, T3 normal. RLAs employed routinely: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic, two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, TSH, Henning-Berlin. Group I: T3 levels were in the middle to upper NR, 9 (19 %) of Ib being elevated, T3/TBG was predominantly at the upper limit of the NR, 20 (42%) of this group and 5 (10%) of Ia being increased. 29 (60%) of the FT3 levels in I and 8 (17%) in Ia were elevated up to 15 and 13 pmol/l, respectively. Group II: the T3/TBG ratio was increased in 13 (11%) and the FT3 concentration up to 14 pmol/l in 57 (50%) sera.

  19. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  20. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging.

  1. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin; No, Kyoungok; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steven; Drnevich, Jenny; Wickett, Norman; Vandervelde, Lindsay; Ellis, Jeffrey D.; Rice, Brandon; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brunner, Amy M.; Page, Grier P.; Carlson, John E.; DePamphilis, Claude; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  2. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  3. Tracking log displacement during floods in the Tagliamento River using RFID and GPS tracker devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzolo, D.; Mao, L.; Picco, L.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Large pieces of in-channel wood can exert an important role on the ecological and morphological properties of gravel-bed rivers. On the other side, when transported during flood events, large wood can become a source of risk for sensitive structures such as bridges. However, wood displacement and velocity in river systems are still poorly understood, especially in large gravel-bed rivers. This study focuses on log transport in a valley reach of Tagliamento River (Italy). Log displacement during flood events of different magnitudes recorded from June 2010 to October 2011 has been analysed thanks to the installation of 113 radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and 42 GPS tracker devices in logs of different dimensions. Recovery rates of logs equipped with RFID and GPS trackers were about 43% and 42%, respectively. The GPS devices allowed us to analyse in details the log displacement and transport overtime, indicating a higher log entrainment during rising limb of hydrographs. The threshold for the entrainment of logs from low bars is around 40% of bankfull water stage. No clear relationship was found between the peak of flood and log displacement length and velocity. However, log displacement length and velocity appear significantly correlated to the ratio between the peak of flow and the water stage exceeding the flow duration curve for 25% of time (i.e. the ratio hmax/h25 ratio). Log deposition was observed to occur at the peak flow, and logs transported during ordinary events are preferably deposited on low bars. This study reveals the potentials of GPS tracker devices to monitor the entrainment and movements of logs in large gravel-bed rivers during floods. These observations could be useful for better planning of river management practices and strategies involving the use of large wood pieces and could help for calibrating wood budgets at the reach scale.

  4. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  5. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  7. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  8. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  9. Hyporheic exchange due to channel-spanning logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Bayani Cardenas, M.; Buttles, Jim

    2011-08-01

    The flow of river water around large woody debris (LWD) creates pressure gradients along the riverbed that drive a large zone of river-groundwater mixing, or hyporheic exchange. Flume experiments and numerical simulations show that river water downwells into the riverbed upstream of a channel-spanning log and upwells downstream. Exchange rates are greatest near the log and decay exponentially with distance upstream and downstream. We developed equations for bed pressure profiles and hyporheic exchange rates in the vicinity of a channel-spanning log that can be used to evaluate the impact of LWD removal or reintroduction on hyporheic mixing. The magnitude of pressure disturbance along the bed (and thus hyporheic exchange) increases with the fraction of channel depth blocked by the log and channel Froude number. Exchange rates are relatively insensitive to relative depth of the log (gap ratio). At natural densities, LWD in lowland streams drives reach-averaged hyporheic exchange rates similar to a ripple-covered bed. However, the length scales and residence times of hyporheic exchange due to LWD are greater. By removing LWD from streams, humans have altered patterns and rates of hyporheic exchange, which influence habitat distribution and quality for invertebrates and fish.

  10. Application of the spread-spectrum technique in well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Dadakarides, Simos D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the novel concept of employing the noise insensitive spread-spectrum technique in well logging. The proposed design of a spread-spectrum device improves the performance of well logging tools, particularly within highly noisy environments. The heart of the device is a shift register which generates a pseudorandom binary code sequence. A coder is connected to the transmitter and codes the probing signal by utilizing the pseudorandom sequence. A decoder is connected to the receiver and correlates the return signal to the same sequence, which is used as a sliding reference. Shifts as small as a fraction of a bit are unambiguously resolvable, and distance resolution of the order of micrometers is achievable. Spread-spectrum well logging tools can operate even with coded signal-to-noise ratio below zero-dB. The spread-spectrum device can be interfaced with any available wave transmitting logging tool. However, tools employing acoustic waves are favorable because the acoustic wave propagation velocity is low and allows the use of inexpensive electronics. The problems associated with high temperatures which are commonly encountered In geothermal reservoirs are bypassed, since the spread-spectrum device can be located either inside the well logging tool or together with the supporting electronics on the surface.

  11. Phenotypic Expression in Wheat Revealed Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L.; Wetzel, D

    2009-01-01

    Wheat selected for cultivation through the centuries has a glume that is 'soft' instead of 'tough' as naturally occurring. In production, this is desirable because it enables mechanical threshing with efficient separation of kernel from the head of each stalk without damaging the kernel. FT-IR microspectroscopy provides chemically based, objective assessment of genetic expression by measuring the extent of genetic expression. In the Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, Manhattan, KS, an imaging FT-IR microspectrometer with a detector array focused on the image plane was used to obtain spectral data from dissected glume specimens of nine tough and eleven soft wheat cultivars in a rectangular mapping pattern. With cellulose as the substrate, the extent of lignification is measurable from the ratio of the lignin (1508 cm{sup -1}) baseline adjusted band area to the representative cellulosic (1370 cm{sup -1}) band area. A distinction between soft and tough glumes is obtained in numerical terms. Using a band ratio minimizes variation due to thickness differences. While analyzing mapped sections of glume, care is taken to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would bias the analysis toward the composition of highly lignified vascular bundles. Spatially resolved focal plane array FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals the extent of glume lignification that is coincident with the toughness trait. This enables breeders to rank the degree of lignin expression and discriminate between soft and tough breeding results.

  12. Hydrocarbon segregation from well logs, Northern Monagas, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E. )

    1993-02-01

    A methodology is described to determine vertical hydrocarbon density variations in recent oil discoveries in Northern Monagas state, using well logs. Similarities and differences are established for models obtained in El Carito and El Tejero fault block-s. These models were confirmed using independent information, such as PVT analysis, RFT pressures, oil gravity and GOR's from initial production tests. To explain differences between the models, an hypothesis is proposed for the migration/segregation/deformation sequence in these two blocks, which accounts for the presence of lighter hydrocarbons in El Tejero block, even though it is 1700 ft structurally lower than El Carito. Based on this hypothesis, westward projection of the models predicts lighter hydrocarbons and similar porosities for Casupal-Mata Granda and Tonoro blocks, at depths considerably greater than in El Tejero block.

  13. FT-IR microscopy imaging on oral cavity tumours, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Rubini, C.; Tosi, G.

    2005-06-01

    Changes in the biochemistry of oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR microscopy. Various aspects of squamous cell carcinomas of cheek mucosa, of tongue, of gingiva, and of the floor of the mouth have been analyzed through FT-IR imaging with the aim to relate spectral patterns with histopathological results. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wavenumber or band ratio images allowed a quali- and quantitative evaluation of the changes in the proliferating activity from displastic to neoplastic states. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and histological findings.

  14. Porosity Log Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Saputro, Oki; Lazuardi Maulana, Zulfikar; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier

    2016-08-01

    Well logging is important in oil and gas exploration. Many physical parameters of reservoir is derived from well logging measurement. Geophysicists often use well logging to obtain reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation and permeability. Most of the time, the measurement of the reservoir properties are considered expensive. One of method to substitute the measurement is by conducting a prediction using artificial neural network. In this paper, artificial neural network is performed to predict porosity log data from other log data. Three well from ‘yy’ field are used to conduct the prediction experiment. The log data are sonic, gamma ray, and porosity log. One of three well is used as training data for the artificial neural network which employ the Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm. Through several trials, we devise that the most optimal input training is sonic log data and gamma ray log data with 10 hidden layer. The prediction result in well 1 has correlation of 0.92 and mean squared error of 5.67 x10-4. Trained network apply to other well data. The result show that correlation in well 2 and well 3 is 0.872 and 0.9077 respectively. Mean squared error in well 2 and well 3 is 11 x 10-4 and 9.539 x 10-4. From the result we can conclude that sonic log and gamma ray log could be good combination for predicting porosity with neural network.

  15. Logs Wanted - Dead or Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, A.; Morche, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers cover only a small part of the Earth`s surface, yet they transfer sediment in globally significant quantities. In mountainous regions, the majority of the total channel length occurs in headwater streams. Those mountain channels are influenced in terms of sediment connectivity by processes on the slopes. For example in such a sediment routing system, sediment originating from debris flows on the slopes is delivered along sediment pathways to the channel system and can be transported further downstream as solid load. Interruption of instream coarse sediment connectivity is closely related to the existence of channel blocking barriers which also can be formed by biota. By storing sediment large wood (LW) log jams disrupt in-channel sediment connectivity. We present a study design in order to decipher the short to long term effects (c. 10-2-102 years) of sediment (dis)connectivity effects of large wood. The study areas are two basins in mountain ranges in Germany and Austria. In Austria the drainage area of the river Fugnitz was chosen which is located in the National Park Thayatal. The other drainage area of the river Sieber in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, is located in the Harz National Park. Since studies on LW and its geomorphological effects in Central European rivers are still rare the main goals of the project are: •to identify important triggers for LW transport from slopes into the channels •to examine the spatial distribution and characterization of LW in main and slope channels by mapping and dGPS measurements •to determine the effects of LW on channel hydraulic parameters (e.g. slope, width, grains size composition, roughness) by field measurements of channel long profiles and cross section with dGPS and Wolman particle counts •to quantify the direct effects of LW on discharge and bed load transport by measuring flow velocity with an Ott-Nautilus current meter and to measure bed load up- and downstream of log jams using a portable Helley

  16. Leak checker data logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  17. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  18. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C.; Payne, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  19. Cement bond log evaluation of foam- and synthetic-cemented casings

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckdorfer, R.A.; Jacobs, W.R.; Masson, J.P.

    1984-11-01

    Cement bond log (CBL /SUP TM/ ) studies on foam- and synthetic-cemented wells were initiated to determine the feasibility of, as well as to develop technologies for, evaluating these novel cementing services. Early CBL's on these cementing systems showed little effect on the log amplitude curve. Hence, CBL evaluations were difficult to obtain and interpret. A special sonde with a 1.3-ft (0.4-m) transmitter-toreceiver spacing was developed for this study. Sonic signal amplitudes were determined by using cemented shortcasing test sections. Sonic attenuation rates were correlated to compressive strengths for a range of cement densities. Experimental details of the cementing operation and logging studies are discussed. Data relating attenuation rates to compressive strengths and cement densities also are presented. Field results are discussed.

  20. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  1. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  2. Transient acceleration in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Yang, Rong-Jia; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-02-01

    Recently an f(T) gravity based on the modification of teleparallel gravity was proposed to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We use observational data from type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cosmic microwave background to constrain this f(T) theory and reconstruct the effective equation of state and the deceleration parameter. We obtain the best-fit values of parameters and find an interesting result that the constrained f(T) theory allows for the accelerated Hubble expansion to be a transient effect.

  3. Development of a Large Field of View Shadowgraph System for a 16 Ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Michael A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Goodman, Wesley L.

    2000-01-01

    A large field of view shadowgraph flow visualization system for the Langley 16 ft. Transonic Tunnel (16 ft.TT) has been developed to provide fast, low cost, aerodynamic design concept evaluation capability to support the development of the next generation of commercial and military aircraft and space launch vehicles. Key features of the 16 ft. TT shadowgraph system are: (1) high resolution (1280 X 1024) digital snap shots and sequences; (2) video recording of shadowgraph at 30 frames per second; (3) pan, tilt, & zoom to find and observe flow features; (4) one microsecond flash for freeze frame images; (5) large field of view approximately 12 X 6 ft; and (6) a low maintenance, high signal/noise ratio, retro-reflective screen to allow shadowgraph imaging while test section lights are on.

  4. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140–820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of –SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –SO3- groups (1236–1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the –SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027–1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  5. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under

  6. Characterization and identification of microorganisms by FT-IR microspectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo-Thi, N. A.; Kirschner, C.; Naumann, D.

    2003-12-01

    We report on a novel FT-IR approach for microbial characterization/identification based on a light microscope coupled to an infrared spectrometer which offers the possibility to acquire IR-spectra of microcolonies containing only few hundred cells. Microcolony samples suitable for FT-IR microspectroscopic measurements were obtained by a replica technique with a stamping device that transfers spatially accurate cells of microcolonies growing on solid culture plates to a special, IR-transparent or reflecting stamping plate. High quality spectra could be recorded either by applying the transmission/absorbance or the reflectance/absorbance mode of the infrared microscope. Signal to noise ratios higher than 1000 were obtained for microcolonies as small as 40 μm in diameter. Reproducibility levels were established that allowed species and strain identification. The differentiation and classification capacity of the FT-IR microscopic technique was tested for different selected microorganisms. Cluster and factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the complex spectral data. Excellent discrimination between bacteria and yeasts, and at the same time Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains was obtained. Twenty-two selected strains of different species within the genus Staphylococcus were repetitively measured and could be grouped into correct species cluster. Moreover, the results indicated that the method allows also identifications at the subspecies level. Additionally, the new approach allowed spectral mapping analysis of single colonies which provided spatially resolved characterization of growth heterogeneity within complex microbial populations such as colonies.

  7. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  8. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  9. log(MPl/m3/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martin, Johannes; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ratz, Michael

    2005-12-02

    Flux compactifications of string theory seem to require the presence of a fine-tuned constant in the superpotential. We discuss a scheme where this constant is replaced by a dynamical quantity which we argue to be a 'continuous Chern-Simons term'. In such a scheme, the gaugino condensate generates the hierarchically small scale of supersymmetry breakdown rather than adjusting its size to a constant. A crucial ingredient is the appearance of the hierarchically small quantity exp(-) which corresponds to the scale of gaugino condensation. Under rather general circumstances, this leads to a scenario of moduli stabilization, which is endowed with a hierarchy between the mass of the lightest modulus, the gravitino mass and the scale of the soft terms, mmodulus {approx} m3/2 {approx} 2 msoft. The 'little hierarchy' is given by the logarithm of the ratio of the Planck scale and the gravitino mass, {approx} log(MPl/m3/2) {approx} 4{pi}2. This exhibits a new mediation scheme of supersymmetry breakdown, called mirage mediation. We highlight the special properties of the scheme, and their consequences for phenomenology and cosmology.

  10. Learning Logs in Introductory Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Matthew James

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the beneficial and sometimes unpredictable implications of a daily reflective writing exercise for introductory literature courses: the learning log. Pseudonymous samples of student writing, coupled with instructor commentary, gesture toward ways in which the learning log's continual implementation and modification foster a…

  11. Chernoff's density is log-concave.

    PubMed

    Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Wellner, Jon A

    2014-02-01

    We show that the density of Z = argmax{W (t) - t(2)}, sometimes known as Chernoff's density, is log-concave. We conjecture that Chernoff's density is strongly log-concave or "super-Gaussian", and provide evidence in support of the conjecture.

  12. Measuring Reading Instruction with Teacher Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Correnti, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that the criticisms of their earlier article on teacher logs ("Educational Researcher," March 2009) by Smagorinsky and Willis do not address, much less undermine, the evidence they presented as part of their validation argument about the teacher logs. Moreover, they argue that their method for studying classrooms is not nearly as…

  13. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall...

  14. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  15. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  16. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  17. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  18. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  19. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  20. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  1. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  2. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  3. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  4. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  5. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  6. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  7. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  8. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  9. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  10. Log analysis of six boreholes in conjunction with geologic characterization above and on top of the Weeks Island salt dome

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1996-04-01

    Six boreholes were drilled during the geologic characterization and diagnostics of the Weeks Island sinkhole that is over the two-tiered salt mine which was converted for oil storage by the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. These holes were drilled to provide for geologic characterization of the Weeks Island Salt Dome and its overburden in the immediate vicinity of the sinkhole (mainly through logs and core); to establish a crosswell configuration for seismic tomography; to establish locations for hydrocarbon detection and tracer injection; and to Provide direct observations of sinkhole geometry and material properties. Specific objectives of the logging program were to: (1) identify the top of and the physical state of the salt dome; (2) identify the water table; (3) obtain a relative salinity profile in the aquifer within the alluvium, which ranges from the water table directly to the top of the Weeks Island salt dome; and (4) identify a reflecting horizon seen on seismic profiles over this salt dome. Natural gamma, neutron, density, sonic, resistivity and caliper logs were run. Neutron and density logs were run from inside the well casing because of the extremely unstable condition of the deltaic alluvium overburden above the salt dome. The logging program provided important information about the salt dome and the overburden in that (1) the top of the salt dome was identified at {approximately}189 ft bgl (103 ft msl), and the top of the dome contains relatively few fractures; (2) the water table is approximately 1 ft msl, (3) this aquifer appears to become steadily more saline with depth; and (4) the water saturation of much of the alluvium over the salt dome is shown to be influenced by the prevalent heavy rainfall. This logging program, a part of the sinkhole diagnostics, provides unique information about this salt dome and the overburden.

  11. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  12. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  14. Limits of rapid log P determination methods for highly lipophilic and flexible compounds.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sophie; Begnaud, Frédéric; Schuler, William; Gillerat, Fabrice; Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2016-04-01

    Lipophilicity is of crucial importance in many fields including pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetic and food industries. Whereas different experimental strategies have been developed for rapid lipophilicity determination of new chemical entities, log P determination of highly lipophilic compounds is always challenging. In this study, three published chromatographic methods have been compared on a series of phenylalkanoic acids including the pro-perfume HaloscentD (HD-C12). Different log P values were obtained depending on the chromatographic method used for log P estimation. Molecular modelling suggested that log P variations may be due to the chromatographic conditions applied (isocratic or gradient mode, ratio methanol/water in the mobile phase), responsible of specific conformations of the molecule in solution. Thus, for flexible compounds, published methods have to be used with caution and considered as a good tool to estimate a log P range, depending on the molecular conformational state.

  15. Limits of rapid log P determination methods for highly lipophilic and flexible compounds.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sophie; Begnaud, Frédéric; Schuler, William; Gillerat, Fabrice; Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2016-04-01

    Lipophilicity is of crucial importance in many fields including pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetic and food industries. Whereas different experimental strategies have been developed for rapid lipophilicity determination of new chemical entities, log P determination of highly lipophilic compounds is always challenging. In this study, three published chromatographic methods have been compared on a series of phenylalkanoic acids including the pro-perfume HaloscentD (HD-C12). Different log P values were obtained depending on the chromatographic method used for log P estimation. Molecular modelling suggested that log P variations may be due to the chromatographic conditions applied (isocratic or gradient mode, ratio methanol/water in the mobile phase), responsible of specific conformations of the molecule in solution. Thus, for flexible compounds, published methods have to be used with caution and considered as a good tool to estimate a log P range, depending on the molecular conformational state. PMID:26995644

  16. Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Izotova, T.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

  17. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  18. Nuclear logging and geothermal log interpretation: formation temperature sonde evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, E.W.; Vagelatos, N.; Dickerson, J.M.; Nguyen, V.

    1982-01-01

    The theory and methodology of the neutron-based technique for the determination of the formation temperature in geothermal fields are discussed. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated before start of the present development phase. The present work is intended to evaluate the response of the temperature probe in a simulated fracture porosity granite matrix at temperatures likely to be encountered in known geothermal reservoirs. An above ground borehole model has been designed and constructed. The effect of high ambient temperatures on the response of the neutron detectors in the probe mockup used in the measurements was investigated and used to correct the detector counts. An improved data analysis method has been developed to account properly for the effects of low porosity and high temperatures. Measurements, using the above ground borehole model, have shown that a linear correlation between the ratio of thermal counts from a Gd-filtered detector to counts from a bare detector and formation temperature is good at temperatures as high as 380/sup 0/F. The present results are consistent with earlier data obtained in high-porosity laboratory models at lower temperatures (T < 167/sup 0/F). Further measurements at high temperature at various porosities and formation neutron absorption cross sections would be necessary for a more extensive comparison.

  19. Mapping Selective Logging In Tropical Forest With Space-Borne SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauste, Yrjo; Antropov, , Oleg; Hame, Tuomas; Ramminger, Gernot; Gomez, Sharon; Seifert, Frank Martin

    2013-12-01

    A technique was developed for the mapping of selective logging in tropical forest using PALSAR imagery acquired before and after the logging operations. The technique is based on automatic detection of new forest roads and unsupervised classification of textural features, which were computed from a backscatter ratio image. The technique was adapted for TerraSAR-X and EN- VISAT/ASAR data. The accuracy of a PALSAR-based map of selective logging was assessed against reference plot data interpreted from GeoEye-1 imagery. The user's accuracy of selective logging was 95 %. The overall accuracy was 70.4 %. This is affected by the limited size of the area, which was chosen to include a large proportion of selectively logged forest. The accuracy of a TerraSAR-X-based map of selective logging was 53.6 %, but the user's accuracy of selective logging was 100 %. ALOS-type L-band radar data could be applied in an operational system over country-wide datasets to map newly constructed roads. The 40 % underestimation does not make direct reliable mapping of the area of selective logging possible. Instead, L-band derived maps of selectively logged area and new roads can be used in a wider system to pin-point areas of recent logging activity (as a proxy for forest degradation). The detected areas can then be covered by satellite or airborne optical data or ground surveys. The L-band map of areas with logging activity can also be used for stratification for sampling in a statistical area assessment.

  20. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  1. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  2. High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared (HSCCC/FT-IR) Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanach, Rodolfo J.; de Haseth, James A.

    1985-12-01

    High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography/Fourier transform infrared (HSCCC/FT-IR) spectrometry is present-ed. High solute-to-solvent ratios can be obtained in separations performed using HSCCC. At these high solute concentrations it is possible to obtain spectra of solutes without solvent elimination, even in the presence of polar solvents, such as water and methanol.

  3. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  4. Lignin analysis by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, U.P.; Obst, J.R.; Cannon, A.B.

    1996-10-01

    Traditional methods of lignin analysis, such as Klason (acid insoluble) lignin determinations, give satisfactory results, are widely accepted, and often are considered as standard analyses. However, the Klason lignin method is laborious and time consuming; it also requires a fairly large-amount of isolated analyte. FT-Raman spectroscopy offers an opportunity to simplify and speed up lignin analyses. FT-Raman data for a number of hardwoods (angiosperms) and softwoods (gymnosperms) are compared with data obtained using other analytical methods, including Klason lignin (with corrections for acid soluble lignin), acetyl bromide, and FT-IR determinations. In addition, 10 different specimens of Nothofagus dombeyii (chosen because of the widely varying syringyl:guaiacyl monomer compositions of their lignins) were also analyzed. Lignin monomer compositions were determined by thioacidolysis of by nitrobenzene oxidation.

  5. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  6. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  7. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  8. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  9. Sisyphus - An Event Log Analysis Toolset

    2004-09-01

    Event logs are a ubiquitous source of system feedback from computer systems, but have widely ranging format and can be extremely numerous, particularly from systems with many logging components. Inspection of these logs is fundamental to system debugging; increased capability to quickly extract meaningful information will impact MTTR (mean time to repair) and may impact MTBF (mean time between failure). Sisyphus is a machine-leanring analysis system whose goal is to enable content-novice analysts to efficieniiymore » understand evolving trends, identify anomalies, and investigate cause-effect hypotheses in large multiple-souce log sets. The toolkit is comprised a framework for utilizing third-party frequentitemset data mining tools Teiresias and SLCT. and software to cluster messages according to time statistics, and an interactive results viewer.« less

  10. RIAPROG: logit-log radioimmunoassay data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Faden, V.B.; Huston, J.C. Jr.; Munson, P.J.; Rodbard, D.

    1980-03-01

    This document provides the users guide and program listings for the 1980 version of RIAPROG. RIAPROG is a program for weighted least squares linear regression using the logit-log model for analysis of RIA results.

  11. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas. PMID:17556578

  12. Applying time series analysis to performance logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Marcin; Sosnowski, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary computer systems provide mechanisms for monitoring various performance parameters (e.g. processor or memory usage, disc or network transfers), which are collected and stored in performance logs. An important issue is to derive characteristic features describing normal and abnormal behavior of the systems. For this purpose we use various schemes of analyzing time series. They have been adapted to the specificity of performance logs and verified using data collected from real systems. The presented approach is useful in evaluating system dependability.

  13. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  14. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Noss, R F

    2006-08-01

    We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging--a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural disturbance because the conditions before, during, and after salvage logging may differ from those that characterize traditional timber harvesting. The potential impacts of salvage logging often have been overlooked, partly because the processes of ecosystem recovery after natural disturbance are still poorly understood and partly because potential cumulative effects of natural and human disturbance have not been well documented. Ecologically informed policies regarding salvage logging are needed prior to major natural disturbances so that when they occur ad hoc and crisis-mode decision making can be avoided. These policies should lead to salvage-exemption zones and limits on the amounts of disturbance-derived biological legacies (e.g., burned trees, logs) that are removed where salvage logging takes place. Finally, we believe new terminology is needed. The word salvage implies that something is being saved or recovered, whereas from an ecological perspective this is rarely the case.

  15. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  16. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  17. Web Logs in the English Classroom: More Than Just Chat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2003-01-01

    Details the use and appeal of Web logs to enhance classroom discussion and allow for outside involvement in the classroom. Defines a Web log, addresses discussing literature in a Web log, and describes the author's first attempts at using Web-log technology. Presents considerations for using Web logs as part of classroom instruction. (SG)

  18. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  19. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  20. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  1. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  2. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  3. CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frobose, R.H.

    1984-11-12

    CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

  4. Rill Erosion in Post Wildfire Forests after Salvage Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Peter; Wagenbrenner, Joseph; Brown, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Despite the dominance of concentrated flow or rill erosion in the erosion processes especially in steep forest environments that have been affected by wildfire or management activities few studies have quantified these effects on rill erosion. This study quantified the effects of wildfire and post-fire timber salvage operations on rill runoff quantity, runoff velocity, and rill erosion. Simulated rill experiments were conducted at various sites in the Western US after wildfire and timber salvage operations. The onsite conditions consists of burned only, salvage logged, skid or snig trail, or skid trails with extra logging debris added. For each rill experiment, concentrated flow was applied at the top of the plot through an energy dissipater at five inflow rates for 12 min each. Runoff was sampled every 2 min and runoff volume and sediment concentration were determined for each sample. The runoff velocity was measured using a dyed calcium chloride solution and two conductivity probes placed a known distance apart. Runoff volume, runoff velocities, and sediment concentrations increased with increasing levels of disturbance. The burned only plots had lower runoff rates and sediment concentrations than any of the other disturbances. The salvage logged plots had greater responses than the burn only plots and the mitigation treatment had a marginal effect on runoff ratios, runoff velocities and sediment concentrations. These results suggest that additional disturbance after a wildfire can increase the erosional response and that proper erosion control mitigation may be an important consideration for post fire management to reduce onsite erosion.

  5. Nonparametric Analyses of Log-Periodic Precursors to Financial Crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    We apply two nonparametric methods to further test the hypothesis that log-periodicity characterizes the detrended price trajectory of large financial indices prior to financial crashes or strong corrections. The term "parametric" refers here to the use of the log-periodic power law formula to fit the data; in contrast, "nonparametric" refers to the use of general tools such as Fourier transform, and in the present case the Hilbert transform and the so-called (H, q)-analysis. The analysis using the (H, q)-derivative is applied to seven time series ending with the October 1987 crash, the October 1997 correction and the April 2000 crash of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), the Standard & Poor 500 and Nasdaq indices. The Hilbert transform is applied to two detrended price time series in terms of the ln(tc-t) variable, where tc is the time of the crash. Taking all results together, we find strong evidence for a universal fundamental log-frequency f=1.02±0.05 corresponding to the scaling ratio λ=2.67±0.12. These values are in very good agreement with those obtained in earlier works with different parametric techniques. This note is extracted from a long unpublished report with 58 figures available at , which extensively describes the evidence we have accumulated on these seven time series, in particular by presenting all relevant details so that the reader can judge for himself or herself the validity and robustness of the results.

  6. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  7. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics. [Patient application

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1980-11-05

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or epithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  8. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, Ralston W.; Jensen, Dal H.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or eqithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  9. Geophysical-log and hydraulic-test analyses of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community, Menominee County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Anderson, J. Alton; Lampe, David C.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Hannahville Indian Community, evaluated the geohydrology of the bedrock formations and hydraulic properties of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community in Menominee County, Michigan. Geophysical logs were collected from five wells at two sites during September 2012. The logs were analyzed to characterize the lithostratigraphy, bedding and fractures, and hydraulic properties of the geologic formations and aquifers beneath the Hannahville Indian Community. The geophysical logs collected included natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, wellbore image, caliper, ambient and stressed flowmeter, fluid resistivity, temperature, and wellbore deviation. The geophysical logs were analyzed with results from short-term hydraulic tests to estimate the transmissivity and water-level altitudes of flow zones penetrated by the wells. The geophysical log analysis indicated the wells penetrated four distinct lithostratigraphic units—shale and carbonate rock, upper carbonate rock, carbonate rock and glauconitic sandstone, and lower carbonate rock. Most of the fractures penetrated by the wellbores appeared to be related bedding partings. The lower carbonate rock unit contained solution features. Analysis of the geophysical logs and hydraulic tests indicated that each of the five wells penetrated from one to four flow zones. The Casino 5 well penetrated a flow zone that was associated with solution features and had an estimated total transmissivity of 4,280 feet squared per day (ft2/d), the highest estimate for all the wells. The Casino 3 well penetrated four flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 3,570 ft2/d. The flow zones penetrated in the lower carbonate rock unit by the Casino 3 and 5 wells were hydraulically connected. The Golf Shack well penetrated two flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 40 ft2/d, the lowest estimate for all the wells. The Community 1

  10. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  11. Non-destructive determination of soluble solids in chufa by FT-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang; Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Fu, Xiaping; Yu, Haiyan; Liu, Yande

    2005-11-01

    The near infrared (NIR) method based on fibre-optic FT-NIR spectrometer was tested to determine soluble solids content (SSC) non-destructively in chufa (Eleocharis tuberose schult). A total of 240 chufas (120 of cv. 'Jinhua' and 120 of cv. 'Yongkang') sampled from eight positions in the different fields to increase variation in soluble solids content, were measured after 2-days storage and the measurements randomly assigned to a calibration data set and a prediction data set. Thus the calibration set and the prediction set represented exactly the same distribution. The calibration data set was used to select the wavelengths best correlated with Brix and different regression methods (partial least squares (PLS) regression and multiple linear regression (MLR)) that was applied to calculate the Brix value in the prediction data set. The most significant r (0.9056) was found with the first derivative of log (1/R) (where R reflectance), yielding standard error of calibration (SEC)=0.545 Brix, standard error of prediction (SEP)=0.632 Brix. Analysis of different methods performed on the actual and the predicted Brix showed PLS is better than MLR. This NIR method seems reliable for determining soluble solids contents of chufa non-destructively, and could prove useful for it.

  12. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  13. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  14. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. For computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.

  15. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. Formore » computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.« less

  16. SERS, FT-Raman and FT-IR studies of dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylrajan, M.

    1995-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of dimethyl and diehtyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC and DEDTC) ions were obtained with different wavelength excitations in citrate reduced silver sol and compared with FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra. The red wavelength excitation shows large enhancement compared to green excitation. SERS spectra were compared with normal Raman spectra in both solid and solution form and assignments were made.

  17. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  18. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  19. Prediction of saturation using the carbon/oxygen log

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, S.C.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1984-09-01

    This project investigates the nature of Dresser-Atlas Carbon/Oxygen Log gamma ray spectra. It presents an attempt to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the C/O and Si/Ca parameters used by Dresser-Atlas to determine oil saturation. Two techniques were developed to subtract the Compton background from the spectral data. Neither technique significantly improves the accuracy of the cased-hole prediction of oil saturation. However, it has been shown that it is possible to develop a satisfactory correlation for oil saturation on a well-by-well basis. This correlation can then be used to generate oil-in-place from the C/O and Si/Ca ratios. 17 references.

  20. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  1. Log-rolling block copolymers cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Youn; Kim, Ye Chan; Kim, Dong Hyup; Kwon, Na Kyung; Register, Richard A.

    Shear has been the most effective method to create long range order of micro- or nano- structures in soft materials. When shear is applied, soft particles or polymers tend to align along the shear direction to minimize the viscous dissipation, thus transverse (so-called ``log-rolling'') alignment is unfavored. In this study, for the first time we report the transverse alignment of cylinder-forming block copolymers. Poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate), PS-PMMA, can form a metastable hemicylinder structure when confined in a thin film, and this hemicylinder structure can align either along the shear direction, or transverse to the shear direction (``log-rolling''), depending on the shearing temperature. This unusual ``log-rolling'' behavior is explained by the different chain mobility of the two blocks in PS-PMMA; the rigidity of core cylinder is the critical parameter determining the direction of shear alignment.

  2. 347. Caltrans, Photographer April 10, 1935 "500 FT. SPANS"; VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    347. Caltrans, Photographer April 10, 1935 "500 FT. SPANS"; VIEW OF THROUGH TRUSS (500 FT. SPANS) UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-613 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 1. Zinc Plant, looking north, down Government Gulch. 610 ft. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Zinc Plant, looking north, down Government Gulch. 610 ft. tall stack replaced original 200 ft. radial brick stack formerly at rear of Cottrell treater. - Sullivan Electrolytic Zinc Plant, Government Gulch, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  4. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  5. LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honerman, James

    1999-01-01

    Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

  6. Lithologic logs and geophysical logs from test drilling in Palm Beach County, Florida, since 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, Leo J.; McGovern, Michael C.; Fischer, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Test-hole data that may be used to determine the hydrogeology of the zone of high permeability in Palm Beach County, Fla., are presented. Lithologic logs from 46 test wells and geophysical logs from 40 test wells are contained in this report. (USGS)

  7. Arabidopsis lonely guy (LOG) multiple mutants reveal a central role of the LOG-dependent pathway in cytokinin activation.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Hiroki; Kojima, Mikiko; Kuroha, Takeshi; Ishida, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kiba, Takatoshi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play key roles in the maintenance of stem cell activity in plants. Although alternative single-step and two-step activation pathways for cytokinin have been proposed, the significance of the single-step pathway which is catalyzed by LONELY GUY (LOG), is not fully understood. We analyzed the metabolic flow of cytokinin activation in Arabidopsis log multiple mutants using stable isotope-labeled tracers and characterized the mutants' morphological and developmental phenotypes. In tracer experiments, cytokinin activation was inhibited most pronouncedly by log7, while the other log mutations had cumulative effects. Although sextuple or lower-order mutants did not show drastic phenotypes in vegetative growth, the log1log2log3log4log5log7log8 septuple T-DNA insertion mutant in which the LOG-dependent pathway is impaired, displayed severe retardation of shoot and root growth with defects in the maintenance of the apical meristems. Detailed observation of the mutants showed that LOG7 was required for the maintenance of shoot apical meristem size. LOG7 was also suggested to play a role for normal primary root growth together with LOG3 and LOG4. These results suggest a dominant role of the single-step activation pathway mediated by LOGs for cytokinin production, and overlapping but differentiated functions of the members of the LOG gene family in growth and development.

  8. MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

  9. Permeability extraction: A sonic log inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, N.; Kim, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors provide the missing important link between permeability and acoustic velocities by generating a permeability-dependent synthetic sonic log in a carbonate reservoir. The computations are based on Akbar`s theory that relates wave velocity to frequency, rock properties (e.g., lithology, permeability, and porosity), and fluid saturation and properties (viscosity, density, and compressibility). An inverted analytical expression of the theory is used to extract permeability from sonic velocity. The synthetic sonic and the computed permeability are compared with the observed sonic log and with plug permeability, respectively. The results demonstrate, as predicted by theory, that permeability can be related directly to acoustic velocities.

  10. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  11. Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

    1999-07-01

    A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

  12. Petroleomics by EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Corilo, Yuri E; Vaz, Boniek G; Simas, Rosineide C; Nascimento, Heliara D Lopes; Klitzke, Clécio F; Pereira, Rosana C L; Bastos, Wagner L; Santos Neto, Eugênio V; Rodgers, Ryan P; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-05-15

    An ambient ionization/desorption technique, namely, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI), has been applied to crude oil samples. From a single droplet of the sample placed on an inert surface, EASI(+/-) is shown to promote efficient desorption and ionization of a myriad of polar components via the action of its cloud of very minute supersonic bipolar charged droplets. The gaseous [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) ions concurrently formed by EASI(+/-) were analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), and a total of approximately 6000 acidic and basic components have been attributed. EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS of crude oils is show to be almost as fast as ESI(+)/ESI(-) FT-ICR MS, providing similar compositional information of polar components and spectral quality comparable to that of a commercial nonochip-based robotic ESI device. EASI(+/-) requires no sample workup thus eliminating risks of contamination during sample manipulation and memory effects because of carry over in pumping ESI lines. More importantly, EASI(+/-) is a voltage-free ionization technique therefore eliminating risks of redox processes or duality of ionization mechanisms that can be observed in voltage-assisted processes. Data visualization via typical petroleomic plots confirms the similarity of the compositional information provided by EASI(+/-) compared to ESI(+)/ESI(-). The ambient EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS method requires no voltage switching in changing the ion polarity mode, offering a workup, heating and voltage-free protocol for petroleomic studies performed at open atmosphere directly on the undisturbed crude oil sample.

  13. Notes on f(T) theories

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Li, Hui; Gong, Yungui E-mail: lihui@ytu.edu.cn E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn

    2011-07-01

    The cosmological models based on teleparallel gravity with nonzero torsion are considered. To investigate the evolution of this theory, we consider the phase-space analysis of the f(T) theory. It shows when the tension scalar can be written as an inverse function of x where x = ρ{sub e}/(3m{sub pl}{sup 2}H{sup 2}) and T = g(x), the system is an autonomous one. Furthermore, the ω{sub e}−ω'{sub e} phase analysis is given out. We perform the dynamical analysis for the models f(T) = βTln (T/T{sub 0}) and f(T) = αm{sub pl}{sup 2}(−T/m{sub pl}{sup 2}){sup n} particularly. We find that the universe will settle into de-Sitter phase for both models. And we have examined the evolution behavior of the power law form in the ω{sub ep}−ω'{sub ep} plane.

  14. Perfect fluid and F(T) gravity descriptions of inflationary universe and comparison with observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganiou, M. G.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Salako, Ines G.; Rodrigues, M. E.; Tossa, J.

    2016-07-01

    We describe in this paper the observables of inflationary models, in particular the spectrum index of torsion scalar perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the running of the spectral index, in the framework of perfect fluid models and F(T) gravity theories through the reconstruction methods. Then, our results on the perfect fluid and F(T) gravity theories of inflation are compared with recent cosmological observations such as the Planck satellite and BICEP2 experiment. Our studies prove that the perfect fluid and F(T) gravity models can reproduce the inflationary Universe consistent above all with the Planck data. We have reconstructed several models and considered others which give the best fit values compatible with the spectral index of curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the running of the spectral index within the allowed ranges suggested by the Planck and BICEP2 results. By taking the trace-anomaly into consideration, we have shown that the reconstructed models F(T) can not describe a finite de Sitter inflation without an additional constant n that we related to cosmological constant.

  15. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

  16. Discovering the Local Landscape: Pioneer Log Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Bob; And Others

    Building structures made from logs appeared in the eastern United States during the late 17th century, and immigrants from Sweden, Finland, and Germany are credited with their construction. There were two types of structures: the horizontal design introduced by the Scandinavians and the German or Pennsylvania Dutch model that was used by the…

  17. [Human development and log-periodic law].

    PubMed

    Cash, Roland; Chaline, Jean; Nottale, Laurent; Grou, Pierre

    2002-05-01

    We suggest applying the log-periodic law formerly used to describe various crisis phenomena, in biology (evolutionary leaps), inorganic systems (earthquakes), societies and economy (economic crisis, market crashes) to the various steps of human ontogeny. We find a statistically significant agreement between this model and the data.

  18. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  19. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  20. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... statement of any corrective action taken. (5) Entries must be made giving details of all work performed... written log signed by the operator who supervised or performed the work and, unless the operator is... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  1. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... statement of any corrective action taken. (5) Entries must be made giving details of all work performed... written log signed by the operator who supervised or performed the work and, unless the operator is... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  3. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  4. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  5. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  6. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  8. High-loading, 1800 ft/sec tip speed transonic compressor fan stage. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. L.; Halle, J. E.; Kennedy, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A single stage fan with a tip speed of 1800 ft/sec (548.6m/sec) and hub/tip ratio of 0.5 was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 2.285:1 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.0%. The design flow per inlet annulus area is 38.7 lbm/sq ft-sec (188.9KG/sqm-sec). Rotor blades have modified multiple-circular-arc and precompression airfoil sections. The stator vanes have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections.

  9. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  10. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-08-10

    "Lonely guy" (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a "PGGXGTXXE" motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms.

  11. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    “Lonely guy” (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a “PGGXGTXXE” motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms. PMID:27507425

  12. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  13. Results of borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in the John Wagner and Sons, Inc former production well, Ivyland, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    A suite of borehole geophysical logs and heat-pulse-flowmeter measurements run in the former production well at the John Wagner and Sons, Inc. plant indicate two zones of borehole flow. In the upper part of the well, water enters the borehole through a fracture at 90 ft (feet) below floor level, moves upward, and exits the borehole through a fracture at 72 ft below floor level. Water also enters the borehole through fractures at 205-213, 235, and 357 ft below floor level; moves downward; and exits the borehole through fractures at 450-459, 468-470, and 483-490 ft below floor level. Five zones were selected for aquifer-isolation (packer) tests on the basis of borehole geophysical logs. The zones were isolated using a straddle-packer assembly. The lowermost three zones (below 248, 223 to 248, and 198 to 223 ft below floor level) were hydraulically isolated from zones above and below. Specific capacities were 0.12, 0.034, and 0.15 gallons per minute per foot, respectively. The hydrograph from zone 2 (223 to 248 ft below floor level) showed interference from a nearby pumping well. For the upper two zones (81 to 106 and 57 to 81 ft below floor level), similar drawdowns in the isolated zone and the zones above and below the isolated zone indicate that these fractures are hydraulically connected outside the borehole in the unconfined part of the Stockton Formation. The specific capacity of zones 4 and 5 are similar--0.82 and 0.61, respectively.

  14. FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, D.

    1998-06-01

    FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial, plant animal or human cells, tissues, and body fluids are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions, and differentiate between various disease states. The spectral information potentially useful for biomedical characterizations may be distributed over the entire infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. over the near-, mid-, and far-infrared. It is therefore a key problem how the characteristic vibrational spectroscopic information can be systematically extracted from the infrared spectra of complex biological samples. In this report these questions are addressed by applying factor and cluster analysis treating the classification problem of microbial infrared spectra as a model task. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the FT-IR spectrometer. FT-IR spectra of single microcolonies of less than 40 μm in diameter can be obtained from colony replica applying a stamping technique that transfers the different, spatially separated microcolonies from the culture plate to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x,y-stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro-organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. Since high quality, essentially fluorescence free Raman spectra may now be obtained in relatively short time intervals on previously intractable biological specimens, FT-IR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used in tandem to characterize biological samples. This approach seems to open up new horizons for biomedical characterizations of complex biological systems.

  15. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation

  16. Determination of polymer log D distributions by micellar and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoyun; Leclercq, Laurent; Cottet, Hervé

    2013-11-29

    The characterization of the hydrophobicity of polymer compounds in solution remains a challenging issue of importance, especially for biomedical or pharmaceutical applications. To our knowledge, there is no data of polymer hydrophobicity (log D) in the literature. In this work, for the first time, the log D distributions of cationic polymers were characterized using micellar or microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography at physiological pH. The log D distributions of the polymer samples were obtained from the electrophoretic/chromatographic retardation of the polymer derivatives in presence of neutral micelles (or neutral microemulsion), using small cationic molecules for calibration. Separating electrolytes were based on a TRIS–chloride buffer containing a neutral surfactant (polyoxyethyleneglycoldodecyl ether) for the formation of micelles (in water) or microemulsion (in water/n-pentanol mixture).The log D distributions obtained at pH 7.4 using this method were in good agreement with the chemical structures of cationic polypeptides: poly(lys, phe) 1:1 > poly(lys, tyr) 1:1 > poly(lys, trp) 4:1 > poly(lys, ser)3:1 > poly(l-lysine), where x:y represents the molar ratio of each amino acid in the copolymer. Weight average octanol–water log D values and the dispersion of the log D distribution were also defined and determined for each polymer sample.

  17. 9-Ft By 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel Nozzle Improvement Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciano, Eric N.

    2014-01-01

    Engineers at the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center have recently embarked on a project focused on improving flow quality and tunnel capabilities in the 9-ft by 7-ft supersonic wind tunnel. Collaborating with Jacobs Tech Group, the project has explored potential improvements to the nozzle design using computational fluid dynamics. Preliminary predictions suggest changes to the nozzle design could significantly improve flow quality at the lower operating range (M1.5-1.8), however potential improvements in the upper operating range have yet to be realized.

  18. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  19. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    SciTech Connect

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  20. Log polar image sensor in CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Danny; Dierickx, Bart; Pardo, Fernando; Vlummens, Jan; Meynants, Guy; Hermans, Lou

    1996-08-01

    We report on the design, design issues, fabrication and performance of a log-polar CMOS image sensor. The sensor is developed for the use in a videophone system for deaf and hearing impaired people, who are not capable of communicating through a 'normal' telephone. The system allows 15 detailed images per second to be transmitted over existing telephone lines. This framerate is sufficient for conversations by means of sign language or lip reading. The pixel array of the sensor consists of 76 concentric circles with (up to) 128 pixels per circle, in total 8013 pixels. The interior pixels have a pitch of 14 micrometers, up to 250 micrometers at the border. The 8013-pixels image is mapped (log-polar transformation) in a X-Y addressable 76 by 128 array.

  1. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  2. NPH Log: Validation of a New Assessment Tool Leading to Earlier Diagnosis of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jennifer; Robison, Jamie; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Hulbert, Alicia; Sanyal, Abanti; Wemmer, Jan; Elder, Benjamin D; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) yields better postoperative outcomes. Our current tests often fail to detect significant changes at early stages. We developed a new scoring system (LP log score) to determine if this tool is more sensitive in detecting clinical differences than current tests. Material and Methods: Sixty-two consecutive new patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were studied. Secondary, previously treated and obstructive cases were not included. We collected age, pre- and post-lumbar puncture (LP) Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, European NPH scale, and LP log scores. The LP log score is recorded at baseline and for seven consecutive days after removing 40 cc of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via LP. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for surgical indication. Results: The post-LP log showed improvement in 90% of people with good baseline gait tests and in 93% of people who did not show any pre-LP and post-LP change in gait tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to detect intention to treat when positive post-LP improvements were 4%, 100%, and 24%, respectively, for TUG, 21%, 86%, and 34%, respectively, for the Tinetti Mobility Test, 66%, 29%, and 58%, respectively, for Medical College of Virginia (MCV) grade, and 98%, 33%, and 85%, respectively, for LP log score. Pre-LP and post-LP TUG improvement and pre-LP and post-LP Tinetti improvement were not associated with a surgical indication (p > 0.05). LP log improvement was associated with surgical indication odds ratio (OR): 24.5 95% CI (2.4-248.12) (p = 0.007). Conclusions: LP log showed better sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and association with surgical indication than the current diagnostic approach. An LP log may be useful detecting NPH patients at earlier stages and, therefore, yield better surgical outcomes. PMID:27489752

  3. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  4. Recording dowel pin position with plastic logs.

    PubMed

    Titus, H W; Draheim, R N

    1986-01-01

    Six readily available plastic materials were evaluated for use as a log for locating the ends of die dowel pins. Seven criteria were divided into two main categories of adherence qualities of the material and useability. Cost was the third category evaluated and compared. Color and availability were also considered. Forty-two sophomore dental students accomplished 84 evaluations. Plasticine and Weatherstrip Caulking Cord were found to meet all criteria best. PMID:3511239

  5. Flow logging applied in fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urík, J.; Lukeš, J.; Kobr, M.; Mareš, S.; Williams, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    Fractured zones are usually identified by the basic logging methods but the volume of permeable fractures intersecting boreholes is often too small for their identification. Fluid logging measurements can help to localize natural flow and determine hydraulic properties of fractures during the pumping. Borehole flowmeter measurements or fluid logging measurements are conventional methods used for the determination of quantitative parameters of the flowing fluid in boreholes with the goal to estimate hydraulic conductivity of aquifers. With the increasing interest in the research of fractured formations and their hydraulic properties, new field techniques based on the repeated measurement of the vertical velocity in an observation borehole during the short hydraulic test (hydraulic pulse) in an other borehole of the tested locality have been elaborated. There is a tendency to increase the lateral range of investigation, it means to make the cross-hole tests in boreholes with greater distance. Such cross-hole tests need to make the measurement of the induced vertical flow in the observation borehole with high resolution flowmeters able to measure vertical flow velocities in the range 10-4 m/s and the flow rates in the range 10-6 m3/s. The new photometric flowmeter was developed for this purpose. The results of the photometric flowmeter measurements were compared with the fluid logging measurements and with heat-pulse flowmeter measurements. In our contribution examples of the comparison of measurements mentioned above in two boreholes situated in granite massif in the Czech Republic are demonstrated. Boreholes were drilled in the program of Czech state institution SÚRAO (Radioactive Waste Repository Authority). The research project is financially supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under the No. 208/07/0777.

  6. Micro FT-IR Characterization Of Human Lung Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Enzo; Teodori, L.; Vergamini, Piergiorgio; Trinca, M. L.; Mauro, F.; Salvati, F.; Spremolla, Giuliano

    1989-12-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has opened up a new approach to the analytical study of cell transformation. Investigations carried out in normal and leukemic lymphocytes have evidenced an increase in DNA with respect to proteic components in neoplastic cells.(1) The evaluation of the ratio of the integrated areas(A) of the bands at 1080 cm-1 (mainly DNA) and at 1540 cm-1 (proteic components) has allowed us to establish a parameter which indicates, for values above 1.5, the neoplastic nature of cells. Recently, this approach has been applied to the study of human lung tumor cells. Several monocellular suspension procedures of the tissue fragment (mechanical and/or chemical) were tested to obtain reproducible and reliable spectra able to differentiate clearly between normal and patological cells. Chemical treatment (EDTA, Pepsin, Collagenase, etc.) produced additional bands in the spectra of the cells causing distortion of the profiles of some absorptions, and as a result, mechanical treatment was preferred. The normal and neoplastic cells homogeneously distributed by cytospin preparation on BaF2 windows were examined by means of FT-IR microscopy. An examination of several microareas of each sample yielded reproducible spectra, with values of the A 1080 cm-1 / A 1540 cm-1 parameter within a very narrow range for each sample, even if certain differences still remained among the different cases, in good agreement with the results obtained for leukemic cells.(1) The value of this parameter was found to be lower for cells isolated from the normal area of lung, than in the case of those corresponding to the tumoral area, meaning that an increase occurs in DNA with respect to the proteic components. These insights, which provide a basis to obtain indications at the molecular level, can open up new possibilities in clinical practice, in order to obtain diagnosis confirmation, to detect early stages of disease and to offer additional indications in cases of dubious interpretation.

  7. Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, S.

    2013-04-01

    The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my “ASTRO 101” class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

  8. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  9. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-02-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.

  10. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  11. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  12. Theoretical (DFT) and experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR) investigations on 7-Acetoxy-4-(bromomethyl)coumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogdu, Y.; Saglam, S.; Dereli, Ö.

    2015-09-01

    An analysis of the results of the structural and spectroscopic studies of 7-Acetoxy-4-(bromomethyl) coumarin (7A4BMC) molecule were performed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and quantum chemical calculations. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 7A4BMC were recorded in the 400-4000 and 50-3500 cm-1 region, respectively. The molecular conformations of 7A4BMC were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular structure and spectral calculations were calculated by means of B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p), cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The whole vibrational characteristics of the 7A4BMC molecule are given.

  13. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables. PMID

  14. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables.

  15. High precision X-ray log N - log S distributions: implications for the obscured AGN population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, S.; Warwick, R. S.; Carrera, F. J.; Stewart, G. C.; Ebrero, J.; Della Ceca, R.; Caccianiga, A.; Gilli, R.; Page, M. J.; Treister, E.; Tedds, J. A.; Watson, M. G.; Lamer, G.; Saxton, R. D.; Brunner, H.; Page, C. G.

    2008-12-01

    Context: Our knowledge of the properties of AGN, especially those of optical type-2 objects, is very incomplete. Because extragalactic source count distributions are dependent on the cosmological and statistical properties of AGN, they provide a direct method of investigating the underlying source populations. Aims: We aim to constrain the extragalactic source count distributions over a broad range of X-ray fluxes and in various energy bands to test whether the predictions from X-ray background synthesis models agree with the observational constraints provided by our measurements. Methods: We have used 1129 XMM-Newton observations at |b|>20° covering a total sky area of 132.3 deg2 to compile the largest complete samples of X-ray selected objects to date both in the 0.5-1 keV, 1-2 keV, 2-4.5 keV, 4.5-10 keV bands employed in standard XMM-Newton data processing and in the 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV energy bands more usually considered in source count studies. Our survey includes in excess of 30 000 sources and spans fluxes from 10-15 to 10-12 erg cm^{-2 s-1} below 2 keV and from 10-14 to 10-12 erg cm^{-2 s-1} above 2 keV where the bulk of the cosmic X-ray background energy density is produced. Results: The very large sample size we obtained means our results are not limited by cosmic variance or low counting statistics. A break in the source count distributions was detected in all energy bands except the 4.5-10 keV band. We find that an analytical model comprising 2 power-law components cannot adequately describe the curvature seen in the source count distributions. The shape of the log N(>S) - log S is strongly dependent on the energy band with a general steepening apparent as we move to higher energies. This is due to the fact that non-AGN populations, comprised mainly of stars and clusters of galaxies, contribute up to 30% of the source population at energies <2 keV and at fluxes ≥10-13 erg cm^{-2 s-1}, and these populations of objects have significantly flatter

  16. Contribution of logging data to sedimentology and stratigraphy. [Electrofacies

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, O.; Abbott, H.T.

    1982-02-01

    A technique has been developed using multivariate analysis of logging data to give a high-resolution sedimentological description of any sequence of formations. The number of different logs and their range allow determination of many of the physical characteristics of the rock. The definition of a lithofacies has been extended by introducing the concept of an electrofacies, constructed on the basis of all the logging data at any depth interval. Each logging datum is considered a descriptor for purposes of establishing electrofacies in a logged interval. Once established, electrofacies then can be correlated with actual geologic facies, if the logged interval has been cored. 23 refs.

  17. The Inversion of NMR Log Data Sets with Different Measurement Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Keh-Jim; LaTorraca, Gerald A.

    1999-09-01

    We present a composite-data processing method which simultaneously processes two or more data sets with different measurement errors. We examine the role of the noise level of the data in the singular value decomposition inversion process, the criteria for a proper cutoff, and its effect on the uncertainty of the solution. Examples of processed logs using the composite-data processing method are presented and discussed. The possible usefulness of the apparent T1/T2 ratio extracted from the logs is illustrated.

  18. The inversion of NMR log data sets with different measurement errors.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K J; LaTorraca, G A

    1999-09-01

    We present a composite-data processing method which simultaneously processes two or more data sets with different measurement errors. We examine the role of the noise level of the data in the singular value decomposition inversion process, the criteria for a proper cutoff, and its effect on the uncertainty of the solution. Examples of processed logs using the composite-data processing method are presented and discussed. The possible usefulness of the apparent T(1)/T(2) ratio extracted from the logs is illustrated. PMID:10479558

  19. Theoretical studies of permeability inversion from seismoelectric logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Guan, W.; Zhao, W.

    2012-04-01

    Permeability is one of the most important parameters for evaluating the level of difficulty in oil and gas exploitation. A quick, continuous and accurate in-situ estimate of reservoir permeability is highly significant. Stoneley wave logs have been used to determine formation permeability (Tang and Cheng, 1996). However, the inversion errors of this method are too big in low-permeability formations, especially in high-porosity and low-permeability formations resulting from the high clay content in pores. In this study, we propose to invert permeability by using the full waveforms of seismoelectric logs with low frequencies. This method is based on the relationship of permeability with the ratio of the electric excitation intensity to the pressure field's (REP) with respect to the Stoneley wave in seismoelectric logs. By solving the governing equations for electrokinetic coupled wavefields in homogeneous fluid-saturated porous media (Pride, 1994), we calculate the full waveforms of the borehole seismoelectric wavefields excited by a point pressure source and investigate frequency-dependent excitation intensities of the mode waves and excitation intensities of the real branch points in seismoelectric logs. It is found that the REP's phase, which reflects the phase discrepancy between the Stoneley-wave-induced electric field and the acoustic pressure, is sensitive to formation permeability. To check the relation between permeability and REP's phase qualitatively, an approximate expression of the tangent of the REP's argument is derived theoretically as tan(θEP) ≈-ωc/ω = -φη/ (2πfα ∞ρfκ0), where θEPdenotes the arguments of the REP and their principal value is the REP's phase,ω is the angular frequency,ωc is a critical angular frequency that separates the low-frequency viscous flow from the high-frequency inertial flow, φ is the porosity, α∞ is the tortuosity, κ0 is the Darcy permeability, ρf and η are the density and the viscosity of the pore

  20. Construction Diagrams, Geophysical Logs, and Lithologic Descriptions for Boreholes USGS 126a, 126b, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 134, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from ten U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) boreholes completed between 1999 nd 2006 at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): USGS 126a, 126b, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 134. Nine boreholes were continuously cored; USGS 126b had 5 ft of core. Completion depths range from 472 to 1,238 ft. Geophysical data were collected for each borehole, and those data are summarized in this report. Cores were photographed and digitally logged using commercially available software. Digital core logs are in appendixes A through J. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered. This report was prepared by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. Novel FT-IR Microspectroscopic Census of Simple Starch Granules for Octenyl Succinate Ester Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Y.; Shi, Y; Wetzel, D

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was used to investigate reaction homogeneity of octenyl succinic anhydride modification on waxy maize starch and detect uniformity of blends of modified and native starches. For the first time, the level and uniformity of chemical substitution on individual starch granules were analyzed by FT-IR microspectroscopy. More than 100 starch granules of each sample were analyzed one by one by FT-IR microspectroscopy. In comparison to the native starch, modified starch had two additional bands at 1723 and 1563 cm{sup -1}, indicative of ester formation in the modified starch. For the 3% modification level, the degree of substitution (DS) was low (0.019) and the distribution of the ester group was not uniform among starch granules. For the modified starch with DS of 0.073, 99% of individual starch granules had a large carbonyl band area, indicating that most granules were modified to a sufficient extent that the presence of their carbonyl ester classified them individually as being modified. However, the octenyl succinate concentration varied between granules, suggesting that the reaction was not uniform. When modified starch (DS = 0.073) was blended with native starch (3:7, w/w) to achieve a mixture with an average DS of 0.019, FT-IR microspectroscopy was able to detect heterogeneity of octenyl succinate in the blend and determine the ratio of the modified starch to the native starch granules.

  2. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  3. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test and Binary Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nydick, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common method for terminating item response theory (IRT)-based adaptive classification tests. To decide whether a classification test should stop, the SPRT compares a simple log-likelihood ratio, based on the classification bound separating two categories, to prespecified critical values. As has…

  4. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  5. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, Wei

    1998-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction the necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content. For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication.

  6. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation.

  7. Characterization of the Marcellus Shale based on computer-assisted correlation of wireline logs in Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Coleman, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian basin extends from central Ohio on the west to eastern New York on the east, and from north-central New York on the north to northern Tennessee on the south. Its thickness ranges from 0 feet (ft) where it pinches out to the west to as much as 700 ft in its eastern extent. Within the Broadtop synclinorium, the thickness of the Marcellus Shale ranges from 250 to 565 ft. Although stratigraphic complexities have been documented, a significant range in thickness most likely is because of tectonic thickening from folds and thrust faults. Outcrop studies in the Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateaus provinces illustrate the challenges of interpreting the relation of third-order faults, folds, and “disturbed” zones to the regional tectonic framework. Recent field work within the Valley and Ridge province determined that significant faulting and intraformational deformation are present within the Marcellus Shale at the outcrop scale. In an attempt to determine if this scale of deformation is detectable with conventional wireline logs, petrophysical properties (primarily mineralogy and porosity) were measured by interpretation of gamma-ray and bulk-density logs. The results of performing a statistical correlation of wireline logs from nine wells indicated that there are discontinuities within the Millboro Shale (undifferentiated Marcellus Shale and Mahantango Formation) where there are significant thickness differences between wells. Also, some intervals likely contain mineralogy that makes these zones more prone to layer-shortening cleavage duplexes. The Correlator program proved to be a useful tool in a region of contractional deformation.

  8. 2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS FROM POND TO JACK LADDER--AN ENDLESS CHAIN CONVEYOR THAT MOVES LOGS INTO MILL - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  9. 4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on later extension. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  10. 8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED JACKSLIP USED FOR HAULING LOGS UP TO SAWMILL. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  11. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  12. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  13. Apparatus for focused electrode induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1986-04-15

    An induced polarization logging tool is described for measuring parameters of a formation surrounding a borehole. The logging tool consists of: a non-conductive logging sonde; a plurality of electrodes disposed on the sonde, the electrodes including at least a survey current electrode and guard electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the survey current electrode, a non-polarizing voltage measuring electrode, a non-polarizing voltage reference electrode and a current return electrode, both the voltage reference and current return electrodes being located a greater distance from the survey current electrode than the guard electrodes; means connected to the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes for generating a signal representative of the potential difference in the formation between the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes; first control means directly coupled to the survey current electrode, the first control means controlling the current flow to the survey current electrode in response to the potential difference signal; a second control means directly coupled to the guard electrodes to control the current flow to the guard electrodes in response to the potential difference signal; a source of alternating current located at the surface, one end of the source being coupled to the two control means and the other to the current return electrode, the source supplying alternating current at various discrete frequencies between substantially 0.01 and 100 Hz; measurement means directly coupled to the voltage measurement and survey current electrodes to measure the amplitude and phase of the voltage induced in the formation and the amplitude and phase of the current flow to the survey electrode; and transmission means for transmitting the measurements to the surface.

  14. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  15. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  16. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  17. Identifying related journals through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

  18. VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benoît.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

  19. Nonlinear filters with log-homotopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2007-09-01

    We derive and test a new nonlinear filter that implements Bayes' rule using an ODE rather than with a pointwise multiplication of two functions. This avoids one of the fundamental and well known problems in particle filters, namely "particle collapse" as a result of Bayes' rule. We use a log-homotopy to construct this ODE. Our new algorithm is vastly superior to the classic particle filter, and we do not use any proposal density supplied by an EKF or UKF or other outside source. This paper was written for normal engineers, who do not have homotopy for breakfast.

  20. Viscous pilgrim f(T) gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Rani, Shamaila

    2016-07-01

    The present paper reports a study on the cosmological consequences of pilgrim dark energy model in the framework of generalized teleparallel gravity. We consider a reconstruction scheme for f(T) models with power law scale factor taking Hubble horizon and Nojiri-Odintsov length as infrared cutoffs. We consider a time dependent viscous model through effective pressure in order to incorporate the effect of viscosity in the models. We study accelerated expansion of the universe through effective equation of state parameter, which represents cosmological constant and phantom behavior consistent with the observational data. To check the stability of the models we use squared speed of sound parameter, which shows that the model is stable for higher values of scale factor parameter. Analysis of the plane containing effective equation of state parameter with its evolutionary parameter indicates freezing region of the accelerated expansion and viability of the model has been tested through observational data.

  1. [FT4 immunoassay interference : A case report].

    PubMed

    Chaabouni, Khansa; Hargafi, Khaoula; Elleuch, Aida; Messedi, Mariem; Turki, Mouna; Lahyani, Amina; Ayedi, Fatma

    2015-04-01

    Measurement of thyrotropin and free thyroxin made using immunoassays are usually needed in clinical endocrinology. Here, we report a case of a patient with type 2 diabetes who presented a weight loss. To eliminate hyperthyroidism, thyroid function tests were performed. Free thyroxin (FT4) was decreased using two automated immunoassays TOSOH AIA 1800 and Roche ELECSYS 2010, with a normal thyrotropin value. Thyroid function tests repeated a month later were normal. The patient's history revealed contact with sheep, which may partly explain the interference. Investigations into the patient's serum were carried out using both the PEG test and dilution test. Interference factors were probably antibodies. Despite progress in immunoassays, we should be aware of interference occurrence since it can lead to false results, unnecessary investigations and incorrect treatment. Thus, simple tests must be carried out as if interference in immunoassays were suspected. Dilutions and PEG tests are generally performed as first line investigations. PMID:26375746

  2. Outcrop gamma-ray logging applied to subsurface petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Slatt, R.M.; Borer, J.M.; Horn, B.W.

    1995-10-01

    Developing a gamma-ray log profile of an outcrop with a hand-held scintillometer has many applications to subsurface petroleum geology. The outcrop gamma-ray log provides a readily understandable bridge between what is observed in outcrop and what is to be interpreted on well logs and seismic records. Several examples are presented in this paper that demonstrate major applications. An outcrop from the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in Colorado provides an excellent example of the use of outcrop gamma-ray logs to better visualize spatial variability of depositional settings for improved well log correlations. Out crops from the Cretaceous Almond Formation, Niobrara Formation, and Graneros Shale in Colorado serve as examples of outcrop gamma-ray logging used to correlate outcrops with their subsurface equivalents for improved lithologic and stratigraphic interpretation of well logs. Outcrops of the Cretaceous Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale in Colorado and the Eocene Green River Formation in Wyoming provide examples of the application of outcrop-gamma ray logging to identify and characterize organic-rich shales in outcrops and on well logs. Outcrops of the Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation in Arkansas demonstrate the use of outcrop logging to yield improved interpretation of reservoir quality on well logs and for one- and two-dimensional seismic modeling. An outcrop of Precambrian and Cambro-Ordovician rocks from Algeria provides an example of outcrop logging to recognize unconformities and other major surfaces on well logs. An outcrop of the Niobrara Formation in Colorado is used as an example for improved understanding of horizontal gamma-ray log response. The example logs presented are all drived with a hand-held scintillometer. This technique is simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive, so is recommended for any outcrop work that is intended to be applied t;o subsurface well logs or seismic interpretation.

  3. Logging of post-test and CCH record core samples for the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, R.; Qualheim, B.

    1985-02-01

    Over 1300 ft of core obtained from 50 boreholes are described, with emphasis on the nature and orientations of geologic discontinuities in the Climax Stock. Although most of the core was not oriented with respect to global coordinates, approximate orientations of planar features, such as joints, veins, and sheer fractures, were obtained by taking core measurements relative to a set of low-angle joints found throughout the rock mass. The method for determining the approximate core orientation is described in detail, and the associated uncertainty is discussed. A graphic fracture log for each hole is provided, along with the computer code used to generate it.

  4. Movement of geothermal fluid in the Cerro Prieto field as determined from well log and reservoir engineering data

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in its undisturbed state, developed on the basis of well log and reservoir engineering data, is discussed. According to this model, geothermal fluid enters the field from the east through a deep (>10,000 ft) sandstone aquifer which is overlain by a thick shale unit which locally prevents the upward migration of the fluid. As it flows westward, the fluid gradually rises through faults and sandy gaps in the shale unit. Eventually, some of the fluid leaks to the surface in the western part of the field, while the rest mixes with surrounding colder waters.

  5. Light bending in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of f(T) gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian f(T) = T + αT2, where α is a small constant which parametrizes the departure from general relativity (GR). In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter α by means of observations. In particular, on taking into account the astrometric accuracy in the Solar System, we obtain that |α|≤ 1.85 × 105m2; this bound is looser than those deriving from the analysis of Solar System dynamics, e.g. |α|≤ 5 × 10-1m2 [L. Iorio, N. Radicella and M. L. Ruggiero, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1508 (2015) 021, arXiv:1505.06996 [gr-qc].], |α|≤ 1.8 × 104m2 [L. Iorio and E. N. Saridakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 (2012) 1555, arXiv:1203.5781 [gr-qc].] or |α|≤ 1.2 × 102m2 [Y. Xie and X. M. Deng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 (2013) 3584, arXiv:1312.4103 [gr-qc].]. However, we suggest that, since the effect only depends on the impact parameter, better constraints could be obtained by studying light bending from planetary objects.

  6. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  7. 46 CFR 131.620 - Matters that must be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters that must be logged. 131.620 Section 131.620 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Logs § 131.620 Matters that must be logged. The following matters must be entered in each vessel's...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log and radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs....

  9. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  10. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  11. Learning Logs in the Science Classroom: The Literacy Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenson, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses one of the most functional forms of writing to learn, the two-column learning logs. Two-column learning logs are based on the premise that collecting information and processing information are two very different aspects of learning. Two-column logs allow students to connect the facts and theories of science to…

  12. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  13. Intensifying the Group Member's Experience Using the Group Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valine, Warren J.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the use of a group log in which members analyze the content and process of each session using a suggested format. The log promotes dialogue between the leader and each group member and involves members more fully in the group process. Feedback indicates the log is valuable. (JAC)

  14. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific licenses for well logging. 39.13 Section 39.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve...

  15. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or timber product means any product classifiable in Chapter 44 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  16. The Learning Log as an Integrated Instructional Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topaz, Beverley

    1997-01-01

    Use of student learning logs is recommended as a means for both students and teacher to assess second-language learning. The approach encourages learners to analyze their learning difficulties and plan for overcoming them. Incorporated into portfolios, logs can be used to analyze progress. Sample log sheet and chart used as a framework for…

  17. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  18. Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft

  19. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  20. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  1. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  2. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  3. Ice logging with light and sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay, Ryan C.; Bramall, Nathan; Price, P. Buford

    Polar ice may well be the purest solid substance on Earth, and yet the impurities it contains—gases, dust, and micro-organisms—provide a rich record of Earth's past climate, volcanism, and one-celled life going back ˜400,000 years. Until recently detailed records had been deciphered mostly in chemical and biological laboratories from meter-long ice cores removed by drills capable of coring to bedrock thousands of meters down. Now, borehole instruments are adding a new dimension to the study of ice sheets. They can rapidly log records of past climate, volcanism, c-axis ice fabric, and soon, even microbial life and grain size. Gary Clow, a pioneer in borehole logging, has been measuring temperature profiles that provide information on climate and ice flow [Dahl-Jensen et al., 1998]. From sonic velocity profiles, Kendrick Taylor and Gregg Lamorey are able to infer c-axis fabrics, which record the history of ice flow Robert Hawley and Ed Waddington have developed a video logger that detects annual layers in firn ice.

  4. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin

    2007-05-01

    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples. PMID:17466778

  5. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR) and computational studies on 3-methoxyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaranjini, T.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Karabacak, M.; Asiri, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molecular structure, vibrational, UV and NMR spectra of 3-methoxyaniline (abbreviated as 3MOA, C7H9NO) were studied. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded. The ground-state molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP methods and 6-311++G(d, p) as a basis set. The fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 3MOA with calculated results by HF and DFT methods indicates that B3LYP is superior to HF method for molecular vibrational problems. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. A study on the Mulliken atomic charges, the electronic properties were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach, Frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed and compared with methoxybenzene and aniline. The electric dipole moment (μ) and the first hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results also show that the 3MOA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results.

  6. Misleading FT4 measurement: Assay-dependent antibody interference

    PubMed Central

    Revet, Ingrid; Boesten, Lianne SM; Linthorst, Jan; Yildiz, Elif; Janssen, Johannes W; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Albersen, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Commonly used free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays can be falsely elevated due to interference causing misinterpreted thyroid function. We present two cases with high FT4 concentrations due to antibody interference. This study’s aim was to investigate the source of the FT4 immunoassay interference and possibility of its removal by two different techniques in order to correct the discrepancy between obtained FT4 values and the patient’s clinical status. Materials and methods Two patients presented at their general practitioners’ with elevated FT4 concentrations in combination with a normal and increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Clinical symptoms differed between patients but did not correspond with the hyperthyroid status suggested by the laboratory results. FT4 concentrations from both patients were measured on four common commercial immunoassays and the dialysis method before and after treatment with heterophilic blocking tubes and protein A/G. Results Removal of interfering antibodies using protein A/G resulted in normal FT4 concentrations. Conclusion This report illustrates falsely elevated FT4 concentrations due to assay interference on the Immulite immunoassay analyser caused by heterophilic antibodies, which were eliminated by protein A/G treatment. We point out the importance of a close collaboration between doctors and the laboratory to avoid unnecessary clinical intervention.

  7. A 928 sq m (10000 sq ft) solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    As the power requirements for space vehicles increases, the area of solar arrays that convert solar energy to usable electrical power increases. The requirements for a 928 sq m (10,000 sq ft) array, its design, and a full-scale demonstration of one quadrant (232 sq m (2500 sq ft)) deployed in a one-g field are described.

  8. Additional borehole geophysical logging at Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This technical memorandum describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected coreholes at Waste Area Grouping 1 between March and November 1991 in support of the remedial investigation. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify fractured bedrock zones and identify those fractured bedrock zones participating in active groundwater flow, (2) correlate the fractured intervals with the regional stratigraphy described, and (3) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic correlations with existing logs for coreholes CH001 through CH005. Fractured bedrock zones and active or open fractures were identified in all coreholes logged. The fracture identification and analysis process was intended to distinguish between open or active fractures participating in active groundwater flow and closed or inactive fractures that are partially or completely filled (such as with calcite mineralization) and do not support groundwater circulation. Most of the fractures identified are bedding plane. Fracture occurrence varies with the different units of the Chickamauga Group; the greatest density of fractures and active fractures occurs in the upper 150 ft of stratum cored. Fractures actively contributing to groundwater flow were also identified, and direction of fluid movement within fractures was identified for those coreholes with flowmeter data.

  9. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

  10. Self-consistent Modeling of the logN-logS in the Poisson Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourlas, E.; Kashyap, V.; Zezas, A.; van Dyk, D.

    2004-08-01

    logN-logS curves are a fundamental tool in the study of source populations, luminosity functions, and cosmological parameters. However, their determination is hampered by statistical effects such as the Eddington bias, incompleteness due to detection efficiency, faint source flux fluctuations, etc. Here we present a new and powerful method using the full Poisson machinery that allows us to model the logN-logS distribution of X-ray sources in a self-consistent manner. Because we properly account for all the above statistical effects, our modeling is valid over the full range of the data. We use a Bayesian approach, modeling the fluxes with known functional forms such as simple or broken power-laws. The expected photon counts are conditioned on the fluxes, the background contamination, effective area, detector vignetting, and detection probability. The built-in flexibility of the algorithm also allows a simultaneous analysis of multiple datasets. We demonstrate the power of our algorithm by applying it to a set of Chandra observations. This project is part of the California-Harvard/CXC AstroStatistics Collaboration. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding for this project partially provided by NSF grant DMS-01-04129 and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073, and NASA grants NCC2-1350 and NAG5-13056.

  11. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources.

  12. Artificial intelligence and mathematical modeling applied to wireline log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, K.A.

    1995-08-01

    Wireline log interpretation is a powerful tool for evaluation of formation characteristics which in turn are used for identification of reservoir and estimation of recoverable hydrocarbons. The log data is stored and plotted using computer applications but manual procedures are mostly adopted for reading the logs and interpreting their signature into the subsurface formations. Keeping in view the new trend of applying artificial intelligence and neural networks to geological applications, an artificial intelligence based approach has been developed for computerized interpretation of logs. The working of this technique involves mathematical models based on curve analyzers which take into account the changing trend of each log curve and then pool out parameters to mathematical equations or directly to the artificial intelligent logic. Such logic has been developed for interpreting all major types of logs like spontaneous potential, gamma ray, sonic, density, neuron and various types of resistivity logs. Thus each log is interpreted independently, for example sand line and shale base lines are automatically marked from spontaneous potential logs and clay percentage is mapped from gamma ray logs. Finally an integrated artificial intelligent analysis takes into account all the logs, their independent interpretations and the local geological information and interprets the subsurface geological picture comprising of various formations.

  13. Optics based biometric encryption using log polar transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-01-01

    We propose an optics based biometric encryption technique using log polar transform. In this method, the key of the encryption process has been linked to the fingerprint of the enrolled person. The order of fractional Fourier transform and the seed values of the chaotic random phase masks in combination act as the key for the encryption process. In order to link the combined key to the fingerprint, a lookup table has been formed by the key and the log polar transform of the fingerprint. The linking algorithm not only encrypts the image of the enrolled person but also authenticates the input image. The main advantage of this method is its capability to retrieve the same key in the decryption process by using the live fingerprint. The key is not required to be communicated to the receiver side. The retrieval of the image is possible only when the live fingerprint of the enrolled person is presented at the decryption side. The real life fingerprints have been used to demonstrate the proposed technique. Simulations have been performed on the Matlab platform to validate the proposed technique. The signal to noise ratio and mean square error has been calculated in order to support the proposed technique. The effect of the rotation and the scaling of the fingerprints have been studied to check the key retrieval from the live fingerprint of the enrolled person. The study of the different whorl types of fingerprint of different persons has also been done to check the efficacy of the key retrieval from the whorl types of the live fingerprints of different person.

  14. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering.

  15. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering. PMID:27171983

  16. Understanding MWD data acquisition can improve log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Fagin, R.A. )

    1994-02-14

    By understanding how measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tools acquire data and how the data are processed, engineers and geologists can better interpret MWD logs. Wire line and MWD log data sometimes do not precisely match. If a discrepancy occurs between MWD and wire line logs run across the same interval, many log interpreters will condemn the MWD data. Recognizing the differences and the correct data requires a better understanding of the MWD tool operational principles. Because MWD logs are becoming more widely accepted as quantitative replacements for equivalent wire line logs, the differences between logs should be analyzed logically. This paper discusses these differences by describing the following: time-based acquisition, filtering, depth control, environmental variables, and quality control.

  17. In-situ gas hydrate hydrate saturation estimated from various well logs at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed detailed analysis and interpretation of available 2-D and 3-D seismic data and proposed a viable method for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the gas hydrate stability zone in the Milne Point area of northern Alaska. To validate the predictions of the USGS and to acquire critical reservoir data needed to develop a long-term production testing program, a well was drilled at the Mount Elbert prospect in February, 2007. Numerous well log data and cores were acquired to estimate in-situ gas hydrate saturations and reservoir properties.Gas hydrate saturations were estimated from various well logs such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), P- and S-wave velocity, and electrical resistivity logs along with pore-water salinity. Gas hydrate saturations from the NMR log agree well with those estimated from P- and S-wave velocity data. Because of the low salinity of the connate water and the low formation temperature, the resistivity of connate water is comparable to that of shale. Therefore, the effect of clay should be accounted for to accurately estimate gas hydrate saturations from the resistivity data. Two highly gas hydrate-saturated intervals are identified - an upper ???43 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 54% and a lower ???53 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 50%; both zones reach a maximum of about 75% saturation. ?? 2009.

  18. Calibration Tests of a Japanese Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.

    1949-01-01

    A Japanese log rodmeter of the rotating-vane impeller type, with a co mmutator on the impeller shaft, was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1. The rotational speed of two impellers was determined for forward speeds up to 24 knots at angles of yaw up to ?10 0 . In general, the rota tional speeds of two apparently identical impellers tested in the rod meter decreased with increasing yaw angle, right yaw causing a greate r decrease than left yaw. The difference in calibration between the t wo impellers was approximately the same as that produced by a change in yaw angle from 50 left to 50 right. Evidence of cavitation within the impeller fairing appeared at speeds above 24 knots.

  19. Tolerance bounds for log gamma regression models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Scholz, F. W.; Ossiander, M.; Shorack, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present procedure for finding lower confidence bounds for the quantiles of Weibull populations, on the basis of the solution of a quadratic equation, is more accurate than current Monte Carlo tables and extends to any location-scale family. It is shown that this method is accurate for all members of the log gamma(K) family, where K = 1/2 to infinity, and works well for censored data, while also extending to regression data. An even more accurate procedure involving an approximation to the Lawless (1982) conditional procedure, with numerical integrations whose tables are independent of the data, is also presented. These methods are applied to the case of failure strengths of ceramic specimens from each of three billets of Si3N4, which have undergone flexural strength testing.

  20. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  1. Preparation of specific-yield logs for clastic bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific yield is the principal aquifer characteristic needed to estimate the volume of recoverable ground water in storage in an aquifer. Determination of specific yield can be difficult and costly, particularly in deep, confined aquifers where core drilling and core analyses may be needed to define specific yield. A method has been developed for preparation of specific-yield geophysical logs that could greatly ease the determination of specific yields in such aquifers. Three geophysical logs that were investigated as potential indicators of specific yield were the free fluid index log, the effective-porosity log, and the apparent grain-density log. The free fluid index log did not accurately represent conditions at the test site in central Colorado and may not be suitable for application in other shallow and permeable aquifers. The effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs were each used in least-squares linear regressions to correlate log response to specific yield measured in core samples. The resulting regression equations have coefficients of correlation (R) of 0.84 and 0.90, and were used to successfully prepare specific-yield logs from the effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs.

  2. Geophysical logging case history of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Moens, T.A.

    1980-04-01

    Drilling to evaluate the geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley began in 1974 and resulted in the discovery of a geothermal reservoir at a depth of approximately 1523 m (500 ft). Several organizations and companies have been involved in the geophysical logging program. There is no comprehensive report on the geophysical logging, nor has there been a complete interpretation. The objectives of this study are to make an integrated interpretation of the available data and compile a case history. Emphasis has been on developing a simple interpretation scheme from a minimum of data sets. The Raft River geothermal system occurs in the Raft River Valley, which is a portion of the Basin and Range geomorphic province located in south central Idaho, south of the Snake River Plain. The valley is a late Cenozoic structural downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. The downwarp is filled with Tertiary and Paleozoic sediments, metasediments, and volcanics that overlie Precambrian rocks. The variety of rock types, the presence of alteration products, and the variability of fracturing make reliable interpretations difficult. However, the cross plotting of various parameters has allowed a determination of rock types and an analysis of the degree of alteration and the density of fractures. Thus, one can determine the relevant data necessary to assess a geothermal reservoir in similar rock types and use cross plots to potentially define the producing zones.

  3. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25088557

  4. Comprehensive glacial sediment characterization and correlation with natural gamma log response to identify hydrostratigraphic units in a rotosonic well core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, A. L.; Lemke, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Common borehole geophysical methods use electrical, acoustic, and nuclear measurements to determine physical and chemical characteristics of soils and rocks encountered while drilling. In texturally and mineralogically mature detrital sediments, natural gamma logs are frequently used to differentiate coarse and fine textures that exert primary control on fluid flow in reservoir and aquifer units. Interpretation of natural gamma log response in immature sediments can be complicated by the presence of clays in the fine fraction of poorly sorted units and further confounded in heterogeneous glacial sediments which characteristically display a high degree of vertical and lateral lithologic variability. This study examined natural gamma log response to textural and mineralogical variability in a continuous 70m (230ft) rotosonic borehole drilled through Pleistocene glacial sediments west of Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. The objective of the investigation is to establish a statistical linkage between natural gamma radiation and glacial sediment texture that can be extrapolated to a set of more than 120 monitoring wells and used as soft conditioning information for stochastic simulations of aquifer characteristics across a 10 km2 area impacted by groundwater contamination. The core was sampled at 0.3m (1ft) intervals and sieved to quantify sediment texture at 225 points. 150 grain mount thin sections from samples selected to correspond to a distribution of low, moderate, and high natural gamma log readings.were point counted to quantify mineralogy of the sand size fraction. 30 samples of clay-sized particles taken from the decanted fine fraction of the sieved material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction for clay component analysis. Weak correlations of gamma response to measured characteristics were observed over the entire dataset. As expected, positive relationships with gamma response were observed in samples with higher K-feldspar content and greater proportions of fine

  5. N cycling and the composition of terpenes and tannins in boreal forest soils: Effects of logging residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko; Kukkola, Mikko; Tamminen, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing evidence available that certain terpenes and tannins may mediate substantial changes in nitrogen cycling processes in boreal forest soils. Terpenes and tannins are two important groups of plant secondary metabolites: Terpenes are hydrocarbons having different number of isoprene-derived units and tannins are complex polyphenolic compounds able to interact with proteins. Logging residues, consisting of fresh tree tops and branches with needles contain large amounts of terpenes and tannins. Currently there is increasing demand for forest biomass for bioenergy production. Therefore, harvesting of logging residues has become more common from both clear-cutting and thinning stands, instead of conventional stem-only harvest where logging residues are retained on the site. Our aim was to determine how logging residues affect soil N cycling processes in Scots pine and Norway spruce thinning stands in long-term, and how these processes are related to the composition of terpenes and tannins in the soil. Samples were taken from the humus layer of pine and spruce experiments which had been thinned 4-to-19 years before; in the thinning different amounts of logging residues had been distributed on the plots. Logging residues had only little effect on soil microbial biomass N or C. However, in several sites logging residues increased the rate of net N mineralization and the ratios net N mineralization/ C mineralization and net N mineralization/microbial biomass N, and these positive effects were very long-lasting. Logging residues also changed the composition of different terpenes and condensed tannins in soil. In general, with regard to the processes and ratios indicating N availability, stem-only harvest seems to be more favorable than whole-tree harvest. The results from long-term field experiments will be discussed in relation to the effects of different terpenes and tannins, observed in short-term laboratory experiments, on N cycling processes.

  6. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, W.

    1998-07-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction time necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content (Gunnink and Yang, 1997). For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication. The authors hypothesize that an alternative to drying coal exists. If the coal logs are to be made at mix moisture contents that are above the optimum value, then coal log quality can be maintained if the compaction time is increased. In fact, the authors believe that if compaction time is increased such that the bulk density and moisture content of the compacted coal logs are the same, then

  7. The logN-logS relationship of normal X-ray emitting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We have selected a flux limited serendipitous sample of galaxies from the cross-correlation of the BMW (Brera Multiscale Wavelet) ROSAT HRI and the LEDA (Lyon - Meudon Extragalactic Database) Catalogues. This sample is used to study the X-ray properties of normal galaxies in the local universe. We also find that the logN-logS distribution we derived for a serendipitous subsample, optically and X-ray flux limited, is consistent with the euclidean slope in the flux range FX(0.5 - 2) ˜ 1.1 - 110 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We further show that the same law is valid over 4 decades, from the bright sample derived from the RASS data to the very faint detections in deep XMM-Newton fields.

  8. Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2011-10-15

    We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).

  9. Improve emergency light design with lumens/sq ft method.

    PubMed

    Sieron, R L

    1981-05-01

    In summary, the "Lumens/sq ft Method" outlined here is proposed as a guideline for designing emergency lighting systems such as in the accompanying examples. With this method, the total lumens delivered by the emergency lighting units in the area is divided by the floor area (in sq ft) to yield a figure of merit. The author proposes that a range from 0.25 to 1.0 lumens/sq ft be specified for emergency lighting. The lower value may be used for non-critical areas (for example, warehouses), while the higher value would be used for areas such as school corridors and hospitals.

  10. Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

  11. Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Khatchikian, A.

    1983-12-01

    The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

  12. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  13. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.

  14. Applications of FT-IR spectrometry to plasma contents analysis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleris, Gerard Y. R.; Petibois, Cyril

    2002-03-01

    We devoted efforts to develop an analytical method of plasma able to provide both a high sensitivity and a global overview of its biomolecular contents along with the variations of these ones. Among candidates, transmittance FT-IR spectrometry has proved to be highly efficient. It has been used to analyze plasma micro samples using an iterative process. Results in accordance with clinical data were obtained from a single FT-IR spectrum for the following biomolecules: amino-acids, fatty acids, albumin, glucose, fibrinogen, lactate, triglycerides, glycerol, urea, (alpha) 1-antitrypsin, alpha2-macroglobulin, transferin, Apo-A1, Apo-B, Apo-C3, IgA, IgD, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, haptoglobin, and (alpha) 1-acid glycoprotein. Moreover, cholesterol contribution may be determined on the same IR spectrum. Therefore, as only micro samples are necessary, high frequency blood analysis become available. This method was used to monitor inflammatory processes related to given metabolic stresses. Moreover, FT-IR spectrum constitutes a 'metabolic photography' of the subject, allowing classification between metabolic groups (pathologic or others). It was used on difference spectra in order to raise 'signal to noise' ratio by elimination of the unvarying spectral contribution. Among others, it allowed to uncover overtraining in high-level sportsmen several weeks before any physiologic or clinical symptom occurred.

  15. Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

    2012-11-01

    Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

  16. Saving big bucks with your log sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Puskar, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    This article speaks to a common problem in a lot of industrial and institutional boilerhouses. Most boilerhouses do an excellent job at collecting information. Circular chart recorders churn out pressures, temperatures, and flows for everything from steam to natural gas to city water consumption. At most facilities, this stuff all gets chucked into a drawer or file cabinet daily. Have you ever wondered why you collect and record what you do? What were people thinking when the existing logs were set up? This article attempts to challenge the original thought process and hopes to evoke in the reader a renewed vision of what should be collected, how, and then what can be done with it. The goal of this article is not to define new and expensive data acquisition or control system projects. It is instead to show how to develop systems that only require paper, pencils, and people who are motivated and care. These people are probably already being paid to do most of this work. Experience is that if these people are treated with respect and given some simple tools they will do amazing things beyond what was thought possible. This is a low-tech humanistic approach that has a fabulous rate of return. It`s also something that can be immediately implemented.

  17. FT-Raman, FT-IR spectroscopic and DFT studies of hexaphenoxycyclotriphosphazene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Padie, C.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman measurements of zero Gc0‧ -H and first Gc1‧ -H generations of phosphorus dendrimer built from cyclotriphosphazene core with phenoxy and deuterophenoxy terminal groups have been performed. In order to evaluate how much the frequencies, shift when changing the electronics of the system the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of phosphorus‒containing dendron with five terminal oxybenzaldehyde and one ester function Gci‧ have been also studied. Structural optimization and normal mode analysis were obtained for Gc0‧ -H and Gc0‧ -D by the density functional theory (DFT). It is discovered that dendrimer molecule exists in a stable conformation with six phenoxy terminal groups spaced above and below the flat cyclotriphosphazene core. Optimized geometric bond length and angles obtained by DFT show good agreement with a previously-published X-ray study. The phenoxy terminal groups are characterized by the well-defined line at 993 cm-1 in the experimental Raman spectrum of Gc0‧ -H and by line at 960 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of Gc0‧ -D. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed for the studied dendrimers. The frequencies and relative intensity of the bands at 1589, 1487 cm-1 in the IR spectra show marked difference in dependence of the substituents on the aromatic ring.

  18. DFT, FT-Raman, FT-IR, HOMO-LUMO and NBO studies of 4-Methylmorpholine.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Mahalakshmi, G; Lakshmi, A; Janaki, A

    2012-11-01

    The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman (3500-100 cm(-1)) spectra of 4-Methylmorpholine were recorded. The observed bands were interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis and force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional with 6-311+G and 6-3++G basis sets. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The molecular structure and vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering actives have been calculated frequency showed the best agreement with experimental results. The formation of the hydrogen bond was investigated using NBO calculations. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The dipolemoment (μ) and polarizability (α), anisotropy polarizability (Δα) and first hyperpolarizability (β(total)) of the molecule have been reported. PMID:22929905

  19. Dogfish egg case structural studies by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Georgaka, Martha E; Chryssikos, Georgios D; Gionis, Vassilis; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2007-06-01

    The dogfish egg case is a composite structure that combines mechanical tensile strength, toughness and elasticity with high permeability to small molecules and ions. Presumably, it provides both a protective and a filtering role for the egg/embryo contained within it. In this work, we performed structural studies of the Galeus melastomus egg case at two different stages of the hardening process, utilizing ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Based on these data we deduce that: (a) The G. melastomus egg case, in close analogy to that of the related species Scyliorhinus cunicula, is a complex, composite structure which consists mainly of an analogue of collagen IV. This network forming protein appears to have common secondary structural characteristics in the entire egg case. (b) The outermost layer of the non-sclerotized egg case is especially rich in tyrosine, while the innermost layer is rich in polysaccharides, presumably glycosaminoglycans, and lipids. These differences are diminished upon hardening. (c) Disulfide bonds do not appear to play a significant role in cross-linking. However, cross-links involving tyrosine residues appear to sclerotize the egg case. It is proposed that the intensity of the Raman band at ca. 1615 cm(-1), which is due to ring stretching vibrations of Tyr, might be a useful indicator of the sclerotization status of a certain proteinaceous tissue, when tyrosines are involved in sclerotization mechanisms. PMID:17292464

  20. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  1. Using a Log Analyser to Assist Research into Haptic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, Fannar Freyr; Hvannberg, Ebba Þóra

    Usability evaluations collect subjective and objective measures. Examples of the latter are time to complete a task. The paper describes use cases of a log analyser for haptic feedback. The log analyser reads a log file and extracts information such as time of each practice and assessment session, analyses whether the user goes off curve and measures the force applied. A study case using the analyser is performed using a PHANToM haptic learning environment application that is used to teach young visually impaired students the subject of polynomials. The paper answers six questions to illustrate further use cases of the log analyser.

  2. Large-scale structure in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Li Baojiu; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Barrow, John D.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we study the cosmology of the general f(T) gravity theory. We express the modified Einstein equations using covariant quantities, and derive the gauge-invariant perturbation equations in covariant form. We consider a specific choice of f(T), designed to explain the observed late-time accelerating cosmic expansion without including an exotic dark energy component. Our numerical solution shows that the extra degree of freedom of such f(T) gravity models generally decays as one goes to smaller scales, and consequently its effects on scales such as galaxies and galaxies clusters are small. But on large scales, this degree of freedom can produce large deviations from the standard {Lambda}CDM scenario, leading to severe constraints on the f(T) gravity models as an explanation to the cosmic acceleration.

  3. Financial Anti-Bubbles Log-Periodicity in Gold and Nikkei Collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Sornette, D.

    We propose that the herding behavior of traders leads not only to speculative bubbles with accelerating over-valuations of financial markets possibly followed by crashes, but also to "anti-bubbles" with decelerating market devaluations following all-time highs. For this, we propose a simple market dynamics model in which the demand decreases slowly with barriers that progressively quench in, leading to a power law decay of the market price characterized by decelerating log-periodic oscillations. We document this behavior of the Japanese Nikkei stock index from 1990 to present and of the gold future prices after 1980, both after their all-time highs. We perform simultaneously parametric and nonparametric analyses that are fully consistent with each other. We extend the parametric approach to the next order of perturbation, comparing the log-periodic fits with one, two and three log-frequencies, the latter providing a prediction for the general trend in the coming years. The nonparametric power spectrum analysis shows the existence of log-periodicity with high statistical significance, with a preferred scale ratio of λ≈3.5 for the Nikkei index and λ≈1.9 for the Gold future prices, comparable to the values obtained for speculative bubbles leading to crashes.

  4. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2014-08-01

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes.

  5. Use of borehole neutron logs to estimate moisture content in the unsaturated zone of an alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones-Aponte, Vicente; Carrasquillo, Ramon A.; Quinones, Ferdinand; Sanchez, A.V.; Smith, H.

    1986-01-01

    he neutron borehole logging tool was calibrated for the determination of moisture content in theunsaturated zone of an alluvial aquifer. A continuous core sample was collected to a depth of 15 ft from the unsaturated zone.Moisture content and other soil properties were determined by standard soil-laboratory techniques. The neutron logs profile was correlated to moisture content. The first correlation included all the data points within the unsaturated zone. A correlation coefficient of 0.72 was obtained. An inspection of the plotted data showed that points at the upper extreme of the fitted line departed significantly. A second correlation was tried eliminating data points 1, 3, and 5 which fell too low in the first trial. An almost perfect correlation coefficient of 0.99 was obtained for the data points that were included in the second trial. The criteria used to select the data points for the second correlation trial was that all these points also fell on the left most limit of the neutronprofile. The neutron logs profile, which is like a type of harmonic curve seems to be affected by an undefined factor. Analyzing the shape of the neutron profile it is inferred that hysteresis is the most probable phenomena that is affecting this moisture content profile. Although correlating neutron logs to moisture content is not a straight forward procedure, with an appropriate analysis, calibrated neutron logging tools can be used to determine the moisture content within the unsaturated zone of aquifers. Moisture content should be determined for calibration purposes at least at every foot of depth. Measurements of other elements or factors which may produce the harmonic curve effect might be included in further studies. 

  6. Estimating the relative hazard by the ratio of logarithms of event-free proportions.

    PubMed

    Perneger, Thomas V

    2008-09-01

    Clinical trials typically examine associations between an intervention and the occurrence of a clinical event. The association is often reported as a relative risk, more rarely as an odds ratio. Unfortunately, when the scientific interest lies with the ratio of incidence rates, both these statistics are inaccurate: the odds ratio is too extreme, and the relative risk too conservative. These biases are particularly strong when the outcomes are common. This paper describes an alternative statistic, the ratio of logarithms of event-free proportions (or relative log survival), which is simple to compute yet unbiased vis-à-vis the relative hazard. A formula to compute the sampling error of this statistic is also provided. Multivariate analysis can be conducted using complementary log-log regression. Precise knowledge of event occurrence times is not required for these analyses. Relative log survival may be particularly useful for meta-analyses of trials in which the proportion of events varies between studies.

  7. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  8. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Federal Reserve Board, 12 CFR part 203) indicates a pattern of significant variation in the... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank...

  9. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  10. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source.

  11. Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

  12. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  13. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  14. Design and Use of the Stratigraphic Strip Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichter, Lynn Stanton

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of a strip log as a diagrammatic representation of the information available in a sequence of sedimentary rocks. Describes the design of the strip log (both symbolically and by visual/spatial patterns) and some of the possible interpretations that can be made using them. (TW)

  15. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  16. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  17. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  18. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  19. Web Log Analysis: A Study of Instructor Evaluations Done Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Kenneth J.; Smith, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing a relatively simple method for analyzing web-logs. It also explores the challenges and benefits of web-log analysis. The study of student behavior on this site provides insights into website design and the effectiveness of this site in particular. Another benefit realized from the paper is the ease with which these…

  20. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  1. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  2. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source. PMID:27447306

  3. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  4. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs. (b... watches must be maintained in accordance with §§ 80.147 and 80.310. Voluntary Telegraphy...

  5. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  6. Data-Logging in Practical Science: Research and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Leonard R.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys some of the benefits claimed for data-logging methods identified through research. Discusses findings from research that sought to explore the translation of these benefits into the real-world of science classrooms and identify the range of influences on science teachers adopting and developing data-logging methods. (SAH)

  7. Real-Time System Log Monitoring/Analytics Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Dillow, David A; Park, Byung H; Shipman, Galen M; Geist, Al; Gunasekaran, Raghul

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing system logs provides useful insights for identifying system/application anomalies and helps in better usage of system resources. Nevertheless, it is simply not practical to scan through the raw log messages on a regular basis for large-scale systems. First, the sheer volume of unstructured log messages affects the readability, and secondly correlating the log messages to system events is a daunting task. These factors limit large-scale system logs primarily for generating alerts on known system events, and post-mortem diagnosis for identifying previously unknown system events that impacted the systems performance. In this paper, we describe a log monitoring framework that enables prompt analysis of system events in real-time. Our web-based framework provides a summarized view of console, netwatch, consumer, and apsched logs in real- time. The logs are parsed and processed to generate views of applications, message types, individual/group of compute nodes, and in sections of the compute platform. Also from past application runs we build a statistical profile of user/application characteristics with respect to known system events, recoverable/non-recoverable error messages and resources utilized. The web-based tool is being developed for Jaguar XT5 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing facility.

  8. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  15. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  16. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  17. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  18. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained.

  19. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  20. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests. PMID:25092495

  1. Heimdal monitoring. 1: Establishing feasibility from cores and logs

    SciTech Connect

    Jizba, D.L.; Marion, D.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a method that uses core and log measurements to quantify the influence of saturation changes on elastic properties at core, log, and seismic scales in order to investigate the feasibility of using seismic measurements to monitor gas production on the Heimdal North Sea field. In the first part, laboratory measurements of P- and S-wave velocities, porosity, density, and mineralogy are used to determined the influence of partial saturation on elastic parameters. These measurement are compared with theoretical predictions using Gassmann`s model. Second, the authors invert from logs, the rock parameters that are necessary to simulate the impact of water rise on elastic properties at log scale. Third, the well logs are modelled at seismic scales of resolution and are used to identify the effect of fluid movement on the seismic response. Finally, the results are compared to repetitive seismic measurements.

  2. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests.

  3. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  4. A Neural Implementation of Wald's Sequential Probability Ratio Test

    PubMed Central

    Kira, Shinichiro; Yang, Tianming; Shadlen, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Difficult decisions often require evaluation of samples of evidence acquired sequentially. A sensible strategy is to accumulate evidence, weighted by its reliability, until sufficient support is attained. An optimal statistical approach would accumulate evidence in units of logarithms of likelihood ratios (logLR) to a desired level. Studies of perceptual decisions suggest that the brain approximates an analogous procedure, but a direct test of accumulation, in units of logLR, to a threshold in units of cumulative logLR is lacking. We trained rhesus monkeys to make decisions based on a sequence of evanescent, visual cues assigned different logLR, hence different reliability. Firing rates of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) reflected the accumulation of logLR and reached a stereotyped level before the monkeys committed to a decision. The monkeys’ choices and reaction times, including their variability, were explained by LIP activity in the context of accumulation of logLR to a threshold. PMID:25661183

  5. Introducing high performance distributed logging service for ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarias, Jorge A.; López, Joao S.; Maureira, Cristián; Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a software framework that provides the infrastructure for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other projects. ACS, based on CORBA, offers basic services and common design patterns for distributed software. Every properly built system needs to be able to log status and error information. Logging in a single computer scenario can be as easy as using fprintf statements. However, in a distributed system, it must provide a way to centralize all logging data in a single place without overloading the network nor complicating the applications. ACS provides a complete logging service infrastructure in which every log has an associated priority and timestamp, allowing filtering at different levels of the system (application, service and clients). Currently the ACS logging service uses an implementation of the CORBA Telecom Log Service in a customized way, using only a minimal subset of the features provided by the standard. The most relevant feature used by ACS is the ability to treat the logs as event data that gets distributed over the network in a publisher-subscriber paradigm. For this purpose the CORBA Notification Service, which is resource intensive, is used. On the other hand, the Data Distribution Service (DDS) provides an alternative standard for publisher-subscriber communication for real-time systems, offering better performance and featuring decentralized message processing. The current document describes how the new high performance logging service of ACS has been modeled and developed using DDS, replacing the Telecom Log Service. Benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. A benchmark is presented comparing the differences between the implementations.

  6. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  7. Identification and evaluation of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus paraplantarum FT259, a bacteriocinogenic strain isolated from Brazilian semi-hard artisanal cheese.

    PubMed

    Tulini, Fabrício Luiz; Winkelströter, Lizziane Kretli; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to identify a bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus isolate (FT259) obtained from Brazilian semi-hard Minas type cheese and to evaluate its probiotic and antimicrobial potentials. The strain was identified by biochemical tests (at genus level), and by 16S rDNA sequencing combined with recA gene amplification (for species). To determine the inhibitory spectrum towards food borne pathogens and lactic acid bacteria, the spot-on-the-lawn assay was carried out. Moreover, the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compound produced was evaluated by susceptibility to degradation by proteolytic enzymes. The isolated strain was tested for survival in acidified culture media (pH 2.0, 2.5 and 3.5), in vitro tolerance to bile salts and viability under gastric conditions. Adhesion of Lactobacillus paraplantarum FT259 to Caco-2 cells was evaluated by surface plate count on De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) agar and also by FISH method (fluorescent in situ hybridization) with the aid of Eub338 probe for fluorescence microscopy analysis. The isolate was identified as L. paraplantarum FT259 and it produced bacteriocins that inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and several lactic acid bacteria. It was also observed that L. paraplantarum FT259 tolerated exposure to pH 3.5, and bile salts 0.3% for up to 180 min. In experiments with simulated gastric juice, viable cells of L. paraplantarum FT259 decreased from 8.6 log CFU/mL to 3.5 log CFU/mL after 180 min. For the same strain, in studies with Caco-2 cells, 74% of adhesion was observed through plate count and FISH assays. It was also demonstrated isolated FT259 was susceptible to the majority the antibiotics tested. Overall, the results indicated L. paraplantarum FT259 is a potential probiotic and the production of bacteriocin may be an interesting feature for food applications.

  8. Characterization of a complex near-surface structure using well logging and passive seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjumea, Beatriz; Macau, Albert; Gabàs, Anna; Figueras, Sara

    2016-04-01

    We combine geophysical well logging and passive seismic measurements to characterize the near-surface geology of an area located in Hontomin, Burgos (Spain). This area has some near-surface challenges for a geophysical study. The irregular topography is characterized by limestone outcrops and unconsolidated sediments areas. Additionally, the near-surface geology includes an upper layer of pure limestones overlying marly limestones and marls (Upper Cretaceous). These materials lie on top of Low Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments (sandstones, clays, gravels). In any case, a layer with reduced velocity is expected. The geophysical data sets used in this study include sonic and gamma-ray logs at two boreholes and passive seismic measurements: three arrays and 224 seismic stations for applying the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V). Well-logging data define two significant changes in the P-wave-velocity log within the Upper Cretaceous layer and one more at the Upper to Lower Cretaceous contact. This technique has also been used for refining the geological interpretation. The passive seismic measurements provide a map of sediment thickness with a maximum of around 40 m and shear-wave velocity profiles from the array technique. A comparison between seismic velocity coming from well logging and array measurements defines the resolution limits of the passive seismic techniques and helps it to be interpreted. This study shows how these low-cost techniques can provide useful information about near-surface complexity that could be used for designing a geophysical field survey or for seismic processing steps such as statics or imaging.

  9. 78 FR 44957 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Final Rule; FR citation: 67 FR 76908 and the CDC Interim Final Rule 42 CFR Part 73 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Interim Final Rule; FR citation: 67 FR 76886, inter alia. Information... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS...

  10. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem

  11. The Search for the Manila Galleon Log Books.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Wayne V.

    1990-11-01

    Spanish merchant ships, called Manila Galleons, made the round-trip between the Philippine Islands and the ports on the west coast of what is now Mexico, almost every year for the 250-yr period between 1565 and 1815. The log books of these galleons contained weather information which was thought to be of value in the study of the historical climatology of the tropical and mid-latitude areas of the Pacific Ocean. A search was made for the log books of the Manila Galleons to determine how many are still extant and the nature of the weather data that they contained. The search was made with the assistance of expert historians and paleographers who ware experienced in searching archives where the log books wore thought to be on file. The following archives were searched: the Museo Naval in Madrid, Spain; the Archivo General do Simancas in Simancas, Spain; Archiyo De lndias in Seville, Spain; Archivo General do la Nación in Mexico City, Mexico; and the National Archives in Manila, The Philippine Islands. Only sixteen log books were on file In the archives in Madrid and Seville. All of the logs that wore found ware from the period between 1766 and 1808. The inevitable conclusions that were reached were that log books for some of the earlier voyages may never have been written and that most of the log books that were written were either physically lost or were lost due to the ravages of time, moisture, insects or war.

  12. Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

    2009-05-26

    Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

  13. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar Carter, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Netto, Mario M.; Soares, Fernando A.

    2004-07-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been extensively studied as a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to provide information about the chemical and morphologic structure of tissue. Raman Spectroscpy is an inelastic scattering process that can provide a wealth of spectral features that can be related to the specific molecular structure of the sample. This article reports results of an in vitro study of the FT-Raman human breast tissue spectra. An Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman Spectrometer. The neoplastic human breast samples, both Fibroadenoma and ICD, were obtained during therapeutical routine medical procedures required by the primary disease, and the non-diseased human tissue was obtained in plastic surgery. No sample preparation was needed for the FT-Raman spectra collection. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded from normal, benign (Fibroadenomas) and malignant (IDC-Intraductal Carcinoma) samples, adding up 51 different areas. The main spectral differences of a typical FT-Raman spectra of a Normal (Non-diseased), Fibroadenoma, and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast tissue at the interval of 600 to 1800cm-1, which may differentiate diagnostically the sample, were found in the bands of 1230 to 1295cm-1, 1440 to 1460 cm-1 and 1650 to 1680 cm-1, assigned to the vibrational bands of the carbohydrate-amide III, proteins and lipids, and carbohydrate-amide I, respectively.

  14. Organic scintillator detector response simulations with DRiFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, M. T.; Bates, C. R.; McKigney, E. A.; Solomon, C. J.; Sood, A.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the organic scintillation simulation capabilities of DRiFT, a post-processing Detector Response Function Toolkit for MCNP® output. DRiFT is used to create realistic scintillation detector response functions to incident neutron and gamma mixed-field radiation. As a post-processing tool, DRiFT leverages the extensively validated radiation transport capabilities of MCNP® 6 , which also provides the ability to simulate complex sources and geometries. DRiFT is designed to be flexible, it allows the user to specify scintillator material, PMT type, applied PMT voltage, and quenching data used in simulations. The toolkit's capabilities, which include the generation of pulse shape discrimination plots and full-energy detector spectra, are demonstrated in a comparison of measured and simulated neutron contributions from 252Cf and PuBe, and photon spectra from 22Na and 228Th sources. DRiFT reproduced energy resolution effects observed in EJ-301 measurements through the inclusion of scintillation yield variances, photon transport noise, and PMT photocathode and multiplication noise.

  15. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, A.H.

    1994-05-31

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

  16. LogCauchy, log-sech and lognormal distributions of species abundances in forest communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Z.-Y.; Peng, S.-L.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.; Chen, Z.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Species-abundance (SA) pattern is one of the most fundamental aspects of biological community structure, providing important information regarding species richness, species-area relation and succession. To better describe the SA distribution (SAD) in a community, based on the widely used lognormal (LN) distribution model with exp(-x2) roll-off on Preston's octave scale, this study proposed two additional models, logCauchy (LC) and log-sech (LS), respectively with roll-offs of simple x-2 and e-x. The estimation of the theoretical total number of species in the whole community, S*, including very rare species not yet collected in sample, was derived from the left-truncation of each distribution. We fitted these three models by Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear regression and measured the model fit to the data using coefficient of determination of regression, parameters' t-test and distribution's Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. Examining the SA data from six forest communities (five in lower subtropics and one in tropics), we found that: (1) on a log scale, all three models that are bell-shaped and left-truncated statistically adequately fitted the observed SADs, and the LC and LS did better than the LN; (2) from each model and for each community the S* values estimated by the integral and summation methods were almost equal, allowing us to estimate S* using a simple integral formula and to estimate its asymptotic confidence internals by regression of a transformed model containing it; (3) following the order of LC, LS, and LN, the fitted distributions became lower in the peak, less concave in the side, and shorter in the tail, and overall the LC tended to overestimate, the LN tended to underestimate, while the LS was intermediate but slightly tended to underestimate, the observed SADs (particularly the number of common species in the right tail); (4) the six communities had some similar structural properties such as following similar distribution models, having a common

  17. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  18. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  19. Proceedings of the second PFN uranium logging seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) uranium logging system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy is described in some detail in papers by the staff that was involved in the final phase of the development project, and by others associated with the project as users of the logging probe or builders of some of the probe hardware. Descriptions are provided of the probe's electronic circuits, the uphole instrumentation, the log interpretation technique, field experience, neutron detection hardware, neutron generator design, life-test results, and observations by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation personnel regarding the use of the probe and its results.

  20. Experiment 2030. EE-2 Temperature Log and Downhole Water Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, Charles O.

    1983-07-29

    A temperature log and downhole water sample run were conducted in EE-2 on July 13, 1983. The temperature log was taken to show any changes which had occurred in the fracture-to-wellbore intersections as a result of the Experiment 2020 pumping and to locate fluid entries for taking the water sample. The water sample was requested primarily to determine the arsenic concentration in EE-2 fluids (see memo from C.Grigsby, June 28, 1983 concerning arsenic in EE-3 samples.) The temperature log was run using the thermistor in the ESS-6 water samples.

  1. Project to transcribe old ship logs provides important weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-11-01

    Kathy Wendolkowski is a citizen scientist. It's a term that Wendolkowski considers far too lofty for what she claims is simply a happy addiction that she and others have for transcribing old logs from naval ship and other vessels. They perform this task to glean the regularly recorded weather data from those logs for the benefit of science. For Wendolkowski, though, greater satisfaction comes from reading what the logs also reveal about the daily lives of the sailors as well as any accompanying historical drama.

  2. Solar-A reformatted data files and observing log

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. D.; Lemen, J. R.; Acton, L. W.; Bentley, R. D.; Kosugi, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Ogawara, Y.; Watanabe, T.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Solar-A telemetry data files which are to be created and the format and organization which the files are to use. The organization chosen is to be efficient in space, to facilitate access to the data, and to allow the data to be transportable to different machines. An observing log file is to be created automatically, using the reformatted data files as the input. It will be possible to perform searches with the observing log to list cases where instruments are in certain modes and/or seeing certain signal levels. A user will be able to search the observing log and obtain a list of all cases where a given set of conditions are satisfied. An event log will be created listing the times when the instrument or spacecraft modes change.

  3. 13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  4. 14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  5. A forward modeling approach for interpreting impeller flow logs.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alison H; West, L Jared; Odling, Noelle E; Bown, Richard T

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous and practical approach for interpretation of impeller flow log data to determine vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity is presented and applied to two well logs from a Chalk aquifer in England. Impeller flow logging involves measuring vertical flow speed in a pumped well and using changes in flow with depth to infer the locations and magnitudes of inflows into the well. However, the measured flow logs are typically noisy, which leads to spurious hydraulic conductivity values where simplistic interpretation approaches are applied. In this study, a new method for interpretation is presented, which first defines a series of physical models for hydraulic conductivity variation with depth and then fits the models to the data, using a regression technique. Some of the models will be rejected as they are physically unrealistic. The best model is then selected from the remaining models using a maximum likelihood approach. This balances model complexity against fit, for example, using Akaike's Information Criterion.

  6. 16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG UNIDENTIFIED SECTION OF GOAT TRAIL MINING ROAD - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. 51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-18) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  8. 50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southwest (view similar to HALS no. LA-1-21) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  9. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-04-13

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests.

  10. DIY soundcard based temperature logging system. Part II: applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes.

  11. 11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near the Minnesota end of the bridge - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  12. Logging while fishing technique results in substantial savings

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefsen, E.; Everett, M.

    1996-12-01

    During wireline logging operations, tools occasionally become stuck in the borehole and require fishing. A typical fishing job can take anywhere from 1{1/2}--4 days. In the Gulf of Mexico, a fishing job can easily cost between $100,000 and $500,000. These costs result from nonproductive time during the fishing trip, associated wiper trip and relogging the well. Logging while fishing (LWF) technology is a patented system capable of retrieving a stuck fish and completing the logging run during the same pipe descent. Completing logging operations using LWF method saves time and money. The technique also provides well information where data may not otherwise have been obtained. Other benefits include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety.

  13. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  14. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  15. Optimized Hypergraph Clustering-based Network Security Log Mining*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jianhua; Lin, Weimin; Yu, Yong; Yao, Wei

    With network's growth and popularization, network security experts are facing bigger and bigger network security log. Network security log is a kind of valuable and important information recording various network behaviors, and has the features of large-scale and high dimension. Therefore, how to analyze these network security log to enhance the security of network becomes the focus of many researchers. In this paper, we first design a frequent attack sequencebased hypergraph clustering algorithm to mine the network security log, and then improve this algorithm with a synthetic measure of hyperedge weight and two optimization functions of clustering result. The experimental results show that the synthetic measure and optimization functions can promote significantly the coverage and precision of clustering result. The optimized hypergraph clustering algorithm provides a data analyzing method for intrusion detecting and active forewarning of network.

  16. 15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS THE LAST REMAINING EXAMPLE OF CCC BUILT "RUSTIC STYLE" GUARD RAIL IN PARK. VIEW NE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  17. Evaluation of Potash Grade with Gamma-ray Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Potassium is an emitter of gamma-ray radiation, consequently deposits of potash can be detected and evaluated using gamma-ray logs. A method originally designed to evaluate uranium deposits in boreholes can also be applied to potash deposits. The method equates the depth-integral of a gamma-ray log to the grade-thickness product of a potash-bearing bed or series of beds. The average grade of a bed is then determined by dividing by the overall bed thickness, which can also be obtained from the gamma-ray log. The method was tested using gamma-ray logs and potash assays from boreholes near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  18. 5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE (Features 9 and 10) AT FAR LEFT AND HOUSE (Feature 13) AT CENTER (n.d.) - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

  19. 15. Detail of log cribbing on southeast side of Pentagon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail of log cribbing on southeast side of Pentagon 1 (note stone in center). View to northwest. - Pentagon Site, Pentagon 1, West of Barry's Landing off Highway 37, Fort Smith, Big Horn County, MT

  20. 11. Detail of log cribbing on north side of Pentagon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of log cribbing on north side of Pentagon 1, (note stone in left foreground). View to south. - Pentagon Site, Pentagon 1, West of Barry's Landing off Highway 37, Fort Smith, Big Horn County, MT

  1. A proven record in changing attitudes about MWD logs

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, L.; Paxson, K.B.; Keyser, W.L.; Ball, S.

    1993-07-01

    Measurement while drilling (MWD) logs for quantitative reservoir characterization were evaluated during drilling of Gulf of Mexico flexure trend projects, Kilauea (Green Canyon Blocks 6 and 50) and Tick (Garden Banks Block 189). Comparisons confirmed that MWD can be used as an accurate replacement for wireline logging when borehole size is not a limiting factor. Texaco MWD experience evolved from last resort' to primary formation evaluation logging, which resulted in rigtime and associated cost savings. Difficult wells are now drilled and evaluated with confidence, geopressure is safely monitored, conventional core interval tops are selected, and geologic interpretations and operational decisions are made before wells TD. This paper reviews the performance, accuracy, and limitations of the MWD systems and compares the results to standard geophysical well logging techniques. Four case histories are presented.

  2. 3. VIEW OF TUNNEL INTAKE, WITH LOG TRASH RACK, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF TUNNEL INTAKE, WITH LOG TRASH RACK, LOOKING SOUTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Farmers Lake Tunnel, Ashley National Forest, 5.7 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  4. Logging while drilling application in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Husband, F.J.; Palomo M., R.; Roca R., L.

    1994-12-31

    The commercial use of Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown significantly in the last two years as national and international oil and gas companies implement more efficient systems to locate and extract hydrocarbons. This technology has been applied to optimize drilling projects as LWD measurements are now routinely used for improved log quality, geosteering into complex horizontal targets, insurance logging in difficult drilling environments, and where operating rig costs create a financial need. Case field applications are presented including drilling and logging depleted gas sands in high concentration LCM mud systems, 3-dimensional geosteering techniques, and time lapsed overlays for identification of moved fluids and wellbore stability. The examples and discussion that follow represent field experience utilizing Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR) and Compensated Density Neutron (CDN) measurements to more efficiently find and produce oil and gas in Latin America.

  5. 13. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department Log ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department - Log of test borings - Lost Bridge, Spanning Little Missouri River, twenty-three miles north of Killdeer, ND, on State Highway No. 22, Killdeer, Dunn County, ND

  6. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  7. Geophysical logs of selected wells in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This report consists of geophysical well logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The geophysical logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Results of the geohydrologic study are discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  8. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  9. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  10. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and UV-Vis) investigation on benzil dioxime using quantum computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, D.; Periandy, S.; Xavier, S.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral analysis of benzil dioxime is carried out using the FTIR, FT Raman, FT NMR and UV-Vis spectra of the compound with the help of quantum computations by density functional theories. The FT-IR (4000 - 400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) spectra are recorded in solid phase, the 1H and 13C NMR spectra in DMSO phase and the UV spectrum (200-400 nm) in ethanol phase. The different conformers of the compound and their minimum energies are studied by potential energy surface scan, using semi-empirical method PM6. The computed wavenumbers from different methods are scaled so as to agree with the experimental values and the scaling factors are reported. All the fundamental modes have been assigned based on the potential energy distribution (PED) values and the structure the molecule is analyzed interms of parameters like bond length, bond angle and dihedral angles predicted byB3LYP and CAM-B3LYP methods with cc-pVDZ basis sets. The values of dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule are reported, using which the non -linear optical property of the molecule is discussed. The HOMO-LUMO mappings are reported which reveals the different charge transfer possibilities within the molecule. The isotropic chemical shifts predicted for 1H and 13C atoms using gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) theory show good agreement with experimental shifts and the same is discussed in comparison with atomic charges, predicted by Mullikan and APT charge analysis. NBO analysis is carried out to picture the probable electronic transitions in the molecule.

  11. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii...) Use of securement system. (1) Logs must be solidly packed, and the outer bottom logs must be in...: (i) There is no space between the two stacks of logs; (ii) The outside of each stack is raised...

  12. Exploratory testing of supersonic ribbon parachutes in the NASA Ames 9-ft by 7-ft wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, W.B.; Buffington, R.J.; Peterson, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducted a test of ribbon parachutes in the NASA Ames Research Center 9-ft by 7-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The Ribbon parachutes were 15 inches in diameter with Kevlar-29 suspension lines and nylon ribbons. Both 20-degree conical parachutes and hemisflo parachutes were tested behind two forebody shapes with several forebody diameters. Drag data and color Schlieren photographs were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.5 to 2.5 and a dynamic pressure range of 200 to 400 lbs/ft/sup 2/. Correlations of supersonic parachute drag with Mach number, forebody shape and diameter, canopy porosity, suspension line length, and inflated canopy diameter and stability are presented.

  13. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopic study of carotenoids from saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) and some derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantilis, Petros A.; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Manfait, Michel; Polissiou, Moschos

    1998-04-01

    The carotenoids of saffron, crocins (CRCs), were extracted and their derivatives, dimethylcrocetin (DMCRT) and crocetin (CRT) were prepared from the extract by alkaline hydrolysis in methanol (DMCRT) and by alkaline hydrolysis in water followed by acidification (CRT), respectively. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopies were used to study these compounds. The FT-IR spectra of CRCs, DMCRT and CRT have characteristic absorbance bands between 1706 and 1664 cm -1 ( νCO) and in the region between 1243 and 1228 cm -1 ( νC-O). Two main Raman lines were observed near 1540 and 1166 cm -1 which are respectively assigned to ( νCC) and ( νC-C) stretching modes.

  14. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, MEP and HOMO-LUMO of 2,5-dichlorobenzonitrile: DFT study.

    PubMed

    Alcolea Palafox, M; Bhat, Daisy; Goyal, Yasha; Ahmad, Shabbir; Hubert Joe, I; Rastogi, V K

    2015-02-01

    The experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2,5-dichlorobenzonitrile molecule were recorded at room temperature, and the results compared with quantum chemical theoretical values using MP2 and DFT methods. Molecular geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. With the help of specific scaling procedures for the computed wavenumbers, the experimentally observed FTIR and FT-Raman bands were analyzed and assigned to different normal modes of the molecule. Most of the modes have wavenumbers in the expected range and the error obtained was in general very low. Several general conclusions were deduced. The NBO analysis has been done and Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) has been plotted.

  15. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  16. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  17. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification.

    PubMed

    Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann

    2012-06-01

    We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature.

  19. The human factors of implementing shift work in logging operations.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D L; Gallagher, T V; Thomas, R E

    2008-10-01

    A fairly recent development in the forest industry is the use of shift work in logging in the southeastern U.S. Logging company owners are implementing shift work as an opportunity to increase production and potentially reduce the cost of producing each unit of wood, without consideration of the potential impacts on the logging crew. There are many documented physiological and psychological impacts on workers from shift work in a variety of industries, although few address forestry workers in the U.S. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information about how logging company owners were implementing shift work in seven southeastern states. Data collected during the interviews included employee turnover, shift hours, shift scheduling, safety considerations, and production impacts. Various work schedules were employed. The majority of the schedules encompassed less than 24 hours per day. Permanent and rotating shift schedules were found. None of the logging company owners used more than two crews in a 24-hour period. Additional safety precautions were implemented as a result of working after dark. No in-woods worker accidents or injuries were reported by any of those interviewed. Results indicate that a variety of work schedules can be successfully implemented in the southeastern logging industry. PMID:19044168

  20. Specialized ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H

    1983-01-01

    Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.

  1. Facies composition calculated from the sonic, neutron, and density log suite, upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.; Schenk, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Sandstones and dolomites of the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation are treated here as four-component systems consisting of fluid-filled pore space, quartz, dolomite, and anhydrite. Response equations of sonic, neutron, and density logs form a system of four simultaneous equations. With four equations and four unknowns, the composition of upper Minnelusa facies is defined by the three-log suite and can be calculated by solving a 4 ?? 4 matrix. Such calculations of facies composition help in establishing subsurface correlations and yield information on the diagenesis and physical character of upper Minnelusa sandstones and dolomites. Applications of composition calculations are illustrated by examples drawn from the area of the West Mellott field (T52N, R68W), where the upper Minnelusa is at depths of about 7000 ft (2100m). -from Authors

  2. Formation evaluation of gas hydrate-bearing marine sediments on the Blake Ridge with downhole geochemical log measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Wendlandt, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The analyses of downhole log data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) boreholes on the Blake Ridge at Sites 994, 995, and 997 indicate that the Schlumberger geochemical logging tool (GLT) may yield useful gas hydrate reservoir data. In neutron spectroscopy downhole logging, each element has a characteristic gamma ray that is emitted from a given neutron-element interaction. Specific elements can be identified by their characteristic gamma-ray signature, with the intensity of emission related to the atomic elemental concentration. By combining elemental yields from neutron spectroscopy logs, reservoir parameters including porosities, lithologies, formation fluid salinities, and hydrocarbon saturations (including gas hydrate) can be calculated. Carbon and oxygen elemental data from the GLT was used to determine gas hydrate saturations at all three sites (Sites 994, 995, and 997) drilled on the Blake Ridge during Leg 164. Detailed analyses of the carbon and oxygen content of various sediments and formation fluids were used to construct specialized carbon/oxygen ratio (COR) fan charts for a series of hypothetical gas hydrate accumulations. For more complex geologic systems, a modified version of the standard three-component COR hydrocarbon saturation equation was developed and used to calculate gas hydrate saturations on the Blake Ridge. The COR-calculated gas hydrate saturations (ranging from about 2% to 14% bulk volume gas hydrate) from the Blake Ridge compare favorably to the gas hydrate saturations derived from electrical resistivity log measurements.

  3. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

  4. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

  5. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in south Mexico: cost/benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Tovilla-Hernández, C; Espino de la Lanza, G; Orihuela-Belmonte, D E

    2001-06-01

    Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha) and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day). A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2,555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD). Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented). After logging, temperatures increased 13 degrees C in the soil and 11 degrees C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3,000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246:1). There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  6. Can the Free/Total PSA Ratio Predict the Gleason Score Before Prostate Biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Cavit; Gazel, Eymen; Keleş, İbrahim; Doluoğlu, Ömer; Yığman, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a correlation between high Gleason score and free/total (f/t) prostate specific antigen (PSA) in patients newly diagnosed with prostate carcinoma. Materials and Methods The study included 272 prostate biopsy patients whose total PSA value ranged from 4–10 ng/ml. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the f/t PSA ratio: Group 1 ≤ 15% and Group 2 > 15%. Furthermore, the groups were also compared to each other in terms of mild (≤ 6), moderate (= 7), and high (≥ 8) Gleason score. Results Group 1 consisted of 135 (49.6%) patients and Group 2 consisted of 137 (50.4%) patients. While 27 (20%) patients had a high Gleason score in Group 1, only 10 (7.3%) patients had a high Gleason score in Group 2 (p = 0.008). Using Spearman's correlation test, we found that the f/t PSA ratios were observed to decrease significantly in all patients with increased Gleason scores (p = 0.002, r = −0.185). Conclusion According to our study, there is a relationship between higher Gleason score and decreased f/t PSA ratio. Therefore, f/t PSA can be an indicator for predicting the Gleason score. PMID:26989367

  7. Interpretation of well logs in a carbonate aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCary, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the log analysis of the Randolph and Sabial core holes in the Edwards aquifer in Texas, with particular attention to the principles that can be applied generally to any carbonate system. The geologic and hydrologic data were obtained during the drilling of the two holes, from extensive laboratory analysis of the cores, and from numerous geophysical logs run in the two holes. Some logging methods are inherently superiors to others for the analysis of limestone and dolomite aquifers. Three such systems are the dentistry, neutron, and acoustic-velocity (sonic) logs. Most of the log analysis described here is based on the interpretation of suites of logs from these three systems. In certain instances, deeply focused resistivity logs can be used to good advantage in carbonate rock studies; this technique is used to computer the water resistivity in the Randolph core hole. The rocks penetrated by the Randolph core hole are typical of those carbonates that have undergone very little solution by recent ground-water circulation. There are few large solutional openings; the water is saline; and the rocks are dark, dolomitic, have pore space that is interparticle or intercrystalline, and contain unoxidized organic material. The total porosity of rocks in the saline zone is higher than that of rocks in the fresh-water aquifer; however, the intrinsic permeability is much less in the saline zone because there are fewer large solutional openings. The Sabinal core hole penetrates a carbonate environment that has experienced much solution by ground water during recent geologic time. The rocks have high secondary porosities controlled by sedimentary structures within the rock; the water is fresh; and the dominant rock composition is limestone. The relative percentages of limestone and dolomite, the average matrix (grain) densities of the rock mixtures , and the porosity of the rock mass can be calculated from density, neutron, and acoustic logs. With supporting

  8. 14. TIOGA ROAD VIEW NEAR TOULUMNE LODGE AT 9000 FT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIOGA ROAD VIEW NEAR TOULUMNE LODGE AT 9000 FT ELEVATION MARKER. UNICORN PEAK CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING SW. GIS: N-37 52.52.6 / W-119 19 31.4 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. FT-IR spectroscopy characterization of schwannoma: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Neto, Lazaro P. M.; das Chagas, Maurilio José; Carvalho, Luís. Felipe C. S.; dos Santos, Laurita; Ribas, Marcelo; Loddi, Vinicius; Martin, Airton A.

    2016-03-01

    Schwannoma are rare benign neural neoplasia. The clinical diagnosis could be improved if novel optical techniques are performed. Among these techniques, FT-IR is one of the currently techniques which has been applied for samples discrimination using biochemical information with minimum sample preparation. In this work, we report a case of a schwannoma in the cervical region. A histological examination described a benign process. An immunohistochemically examination demonstrated positivity to anti-S100 protein antibody, indicating a diagnosis of schwannoma. The aim of this analysis was to characterize FT-IR spectrum of the neoplastic and normal tissue in the fingerprint (1000-1800 cm-1) and high wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1). The IR spectra were collect from tumor tissue and normal nerve samples by a FT-IR spectrophotometer (Spotlight Perkin Elmer 400, USA) with 64 scans, and resolution of 4 cm-1. A total of twenty spectra were recorded (10 from schwannoma and 10 from nerve). Multivariate Analysis was used to classify the data. Through average and standard deviation analysis we observed that the main spectral change occurs at ≍1600 cm-1 (amide I) and ≍1400 cm-1 (amide III) in the fingerprint region, and in CH2/CH3 protein-lipids and OH-water vibrations for the high wavenumber region. In conclusion, FT-IR could be used as a technique for schwannoma analysis helping to establish specific diagnostic.

  10. 7. Detail, at low tide (10 ft. mht), north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, at low tide (-10 ft. mht), north side of railway substructure, showing deck cantilevered beyond platform, and vertical timber connection configuration. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A. E-mail: AAbdolmaleki@uok.ac.ir

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) modified teleparallel gravity. We consider a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the Hubble horizon. For two viable f(T) models containing f(T) = T+μ{sub 1}((−T)){sup n} and f(T) = T−μ{sub 2}T(1−e{sup βT{sub 0}/T}), we first calculate the effective equation of state and deceleration parameters. Then, (we investigate the null and strong energy conditions and conclude that a sudden future singularity appears in both models. Furthermore, using a cosmographic analysis we check the viability of two models. Finally, we examine the validity of the GSL and find that for both models it) is satisfied from the early times to the present epoch. But in the future, the GSL is violated for the special ranges of the torsion scalar T.

  12. 3. STEVENS 10 FT FAN IN FAN HOUSE, FROM NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. STEVENS 10 FT FAN IN FAN HOUSE, FROM NORTHEAST - Sublet Mine No. 6, Fan House, North structure, west side of Willow Creek Valley, east of County Road No. 306, 3 miles north of U.S. Highway 189, Kemmerer, Lincoln County, WY

  13. Completely automated open-path FT-IR spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric analysis by open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry has been possible for over two decades but has not been widely used because of the limitations of the software of commercial instruments. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of the hardware and s...

  14. Student Dropout Study of Ft. Wingate [New Mexico] High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, James M.; Annalora, Donald J.

    1974-01-01

    The report examined the American Indian dropout rate for the fall semester, 1973-74, at Ft. Wingate High School (FWHS) in Gallup, New Mexico. For that period, the FWHS dropout rate was 26 percent, compared to a national average of about 25 percent (FWHS) statistics are for one semester; national statistics are for an entire year). Dropouts were…

  15. Effect of rotor design tip speed on noise of a 1.21 pressure ratio model fan under static conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, I. J.; Lieblein, S.; Stockman, N. O.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a reverberant-field noise investigation of three fan stages designed for the same overall total pressure ratio of 1.21 at different rotor tip speeds (750, 900, and 1050 ft/sec). The stages were tested statically in a 15-inch-diameter model lift fan installed in a wing pod located in the test section of a wind tunnel. Although the fan stages produced essentially the same design pressure ratio, marked differences were observed in the variation of fan noise with fan operating speed. At design speed, the forward-radiated sound power level was approximately the same for the 750 ft/sec and 900 ft/sec stages. For the 1050 ft/sec stage, the design-speed forward-radiated power level was about 7 db higher due to the generation of multiple pure tone noise.

  16. Use of Wireline Logs to Estimate Strength of Cap Rock Lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    dipole sonic logs are available therefore shear velocity was calculated using empirical relationships established by other workers. Having both compression and shear velocity as well as bulk density values we are able to empirically determine Poisson’s Ratio and Young’s Modulus. Poisson’s Ratio values for these wells ranges between 0.18-0.48, and Young’s Modulus results range from 7GPa-50 GPa. Most of the results obtained by this data analysis fall within the published ranges for these rock types, but the data show variability which must be further evaluated to understand if these are related to geology or artifacts associated with the wireline data. In future the use of these empirical estimates will provide a lower estimate for subsurface rock strength.

  17. Determining Partition Coefficient (Log P), Distribution Coefficient (Log D) and Ionization Constant (pKa) in Early Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Sonali S; Kumar, Vikas; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2016-01-01

    An early prediction of physicochemical properties is highly desirable during drug discovery to find out a viable lead candidate. Although there are several methods available to determine partition coefficient (log P), distribution coefficient (log D) and ionization constant (pKa), none of them involves simple and fixed, miniaturized protocols for diverse set of compounds. Therefore, it is necessary to establish simple, uniform and medium-throughput protocols requiring small sample quantities for the determination of these physicochemical properties. Log P and log D were determined by shake flask method, wherein, the compound was partitioned between presaturated noctanol and water phase (water/PBS pH 7.4) and the concentration of compound in each phase was determined by HPLC. The pKa determination made use of UV spectrophotometric analysis in a 96-well microtiter plate containing a series of aqueous buffers ranging from pH 1.0 to 13.0. The medium-throughput miniaturized protocols described herein, for determination of log P, log D and pKa, are straightforward to set up and require very small quantities of sample (< 5 mg for all three properties). All established protocols were validated using diverse set of compounds.

  18. Determining Partition Coefficient (Log P), Distribution Coefficient (Log D) and Ionization Constant (pKa) in Early Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Sonali S; Kumar, Vikas; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2016-01-01

    An early prediction of physicochemical properties is highly desirable during drug discovery to find out a viable lead candidate. Although there are several methods available to determine partition coefficient (log P), distribution coefficient (log D) and ionization constant (pKa), none of them involves simple and fixed, miniaturized protocols for diverse set of compounds. Therefore, it is necessary to establish simple, uniform and medium-throughput protocols requiring small sample quantities for the determination of these physicochemical properties. Log P and log D were determined by shake flask method, wherein, the compound was partitioned between presaturated noctanol and water phase (water/PBS pH 7.4) and the concentration of compound in each phase was determined by HPLC. The pKa determination made use of UV spectrophotometric analysis in a 96-well microtiter plate containing a series of aqueous buffers ranging from pH 1.0 to 13.0. The medium-throughput miniaturized protocols described herein, for determination of log P, log D and pKa, are straightforward to set up and require very small quantities of sample (< 5 mg for all three properties). All established protocols were validated using diverse set of compounds. PMID:27137915

  19. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, openhole logs, and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.A.; Morganti, J.K.; White, H.J. ); Noblett, B.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging using the new C Series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Log (MRIL) system is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeabilities, and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low-resistivity pays. In these environments, conventional openhole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. The MRIL system can also reduce the number of unnecessary completions in zones of potentially high water cut. MRIL tool theory and log presentations used with conventional logs and sidewall cores are presented along with field examples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows good correlation of varying grain size in sandstones with the T2 distribution and bulk volume irreducible water determined from the MRIL measurements. Analysis of each new well drilled in the study area shows how water-free production zones were defined. Because the MRIL data were not recorded on one of the wells, predictions from the conventional logs and the MRIL data collected on the other two wells were used to estimate productive zones in the first well. Discussion of additional formation characteristics, completion procedures, actual production, and predicted producibility of the shaly sands is presented. Integrated methodologies resulted in the perforation of 3 new wells for a gross initial potential of 690 BOPD and 0 BWPD.

  20. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, openhole logs, and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.A.; Morganti, J.K.; White, H.J.; Noblett, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging using the new C Series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Log (MRIL) system is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeabilities, and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low-resistivity pays. In these environments, conventional openhole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. The MRIL system can also reduce the number of unnecessary completions in zones of potentially high water cut. MRIL tool theory and log presentations used with conventional logs and sidewall cores are presented along with field examples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows good correlation of varying grain size in sandstones with the T2 distribution and bulk volume irreducible water determined from the MRIL measurements. Analysis of each new well drilled in the study area shows how water-free production zones were defined. Because the MRIL data were not recorded on one of the wells, predictions from the conventional logs and the MRIL data collected on the other two wells were used to estimate productive zones in the first well. Discussion of additional formation characteristics, completion procedures, actual production, and predicted producibility of the shaly sands is presented. Integrated methodologies resulted in the perforation of 3 new wells for a gross initial potential of 690 BOPD and 0 BWPD.

  1. Birthweight ratio revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Brownlee, K G; Ng, P C; Roussounis, S H; Dear, P R

    1991-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis suggested in a recent report that the birthweight ratio might be a useful predictor of several important clinical outcome measures in babies of less than 31 weeks' gestation, we examined the association between the birthweight ratio and aspects of both short and long term outcome in 436 Leeds babies of less than 31 weeks' gestation. Unlike the report, and contrary to what we had expected, we were unable to find any significant association between birthweight ratio and length of time on the ventilator, mortality, neurological outcome, or intellectual outcome. PMID:2025035

  2. Photodegradation of Stearic Acid Adsorbed on Superhydrophilic TiO2 Surface: In Situ FT-IR and LDI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Natalia; Fesenko, Tatiana; Zhukovsky, Maxim; Goworek, Jacek; Eremenko, Anna

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 films prepared by template-assisted sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and atomic force electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Based on the hexane adsorption-desorption analysis, the films have a surface area of 390-540 m2/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 10 nm. Optimal component ratio and condition of heat treatment of mesoporous titania films have been found. Photocatalytic activity of the coatings was determined by the destruction of stearic acid layers, monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy and laser desorption-ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry. Under UV illumination, all the used films reach hydrophilicity with water contact angle of 0°. As the result, hydrophobic fat acid molecules undergo self-association and active desorption from the hydrophilic surface during mass-spectrometric experiment.

  3. Photodegradation of Stearic Acid Adsorbed on Superhydrophilic TiO2 Surface: In Situ FT-IR and LDI Study.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia; Fesenko, Tatiana; Zhukovsky, Maxim; Goworek, Jacek; Eremenko, Anna

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 films prepared by template-assisted sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and atomic force electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Based on the hexane adsorption-desorption analysis, the films have a surface area of 390-540 m(2)/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 10 nm. Optimal component ratio and condition of heat treatment of mesoporous titania films have been found. Photocatalytic activity of the coatings was determined by the destruction of stearic acid layers, monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy and laser desorption-ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry. Under UV illumination, all the used films reach hydrophilicity with water contact angle of 0°. As the result, hydrophobic fat acid molecules undergo self-association and active desorption from the hydrophilic surface during mass-spectrometric experiment.

  4. An automatic locating and data logging system for radiological walkover surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Blair, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) to track a radiation surveyor in the field, to log his instrument's reading automatically, and to provide tabular and graphical data display in the field or in the office. Once each second, USRADS computes the position of the radiation surveyor by using the time-of-flight of an ultrasonic chirp, emitted by a transducer carried in a backpack, to stationary receivers deployed in the field. When the ultrasonic transducer is pulsed, a microprocessor in the backpack radios the start time and survey instrument's reading to the master receiver at the base station (a van or truck). A portable computer connected to the master receiver plots the surveyor's position on the display, and stores his position and instrument reading. The CHEMRAD Corporation has just completed a survey of the ORNL main plant area using two radiation survey instruments simultaneously: a ratemeter connected to a NaI crystal that is swung in a arc near the ground, to look for surface contamination; and a small pressurized ionization chamber (PIC), attached to the backpack frame at a height of 3 ft, to measure the exposure rate. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Loss of normal profilaggrin and filaggrin in flaky tail (ft/ft) mice: an animal model for the filaggrin-deficient skin disease ichthyosis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Presland, R B; Boggess, D; Lewis, S P; Hull, C; Fleckman, P; Sundberg, J P

    2000-12-01

    Flaky tail (gene symbol ft) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice that results in a dry, flaky skin, and annular tail and paw constrictions in the neonatal period. Previous studies demonstrated that the ft mutation maps to the central region of mouse chromosome 3, in the vicinity of the epidermal differentiation complex, a gene locus that includes many nonkeratin genes expressed in epidermis. In this study we report a detailed characterization of the flaky tail mouse. Affected homozygous ft/ft mice exhibit large, disorganized scales on tail and paw skin, marked attenuation of the epidermal granular layer, mild acanthosis, and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ft/ft mice lacked normal high molecular profilaggrin (approximately 500 kDa), and instead expressed a lower molecular weight form of profilaggrin (220 kDa) that is not proteolytically processed to profilaggrin intermediates or filaggrin. Mutant mice lacked the large, irregular F-type keratohyalin granules that contain profilaggrin, and filaggrin was absent from the cornified layers of ft/ft epidermis. The expression of epidermal keratins was unchanged, whereas the cornified envelope proteins involucrin and loricrin were increased in ft/ft epidermis. Cultured ft/ft keratinocytes also synthesized reduced amounts of profilaggrin mRNA and protein, demonstrating that the defect in profilaggrin expression is intrinsic to epidermal cells. These findings demonstrate that flaky tail mice express an abnormal profilaggrin polypeptide that does not form normal keratohyalin F-granules and is not proteolytically processed to filaggrin. We propose that the absence of filaggrin, and in particular the hygroscopic, filaggrin-derived amino acids that are thought to function in epidermal hydration, underlies the dry, scaly skin characteristic of ft/ft mice. This animal model provides a tool for understanding the role of filaggrin in normal epidermal function and may provide insight into

  6. Recognition and delineation of Paleokarst zones by the use of wireline logs in the bitumen-saturated upper Devonian Grosmont formation of Northeastern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Dembicki, E.A.; Machel, H.G.

    1996-05-01

    The Upper Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada, is a shallow-marine carbonate platform complex that was subaerially exposed for hundreds of millions of years between the Mississippian(?) and Cretaceous. During this lengthy exposure period, an extensive karst system developed that is characterized by an irregular erosional surface, meter-size (several feet) dissolution cavities, collapse breccias, sinkholes, paleosols, and fractures. The karsted Grosmont Formation, which contains giant reserves of bitumen, sub-crops beneath Cretaceous clastic sediments of the giant Athabasca tar sands deposit. The paleokarst in the Grosmont Formation can be recognized on wireline logs in relatively nonargillaceous carbonate intervals (<30 API units on the gamma-ray log) as excursions of the caliper log, off-scale neutron-density porosity readings, and severe cycle skipping of the acoustic log. The paleokarst is more prevalent in the upper units of the Grosmont Formation, and the effects of karstification decrease toward stratigraphically older and deeper units. The paleokarst usually occurs within 35 m (115 ft) of the erosional surface. The reservoir properties of the Grosmont Formation (e.g., thickness, porosity, permeability, and seal effectiveness) are significantly influenced by karstification. Depending upon the location, karstification has either benefited or degraded the reservoir characteristics. Benefits include porosity values greater than 40% (up to 100% in caverns) and permeability values of 30,000 md in severely fractured intervals. Detrimental reservoir characteristics include erosion, porosity and permeability reduction, and seal ineffectiveness.

  7. Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

  8. FT-IR and X-ray spectroscopic investigations of Na-diclofenac-cyclodextrins interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, I.; Astilean, S.; Ionesc, Corina; Indrea, E.; Huvenne, J. P.; Legrand, P.

    1998-01-01

    The association of DCF-Na (the salt of the 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-phenyl-acetic acid) with β-CD (cyclodextrin) in some therapeutic formulas can contribute to the optimisation of the physico-chemical and pharmaceutical properties of the parent drug. The understanding of the interaction between DCF with β-CD represents the objective of this study. FT-IR spectroscopy is one of the methods which clarify the nature of these interactions in complexes of such type. Therefore the changes in FT-IR spectra of binary dispersed systems DCF/ β-CD in physical mixture and coprecipitate from methanol (molar ratios: 1/1, 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 7/4) were analysed. The analysis of the broadening of the X-ray powder diffraction line has been applied to investigate the average effective crystallite size, the mean square of the microstrain caused by distortions within β-CD crystallite and the fault probability in the binary dispersed DCF/ β-CD coprecipitate system.

  9. Technical Capability Upgrades to the NASA Langley Research Center 6 ft. by 6 ft. Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornblom, Mark N.; Beverly, Joshua; O'Connell, Joseph J.; Mau, Johnny C.; Duncan, Dwight L.

    2014-01-01

    The 6 ft. by 6 ft. thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC), housed in Building 1250 at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and managed by the Systems Integration and Test Branch within the Engineering Directorate, has undergone several significant modifications to increase testing capability, safety, and quality of measurements of articles under environmental test. Significant modifications include: a new nitrogen thermal conditioning unit for controlling shroud temperatures from -150degC to +150degC; two horizontal auxiliary cold plates for independent temperature control from -150degC to +200degC; a suite of contamination monitoring sensors for outgassing measurements and species identification; signal and power feed-throughs; new pressure gauges; and a new data acquisition and control commanding system including safety interlocks. This presentation will provide a general overview of the LaRC 6 ft. by 6 ft. TVAC chamber, an overview of the new technical capabilities, and illustrate each upgrade in detail, in terms of mechanical design and predicted performance. Additionally, an overview of the scope of tests currently being performed in the chamber will be documented, and sensor plots from tests will be provided to show chamber temperature and pressure performance with actual flight hardware under test.

  10. Comparison of New Tau PET-Tracer Candidates With [18F]T808 and [18F]T807.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Lieven; Celen, Sofie; Lecina, Joan; Ahamed, Muneer; Tousseyn, Thomas; Moechars, Diederik; Alcazar, Jesus; Ariza, Manuela; Fierens, Katleen; Bottelbergs, Astrid; Mariën, Jonas; Vandenberghe, Rik; Andres, Ignacio Jose; Van Laere, Koen; Verbruggen, Alfons; Bormans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Early clinical results of two tau tracers, [(18)F]T808 and [(18)F]T807, have recently been reported. In the present study, the biodistribution, radiometabolite quantification, and competition-binding studies were performed in order to acquire comparative preclinical data as well as to establish the value of T808 and T807 as benchmark compounds for assessment of binding affinities of eight new/other tau tracers. Biodistribution studies in mice showed high brain uptake and fast washout.In vivoradiometabolite analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography showed the presence of polar radiometabolites in plasma and brain. No specific binding of [(18)F]T808 was found in transgenic mice expressing mutant human P301L tau. In semiquantitative autoradiography studies on human Alzheimer disease slices, we observed more than 50% tau selective blocking of [(18)F]T808 in the presence of 1 µmol/L of the novel ligands. This study provides a straightforward comparison of the binding affinity and selectivity for tau of the reported radiolabeled tracers BF-158, BF-170, THK5105, lansoprazole, astemizole, and novel tau positron emission tomography ligands against T807 and T808. Therefore, these data are helpful to identify structural requirements for selective interaction with tau and to compare the performance of new highly selective and specific radiolabeled tau tracers. PMID:27030397

  11. Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in

  12. Well log characterization of natural gas-hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    In the last 25 years there have been significant advancements in the use of well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature: whereas wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs were formerly used to identify gas-hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments, more advanced wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools are now routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas-hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Resistivity- and acoustic-logging tools are the most widely used for estimating the gas-hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical-resistivity and acoustic-velocity data can yield accurate gas-hydrate saturations in sediment grain-supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log-analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. New well-logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation-resistivity log measurements provide the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly interbedded and fracture-dominated gas-hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing (WFT) also allow for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids(i.e., free water along with clay- and capillary-bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms

  13. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Sheil, Doug; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Nasi, Robert; Quinones, Marcela; Wielaard, Niels; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2) of Borneo's area (737,188 km2) was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2%) in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%). We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km-2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km-2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8%) of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo. PMID:25029192

  14. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Sheil, Doug; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Nasi, Robert; Quinones, Marcela; Wielaard, Niels; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2) of Borneo's area (737,188 km2) was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2%) in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%). We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km-2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km-2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8%) of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo.

  15. Four Decades of Forest Persistence, Clearance and Logging on Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Sheil, Doug; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Nasi, Robert; Quinones, Marcela; Wielaard, Niels; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2) of Borneo's area (737,188 km2) was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2%) in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%). We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km−2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km−2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8%) of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo. PMID:25029192

  16. Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in well MG-1693 at North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in well MG-1693 (NP-87) at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pa. Objectives of the study were to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of vertical borehole flow, and effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wells. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and borehole-video logs were collected. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and select depths to set packers. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of water-bearing zones and effects of pumping individual zones on water levels in two nearby monitor wells. Specific capacities of isolated zones during aquifer-isolation tests ranged from 0.03 to 3.09 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. Water enters the borehole primarily through high-angle fractures at 416 to 435 ft bls (feet below land surface) and 129 to 136 ft bls. Water exits the borehole through a high-angle fracture at 104 to 107 ft bls, a broken casing joint at 82 ft bls, and sometimes as artesian flow through the top of the well. Thirteen intervals were selected for aquifer-isolation testing, using a straddle-packer assembly. The specific capacity of interval 1 was 2.09 (gal/min)/ft. The specific capacities of intervals 2, 3, and 4 were similar: 0.27, 0.30, and 0.29 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. The specific capacities of intervals 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were similar: 0.03, 0.04, 0.09, 0.09, and 0.04 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. Intervals 9, 11, and 12 each showed a strong

  17. Interlake production established using quantitative hydrocarbon well-log analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, J.; Atkinson, A.

    1988-07-01

    Production was established in a new pay zone of the basal Interlake Formation adjacent to production in Midway field in Williams County, North Dakota. Hydrocarbon saturation, which was computed using hydrocarbon well-log (mud-log) data, and computed permeability encouraged the operator to run casing and test this zone. By use of drilling rig parameters, drilling mud properties, hydrocarbon-show data from the mud log, drilled rock and porosity descriptions, and wireline log porosity, this new technique computes oil saturation (percent of porosity) and permeability to the invading filtrate, using the Darcy equation. The Leonardo Fee well was drilled to test the Devonian Duperow, the Silurian upper Interlake, and the Ordovician Red River. The upper two objectives were penetrated downdip from Midway production and there were no hydrocarbon shows. It was determined that the Red River was tight, based on sample examination by well site personnel. The basal Interlake, however, liberated hydrocarbon shows that were analyzed by this new technology. The results of this evaluation accurately predicted this well would be a commercial success when placed in production. Where geophysical log analysis might be questionable, this new evaluation technique may provide answers to anticipated oil saturation and producibility. The encouraging results of hydrocarbon saturation and permeability, produced by this technique, may be largely responsible for the well being in production today.

  18. Robust Audio Watermarking Based on Log-Polar Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Kang, Xiangui; Huang, Jiwu

    In this paper, we analyze the audio signal distortions introduced by pitch-scaling, random cropping and DA/AD conversion, and find a robust feature, average Fourier magnitude over the log-polar frequency index(AFM), which can resist these attacks. Theoretical analysis and extensive experiments demonstrate that AFM is an appropriate embedding region for robust audio watermarking. This is the first work on applying log-polar mapping to audio watermark. The usage of log-polar mapping in our work is basically different from the existing works in image watermarking. The log-polar mapping is only applied to the frequency index, not to the transform coefficients, which avoids the reconstruction distortion of inverse log-polar transform and reduces the computation cost. Comparison with the existing methods, the proposed AFM-based watermarking scheme has the outstanding performance on resisting pitch-scaling and random cropping, as well as very approving robustness to DA/AD conversion and TSM (Time-Scale Modification). The watermarked audio achieves high auditory quality. Experimental results show that the scheme is very robust to common audio signal processing and distortions introduced in Stirmark for Audio.

  19. Log-Derived evaluation of shaly sandstone reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Fertl, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    Significant natural gas resources are known to exist in the United States in tight, low-permeability sandstones that cover a prospective area of 1,000,000 mi/sup 2/ (2,590,000 km/sup 2/). Characterization and reliable estimation of their production potential based on well logs are important although difficult task. Proper evaluation of low permeability sands based on conventional log-interpretation techniques is frequently inadequate. Furthermore, while empirical rules of thumb assist in the evaluation of localized conditions, they only provide guidelines. Recent developments in quantitative log-analysis techniques incorporate natural-gamma-ray spectral data and application of the Waxman-Smits model for detailed reservoir description. Quantitative correlations of cation exchange capacity (CEC), water salinity, porosity, and conductivity of water- and hydrocarbon-bearing shaly sand reservoirs are based on resistivity, density, neutron and natural-gamma-ray spectral data. These correlations provide important information about clay volume, reservoir porosities (total, effective) and fluid-saturation distribution (total, effective), type of clay minerals (smectite, illite, chlorite/kaolinite), their distribution in the reservoir (dispersed, laminated, structural), and log-derived indicators of potential formation damage. Field experiences are reviewed for logging and evaluating tight formations in south Texas; the Jurassic Cotton Valley trend in east Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas; and the Tertiary Fort Union and Cretaceous Mesaverde Formations of the Piceance basin in Colorado.

  20. A rule-based system for well log correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Startzman, R.A.; Kuo, T.B.

    1987-09-01

    Computer-assisted approaches to well log correlation are of interest to engineers and geologists for two reasons. In large field studies, a computer can be used simply to reduce the time required to correlate zones of interest. It is also possible that computer-assisted correlations may suggest zonal matches of interest and originality that might not have been considered. This paper presents a new approach to the computer-assisted log correlation. Geologic horizons are correlated between wells by use of an artificial intelligence rule-based technique. Using the symbol-manipulation capabilities of a computer language called List Processing (LISP), the author developed a prototype rule-bases system that has symbolic representation of log data, recognizes log shapes from traces, identifies geologic zones from a sequence of shapes in a log, characterizes the zones, correlates zones from well to well with a set of ''if/then'' type of rules, and uses a forward-chaining inference scheme to execute the rule base. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of the LISP language and the methodology involved in the development of this system.

  1. User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

    1983-02-01

    Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

  2. Log-Gabor Weber descriptor for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Sang, Nong; Gao, Changxin

    2015-09-01

    The Log-Gabor transform, which is suitable for analyzing gradually changing data such as in iris and face images, has been widely used in image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision. In most cases, only the magnitude or phase information of the Log-Gabor transform is considered. However, the complementary effect taken by combining magnitude and phase information simultaneously for an image-feature extraction problem has not been systematically explored in the existing works. We propose a local image descriptor for face recognition, called Log-Gabor Weber descriptor (LGWD). The novelty of our LGWD is twofold: (1) to fully utilize the information from the magnitude or phase feature of multiscale and orientation Log-Gabor transform, we apply the Weber local binary pattern operator to each transform response. (2) The encoded Log-Gabor magnitude and phase information are fused at the feature level by utilizing kernel canonical correlation analysis strategy, considering that feature level information fusion is effective when the modalities are correlated. Experimental results on the AR, Extended Yale B, and UMIST face databases, compared with those available from recent experiments reported in the literature, show that our descriptor yields a better performance than state-of-the art methods.

  3. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allan Xi; Antolak, Arlyn J; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2012-02-01

    The viability of replacing Americium–Beryllium (Am–Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D–T or D–D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am–Be, D–D, and D–T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D–D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am–Be or D–T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D–D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  4. CosmicEmuLog: Cosmological Power Spectra Emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark

    2013-04-01

    CosmicEmuLog is a simple Python emulator for cosmological power spectra. In addition to the power spectrum of the conventional overdensity field, it emulates the power spectra of the log-density as well as the Gaussianized density. It models fluctuations in the power spectrum at each k as a linear combination of contributions from fluctuations in each cosmological parameter. The data it uses for emulation consist of ASCII files of the mean power spectrum, together with derivatives of the power spectrum with respect to the five cosmological parameters in the space spanned by the Coyote Universe suite. This data can also be used for Fisher matrix analysis. At present, CosmicEmuLog is restricted to redshift 0.

  5. Reflective logs: an aid to clinical teaching and learning.

    PubMed

    Freeman, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of learning logs for clinical teaching and learning in a university clinic. Students were encouraged to submit a written summary of their reflections after each clinical session for discussion at the subsequent session. Evaluation has shown that clinician-teachers and students value this approach because it facilitates clear goal-setting, promotes information exchange and provides opportunities for explicit focus on the student's learning needs. Although most students reported that completion of the learning log is time-consuming, the majority considered that this was balanced by the benefits, including opportunities for additional feedback and the 'licence to ask questions'. The evaluation has also shown, however, that few students elected to use their learning logs in subsequent placements, particularly when these were undertaken away from the university clinic. Some possible reasons for this are explored.

  6. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues

    PubMed Central

    Alfredsen, Gry; Filbakk, Tore; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones. PMID:25870777

  7. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues.

    PubMed

    Børja, Isabella; Alfredsen, Gry; Filbakk, Tore; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones.

  8. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

    2012-08-01

    The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  9. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  10. Practical life log video indexing based on content and context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancharoen, Datchakorn; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2006-01-01

    Today, multimedia information has gained an important role in daily life and people can use imaging devices to capture their visual experiences. In this paper, we present our personal Life Log system to record personal experiences in form of wearable video and environmental data; in addition, an efficient retrieval system is demonstrated to recall the desirable media. We summarize the practical video indexing techniques based on Life Log content and context to detect talking scenes by using audio/visual cues and semantic key frames from GPS data. Voice annotation is also demonstrated as a practical indexing method. Moreover, we apply body media sensors to record continuous life style and use body media data to index the semantic key frames. In the experiments, we demonstrated various video indexing results which provided their semantic contents and showed Life Log visualizations to examine personal life effectively.

  11. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  12. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  13. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  15. Hydrogen bonds in crystalline carbohydrates A variable-temperature FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, E. T. G.; van der Maas, J. H.

    1994-07-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the hydrogen-bonding systems in crystalline methyl-α- D-manno-, methyl-β- D-galacto- and methyl-α- D-glucopyranoside. The OH stretching region has been studied at subambient temperatures. Deuterium exchange has been carried out to check for vibrational coupling. Good correlation is found between the uncoupled ν OH frequency at 100 K and the ratio of OH bond length to O ⋯ O distance obtained from neutron diffraction data. This correlation can be used to assign peaks to the different OH ⋯ O systems in crystalline carbohydrates. The shift of ν OH with temperature, the wavenumber-temperature coefficient (WTc), also proves to be useful in the assignment.

  16. Tracking algorithms using log-polar mapped image coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The use of log-polar image sampling coordinates rather than conventional Cartesian coordinates offers a number of advantages for visual tracking and docking of space vehicles. Pixel count is reduced without decreasing the field of view, with commensurate reduction in peripheral resolution. Smaller memory requirements and reduced processing loads are the benefits in working environments where bulk and energy are at a premium. Rotational and zoom symmetries of log-polar coordinates accommodate range and orientation extremes without computational penalties. Separation of radial and rotational coordinates reduces the complexity of several target centering algorithms, described below.

  17. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  18. A database for operation logging of the KEK photon factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Cheol On

    1990-08-01

    A prototype database for operation logging of the KEK Photon Factory storage ring has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the basic design of the operation logging system and its performance. Front-end control computers gather various data concerning the operation of the storage ring, and transfer them to a large general-purpose computer through a token-ring network. We have adopted a relational database system so as to save large amounts of data under daily operation. An interactive software tool was developed to retrieve data and to make graphic representations easily.

  19. NADIR: Monitoring, Error Handling, and Logging with Tango

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.

    2014-05-01

    The ingest and transport of a large amount of astronomical data, in geographically distributed archives, imply some challenging issues, like remote control and configuration, monitoring and logging anomalous conditions, fault tolerance and error handling. Based on this considerations and on our experience in data management, we started development of a New Archiving Distributed InfrastructuRe (NADIR), using Tango (Team 2013; S. Gara 2012), a well known distributed control system (DCSs) within scientific environments, taking advantage of its key features, like reliability, scalability, logging and alarm system, consolidated pattern and template, to solve this complexity. In this paper we discuss about design choices and technical aspects around this project.

  20. FT-IR spectroscopy of lipoproteins—A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Balarin, Maja; Kosović, Marin; Gamulin, Ozren; Brnjas-Kraljević, Jasminka

    2009-08-01

    FT-IR spectra, in the frequency region 4000-600 cm -1, of four major lipoprotein classes: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and two subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDL 2 and HDL 3) were analyzed to obtain their detailed spectral characterization. Information about the protein domain of particle was obtained from the analysis of amide I band. The procedure of decomposition and curve fitting of this band confirms the data already known about the secondary structure of two different apolipoproteins: apo A-I in HDL 2 and HDL 3 and apo B-100 in LDL and VLDL. For information about the lipid composition and packing of the particular lipoprotein the well expressed lipid bands in the spectra were analyzed. Characterization of spectral details in the FT-IR spectrum of natural lipoprotein is necessary to study the influence of external compounds on its structure.