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Sample records for ratios log ft

  1. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    PubMed

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  2. Ratios for estimating logging residue in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1981-01-01

    Ratios are presented for estimating the volume of logging residue for any location in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. They show cubic-foot volume of logging residue per 1,000 board feet of timber harvested and per acre harvested. Tables show gross and net volumes, with and without bark. The volumes of live and dead and cull residue at the time of harvest are also given...

  3. Log-ratio circuit for beam position monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, F. D.; Shafer, R. E.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Shurter, R. B.

    1991-06-01

    A synopsis is given of work in progress on a new signal processing technique for obtaining real-time normalized beam position information from sensing electrodes in accelerator beam pipes. The circuit employs wideband logarithmic amplifiers in a configuration that converts pickup electrode signals to position signals that are substantially independent of beam current. The circuit functions as a ratio detector that computers the logarithm of (A/B) as (Log A - Log B), and presents the results in a video (real-time analog) format representing beam position. It has potential benefits of greater dynamic range and better linearity than other techniques currently used and it may be able to operate at substantially higher frequencies.

  4. Transfer Entropy as a Log-Likelihood Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Lionel; Bossomaier, Terry

    2012-09-01

    Transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between joint processes, has steadily gained popularity in the analysis of complex stochastic dynamics in diverse fields, including the neurosciences, ecology, climatology, and econometrics. We show that for a broad class of predictive models, the log-likelihood ratio test statistic for the null hypothesis of zero transfer entropy is a consistent estimator for the transfer entropy itself. For finite Markov chains, furthermore, no explicit model is required. In the general case, an asymptotic χ2 distribution is established for the transfer entropy estimator. The result generalizes the equivalence in the Gaussian case of transfer entropy and Granger causality, a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression, and establishes a fundamental connection between directed information transfer and causality in the Wiener-Granger sense.

  5. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  6. Evaluation of the β+-decay log ft value with inclusion of the neutron-proton pairing and particle-number projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrouchi, S.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutron-proton isovector pairing effect on the beta-plus decay log ft values is studied in typical mirror N≃Z nuclei. The log ft values are calculated by including or not the isovector pairing before and after a particle-number projection using the Sharp-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (SBCS) method. It is shown that the values obtained after projection in the isovector pairing case are the closest ones to experimental data. The effect of the deformation of the mother and daughter nuclei on the log ft is also studied.

  7. Comparison of FT4 with log TSH on the Abbott Architect ci8200: Pediatric reference intervals for free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Steven J; Cheng, Luke L; Lam, Lisa Y; Werner, Alice; Le, Alexander D; Soldin, Offie P

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated the clinical validity of serum FT4 measurements by assessing its correlation with log TSH. To provide pediatric reference intervals (representative ranges) for FT4, and TSH on the Architect ci8200 integrated system. Methods This population-based study encompassed 6023 children (3369 females and 2654 males). The percentile and Hoffmann approaches for obtaining reference intervals on these analytes were also compared. Results: FT4 correlation with log TSH was poor ( r=0.010 for males and 0.050 for females). Reference intervals were established. TSH and FT4 did not show a significant sex difference; moreover, the intervals decreased with age for FT4 and TSH. Conclusions Whereas in a previous study ultrafiltration tandem mass spectrometry yielded a correlation of r=0.90 for FT4 vs. log TSH this present study reveals a poor FT4 vs. log TSH correlation in the pediatric population studied and indicates the FT4 immunoassay conducted on the Abbott Architect ci8200 is less useful clinically than might have been expected. Reference intervals using the Hoffmann approach for pediatric in- and out-patients compare well with previously published results utilizing the percentile approach. PMID:19931524

  8. Mapping soil particle-size fractions: A comparison of compositional kriging and log-ratio kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zong; Shi, Wenjiao

    2017-03-01

    Soil particle-size fractions (psf) as basic physical variables need to be accurately predicted for regional hydrological, ecological, geological, agricultural and environmental studies frequently. Some methods had been proposed to interpolate the spatial distributions of soil psf, but the performance of compositional kriging and different log-ratio kriging methods is still unclear. Four log-ratio transformations, including additive log-ratio (alr), centered log-ratio (clr), isometric log-ratio (ilr), and symmetry log-ratio (slr), combined with ordinary kriging (log-ratio kriging: alr_OK, clr_OK, ilr_OK and slr_OK) were selected to be compared with compositional kriging (CK) for the spatial prediction of soil psf in Tianlaochi of Heihe River Basin, China. Root mean squared error (RMSE), Aitchison's distance (AD), standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) and right ratio of the predicted soil texture types (RR) were chosen to evaluate the accuracy for different interpolators. The results showed that CK had a better accuracy than the four log-ratio kriging methods. The RMSE (sand, 9.27%; silt, 7.67%; clay, 4.17%), AD (0.45), STRESS (0.60) of CK were the lowest and the RR (58.65%) was the highest in the five interpolators. The clr_OK achieved relatively better performance than the other log-ratio kriging methods. In addition, CK presented reasonable and smooth transition on mapping soil psf according to the environmental factors. The study gives insights for mapping soil psf accurately by comparing different methods for compositional data interpolation. Further researches of methods combined with ancillary variables are needed to be implemented to improve the interpolation performance.

  9. Limits on Log Cross-Product Ratios for Item Response Models. Research Report. ETS RR-06-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2006-01-01

    Bounds are established for log cross-product ratios (log odds ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log cross-product ratios are provided for unidimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model.…

  10. FT3/FT4 ratio predicts non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of metabolic parameters in patients with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gökmen, Fatma Yahyaoğlu; Ahbab, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Hayriye Esra; Türker, Betül Çavuşoğlu; Çetin, Faik; Türker, Fatih; Mamaç, Rabia Yahyaoğlu; Yenigün, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of metabolic parameters and thyroid dysfunction on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The current study evaluated a total of 115 patients, 75 female and 40 male. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were applied to all participants. Hypothyroidism was considered at a thyroid stimulating hormone level ≥ 4.1 mIU/L. Patients with euthyroidism and patients with hypothyroidism were compared. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The participants were further compared with regard to the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Logistic regression modeling was performed to identify the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and independent variables, such as metabolic parameters and insulin resistance. RESULTS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was identified in 69 patients. The mean waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and FT3/FT4 ratio (p=0.01) values were significantly higher in the patients with NAFLD compared to those without it. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that FT3/FT4 ratio, waist circumference and insulin resistance were independent risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance, enlarged waist circumference, elevated body mass index, higher FT3/FT4 ratio and hypertriglyceridemia are independent risk factors for NADLF, whereas hypothyroidism is not directly related to the condition. PMID:27166773

  11. Is Log Ratio a Good Value for Measuring Return in Stock Investments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ultsch, Alfred

    Measuring the rate of return is an important issue for theory and practice of investments in the stock market. A common measure for rate of return is the logarithm of the ratio of successive prices (LogRatio). In this paper it is shown that LogRatio as well as arithmetic return rate (Ratio) have several disadvantages. As an alternative relative differences (RelDiff) are proposed to measure return. The stability against numerical and rounding errors of RelDiff is much better than for LogRatios and Ratio). RelDiff values are identical to LogRatios and Return for small absolutes. The usage of RelDiff maps returns to a finite range. For most subsequent analyses this is a big advantage. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on daily return rates of a large set of actual stocks. It is shown that returns can be modeled with a very simple mixture of distributions in great precision using Relative differences.

  12. Error Propagation in Isometric Log-ratio Coordinates for Compositional Data: Theoretical and Practical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mert, Mehmet Can; Filzmoser, Peter; Hron, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Compositional data, as they typically appear in geochemistry in terms of concentrations of chemical elements in soil samples, need to be expressed in log-ratio coordinates before applying the traditional statistical tools if the relative structure of the data is of primary interest. There are different possibilities for this purpose, like centered log-ratio coefficients, or isometric log-ratio coordinates. In both the approaches, geometric means of the compositional parts are involved, and it is unclear how measurement errors or detection limit problems affect their presentation in coordinates. This problem is investigated theoretically by making use of the theory of error propagation. Due to certain limitations of this approach, the effect of error propagation is also studied by means of simulations. This allows to provide recommendations for practitioners on the amount of error and on the expected distortion of the results, depending on the purpose of the analysis.

  13. Logging affects fledgling sex ratios and baseline corticosterone in a forest songbird.

    PubMed

    Leshyk, Rhiannon; Nol, Erica; Burke, Dawn M; Burness, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Silviculture (logging) creates a disturbance to forested environments. The degree to which forests are modified depends on the logging prescription and forest stand characteristics. In this study we compared the effects of two methods of group-selection ("moderate" and "heavy") silviculture (GSS) and undisturbed reference stands on stress and offspring sex ratios of a forest interior species, the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada. Blood samples were taken from nestlings for corticosterone and molecular sexing. We found that logging creates a disturbance that is stressful for nestling Ovenbirds, as illustrated by elevated baseline corticosterone in cut sites. Ovenbirds nesting in undisturbed reference forest produce fewer male offspring per brood (proportion male = 30%) while logging with progressively greater forest disturbance, shifted the offspring sex ratio towards males (proportion male: moderate = 50%, heavy = 70%). If Ovenbirds in undisturbed forests usually produce female-biased broods, then the production of males as a result of logging may disrupt population viability. We recommend a broad examination of nestling sex ratios in response to anthropogenic disturbance to determine the generality of our findings.

  14. Logging Affects Fledgling Sex Ratios and Baseline Corticosterone in a Forest Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Leshyk, Rhiannon; Nol, Erica; Burke, Dawn M.; Burness, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Silviculture (logging) creates a disturbance to forested environments. The degree to which forests are modified depends on the logging prescription and forest stand characteristics. In this study we compared the effects of two methods of group-selection (“moderate” and “heavy”) silviculture (GSS) and undisturbed reference stands on stress and offspring sex ratios of a forest interior species, the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada. Blood samples were taken from nestlings for corticosterone and molecular sexing. We found that logging creates a disturbance that is stressful for nestling Ovenbirds, as illustrated by elevated baseline corticosterone in cut sites. Ovenbirds nesting in undisturbed reference forest produce fewer male offspring per brood (proportion male = 30%) while logging with progressively greater forest disturbance, shifted the offspring sex ratio towards males (proportion male: moderate = 50%, heavy = 70%). If Ovenbirds in undisturbed forests usually produce female-biased broods, then the production of males as a result of logging may disrupt population viability. We recommend a broad examination of nestling sex ratios in response to anthropogenic disturbance to determine the generality of our findings. PMID:22432000

  15. Practical Aspects of Log-ratio Coordinate Representations in Regression with Compositional Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišerová, Eva; Donevska, Sandra; Hron, Karel; Bábek, Ondřej; Vaňkátová, Kristýna

    2016-10-01

    Regression analysis with compositional response, observations carrying relative information, is an appropriate tool for statistical modelling in many scientific areas (e.g. medicine, geochemistry, geology, economics). Even though this technique has been recently intensively studied, there are still some practical aspects that deserve to be further analysed. Here we discuss the issue related to the coordinate representation of compositional data. It is shown that linear relation between particular orthonormal coordinates and centred log-ratio coordinates can be utilized to simplify the computation concerning regression parameters estimation and hypothesis testing. To enhance interpretation of regression parameters, the orthogonal coordinates and their relation with orthonormal and centred log-ratio coordinates are presented. Further we discuss the quality of prediction in different coordinate system. It is shown that the mean squared error (MSE) for orthonormal coordinates is less or equal to the MSE for log-transformed data. Finally, an illustrative real-world example from geology is presented.

  16. Utterance Verification Using State-Level Log-Likelihood Ratio with Frame and State Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Suk-Bong; Kim, Hoirin

    This paper suggests utterance verification system using state-level log-likelihood ratio with frame and state selection. We use hidden Markov models for speech recognition and utterance verification as acoustic models and anti-phone models. The hidden Markov models have three states and each state represents different characteristics of a phone. Thus we propose an algorithm to compute state-level log-likelihood ratio and give weights on states for obtaining more reliable confidence measure of recognized phones. Additionally, we propose a frame selection algorithm to compute confidence measure on frames including proper speech in the input speech. In general, phone segmentation information obtained from speaker-independent speech recognition system is not accurate because triphone-based acoustic models are difficult to effectively train for covering diverse pronunciation and coarticulation effect. So, it is more difficult to find the right matched states when obtaining state segmentation information. A state selection algorithm is suggested for finding valid states. The proposed method using state-level log-likelihood ratio with frame and state selection shows that the relative reduction in equal error rate is 18.1% compared to the baseline system using simple phone-level log-likelihood ratios.

  17. Bladder cancer mapping in Libya based on standardized morbidity ratio and log-normal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-05-01

    Disease mapping contains a set of statistical techniques that detail maps of rates based on estimated mortality, morbidity, and prevalence. A traditional approach to measure the relative risk of the disease is called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). It is the ratio of an observed and expected number of accounts in an area, which has the greatest uncertainty if the disease is rare or if geographical area is small. Therefore, Bayesian models or statistical smoothing based on Log-normal model are introduced which might solve SMR problem. This study estimates the relative risk for bladder cancer incidence in Libya from 2006 to 2007 based on the SMR and log-normal model, which were fitted to data using WinBUGS software. This study starts with a brief review of these models, starting with the SMR method and followed by the log-normal model, which is then applied to bladder cancer incidence in Libya. All results are compared using maps and tables. The study concludes that the log-normal model gives better relative risk estimates compared to the classical method. The log-normal model has can overcome the SMR problem when there is no observed bladder cancer in an area.

  18. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  19. [Evaluation of estimation of prevalence ratio using bayesian log-binomial regression model].

    PubMed

    Gao, W L; Lin, H; Liu, X N; Ren, X W; Li, J S; Shen, X P; Zhu, S L

    2017-03-10

    To evaluate the estimation of prevalence ratio (PR) by using bayesian log-binomial regression model and its application, we estimated the PR of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea in their infants by using bayesian log-binomial regression model in Openbugs software. The results showed that caregivers' recognition of infant' s risk signs of diarrhea was associated significantly with a 13% increase of medical care-seeking. Meanwhile, we compared the differences in PR's point estimation and its interval estimation of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea and convergence of three models (model 1: not adjusting for the covariates; model 2: adjusting for duration of caregivers' education, model 3: adjusting for distance between village and township and child month-age based on model 2) between bayesian log-binomial regression model and conventional log-binomial regression model. The results showed that all three bayesian log-binomial regression models were convergence and the estimated PRs were 1.130(95%CI: 1.005-1.265), 1.128(95%CI: 1.001-1.264) and 1.132(95%CI: 1.004-1.267), respectively. Conventional log-binomial regression model 1 and model 2 were convergence and their PRs were 1.130(95% CI: 1.055-1.206) and 1.126(95% CI: 1.051-1.203), respectively, but the model 3 was misconvergence, so COPY method was used to estimate PR, which was 1.125 (95%CI: 1.051-1.200). In addition, the point estimation and interval estimation of PRs from three bayesian log-binomial regression models differed slightly from those of PRs from conventional log-binomial regression model, but they had a good consistency in estimating PR. Therefore, bayesian log-binomial regression model can effectively estimate PR with less misconvergence and have more advantages in application compared with conventional log-binomial regression model.

  20. The isometric log-ratio transform for probabilistic multi-label anatomical shape representation.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Shawn; Changizi, Neda; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2014-09-01

    Sources of uncertainty in the boundaries of structures in medical images have motivated the use of probabilistic labels in segmentation applications. An important component in many medical image segmentation tasks is the use of a shape model, often generated by applying statistical techniques to training data. Standard statistical techniques (e.g., principal component analysis) often assume data lies in an unconstrained vector space, but probabilistic labels are constrained to the unit simplex. If these statistical techniques are used directly on probabilistic labels, relative uncertainty information can be sacrificed. A standard method for facilitating analysis of probabilistic labels is to map them to a vector space using the LogOdds transform. However, the LogOdds transform is asymmetric in one of the labels, which skews results in some applications. The isometric log-ratio (ILR) transform is a symmetrized version of the LogOdds transform, and is so named as it is an isometry between the Aitchison geometry, the inherent geometry of the simplex, and standard Euclidean geometry. We explore how to interpret the Aitchison geometry when applied to probabilistic labels in medical image segmentation applications. We demonstrate the differences when applying the LogOdds transform or the ILR transform to probabilistic labels prior to statistical analysis. Specifically, we show that statistical analysis of ILR transformed data better captures the variability of anatomical shapes in cases where multiple different foreground regions share boundaries (as opposed to foreground-background boundaries).

  1. An Informative Interpretation of Decision Theory: The Information Theoretic Basis for Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Log Likelihood Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Polcari, J.

    2013-08-16

    The signal processing concept of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), in its role as a performance measure, is recast within the more general context of information theory, leading to a series of useful insights. Establishing generalized SNR (GSNR) as a rigorous information theoretic measure inherent in any set of observations significantly strengthens its quantitative performance pedigree while simultaneously providing a specific definition under general conditions. This directly leads to consideration of the log likelihood ratio (LLR): first, as the simplest possible information-preserving transformation (i.e., signal processing algorithm) and subsequently, as an absolute, comparable measure of information for any specific observation exemplar. Furthermore, the information accounting methodology that results permits practical use of both GSNR and LLR as diagnostic scalar performance measurements, directly comparable across alternative system/algorithm designs, applicable at any tap point within any processing string, in a form that is also comparable with the inherent performance bounds due to information conservation.

  2. Practical approach to estimate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using Passey's algorithm without sonic log in horizontal well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas evaluation process can be summarized as the selection of sweep spot intervals in the vertical borehole and determination of hydraulic fracturing zones in horizontal borehole. Brittleness index used in the selection of hydraulic fracturing interval is calculated from dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of wireline logging and MWD/LWD data. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated from the sonic and density log data, and therefore the MWD/LWD in the horizontal borehole should be included sonic log to estimate the dynamic elastic constants. This paper proposes a practical method to estimate the elastic moduli based on Passey's algorithm if we can't use the LWD sonic log in the horizontal borehole. To estimate the TOC (Total Organic Content) using the sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log using Passey's algorithm we use the relationship between Delta log R values and core derived-LOM (Level of Maturity) data. Dynamic elastic constants in the horizontal well, i.e. in case of sweet spot zones, can be estimated using the relationships between P-wave velocity and elastic constants in the vertical well, and similarity between the calculated Delta log R values from sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log, respectively. From two Passey's algorithms such as sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log relationships in the vertical well, we can derive the P-wave velocity equating the two Passey's algorithms based on the similarity. Then we can derive the dynamic elastic constants using the relationships between P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic constants. Finally we can estimate the brittleness index from the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We expect that this practical method can be effectively applied if we can't use the LWD sonic logging data of the horizontal borehole.

  3. The ratio method of estimating water resistivity and TDS from resistivity logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    It is a general belief that useful estimates of total dissolved solids concentrations of ground water cannot be made from borehole geophysical logs. A case study of estimating total dissolved solids concentration of ground water in the local area using the ratio method yielded estimates with an average error of less than 25 percent. The results do not support the hypothesis that useful estimates of total dissolved solids concentration cannot be made from borehole geophysical logs. The case study included a comparison of estimates of total dissolved solids concentration utilizing a resistivity of the mud input versus using resistivity of the mud filtrate input. Estimates made using resistivity of mud had a correlation coefficient of 0.97 whereas estimates using resistivity of mud filtrate had a correlation coefficient of only 0.27. The results from the case study suggest that at least in some cases the resistivity of the mud (Rm) produce a better estimate of the resistivity of water (Rw) in the fully flushed zone than an estimate using the resistivity of the mud filtrate Rmf. The ratio method can be easily used to estimate ground-water resistivity and total dissolved solids concentration of the formation water based only on data from resistivity logs. The advantage of the method is that data on porosity, cementation exponent, temperature, and volume of clay are not required. The method, which has been used by the oil industry to crudely estimate water resistivity, is based in part on the ratio of the resistivity of a fully water-saturated formation to the resistivity of the fully flushed zone adjacent to the annulus in a mud-filled borehole. The method, which is very robust, requires only an estimate of the resistivity of a fully water-saturated formation from a deep looking induction or resistivity log, an estimate of the resistivity of the fully flushed zone from a microresistivity or short normal log, and a measurement of resistivity of the mud or mud filtrate

  4. An Informative Interpretation of Decision Theory: The Information Theoretic Basis for Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Log Likelihood Ratio

    DOE PAGES

    Polcari, J.

    2013-08-16

    The signal processing concept of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), in its role as a performance measure, is recast within the more general context of information theory, leading to a series of useful insights. Establishing generalized SNR (GSNR) as a rigorous information theoretic measure inherent in any set of observations significantly strengthens its quantitative performance pedigree while simultaneously providing a specific definition under general conditions. This directly leads to consideration of the log likelihood ratio (LLR): first, as the simplest possible information-preserving transformation (i.e., signal processing algorithm) and subsequently, as an absolute, comparable measure of information for any specific observation exemplar. Furthermore,more » the information accounting methodology that results permits practical use of both GSNR and LLR as diagnostic scalar performance measurements, directly comparable across alternative system/algorithm designs, applicable at any tap point within any processing string, in a form that is also comparable with the inherent performance bounds due to information conservation.« less

  5. Acoustic attenuation logging using centroid frequency shift and amplitude ratio methods: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Y.; Harris, J.M.; Chen, X.

    1994-12-31

    The centroid frequency shift method is proposed to estimate seismic attenuation from full waveform acoustic logs. This approach along with the amplitude ratio method is applied to investigate the attenuation properties of the P head wave in fluid-filled boreholes. The generalized reflection and transmission coefficients method is used to perform forward modeling. The authors suggest an empirical formula to describe the frequency-dependent geometrical spreading of the P-wave in a borehole. They simulate a more realistic borehole by including a mudcake and an invaded zone which are modeled by a large number of radially symmetric thin layers. The numerical tests show that this invaded zone exhibits very strong influence on the attenuation measurement.

  6. A Planar Approximation for the Least Reliable Bit Log-likelihood Ratio of 8-PSK Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesling, William H.; Vanderaar, Mark J.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum decoding of component codes in block coded modulation (BCM) schemes requires the use of the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) as the signal metric. An approximation to the LLR for the least reliable bit (LRB) in an 8-PSK modulation based on planar equations with fixed point arithmetic is developed that is both accurate and easily realizable for practical BCM schemes. Through an error power analysis and an example simulation it is shown that the approximation results in 0.06 dB in degradation over the exact expression at an E(sub s)/N(sub o) of 10 dB. It is also shown that the approximation can be realized in combinatorial logic using roughly 7300 transistors. This compares favorably to a look up table approach in typical systems.

  7. Bayesian penalized log-likelihood ratio approach for dose response clinical trial studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Cai, Chunyan; Sun, Liangrui; He, Jianghua

    2017-02-13

    In literature, there are a few unified approaches to test proof of concept and estimate a target dose, including the multiple comparison procedure using modeling approach, and the permutation approach proposed by Klingenberg. We discuss and compare the operating characteristics of these unified approaches and further develop an alternative approach in a Bayesian framework based on the posterior distribution of a penalized log-likelihood ratio test statistic. Our Bayesian approach is much more flexible to handle linear or nonlinear dose-response relationships and is more efficient than the permutation approach. The operating characteristics of our Bayesian approach are comparable to and sometimes better than both approaches in a wide range of dose-response relationships. It yields credible intervals as well as predictive distribution for the response rate at a specific dose level for the target dose estimation. Our Bayesian approach can be easily extended to continuous, categorical, and time-to-event responses. We illustrate the performance of our proposed method with extensive simulations and Phase II clinical trial data examples.

  8. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  9. Log-ratio transformed major element based multidimensional classification for altered High-Mg igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Rivera-Gómez, M. Abdelaly; Díaz-González, Lorena; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2016-12-01

    A new multidimensional classification scheme consistent with the chemical classification of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is proposed for the nomenclature of High-Mg altered rocks. Our procedure is based on an extensive database of major element (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3t, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5) compositions of a total of 33,868 (920 High-Mg and 32,948 "Common") relatively fresh igneous rock samples. The database consisting of these multinormally distributed samples in terms of their isometric log-ratios was used to propose a set of 11 discriminant functions and 6 diagrams to facilitate High-Mg rock classification. The multinormality required by linear discriminant and canonical analysis was ascertained by a new computer program DOMuDaF. One multidimensional function can distinguish the High-Mg and Common igneous rocks with high percent success values of about 86.4% and 98.9%, respectively. Similarly, from 10 discriminant functions the High-Mg rocks can also be classified as one of the four rock types (komatiite, meimechite, picrite, and boninite), with high success values of about 88%-100%. Satisfactory functioning of this new classification scheme was confirmed by seven independent tests. Five further case studies involving application to highly altered rocks illustrate the usefulness of our proposal. A computer program HMgClaMSys was written to efficiently apply the proposed classification scheme, which will be available for online processing of igneous rock compositional data. Monte Carlo simulation modeling and mass-balance computations confirmed the robustness of our classification with respect to analytical errors and postemplacement compositional changes.

  10. Estimation of S/G ratio in woods using 1064 nm FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Dharshana Padmakshan; Sarah Liu; Steven D. Karlen; Cliff Foster; John Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Two simple methods based on the 370 cm-1 Raman band intensity were developed for estimation of syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in woods. The methods, in principle, are representative of the whole cell wall lignin and not just the portion of lignin that gets cleaved to release monomers, for example, during certain S/G chemical analyses. As such,...

  11. Standardized likelihood ratio test for comparing several log-normal means and confidence interval for the common mean.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, K; Oral, Evrim

    2015-11-26

    Standardized likelihood ratio test (SLRT) for testing the equality of means of several log-normal distributions is proposed. The properties of the SLRT and an available modified likelihood ratio test (MLRT) and a generalized variable (GV) test are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation and compared. Evaluation studies indicate that the SLRT is accurate even for small samples, whereas the MLRT could be quite liberal for some parameter values, and the GV test is in general conservative and less powerful than the SLRT. Furthermore, a closed-form approximate confidence interval for the common mean of several log-normal distributions is developed using the method of variance estimate recovery, and compared with the generalized confidence interval with respect to coverage probabilities and precision. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed confidence interval is accurate and better than the generalized confidence interval in terms of coverage probabilities. The methods are illustrated using two examples.

  12. Reducing Monte Carlo error in the Bayesian estimation of risk ratios using log-binomial regression models.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Diego; Cano, Juan A; Chirlaque, María D

    2015-08-30

    In cohort studies, binary outcomes are very often analyzed by logistic regression. However, it is well known that when the goal is to estimate a risk ratio, the logistic regression is inappropriate if the outcome is common. In these cases, a log-binomial regression model is preferable. On the other hand, the estimation of the regression coefficients of the log-binomial model is difficult owing to the constraints that must be imposed on these coefficients. Bayesian methods allow a straightforward approach for log-binomial regression models and produce smaller mean squared errors in the estimation of risk ratios than the frequentist methods, and the posterior inferences can be obtained using the software WinBUGS. However, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in WinBUGS can lead to large Monte Carlo errors in the approximations to the posterior inferences because they produce correlated simulations, and the accuracy of the approximations are inversely related to this correlation. To reduce correlation and to improve accuracy, we propose a reparameterization based on a Poisson model and a sampling algorithm coded in R.

  13. Segmentation of diesel spray images with log-likelihood ratio test algorithm for non-Gaussian distributions.

    PubMed

    Pastor, José V; Arrègle, Jean; García, José M; Zapata, L Daniel

    2007-02-20

    A methodology for processing images of diesel sprays under different experimental situations is presented. The new approach has been developed for cases where the background does not follow a Gaussian distribution but a positive bias appears. In such cases, the lognormal and the gamma probability density functions have been considered for the background digital level distributions. Two different algorithms have been compared with the standard log-likelihood ratio test (LRT): a threshold defined from the cumulative probability density function of the background shows a sensitive improvement, but the best results are obtained with modified versions of the LRT algorithm adapted to non-Gaussian cases.

  14. On Statistics of Log-Ratio of Arithmetic Mean to Geometric Mean for Nakagami-m Fading Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Cheng, Julian; Tellambura, Chintha

    To assess the performance of maximum-likelihood (ML) based Nakagami m parameter estimators, current methods rely on Monte Carlo simulation. In order to enable the analytical performance evaluation of ML-based m parameter estimators, we study the statistical properties of a parameter Δ, which is defined as the log-ratio of the arithmetic mean to the geometric mean for Nakagami-m fading power. Closed-form expressions are derived for the probability density function (PDF) of Δ. It is found that for large sample size, the PDF of Δ can be well approximated by a two-parameter Gamma PDF.

  15. Mapping soil particle-size fractions using additive-log ratio transformation and proximally sensed ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Ehsan; Huang, Jingyi; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    Together the three particle size fractions (PSFs) of clay, silt, and sand are the most fundamental soil properties because of their relative abundance influences the physical, chemical and biological activities in soil. Therefore, there is an increasing need for high-resolution information on spatial distribution of soil texture. Unfortunately, determining PSFs requires a laboratory method which is time-consuming. One way to add value is to use digital soil mapping. Specifically, using mathematical models, such as multiple linear regression (MLR), to couple ancillary data to PSF data. However, this approach does not account for the special requirements of compositional data. Here we demonstrated how ancillary data can be coupled via MLR modelling to an additive log-ratio transformation (ALR) of the PSF to meet these requirements. We compared these two approaches (MLR vs. ALR-MLR). We also compared the use of different ancillary data including proximally sensed gamma-ray spectrometry (i.e. RS700), electromagnetic induction (i.e. DUALEM-421S) and elevation data. In addition, we tested how prediction might be improved by using ancillary data measured on transects (which simulated measurements made on 6.5 m transects) as compared to interpolation from transects spaced 13 m and 26 m apart. Although the ALR-MLR approach did not produce significantly better results, it generated predicted soil PSFs which summed to 100. We found that for predicting PSFs at various depths, all ancillary data was useful with elevation and gamma-ray slightly better for topsoil and elevation and EM data better for subsoil prediction. In addition, a reduced transect spacing (26 m) and sampling size (9-16) can be adopted for mapping soil PSFs and soil texture across the study field.

  16. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  17. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  18. Influence of coherence length, signal-to-noise ratio, log transform, and low-pass filtering on layer thickness assessment with OCT in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Cervantes, Joel; Reddikumar, Maddipatla; Cense, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina are inevitably affected by the finite width of the coherence function and noise. To make low-reflective layers visible, the raw OCT signal is log transformed; to reduce the effect of noise the images can be low-pass filtered. We determined the effects of these operations on layer thickness assessment, as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), by performing measurements in a phantom eye and modeling. The log transform appeared to be the key factor in a SNR-dependent overestimation of peak widths and a less predictive bias in the widths of low-reflective layers. PMID:27895990

  19. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Mineral to Matrix Ratios Correlate with Physical Chemical Properties of Model Compounds and Native Bone Tissue.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erik A; Lloyd, Ashley A; Salazar-Lara, Carolina; Donnelly, Eve

    2017-10-01

    Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging techniques can be used to characterize bone composition. In this study, our objective was to validate the Raman mineral:matrix ratios (ν1 PO4:amide III, ν1 PO4:amide I, ν1 PO4:Proline + hydroxyproline, ν1 PO4:Phenylalanine, ν1 PO4:δ CH2 peak area ratios) by correlating them to ash fraction and the IR mineral:matrix ratio (ν3 PO4:amide I peak area ratio) in chemical standards and native bone tissue. Chemical standards consisting of varying ratios of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and collagen, as well as bone tissue from humans, sheep, and mice, were characterized with confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and gravimetric analysis. Raman and IR mineral:matrix ratio values from chemical standards increased reciprocally with ash fraction (Raman ν1 PO4/Amide III: P < 0.01, R(2 )= 0.966; Raman ν1 PO4/Amide I: P < 0.01, R(2 )= 0.919; Raman ν1 PO4/Proline + Hydroxyproline: P < 0.01, R(2 )= 0.976; Raman ν1 PO4/Phenylalanine: P < 0.01, R(2 )= 0.911; Raman ν1 PO4/δ CH2: P < 0.01, R(2 )= 0.894; IR P < 0.01, R(2 )= 0.91). Fourier transform infrared mineral:matrix ratio values from native bone tissue were also similar to theoretical mineral:matrix ratio values for a given ash fraction. Raman and IR mineral:matrix ratio values were strongly correlated ( P < 0.01, R(2 )= 0.82). These results were confirmed by calculating the mineral:matrix ratio for theoretical IR spectra, developed by applying the Beer-Lambert law to calculate the relative extinction coefficients of HA and collagen over the same range of wavenumbers (800-1800 cm(-1)). The results confirm that the Raman mineral:matrix bone composition parameter correlates strongly to ash fraction and to its IR counterpart. Finally, the mineral:matrix ratio values of the native bone tissue are similar to those of both chemical standards and theoretical values, confirming the

  20. Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on a 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 725 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Using Vaned Passage Casing Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    A 1.294 pressure ratio, 725 ft/sec tip speed, variable pitch low noise fan was designed and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Wind Tunnel. The design included a casing treatment that used recirculation to extend the fan stall line and provide an acceptable operating range. Overall aerodynamic experimental results are presented for this low tip speed, low noise fan without casing treatment as well as using several variants of the casing treatment that moved the air extraction and insertion axial locations. Measurements were made to assess effects on performance, operability, and noise. An unusual instability was discovered near the design operating line and is documented in the fan operating range. Measurements were made to compare stall margin improvements as well as measure the performance impact of the casing treatments. Experimental results in the presence of simulated inlet distortion, via screens, are presented for the baseline and recirculation casing treatment configurations. Estimates are made for the quantity of recirculation weight flow based on limited instrumentation in the recirculation system along with discussion of results and conclusions

  1. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  2. The importance of sample size, log-mean ratios, and intrasubject variability in the acceptance criteria of 108 bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, E; Guerra, P; Laosa, O; Duque, B; Tabares, B; Lei, S H; Carcas, A J; Frias, J

    2008-08-01

    Fulfilling bioequivalence criteria with highly variable drugs is difficult. The aim of this study was to compare the importance of sample size, intrasubject variability, and the point estimate of test and reference formulations with regard to meeting bioequivalence (BE) criteria [maximum observed plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)]. We compared 137 pairs of data from BE studies with a conventional number of subjects, approximately 31-32 volunteers, developed in the last 10 years. The third part of the studies failed to demonstrate BE, in part due to an unacceptable difference between the mean ratios (T/R) (18) but also due to high variability with small differences between formulations (17). Increasing the number of subjects is hard to justify, and expanding the confidence interval (CI) was insufficient for the most highly variable drugs. Therefore, for low-variable drugs, the difference between formulations was the cornerstone of the fulfillment of BE criteria, but for highly variable drugs, the intrasubject coefficient of variability (ICV) was decisive. Our proposal is that for highly variable drugs that fall outside BE 90% CI limits could result in BE in the absence of formulation effect and maximal differences between formulations below 20%.

  3. Carbon isotope ratios in logged and unlogged boreal forests: Examination of the potential for determining wildlife habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Robert

    1996-03-01

    Due to assimilation of recycled CO2 from litter decomposition and photosynthetic changes in carbon fractionation at low light levels, the foliage at the base of a forest is often more depleted in13C compared to that exposed to the atmosphere in either the canopy or in open clearings. This is referred to as the canopy effect. African research has indicated that these habitat differences in foliar δ13C can be substantial enough to affect the carbon isotope ratios of resident fauna. Previous work documenting a 30-year chronology on moose teeth from Isle Royale National Park indicated a progressive depletion in13C and suggested that this could be due to forest regrowth following extensive burning. The present study examined the assumption implicit in this hypothesis that foliar δ13C varies between open and closed boreal forest sites. I found a marginal canopy effect of 2‰ δ13C difference between upper canopy and ground flora for a forest in northwestern Ontario and an average difference of 1.2‰ in under- and mid-story vegetation between closed forests and open clear-cuts. Because of these small differences, the utility of carbon isotope analysis in quantifying temporally integrated exploitation of deforested habitats will be low for northern boreal locations. In denser forests, such as those in the tropics or western North American where the canopy effect can be expected to be much greater, δ13C analysis may still offer some promise for determining selection by wildlife of disturbed habitats.

  4. Theoretical study on the amplitude ratio of the seismoelectric field to the Stoneley wave and the formation tortuosity estimation from seismoelectric logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Wei; Yin, Chenggang; Wang, Jun; Cui, Naigang; Hu, Hengshan; Wang, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Seismoelectric logging has potential applications in exploring the porous formation characteristics. In this study, we theoretically address how the amplitudes of the Stoneley wave and its accompanying borehole seismoelectric field depend on the porous formation parameters such as porosity, permeability and tortuosity. We calculate the ratio of the electric field amplitude to the pressure amplitude (REP amplitude) for the low-frequency Stoneley wave of different formations and find that the REP amplitude is sensitive to porosity and tortuosity but insensitive to permeability. To confirm this conclusion, we derive the approximate expression of the REP amplitude in the wavenumber-frequency domain which shows that the REP amplitude is dependent on tortuosity but independent of permeability. This contradicts the result concluded by previous researchers from experiments that the REP amplitude is directly proportional to the permeability. The reason is probably attributed to the fact that the rock samples with different permeabilities typically have different tortuosities. Since the REP amplitude is sensitive to tortuosity, we propose a method of estimating formation tortuosity from seismoelectric logs. It is implemented by using the REP amplitude and the wavenumber of the Stoneley wave at a given frequency when the porosity and the pore fluid viscosity and salinity are known. We test the method by estimating the tortuosities from the synthetic seismoelectric waveforms in different formations. The result shows that the errors relative to the input tortuosities are lower than 5.0 per cent without considering the uncertainties of other input parameters.

  5. Bending-fatigue damage-detection on notched-tooth spiral-bevel gears using the average-log-ratio, ALR, algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Jason A.; Mark, William D.

    2014-02-01

    The frequency-domain ALR (average-log-ratio) damage-detection algorithm [MSSP 24 (2010) 2807-2823] is utilized to illustrate damage detection and progression on notched-tooth spiral-bevel gears. Use of equal weighting of increases or decreases of individual rotational-harmonic amplitudes caused by damage, for early ALR detections, is substantiated. Continuously improving statistical reliability of ALR is documented by using increasing numbers of rotational-harmonic amplitude-ratios and increasing numbers of waveforms in the synchronous averaging. Sensitivity of the ALR algorithm to incipient damage is observed to be comparable to that obtained from the kurtosis-based Figure of Merit 4 (FM4). In contrast to FM4, ALR is shown to monotonically increase with increasing damage and running time. Interestingly, this diagnostic technique can be implemented with remarkably low analog-to-digital conversion rates. Computation of ALR for differing torque levels shows strong indications of weakening tooth-stiffness and increasing tooth-plastic-deformation. ALR computation utilizing tooth-rotational-location windowing also is illustrated.

  6. Frequency-domain assessment of gear-tooth bending-fatigue damage-progression using the average-log-ratio, ALR, algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, William D.; Hines, Jason A.

    2014-04-01

    Frequency-domain (rotational-harmonic) behavior of the average-log-ratio, ALR, gear-damage detection algorithm [MSSP 24 (2010) 2807-2823] [18] is utilized to explain behavior caused by tooth-bending-fatigue damage progression. For spur and helical gears, the strongest bending-fatigue damage contributions are typically found in the rotational-harmonic region below the tooth-meshing fundamental harmonic, where ALR increases almost monotonically with increasing damage. However, when the combined elastic/plastic deformation of a damaged tooth or teeth exceeds tooth tip/root/end relief magnitude, at tooth-contact initiation and/or termination, the lowest-order transmission-error discontinuity is changed from slope discontinuity to step discontinuity, resulting in transmission-error high-frequency (rotational-harmonic n) behavior changing from proportional to 1/n2 to proportional to 1/n, therefore indicating progression to severe damage. Decomposition of the ALR damage-detection metric into rotational-harmonic frequency bands using accelerometer recordings from a notched-tooth spiral-bevel gear test illustrates the above-described behavior, thereby showing increasing stages of damage progression prior to complete gear failure.

  7. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  8. A new approach for assessing the state of environment using isometric log-ratio transformation and outlier detection for computation of mean PCDD/F patterns in biota.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, René

    2015-01-01

    To assess the state of the environment, various compartments are examined as part of monitoring programs. Within monitoring, a special focus is on chemical pollution. One of the most toxic substances ever synthesized is the well-known dioxin 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetra-chlor-dibenzo-dioxin). Other PCDD/F (polychlorinated-dibenzo-dioxin and furan) can act toxic too. They are ubiquitary and persistent in various environmental compartments. Assessing the state of environment requires knowledge of typical local patterns of PCDD/F for as many compartments as possible. For various species of wild animals and plants (so called biota), I present the mean local congenere profiles of ubiquitary PCDD/F contamination reflecting typical patterns and levels of environmental burden for various years. Trends in time series of means can indicate success or failure of a measure of PCDD/F reduction. For short time series of mean patterns, it can be hard to detect trends. A new approach regarding proportions of outliers in the corresponding annual cross-sectional data sets in parallel can help detect decreasing or increasing environmental burden and support analysis of time series. Further, in this article, the true structure of PCDD/F data in biota is revealed, that is, the compositional data structure. It prevents direct application of statistical standard procedures to the data rendering results of statistical analysis meaningless. Results indicate that the compositional data structure of PCDD/F in biota is of great interest and should be taken into account in future studies. Isometric log-ratio (ilr) transformation is used, providing data statistical standard procedures that can be applied too. Focusing on the identification of typical PCDD/F patterns in biota, outliers are removed from annual data since they represent an extraordinary situation in the environment. Identification of outliers yields two advantages. First, typical (mean) profiles and levels of PCDD/F contamination

  9. Noise data from tests of a 1.83 meter (6-ft-) diameter variable-pitch 1.2-pressure-ratio fan (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Friedman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic data for a 1.83-meter (6-ft.) diameter fan suitable for a quiet engine for short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft are documented. The QF-9 rotor blades had an adjustable pitch feature which provided a means for testing at several rotor blade setting angles, including one for reverse thrust. The fan stage incorporated features for low noise. Far-field noise around the fan was measured without acoustic suppression over a range of operating conditions for six different rotor blade setting angles in the forward thrust configuration, and for one in the reverse configuration. Complete results of one-third-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Also included are power spectra, data referred to the source, and sideline perceived noise levels.

  10. Niche logging

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer

    1997-01-01

    Logging is facing a world of change. A logger?s niche can be defined by terrain, climate, location, timber and product, local government, Federal government, landowners, and mills. The author offers strategies for survival and successful competition.

  11. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  12. Logging damage

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1989-01-01

    The best commercial logging will damage at least some residual trees during all forms of partial cutting, no matter how carefully done. Yet recommendations at the end of this Note show there is much that you can do to limit damage by proper road and trail layout, proper training and supervision of crews, appropriate equipment, and diligence.

  13. Comprehensive Report of Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 806 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    A large scale model representative of an advanced ducted propulsor-type, low-noise, very high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics, aerodynamic performance, and off-design operability in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The test was part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and un-powered core passage were simulated. As might be expected, the effect of stall management casing treatment was a performance penalty. Reducing the recirculating flow at the fan tip reduced the penalty while still providing sufficient stall margin. Two fans were tested with the same aerodynamic design; one with graphite composite material, and the other with solid titanium. There were surprising performance differences between the two fans, though both blades showed some indication of transitional flow near the tips. Though the pressure and temperature ratios were low for this fan design, the techniques used to improve thermocouple measurement accuracy gave repeatable data with adiabatic efficiencies agreeing within 1 percent. The measured fan adiabatic efficiency at simulated takeoff conditions was 93.7 percent and matched the design intent.

  14. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a variable-pitch 1.83-meter-(6-ft) diameter 1.20-pressure-ratio fan stage (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Far field noise data and related aerodynamic performance are presented for a variable pitch fan stage having characteristics suitable for low noise, STOL engine application. However, no acoustic suppression material was used in the flow passages. The fan was externally driven by an electric motor. Tests were made at several forward thrust rotor blade pitch angles and one for reverse thrust. Fan speed was varied from 60 to 120 percent of takeoff (design) speed, and exhaust nozzles having areas 92 to 105 percent of design were tested. The fan noise level was at a minimum at the design rotor blade pitch angles of 64 deg for takeoff thrust and at 57 deg for approach (50 percent takeoff thrust). Perceived noise along a 152.4-m sideline reached 100.1 PNdb for the takeoff (design) configuration for a stage pressure ratio of 1.17 and thrust of 57,600 N. For reverse thrust the PNL values were 4 to 5 PNdb above the takeoff values at comparable fan speeds.

  15. [Red cell zinc protoporphyrin and its ratio to serum ferritin (ZPP/logSF index) in the detection of iron deficiency in patients with end-stage renal failure on hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna; Ostrowski, Grzegorz; Niemczyk, Stanisław; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Wardyn, Kazimierz; Puka, Janusz; Włodarczyk, Dariusz; Switalski, Marek; Zakrzewska, Teresa; Ostrowski, Kazimierz

    2003-07-01

    Monitoring of iron metabolism has become a major clinical issue in end-stage renal patients undergoing hemodialysis. It can be done at three levels: storage, transport and marrow availability. The objective of that study was to evaluate if a combination of an iron storage marker, serum ferritin (SF) with red cell zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), a marker of iron availability for erythron, will improve diagnostic value of both tests. In a baseline survey in the population of 186 haemodialysis patients (75% treated with rHuEpo), the following parameters were determined: complete blood count, serum transferrin saturation (TSAT), transferrin, SF, hypochromic red cells % (HRC) and ZPP; the ZPP/logSF ratio was calculated. Iron deficiency was defined as a fernitin saturation--TSAT < 20%. In the second part of the study, 24 pts with SF < 50 ng/ml were given 50 mg of i.v. iron weekly for three months, then the same tests were repeated. During that time the doses of rhuEpo were stable. An increase in hemoglobin of > 1.0 g/dl was considered as a positive response. In 186 studied patients mean SF was 274 +/- 335 ng/ml, and mean ZPP was 68 +/- 44 mumol/mol heme. A ZPP/logSF ratio > or = 40 had the best combination of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in detecting iron deficiency (76% and 83% vs: 56% and 89% for ZPP > 90 mumol/mol heme, 84% and 34% for HRC > 5%, 68% and 58% for HRC > 10%) and the strong correlations with all other examined parameters were found. The index showed also the highest correlation with the response to the i.v. iron (r = 59; p < 0.01) of the tests evaluated. After three months the values of ZPP/logSF ratio decreased from 80 +/- 105 to 39 +/- 19 (p < 0.01). A significant difference between responders and nonresponders was found for basal ZPP/logSF (p < 0.05) but not for ZPP. Our data suggest that the ZPP/logSF index provides a new valuable parameter for the identification of hemodialysis patients with iron deficiency and the prediction an erythropoietic

  16. Sonic log prediction in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    This work is conducted to study the complications associated with the sonic log prediction in carbonate logs and to investigate the possible solutions to accurately predict the sonic logs in Traverse Limestone. Well logs from fifty different wells were analyzed to define the mineralogy of the Traverse Limestone by using conventional 4-mineral and 3-mineral identification approaches. We modified the conventional 3-mineral identification approach (that completely neglects the gamma ray response) to correct the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log before employing the 3-mineral identification. This modification helped to get the meaningful insight of the data when a plot was made between DGA (dry grain density) and UMA (Photoelectric Volumetric Cross-section) with the characteristic ternary diagram of the quartz, calcite and dolomite. The results were then compared with the 4-mineral identification approach. Contour maps of the average mineral fractions present in the Traverse Limestone were prepared to see the basin wide mineralogy of Traverse Limestone. In the second part, sonic response of Traverse Limestone was predicted in fifty randomly distributed wells. We used the modified time average equation that accounts for the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log, and used it to predict the sonic behavior from density porosity and average porosity. To account for the secondary porosity of dolomite, we subtracted the dolomitic fraction of clean porosity from the total porosity. The pseudo-sonic logs were then compared with the measured sonic logs on the root mean square (RMS) basis. Addition of dolomite correction in modified time average equation improved the results of sonic prediction from neutron porosity and average porosity. The results demonstrated that sonic logs could be predicted in carbonate rocks with a root mean square error of about 4isec/ft. We also attempted the use of individual mineral components for sonic log prediction but the

  17. Formulation optimization of sustained-release ammonio methacrylate copolymer microspheres. Effects of log p and concentration of polar cosolvents, and role of the drug/copolymer ratio.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Péter; Rajkó, Róbert; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Erős, István; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2011-11-10

    The objectives of this work were the formulation optimization of the preparation process parameters and to evaluate spray-dried sustained-release microspheres using ammonio methacrylate copolymer (AMC) as a polymer matrix. The effects of log P and the concentrations of the cosolvents (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and n-butyl acetate) and different drug/copolymer ratios as independent variables on the physicochemical parameters (the W1/O emulsion viscosity, the microsphere production yield, the average particle size, the encapsulation efficiency) and the cumulative in vitro drug release as dependent variables were studied. The optimization was carried out on the basis of the 33 factorial design study. The optimization process results showed that addition of polar cosolvents proved effective, linear relationships were observed between the independent and the dependent variables. The best conditions were achieved by microspheres prepared by using a low/medium cosolvent log P, cosolvent concentration of 25-50% v/v and a drug/copolymer ratio of 1:16. The microspheres ensured sustained release with Nernst and Baker-Lonsdale release profiles.

  18. Tractor-logging costs and production in old-growth redwood forests

    Treesearch

    Kenneth N. Boe

    1963-01-01

    A cost accounting analysis of full-scale logging operations in old-growth redwood during 2 years revealed that it cost $12.24 per M bd. ft. (gross Scribner log scale) to get logs on trucks. Road development costs averaged another $5.19 per M bd. ft. Felling-bucking production was calculated by average tree d.b.h. Both skidding and loading outputs per hour were...

  19. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  20. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  1. Log-Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Goodall, John

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the log file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.

  2. Montana Logging Utilization, 2002

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Michael T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    A study of logging utilization in Montana during 2002 provided logging and product utilization data for sawlog and veneer log harvests in Montana. Results of the study indicate a shift toward greater utilization of smaller diameter material, as 78 percent of the harvested volume in Montana during 2002 came from trees less than 17 inches diameter at breast height. The...

  3. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  4. Log processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowlin, W.P.; Kneer, M.P.; Ballance, J.D.

    1989-11-07

    This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled processing system for lumber production. It comprises: a computer, a sequence of processing stations for processing a log segment including; an excess material removing station for generating opposed flat side surfaces on the log segment. The flat side surfaces determined by the computer to become sides of boards to be severed from the log segments; a profiling station for forming profiled edges above and below the flat side surfaces to become the side edges of the boards to be severed from the log segment, and a severing station for severing the boards from the log segments, a conveyance means establishing a path of conveyance and having continuous control of the log segment on conveying the log segment along the path and through the above defined sequence of processing stations.

  5. LogScope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  6. Evaluating measurement equivalence using the item response theory log-likelihood ratio (IRTLR) method to assess differential item functioning (DIF): applications (with illustrations) to measures of physical functioning ability and general distress.

    PubMed

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Cook, Karon F; Crane, Paul K; Gibbons, Laura E; Morales, Leo S; Orlando-Edelen, Maria; Cella, David

    2007-01-01

    Methods based on item response theory (IRT) that can be used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) are illustrated. An IRT-based approach to the detection of DIF was applied to physical function and general distress item sets. DIF was examined with respect to gender, age and race. The method used for DIF detection was the item response theory log-likelihood ratio (IRTLR) approach. DIF magnitude was measured using the differences in the expected item scores, expressed as the unsigned probability differences, and calculated using the non-compensatory DIF index (NCDIF). Finally, impact was assessed using expected scale scores, expressed as group differences in the total test (measure) response functions. The example for the illustration of the methods came from a study of 1,714 patients with cancer or HIV/AIDS. The measure contained 23 items measuring physical functioning ability and 15 items addressing general distress, scored in the positive direction. The substantive findings were of relatively small magnitude DIF. In total, six items showed relatively larger magnitude (expected item score differences greater than the cutoff) of DIF with respect to physical function across the three comparisons: "trouble with a long walk" (race), "vigorous activities" (race, age), "bending, kneeling stooping" (age), "lifting or carrying groceries" (race), "limited in hobbies, leisure" (age), "lack of energy" (race). None of the general distress items evidenced high magnitude DIF; although "worrying about dying" showed some DIF with respect to both age and race, after adjustment. The fact that many physical function items showed DIF with respect to age, even after adjustment for multiple comparisons, indicates that the instrument may be performing differently for these groups. While the magnitude and impact of DIF at the item and scale level was minimal, caution should be exercised in the use of subsets of these items, as might occur with selection for clinical decisions or

  7. SCD-HeFT: Use of RR Interval Statistics for Long-term Risk Stratification for Arrhythmic Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Au-yeung, Wan-tai M.; Reinhall, Per; Poole, Jeanne E.; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Fletcher, Ross D.; Moore, Hans J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.; Bardy, Gust H.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the SCD-HeFT a significant fraction of the congestive heart failure (CHF) patients ultimately did not die suddenly from arrhythmic causes. CHF patients will benefit from better tools to identify if ICD therapy is needed. Objective To identify predictor variables from baseline SCD-HeFT patients’ RR intervals that correlate to arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD) and mortality and to design an ICD therapy screening test. Methods Ten predictor variables were extracted from pre-randomization Holter data from 475 patients enrolled in the SCD-HeFT ICD arm using novel and traditional heart rate variability methods. All variables were correlated to SCD using Mann Whitney-Wilcoxon test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. ICD therapy screening tests were designed by minimizing the cost of false classifications. Survival analysis, including log-rank test and Cox models, was also performed. Results α1 and α2 from detrended fluctuation analysis, the ratio of low to high frequency power, the number of PVCs per hour and heart rate turbulence slope are all statistically significant for predicting the occurrences of SCD (p<0.001) and survival (log-rank p<0.01). The most powerful multivariate predictor tool using the Cox Proportional Hazards was α2 with a hazard ratio of 0.0465 (95% CI: 0.00528 – 0.409, p<0.01). Conclusion Predictor variables from RR intervals correlate to the occurrences of SCD and distinguish survival among SCD-HeFT ICD patients. We believe SCD prediction models should incorporate Holter based RR interval analysis to refine ICD patient selection especially in removing patients who are unlikely to benefit from ICD therapy. PMID:26096609

  8. Overruns - Southern Pine Logs

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Campbell

    1962-01-01

    Overrun and underrun data were collected for the four major southern pine species during a series of grade yield studies in the late 1950's in Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Each of the 1,491 logs was carefully scaled by the Doyle, Scribner Decimal C, and International ¼-inch log rule. All logs were sawed on. circle mills and the...

  9. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  10. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  11. Multiple log potash assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. G.

    1993-10-01

    A five-mineral multiple-log potash assay technique has been successfully applied to evaluate potash-rich intervals in evaporite sequences. The technique is able to distinguish economic potash minerals from non-economic potash minerals and from other non-potash radioactive minerals. It can be applied on location, using a programmable calculator or microcomputer, providing near real-time logs of potash mineral concentrations. Log assay values show good agreement with core wet chemistry analyses.

  12. 1962 Washington log production.

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Nielsen

    1963-01-01

    Washington's 1962 log production reached 5.05 billion board feet. This is an increase of 14 percent, or 616 million board feet, over 1961 and the highest total log production since the 1941 figure of 5.14 billion board feet.

  13. Midsouth veneer log production

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke

    1971-01-01

    Veneer manufacturing is an important segment of the forest industries and 1s increasing in importance every year. Veneer logs are high-valued in comparison with other kinds of logs and bolts, and considerable employment is generated and much value added in their manufacture.

  14. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  15. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  16. What's new in well logging and formation evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prensky, S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

  17. Idaho-Montana Logging

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-16

    Logging operations have left a striking checkerboard pattern in the landscape along the Idaho-Montana border, sandwiched between Clearwater and Bitterroot National Forests as seen in this image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  18. Acoustic borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, W.L.; Manzi, S.J.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes an acoustic borehole logging method. It comprises traversing a borehole with a borehole logging tool containing a transmitter of acoustic energy having a free-field frequency spectrum with at least one characteristic resonant frequency of vibration and spaced-apart receiver, repeatedly exciting the transmitter with a swept frequency tone burst of a duration sufficiently greater than the travel time of acoustic energy between the transmitter and the receiver to allow borehole cavity resonances to be established within the borehole cavity formed between the borehole logging tool and the borehole wall, detecting acoustic energy amplitude modulated by the borehole cavity resonances with the spaced-apart receiver, and recording an amplitude verses frequency output of the receiver in correlation with depth as a log of the borehole frequency spectrum representative of the subsurface formation comprising the borehole wall.

  19. 1964 Oregon log production.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1965-01-01

    The production of logs in Oregon in 1964 was 9.4 billion board feet, or nearly 9 percent above 1963. This year, 1964, had the third highest level of log production in history, exceeded only in 1955 and in 1952. The proportion of total cut from private lands fell to 43 percent, even though the total private cut increased 6 percent over that in 1963. Forest industry,...

  20. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  2. Improved grading system for structural logs for log homes

    Treesearch

    D.W. Green; T.M. Gorman; J.W. Evans; J.F. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Current grading standards for logs used in log home construction use visual criteria to sort logs into either “wall logs” or structural logs (round and sawn round timbers). The conservative nature of this grading system, and the grouping of stronger and weaker species for marketing purposes, probably results in the specification of logs with larger diameter than would...

  3. NMR logging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  4. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. Modes of log gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-05-15

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional 'critical gravity', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All 'log mode' solutions, which we categorize as 'spin-2' or 'Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin-2 log mode is itself a 'nongauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

  6. Letter : NIR FT-Raman microspectroscopy of fluid inclusions: Comparisons with VIS Raman and FT-IR microspectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironon, J.; Sawatzki, J.; Dubessy, J.

    1991-12-01

    The first Raman spectra of hydrocarbon inclusions using Fourier transform (FT) Raman microspectroscopy were obtained with a 1064 nm laser excitation in the near-infrared range (NIR FT-Raman). Some inclusions reveal the typical CH vibrational bands of organic compounds, but most of the inclusions that are fluorescent during visible Raman microspectroscopy (514 nm excitation) are still fluorescent in the NIR range. These Raman spectra are presented and compared to the conventional visible (VIS) Raman and FT-IR spectra. For spectra obtained on the same nonfluorescent inclusion, the signal/background ratio is lower in NIR FT-Raman than in VIS Raman. This ratio should be improved by application of more sensitive detectors. The increase of the power density (laser power/impact laser area) could be a future improvement in the limit of thermal background excitation and pyrolysis of the oils trapped in inclusions.

  7. SCD-HeFT: Use of R-R interval statistics for long-term risk stratification for arrhythmic sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Au-Yeung, Wan-Tai M; Reinhall, Per G; Poole, Jeanne E; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Fletcher, Ross D; Moore, Hans J; Mark, Daniel B; Lee, Kerry L; Bardy, Gust H

    2015-10-01

    In the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT), a significant fraction of the patients with congestive heart failure ultimately did not die suddenly of arrhythmic causes. Patients with CHF will benefit from better tools to identify if implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy is needed. We aimed to identify predictor variables from baseline SCD-HeFT patients' R-R intervals that correlate to arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD) and mortality and to design an ICD therapy screening test. Ten predictor variables were extracted from prerandomization Holter data from 475 patients enrolled in the ICD arm of the SCD-HeFT by using novel and traditional heart rate variability methods. All variables were correlated to SCD using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. ICD therapy screening tests were designed by minimizing the cost of false classifications. Survival analysis, including log-rank test and Cox models, was also performed. A short-term fractal exponent, α1, and a long-term fractal exponent, α2, from detrended fluctuation analysis, the ratio of low- to high-frequency power, the number of premature ventricular contractions per hour, and the heart rate turbulence slope are all statistically significant for predicting the occurrences of SCD (P < .001) and survival (log-rank, P < .01). The most powerful multivariate predictor tool using the Cox proportional hazards regression model was α2 with a hazard ratio of 0.0465 (95% confidence interval 0.00528-0.409; P < .01). Predictor variables extracted from R-R intervals correlate to the occurrences of SCD and distinguish survival functions among patients with ICDs in SCD-HeFT. We believe that SCD prediction models should incorporate Holter-based R-R interval analysis to refine ICD patient selection, especially to exclude patients who are unlikely to benefit from ICD therapy. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Logging slash flammability

    Treesearch

    George R. Fahnestock

    1960-01-01

    Some of the most disastrous forest fires in North American history burned in slash left from logging and land clearing. In the era before organized fire control, the names Miramichi, Peshtigo, Hinckley, and Cloquet stand for millions of acres blackened and thousands of lives snuffed out. More recently the Half Moon Fire in Montana, the Tillamook Fire in Oregon, the...

  9. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  10. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  11. Logs Perl Module

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R. K.

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  12. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  13. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  14. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  15. EE-3A Logging Report for Feb. 28th., 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1994-03-14

    A Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log of EE-3A was performed on Monday, February 28th, 1994. This log was the first of two, (the other to be run on March 31st.), in an attempt to investigate a temperature anomaly occurring between 10,000 to 11,435 ft. The thermal recovery of this zone is slower than expected, which is believed to be caused by either; flow through the cemented zone of the 5 1/2" liner, or an upward flow through the reservoir itself. Now that the first log is over, the annulus of EE-3A will be shut-in for a period of approximately one month, at which time the log will be repeated. If the temperature of this zone shows signs of recovery after the shut-in period, the integrity of the cement will be in question. No sign of recovery will point to upward reservoir flow theory.

  16. Petrographic image logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, C.J.; Ulrich, M.R.; Maxwell, G.B. ); Adams, J.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The Petrographic Image Logging System (PILS) is a logging system data base for Macintosh computers that allows the merging of traditional wire-line, core, and mud log data with petrographic images. The system is flexible; it allows the user to record, manipulate, and display almost any type of character, graphic, and image information. Character and graphic data are linked and entry in either mode automatically generates the alternate mode. Character/graphic data may include such items as ROP, wire-line log data, interpreted lithologies, ditch cutting lith-percentages, porosity grade and type, grain size, core/DST information, and sample descriptions. Image data may include petrographic and SEM images of cuttings, core, and thin sections. All data are tied to depth. Data are entered quickly and easily in an interactive manner with a mouse, keyboard, and digitizing tablet or may be imported and immediately autoplotted from a variety of environments via modem, network, or removable disk. Color log displays, including petrographic images, are easily available on CRT or as hardcopy. The system consists of a petrographic microscope, video camera, Macintosh computer, video framegrabber and digitizing tablet. Hardcopy is scaleable and can be generated by a variety of color printing devices. The software is written in Supertalk, a color superset of the standard Apple Hypercard programming language, hypertalk. This system is being tested by Mobil in the lab and at the well site. Implementation has provided near 'real-time' core and cuttings images from drilling wells to the geologist back at the office.

  17. Drilling, construction, geophysical log data, and lithologic log for boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Schusler, Kyle; Mudge, Christopher

    2017-07-27

    ranged in thickness from about 2 to 100 ft and varied from highly fractured to dense, and ranged from massive to diktytaxitic to scoriaceous, in texture.Geophysical logs were collected on completion of drilling at boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A. Geophysical logs were examined with available core material to describe basalt, sediment and sedimentary rock layers, and rhyolite. Natural gamma logs were used to confirm sediment layer thickness and location; neutron logs were used to examine basalt flow units and changes in hydrogen content; gamma-gamma density logs were used to describe general changes in rock properties; and temperature logs were used to understand hydraulic gradients for deeper sections of borehole USGS 142. Gyroscopic deviation was measured to record deviation from true vertical at all depths in boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A.

  18. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning. PMID:27134693

  19. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review.

    PubMed

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning.

  20. Aspen for cabin logs

    Treesearch

    A.W. Sump

    1947-01-01

    A plentiful supply of pine and cedar logs provided the early settlers of this country with a cheap and durable material for the construction of their homes and farm buildings. Only the axe and the ingenuity of the pioneer were needed to erect a shelter against the elements of nature. Early in the 19th century, the circular saw came into use resulting in a change in...

  1. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  2. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  3. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  4. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. 12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  6. Coal log pipeline: Development status of the first commercial system

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The coal log pipeline (CLP) is an innovative means for long-distance transportation of coal. In the CLP concept, coal is pressed into the form of cylinders--coal logs--that are propelled by water flowing through underground pipe. A coal log pipeline has many advantages when compared to coal transport by unit train, slurry pipeline and long-distance trucking: low-cost, low energy consumption, low-water consumption, simple dewatering at pipeline exit, safe, and environmentally friendly. The coal logs travel butted together, as trains. Between the coal log {open_quotes}trains,{close_quotes} some space is allowed for valve switching. The optimum diameter of a coal log is approximately 90 to 95% the inside diameter of the pipe. The coal-to-water ratio is about 4 to 1. A 200 mm diameter CLP can transport about 2 million tonnes of coal per year. The coal logs at their destination come out of the pipeline onto a moving conveyer which transports the logs to a crusher or stock pile. Coal logs are crushed to match the size of existing fuel. The water effluent is treated and reused at the power plant; there is no need for its discharge. Coal logs can be manufactured with and without the use of binder. By using less than 2 percent emulsified asphalt as binder, no heat is required to compact coal logs. Binderless coal logs can be compacted at less than 90{degrees}C. Compaction pressures, for coal logs made with or without binder, are about 70 MPa. The coal particle size distribution and moisture content must be controlled. The economics of coal log pipeline system have been studied. Results indicate that a new coal log pipeline is cost-competitive with existing railroads for distances greater than 80 km, approximately. CLP is much more economical than coal slurry pipeline of the same diameter. This paper describes the current R&D and commercialization plan for CLP. 4 refs.

  7. Electromagnetic wave logging dipmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Meador, R.A.

    1983-12-20

    An improvement to dipmeter logs has very closely spaced radio frequency sensor coils mounted in pairs in each of the formation contacting pads. A transmitter mounted in a sonde emits the radio frequency energy, such as in the range of from two to one hundred megahertz. The phase difference in radio frequency signals between receiver coil pairs in each pad is measured, providing improved data resolution for computing formation dip, and making possible dip measurements in wells drilled with oil base mud or air (invert type muds).

  8. A collection of log rules

    Treesearch

    Frank Freese

    1973-01-01

    A log rule may be defined as a table or formula showing the estimated net yield for logs of a given diameter and length. Ordinarily the yield is expressed in terms of board feet of finished lumber, though a few rules give the cubic volume of the log or some fraction of it. Built into each log rule are allowances for losses due to such things as slabs, saw kerf, edgings...

  9. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  10. My Journey with Learning Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Learning logs, or reading response logs, have long been established as an effective reading strategy that helps students learn from text (Atwell, 1987; Blough & Berman, 1991; Calkins, 1986; Commander & Smith, 1996; Kuhrt & Farris, 1990; Reed, 1988; Sanders, 1985). In this paper, the author describes her experiences using learning logs as a…

  11. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  12. Configuration of Appalachian logging roads

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1971-01-01

    The configuration - the curvature and grade - of logging roads in southern Appalachia is seldom severe, according to a recent Forest Service study. To improve the efficiency of logging roads, we must first define the characteristics of these roads; and in this report we provide a quantitative description of the configuration of over 200 miles of logging roads.

  13. Green lumber grade yields from black cherry and red maple factory grade logs sawed at band and circular mills

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy

    1989-01-01

    Multivariate regression models were developed to predict green board-foot yields (1 board ft. = 2.360 dm 3) for the standard factory lumber grades processed from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) factory grade logs sawed at band and circular sawmills. The models use log...

  14. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield. PMID:26136765

  15. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  16. Improved production log interpretation in horizontal wells using pulsed neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.L.; Kohring, J.J.; North, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Production log flow profiles provide a valuable tool to evaluate well and reservoir performance. Horizontal wellbores and their associated completion designs present several challenges to profile interpretation for conventional production logging sensors and techniques. A unique approach combining pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data with conventional production logging measurements is providing improved flow profile answers in slotted liner, horizontal well completions on the North Slope of Alaska. Identifying and eliminating undesirable gas production is one of the chief goals of production logging on the North Slope. This process becomes difficult in horizontal wellbores as fluid segregation affects the area investigated by the various logging sensors and also the velocities of the individual phases. Typical slotted liner completions further complicate analysis as fluids are able to flow in the liner/openhole annulus. Analysis of PNC log data provides two good qualitative indicators of formation permeability. The first technique is derived from the difference of the formation sigma response before and after injecting a high-capture cross-section borax solution. The second technique uses the difference of the formation sigma response and the formation porosity measured while injecting the formation with crude or seawater. Further analysis of PNC log runs show that the two techniques closely correlate with production flow profiles under solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) conditions. These two techniques in combination with conventional production logging measurements of temperature, capacitance, pressure, and spinner improve flow profile results. PNC results can be combined with temperature and pressure data in the absence of valid spinner data to provide an approximate flow profile. These techniques have been used to successfully determine profiles in both cemented and slotted liner completions with GORs in excess of 15,000 scf/bbl.

  17. Geophysical logs in British stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.; Holliday, D.W.; Penn, I.E.

    1985-01-01

    This Special Report outlines the stratigraphic applications of the main geophysical logging tools. It characterises the British geological succession by means of the geophysical log signatures of its principle constituent formations. A large amount of previously unpublished data is provided on a geographical area long known for its importance in the development of the science of stratigraphy. The book in units modern developments of petroleum industry geophysical techniques with long-established stratigraphical discovery/research. Contents include: Introduction; Types of logs commonly used; Some geological uses of geophysical logs; Log signatures in British Stratigraphy; References.

  18. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  19. Determination of cellulose I crystallinity by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Two new methods based on FT-Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other, using a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in semicrystalline cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the...

  20. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  1. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  2. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  4. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  5. Effects of log defects on lumber recovery.

    Treesearch

    James M. Cahill; Vincent S. Cegelka

    1989-01-01

    The impact of log defects on lumber recovery and the accuracy of cubic log scale deductions were evaluated from log scale and product recovery data for more than 3,000 logs. Lumber tally loss was estimated by comparing the lumber yield of sound logs to that of logs containing defects. The data were collected at several product recovery studies; they represent most of...

  6. Inflationary cosmology in unimodular F(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the inflationary realization in the context of unimodular F(T) gravity, which is based on the F(T) modification of teleparallel gravity, in which one imposes the unimodular condition through the use of Lagrange multipliers. We develop the general reconstruction procedure of the F(T) form that can give rise to a given scale-factor evolution, and then we apply it in the inflationary regime. We extract the Hubble slow-roll parameters that allow us to calculate various inflation-related observables, such as the scalar spectral index and its running, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the tensor spectral index. Then, we examine the particular cases of de Sitter and power-law inflation, of Starobinsky inflation, as well as inflation in a specific model of unimodular F(T) gravity. As we show, in all cases the predictions of our scenarios are in a very good agreement with Planck observational data. Finally, inflation in unimodular F(T) gravity has the additional advantage that it always allows for a graceful exit for specific regions of the model parameters.

  7. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  8. Logging slash and forest protection.

    Treesearch

    Raphael Zon; Russell N. Cunningham

    1931-01-01

    What to do with the brush after logging? This question has been debated in Wisconsin throughout the entire history of lumbering. In the popular mind, the occurrence of severe forest conflagrations has invariably been associated with the presence of logging slash on the ground. The occurrence of vast forest fires was noted by explorers and fur traders long before...

  9. Sawing SHOLO logs: three methods

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Coleman; Hugh W. Reynolds

    1973-01-01

    Three different methods of sawing the SHOLO log were compared on a board-foot yield basis. Using sawmill simulation, all three methods of sawing were performed on the same sample of logs, eliminating differences due to sapling. A statistical test was made to determine whether or not there were any real differences between the board-foot yields. Two of the sawing...

  10. Protecting log cabins from decay

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rowell; J. M. Black; L. R. Gjovik; W. C. Feist

    1977-01-01

    This report answers the questions most often asked of the Forest Service on the protection of log cabins from decay, and on practices for the exterior finishing and maintenance of existing cabins. Causes of stain and decay are discussed, as are some basic techniques for building a cabin that will minimize decay. Selection and handling of logs, their preservative...

  11. Review of log sort yards

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm; Gerry L. Jackson; Jenny Wong

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of current log sort yard operations in the United States, including an extensive literature review and information collected during on-site visits to several operations throughout the nation. Log sort yards provide many services in marketing wood and fiber by concentrating, merchandising, processing, sorting, and adding value to...

  12. Logging costs and cutting methods in young-growth ponderosa pine in California

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; William A. Atkinson; Dale O. Hall

    1969-01-01

    Mixed-conifer stands at the Challenge Experimental Forest, Calif., were cut to four specifications: seed-tree, group selection, single tree selection, and clearcut. Logging costs and production rates were compared and evaluated. Cutting method had little effect on felling or skidding production; felling ranged from 1,802 to 2,019 bd ft per hour, and skidding from 3,138...

  13. Geologic logs of geotechnical cores from the subsurface Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, Katherine L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Tinsley, John C.; Gatti, Emma; Pagenkopp, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents and summarizes descriptive geologic logs of geotechnical cores collected from 2009–12 in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, by the California Department of Water Resources. Graphic logs are presented for 1,785.7 ft of retained cores from 56 borehole sites throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Most core sections are from a depth of ~100–200 feet. Cores primarily contain mud, silt, and sand lithologies. Tephra (volcanic ash and pumice), paleosols, and gravels are also documented in some core sections. Geologic observations contained in the core logs in this report provide stratigraphic context for subsequent sampling and data for future chronostratigraphic subsurface correlations.

  14. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  15. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-05-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions.

  16. Effects of selective logging on tropical forest tree growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, Adelaine Michela E. S.; Miller, Scott D.; de Sousa, Cleilim Albert D.; Menton, Mary C.; Maia, Augusto R.; Da Rocha, Humberto R.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-03-01

    We combined measurements of tree growth and carbon dioxide exchange to investigate the effects of selective logging on the Aboveground Live Biomass (AGLB) of a tropical rain forest in the Amazon. Most of the measurements began at least 10 months before logging and continued at least 36 months after logging. The logging removed ˜15% of the trees with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) greater than 35 cm, which resulted in an instantaneous 10% reduction in AGLB. Both wood production and mortality increased following logging, while Gross Primary Production (GPP) was unchanged. The ratio of wood production to GPP (the wood Carbon Use Efficiency or wood CUE) more than doubled following logging. Small trees (10 cm < DBH < 35 cm) accounted for most of the enhanced wood production. Medium trees (35 cm < DBH < 55 cm) that were within 30 m of canopy gaps created by the logging also showed increased growth. The patterns of enhanced growth are most consistent with logging-induced increases in light availability. The AGLB continued to decline over the study, as mortality outpaced wood production. Wood CUE and mortality remained elevated throughout the 3 years of postlogging measurements. The future trajectory of AGLB and the forest's carbon balance are uncertain, and will depend on how long it takes for heterotrophic respiration, mortality, and CUE to return to prelogging levels.

  17. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  18. Acoustic sorting models for improved log segregation

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Robert J. Ross; Vicki L. Herian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined three individual log measures (acoustic velocity, log diameter, and log vertical position in a tree) for their ability to predict average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and grade yield of structural lumber obtained from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb. Franco]) logs. We found that log acoustic velocity only had a...

  19. A Guide to Hardwood Log Grading

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast; David L. Sonderman; Glenn L. Gammon

    1973-01-01

    A guide to hardwood log grading (revised) was developed as a teaching aid and field reference in grading hardwood logs. Outlines basic principles and gives detailed practical applications, with illustrations, in grading hardwood logs. Includes standards for various use classes.

  20. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin; No, Kyoungok; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steven; Drnevich, Jenny; Wickett, Norman; Vandervelde, Lindsay; Ellis, Jeffrey D.; Rice, Brandon; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brunner, Amy M.; Page, Grier P.; Carlson, John E.; DePamphilis, Claude; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  1. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  2. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  3. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  4. Tests pits for calibrating well logging equipment in fractured hard-rock environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.H.; LaDelfe, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration facility consists of three pits containing fine-grained granite, coarse-grained granite, and medium-grained metamorphosed granodiorite. Each pit contains large quarried blocks of rock that are 8 ft octagons and form a 20 ft stack. The blocks are saturated with water and sealed in watertight fiberglass containers that are recessed so that the top of the upper block is approximately level with the ground. The blocks contain simulated fractures that are formed by the joints between the blocks and by saw cuts at several locations. Cored boreholes through the blocks are 7 7/8 in. in diameter, with a fiberglass-cased ''rat hole'' extending 30 ft below the bottom block. Laboratory and well logging studies (United States Geological Society, Schlumberger, and Dresser Atlas logs) have been made to determine the physical properties of rocks in the three pits, and preliminary results are reported. Porosities of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 1 ft intervals in the three pits range from 0.00 to 0.90%, densities from 2.64 to 2.79 g/cm/sup 3/, and sonic velocities from 18,700 to 22,500 ft/sec. Radio-element of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 5 ft intervals from these test pits range from 0.62 to 4.08% K (potassium) content, from 0.34 to 5.01 ppM RaeU (uranium) content and from 0.46 to 19.6 ppM Th (thorium) content. Access to the pits for calibrating well logging equipment can be arranged by contacting the United States Geological Survey (phone number 303-236-5913) in Denver, Colorado. 4 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Is FT3 by radioligandassay (RLA) superior in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (HT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bottger, I.G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    Based upon our routine experience with more than 50,000/15,000 patients having been examined by FT4/FT3 RLA the authors reported a comparable clinical value of routine parameters for free thyroid hormones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of FT3 by RLA in borderline HT (BHT) in more detail. Two groups of patients were studied prospectively: group I: BHT, 48 sera, HT was suspected on grounds of clinical, scintigraphical and ultrasonic findings, no therapy. Subgroup Ia: negative TRH test (TSH before and after 200 ..mu..g TRH i.v. 0.8 mU/1), T4, FT4, T4/TBG ratio and T3 in the normal range (NR), 22 sera. Subgroup Ib: T3 (NR: 1.6 - 3.6 pmol/1): 3.7 - 3.9 and/or FT4 and/or T4/TBG ratio elevated, 26 sera. Group II: thyroid ablated patients with thyroid carcinoma on TSH-suppressive 1-T4 medication (200 ..mu..g/day) with a negative TRH test, no obvious symptoms of HT, T3 normal. RLAs employed routinely: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic, two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, TSH, Henning-Berlin. Group I: T3 levels were in the middle to upper NR, 9 (19 %) of Ib being elevated, T3/TBG was predominantly at the upper limit of the NR, 20 (42%) of this group and 5 (10%) of Ia being increased. 29 (60%) of the FT3 levels in I and 8 (17%) in Ia were elevated up to 15 and 13 pmol/l, respectively. Group II: the T3/TBG ratio was increased in 13 (11%) and the FT3 concentration up to 14 pmol/l in 57 (50%) sera.

  6. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  7. Phenotypic Expression in Wheat Revealed Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L.; Wetzel, D

    2009-01-01

    Wheat selected for cultivation through the centuries has a glume that is 'soft' instead of 'tough' as naturally occurring. In production, this is desirable because it enables mechanical threshing with efficient separation of kernel from the head of each stalk without damaging the kernel. FT-IR microspectroscopy provides chemically based, objective assessment of genetic expression by measuring the extent of genetic expression. In the Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, Manhattan, KS, an imaging FT-IR microspectrometer with a detector array focused on the image plane was used to obtain spectral data from dissected glume specimens of nine tough and eleven soft wheat cultivars in a rectangular mapping pattern. With cellulose as the substrate, the extent of lignification is measurable from the ratio of the lignin (1508 cm{sup -1}) baseline adjusted band area to the representative cellulosic (1370 cm{sup -1}) band area. A distinction between soft and tough glumes is obtained in numerical terms. Using a band ratio minimizes variation due to thickness differences. While analyzing mapped sections of glume, care is taken to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would bias the analysis toward the composition of highly lignified vascular bundles. Spatially resolved focal plane array FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals the extent of glume lignification that is coincident with the toughness trait. This enables breeders to rank the degree of lignin expression and discriminate between soft and tough breeding results.

  8. Log exports by port, 1987.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Volumes and average values of log exports by port have been compiled by quarter for 1987. The tables show the four Northwest customs districts by ports, species, and destinations. These data were received from the U.S. Department of Commerce too late to be published in the 1987 quarterly reports, "Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest...

  9. Downhole memory-logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1992-01-01

    Logging technologies developed hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (i) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (ii) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions.'' Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about on year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400{degrees}C is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. 8 refs.

  10. Downhole Memory-Logging Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, Peter

    1992-03-24

    Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature onboard computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make ''decisions''. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about one year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400 C (752 F) is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information.

  11. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  12. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  13. Statistical log analysis made practical

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

  14. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  15. Logging Work Injuries in Appalachia

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Wolf; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1978-01-01

    Logging accidents are costly. They may bring pain to injured workers, hardship to their families, and higher insurance premiums and lower productivity to their employers. Our analysis of 1,172 injuries in central Appalachia reveals that nearly half of all time lost-and almost all fatalities-resulted from accidents during felling and unloading. The largest proportion of...

  16. Soil Wetness Influences Log Skidding

    Treesearch

    William N. Darwin

    1960-01-01

    One of the least explored variables in timber harvesting is the effect of ground conditions on log production . The Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is studying this variable and its influence on performance of skidding vehicles in Southern bottom lands. The test reported here was designed to evaluate the effects of bark features on skidding coefficients, but it also...

  17. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    Treesearch

    Gordon H. Reeves; Peter A. Bisson; Bruce E. Rieman; Lee E. Benda

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend...

  18. The formula Scribner log rule.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1952-01-01

    The Scribner Decimal C is the accepted log rule in the Pacific Northwest. Usually volume, growth and yield tables are expressed by this rule to give them practical meaning. Yet in the research required for such studies, the rule is unsatisfactory because of rounded values and irregular jumps in volume from diameter to diameter and length to length.

  19. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  20. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Treesearch

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  1. When is hardwood cable logging economical?

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...

  2. A method of estimating log weights.

    Treesearch

    Charles N. Mann; Hilton H. Lysons

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method of estimating the weights of logs before they are yarded. Knowledge of log weights is required to achieve optimum loading of modern yarding equipment. Truckloads of logs are weighed and measured to obtain a local density index (pounds per cubic foot) for a species of logs. The density index is then used to estimate the weights of...

  3. Nondestructive evaluation for sorting red maple logs

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; David W. Green; Karl Englund; Michael Wolcott

    2000-01-01

    Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the potential quality of structural products manufactured from them, especially...

  4. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  5. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  6. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  8. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  11. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  13. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  14. A LABORATORY log(gf) MEASUREMENT OF THE Ti II 15873.84 Å H-BAND LINE IN SUPPORT OF SDSS-III APOGEE

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Shetrone, M. D. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu

    2014-06-01

    The SDSS-III APOGEE collaboration has identified a single useable line in the H-band spectra of APOGEE target stars arising from a singly ionized species. This line of Ti II (λ{sub air} = 15873.84 Å) is therefore of great importance for use in stellar surface gravity, or log(g), determinations via the Saha equation. While a theoretical estimate of the line strength exists, to date no laboratory measurement of the line strength has been reported. Herein we report an absolute laboratory transition probability measurement for this important Ti II line. A relative line strength measurement is made of the Ti II H-band line of interest and a reference line with a previously reported absolute transition probability. This ratio is measured using multiple spectra of a high-current water-cooled HC lamp recorded with a calibrated FT-IR spectrometer.

  15. FT-IR microscopy imaging on oral cavity tumours, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Rubini, C.; Tosi, G.

    2005-06-01

    Changes in the biochemistry of oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR microscopy. Various aspects of squamous cell carcinomas of cheek mucosa, of tongue, of gingiva, and of the floor of the mouth have been analyzed through FT-IR imaging with the aim to relate spectral patterns with histopathological results. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wavenumber or band ratio images allowed a quali- and quantitative evaluation of the changes in the proliferating activity from displastic to neoplastic states. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and histological findings.

  16. Study of sonic, neutron, and density logging of low-permeability gas sands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osoba, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    Gas accumulations in Lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous formations are the object of widespread exploration in the Tight Western Gas Sands. The complex lithology of these formations has hindered the usefulness of the sonic, density, and neutron logs. Current log evaluation practices assume a matrix density of 2.68 gm/cc and a matrix travel-time of 52.6 microseconds/ft. The neutron log is calibrated for a sandstone matrix. Conventional analysis yields inconsistent and often contradictory results. Core and petrographic studies have been made on samples from Lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous formations in the Uinta Basin. Results indicated that a carbonate cement has filled much of the original porosity and altered the matrix density. Lower porosity samples tend to be heavily cemented and have matrix densities that approach, and even exceed, 2.68 gm/cc. Higher porosity samples tend to be lightly cemented and have matrix densities that approach 2.65 gm/cc. Log analyses in the Uinta Basin, supplemented by core data, reveal that the higher porosity samples have matrix travel-times that approach 55.6 microseconds/ft. The presence of the carbonate cement does not decrease the matrix travel-times as expected. Laboratory measured matrix travel-times substantiate these conclusions. Log analyses also indicate the neutron log, when calibrated for a sandstone matrix, will not accurately evaluate the higher porosity, non-shaly sandstones. Core and log analyses have been made on samples from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde formation in the Greater Green River Basin. The resulting pressure and temperature difference caused the physical properties of the Mesaverde to vary widely within the Greater Green River Basin. Matrix density and matrix travel-time for the Mesaverde are very different for the two wells. Neutron log response also varies considerably.

  17. Transient acceleration in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Yang, Rong-Jia; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-02-01

    Recently an f(T) gravity based on the modification of teleparallel gravity was proposed to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We use observational data from type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cosmic microwave background to constrain this f(T) theory and reconstruct the effective equation of state and the deceleration parameter. We obtain the best-fit values of parameters and find an interesting result that the constrained f(T) theory allows for the accelerated Hubble expansion to be a transient effect.

  18. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Echols, J.B.; Goddard, D.A.; Bouma, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N/6E and 4N/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well was drilled, and a 500-ft conventional core and a complete suite of state-of-the-are wireline logs were recovered. Production tests were run on the Minter interval of interest. The 16-ft Minter interval (6742-6758 ft depth), bounded at its top and base by lignite seams, consists of an upper 4-ft oil sand (Bee Brake) and a lower 3-ft oil sand (Angelina). The oil sands are separated by approximately 5 ft of thinly laminated silty shale and 4 ft of very fine-grained silty sandstone. Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic descriptions of the Minter interval provide accurate facies determinations of this lower delta-plain sequence. Petrophysical evaluation, combining core plug and modern electric-log data show differences between reservoir quality of the Bee Brake and Angelina sands. This data will also be useful for correlating and interpolating old electric logs. Organic geochemistry of the oil, lignites, and shales provides insight as to the source of the Minter oils and the sourcing potential of the lignites.

  19. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  20. House log drying rates in southeast Alaska for covered and uncovered softwood logs

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Allen Brackley

    2009-01-01

    Log moisture content has an important impact on many aspects of log home construction, including log processing, transportation costs, and dimensional stability in use. Air-drying times for house logs from freshly harvested trees can depend on numerous factors including initial moisture content, log diameter, bark condition, and environmental conditions during drying....

  1. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  2. Dallas and Ft. Worth, Texas, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-85-032 (28 April-6 May 1991) --- A large portion of the Dallas - Fort Worth metropolitan area is seen in this 70mm frame, photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery. Hold photograph with the Dallas - Ft. Worth Airport directly above the center point of the picture so that north will be at the top. Compared with Apollo 6 pictures made 23 years earlier (April 1968), this photo indicates notable growth in the municipalities between Dallas and Ft. Worth as well as great outer growth of the two cities. (Most of the western portions of Ft. Worth did not make it into this frame). Easily recognizable bodies of water are Grapevine Lake and North Lake (both near the huge airport), Mountain Creek Lake (southwest of Dallas), Lake Arlington (southeast of Ft. Worth) and the Trinity River which flows southward to the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140–820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of –SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –SO3- groups (1236–1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the –SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027–1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  4. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under

  5. Log-Linear Models for Gene Association

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianhua; Joshi, Adarsh; Johnson, Valen E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a class of log-linear models for the detection of interactions in high-dimensional genomic data. This class of models leads to a Bayesian model selection algorithm that can be applied to data that have been reduced to contingency tables using ranks of observations within subjects, and discretization of these ranks within gene/network components. Many normalization issues associated with the analysis of genomic data are thereby avoided. A prior density based on Ewens’ sampling distribution is used to restrict the number of interacting components assigned high posterior probability, and the calculation of posterior model probabilities is expedited by approximations based on the likelihood ratio statistic. Simulation studies are used to evaluate the efficiency of the resulting algorithm for known interaction structures. Finally, the algorithm is validated in a microarray study for which it was possible to obtain biological confirmation of detected interactions. PMID:19655032

  6. Characterization and identification of microorganisms by FT-IR microspectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo-Thi, N. A.; Kirschner, C.; Naumann, D.

    2003-12-01

    We report on a novel FT-IR approach for microbial characterization/identification based on a light microscope coupled to an infrared spectrometer which offers the possibility to acquire IR-spectra of microcolonies containing only few hundred cells. Microcolony samples suitable for FT-IR microspectroscopic measurements were obtained by a replica technique with a stamping device that transfers spatially accurate cells of microcolonies growing on solid culture plates to a special, IR-transparent or reflecting stamping plate. High quality spectra could be recorded either by applying the transmission/absorbance or the reflectance/absorbance mode of the infrared microscope. Signal to noise ratios higher than 1000 were obtained for microcolonies as small as 40 μm in diameter. Reproducibility levels were established that allowed species and strain identification. The differentiation and classification capacity of the FT-IR microscopic technique was tested for different selected microorganisms. Cluster and factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the complex spectral data. Excellent discrimination between bacteria and yeasts, and at the same time Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains was obtained. Twenty-two selected strains of different species within the genus Staphylococcus were repetitively measured and could be grouped into correct species cluster. Moreover, the results indicated that the method allows also identifications at the subspecies level. Additionally, the new approach allowed spectral mapping analysis of single colonies which provided spatially resolved characterization of growth heterogeneity within complex microbial populations such as colonies.

  7. Development of a Large Field of View Shadowgraph System for a 16 Ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Michael A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Goodman, Wesley L.

    2000-01-01

    A large field of view shadowgraph flow visualization system for the Langley 16 ft. Transonic Tunnel (16 ft.TT) has been developed to provide fast, low cost, aerodynamic design concept evaluation capability to support the development of the next generation of commercial and military aircraft and space launch vehicles. Key features of the 16 ft. TT shadowgraph system are: (1) high resolution (1280 X 1024) digital snap shots and sequences; (2) video recording of shadowgraph at 30 frames per second; (3) pan, tilt, & zoom to find and observe flow features; (4) one microsecond flash for freeze frame images; (5) large field of view approximately 12 X 6 ft; and (6) a low maintenance, high signal/noise ratio, retro-reflective screen to allow shadowgraph imaging while test section lights are on.

  8. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-07

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging.

  9. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices

    PubMed Central

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S.; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  10. Tucker Wireline Open Hole Wireline Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, M.

    2002-05-23

    The Tucker Wireline unit ran a suite of open hole logs right behind the RMOTC logging contractor for comparison purposes. The tools included Dual Laterolog, Phased Induction, BHC Sonic, and Density-Porosity.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Buck. To cut a felled tree into logs. Butt. The bottom of the felled part of a tree. Cable yarding. The... to prevent the root wad, butt or logs from striking an employee. These precautions include, but are...

  12. Geological well log analysis. Third ed

    SciTech Connect

    Pirson, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, well logs have mainly been used for correlation, structural mapping, and quantitive evaluation of hydrocarbon bearing formations. This third edition of Geologic Well Log Analysis, however, describes how well logs can be used for geological studies and mineral exploration. This is done by analyzing well logs for numerous parameters and indices of significant mineral accumulation, primarily in sediments. Contents are: SP and Eh curves as redoxomorphic logs; sedimentalogical studies by log curve shapes; exploration for stratigraphic traps; continuous dipmeter as a structural tool; continuous dipmeter as a sedimentation tool; Paleo-facies logging and mapping; hydrogeology 1--hydrodynamics of compaction; hydrogeology 2--geostatic equilibrium; and hydrogeology 3--hydrodynamics of infiltration. Appendixes cover: Computer program for calculating the dip magnitude, azimuth, and the degree and orientation of the resistivity anisotrophy; a lithology computer program for calculating the curvature of a structure; and basic log analysis package for HP-41CV programmable calculator.

  13. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  14. Logging utilization research in the Pacific Northwest: residue prediction and unique research challenges

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2015-01-01

    Logging utilization research results have informed land managers of changes in utilization of forest growing stock for more than 40 years. The logging utilization residue ratio- growing stock residue volume/mill delivered volume- can be applied to historic or projected timber harvest volumes to predict woody residue volumes at varied spatial scales. Researchers at the...

  15. FPSO reciprocating compressors log 1 year of service

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, B.

    1998-02-01

    Early in 1998, the largest gas-processing floating production, storage and offloading system (FPSO) in the world logged a year of service. Moored in 240 ft. of water in the Gulf of Thailand, the Tantawan Explorer has reliably delivered its contracted gas production without a sign of adverse effects from vibration due to its nine reciprocating compressors. The Tantawan Explorer is outfitted with the first reciprocating compressors to be installed on an FPSO. Nine compressors in all are installed, totaling more than 15,000 total hp with capacity rated as 150 MMcfd gas and 50,000 bbl liquids. Special deck structuring and bracing were designed to isolate the effect of vibration from the vessel`s hull.

  16. Hydrocarbon segregation from well logs, Northern Monagas, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E. )

    1993-02-01

    A methodology is described to determine vertical hydrocarbon density variations in recent oil discoveries in Northern Monagas state, using well logs. Similarities and differences are established for models obtained in El Carito and El Tejero fault block-s. These models were confirmed using independent information, such as PVT analysis, RFT pressures, oil gravity and GOR's from initial production tests. To explain differences between the models, an hypothesis is proposed for the migration/segregation/deformation sequence in these two blocks, which accounts for the presence of lighter hydrocarbons in El Tejero block, even though it is 1700 ft structurally lower than El Carito. Based on this hypothesis, westward projection of the models predicts lighter hydrocarbons and similar porosities for Casupal-Mata Granda and Tonoro blocks, at depths considerably greater than in El Tejero block.

  17. Selective logging and its relation to deforestation

    Treesearch

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Marco Lentini; Frank Merry; Souza Jr. Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Selective logging is a major contributor to the social, economic, and ecological dynamics of Brazilian Amazonia. Logging activities have expanded from low-volume floodplain harvests in past centuries to high-volume operations today that take about 25 million m3 of wood from the forest each year. The most common high-impact conventional and often illegal logging...

  18. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  19. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  20. How much scarification from summer logging?

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis; John C. Bjorkbom

    1960-01-01

    Scarification of the soil creates seedbeds that are favorable for the establishment of both paper birch and yellow birch. Logging in the summer often has been recommended as a method of obtaining these seedbeds. However, our observations on experimental logging jobs have shown that logging alone does not provide scarification over enough of the area to assure...

  1. Hardwood log grading scale stick improved

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth

    1953-01-01

    In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.

  2. Linking log quality with product performance

    Treesearch

    D. W. Green; Robert Ross

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, log grading procedures use visual assessment of defects, in relation to the log scaling diameter, to estimate the yield of lumber that maybe expected from the log. This procedure was satisfactory when structural grades were based only on defect size and location. In recent years, however, structural products have increasingly been graded using a...

  3. Challenges in converting among log scaling methods.

    Treesearch

    Henry. Spelter

    2003-01-01

    The traditional method of measuring log volume in North America is the board foot log scale, which uses simple assumptions about how much of a log's volume is recoverable. This underestimates the true recovery potential and leads to difficulties in comparing volumes measured with the traditional board foot system and those measured with the cubic scaling systems...

  4. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  5. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  7. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  8. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  11. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  12. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  14. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  16. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  17. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  18. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  20. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  3. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  4. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  5. Design note of an air-cooled 2 ft x 2 ft x 10. 5 ft long muon spoiler

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.; Pathiyil, J.

    1988-01-06

    This note describes the construction of a muon spoiler (magnetized steel assembly) with a cross section of 2 ft by 2 ft and a length of 10.5 ft. Two such spoilers are operated in series at an average field of about 15 kGauss, from one 100 ADC, 40 V power supply. The purpose of the spoilers is to prevent muons from easily escaping beyond the muon laboratory experimental area by bending them down so that they have to pass through more earth. The spoilers reduce the muon dose rate beyond the experimental area by about a factor of 15 to 20. These types of spoilers are not precision devices. They were inexpensive to build from scrap materials using rough flame cutting methods. It took about 14 days to fabricate them.

  6. Application of the spread-spectrum technique in well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Dadakarides, Simos D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the novel concept of employing the noise insensitive spread-spectrum technique in well logging. The proposed design of a spread-spectrum device improves the performance of well logging tools, particularly within highly noisy environments. The heart of the device is a shift register which generates a pseudorandom binary code sequence. A coder is connected to the transmitter and codes the probing signal by utilizing the pseudorandom sequence. A decoder is connected to the receiver and correlates the return signal to the same sequence, which is used as a sliding reference. Shifts as small as a fraction of a bit are unambiguously resolvable, and distance resolution of the order of micrometers is achievable. Spread-spectrum well logging tools can operate even with coded signal-to-noise ratio below zero-dB. The spread-spectrum device can be interfaced with any available wave transmitting logging tool. However, tools employing acoustic waves are favorable because the acoustic wave propagation velocity is low and allows the use of inexpensive electronics. The problems associated with high temperatures which are commonly encountered In geothermal reservoirs are bypassed, since the spread-spectrum device can be located either inside the well logging tool or together with the supporting electronics on the surface.

  7. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  8. Porosity Log Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Saputro, Oki; Lazuardi Maulana, Zulfikar; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier

    2016-08-01

    Well logging is important in oil and gas exploration. Many physical parameters of reservoir is derived from well logging measurement. Geophysicists often use well logging to obtain reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation and permeability. Most of the time, the measurement of the reservoir properties are considered expensive. One of method to substitute the measurement is by conducting a prediction using artificial neural network. In this paper, artificial neural network is performed to predict porosity log data from other log data. Three well from ‘yy’ field are used to conduct the prediction experiment. The log data are sonic, gamma ray, and porosity log. One of three well is used as training data for the artificial neural network which employ the Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm. Through several trials, we devise that the most optimal input training is sonic log data and gamma ray log data with 10 hidden layer. The prediction result in well 1 has correlation of 0.92 and mean squared error of 5.67 x10-4. Trained network apply to other well data. The result show that correlation in well 2 and well 3 is 0.872 and 0.9077 respectively. Mean squared error in well 2 and well 3 is 11 x 10-4 and 9.539 x 10-4. From the result we can conclude that sonic log and gamma ray log could be good combination for predicting porosity with neural network.

  9. Cement bond log evaluation of foam- and synthetic-cemented casings

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckdorfer, R.A.; Jacobs, W.R.; Masson, J.P.

    1984-11-01

    Cement bond log (CBL /SUP TM/ ) studies on foam- and synthetic-cemented wells were initiated to determine the feasibility of, as well as to develop technologies for, evaluating these novel cementing services. Early CBL's on these cementing systems showed little effect on the log amplitude curve. Hence, CBL evaluations were difficult to obtain and interpret. A special sonde with a 1.3-ft (0.4-m) transmitter-toreceiver spacing was developed for this study. Sonic signal amplitudes were determined by using cemented shortcasing test sections. Sonic attenuation rates were correlated to compressive strengths for a range of cement densities. Experimental details of the cementing operation and logging studies are discussed. Data relating attenuation rates to compressive strengths and cement densities also are presented. Field results are discussed.

  10. Logs Wanted - Dead or Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, A.; Morche, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers cover only a small part of the Earth`s surface, yet they transfer sediment in globally significant quantities. In mountainous regions, the majority of the total channel length occurs in headwater streams. Those mountain channels are influenced in terms of sediment connectivity by processes on the slopes. For example in such a sediment routing system, sediment originating from debris flows on the slopes is delivered along sediment pathways to the channel system and can be transported further downstream as solid load. Interruption of instream coarse sediment connectivity is closely related to the existence of channel blocking barriers which also can be formed by biota. By storing sediment large wood (LW) log jams disrupt in-channel sediment connectivity. We present a study design in order to decipher the short to long term effects (c. 10-2-102 years) of sediment (dis)connectivity effects of large wood. The study areas are two basins in mountain ranges in Germany and Austria. In Austria the drainage area of the river Fugnitz was chosen which is located in the National Park Thayatal. The other drainage area of the river Sieber in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, is located in the Harz National Park. Since studies on LW and its geomorphological effects in Central European rivers are still rare the main goals of the project are: •to identify important triggers for LW transport from slopes into the channels •to examine the spatial distribution and characterization of LW in main and slope channels by mapping and dGPS measurements •to determine the effects of LW on channel hydraulic parameters (e.g. slope, width, grains size composition, roughness) by field measurements of channel long profiles and cross section with dGPS and Wolman particle counts •to quantify the direct effects of LW on discharge and bed load transport by measuring flow velocity with an Ott-Nautilus current meter and to measure bed load up- and downstream of log jams using a portable Helley

  11. Logs key to solving water production problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Crook, R.J.

    1995-11-20

    Water source identification is the first and most important step in controlling unwanted water production that can severely limit the productive life of a well and, thereby, decrease hydrocarbon recovery. Water-control treatments often fail because the source of the water problem is not identified, the wrong treatment is performed, or the correct treatment is performed incorrectly. Table 1 lists typical problems, means of identification and evaluation, and chemical treatments available for correcting the problem. Well logs can help diagnose downhole situations that can lead to unwanted water production, and the effectiveness of water-control treatments can be evaluated with cased and open hole logs. The paper discusses cement bond logs and the pulse echo tool for cement evaluation. Casing evaluation is carried out by mechanical caliper logs and electro magnetic tools. Reservoir monitoring with pulsed neutron logs and pulsed neutron spectrometry are discussed. Also discussed are production logging, radioactive tracer logging, and well tests.

  12. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively.

  13. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  14. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  15. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C.; Payne, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  16. Leak checker data logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  17. Logged In and Zoned Out.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Susan M; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2017-02-01

    Laptop computers are widely prevalent in university classrooms. Although laptops are a valuable tool, they offer access to a distracting temptation: the Internet. In the study reported here, we assessed the relationship between classroom performance and actual Internet usage for academic and nonacademic purposes. Students who were enrolled in an introductory psychology course logged into a proxy server that monitored their online activity during class. Past research relied on self-report, but the current methodology objectively measured time, frequency, and browsing history of participants' Internet usage. In addition, we assessed whether intelligence, motivation, and interest in course material could account for the relationship between Internet use and performance. Our results showed that nonacademic Internet use was common among students who brought laptops to class and was inversely related to class performance. This relationship was upheld after we accounted for motivation, interest, and intelligence. Class-related Internet use was not associated with a benefit to classroom performance.

  18. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  19. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paepe, A. T. G.; Dyke, J. M.; Hendra, P. J.; Langkilde, F. W.

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  20. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, A T; Dyke, J M; Hendra, P J; Langkilde, F W

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  1. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: core logging for site investigation and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.; Thorpe, R.K.

    1982-05-28

    As an integral part of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax 5150 ft (1570 m) of granite core was obtained. This core was diamond drilled in various sizes, mainly 38-mm and 76-mm diameters. The core was teken with single tube core barrels and was unoriented. Techniques used to drill and log this core are discussed, as well as techniques to orient the core. Of the 5150 ft (1570 m) of core more than 3645 ft (1111 m) was retained and logged in some detail. As a result of the core logging, geologic discontinuities were identified, joint frequency and spacing characterized. Discontinuities identified included several joint sets, shear zones and faults. Correlations based on coring along were generally found to be impossible, even for the more prominent features. The only feature properly correlated from the exploratory drilling was the fault system at the end of the facility, but it was not identified from the exploratory core as a fault. Identification of discontinuities was later helped by underground mapping that identified several different joint sets with different characteristics. It was found that joint frequency varied from 0.3 to 1.1 joint per foot of core for open fractures and from 0.3 to 3.3/ft for closed or healed fractures. Histograms of fracture spacing indicate that there is likely a random distribution of spacing superimposed upon uniformly spaced fractures. It was found that a low angle joint set had a persistent mean orientation. These joints were healed and had pervasive wall rock alteration which made identification of joints in this set possible. The recognition of a joint set with known attitude allowed orientation of much of the core. This orientation technique was found to be effective. 10 references, 25 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Analysis of dammar resin with MALDI-FT-ICR-MS and APCI-FT-ICR-MS.

    PubMed

    Vahur, Signe; Teearu, Anu; Haljasorg, Tõiv; Burk, Piia; Leito, Ivo; Kaljurand, Ivari

    2012-03-01

    Comprehensive analysis of high-resolution mass spectra of aged natural dammar resin obtained with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is presented. Dammar resin is one of the most important components of painting varnishes. Dammar resin is a terpenoid resin (dominated by triterpenoids) with intrinsically very complex composition. This complexity further increases with aging. Ten different solvents and two-component solvent mixtures were tested for sample preparation. The most suitable solvent mixtures for the MALDI-FT-ICR-MS analysis were dichloromethane-acetone and dichloromethane-ethanol. The obtained MALDI-FTMS mass spectrum contains nine clusters of peaks in the m/z range of 420-2200, and the obtained APCI-FTMS mass spectrum contains three clusters of peaks in the m/z range of 380-910. The peaks in the clusters correspond to the oxygenated derivatives of terpenoids differing by the number of C(15)H(24) units. The clusters, in turn, are composed of subclusters differing by the number of oxygen atoms in the molecules. Thorough analysis and identification of the components (or groups of components) by their accurate m/z ratios was carried out, and molecular formulas (elemental compositions) of all major peaks in the MALDI-FTMS and APCI-FTMS spectra were identified (and groups of possible isomeric compounds were proposed). In the MALDI-FTMS and APCI-FTMS mass spectrum, besides the oxidized C(30), triterpenoids also peaks corresponding to C(29) and C(31) derivatives of triterpenoids (demethylated and methylated, correspondingly) were detected. MALDI and APCI are complementary ionization sources for the analysis of natural dammar resin. In the MALDI source, preferably polar (extensively oxidized) components of the resin are ionized (mostly as Na(+) adducts), whereas in the APCI source, preferably nonpolar (hydrocarbon and

  3. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  4. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  5. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine in Graves' hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Momotani, Naoko; Fukada, Shuji; Ito, Koichi; Miyauchi, Akira; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2005-10-01

    The serum T3 to T4 ratio is a useful indicator for differentiating destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis from Graves' thyrotoxicosis. However, the usefulness of the serum free T3 (FT3) to free T4 (FT4) ratio is controversial. We therefore systematically evaluated the usefulness of this ratio, based on measurements made using two widely available commercial kits in two hospitals. Eighty-two untreated patients with thyrotoxicosis (48 patients with Graves' disease and 34 patients with painless thyroiditis) were examined in Kuma Hospital, and 218 patients (126 with Graves' disease and 92 with painless thyroiditis) and 66 normal controls were examined in Ito Hospital. The FT3 and FT4 values, as well as the FT3/FT4 ratios, were significantly higher in the patients with Graves' disease than in those with painless thyroiditis in both hospitals, but considerable overlap between the two disorders was observed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the FT3 and FT4 values and the FT3/FT4 ratios of patients with Graves' disease and those with painless thyroiditis seen in both hospitals were prepared, and the area under the curves (AUC), the cut-off points for discriminating Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis, the sensitivity, and the specificity were calculated. AUC and sensitivity of the FT(3)/FT(4) ratio were smaller than those of FT(3) and FT(4) in both hospitals. The patients treated at Ito hospital were then divided into 4 groups according to their FT4 levels (A: < or =2.3, B: >2.3 approximately < or =3.9, C: 3.9 approximately < or =5.4, D: >5.4 ng/dl), and the AUC, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the FT(3)/FT(4) ratios were calculated. The AUC and sensitivity of each group increased with the FT4 levels (AUC: 57.8%, 72.1%, 91.1%, and 93.4%, respectively; sensitivity: 62.6%, 50.0%, 77.8%, and 97.0%, respectively). The means +/- SE of the FT3/FT4 ratio in the Graves' disease groups were 3.1 +/- 0.22, 3.1 +/- 0.09, 3.2 +/- 0.06, and 3.1 +/- 0

  7. Log-Normality and Multifractal Analysis of Flame Surface Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2013-11-01

    The turbulent flame surface is typically highly wrinkled and folded at a multitude of scales controlled by various flame properties. It is useful if the information contained in this complex geometry can be projected onto a simpler regular geometry for the use of spectral, wavelet or multifractal analyses. Here we investigate local flame surface statistics of turbulent flame expanding under constant pressure. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally obtained from high-speed Mie scattering images. For spherically expanding flame, length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors is defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at corresponding area-ratio pdfs. Both the pdfs are found to be near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis. Currently at Indian Institute of Science, India.

  8. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  9. MultiLog: a tool for the control and output merging of multiple logging applications.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Jonathan; Alexander, Jason

    2016-12-01

    MultiLog is a logging tool that controls, gathers, and combines the output, on-the-fly, from existing research and commercial logging applications or "loggers." Loggers record a specific set of user actions on a computing device, helping researchers to better understand environments or interactions, guiding the design of new or improved interfaces and applications. MultiLog reduces researchers' required implementation effort by simplifying the set-up of multiple loggers and seamlessly combining their output. This in turn increases the availability of logging systems to non-technical experimenters for both short-term and longitudinal observation studies. MultiLog supports two operating modes: "researcher mode" where experimenters configure multiple logging systems, and "deployment mode" where the system is deployed to user-study participants' systems. Researcher mode allows researchers to install, configure log filtering and obfuscation, observe near real-time event streams, and save configuration files ready for deployment. Deployment mode simplifies data collection from multiple loggers by running in the system tray at user log-in, starting loggers, combining their output, and securely uploading the data to a web-server. It also supports real-time browsing of log data, pausing of logging, and removal of log lines. Performance evaluations show that MultiLog does not adversely affect system performance, even when simultaneously running several logging systems. Initial studies show the system runs reliably over a period of 10 weeks.

  10. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the...antenna which has a simplified feeding configuration. The result is a log periodic antenna design that can be used from high frequencies through microwave frequencies.

  11. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  12. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  13. log(MPl/m3/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martin, Johannes; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ratz, Michael

    2005-12-02

    Flux compactifications of string theory seem to require the presence of a fine-tuned constant in the superpotential. We discuss a scheme where this constant is replaced by a dynamical quantity which we argue to be a 'continuous Chern-Simons term'. In such a scheme, the gaugino condensate generates the hierarchically small scale of supersymmetry breakdown rather than adjusting its size to a constant. A crucial ingredient is the appearance of the hierarchically small quantity exp(-) which corresponds to the scale of gaugino condensation. Under rather general circumstances, this leads to a scenario of moduli stabilization, which is endowed with a hierarchy between the mass of the lightest modulus, the gravitino mass and the scale of the soft terms, mmodulus {approx} m3/2 {approx} 2 msoft. The 'little hierarchy' is given by the logarithm of the ratio of the Planck scale and the gravitino mass, {approx} log(MPl/m3/2) {approx} 4{pi}2. This exhibits a new mediation scheme of supersymmetry breakdown, called mirage mediation. We highlight the special properties of the scheme, and their consequences for phenomenology and cosmology.

  14. Log analysis of six boreholes in conjunction with geologic characterization above and on top of the Weeks Island salt dome

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1996-04-01

    Six boreholes were drilled during the geologic characterization and diagnostics of the Weeks Island sinkhole that is over the two-tiered salt mine which was converted for oil storage by the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. These holes were drilled to provide for geologic characterization of the Weeks Island Salt Dome and its overburden in the immediate vicinity of the sinkhole (mainly through logs and core); to establish a crosswell configuration for seismic tomography; to establish locations for hydrocarbon detection and tracer injection; and to Provide direct observations of sinkhole geometry and material properties. Specific objectives of the logging program were to: (1) identify the top of and the physical state of the salt dome; (2) identify the water table; (3) obtain a relative salinity profile in the aquifer within the alluvium, which ranges from the water table directly to the top of the Weeks Island salt dome; and (4) identify a reflecting horizon seen on seismic profiles over this salt dome. Natural gamma, neutron, density, sonic, resistivity and caliper logs were run. Neutron and density logs were run from inside the well casing because of the extremely unstable condition of the deltaic alluvium overburden above the salt dome. The logging program provided important information about the salt dome and the overburden in that (1) the top of the salt dome was identified at {approximately}189 ft bgl (103 ft msl), and the top of the dome contains relatively few fractures; (2) the water table is approximately 1 ft msl, (3) this aquifer appears to become steadily more saline with depth; and (4) the water saturation of much of the alluvium over the salt dome is shown to be influenced by the prevalent heavy rainfall. This logging program, a part of the sinkhole diagnostics, provides unique information about this salt dome and the overburden.

  15. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  16. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  17. MALDI-FT-ICR-MS for archaeological lipid residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Oras, Ester; Vahur, Signe; Isaksson, Sven; Kaljurand, Ivari; Leito, Ivo

    2017-07-24

    Soft-ionization methods are currently at the forefront of developing novel methods for analysing degraded archaeological organic residues. Here we present little-used soft ionisation method of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization - Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance - mass spectrometry (MALDI-FT-ICR-MS) for the identification of archaeological lipid residues. It is a high-resolution and sensitive method with low limits of detection capable of identifying lipid compounds in small concentrations, thus providing a highly potential new technique for the analysis of degraded lipid components. A thorough methodology development for analysing cooked and degraded food remains from ceramic vessels was carried out and the most efficient sample preparation protocol is described. The identified components, also controlled by independent parallel analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography - combustion - isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), demonstrate its capability of identifying very different food residues including dairy, adipose fats as well as lipids of aquatic origin. The results obtained from experimentally cooked and original archaeological samples prove the suitability of MALDI-FT-ICR-MS for analysing archaeological organic residues. Sample preparation protocol and identification of compounds provide future reference for analysing various aged and degraded lipid residues in different organic and mineral matrices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-destructive determination of soluble solids in chufa by FT-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang; Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Fu, Xiaping; Yu, Haiyan; Liu, Yande

    2005-11-01

    The near infrared (NIR) method based on fibre-optic FT-NIR spectrometer was tested to determine soluble solids content (SSC) non-destructively in chufa (Eleocharis tuberose schult). A total of 240 chufas (120 of cv. 'Jinhua' and 120 of cv. 'Yongkang') sampled from eight positions in the different fields to increase variation in soluble solids content, were measured after 2-days storage and the measurements randomly assigned to a calibration data set and a prediction data set. Thus the calibration set and the prediction set represented exactly the same distribution. The calibration data set was used to select the wavelengths best correlated with Brix and different regression methods (partial least squares (PLS) regression and multiple linear regression (MLR)) that was applied to calculate the Brix value in the prediction data set. The most significant r (0.9056) was found with the first derivative of log (1/R) (where R reflectance), yielding standard error of calibration (SEC)=0.545 Brix, standard error of prediction (SEP)=0.632 Brix. Analysis of different methods performed on the actual and the predicted Brix showed PLS is better than MLR. This NIR method seems reliable for determining soluble solids contents of chufa non-destructively, and could prove useful for it.

  19. A handy aid for hardwood log graders

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander

    1952-01-01

    In hardwood log grading, the beginner encounters a formidable task: to memorize the specifications, exceptions to general rules, etc., as set down in the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's "Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber." He must refer to this text repeatedly until he becomes familiar with all the ins and outs of the job. This slows him down...

  20. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Treesearch

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  1. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  2. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  3. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  4. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  5. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  6. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  7. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  8. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  9. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  10. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  11. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  12. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  13. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  14. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  15. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  16. Utilization and cost for animal logging operations

    Treesearch

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford

    2001-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. Due to the development of efficient machines and high volume demands from the forest products industry, mechanization of logging developed very fast, leaving behind the traditional horse and mule logging. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically...

  17. Internal log scanning: Research to reality

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    Improved log breakdown into lumber has been an active research topic since the 1960's. Demonstrated economic gains have driven the search for a cost-effective method to scan logs internally, from which it is assumed one can chose a better breakdown strategy. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely accepted as the most promising internal imaging technique....

  18. An analysis technique for testing log grades

    Treesearch

    Carl A. Newport; William G. O' Regan

    1963-01-01

    An analytical technique that may be used in evaluating log-grading systems is described. It also provides means of comparing two or more grading systems, or a proposed change with the system from which it was developed. The total volume and computed value of lumber from each sample log are the basic data used.

  19. Logging deck organization with a bundler

    Treesearch

    Dana. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The original John Deere 1490D Slash Bundler is mounted on a forwarder so that it can collect woody biomass scattered throughout a tract. However, typical logging operations in the southeastern United States delimb and top at the landing, so logging residues are concentrated at the landing. In a current study by researchers at Auburn...

  20. Logging methods and peeling of Aspen

    Treesearch

    T. Schantz-Hansen

    1948-01-01

    The logging of forest products is influenced by many factors, including the size of the trees, density of the stand, the soundness of the trees, size of the area logged, topography and soil, weather conditions, the degree of utilization, the skill of the logger and the equipment used, the distance from market, etc. Each of these factors influences not only the method...

  1. Synthetic rope applications in Appalachian logging

    Treesearch

    Ben D. Spong; Jingxin Wang

    2008-01-01

    New ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene rope has shown good results as a replacement for wire rope in logging applications in the western United States. A single case study trial was performed in Appalachian forest conditions to assess the appropriateness of this technology for hardwood logging applications. The study focused on use of the rope in West Virginia...

  2. Mathematical model of a smoldering log.

    Treesearch

    Fernando de Souza Costa; David. Sandberg

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed describing the natural smoldering of logs. It is considered the steady one dimensional propagation of infinitesimally thin fronts of drying, pyrolysis, and char oxidation in a horizontal semi-infinite log. Expressions for the burn rates, distribution profiles of temperature, and positions of the drying, pyrolysis, and smoldering fronts...

  3. Logging truck noise near nesting northern goshawks

    Treesearch

    Teryl G. Grubb; Larry L. Pater; David K. Delaney

    1998-01-01

    We measured noise levels of four logging trucks as the trucks passed within approximately 500 m of two active northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) nests on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona in 1997. Neither a brooding adult female nor a lone juvenile exhibited any discernable behavioral response to logging truck noise, which peaked at 53.4 and...

  4. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  5. Reduced-impact logging: challenges and opportunities

    Treesearch

    F.E. Putz; P. Sist; T. Fredericksen; D. Dykstra

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, sets of timber harvesting guidelines designed to mitigate the deleterious environmental impacts of tree felling, yarding, and hauling have become known as "reduced-impact logging" (RIL) techniques. Although none of the components of RIL are new, concerns about destructive logging practices and worker safety in the tropics stimulated...

  6. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Treesearch

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  7. Measuring Reading Instruction with Teacher Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Correnti, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that the criticisms of their earlier article on teacher logs ("Educational Researcher," March 2009) by Smagorinsky and Willis do not address, much less undermine, the evidence they presented as part of their validation argument about the teacher logs. Moreover, they argue that their method for studying classrooms is not nearly as…

  8. Recovery from simulated sawn logs with sweep.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Dean L. Parry; Christine L. Todoroki

    2004-01-01

    A sawing simulator, AUTOSAW, was used to examine the effect of increasing sweep on lumber recovery. Sample material consisted of 51 logs from 22 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. ) trees in western Oregon, United States. All knots on the 4.9-m logs were measured, mapped, and converted into 3-dimensional digital formats. The digital...

  9. Log sort yard economics, planning, and feasibility

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm; Robert Govett; Ted Bilek; Gerry L. Jackson

    2004-01-01

    This publication discusses basic marketing and economic concepts, planning approach, and feasibility methodology for assessing log sort yard operations. Special attention is given to sorting small diameter and underutilized logs from forest restoration, fuels reduction, and thinning operations. A planned programming approach of objectively determining the feasibility...

  10. Fourier-Transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Errol W.

    2014-03-28

    FT-ICR MS achieves the highest resolution and best mass measurement accuracy of any mass spectrometry method. These remarkable achievements are due to several factors, including multi-channel detection, measurement of frequency, magnetic field stability, and dependence of cyclotron frequency on only the magnetic field and ion mass to charge ratio, not on ion kinetic energy and other factors. Significant advances in magnet technology, instrument design and construction continue to enhance the capabilities of FT-ICR MS. FT-ICR has been applied to a variety of analytical challenges and is particularly suited to the analysis of complex mixtures and in applications where high resolution and mass measurement accuracy are critical analytical parameters.

  11. 1. Zinc Plant, looking north, down Government Gulch. 610 ft. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Zinc Plant, looking north, down Government Gulch. 610 ft. tall stack replaced original 200 ft. radial brick stack formerly at rear of Cottrell treater. - Sullivan Electrolytic Zinc Plant, Government Gulch, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  12. BLACKSMITH SHOP ROOF STRUCTURE AT JUNCTION BETWEEN 60 FT. AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLACKSMITH SHOP ROOF STRUCTURE AT JUNCTION BETWEEN 60 FT. AND 90 FT. SPAN ROOF TRUSSES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Blacksmith Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 347. Caltrans, Photographer April 10, 1935 "500 FT. SPANS"; VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    347. Caltrans, Photographer April 10, 1935 "500 FT. SPANS"; VIEW OF THROUGH TRUSS (500 FT. SPANS) UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-613 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Determination of pediatric reference levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH measured with ECLusys kits.

    PubMed

    Iwaku, Kenji; Noh, Jaeduk Yoshimura; Minagawa, Akinobu; Kosuga, Yuka; Suzuki, Miho; Sekiya, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Masako; Ohye, Hidemi; Kunii, Yo; Yoshihara, Ai; Watanabe, Natsuko; Mukasa, Koji; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Reference ranges for serum thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in children were set using the assay kits currently used in clinical settings. A total of 342 children (111 males and 231 females) who were negative for antithyroid antibodies (TgAb, TPOAb) and were found to have no abnormalities on ultrasonographic examination of the thyroid gland were divided into 6 age groups: 4-6 years (45 children), 7-8 years (40), 9-10 years (53), 11-12 years (65), 13-14 years (83), and 15 years (56) for the study. FT3, FT4 and TSH levels were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) (ECLusys FT3, FT4 and TSH).The reference range for FT3 (pg/mL) was 2.91-4.70 for the age group of 4-6 years, 3.10-5.10 for the age group of 7-8 years, 3.10-4.87 for the age group of 9-10 years, 2.78-4.90 for the age group of 11-12 years, 2.77-4.59 for the age group of 13-14 years, and 2.50-4.64 for the age group of 15 years . The reference range for FT4 (ng/dL) was 1.12-1.67, 1.07-1.61, 0.96-1.60, 1.02-1.52, 0.96-1.52, 0.95-1.53. The reference range for TSH (μU/mL) was 0.62-4.90, 0.53-5.16, 0.67-4.52, 0.62-3.36, 0.54-2.78, 0.32-3.00. Serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in children differ from those in adults. It is, therefore, of importance to perform evaluation of thyroid function in children using reference values appropriate for the chronological ages, because misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism or inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH) and oversight of mild subclinical hypothyroidism could occur if the diagnosis is made using reference values for adults.

  15. Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N.

    2005-10-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of ~0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  16. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  17. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  18. Logging Report 1 – Temperature/Gamma Ray/Collar Locator Log, EE-2A, 2450 psig Shut-in Log, August 8, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, Donald S.; Anderson, David W.

    1991-08-14

    Oil Well Perforators (OWP) was mobilized on August 5th and arrived on August 6th. OWP's grease injection head was installed on the LANL wireline and the wireline was re-headed with a LANL cable head. OWP provided the following pressure control equipment: a 40 ft long 5-1/2" API 5000 psig WP (working pressure) casing lubricator, a 5-1/2" API 3000 psig WP wireline blow-out-preventer, a 15000 psig WP grease injection head with 0.425-0.430" flow tubes and a grease injection system, and the 15000 psig WP high pressure hoses needed to connect the grease system to the grease head. The grease head included three flow sections, two active and one reserve, and two injection hoses were run to the head. All of the instruments operated throughout the logging operation. There were no problems with lowering or raising the tools. The pressure control equipment performed well and leakage at the grease head was insignificant.

  19. FTIR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR, UV-visible and quantum chemical investigations of 2-amino-4-methylbenzothiazole.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Sakiladevi, S; Rani, T; Mythili, C V; Mohan, S

    2012-03-01

    The FT-IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) spectral measurements and complete assignments of the observed spectra of 2-amino-4-methylbenzothiazole (2A4MBT) have been proposed. Ab initio and DFT calculations have been performed and the structural parameters of the compound were determined from the optimised geometry with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets and giving energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, depolarisation ratios, IR intensities and Raman activities. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-visible spectrum of the compound was also recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were measured by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The geometric parameters, energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities, Raman activities chemical shifts and absorption wavelengths were compared with the available experimental data of the molecule. The influences of methyl and amino groups on the skeletal modes and on the proton chemical shifts have been investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Petroleomics by EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Corilo, Yuri E; Vaz, Boniek G; Simas, Rosineide C; Nascimento, Heliara D Lopes; Klitzke, Clécio F; Pereira, Rosana C L; Bastos, Wagner L; Santos Neto, Eugênio V; Rodgers, Ryan P; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-05-15

    An ambient ionization/desorption technique, namely, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI), has been applied to crude oil samples. From a single droplet of the sample placed on an inert surface, EASI(+/-) is shown to promote efficient desorption and ionization of a myriad of polar components via the action of its cloud of very minute supersonic bipolar charged droplets. The gaseous [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) ions concurrently formed by EASI(+/-) were analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), and a total of approximately 6000 acidic and basic components have been attributed. EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS of crude oils is show to be almost as fast as ESI(+)/ESI(-) FT-ICR MS, providing similar compositional information of polar components and spectral quality comparable to that of a commercial nonochip-based robotic ESI device. EASI(+/-) requires no sample workup thus eliminating risks of contamination during sample manipulation and memory effects because of carry over in pumping ESI lines. More importantly, EASI(+/-) is a voltage-free ionization technique therefore eliminating risks of redox processes or duality of ionization mechanisms that can be observed in voltage-assisted processes. Data visualization via typical petroleomic plots confirms the similarity of the compositional information provided by EASI(+/-) compared to ESI(+)/ESI(-). The ambient EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS method requires no voltage switching in changing the ion polarity mode, offering a workup, heating and voltage-free protocol for petroleomic studies performed at open atmosphere directly on the undisturbed crude oil sample.

  1. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  2. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  3. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. Limits of rapid log P determination methods for highly lipophilic and flexible compounds.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sophie; Begnaud, Frédéric; Schuler, William; Gillerat, Fabrice; Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2016-04-07

    Lipophilicity is of crucial importance in many fields including pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetic and food industries. Whereas different experimental strategies have been developed for rapid lipophilicity determination of new chemical entities, log P determination of highly lipophilic compounds is always challenging. In this study, three published chromatographic methods have been compared on a series of phenylalkanoic acids including the pro-perfume HaloscentD (HD-C12). Different log P values were obtained depending on the chromatographic method used for log P estimation. Molecular modelling suggested that log P variations may be due to the chromatographic conditions applied (isocratic or gradient mode, ratio methanol/water in the mobile phase), responsible of specific conformations of the molecule in solution. Thus, for flexible compounds, published methods have to be used with caution and considered as a good tool to estimate a log P range, depending on the molecular conformational state.

  5. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  6. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    SciTech Connect

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Leslie, H.D.; Wheelis, W.B.

    1984-09-01

    An experimental and numerical wave mechanics study of cement bond logs demonstrated that wellsite computer processing can now segregate wellbore fluid effects from the sonic signal response to changing cement strength. Traditionally, cement logs have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore, without consideration of wellbore fluid effects. These effects were assumed to be negligible. However, with the increasing number of logs being run in completion fluids such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/, large variations in cement bond logs became apparent. A Schlumberger internal paper showing that bond log amplitude is related to the acoustic impedance of the fluid in which the tool is run led to a comprehensive study of wellbore fluid effects. Numerical and experimental models were developed simulating wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 95/8-in. casings by varying the wellbore fluid densities, viscosities, and fluid types (acoustic impedance). Parallel numerical modeling was undertaken using similar parameters. The results showed that the bond log amplitude varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid's acoustic impedance; for example, there was a 70 percent increase in the signal amplitude for 11.5-lb/ gal CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a Fluid-Compensated Bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of varying wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  7. Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Izotova, T.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

  8. Branching ratio for sup 10 C superallowed Fermi. beta. decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Y.; Kunihiro, K.; Toriyama, T.; Harada, S.; Torii, Y.; Yoshida, A. ); Nomura, T.; Tanaka, J. ); Shinozuka, T. )

    1991-01-01

    The branching ratio for {sup 10}C superallowed Fermi {beta} decay has been measured accurately by a newly developed method. The result is 1.473{plus minus}0.007 %. The {ital Ft} value is derived as 3065.4{plus minus}14.7 sec, which is consistent with the {ital Ft} values determined accurately for heavier nuclei and with predictions of conserved vector current hypothesis. The method developed here can be applied to the high precision {beta}-{gamma} spectroscopy.

  9. Vibrational spectroscopic investigation (FT-IR and FT-Raman) using ab initio (HF) and DFT (B3LYP) calculations of 3-ethoxymethyl-1,4-dihydroquinolin-4-one.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Jamelah S; Al-Wabli, Reem I

    2015-02-25

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3-ethoxymethyl-1,4-dihydroquinolin-4-one were recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, Raman scattering activities, depolarization ratios and reduced masses were calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density function theory (DFT/B3LYP) methods with the 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. The calculation results were applied to simulate infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which showed good agreement with the observed spectra. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of 3-ethoxymethyl-1,4-dihydroquinolin-4-one is reported. The theoretical spectrograms for FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title compound have been constructed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear logging and geothermal log interpretation: formation temperature sonde evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, E.W.; Vagelatos, N.; Dickerson, J.M.; Nguyen, V.

    1982-01-01

    The theory and methodology of the neutron-based technique for the determination of the formation temperature in geothermal fields are discussed. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated before start of the present development phase. The present work is intended to evaluate the response of the temperature probe in a simulated fracture porosity granite matrix at temperatures likely to be encountered in known geothermal reservoirs. An above ground borehole model has been designed and constructed. The effect of high ambient temperatures on the response of the neutron detectors in the probe mockup used in the measurements was investigated and used to correct the detector counts. An improved data analysis method has been developed to account properly for the effects of low porosity and high temperatures. Measurements, using the above ground borehole model, have shown that a linear correlation between the ratio of thermal counts from a Gd-filtered detector to counts from a bare detector and formation temperature is good at temperatures as high as 380/sup 0/F. The present results are consistent with earlier data obtained in high-porosity laboratory models at lower temperatures (T < 167/sup 0/F). Further measurements at high temperature at various porosities and formation neutron absorption cross sections would be necessary for a more extensive comparison.

  11. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  12. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  13. Resistivity logging of fractured basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Stefansson, V.; Axelsson, G.; Sigurdsson, O.

    1982-01-01

    A lumped double porosity model was studied in order to estimate the effect of fractures on resistivity - porosity relations. It is found that the relationship between resistivity and porosity for fractured rock is in general not simple and depends both on the amounts of matrix porosity as well as the fracture orientation. However, when fractures dominate over matrix porosity the exponent is close to 1.0. Resistivity-porosity relations have been determined for large amounts of basaltic formations in Iceland. An exponent close to 1.0 is found in all cases investigated. This is interpreted as fractures constitute a considerable part of the porosity of the basalts. In the IRDP-hole in Eastern Iceland it is found that the ratio of fracture porosity to total porosity decreases with depth.

  14. Coal log pipeline research at University of Missouri. Second quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1996-06-01

    During this quarter, significant progress has been made in the following, fronts of coal log pipeline research, development and technology transfer: 1. Design of the special 300-ton coal log compaction machine was completed, Furthermore, much progress has been made in the design of the system needed to feed coal into the coal log compaction machine, and the design of the system to remove logs automatically as soon as they are compacted. 2. Coal mixtures containing different amounts of moisture were compacted into 1.91- inch-diameter coal logs rapidly (in 6 seconds). It was found that for the Mettiki coal tested, the optimum moisture is around 8%. Under the test conditions (room temperature and 3% binders), the rapidly compacted coal logs with 8% moisture had less than 4% weight loss in 350 cycles of circulation. 3. Completed evaluation of the effectiveness of using wall lubricants to enhance coal log quality. Both calcium sterarate and MoS{sub 2} were found to be effective. 4. It was found that when the interior of a mold is not cleaned after coal log has been compacted, the coal mixture film clinging to the wall hardens in time and form a hard crust which affects the quality of the next log to be produced. But, if the second log is produced immediately after the first, no hard crust is formed and the quality of the second log, is not affected. 5. Coal logs made with the coal crushed by the Gundlach Company were found to be better than coal logs made with the coal crushed by the CPRC`s hammer mill. 7. A 320-ft-long, 6-inch-diameter coal log pipeline test facility was constructed in Rolla during this period. 8. Completed the simulation of an 8-inch-diameter, 20-mile-long coal log pipeline recirculating loop driven by a pump bypass. 9. Continued improvement was accomplished in the hydraulic model of HCP and CLP to predict pressure drop and capsule velocity for both single capsules and capsule train. Also, work has started to extend the analysis to sloped pipelines.

  15. Constraining f(T) teleparallel gravity by big bang nucleosynthesis: f(T) cosmology and BBN.

    PubMed

    Capozziello, S; Lambiase, G; Saridakis, E N

    2017-01-01

    We use Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) observational data on the primordial abundance of light elements to constrain f(T) gravity. The three most studied viable f(T) models, namely the power law, the exponential and the square-root exponential are considered, and the BBN bounds are adopted in order to extract constraints on their free parameters. For the power-law model, we find that the constraints are in agreement with those obtained using late-time cosmological data. For the exponential and the square-root exponential models, we show that for reliable regions of parameters space they always satisfy the BBN bounds. We conclude that viable f(T) models can successfully satisfy the BBN constraints.

  16. FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, D.

    1998-06-01

    FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial, plant animal or human cells, tissues, and body fluids are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions, and differentiate between various disease states. The spectral information potentially useful for biomedical characterizations may be distributed over the entire infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. over the near-, mid-, and far-infrared. It is therefore a key problem how the characteristic vibrational spectroscopic information can be systematically extracted from the infrared spectra of complex biological samples. In this report these questions are addressed by applying factor and cluster analysis treating the classification problem of microbial infrared spectra as a model task. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the FT-IR spectrometer. FT-IR spectra of single microcolonies of less than 40 μm in diameter can be obtained from colony replica applying a stamping technique that transfers the different, spatially separated microcolonies from the culture plate to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x,y-stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro-organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. Since high quality, essentially fluorescence free Raman spectra may now be obtained in relatively short time intervals on previously intractable biological specimens, FT-IR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used in tandem to characterize biological samples. This approach seems to open up new horizons for biomedical characterizations of complex biological systems.

  17. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  18. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-08

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas.

  19. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  20. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  1. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  2. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  3. 9-Ft By 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel Nozzle Improvement Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciano, Eric N.

    2014-01-01

    Engineers at the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center have recently embarked on a project focused on improving flow quality and tunnel capabilities in the 9-ft by 7-ft supersonic wind tunnel. Collaborating with Jacobs Tech Group, the project has explored potential improvements to the nozzle design using computational fluid dynamics. Preliminary predictions suggest changes to the nozzle design could significantly improve flow quality at the lower operating range (M1.5-1.8), however potential improvements in the upper operating range have yet to be realized.

  4. Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štefunková, S.

    2012-03-01

    This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

  5. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    SciTech Connect

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  6. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  7. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  8. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs.

    Treesearch

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  9. Hispanic logging worker safety in the south

    Treesearch

    Brandon O' Neal; Bob Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Hispanic (Spanish-speaking) workers have entered the logging workforce in the South in significant numbers during the past ten years. According to the U.S. Labor Department, Hispanic workers in the construction and agriculture industries have significantly higher injury rates than non–Hispanics do. In view of that trend, of logging workers’ generally high exposure to...

  10. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  11. Geophysical-log and hydraulic-test analyses of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community, Menominee County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Anderson, J. Alton; Lampe, David C.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Hannahville Indian Community, evaluated the geohydrology of the bedrock formations and hydraulic properties of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community in Menominee County, Michigan. Geophysical logs were collected from five wells at two sites during September 2012. The logs were analyzed to characterize the lithostratigraphy, bedding and fractures, and hydraulic properties of the geologic formations and aquifers beneath the Hannahville Indian Community. The geophysical logs collected included natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, wellbore image, caliper, ambient and stressed flowmeter, fluid resistivity, temperature, and wellbore deviation. The geophysical logs were analyzed with results from short-term hydraulic tests to estimate the transmissivity and water-level altitudes of flow zones penetrated by the wells. The geophysical log analysis indicated the wells penetrated four distinct lithostratigraphic units—shale and carbonate rock, upper carbonate rock, carbonate rock and glauconitic sandstone, and lower carbonate rock. Most of the fractures penetrated by the wellbores appeared to be related bedding partings. The lower carbonate rock unit contained solution features. Analysis of the geophysical logs and hydraulic tests indicated that each of the five wells penetrated from one to four flow zones. The Casino 5 well penetrated a flow zone that was associated with solution features and had an estimated total transmissivity of 4,280 feet squared per day (ft2/d), the highest estimate for all the wells. The Casino 3 well penetrated four flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 3,570 ft2/d. The flow zones penetrated in the lower carbonate rock unit by the Casino 3 and 5 wells were hydraulically connected. The Golf Shack well penetrated two flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 40 ft2/d, the lowest estimate for all the wells. The Community 1

  12. Logging legacies affect insect pollinator communities in southern Appalachian forests

    Treesearch

    Michelle M. Jackson; Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson

    2014-01-01

    Many temperate deciduous forests are recovering from past logging, but the effects of logging legacies and environmental gradients on forest insect pollinators have not been well studied. In this study, we asked how pollinator abundance and community composition varied with distance from logging roads and elevation in old (logged >90 years ago) and young (logged 20–...

  13. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  14. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  15. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  16. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  17. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  18. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  19. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  20. Web Logs in the English Classroom: More Than Just Chat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2003-01-01

    Details the use and appeal of Web logs to enhance classroom discussion and allow for outside involvement in the classroom. Defines a Web log, addresses discussing literature in a Web log, and describes the author's first attempts at using Web-log technology. Presents considerations for using Web logs as part of classroom instruction. (SG)

  1. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  2. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  3. High-loading, 1800 ft/sec tip speed transonic compressor fan stage. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. L.; Halle, J. E.; Kennedy, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A single stage fan with a tip speed of 1800 ft/sec (548.6m/sec) and hub/tip ratio of 0.5 was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 2.285:1 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.0%. The design flow per inlet annulus area is 38.7 lbm/sq ft-sec (188.9KG/sqm-sec). Rotor blades have modified multiple-circular-arc and precompression airfoil sections. The stator vanes have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections.

  4. CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frobose, R.H.

    1984-11-12

    CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

  5. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  6. Rill Erosion in Post Wildfire Forests after Salvage Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Peter; Wagenbrenner, Joseph; Brown, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Despite the dominance of concentrated flow or rill erosion in the erosion processes especially in steep forest environments that have been affected by wildfire or management activities few studies have quantified these effects on rill erosion. This study quantified the effects of wildfire and post-fire timber salvage operations on rill runoff quantity, runoff velocity, and rill erosion. Simulated rill experiments were conducted at various sites in the Western US after wildfire and timber salvage operations. The onsite conditions consists of burned only, salvage logged, skid or snig trail, or skid trails with extra logging debris added. For each rill experiment, concentrated flow was applied at the top of the plot through an energy dissipater at five inflow rates for 12 min each. Runoff was sampled every 2 min and runoff volume and sediment concentration were determined for each sample. The runoff velocity was measured using a dyed calcium chloride solution and two conductivity probes placed a known distance apart. Runoff volume, runoff velocities, and sediment concentrations increased with increasing levels of disturbance. The burned only plots had lower runoff rates and sediment concentrations than any of the other disturbances. The salvage logged plots had greater responses than the burn only plots and the mitigation treatment had a marginal effect on runoff ratios, runoff velocities and sediment concentrations. These results suggest that additional disturbance after a wildfire can increase the erosional response and that proper erosion control mitigation may be an important consideration for post fire management to reduce onsite erosion.

  7. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  8. FT-IR microspectroscopy for microbiological studies.

    PubMed

    Orsini, F; Ami, D; Villa, A M; Sala, G; Bellotti, M G; Doglia, S M

    2000-09-01

    In this article we present an infrared microspectroscopic investigation on Candida albicans microcolonies, taken as a model system for studies on other microorganisms. Excellent Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra from 4000 to 850 cm(-1) have been collected in only 20 s from sampling areas of 100x100 microm(2) in microcolonies, which had been transferred from the agar plate onto zinc selenide (ZnSe) windows. When different regions within a single microcolony were investigated, absorption spectra with important differences in the carbohydrate absorption (from 1200 to 850 cm(-1)) were detected for the cells in the center and in the periphery of the colony. Results obtained on microcolonies grown on solid agar with increasing dextrose concentrations indicated that the observed spectral heterogeneity was related to differences in dextrose uptake, which was lower for the old cells in the center of the colony than for the metabolically active cells at the periphery. Although it is otherwise difficult to quantitatively evaluate the dextrose uptake in a microcolony, FT-IR absorption microspectroscopy offers a new and rapid method for the analysis of this process. The possibility of studying highly absorbing colonies by attenuated total reflection (ATR) by means of an ATR microscope germanium objective is also presented here for the first time. An evaluation of the contact area sampled by this technique is reported with a discussion of the spatial resolution, the quality and the potential of the ATR measurements.

  9. FT-IR and FT-Raman study of hydrothermally degraded groundwood containing paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proniewicz, Leonard M.; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Barański, Andrzej; Dutka, Dorota

    2002-09-01

    Accelerated aging test of paper is used to understand mechanisms of acidic hydrolysis and oxidative degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In recent years FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy have been used together with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance as well as chemometrics methods to characterize degradation products of paper. In this work we present FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of hydrothermally treated sample of acid paper (Paper 3—bleached sulfite softwood pulp) in extreme humid conditions (100% humidity and 100 °C). Degradation reaction is monitored mainly based on CO stretching vibrations formed during the process of carbonyl compounds, however, some changes in CC stretching vibrations are also noticed. We showed that in these conditions paper undergoes oxidation process in which at least three new carbonyl species that can be characterized by their CO stretches are formed. Additionally, during this process, one can observe disappearance of the CC stretching that can be associated with changes that involve, for example, coniferyl alcohol. We also show that water molecules play very important role in this process. Thus, we report here, changes caused by hydrothermal treatment of groundwood containing paper mainly associated with the appearance of new carbonyl species, besides others, as well as rearrangement of existing hydrogen bond network.

  10. Micro FT-IR Characterization Of Human Lung Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Enzo; Teodori, L.; Vergamini, Piergiorgio; Trinca, M. L.; Mauro, F.; Salvati, F.; Spremolla, Giuliano

    1989-12-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has opened up a new approach to the analytical study of cell transformation. Investigations carried out in normal and leukemic lymphocytes have evidenced an increase in DNA with respect to proteic components in neoplastic cells.(1) The evaluation of the ratio of the integrated areas(A) of the bands at 1080 cm-1 (mainly DNA) and at 1540 cm-1 (proteic components) has allowed us to establish a parameter which indicates, for values above 1.5, the neoplastic nature of cells. Recently, this approach has been applied to the study of human lung tumor cells. Several monocellular suspension procedures of the tissue fragment (mechanical and/or chemical) were tested to obtain reproducible and reliable spectra able to differentiate clearly between normal and patological cells. Chemical treatment (EDTA, Pepsin, Collagenase, etc.) produced additional bands in the spectra of the cells causing distortion of the profiles of some absorptions, and as a result, mechanical treatment was preferred. The normal and neoplastic cells homogeneously distributed by cytospin preparation on BaF2 windows were examined by means of FT-IR microscopy. An examination of several microareas of each sample yielded reproducible spectra, with values of the A 1080 cm-1 / A 1540 cm-1 parameter within a very narrow range for each sample, even if certain differences still remained among the different cases, in good agreement with the results obtained for leukemic cells.(1) The value of this parameter was found to be lower for cells isolated from the normal area of lung, than in the case of those corresponding to the tumoral area, meaning that an increase occurs in DNA with respect to the proteic components. These insights, which provide a basis to obtain indications at the molecular level, can open up new possibilities in clinical practice, in order to obtain diagnosis confirmation, to detect early stages of disease and to offer additional indications in cases of dubious interpretation.

  11. Theoretical (DFT) and experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR) investigations on 7-Acetoxy-4-(bromomethyl)coumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogdu, Y.; Saglam, S.; Dereli, Ö.

    2015-09-01

    An analysis of the results of the structural and spectroscopic studies of 7-Acetoxy-4-(bromomethyl) coumarin (7A4BMC) molecule were performed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and quantum chemical calculations. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 7A4BMC were recorded in the 400-4000 and 50-3500 cm-1 region, respectively. The molecular conformations of 7A4BMC were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular structure and spectral calculations were calculated by means of B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p), cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The whole vibrational characteristics of the 7A4BMC molecule are given.

  12. Minnesota logging utilization factors, 1975-1976--development, use, implications.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Minnesota saw log and pulpwood logging utilization factors developed during 1975-1976 and their implications. Compares factors for several species groups and shows their use in estimating growing stock cut for pulpwood and saw logs.

  13. 5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half dovetail notching on hand-hewn logs. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. 55. VIEW OF STEAMOPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF STEAM-OPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING LOGS INTO RALPH HULL LUMBER CO. LOG POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1942. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  15. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  16. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics. [Patient application

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1980-11-05

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or epithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  17. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics. [Patient application

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1980-11-05

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or epithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  18. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, Ralston W.; Jensen, Dal H.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or eqithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  19. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroume, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3-min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors which in turn provides model uncertainties. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. Particularly dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

  20. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  1. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  2. Wormhole solutions in f(T) gravity with noncommutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Rani, Shamaila

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to study static spherically symmetric noncommutative wormhole solutions in the framework of f(T) gravity. We construct f(T) field equations in covariant and effective energy-momentum tensor forms to make a correspondence with general relativity. It is observed that the violation of energy conditions to support the nonstandard wormhole is due to the effective energy-momentum tensor. We explore the noncommutative wormhole solutions for two cases: (i) assume a viable power-law f(T) model to construct the shape function and (ii) a particular shape function is taken to construct the f(T) model. In the first case, only exotic matter forms a wormhole structure in teleparallel gravity, whereas for f(T) gravity, normal matter threads these structures except for a particular range of r. For the constructed f(T) model, there does not exist a physically acceptable wormhole solution similar to the teleparallel case.

  3. Determination of the degree of cure of dental resins using Raman and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shin, W S; Li, X F; Schwartz, B; Wunder, S L; Baran, G R

    1993-09-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has traditionally been used to determine the degree of conversion of dental resins. FT-Raman scattering provided an alternate method of obtaining degrees of conversion for these systems and was particularly useful for measuring spectra of materials without any sample preparation. Raman and FT-Raman spectroscopy gave identical results, but the latter technique was preferred for the highly fluorescent samples often encountered in commercial composites. Linear calibration curves were obtained for the aromatic mixtures Bis-GMA/TEGDMA and Bisphenol-A/TEGDMA using C = C/phi, and for the wholly aliphatic mixture EGDMA/EGDA using C = C/C = O, over a wide range of mole ratios. If both the mole and intensity ratios [C = C/phi or C = C/C = O] were known for an uncured dental resin, then the degrees of conversion could be obtained for the cured materials using Raman spectroscopy. However, if the mole ratios for the uncured resin were unknown, then the degree of conversion depended on the calibration curve, since the Raman scattering cross section of the vibrational modes depended on the molecules to which they were attached.

  4. Novel FT-IR Microspectroscopic Census of Simple Starch Granules for Octenyl Succinate Ester Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Y.; Shi, Y; Wetzel, D

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was used to investigate reaction homogeneity of octenyl succinic anhydride modification on waxy maize starch and detect uniformity of blends of modified and native starches. For the first time, the level and uniformity of chemical substitution on individual starch granules were analyzed by FT-IR microspectroscopy. More than 100 starch granules of each sample were analyzed one by one by FT-IR microspectroscopy. In comparison to the native starch, modified starch had two additional bands at 1723 and 1563 cm{sup -1}, indicative of ester formation in the modified starch. For the 3% modification level, the degree of substitution (DS) was low (0.019) and the distribution of the ester group was not uniform among starch granules. For the modified starch with DS of 0.073, 99% of individual starch granules had a large carbonyl band area, indicating that most granules were modified to a sufficient extent that the presence of their carbonyl ester classified them individually as being modified. However, the octenyl succinate concentration varied between granules, suggesting that the reaction was not uniform. When modified starch (DS = 0.073) was blended with native starch (3:7, w/w) to achieve a mixture with an average DS of 0.019, FT-IR microspectroscopy was able to detect heterogeneity of octenyl succinate in the blend and determine the ratio of the modified starch to the native starch granules.

  5. New excitation method for acoustic logging transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Tan, B. H.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.; Wu, W. H.; Chen, J. Y.

    2017-08-01

    The traditional transducer coupled excitation method for acoustic logging tools has many disadvantages given its transformer characteristics. A new excitation method that uses a complex programmable logic device and vertical metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor is proposed in this study. Theoretical calculations, finite element analyses and acoustic experiments are performed to compare the acoustic and electrical characteristics of the new and the traditional methods. Results show that the acoustic waves emitted by the new method have lower dominant frequencies and approximately four times more acoustic energy than those emitted by the transformer coupled method. Furthermore, the adjustment functions and channel consistencies of the new electrical circuit are better than those of the traditional method. All the results indicate that the logging tools that use the new method are more flexible and accurate with better detection depth and sensitivity. This method has already been used in logging tools and has improved their performance.

  6. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  7. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 4th Quarterly report for 1994, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Wilson, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Several factors involved in coal log fabrication, storage and handling, such as curing time, aspect ratio and particle size distribution, were evaluated during the fourth quarter of 1994. When Orimulsion is used for coal log fabrication, a certain period of time is required to build up the strength of coal log. From the test results obtained, the longer the curing period the greater the wear resistance of the coal log. From previous studies, the coal log length to diameter ratio (aspect) was found to be an important factor affecting coal log performance during the pipeline degradation test. From the 2 inches pipeline degradation test results, coal logs with aspect ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 traveled in a more stable manner, and had lower weight loss than coal logs with aspect ratios less than 1.6. The influence of particle size on the performance of a coal log was evaluated to determine the optimum particle size for coal log fabrication, based on practical and economical considerations.

  8. Light bending in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of f(T) gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian f(T) = T + αT2, where α is a small constant which parametrizes the departure from general relativity (GR). In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter α by means of observations. In particular, on taking into account the astrometric accuracy in the Solar System, we obtain that |α|≤ 1.85 × 105m2; this bound is looser than those deriving from the analysis of Solar System dynamics, e.g. |α|≤ 5 × 10-1m2 [L. Iorio, N. Radicella and M. L. Ruggiero, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1508 (2015) 021, arXiv:1505.06996 [gr-qc].], |α|≤ 1.8 × 104m2 [L. Iorio and E. N. Saridakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 (2012) 1555, arXiv:1203.5781 [gr-qc].] or |α|≤ 1.2 × 102m2 [Y. Xie and X. M. Deng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 (2013) 3584, arXiv:1312.4103 [gr-qc].]. However, we suggest that, since the effect only depends on the impact parameter, better constraints could be obtained by studying light bending from planetary objects.

  9. Prediction of saturation using the carbon/oxygen log

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, S.C.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1984-09-01

    This project investigates the nature of Dresser-Atlas Carbon/Oxygen Log gamma ray spectra. It presents an attempt to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the C/O and Si/Ca parameters used by Dresser-Atlas to determine oil saturation. Two techniques were developed to subtract the Compton background from the spectral data. Neither technique significantly improves the accuracy of the cased-hole prediction of oil saturation. However, it has been shown that it is possible to develop a satisfactory correlation for oil saturation on a well-by-well basis. This correlation can then be used to generate oil-in-place from the C/O and Si/Ca ratios. 17 references.

  10. Lithologic logs and geophysical logs from test drilling in Palm Beach County, Florida, since 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, Leo J.; McGovern, Michael C.; Fischer, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Test-hole data that may be used to determine the hydrogeology of the zone of high permeability in Palm Beach County, Fla., are presented. Lithologic logs from 46 test wells and geophysical logs from 40 test wells are contained in this report. (USGS)

  11. The Causes of Logging Truck Delays on Two West Virginia Logging Operations

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras

    1978-01-01

    Logging truck downtime increases timber harvesting costs. To determine the extent and causes of truck delays, four logging trucks on two separate operations were monitored for a 7-month period by recording speedometers and with tallies of delay causes. The results show the number of truck delays per shift, their duration, and the total delay time per shift for eight...

  12. Comparison of logging residue from lump sum and log scale timber sales.

    Treesearch

    James O Howard; Donald J. DeMars

    1985-01-01

    Data from 1973 and 1980 logging residues studies were used to compare the volume of residue from lump sum and log scale timber sales. Covariance analysis was used to adjust the mean volume for each data set for potential variation resulting from differences in stand conditions. Mean residue volumes from the two sale types were significantly different at the 5-percent...

  13. RAYSAW: a log sawing simulator for 3D laser-scanned hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laser scanning of hardwood logs provides detailed high-resolution imagery of log surfaces. Characteristics such as sweep, taper, and crook, as well as most surface defects, are visible to the eye in the scan data. In addition, models have been developed that predict interior knot size and position based on external defect information. Computerized processing of...

  14. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Treesearch

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  15. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  16. LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honerman, James

    1999-01-01

    Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

  17. [Effect of selenium on serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH of rats with excessive intake of iodine].

    PubMed

    Chi, Haiyan; Zhou, Yuping; Li, Li

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of selenium on the TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH level of rats with excessive intake of iodine. Wistar rats were divided into three groups by random:normal control, high iodine group and high iodine plus selenium group. Rats in the high iodine plus selenium group were lavaged with sodium selenite for 10 weeks. The levels of serum TGAb, TMAb, FT3, FT4 and TSH were tested at different time of the experiment. There were no significant change on levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH (P > 0.05). The levels of TGAb and TMAb in the high iodine group were increased slowly (P < 0.05), but no significant change was observed in the high iodine plus selenium group. Excessive intake of iodine might induce goiter, and selenium might have antagonistic effect on it.

  18. Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bessa, V.; Guedes, I.

    2011-06-15

    We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)] and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schroedinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m=m{sub 0}t/t{sub 0} and {omega}={omega}{sub 0}t{sub 0}/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and {omega} constant.

  19. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of (235)U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  20. Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

    1999-07-01

    A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

  1. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  2. MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

  3. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR) and computational studies on 3-methoxyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaranjini, T.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Karabacak, M.; Asiri, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molecular structure, vibrational, UV and NMR spectra of 3-methoxyaniline (abbreviated as 3MOA, C7H9NO) were studied. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded. The ground-state molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP methods and 6-311++G(d, p) as a basis set. The fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 3MOA with calculated results by HF and DFT methods indicates that B3LYP is superior to HF method for molecular vibrational problems. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. A study on the Mulliken atomic charges, the electronic properties were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach, Frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed and compared with methoxybenzene and aniline. The electric dipole moment (μ) and the first hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results also show that the 3MOA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results.

  4. Changes in logging injury rates associated with use of feller-bunchers in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jennifer L

    2002-01-01

    It is well documented that logging is one of the most dangerous occupations and industries in which to work, and trees fellers are at greatest risk of injury. The objective of this study was to determine whether West Virginia (WV) logging companies experienced a reduction in injuries after beginning to use feller-bunchers (tree cutting machines, which replace some of the work done with a chainsaw) during harvesting operations. WV workers compensation claims and employment data from 1995 to 2000 were used to calculate injury rates. Injury trends in the rest of the WV logging industry, not using feller-bunchers, were also assessed. For 11 companies, the pre-feller-buncher injury claims rate was 19.4 per 100 workers and the post-feller-buncher rate was 5.2 per 100 workers. This was a significant difference, with an adjusted rate ratio of 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8-4.5) of pre to post claims. Struck by injuries also showed significant decline, with the pre-feller-buncher injury rate being 3.8 (95% CI: 1.8-8.2) times as great as post-feller-buncher rate. During the time of the study, the injury rate rose in the rest of the WV logging industry. The average cost of a workers compensation claim in the WV logging industry during the time of the study was approximately $10,400. As mechanization of logging tasks becomes more widespread, the WV logging industry as a whole may see substantial injury declines and a reduction in the total cost of injury claims. Struck by injuries, the most common and potentially fatal of logging injury types, appear to be particularly affected. However, logging operations in areas of very steep terrain where it is not possible to use these machines may need to rely on strategies other than feller-bunchers to reduce injuries.

  5. Results of borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in the John Wagner and Sons, Inc former production well, Ivyland, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    A suite of borehole geophysical logs and heat-pulse-flowmeter measurements run in the former production well at the John Wagner and Sons, Inc. plant indicate two zones of borehole flow. In the upper part of the well, water enters the borehole through a fracture at 90 ft (feet) below floor level, moves upward, and exits the borehole through a fracture at 72 ft below floor level. Water also enters the borehole through fractures at 205-213, 235, and 357 ft below floor level; moves downward; and exits the borehole through fractures at 450-459, 468-470, and 483-490 ft below floor level. Five zones were selected for aquifer-isolation (packer) tests on the basis of borehole geophysical logs. The zones were isolated using a straddle-packer assembly. The lowermost three zones (below 248, 223 to 248, and 198 to 223 ft below floor level) were hydraulically isolated from zones above and below. Specific capacities were 0.12, 0.034, and 0.15 gallons per minute per foot, respectively. The hydrograph from zone 2 (223 to 248 ft below floor level) showed interference from a nearby pumping well. For the upper two zones (81 to 106 and 57 to 81 ft below floor level), similar drawdowns in the isolated zone and the zones above and below the isolated zone indicate that these fractures are hydraulically connected outside the borehole in the unconfined part of the Stockton Formation. The specific capacity of zones 4 and 5 are similar--0.82 and 0.61, respectively.

  6. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  7. Stream macroinvertebrate response to clearcut logging

    Treesearch

    J. Bruce Wallace; Damon. Ely

    2014-01-01

    Why study response of stream invertebrates to watershed disturbances such as clearcut logging? Stream invertebrates can be excellent integrators of changes in such ecosystem phenomena as changes in the food base of ecosystems. For example, a number of invertebrate taxa appear to track changes in food resources. Many taxa also exhibit substrate-specific as well as taxon...

  8. The Design Log: A New Informational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The design log is a record of observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, and performance specifications for each space in a structure. It is a systematic approach to design that integrates information about user needs with traditional architectural programming and design. (Author/MLF)

  9. Disturbance during logging stimulates regeneration of koa

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Robert E. Nelson

    1976-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of Acacia koa regeneration after logging were studied on a 500-acre (202-ha) tract of koa forest heavily infested with Passiflora mollissima vines on the island of Hawaii. Koa seedling density was about three times greater in disturbed areas than in undisturbed ones. Most of the koa seedlings in...

  10. Alaska midgrade logs: supply and offshore demand.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora; Wendy J. McGinnis

    1989-01-01

    The outlook for shipments and prices of export logs from Alaska differs significantly by grade (quality class). For the majority lying in the middle of the value range, the trend of prices is projected to increase $200 per thousand board feet, or about 55 percent, by 2000. Shipments are expected to rise about 30 percent by 1995 and then subside about 10 percent. These...

  11. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... statement of any corrective action taken. (5) Entries must be made giving details of all work performed... written log signed by the operator who supervised or performed the work and, unless the operator is.... (6) An entry at least once every thirty days that the batteries or other reserve power sources have...

  12. Information needs for increasing log transport efficiency

    Treesearch

    Timothy P. McDonald; Steven E. Taylor; Robert B. Rummer; Jorge Valenzuela

    2001-01-01

    Three methods of dispatching trucks to loggers were tested using a log transport simulation model: random allocation, fixed assignment of trucks to loggers, and dispatch based on knowledge of the current status of trucks and loggers within the system. This 'informed' dispatch algorithm attempted to minimize the difference in time between when a logger would...

  13. Identifying unstable sites on logging roads

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rice; J. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    Logging roads are an important source of forestry-related erosion. The amount of erosion on a forest road is determined by the interaction between how the road is constructed and maintained and the environment in which it is built. The roads in this study were constructed with large bulldozers, and most excavated material was sidecast. The roads studied were...

  14. [Human development and log-periodic law].

    PubMed

    Cash, Roland; Chaline, Jean; Nottale, Laurent; Grou, Pierre

    2002-05-01

    We suggest applying the log-periodic law formerly used to describe various crisis phenomena, in biology (evolutionary leaps), inorganic systems (earthquakes), societies and economy (economic crisis, market crashes) to the various steps of human ontogeny. We find a statistically significant agreement between this model and the data.

  15. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.266 Logging operations. (a) Table of..., troughs, railings, screens, mats, or platforms, or by location, to prevent injury. Health care provider. A...

  16. Data logging technology in ambulatory medical instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Lyons, G M

    2001-05-01

    This paper reviews the advancements made in ambulatory data logging used in the study of human subjects since the inception of the analogue tape based data logger in the 1960s. Research into the area of ambulatory monitoring has been rejuvenated due to the development of novel storage technologies during the 1990s. Data logging systems that were previously impractical due to lack of processing power, practical size and cost are now available to the practitioner. An overview of the requirements of present day ambulatory data logging is presented and analogue tape, solid-state memory and disk drive storage recording systems that have been described in the literature are investigated in detail. It is proposed that digital based technology offers the best solution to the problems encountered during human based data logging. The appearance of novel digital storage media will continue the trend of increased recording durations, signal resolution and number of parameters thus allowing the momentum gained throughout the last several decades to continue.

  17. Choosing methods and equipment for logging

    Treesearch

    Fred C. Simmons

    1948-01-01

    A logging job is one of the most difficult types of business to manage efficiently. In practically everything the logger does he is compelled to make a choice between several methods of operation and types of equipment. The conditions under which he works are constantly changing, particularly when he is forced to move fairly often from one timber tract to another. But...

  18. Changes in the Logging Labor Force

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Wolf; Jean W. Nolley

    1977-01-01

    Employment in the logging industry dropped 28 percent between 1950 and 1970, while output of industrial roundwood increased 31 percent. Today's loggers are older, better educated, and more skilled. A large proportion are self-employed, many work less than a full year, and a substantial number have incomes below the poverty level. Mechanization of timber harvesting...

  19. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  20. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  1. Precision prediction of the log power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repp, A.; Szapudi, I.

    2017-01-01

    At translinear scales, the log power spectrum captures significantly more cosmological information than the standard power spectrum. At high wavenumbers k, the Fisher information in the standard power spectrum P(k) fails to increase in proportion to k, in part due to correlations between large- and small-scale modes. As a result, P(k) suffers from an information plateau on these translinear scales, so that analysis with the standard power spectrum cannot access the information contained in these small-scale modes. The log power spectrum PA(k), on the other hand, captures the majority of this otherwise lost information. Until now there has been no means of predicting the amplitude of the log power spectrum apart from cataloging the results of simulations. We here present a cosmology-independent prescription for the log power spectrum; this prescription displays accuracy comparable to that of Smith et al., over a range of redshifts and smoothing scales, and for wavenumbers up to 1.5 h Mpc-1.

  2. Potential for shared log transport services

    Treesearch

    Tim McDonald; Steve Taylor; Jorge Valenzuela

    2001-01-01

    A simulation model of a log transport logistics network was developed. The model could be structured to either share truck capacity among a group of loggers, or to assign a fixed number of trucks to individual loggers. Another variation of the model allowed the use of a staging yard to set out loaded trailers and deliver them to destinations using dedicated shuttle...

  3. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    SciTech Connect

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Wheelis, W.B. Jr.; Leslie, H.D.

    1986-08-01

    Simulations of cement bond logging (CBL) have shown that wellbore fluid effects can be segregated from sonic-signal response to changing cement strengths. Traditionally, the effects have been considered negligible and the CBL's have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore. However, large variations in CBL's have become apparent with the increasing number of logs run in completion fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/. To study wellbore fluid effects, physical and numerical models were developed that simulated the wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 9 5/8-in. casings for a range of wellbore fluid types and for both densities and viscosities. Parallel numerical modeling used similar parameters. Results show that bond-log amplitudes varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid acoustic impedance-i.e., there was a 70% increase in signal amplitudes for 11.5 lbm/gal (1370-kg/m/sup 3/) CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a fluid-compensated bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of various wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  4. The Design Log: A New Informational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The design log is a record of observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, and performance specifications for each space in a structure. It is a systematic approach to design that integrates information about user needs with traditional architectural programming and design. (Author/MLF)

  5. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

  6. Tradeoffs and interdependence in the Alaska cant and log markets.

    Treesearch

    Donald Flora; Una Woller; Michael. Neergaard

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, log exports from Alaska have risen while cant (lumber) exports have declined. Eight explanations for the difference between cant and log market behavior are explored. It seems that declining demand for wood products in Japan and a surge of private-sector log harvests in Alaska are enough to account for the apparent substitution of logs for cants. It...

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  8. Lumber yield and log values of Shasta red fir.

    Treesearch

    John B. Grantham; Douglas L. Hunt

    1963-01-01

    The value of lumber produced from each of 362 Shasta red fir logs of southern Oregon was determined through a cooperative study in 1960. Lumber grade yield from each log provided the basis for calculating the comparative value of each log grade-log diameter class, in accordance with grading and scaling practices used both east and west of the...

  9. Logging utilization in Idaho: Current and past trends

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Simmons; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Steven W. Hayes; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    A study of commercial timber-harvesting activities in Idaho was conducted during 2008 and 2011 to characterize current tree utilization, logging operations, and changes from previous Idaho logging utilization studies. A two-stage simple random sampling design was used to select sites and felled trees for measurement within active logging sites. Thirty-three logging...

  10. Stress wave sorting of red maple logs for structural quality

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; David W. Green; Brian Brashaw; Karl Englund; Michael Wolcott

    2004-01-01

    Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the potential quality of structural products manufactured from them, especially...

  11. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  12. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  14. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  15. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  16. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  17. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  18. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  1. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  2. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  3. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  5. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  6. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  7. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  8. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  9. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  10. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  12. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  13. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  14. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  15. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  16. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  17. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  18. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Motta, J Carlos; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-10-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes and drop-down lists, and data were uploaded to a central database via the internet. To evaluate the feasibility of this system, we tracked the utilization of this data collection system. Benefits and disadvantages were assessed through surveys. All 11 trainees successfully uploaded data to the central database, but only six (55%) continued to upload data on a regular basis. The most common reason cited for not using the system pertained to initial technical problems with data uploading. From 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003, a total of 914 procedures were logged. Significant variability was noted in the number of procedures logged by individual trainees (range 13-242). The database generated by regular users provided potentially useful information to the training program director regarding the scope and location of procedural training among the different rotations and hospitals. A handheld computer procedure logging system can be effectively used in a critical care training program. However, user acceptance was not uniform, and continued training and support are required to increase user acceptance. Such a procedure database may provide valuable information that may be used to optimize trainees' educational experience and to document clinical training experience for licensing and accreditation.

  19. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  20. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-09-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but potentially overlook important geomorphic responses on shorter time scales immediately following timber harvest. Sediments fluxes are commonly estimated from linear regression of intermittent measurements of water and sediment discharge using sediment rating curves (SRCs). However, these often unsatisfactorily reproduce non-linear effects such as discharge-load hystereses. We resolve such important dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3 min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~ 0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~ 80% of the total sediment load was transported during rare but high magnitude runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. The variability of sediment flux of these rare events spans four orders of magnitude. In particular dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more moderate events. We show that QRFs outperforms traditional SRCs in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment discharge at high temporal resolution.

  1. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-03-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux often focus on annual timescales but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics with non-parametric quantile regression forests (QRF) based on high-frequency (3 min) discharge measurements and sediment concentration data sampled every 30-60 min in similar-sized (˜0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the random forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ˜80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. In particular, dry-season logging dampened the relative role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We show that QRFs outperform traditional sediment rating curves (SRCs) in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

  2. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  3. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers

    PubMed Central

    Carlos Martinez-Motta, J; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-01-01

    Introduction We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Methods Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes and drop-down lists, and data were uploaded to a central database via the internet. To evaluate the feasibility of this system, we tracked the utilization of this data collection system. Benefits and disadvantages were assessed through surveys. Results All 11 trainees successfully uploaded data to the central database, but only six (55%) continued to upload data on a regular basis. The most common reason cited for not using the system pertained to initial technical problems with data uploading. From 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003, a total of 914 procedures were logged. Significant variability was noted in the number of procedures logged by individual trainees (range 13–242). The database generated by regular users provided potentially useful information to the training program director regarding the scope and location of procedural training among the different rotations and hospitals. Conclusion A handheld computer procedure logging system can be effectively used in a critical care training program. However, user acceptance was not uniform, and continued training and support are required to increase user acceptance. Such a procedure database may provide valuable information that may be used to optimize trainees' educational experience and to document clinical training experience for licensing and accreditation. PMID:15469577

  4. Misleading FT4 measurement: Assay-dependent antibody interference

    PubMed Central

    Revet, Ingrid; Boesten, Lianne SM; Linthorst, Jan; Yildiz, Elif; Janssen, Johannes W; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Albersen, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Commonly used free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays can be falsely elevated due to interference causing misinterpreted thyroid function. We present two cases with high FT4 concentrations due to antibody interference. This study’s aim was to investigate the source of the FT4 immunoassay interference and possibility of its removal by two different techniques in order to correct the discrepancy between obtained FT4 values and the patient’s clinical status. Materials and methods Two patients presented at their general practitioners’ with elevated FT4 concentrations in combination with a normal and increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Clinical symptoms differed between patients but did not correspond with the hyperthyroid status suggested by the laboratory results. FT4 concentrations from both patients were measured on four common commercial immunoassays and the dialysis method before and after treatment with heterophilic blocking tubes and protein A/G. Results Removal of interfering antibodies using protein A/G resulted in normal FT4 concentrations. Conclusion This report illustrates falsely elevated FT4 concentrations due to assay interference on the Immulite immunoassay analyser caused by heterophilic antibodies, which were eliminated by protein A/G treatment. We point out the importance of a close collaboration between doctors and the laboratory to avoid unnecessary clinical intervention.

  5. A 928 sq m (10000 sq ft) solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    As the power requirements for space vehicles increases, the area of solar arrays that convert solar energy to usable electrical power increases. The requirements for a 928 sq m (10,000 sq ft) array, its design, and a full-scale demonstration of one quadrant (232 sq m (2500 sq ft)) deployed in a one-g field are described.

  6. FT-Raman Spectroscopy: A Catalyst for the Raman Explosion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, which is used to detect and analyze the scattered radiation, are discussed. FT-Raman has served to revitalize a field that was lagging and the presence of Raman instrumentation as a routine analytical tool is established for the foreseeable future.

  7. Definition of Good Tetrads for f(T) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanini, N.; Böhmer, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of choosing suitable tetrads for the study of exact solutions in f(T) gravity is discussed. For any given metric, we define the concept of good tetrads as the tetrads satisfying the field equations without constrainig the function f(T). Employing local Lorentz transformations, good tetrads in the context of spherical symmetry are found for Schwarzschild-de Sitter solutions.

  8. FT-Raman Spectroscopy: A Catalyst for the Raman Explosion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, which is used to detect and analyze the scattered radiation, are discussed. FT-Raman has served to revitalize a field that was lagging and the presence of Raman instrumentation as a routine analytical tool is established for the foreseeable future.

  9. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  10. FT and florigen long-distance flowering control in plants.

    PubMed

    Putterill, Joanna; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2016-10-01

    The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified. Although floral promotion via graft transmission of FT has not been demonstrated in trees, FT-like genes have been successfully applied to reducing the long juvenile (pre-flowering) phase of many trees enabling fast track breeding.

  11. Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Based on FT-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Rao, L. Lakshmana; Kumar, N. Krishna; Jose, Anupama; Nazeer, Shaiju S.

    2008-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most important malignant forms of cancer and a great threat to life for women. In the present study, the spectral characteristics of human breast tissues in normal and cancerous state have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy in the spectral region from 4000 to 400 cm-1. Several spectral differences were detected in the frequency regions N-H stretching, C-H vibrations, amide bands and 900-1300 cm-1. The ratio of intensities of the bands of A3300/A3015 & A1650/A1550, A2924/A2853, A1080/A1236, A1204/A1650, A1055/A1467 and A1045/A1467 provide conformational changes of protein, lipids, nucleic acids, collagen, carbohydrates and glycogen respectively in the human breast tissues. There are obvious differences in the spectral features between normal and cancerous tissues because of changes in molecular compositions and structures that accompany the transformation from a normal to a cancerous state. The differences suggest that the spectral information are useful for the diagnosis of breast cancer and may serve as a basis for conformational changes in tissue components during carcinogenesis.

  12. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    “Lonely guy” (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a “PGGXGTXXE” motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms. PMID:27507425

  13. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-08-10

    "Lonely guy" (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a "PGGXGTXXE" motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms.

  14. SIMPLE METHOD FOR DETECTING ANOMALOUS FLUID MOTIONS IN BOREHOLES FROM CONTINUOUS TEMPERATURE LOGS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diment, William H.; Urban, Thomas C.

    1983-01-01

    Above a critical Rayleigh number, the fluid in a borehole convects. The aspect ratio of the convective motions is commonly between four and ten as determined by temperature-time recordings at fixed depths in cased holes. Aspect ratios greatly in excess of this range indicate anomalous fluid-flow in the hole such as might be caused by exchange of fluid among aquifers. Such high-aspect ratios can be detected from a single continuous temperature-depth log by taking the difference between the temperature gradient over a short interval and that over a longer spanning interval and dividing this difference by the gradient over the longer interval. This provides a measure of the gradient error (GE) from which an aspect ratio (AR) can be calculated. GEAR logs are presented for a large and a small diameter hole and for a large-diameter partially cased hole containing a small-diameter tubing. Refs.

  15. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Schmidt, Walter; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Chan, Diane

    2016-05-17

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w). FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm(-1) and FT-IR 1140 cm(-1) with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Schmidt, Walter; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Chan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w). FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. PMID:28231130

  17. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation

  18. Determination of polymer log D distributions by micellar and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoyun; Leclercq, Laurent; Cottet, Hervé

    2013-11-29

    The characterization of the hydrophobicity of polymer compounds in solution remains a challenging issue of importance, especially for biomedical or pharmaceutical applications. To our knowledge, there is no data of polymer hydrophobicity (log D) in the literature. In this work, for the first time, the log D distributions of cationic polymers were characterized using micellar or microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography at physiological pH. The log D distributions of the polymer samples were obtained from the electrophoretic/chromatographic retardation of the polymer derivatives in presence of neutral micelles (or neutral microemulsion), using small cationic molecules for calibration. Separating electrolytes were based on a TRIS–chloride buffer containing a neutral surfactant (polyoxyethyleneglycoldodecyl ether) for the formation of micelles (in water) or microemulsion (in water/n-pentanol mixture).The log D distributions obtained at pH 7.4 using this method were in good agreement with the chemical structures of cationic polypeptides: poly(lys, phe) 1:1 > poly(lys, tyr) 1:1 > poly(lys, trp) 4:1 > poly(lys, ser)3:1 > poly(l-lysine), where x:y represents the molar ratio of each amino acid in the copolymer. Weight average octanol–water log D values and the dispersion of the log D distribution were also defined and determined for each polymer sample.

  19. Estimators and characteristics of logging residue in California. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.O.; Bulgrin, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    Ratios are presented for estimating volume and characteristics of logging residue. The ratios relate cubic-foot volume of residue to thousand board feet of timber harvested and to acres harvested. Tables show gross and net volume of residue with and without bark, by diameter and length classes, by number of pieces per acre, by softwoods and hardwoods, by percent soundness, and by degree of slope and distance to roads.

  20. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  1. Quantifying logging residue - before the fact

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Tree biomass estimation, which is being integrated into the U.S. Forest Service Renewable Resources Evaluation Program, will give foresters the ability to estimate the amount of logging residues they might expect from harvested treetops and branches and residual rough, rotten, and small trees before the actual harvest. With planning, and increased demand for such timber products as pulpwood and fuelwood, product recovery could be increased by up to 43 percent in softwood stands and 99% in hardwoods. Recovery levels affect gross product receipts and site preparation costs. An example of product recovery and residue generation is presented for three harvesting options in Pennsylvania hardwood stands. Under the whole-tree harvesting option, 46% more product was recovered than in single product harvesting, and logging residue levels were reduced by 58%.

  2. Measuring pad arrangement for a logging sonde

    SciTech Connect

    Vannier, D.; Tromelin, J.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes a logging sonde for use in a borehole traversing an earth formation. The logging sonde comprising: an elongated sonde body; a plurality of measuring means for measuring a characteristic of the earth formation. Each of the measuring means comprising: a central element; a first measuring flap hingably connected to the central element; a second measuring flap hingable connected to the central element. The measuring flaps being disposed on either side of the central element, the first measuring flap staggered relative to the second measuring flap along the longitudinal direction of the sonde body; means operatively connected between the sonde body and the first and second measuring flaps for applying a resilient force to each of the measuring flaps, thereby tending to move the flaps away from the sonde body; and means connected between the sonde body and each of the measuring means for translocating the measuring means away from and back to the sonde body.

  3. Stochastic theory of log-periodic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canessa, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    We introduce an analytical model based on birth-death clustering processes to help in understanding the empirical log-periodic corrections to power law scaling and the finite-time singularity as reported in several domains including rupture, earthquakes, world population and financial systems. In our stochastic theory log-periodicities are a consequence of transient clusters induced by an entropy-like term that may reflect the amount of co-operative information carried by the state of a large system of different species. The clustering completion rates for the system are assumed to be given by a simple linear death process. The singularity at t0 is derived in terms of birth-death clustering coefficients.

  4. The chemical logging of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.L.; Jones, T.G.J.; Geehan, T.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of measuring the concentration of ions in water-based mud filtrates is described. The method, based on ion chromatography (IC), provides a tool to monitor changes in the composition of both major ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and carbonate) and environmentally sensitive ions (e.g., chromium and mercury) in mud filtrate during drilling. Changes in filtrate composition are caused by mud treatment and/or mud/rock interactions; chemical logs can be used to discriminate broad lithological changes. The mud-filtrate composition is modeled with a computer-based equilibrium model. The chemical-logging method has been applied to two case studies, one of which involved operation of equipment at the rigsite. The method can be used to monitor the composition of ions not currently analyzed by the widely accepted American Petroleum Inst. (API) Standard 13B-1 procedures.

  5. No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2010-03-01

    At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing on a unitary quantization. While the TMG Hilbert space is continuous at the chiral point, the left-moving Virasoro generators become ill-defined and cannot be used to define a chiral truncation. In a sense, the left-moving asymptotic symmetries are spontaneously broken at the chiral point. In contrast, in a non-unitary quantization of TMG, both the Hilbert space and charges are continuous at the chiral point and define a unitary theory of chiral gravity at the linearized level.

  6. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  7. Construction diagrams, geophysical logs, and lithologic descriptions for boreholes USGS 126a, 126b, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 134, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from ten U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) boreholes completed between 1999 nd 2006 at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): USGS 126a, 126b, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 134. Nine boreholes were continuously cored; USGS 126b had 5 ft of core. Completion depths range from 472 to 1,238 ft. Geophysical data were collected for each borehole, and those data are summarized in this report. Cores were photographed and digitally logged using commercially available software. Digital core logs are in appendixes A through J. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered. This report was prepared by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  8. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  9. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  10. Parameter-adjusted stochastic resonance system for the aperiodic echo chirp signal in optimal FrFT domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-feng; Yu, Lei; Wang, Huiqi; Zhong, Suchuan

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the system performance for moving target detection and localization, this paper presents a new aperiodic chirp signal and additive noise driving stochastic dynamical system, in which the internal frequency has the linear variation matching with the driving frequency. By using the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) operator with the optimal order, the proposed time-domain dynamical system is transformed into the equivalent FrFT-domain system driven by the periodic signal and noise. Therefore, system performance is conveniently analyzed from the view of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in optimal FrFT domain. Simulation results demonstrate that the output SNR, as a function of system parameter, shows the different generalized SR behaviors in the case of various internal parameters of driving chirp signal and external parameters of the moving target.

  11. NPH Log: Validation of a New Assessment Tool Leading to Earlier Diagnosis of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Jusué-Torres, Ignacio; Lu, Jennifer; Robison, Jamie; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Hulbert, Alicia; Sanyal, Abanti; Wemmer, Jan; Elder, Benjamin D; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-06-27

    Early treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) yields better postoperative outcomes. Our current tests often fail to detect significant changes at early stages. We developed a new scoring system (LP log score) to determine if this tool is more sensitive in detecting clinical differences than current tests. Sixty-two consecutive new patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were studied. Secondary, previously treated and obstructive cases were not included. We collected age, pre- and post-lumbar puncture (LP) Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, European NPH scale, and LP log scores. The LP log score is recorded at baseline and for seven consecutive days after removing 40 cc of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via LP. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for surgical indication. The post-LP log showed improvement in 90% of people with good baseline gait tests and in 93% of people who did not show any pre-LP and post-LP change in gait tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to detect intention to treat when positive post-LP improvements were 4%, 100%, and 24%, respectively, for TUG, 21%, 86%, and 34%, respectively, for the Tinetti Mobility Test, 66%, 29%, and 58%, respectively, for Medical College of Virginia (MCV) grade, and 98%, 33%, and 85%, respectively, for LP log score. Pre-LP and post-LP TUG improvement and pre-LP and post-LP Tinetti improvement were not associated with a surgical indication (p > 0.05). LP log improvement was associated with surgical indication odds ratio (OR): 24.5 95% CI (2.4-248.12) (p = 0.007). LP log showed better sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and association with surgical indication than the current diagnostic approach. An LP log may be useful detecting NPH patients at earlier stages and, therefore, yield better surgical outcomes.

  12. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  13. Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, S.

    2013-04-01

    The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my “ASTRO 101” class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

  14. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  15. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  16. Improving Website Hyperlink Structure Using Server Logs

    PubMed Central

    Paranjape, Ashwin; West, Robert; Zia, Leila; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Good websites should be easy to navigate via hyperlinks, yet maintaining a high-quality link structure is difficult. Identifying pairs of pages that should be linked may be hard for human editors, especially if the site is large and changes frequently. Further, given a set of useful link candidates, the task of incorporating them into the site can be expensive, since it typically involves humans editing pages. In the light of these challenges, it is desirable to develop data-driven methods for automating the link placement task. Here we develop an approach for automatically finding useful hyperlinks to add to a website. We show that passively collected server logs, beyond telling us which existing links are useful, also contain implicit signals indicating which nonexistent links would be useful if they were to be introduced. We leverage these signals to model the future usefulness of yet nonexistent links. Based on our model, we define the problem of link placement under budget constraints and propose an efficient algorithm for solving it. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by evaluating it on Wikipedia, a large website for which we have access to both server logs (used for finding useful new links) and the complete revision history (containing a ground truth of new links). As our method is based exclusively on standard server logs, it may also be applied to any other website, as we show with the example of the biomedical research site Simtk. PMID:28345077

  17. Investigative clinical study on prostate cancer: on the role of the pretreatment total PSA to free testosterone ratio in selecting different biology groups of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Porcaro, Antonio B; Migliorini, Filippo; Romano, Mario; Petrozziello, Aldo; Antoniolli, Stefano Zecchini; Rubilotta, Emanuele; Lacola, Vincenzo; Sava, Teodoro; Ghimenton, Claudio; Caruso, Beatrice; Monaco, Carmelo; Comunale, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    To show that prostate cancer biology is related to serum levels of both free testosterone (FT) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), that PSA level is linearly related to FT and that the PSA to FT ratio may be considered as the growth rate parameter expressing cancer phenotype biology. The study includes 135 consecutive patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Pretreatment simultaneous serum samples for analyzing total testosterone (TT), FT and total PSA levels were obtained. The study was assessed according to a multidimensional approach of the five continuous variables including TT, FT, PSA, AGE and percentage of positive biopsies (=P+). The all sets of data were considered as one--sample with no groupings among the observations. Multivariate analysis included factor analysis (FA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Multivariate inferential statistics for comparing different groups of patients according to the PSA to free testosterone ratio (PSA/FT) included Hotteling's multivariate two-sample T²-Test for comparing two mean vectors as well as Box's M-Test with the chi-square approximation for comparing multiple covariance matrices when patients were sampled in more than two groups. Factor analysis showed the two natural grouping of variables, FT-TT and PSA-P+. PCA assessed FT and PSA as the two variables with large variances having a notable influence on the first two principal components. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all the income variables, except age, significantly predicted the PSA/FT ratio. Patients were first sampled according to the PSA/FT ratio in group 1 (PSA/FT ≤ 0.20) and group 2 (PSA/FT > 0.20), and Hotteling's multivariate two sample T²-Test was significant (P < 0.01). Patients were then sampled according to the PSA/FT ratio in group 1 (PSA/FT ≤ 0.20), group 2 (PSA/FT > 0.20 and ≤ 0.40), and group 3 (PSA/FT > 0.40), and Box's M-Test comparing the covariance matrices of the 3 groups differed significantly (P < 0

  18. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test and Binary Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nydick, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common method for terminating item response theory (IRT)-based adaptive classification tests. To decide whether a classification test should stop, the SPRT compares a simple log-likelihood ratio, based on the classification bound separating two categories, to prespecified critical values. As has…

  19. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test and Binary Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nydick, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common method for terminating item response theory (IRT)-based adaptive classification tests. To decide whether a classification test should stop, the SPRT compares a simple log-likelihood ratio, based on the classification bound separating two categories, to prespecified critical values. As has…

  20. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables.

  1. Contribution of logging data to sedimentology and stratigraphy. [Electrofacies

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, O.; Abbott, H.T.

    1982-02-01

    A technique has been developed using multivariate analysis of logging data to give a high-resolution sedimentological description of any sequence of formations. The number of different logs and their range allow determination of many of the physical characteristics of the rock. The definition of a lithofacies has been extended by introducing the concept of an electrofacies, constructed on the basis of all the logging data at any depth interval. Each logging datum is considered a descriptor for purposes of establishing electrofacies in a logged interval. Once established, electrofacies then can be correlated with actual geologic facies, if the logged interval has been cored. 23 refs.

  2. Characterization of the Marcellus Shale based on computer-assisted correlation of wireline logs in Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Coleman, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian basin extends from central Ohio on the west to eastern New York on the east, and from north-central New York on the north to northern Tennessee on the south. Its thickness ranges from 0 feet (ft) where it pinches out to the west to as much as 700 ft in its eastern extent. Within the Broadtop synclinorium, the thickness of the Marcellus Shale ranges from 250 to 565 ft. Although stratigraphic complexities have been documented, a significant range in thickness most likely is because of tectonic thickening from folds and thrust faults. Outcrop studies in the Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateaus provinces illustrate the challenges of interpreting the relation of third-order faults, folds, and “disturbed” zones to the regional tectonic framework. Recent field work within the Valley and Ridge province determined that significant faulting and intraformational deformation are present within the Marcellus Shale at the outcrop scale. In an attempt to determine if this scale of deformation is detectable with conventional wireline logs, petrophysical properties (primarily mineralogy and porosity) were measured by interpretation of gamma-ray and bulk-density logs. The results of performing a statistical correlation of wireline logs from nine wells indicated that there are discontinuities within the Millboro Shale (undifferentiated Marcellus Shale and Mahantango Formation) where there are significant thickness differences between wells. Also, some intervals likely contain mineralogy that makes these zones more prone to layer-shortening cleavage duplexes. The Correlator program proved to be a useful tool in a region of contractional deformation.

  3. FT-Raman, FT-IR spectroscopic and DFT studies of hexaphenoxycyclotriphosphazene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Padie, C.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman measurements of zero Gc0‧ -H and first Gc1‧ -H generations of phosphorus dendrimer built from cyclotriphosphazene core with phenoxy and deuterophenoxy terminal groups have been performed. In order to evaluate how much the frequencies, shift when changing the electronics of the system the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of phosphorus‒containing dendron with five terminal oxybenzaldehyde and one ester function Gci‧ have been also studied. Structural optimization and normal mode analysis were obtained for Gc0‧ -H and Gc0‧ -D by the density functional theory (DFT). It is discovered that dendrimer molecule exists in a stable conformation with six phenoxy terminal groups spaced above and below the flat cyclotriphosphazene core. Optimized geometric bond length and angles obtained by DFT show good agreement with a previously-published X-ray study. The phenoxy terminal groups are characterized by the well-defined line at 993 cm-1 in the experimental Raman spectrum of Gc0‧ -H and by line at 960 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of Gc0‧ -D. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed for the studied dendrimers. The frequencies and relative intensity of the bands at 1589, 1487 cm-1 in the IR spectra show marked difference in dependence of the substituents on the aromatic ring.

  4. Dogfish egg case structural studies by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Georgaka, Martha E; Chryssikos, Georgios D; Gionis, Vassilis; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2007-06-01

    The dogfish egg case is a composite structure that combines mechanical tensile strength, toughness and elasticity with high permeability to small molecules and ions. Presumably, it provides both a protective and a filtering role for the egg/embryo contained within it. In this work, we performed structural studies of the Galeus melastomus egg case at two different stages of the hardening process, utilizing ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Based on these data we deduce that: (a) The G. melastomus egg case, in close analogy to that of the related species Scyliorhinus cunicula, is a complex, composite structure which consists mainly of an analogue of collagen IV. This network forming protein appears to have common secondary structural characteristics in the entire egg case. (b) The outermost layer of the non-sclerotized egg case is especially rich in tyrosine, while the innermost layer is rich in polysaccharides, presumably glycosaminoglycans, and lipids. These differences are diminished upon hardening. (c) Disulfide bonds do not appear to play a significant role in cross-linking. However, cross-links involving tyrosine residues appear to sclerotize the egg case. It is proposed that the intensity of the Raman band at ca. 1615 cm(-1), which is due to ring stretching vibrations of Tyr, might be a useful indicator of the sclerotization status of a certain proteinaceous tissue, when tyrosines are involved in sclerotization mechanisms.

  5. Theoretical studies of permeability inversion from seismoelectric logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Guan, W.; Zhao, W.

    2012-04-01

    Permeability is one of the most important parameters for evaluating the level of difficulty in oil and gas exploitation. A quick, continuous and accurate in-situ estimate of reservoir permeability is highly significant. Stoneley wave logs have been used to determine formation permeability (Tang and Cheng, 1996). However, the inversion errors of this method are too big in low-permeability formations, especially in high-porosity and low-permeability formations resulting from the high clay content in pores. In this study, we propose to invert permeability by using the full waveforms of seismoelectric logs with low frequencies. This method is based on the relationship of permeability with the ratio of the electric excitation intensity to the pressure field's (REP) with respect to the Stoneley wave in seismoelectric logs. By solving the governing equations for electrokinetic coupled wavefields in homogeneous fluid-saturated porous media (Pride, 1994), we calculate the full waveforms of the borehole seismoelectric wavefields excited by a point pressure source and investigate frequency-dependent excitation intensities of the mode waves and excitation intensities of the real branch points in seismoelectric logs. It is found that the REP's phase, which reflects the phase discrepancy between the Stoneley-wave-induced electric field and the acoustic pressure, is sensitive to formation permeability. To check the relation between permeability and REP's phase qualitatively, an approximate expression of the tangent of the REP's argument is derived theoretically as tan(θEP) ≈-ωc/ω = -φη/ (2πfα ∞ρfκ0), where θEPdenotes the arguments of the REP and their principal value is the REP's phase,ω is the angular frequency,ωc is a critical angular frequency that separates the low-frequency viscous flow from the high-frequency inertial flow, φ is the porosity, α∞ is the tortuosity, κ0 is the Darcy permeability, ρf and η are the density and the viscosity of the pore

  6. Power optimization of wireless optical communication with log-square-Ricean fading.

    PubMed

    Liu, X

    2012-07-01

    It has been important to optimize the transmitter power in wireless optical communication systems. The conventional approach was based on the reciprocal Pareto model. In this paper, the investigation is extended to a more general scenario where the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio follows the log-square-Ricean distribution. Accordingly, the optimization model is established. The conventional model thus becomes a special case of the new model. It is shown that the new model can be analytically solved. The sample solutions clearly show how the optima of transmitter power change when the log-square-Ricean profile changes. These results would provide useful guidelines to system design.

  7. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  8. 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Lutchmaya, S; Baron-Cohen, S; Raggatt, P; Knickmeyer, R; Manning, J T

    2004-04-01

    The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic (mean 2D:4D is lower in males than females) and is thought to be fixed early in development. 2D:4D has been reported to be related to fetal growth, hand preference, autism, Asperger's syndrome, sperm counts, family size, age at myocardial infarction in men and breast cancer in women. There is indirect evidence that 2D:4D is established in utero and is negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively with prenatal estradiol. However, there are no studies which show direct relationships between fetal testosterone (FT), fetal estradiol (FE) and 2D:4D. To investigate the relationships between 2D:4D ratios and FT and FE from amniotic fluid. Cohort study. 33 children. Radioimmunoassays of FT and FE obtained from routine amniocentesis; 2D:4D ratios calculated from 2nd and 4th digit length of the right and left hands at age 2 years. A significant negative association between right 2D:4D ratio and FT/FE ratio, which was independent of sex. These preliminary findings lend support to an association between low 2D:4D and high levels of FT relative to FE, and high 2D:4D with low FT relative to FE.

  9. A comparison of statistical selection strategies for univariate and bivariate log-linear models.

    PubMed

    Moses, Tim; Holland, Paul W

    2010-11-01

    In this study, eight statistical selection strategies were evaluated for selecting the parameterizations of log-linear models used to model the distributions of psychometric tests. The selection strategies included significance tests based on four chi-squared statistics (likelihood ratio, Pearson, Freeman-Tukey, and Cressie-Read) and four additional strategies (Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), consistent Akaike information criterion (CAIC), and a measure attributed to Goodman). The strategies were evaluated in simulations for different log-linear models of univariate and bivariate test-score distributions and two sample sizes. Results showed that all eight selection strategies were most accurate for the largest sample size considered. For univariate distributions, the AIC selection strategy was especially accurate for selecting the correct parameterization of a complex log-linear model and the likelihood ratio chi-squared selection strategy was the most accurate strategy for selecting the correct parameterization of a relatively simple log-linear model. For bivariate distributions, the likelihood ratio chi-squared, Freeman-Tukey chi-squared, BIC, and CAIC selection strategies had similarly high selection accuracies.

  10. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation.

  11. Movement of geothermal fluid in the Cerro Prieto field as determined from well log and reservoir engineering data

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in its undisturbed state, developed on the basis of well log and reservoir engineering data, is discussed. According to this model, geothermal fluid enters the field from the east through a deep (>10,000 ft) sandstone aquifer which is overlain by a thick shale unit which locally prevents the upward migration of the fluid. As it flows westward, the fluid gradually rises through faults and sandy gaps in the shale unit. Eventually, some of the fluid leaks to the surface in the western part of the field, while the rest mixes with surrounding colder waters.

  12. Logging of post-test and CCH record core samples for the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, R.; Qualheim, B.

    1985-02-01

    Over 1300 ft of core obtained from 50 boreholes are described, with emphasis on the nature and orientations of geologic discontinuities in the Climax Stock. Although most of the core was not oriented with respect to global coordinates, approximate orientations of planar features, such as joints, veins, and sheer fractures, were obtained by taking core measurements relative to a set of low-angle joints found throughout the rock mass. The method for determining the approximate core orientation is described in detail, and the associated uncertainty is discussed. A graphic fracture log for each hole is provided, along with the computer code used to generate it.

  13. Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft

  14. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna

    2017-01-01

    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.

  15. Quark stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi

    2017-02-01

    We derive a working model for the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation for quark star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models. We consider f(T, T)-gravity for a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental tetrad vierbein from which the metric tensor can be derived. We impose a linear f( T) parameter, namely taking f=α T(r) + β T(r) + φ and investigate the behaviour of a linear energy-momentum tensor trace, T. We also outline the restrictions which modified f(T, T)-gravity imposes upon the coupling parameters. Finally we incorporate the MIT bag model in order to derive the mass-radius and mass-central density relations of the quark star within f(T, T)-gravity.

  16. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm-1. Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm-1, calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm-1, hydroxyl apatite 959 cm-1, struvite 575 cm-1, uric acid 1283 cm-1 and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm-1 are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed.

  17. FT-IR and DFT study of lemon peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, K. V.; Likhter, A. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Novoselova, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Experimental FT-IR spectra of lemon peel are registered in the 650 - 3800 cm-1 range. The influence of peel artificial and natural dehydration on its vibrational spectrum is studied. The colored outer surface of lemon peel is proved not to have a significant impact on FT-IR spectrum. It is determined that only dehydration processes affect the FT-IR vibrational spectrum of the peel when a lemon is stored for 28 days under natural laboratory conditions. Polymer molecule models for dietary fibers, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, as well as hesperidin - flavonoid glycoside, and free moisture cluster are developed within the framework of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) theoretical method. By implementing supramolecular approach, modeling of the vibrational FT-IR spectrum of lemon peel is carried out and its detailed theoretical interpretation is presented.

  18. Sandia SWiFT Site Safe Work Planning Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility provides research site with multiple wind turbines at a scale useful for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. Safety of workers and the public is the top and overriding priority at SWiFT. Central to safe operations are formal planning processes . This manual provides an overview of test planning and work planning processes and requirements in adherence with the Sandia corporate Engineered Safety Work Planning and Control process. It is required reading for all SWiFT site staff, Sandia workers, and collaborators who oversee, conduct, or participate in test activities or who are involved in modifying Sandia SWiFT site assets.

  19. Large-scale structure in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Li Baojiu; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Barrow, John D.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we study the cosmology of the general f(T) gravity theory. We express the modified Einstein equations using covariant quantities, and derive the gauge-invariant perturbation equations in covariant form. We consider a specific choice of f(T), designed to explain the observed late-time accelerating cosmic expansion without including an exotic dark energy component. Our numerical solution shows that the extra degree of freedom of such f(T) gravity models generally decays as one goes to smaller scales, and consequently its effects on scales such as galaxies and galaxies clusters are small. But on large scales, this degree of freedom can produce large deviations from the standard {Lambda}CDM scenario, leading to severe constraints on the f(T) gravity models as an explanation to the cosmic acceleration.

  20. Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance. PMID:28119871