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Sample records for ratios log ft

  1. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    PubMed

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  2. Transfer Entropy as a Log-Likelihood Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Lionel; Bossomaier, Terry

    2012-09-01

    Transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between joint processes, has steadily gained popularity in the analysis of complex stochastic dynamics in diverse fields, including the neurosciences, ecology, climatology, and econometrics. We show that for a broad class of predictive models, the log-likelihood ratio test statistic for the null hypothesis of zero transfer entropy is a consistent estimator for the transfer entropy itself. For finite Markov chains, furthermore, no explicit model is required. In the general case, an asymptotic χ2 distribution is established for the transfer entropy estimator. The result generalizes the equivalence in the Gaussian case of transfer entropy and Granger causality, a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression, and establishes a fundamental connection between directed information transfer and causality in the Wiener-Granger sense.

  3. Evaluation of the β+-decay log ft value with inclusion of the neutron-proton pairing and particle-number projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrouchi, S.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutron-proton isovector pairing effect on the beta-plus decay log ft values is studied in typical mirror N≃Z nuclei. The log ft values are calculated by including or not the isovector pairing before and after a particle-number projection using the Sharp-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (SBCS) method. It is shown that the values obtained after projection in the isovector pairing case are the closest ones to experimental data. The effect of the deformation of the mother and daughter nuclei on the log ft is also studied.

  4. Mapping soil particle-size fractions: A comparison of compositional kriging and log-ratio kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zong; Shi, Wenjiao

    2017-03-01

    Soil particle-size fractions (psf) as basic physical variables need to be accurately predicted for regional hydrological, ecological, geological, agricultural and environmental studies frequently. Some methods had been proposed to interpolate the spatial distributions of soil psf, but the performance of compositional kriging and different log-ratio kriging methods is still unclear. Four log-ratio transformations, including additive log-ratio (alr), centered log-ratio (clr), isometric log-ratio (ilr), and symmetry log-ratio (slr), combined with ordinary kriging (log-ratio kriging: alr_OK, clr_OK, ilr_OK and slr_OK) were selected to be compared with compositional kriging (CK) for the spatial prediction of soil psf in Tianlaochi of Heihe River Basin, China. Root mean squared error (RMSE), Aitchison's distance (AD), standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) and right ratio of the predicted soil texture types (RR) were chosen to evaluate the accuracy for different interpolators. The results showed that CK had a better accuracy than the four log-ratio kriging methods. The RMSE (sand, 9.27%; silt, 7.67%; clay, 4.17%), AD (0.45), STRESS (0.60) of CK were the lowest and the RR (58.65%) was the highest in the five interpolators. The clr_OK achieved relatively better performance than the other log-ratio kriging methods. In addition, CK presented reasonable and smooth transition on mapping soil psf according to the environmental factors. The study gives insights for mapping soil psf accurately by comparing different methods for compositional data interpolation. Further researches of methods combined with ancillary variables are needed to be implemented to improve the interpolation performance.

  5. Comparison of FT4 with log TSH on the Abbott Architect ci8200: Pediatric reference intervals for free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Steven J; Cheng, Luke L; Lam, Lisa Y; Werner, Alice; Le, Alexander D; Soldin, Offie P

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated the clinical validity of serum FT4 measurements by assessing its correlation with log TSH. To provide pediatric reference intervals (representative ranges) for FT4, and TSH on the Architect ci8200 integrated system. Methods This population-based study encompassed 6023 children (3369 females and 2654 males). The percentile and Hoffmann approaches for obtaining reference intervals on these analytes were also compared. Results: FT4 correlation with log TSH was poor ( r=0.010 for males and 0.050 for females). Reference intervals were established. TSH and FT4 did not show a significant sex difference; moreover, the intervals decreased with age for FT4 and TSH. Conclusions Whereas in a previous study ultrafiltration tandem mass spectrometry yielded a correlation of r=0.90 for FT4 vs. log TSH this present study reveals a poor FT4 vs. log TSH correlation in the pediatric population studied and indicates the FT4 immunoassay conducted on the Abbott Architect ci8200 is less useful clinically than might have been expected. Reference intervals using the Hoffmann approach for pediatric in- and out-patients compare well with previously published results utilizing the percentile approach. PMID:19931524

  6. Is Log Ratio a Good Value for Measuring Return in Stock Investments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ultsch, Alfred

    Measuring the rate of return is an important issue for theory and practice of investments in the stock market. A common measure for rate of return is the logarithm of the ratio of successive prices (LogRatio). In this paper it is shown that LogRatio as well as arithmetic return rate (Ratio) have several disadvantages. As an alternative relative differences (RelDiff) are proposed to measure return. The stability against numerical and rounding errors of RelDiff is much better than for LogRatios and Ratio). RelDiff values are identical to LogRatios and Return for small absolutes. The usage of RelDiff maps returns to a finite range. For most subsequent analyses this is a big advantage. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on daily return rates of a large set of actual stocks. It is shown that returns can be modeled with a very simple mixture of distributions in great precision using Relative differences.

  7. Logging affects fledgling sex ratios and baseline corticosterone in a forest songbird.

    PubMed

    Leshyk, Rhiannon; Nol, Erica; Burke, Dawn M; Burness, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Silviculture (logging) creates a disturbance to forested environments. The degree to which forests are modified depends on the logging prescription and forest stand characteristics. In this study we compared the effects of two methods of group-selection ("moderate" and "heavy") silviculture (GSS) and undisturbed reference stands on stress and offspring sex ratios of a forest interior species, the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada. Blood samples were taken from nestlings for corticosterone and molecular sexing. We found that logging creates a disturbance that is stressful for nestling Ovenbirds, as illustrated by elevated baseline corticosterone in cut sites. Ovenbirds nesting in undisturbed reference forest produce fewer male offspring per brood (proportion male = 30%) while logging with progressively greater forest disturbance, shifted the offspring sex ratio towards males (proportion male: moderate = 50%, heavy = 70%). If Ovenbirds in undisturbed forests usually produce female-biased broods, then the production of males as a result of logging may disrupt population viability. We recommend a broad examination of nestling sex ratios in response to anthropogenic disturbance to determine the generality of our findings.

  8. Logging Affects Fledgling Sex Ratios and Baseline Corticosterone in a Forest Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Leshyk, Rhiannon; Nol, Erica; Burke, Dawn M.; Burness, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Silviculture (logging) creates a disturbance to forested environments. The degree to which forests are modified depends on the logging prescription and forest stand characteristics. In this study we compared the effects of two methods of group-selection (“moderate” and “heavy”) silviculture (GSS) and undisturbed reference stands on stress and offspring sex ratios of a forest interior species, the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada. Blood samples were taken from nestlings for corticosterone and molecular sexing. We found that logging creates a disturbance that is stressful for nestling Ovenbirds, as illustrated by elevated baseline corticosterone in cut sites. Ovenbirds nesting in undisturbed reference forest produce fewer male offspring per brood (proportion male = 30%) while logging with progressively greater forest disturbance, shifted the offspring sex ratio towards males (proportion male: moderate = 50%, heavy = 70%). If Ovenbirds in undisturbed forests usually produce female-biased broods, then the production of males as a result of logging may disrupt population viability. We recommend a broad examination of nestling sex ratios in response to anthropogenic disturbance to determine the generality of our findings. PMID:22432000

  9. Practical Aspects of Log-ratio Coordinate Representations in Regression with Compositional Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišerová, Eva; Donevska, Sandra; Hron, Karel; Bábek, Ondřej; Vaňkátová, Kristýna

    2016-10-01

    Regression analysis with compositional response, observations carrying relative information, is an appropriate tool for statistical modelling in many scientific areas (e.g. medicine, geochemistry, geology, economics). Even though this technique has been recently intensively studied, there are still some practical aspects that deserve to be further analysed. Here we discuss the issue related to the coordinate representation of compositional data. It is shown that linear relation between particular orthonormal coordinates and centred log-ratio coordinates can be utilized to simplify the computation concerning regression parameters estimation and hypothesis testing. To enhance interpretation of regression parameters, the orthogonal coordinates and their relation with orthonormal and centred log-ratio coordinates are presented. Further we discuss the quality of prediction in different coordinate system. It is shown that the mean squared error (MSE) for orthonormal coordinates is less or equal to the MSE for log-transformed data. Finally, an illustrative real-world example from geology is presented.

  10. FT3/FT4 ratio predicts non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of metabolic parameters in patients with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gökmen, Fatma Yahyaoğlu; Ahbab, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Hayriye Esra; Türker, Betül Çavuşoğlu; Çetin, Faik; Türker, Fatih; Mamaç, Rabia Yahyaoğlu; Yenigün, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of metabolic parameters and thyroid dysfunction on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The current study evaluated a total of 115 patients, 75 female and 40 male. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were applied to all participants. Hypothyroidism was considered at a thyroid stimulating hormone level ≥ 4.1 mIU/L. Patients with euthyroidism and patients with hypothyroidism were compared. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The participants were further compared with regard to the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Logistic regression modeling was performed to identify the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and independent variables, such as metabolic parameters and insulin resistance. RESULTS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was identified in 69 patients. The mean waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and FT3/FT4 ratio (p=0.01) values were significantly higher in the patients with NAFLD compared to those without it. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that FT3/FT4 ratio, waist circumference and insulin resistance were independent risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance, enlarged waist circumference, elevated body mass index, higher FT3/FT4 ratio and hypertriglyceridemia are independent risk factors for NADLF, whereas hypothyroidism is not directly related to the condition. PMID:27166773

  11. Utterance Verification Using State-Level Log-Likelihood Ratio with Frame and State Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Suk-Bong; Kim, Hoirin

    This paper suggests utterance verification system using state-level log-likelihood ratio with frame and state selection. We use hidden Markov models for speech recognition and utterance verification as acoustic models and anti-phone models. The hidden Markov models have three states and each state represents different characteristics of a phone. Thus we propose an algorithm to compute state-level log-likelihood ratio and give weights on states for obtaining more reliable confidence measure of recognized phones. Additionally, we propose a frame selection algorithm to compute confidence measure on frames including proper speech in the input speech. In general, phone segmentation information obtained from speaker-independent speech recognition system is not accurate because triphone-based acoustic models are difficult to effectively train for covering diverse pronunciation and coarticulation effect. So, it is more difficult to find the right matched states when obtaining state segmentation information. A state selection algorithm is suggested for finding valid states. The proposed method using state-level log-likelihood ratio with frame and state selection shows that the relative reduction in equal error rate is 18.1% compared to the baseline system using simple phone-level log-likelihood ratios.

  12. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  13. [Evaluation of estimation of prevalence ratio using bayesian log-binomial regression model].

    PubMed

    Gao, W L; Lin, H; Liu, X N; Ren, X W; Li, J S; Shen, X P; Zhu, S L

    2017-03-10

    To evaluate the estimation of prevalence ratio (PR) by using bayesian log-binomial regression model and its application, we estimated the PR of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea in their infants by using bayesian log-binomial regression model in Openbugs software. The results showed that caregivers' recognition of infant' s risk signs of diarrhea was associated significantly with a 13% increase of medical care-seeking. Meanwhile, we compared the differences in PR's point estimation and its interval estimation of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea and convergence of three models (model 1: not adjusting for the covariates; model 2: adjusting for duration of caregivers' education, model 3: adjusting for distance between village and township and child month-age based on model 2) between bayesian log-binomial regression model and conventional log-binomial regression model. The results showed that all three bayesian log-binomial regression models were convergence and the estimated PRs were 1.130(95%CI: 1.005-1.265), 1.128(95%CI: 1.001-1.264) and 1.132(95%CI: 1.004-1.267), respectively. Conventional log-binomial regression model 1 and model 2 were convergence and their PRs were 1.130(95% CI: 1.055-1.206) and 1.126(95% CI: 1.051-1.203), respectively, but the model 3 was misconvergence, so COPY method was used to estimate PR, which was 1.125 (95%CI: 1.051-1.200). In addition, the point estimation and interval estimation of PRs from three bayesian log-binomial regression models differed slightly from those of PRs from conventional log-binomial regression model, but they had a good consistency in estimating PR. Therefore, bayesian log-binomial regression model can effectively estimate PR with less misconvergence and have more advantages in application compared with conventional log-binomial regression model.

  14. Practical approach to estimate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using Passey's algorithm without sonic log in horizontal well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas evaluation process can be summarized as the selection of sweep spot intervals in the vertical borehole and determination of hydraulic fracturing zones in horizontal borehole. Brittleness index used in the selection of hydraulic fracturing interval is calculated from dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of wireline logging and MWD/LWD data. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated from the sonic and density log data, and therefore the MWD/LWD in the horizontal borehole should be included sonic log to estimate the dynamic elastic constants. This paper proposes a practical method to estimate the elastic moduli based on Passey's algorithm if we can't use the LWD sonic log in the horizontal borehole. To estimate the TOC (Total Organic Content) using the sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log using Passey's algorithm we use the relationship between Delta log R values and core derived-LOM (Level of Maturity) data. Dynamic elastic constants in the horizontal well, i.e. in case of sweet spot zones, can be estimated using the relationships between P-wave velocity and elastic constants in the vertical well, and similarity between the calculated Delta log R values from sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log, respectively. From two Passey's algorithms such as sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log relationships in the vertical well, we can derive the P-wave velocity equating the two Passey's algorithms based on the similarity. Then we can derive the dynamic elastic constants using the relationships between P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic constants. Finally we can estimate the brittleness index from the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We expect that this practical method can be effectively applied if we can't use the LWD sonic logging data of the horizontal borehole.

  15. The ratio method of estimating water resistivity and TDS from resistivity logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    It is a general belief that useful estimates of total dissolved solids concentrations of ground water cannot be made from borehole geophysical logs. A case study of estimating total dissolved solids concentration of ground water in the local area using the ratio method yielded estimates with an average error of less than 25 percent. The results do not support the hypothesis that useful estimates of total dissolved solids concentration cannot be made from borehole geophysical logs. The case study included a comparison of estimates of total dissolved solids concentration utilizing a resistivity of the mud input versus using resistivity of the mud filtrate input. Estimates made using resistivity of mud had a correlation coefficient of 0.97 whereas estimates using resistivity of mud filtrate had a correlation coefficient of only 0.27. The results from the case study suggest that at least in some cases the resistivity of the mud (Rm) produce a better estimate of the resistivity of water (Rw) in the fully flushed zone than an estimate using the resistivity of the mud filtrate Rmf. The ratio method can be easily used to estimate ground-water resistivity and total dissolved solids concentration of the formation water based only on data from resistivity logs. The advantage of the method is that data on porosity, cementation exponent, temperature, and volume of clay are not required. The method, which has been used by the oil industry to crudely estimate water resistivity, is based in part on the ratio of the resistivity of a fully water-saturated formation to the resistivity of the fully flushed zone adjacent to the annulus in a mud-filled borehole. The method, which is very robust, requires only an estimate of the resistivity of a fully water-saturated formation from a deep looking induction or resistivity log, an estimate of the resistivity of the fully flushed zone from a microresistivity or short normal log, and a measurement of resistivity of the mud or mud filtrate

  16. A Planar Approximation for the Least Reliable Bit Log-likelihood Ratio of 8-PSK Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesling, William H.; Vanderaar, Mark J.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum decoding of component codes in block coded modulation (BCM) schemes requires the use of the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) as the signal metric. An approximation to the LLR for the least reliable bit (LRB) in an 8-PSK modulation based on planar equations with fixed point arithmetic is developed that is both accurate and easily realizable for practical BCM schemes. Through an error power analysis and an example simulation it is shown that the approximation results in 0.06 dB in degradation over the exact expression at an E(sub s)/N(sub o) of 10 dB. It is also shown that the approximation can be realized in combinatorial logic using roughly 7300 transistors. This compares favorably to a look up table approach in typical systems.

  17. Bayesian penalized log-likelihood ratio approach for dose response clinical trial studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Cai, Chunyan; Sun, Liangrui; He, Jianghua

    2017-02-13

    In literature, there are a few unified approaches to test proof of concept and estimate a target dose, including the multiple comparison procedure using modeling approach, and the permutation approach proposed by Klingenberg. We discuss and compare the operating characteristics of these unified approaches and further develop an alternative approach in a Bayesian framework based on the posterior distribution of a penalized log-likelihood ratio test statistic. Our Bayesian approach is much more flexible to handle linear or nonlinear dose-response relationships and is more efficient than the permutation approach. The operating characteristics of our Bayesian approach are comparable to and sometimes better than both approaches in a wide range of dose-response relationships. It yields credible intervals as well as predictive distribution for the response rate at a specific dose level for the target dose estimation. Our Bayesian approach can be easily extended to continuous, categorical, and time-to-event responses. We illustrate the performance of our proposed method with extensive simulations and Phase II clinical trial data examples.

  18. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  19. Log-ratio transformed major element based multidimensional classification for altered High-Mg igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Rivera-Gómez, M. Abdelaly; Díaz-González, Lorena; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2016-12-01

    A new multidimensional classification scheme consistent with the chemical classification of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is proposed for the nomenclature of High-Mg altered rocks. Our procedure is based on an extensive database of major element (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3t, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5) compositions of a total of 33,868 (920 High-Mg and 32,948 "Common") relatively fresh igneous rock samples. The database consisting of these multinormally distributed samples in terms of their isometric log-ratios was used to propose a set of 11 discriminant functions and 6 diagrams to facilitate High-Mg rock classification. The multinormality required by linear discriminant and canonical analysis was ascertained by a new computer program DOMuDaF. One multidimensional function can distinguish the High-Mg and Common igneous rocks with high percent success values of about 86.4% and 98.9%, respectively. Similarly, from 10 discriminant functions the High-Mg rocks can also be classified as one of the four rock types (komatiite, meimechite, picrite, and boninite), with high success values of about 88%-100%. Satisfactory functioning of this new classification scheme was confirmed by seven independent tests. Five further case studies involving application to highly altered rocks illustrate the usefulness of our proposal. A computer program HMgClaMSys was written to efficiently apply the proposed classification scheme, which will be available for online processing of igneous rock compositional data. Monte Carlo simulation modeling and mass-balance computations confirmed the robustness of our classification with respect to analytical errors and postemplacement compositional changes.

  20. Standardized likelihood ratio test for comparing several log-normal means and confidence interval for the common mean.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, K; Oral, Evrim

    2015-11-26

    Standardized likelihood ratio test (SLRT) for testing the equality of means of several log-normal distributions is proposed. The properties of the SLRT and an available modified likelihood ratio test (MLRT) and a generalized variable (GV) test are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation and compared. Evaluation studies indicate that the SLRT is accurate even for small samples, whereas the MLRT could be quite liberal for some parameter values, and the GV test is in general conservative and less powerful than the SLRT. Furthermore, a closed-form approximate confidence interval for the common mean of several log-normal distributions is developed using the method of variance estimate recovery, and compared with the generalized confidence interval with respect to coverage probabilities and precision. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed confidence interval is accurate and better than the generalized confidence interval in terms of coverage probabilities. The methods are illustrated using two examples.

  1. Reducing Monte Carlo error in the Bayesian estimation of risk ratios using log-binomial regression models.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Diego; Cano, Juan A; Chirlaque, María D

    2015-08-30

    In cohort studies, binary outcomes are very often analyzed by logistic regression. However, it is well known that when the goal is to estimate a risk ratio, the logistic regression is inappropriate if the outcome is common. In these cases, a log-binomial regression model is preferable. On the other hand, the estimation of the regression coefficients of the log-binomial model is difficult owing to the constraints that must be imposed on these coefficients. Bayesian methods allow a straightforward approach for log-binomial regression models and produce smaller mean squared errors in the estimation of risk ratios than the frequentist methods, and the posterior inferences can be obtained using the software WinBUGS. However, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in WinBUGS can lead to large Monte Carlo errors in the approximations to the posterior inferences because they produce correlated simulations, and the accuracy of the approximations are inversely related to this correlation. To reduce correlation and to improve accuracy, we propose a reparameterization based on a Poisson model and a sampling algorithm coded in R.

  2. On Statistics of Log-Ratio of Arithmetic Mean to Geometric Mean for Nakagami-m Fading Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Cheng, Julian; Tellambura, Chintha

    To assess the performance of maximum-likelihood (ML) based Nakagami m parameter estimators, current methods rely on Monte Carlo simulation. In order to enable the analytical performance evaluation of ML-based m parameter estimators, we study the statistical properties of a parameter Δ, which is defined as the log-ratio of the arithmetic mean to the geometric mean for Nakagami-m fading power. Closed-form expressions are derived for the probability density function (PDF) of Δ. It is found that for large sample size, the PDF of Δ can be well approximated by a two-parameter Gamma PDF.

  3. Segmentation of diesel spray images with log-likelihood ratio test algorithm for non-Gaussian distributions.

    PubMed

    Pastor, José V; Arrègle, Jean; García, José M; Zapata, L Daniel

    2007-02-20

    A methodology for processing images of diesel sprays under different experimental situations is presented. The new approach has been developed for cases where the background does not follow a Gaussian distribution but a positive bias appears. In such cases, the lognormal and the gamma probability density functions have been considered for the background digital level distributions. Two different algorithms have been compared with the standard log-likelihood ratio test (LRT): a threshold defined from the cumulative probability density function of the background shows a sensitive improvement, but the best results are obtained with modified versions of the LRT algorithm adapted to non-Gaussian cases.

  4. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  5. Influence of coherence length, signal-to-noise ratio, log transform, and low-pass filtering on layer thickness assessment with OCT in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Cervantes, Joel; Reddikumar, Maddipatla; Cense, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina are inevitably affected by the finite width of the coherence function and noise. To make low-reflective layers visible, the raw OCT signal is log transformed; to reduce the effect of noise the images can be low-pass filtered. We determined the effects of these operations on layer thickness assessment, as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), by performing measurements in a phantom eye and modeling. The log transform appeared to be the key factor in a SNR-dependent overestimation of peak widths and a less predictive bias in the widths of low-reflective layers. PMID:27895990

  6. Carbon isotope ratios in logged and unlogged boreal forests: Examination of the potential for determining wildlife habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Robert

    1996-03-01

    Due to assimilation of recycled CO2 from litter decomposition and photosynthetic changes in carbon fractionation at low light levels, the foliage at the base of a forest is often more depleted in13C compared to that exposed to the atmosphere in either the canopy or in open clearings. This is referred to as the canopy effect. African research has indicated that these habitat differences in foliar δ13C can be substantial enough to affect the carbon isotope ratios of resident fauna. Previous work documenting a 30-year chronology on moose teeth from Isle Royale National Park indicated a progressive depletion in13C and suggested that this could be due to forest regrowth following extensive burning. The present study examined the assumption implicit in this hypothesis that foliar δ13C varies between open and closed boreal forest sites. I found a marginal canopy effect of 2‰ δ13C difference between upper canopy and ground flora for a forest in northwestern Ontario and an average difference of 1.2‰ in under- and mid-story vegetation between closed forests and open clear-cuts. Because of these small differences, the utility of carbon isotope analysis in quantifying temporally integrated exploitation of deforested habitats will be low for northern boreal locations. In denser forests, such as those in the tropics or western North American where the canopy effect can be expected to be much greater, δ13C analysis may still offer some promise for determining selection by wildlife of disturbed habitats.

  7. Theoretical study on the amplitude ratio of the seismoelectric field to the Stoneley wave and the formation tortuosity estimation from seismoelectric logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Wei; Yin, Chenggang; Wang, Jun; Cui, Naigang; Hu, Hengshan; Wang, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Seismoelectric logging has potential applications in exploring the porous formation characteristics. In this study, we theoretically address how the amplitudes of the Stoneley wave and its accompanying borehole seismoelectric field depend on the porous formation parameters such as porosity, permeability and tortuosity. We calculate the ratio of the electric field amplitude to the pressure amplitude (REP amplitude) for the low-frequency Stoneley wave of different formations and find that the REP amplitude is sensitive to porosity and tortuosity but insensitive to permeability. To confirm this conclusion, we derive the approximate expression of the REP amplitude in the wavenumber-frequency domain which shows that the REP amplitude is dependent on tortuosity but independent of permeability. This contradicts the result concluded by previous researchers from experiments that the REP amplitude is directly proportional to the permeability. The reason is probably attributed to the fact that the rock samples with different permeabilities typically have different tortuosities. Since the REP amplitude is sensitive to tortuosity, we propose a method of estimating formation tortuosity from seismoelectric logs. It is implemented by using the REP amplitude and the wavenumber of the Stoneley wave at a given frequency when the porosity and the pore fluid viscosity and salinity are known. We test the method by estimating the tortuosities from the synthetic seismoelectric waveforms in different formations. The result shows that the errors relative to the input tortuosities are lower than 5.0 per cent without considering the uncertainties of other input parameters.

  8. Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on a 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 725 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Using Vaned Passage Casing Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    A 1.294 pressure ratio, 725 ft/sec tip speed, variable pitch low noise fan was designed and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Wind Tunnel. The design included a casing treatment that used recirculation to extend the fan stall line and provide an acceptable operating range. Overall aerodynamic experimental results are presented for this low tip speed, low noise fan without casing treatment as well as using several variants of the casing treatment that moved the air extraction and insertion axial locations. Measurements were made to assess effects on performance, operability, and noise. An unusual instability was discovered near the design operating line and is documented in the fan operating range. Measurements were made to compare stall margin improvements as well as measure the performance impact of the casing treatments. Experimental results in the presence of simulated inlet distortion, via screens, are presented for the baseline and recirculation casing treatment configurations. Estimates are made for the quantity of recirculation weight flow based on limited instrumentation in the recirculation system along with discussion of results and conclusions

  9. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  10. Bending-fatigue damage-detection on notched-tooth spiral-bevel gears using the average-log-ratio, ALR, algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Jason A.; Mark, William D.

    2014-02-01

    The frequency-domain ALR (average-log-ratio) damage-detection algorithm [MSSP 24 (2010) 2807-2823] is utilized to illustrate damage detection and progression on notched-tooth spiral-bevel gears. Use of equal weighting of increases or decreases of individual rotational-harmonic amplitudes caused by damage, for early ALR detections, is substantiated. Continuously improving statistical reliability of ALR is documented by using increasing numbers of rotational-harmonic amplitude-ratios and increasing numbers of waveforms in the synchronous averaging. Sensitivity of the ALR algorithm to incipient damage is observed to be comparable to that obtained from the kurtosis-based Figure of Merit 4 (FM4). In contrast to FM4, ALR is shown to monotonically increase with increasing damage and running time. Interestingly, this diagnostic technique can be implemented with remarkably low analog-to-digital conversion rates. Computation of ALR for differing torque levels shows strong indications of weakening tooth-stiffness and increasing tooth-plastic-deformation. ALR computation utilizing tooth-rotational-location windowing also is illustrated.

  11. Frequency-domain assessment of gear-tooth bending-fatigue damage-progression using the average-log-ratio, ALR, algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, William D.; Hines, Jason A.

    2014-04-01

    Frequency-domain (rotational-harmonic) behavior of the average-log-ratio, ALR, gear-damage detection algorithm [MSSP 24 (2010) 2807-2823] [18] is utilized to explain behavior caused by tooth-bending-fatigue damage progression. For spur and helical gears, the strongest bending-fatigue damage contributions are typically found in the rotational-harmonic region below the tooth-meshing fundamental harmonic, where ALR increases almost monotonically with increasing damage. However, when the combined elastic/plastic deformation of a damaged tooth or teeth exceeds tooth tip/root/end relief magnitude, at tooth-contact initiation and/or termination, the lowest-order transmission-error discontinuity is changed from slope discontinuity to step discontinuity, resulting in transmission-error high-frequency (rotational-harmonic n) behavior changing from proportional to 1/n2 to proportional to 1/n, therefore indicating progression to severe damage. Decomposition of the ALR damage-detection metric into rotational-harmonic frequency bands using accelerometer recordings from a notched-tooth spiral-bevel gear test illustrates the above-described behavior, thereby showing increasing stages of damage progression prior to complete gear failure.

  12. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  13. A new approach for assessing the state of environment using isometric log-ratio transformation and outlier detection for computation of mean PCDD/F patterns in biota.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, René

    2015-01-01

    To assess the state of the environment, various compartments are examined as part of monitoring programs. Within monitoring, a special focus is on chemical pollution. One of the most toxic substances ever synthesized is the well-known dioxin 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetra-chlor-dibenzo-dioxin). Other PCDD/F (polychlorinated-dibenzo-dioxin and furan) can act toxic too. They are ubiquitary and persistent in various environmental compartments. Assessing the state of environment requires knowledge of typical local patterns of PCDD/F for as many compartments as possible. For various species of wild animals and plants (so called biota), I present the mean local congenere profiles of ubiquitary PCDD/F contamination reflecting typical patterns and levels of environmental burden for various years. Trends in time series of means can indicate success or failure of a measure of PCDD/F reduction. For short time series of mean patterns, it can be hard to detect trends. A new approach regarding proportions of outliers in the corresponding annual cross-sectional data sets in parallel can help detect decreasing or increasing environmental burden and support analysis of time series. Further, in this article, the true structure of PCDD/F data in biota is revealed, that is, the compositional data structure. It prevents direct application of statistical standard procedures to the data rendering results of statistical analysis meaningless. Results indicate that the compositional data structure of PCDD/F in biota is of great interest and should be taken into account in future studies. Isometric log-ratio (ilr) transformation is used, providing data statistical standard procedures that can be applied too. Focusing on the identification of typical PCDD/F patterns in biota, outliers are removed from annual data since they represent an extraordinary situation in the environment. Identification of outliers yields two advantages. First, typical (mean) profiles and levels of PCDD/F contamination

  14. Noise data from tests of a 1.83 meter (6-ft-) diameter variable-pitch 1.2-pressure-ratio fan (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Friedman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic data for a 1.83-meter (6-ft.) diameter fan suitable for a quiet engine for short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft are documented. The QF-9 rotor blades had an adjustable pitch feature which provided a means for testing at several rotor blade setting angles, including one for reverse thrust. The fan stage incorporated features for low noise. Far-field noise around the fan was measured without acoustic suppression over a range of operating conditions for six different rotor blade setting angles in the forward thrust configuration, and for one in the reverse configuration. Complete results of one-third-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Also included are power spectra, data referred to the source, and sideline perceived noise levels.

  15. [Red cell zinc protoporphyrin and its ratio to serum ferritin (ZPP/logSF index) in the detection of iron deficiency in patients with end-stage renal failure on hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna; Ostrowski, Grzegorz; Niemczyk, Stanisław; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Wardyn, Kazimierz; Puka, Janusz; Włodarczyk, Dariusz; Switalski, Marek; Zakrzewska, Teresa; Ostrowski, Kazimierz

    2003-07-01

    Monitoring of iron metabolism has become a major clinical issue in end-stage renal patients undergoing hemodialysis. It can be done at three levels: storage, transport and marrow availability. The objective of that study was to evaluate if a combination of an iron storage marker, serum ferritin (SF) with red cell zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), a marker of iron availability for erythron, will improve diagnostic value of both tests. In a baseline survey in the population of 186 haemodialysis patients (75% treated with rHuEpo), the following parameters were determined: complete blood count, serum transferrin saturation (TSAT), transferrin, SF, hypochromic red cells % (HRC) and ZPP; the ZPP/logSF ratio was calculated. Iron deficiency was defined as a fernitin saturation--TSAT < 20%. In the second part of the study, 24 pts with SF < 50 ng/ml were given 50 mg of i.v. iron weekly for three months, then the same tests were repeated. During that time the doses of rhuEpo were stable. An increase in hemoglobin of > 1.0 g/dl was considered as a positive response. In 186 studied patients mean SF was 274 +/- 335 ng/ml, and mean ZPP was 68 +/- 44 mumol/mol heme. A ZPP/logSF ratio > or = 40 had the best combination of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in detecting iron deficiency (76% and 83% vs: 56% and 89% for ZPP > 90 mumol/mol heme, 84% and 34% for HRC > 5%, 68% and 58% for HRC > 10%) and the strong correlations with all other examined parameters were found. The index showed also the highest correlation with the response to the i.v. iron (r = 59; p < 0.01) of the tests evaluated. After three months the values of ZPP/logSF ratio decreased from 80 +/- 105 to 39 +/- 19 (p < 0.01). A significant difference between responders and nonresponders was found for basal ZPP/logSF (p < 0.05) but not for ZPP. Our data suggest that the ZPP/logSF index provides a new valuable parameter for the identification of hemodialysis patients with iron deficiency and the prediction an erythropoietic

  16. Comprehensive Report of Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 806 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    A large scale model representative of an advanced ducted propulsor-type, low-noise, very high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics, aerodynamic performance, and off-design operability in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The test was part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and un-powered core passage were simulated. As might be expected, the effect of stall management casing treatment was a performance penalty. Reducing the recirculating flow at the fan tip reduced the penalty while still providing sufficient stall margin. Two fans were tested with the same aerodynamic design; one with graphite composite material, and the other with solid titanium. There were surprising performance differences between the two fans, though both blades showed some indication of transitional flow near the tips. Though the pressure and temperature ratios were low for this fan design, the techniques used to improve thermocouple measurement accuracy gave repeatable data with adiabatic efficiencies agreeing within 1 percent. The measured fan adiabatic efficiency at simulated takeoff conditions was 93.7 percent and matched the design intent.

  17. Formulation optimization of sustained-release ammonio methacrylate copolymer microspheres. Effects of log p and concentration of polar cosolvents, and role of the drug/copolymer ratio.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Péter; Rajkó, Róbert; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Erős, István; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2011-11-10

    The objectives of this work were the formulation optimization of the preparation process parameters and to evaluate spray-dried sustained-release microspheres using ammonio methacrylate copolymer (AMC) as a polymer matrix. The effects of log P and the concentrations of the cosolvents (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and n-butyl acetate) and different drug/copolymer ratios as independent variables on the physicochemical parameters (the W1/O emulsion viscosity, the microsphere production yield, the average particle size, the encapsulation efficiency) and the cumulative in vitro drug release as dependent variables were studied. The optimization was carried out on the basis of the 33 factorial design study. The optimization process results showed that addition of polar cosolvents proved effective, linear relationships were observed between the independent and the dependent variables. The best conditions were achieved by microspheres prepared by using a low/medium cosolvent log P, cosolvent concentration of 25-50% v/v and a drug/copolymer ratio of 1:16. The microspheres ensured sustained release with Nernst and Baker-Lonsdale release profiles.

  18. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a variable-pitch 1.83-meter-(6-ft) diameter 1.20-pressure-ratio fan stage (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Far field noise data and related aerodynamic performance are presented for a variable pitch fan stage having characteristics suitable for low noise, STOL engine application. However, no acoustic suppression material was used in the flow passages. The fan was externally driven by an electric motor. Tests were made at several forward thrust rotor blade pitch angles and one for reverse thrust. Fan speed was varied from 60 to 120 percent of takeoff (design) speed, and exhaust nozzles having areas 92 to 105 percent of design were tested. The fan noise level was at a minimum at the design rotor blade pitch angles of 64 deg for takeoff thrust and at 57 deg for approach (50 percent takeoff thrust). Perceived noise along a 152.4-m sideline reached 100.1 PNdb for the takeoff (design) configuration for a stage pressure ratio of 1.17 and thrust of 57,600 N. For reverse thrust the PNL values were 4 to 5 PNdb above the takeoff values at comparable fan speeds.

  19. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  20. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  1. Log-Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Goodall, John

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the log file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.

  2. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  3. Log processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowlin, W.P.; Kneer, M.P.; Ballance, J.D.

    1989-11-07

    This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled processing system for lumber production. It comprises: a computer, a sequence of processing stations for processing a log segment including; an excess material removing station for generating opposed flat side surfaces on the log segment. The flat side surfaces determined by the computer to become sides of boards to be severed from the log segments; a profiling station for forming profiled edges above and below the flat side surfaces to become the side edges of the boards to be severed from the log segment, and a severing station for severing the boards from the log segments, a conveyance means establishing a path of conveyance and having continuous control of the log segment on conveying the log segment along the path and through the above defined sequence of processing stations.

  4. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  5. Multiple log potash assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. G.

    1993-10-01

    A five-mineral multiple-log potash assay technique has been successfully applied to evaluate potash-rich intervals in evaporite sequences. The technique is able to distinguish economic potash minerals from non-economic potash minerals and from other non-potash radioactive minerals. It can be applied on location, using a programmable calculator or microcomputer, providing near real-time logs of potash mineral concentrations. Log assay values show good agreement with core wet chemistry analyses.

  6. SCD-HeFT: Use of RR Interval Statistics for Long-term Risk Stratification for Arrhythmic Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Au-yeung, Wan-tai M.; Reinhall, Per; Poole, Jeanne E.; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Fletcher, Ross D.; Moore, Hans J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.; Bardy, Gust H.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the SCD-HeFT a significant fraction of the congestive heart failure (CHF) patients ultimately did not die suddenly from arrhythmic causes. CHF patients will benefit from better tools to identify if ICD therapy is needed. Objective To identify predictor variables from baseline SCD-HeFT patients’ RR intervals that correlate to arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD) and mortality and to design an ICD therapy screening test. Methods Ten predictor variables were extracted from pre-randomization Holter data from 475 patients enrolled in the SCD-HeFT ICD arm using novel and traditional heart rate variability methods. All variables were correlated to SCD using Mann Whitney-Wilcoxon test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. ICD therapy screening tests were designed by minimizing the cost of false classifications. Survival analysis, including log-rank test and Cox models, was also performed. Results α1 and α2 from detrended fluctuation analysis, the ratio of low to high frequency power, the number of PVCs per hour and heart rate turbulence slope are all statistically significant for predicting the occurrences of SCD (p<0.001) and survival (log-rank p<0.01). The most powerful multivariate predictor tool using the Cox Proportional Hazards was α2 with a hazard ratio of 0.0465 (95% CI: 0.00528 – 0.409, p<0.01). Conclusion Predictor variables from RR intervals correlate to the occurrences of SCD and distinguish survival among SCD-HeFT ICD patients. We believe SCD prediction models should incorporate Holter based RR interval analysis to refine ICD patient selection especially in removing patients who are unlikely to benefit from ICD therapy. PMID:26096609

  7. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  8. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  9. What's new in well logging and formation evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prensky, S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

  10. Acoustic borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, W.L.; Manzi, S.J.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes an acoustic borehole logging method. It comprises traversing a borehole with a borehole logging tool containing a transmitter of acoustic energy having a free-field frequency spectrum with at least one characteristic resonant frequency of vibration and spaced-apart receiver, repeatedly exciting the transmitter with a swept frequency tone burst of a duration sufficiently greater than the travel time of acoustic energy between the transmitter and the receiver to allow borehole cavity resonances to be established within the borehole cavity formed between the borehole logging tool and the borehole wall, detecting acoustic energy amplitude modulated by the borehole cavity resonances with the spaced-apart receiver, and recording an amplitude verses frequency output of the receiver in correlation with depth as a log of the borehole frequency spectrum representative of the subsurface formation comprising the borehole wall.

  11. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  12. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  13. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  14. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. Logs Perl Module

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R. K.

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  16. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  17. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  18. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  19. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  20. EE-3A Logging Report for Feb. 28th., 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1994-03-14

    A Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log of EE-3A was performed on Monday, February 28th, 1994. This log was the first of two, (the other to be run on March 31st.), in an attempt to investigate a temperature anomaly occurring between 10,000 to 11,435 ft. The thermal recovery of this zone is slower than expected, which is believed to be caused by either; flow through the cemented zone of the 5 1/2" liner, or an upward flow through the reservoir itself. Now that the first log is over, the annulus of EE-3A will be shut-in for a period of approximately one month, at which time the log will be repeated. If the temperature of this zone shows signs of recovery after the shut-in period, the integrity of the cement will be in question. No sign of recovery will point to upward reservoir flow theory.

  1. Petrographic image logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, C.J.; Ulrich, M.R.; Maxwell, G.B. ); Adams, J.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The Petrographic Image Logging System (PILS) is a logging system data base for Macintosh computers that allows the merging of traditional wire-line, core, and mud log data with petrographic images. The system is flexible; it allows the user to record, manipulate, and display almost any type of character, graphic, and image information. Character and graphic data are linked and entry in either mode automatically generates the alternate mode. Character/graphic data may include such items as ROP, wire-line log data, interpreted lithologies, ditch cutting lith-percentages, porosity grade and type, grain size, core/DST information, and sample descriptions. Image data may include petrographic and SEM images of cuttings, core, and thin sections. All data are tied to depth. Data are entered quickly and easily in an interactive manner with a mouse, keyboard, and digitizing tablet or may be imported and immediately autoplotted from a variety of environments via modem, network, or removable disk. Color log displays, including petrographic images, are easily available on CRT or as hardcopy. The system consists of a petrographic microscope, video camera, Macintosh computer, video framegrabber and digitizing tablet. Hardcopy is scaleable and can be generated by a variety of color printing devices. The software is written in Supertalk, a color superset of the standard Apple Hypercard programming language, hypertalk. This system is being tested by Mobil in the lab and at the well site. Implementation has provided near 'real-time' core and cuttings images from drilling wells to the geologist back at the office.

  2. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning. PMID:27134693

  3. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review.

    PubMed

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning.

  4. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  5. Letter : NIR FT-Raman microspectroscopy of fluid inclusions: Comparisons with VIS Raman and FT-IR microspectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironon, J.; Sawatzki, J.; Dubessy, J.

    1991-12-01

    The first Raman spectra of hydrocarbon inclusions using Fourier transform (FT) Raman microspectroscopy were obtained with a 1064 nm laser excitation in the near-infrared range (NIR FT-Raman). Some inclusions reveal the typical CH vibrational bands of organic compounds, but most of the inclusions that are fluorescent during visible Raman microspectroscopy (514 nm excitation) are still fluorescent in the NIR range. These Raman spectra are presented and compared to the conventional visible (VIS) Raman and FT-IR spectra. For spectra obtained on the same nonfluorescent inclusion, the signal/background ratio is lower in NIR FT-Raman than in VIS Raman. This ratio should be improved by application of more sensitive detectors. The increase of the power density (laser power/impact laser area) could be a future improvement in the limit of thermal background excitation and pyrolysis of the oils trapped in inclusions.

  6. Coal log pipeline: Development status of the first commercial system

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The coal log pipeline (CLP) is an innovative means for long-distance transportation of coal. In the CLP concept, coal is pressed into the form of cylinders--coal logs--that are propelled by water flowing through underground pipe. A coal log pipeline has many advantages when compared to coal transport by unit train, slurry pipeline and long-distance trucking: low-cost, low energy consumption, low-water consumption, simple dewatering at pipeline exit, safe, and environmentally friendly. The coal logs travel butted together, as trains. Between the coal log {open_quotes}trains,{close_quotes} some space is allowed for valve switching. The optimum diameter of a coal log is approximately 90 to 95% the inside diameter of the pipe. The coal-to-water ratio is about 4 to 1. A 200 mm diameter CLP can transport about 2 million tonnes of coal per year. The coal logs at their destination come out of the pipeline onto a moving conveyer which transports the logs to a crusher or stock pile. Coal logs are crushed to match the size of existing fuel. The water effluent is treated and reused at the power plant; there is no need for its discharge. Coal logs can be manufactured with and without the use of binder. By using less than 2 percent emulsified asphalt as binder, no heat is required to compact coal logs. Binderless coal logs can be compacted at less than 90{degrees}C. Compaction pressures, for coal logs made with or without binder, are about 70 MPa. The coal particle size distribution and moisture content must be controlled. The economics of coal log pipeline system have been studied. Results indicate that a new coal log pipeline is cost-competitive with existing railroads for distances greater than 80 km, approximately. CLP is much more economical than coal slurry pipeline of the same diameter. This paper describes the current R&D and commercialization plan for CLP. 4 refs.

  7. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. 12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  9. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  10. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  11. My Journey with Learning Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Learning logs, or reading response logs, have long been established as an effective reading strategy that helps students learn from text (Atwell, 1987; Blough & Berman, 1991; Calkins, 1986; Commander & Smith, 1996; Kuhrt & Farris, 1990; Reed, 1988; Sanders, 1985). In this paper, the author describes her experiences using learning logs as a…

  12. Improved production log interpretation in horizontal wells using pulsed neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.L.; Kohring, J.J.; North, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Production log flow profiles provide a valuable tool to evaluate well and reservoir performance. Horizontal wellbores and their associated completion designs present several challenges to profile interpretation for conventional production logging sensors and techniques. A unique approach combining pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data with conventional production logging measurements is providing improved flow profile answers in slotted liner, horizontal well completions on the North Slope of Alaska. Identifying and eliminating undesirable gas production is one of the chief goals of production logging on the North Slope. This process becomes difficult in horizontal wellbores as fluid segregation affects the area investigated by the various logging sensors and also the velocities of the individual phases. Typical slotted liner completions further complicate analysis as fluids are able to flow in the liner/openhole annulus. Analysis of PNC log data provides two good qualitative indicators of formation permeability. The first technique is derived from the difference of the formation sigma response before and after injecting a high-capture cross-section borax solution. The second technique uses the difference of the formation sigma response and the formation porosity measured while injecting the formation with crude or seawater. Further analysis of PNC log runs show that the two techniques closely correlate with production flow profiles under solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) conditions. These two techniques in combination with conventional production logging measurements of temperature, capacitance, pressure, and spinner improve flow profile results. PNC results can be combined with temperature and pressure data in the absence of valid spinner data to provide an approximate flow profile. These techniques have been used to successfully determine profiles in both cemented and slotted liner completions with GORs in excess of 15,000 scf/bbl.

  13. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  14. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  15. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield. PMID:26136765

  16. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  17. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  18. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  19. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  20. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  1. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  2. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  3. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-05-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions.

  4. Geologic logs of geotechnical cores from the subsurface Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, Katherine L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Tinsley, John C.; Gatti, Emma; Pagenkopp, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents and summarizes descriptive geologic logs of geotechnical cores collected from 2009–12 in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, by the California Department of Water Resources. Graphic logs are presented for 1,785.7 ft of retained cores from 56 borehole sites throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Most core sections are from a depth of ~100–200 feet. Cores primarily contain mud, silt, and sand lithologies. Tephra (volcanic ash and pumice), paleosols, and gravels are also documented in some core sections. Geologic observations contained in the core logs in this report provide stratigraphic context for subsequent sampling and data for future chronostratigraphic subsurface correlations.

  5. Effects of selective logging on tropical forest tree growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, Adelaine Michela E. S.; Miller, Scott D.; de Sousa, Cleilim Albert D.; Menton, Mary C.; Maia, Augusto R.; Da Rocha, Humberto R.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-03-01

    We combined measurements of tree growth and carbon dioxide exchange to investigate the effects of selective logging on the Aboveground Live Biomass (AGLB) of a tropical rain forest in the Amazon. Most of the measurements began at least 10 months before logging and continued at least 36 months after logging. The logging removed ˜15% of the trees with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) greater than 35 cm, which resulted in an instantaneous 10% reduction in AGLB. Both wood production and mortality increased following logging, while Gross Primary Production (GPP) was unchanged. The ratio of wood production to GPP (the wood Carbon Use Efficiency or wood CUE) more than doubled following logging. Small trees (10 cm < DBH < 35 cm) accounted for most of the enhanced wood production. Medium trees (35 cm < DBH < 55 cm) that were within 30 m of canopy gaps created by the logging also showed increased growth. The patterns of enhanced growth are most consistent with logging-induced increases in light availability. The AGLB continued to decline over the study, as mortality outpaced wood production. Wood CUE and mortality remained elevated throughout the 3 years of postlogging measurements. The future trajectory of AGLB and the forest's carbon balance are uncertain, and will depend on how long it takes for heterotrophic respiration, mortality, and CUE to return to prelogging levels.

  6. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  7. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  8. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  9. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  10. High-temperature logging for basic development of HDR reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.; Pettitt, R.A.; Miles, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The second phase of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Development Program at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, consists of two boreholes, directionally-drilled in a northeast direction, inclined at an angle of 35/sup 0/, with a vertical separation of 365 m (1200 ft). The two boreholes will be connected by 12 to 15 vertical parallel fractures to make a geothermal reservoir calculated to produce 20 MW(e) for 20 years. Accurate temperature measurements, borehole caliper logs, and directional surveys are required for the successful development and operation of this man-made system. Obtaining these data is extremely difficult because of the bottom hole static temperature of 335/sup 0/C (635/sup 0/F) at a depth of 4660 m (15,289 ft), the 35/sup 0/ deviation, the abrasive formation, and the presence of sticky drilling residue products. The efforts during July, August, and September 1980, to obtain these data are presented as a case history. The temperature logs and borehole directional survey produced realistic results; but the borehole caliper measurements were inconsistent and unreliable, due to the developmental stage of the caliper tools.

  11. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  12. Tests pits for calibrating well logging equipment in fractured hard-rock environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.H.; LaDelfe, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration facility consists of three pits containing fine-grained granite, coarse-grained granite, and medium-grained metamorphosed granodiorite. Each pit contains large quarried blocks of rock that are 8 ft octagons and form a 20 ft stack. The blocks are saturated with water and sealed in watertight fiberglass containers that are recessed so that the top of the upper block is approximately level with the ground. The blocks contain simulated fractures that are formed by the joints between the blocks and by saw cuts at several locations. Cored boreholes through the blocks are 7 7/8 in. in diameter, with a fiberglass-cased ''rat hole'' extending 30 ft below the bottom block. Laboratory and well logging studies (United States Geological Society, Schlumberger, and Dresser Atlas logs) have been made to determine the physical properties of rocks in the three pits, and preliminary results are reported. Porosities of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 1 ft intervals in the three pits range from 0.00 to 0.90%, densities from 2.64 to 2.79 g/cm/sup 3/, and sonic velocities from 18,700 to 22,500 ft/sec. Radio-element of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 5 ft intervals from these test pits range from 0.62 to 4.08% K (potassium) content, from 0.34 to 5.01 ppM RaeU (uranium) content and from 0.46 to 19.6 ppM Th (thorium) content. Access to the pits for calibrating well logging equipment can be arranged by contacting the United States Geological Survey (phone number 303-236-5913) in Denver, Colorado. 4 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  14. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  15. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  20. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  2. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  3. Statistical log analysis made practical

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

  4. Downhole memory-logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1992-01-01

    Logging technologies developed hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (i) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (ii) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions.'' Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about on year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400{degrees}C is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. 8 refs.

  5. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  6. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  7. A LABORATORY log(gf) MEASUREMENT OF THE Ti II 15873.84 Å H-BAND LINE IN SUPPORT OF SDSS-III APOGEE

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Shetrone, M. D. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu

    2014-06-01

    The SDSS-III APOGEE collaboration has identified a single useable line in the H-band spectra of APOGEE target stars arising from a singly ionized species. This line of Ti II (λ{sub air} = 15873.84 Å) is therefore of great importance for use in stellar surface gravity, or log(g), determinations via the Saha equation. While a theoretical estimate of the line strength exists, to date no laboratory measurement of the line strength has been reported. Herein we report an absolute laboratory transition probability measurement for this important Ti II line. A relative line strength measurement is made of the Ti II H-band line of interest and a reference line with a previously reported absolute transition probability. This ratio is measured using multiple spectra of a high-current water-cooled HC lamp recorded with a calibrated FT-IR spectrometer.

  8. Study of sonic, neutron, and density logging of low-permeability gas sands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osoba, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    Gas accumulations in Lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous formations are the object of widespread exploration in the Tight Western Gas Sands. The complex lithology of these formations has hindered the usefulness of the sonic, density, and neutron logs. Current log evaluation practices assume a matrix density of 2.68 gm/cc and a matrix travel-time of 52.6 microseconds/ft. The neutron log is calibrated for a sandstone matrix. Conventional analysis yields inconsistent and often contradictory results. Core and petrographic studies have been made on samples from Lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous formations in the Uinta Basin. Results indicated that a carbonate cement has filled much of the original porosity and altered the matrix density. Lower porosity samples tend to be heavily cemented and have matrix densities that approach, and even exceed, 2.68 gm/cc. Higher porosity samples tend to be lightly cemented and have matrix densities that approach 2.65 gm/cc. Log analyses in the Uinta Basin, supplemented by core data, reveal that the higher porosity samples have matrix travel-times that approach 55.6 microseconds/ft. The presence of the carbonate cement does not decrease the matrix travel-times as expected. Laboratory measured matrix travel-times substantiate these conclusions. Log analyses also indicate the neutron log, when calibrated for a sandstone matrix, will not accurately evaluate the higher porosity, non-shaly sandstones. Core and log analyses have been made on samples from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde formation in the Greater Green River Basin. The resulting pressure and temperature difference caused the physical properties of the Mesaverde to vary widely within the Greater Green River Basin. Matrix density and matrix travel-time for the Mesaverde are very different for the two wells. Neutron log response also varies considerably.

  9. Is FT3 by radioligandassay (RLA) superior in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (HT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bottger, I.G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    Based upon our routine experience with more than 50,000/15,000 patients having been examined by FT4/FT3 RLA the authors reported a comparable clinical value of routine parameters for free thyroid hormones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of FT3 by RLA in borderline HT (BHT) in more detail. Two groups of patients were studied prospectively: group I: BHT, 48 sera, HT was suspected on grounds of clinical, scintigraphical and ultrasonic findings, no therapy. Subgroup Ia: negative TRH test (TSH before and after 200 ..mu..g TRH i.v. 0.8 mU/1), T4, FT4, T4/TBG ratio and T3 in the normal range (NR), 22 sera. Subgroup Ib: T3 (NR: 1.6 - 3.6 pmol/1): 3.7 - 3.9 and/or FT4 and/or T4/TBG ratio elevated, 26 sera. Group II: thyroid ablated patients with thyroid carcinoma on TSH-suppressive 1-T4 medication (200 ..mu..g/day) with a negative TRH test, no obvious symptoms of HT, T3 normal. RLAs employed routinely: FT4/T4 and FT3/T3 (kinetic, two-tube), and TBG, Corning Medical, TSH, Henning-Berlin. Group I: T3 levels were in the middle to upper NR, 9 (19 %) of Ib being elevated, T3/TBG was predominantly at the upper limit of the NR, 20 (42%) of this group and 5 (10%) of Ia being increased. 29 (60%) of the FT3 levels in I and 8 (17%) in Ia were elevated up to 15 and 13 pmol/l, respectively. Group II: the T3/TBG ratio was increased in 13 (11%) and the FT3 concentration up to 14 pmol/l in 57 (50%) sera.

  10. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin; No, Kyoungok; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steven; Drnevich, Jenny; Wickett, Norman; Vandervelde, Lindsay; Ellis, Jeffrey D.; Rice, Brandon; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brunner, Amy M.; Page, Grier P.; Carlson, John E.; DePamphilis, Claude; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  11. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  12. Log-Linear Models for Gene Association

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianhua; Joshi, Adarsh; Johnson, Valen E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a class of log-linear models for the detection of interactions in high-dimensional genomic data. This class of models leads to a Bayesian model selection algorithm that can be applied to data that have been reduced to contingency tables using ranks of observations within subjects, and discretization of these ranks within gene/network components. Many normalization issues associated with the analysis of genomic data are thereby avoided. A prior density based on Ewens’ sampling distribution is used to restrict the number of interacting components assigned high posterior probability, and the calculation of posterior model probabilities is expedited by approximations based on the likelihood ratio statistic. Simulation studies are used to evaluate the efficiency of the resulting algorithm for known interaction structures. Finally, the algorithm is validated in a microarray study for which it was possible to obtain biological confirmation of detected interactions. PMID:19655032

  13. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Echols, J.B.; Goddard, D.A.; Bouma, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N/6E and 4N/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well was drilled, and a 500-ft conventional core and a complete suite of state-of-the-are wireline logs were recovered. Production tests were run on the Minter interval of interest. The 16-ft Minter interval (6742-6758 ft depth), bounded at its top and base by lignite seams, consists of an upper 4-ft oil sand (Bee Brake) and a lower 3-ft oil sand (Angelina). The oil sands are separated by approximately 5 ft of thinly laminated silty shale and 4 ft of very fine-grained silty sandstone. Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic descriptions of the Minter interval provide accurate facies determinations of this lower delta-plain sequence. Petrophysical evaluation, combining core plug and modern electric-log data show differences between reservoir quality of the Bee Brake and Angelina sands. This data will also be useful for correlating and interpolating old electric logs. Organic geochemistry of the oil, lignites, and shales provides insight as to the source of the Minter oils and the sourcing potential of the lignites.

  14. Phenotypic Expression in Wheat Revealed Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L.; Wetzel, D

    2009-01-01

    Wheat selected for cultivation through the centuries has a glume that is 'soft' instead of 'tough' as naturally occurring. In production, this is desirable because it enables mechanical threshing with efficient separation of kernel from the head of each stalk without damaging the kernel. FT-IR microspectroscopy provides chemically based, objective assessment of genetic expression by measuring the extent of genetic expression. In the Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, Manhattan, KS, an imaging FT-IR microspectrometer with a detector array focused on the image plane was used to obtain spectral data from dissected glume specimens of nine tough and eleven soft wheat cultivars in a rectangular mapping pattern. With cellulose as the substrate, the extent of lignification is measurable from the ratio of the lignin (1508 cm{sup -1}) baseline adjusted band area to the representative cellulosic (1370 cm{sup -1}) band area. A distinction between soft and tough glumes is obtained in numerical terms. Using a band ratio minimizes variation due to thickness differences. While analyzing mapped sections of glume, care is taken to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would bias the analysis toward the composition of highly lignified vascular bundles. Spatially resolved focal plane array FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals the extent of glume lignification that is coincident with the toughness trait. This enables breeders to rank the degree of lignin expression and discriminate between soft and tough breeding results.

  15. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-07

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging.

  16. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices

    PubMed Central

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S.; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  17. Geological well log analysis. Third ed

    SciTech Connect

    Pirson, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, well logs have mainly been used for correlation, structural mapping, and quantitive evaluation of hydrocarbon bearing formations. This third edition of Geologic Well Log Analysis, however, describes how well logs can be used for geological studies and mineral exploration. This is done by analyzing well logs for numerous parameters and indices of significant mineral accumulation, primarily in sediments. Contents are: SP and Eh curves as redoxomorphic logs; sedimentalogical studies by log curve shapes; exploration for stratigraphic traps; continuous dipmeter as a structural tool; continuous dipmeter as a sedimentation tool; Paleo-facies logging and mapping; hydrogeology 1--hydrodynamics of compaction; hydrogeology 2--geostatic equilibrium; and hydrogeology 3--hydrodynamics of infiltration. Appendixes cover: Computer program for calculating the dip magnitude, azimuth, and the degree and orientation of the resistivity anisotrophy; a lithology computer program for calculating the curvature of a structure; and basic log analysis package for HP-41CV programmable calculator.

  18. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  19. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  20. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  1. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  3. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  4. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  7. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  8. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  12. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  14. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  16. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  19. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  20. Hydrocarbon segregation from well logs, Northern Monagas, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E. )

    1993-02-01

    A methodology is described to determine vertical hydrocarbon density variations in recent oil discoveries in Northern Monagas state, using well logs. Similarities and differences are established for models obtained in El Carito and El Tejero fault block-s. These models were confirmed using independent information, such as PVT analysis, RFT pressures, oil gravity and GOR's from initial production tests. To explain differences between the models, an hypothesis is proposed for the migration/segregation/deformation sequence in these two blocks, which accounts for the presence of lighter hydrocarbons in El Tejero block, even though it is 1700 ft structurally lower than El Carito. Based on this hypothesis, westward projection of the models predicts lighter hydrocarbons and similar porosities for Casupal-Mata Granda and Tonoro blocks, at depths considerably greater than in El Tejero block.

  1. FPSO reciprocating compressors log 1 year of service

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, B.

    1998-02-01

    Early in 1998, the largest gas-processing floating production, storage and offloading system (FPSO) in the world logged a year of service. Moored in 240 ft. of water in the Gulf of Thailand, the Tantawan Explorer has reliably delivered its contracted gas production without a sign of adverse effects from vibration due to its nine reciprocating compressors. The Tantawan Explorer is outfitted with the first reciprocating compressors to be installed on an FPSO. Nine compressors in all are installed, totaling more than 15,000 total hp with capacity rated as 150 MMcfd gas and 50,000 bbl liquids. Special deck structuring and bracing were designed to isolate the effect of vibration from the vessel`s hull.

  2. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively.

  3. Transient acceleration in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Yang, Rong-Jia; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-02-01

    Recently an f(T) gravity based on the modification of teleparallel gravity was proposed to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We use observational data from type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cosmic microwave background to constrain this f(T) theory and reconstruct the effective equation of state and the deceleration parameter. We obtain the best-fit values of parameters and find an interesting result that the constrained f(T) theory allows for the accelerated Hubble expansion to be a transient effect.

  4. Porosity Log Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Saputro, Oki; Lazuardi Maulana, Zulfikar; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier

    2016-08-01

    Well logging is important in oil and gas exploration. Many physical parameters of reservoir is derived from well logging measurement. Geophysicists often use well logging to obtain reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation and permeability. Most of the time, the measurement of the reservoir properties are considered expensive. One of method to substitute the measurement is by conducting a prediction using artificial neural network. In this paper, artificial neural network is performed to predict porosity log data from other log data. Three well from ‘yy’ field are used to conduct the prediction experiment. The log data are sonic, gamma ray, and porosity log. One of three well is used as training data for the artificial neural network which employ the Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm. Through several trials, we devise that the most optimal input training is sonic log data and gamma ray log data with 10 hidden layer. The prediction result in well 1 has correlation of 0.92 and mean squared error of 5.67 x10-4. Trained network apply to other well data. The result show that correlation in well 2 and well 3 is 0.872 and 0.9077 respectively. Mean squared error in well 2 and well 3 is 11 x 10-4 and 9.539 x 10-4. From the result we can conclude that sonic log and gamma ray log could be good combination for predicting porosity with neural network.

  5. Logs key to solving water production problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Crook, R.J.

    1995-11-20

    Water source identification is the first and most important step in controlling unwanted water production that can severely limit the productive life of a well and, thereby, decrease hydrocarbon recovery. Water-control treatments often fail because the source of the water problem is not identified, the wrong treatment is performed, or the correct treatment is performed incorrectly. Table 1 lists typical problems, means of identification and evaluation, and chemical treatments available for correcting the problem. Well logs can help diagnose downhole situations that can lead to unwanted water production, and the effectiveness of water-control treatments can be evaluated with cased and open hole logs. The paper discusses cement bond logs and the pulse echo tool for cement evaluation. Casing evaluation is carried out by mechanical caliper logs and electro magnetic tools. Reservoir monitoring with pulsed neutron logs and pulsed neutron spectrometry are discussed. Also discussed are production logging, radioactive tracer logging, and well tests.

  6. Cement bond log evaluation of foam- and synthetic-cemented casings

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckdorfer, R.A.; Jacobs, W.R.; Masson, J.P.

    1984-11-01

    Cement bond log (CBL /SUP TM/ ) studies on foam- and synthetic-cemented wells were initiated to determine the feasibility of, as well as to develop technologies for, evaluating these novel cementing services. Early CBL's on these cementing systems showed little effect on the log amplitude curve. Hence, CBL evaluations were difficult to obtain and interpret. A special sonde with a 1.3-ft (0.4-m) transmitter-toreceiver spacing was developed for this study. Sonic signal amplitudes were determined by using cemented shortcasing test sections. Sonic attenuation rates were correlated to compressive strengths for a range of cement densities. Experimental details of the cementing operation and logging studies are discussed. Data relating attenuation rates to compressive strengths and cement densities also are presented. Field results are discussed.

  7. Logs Wanted - Dead or Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, A.; Morche, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers cover only a small part of the Earth`s surface, yet they transfer sediment in globally significant quantities. In mountainous regions, the majority of the total channel length occurs in headwater streams. Those mountain channels are influenced in terms of sediment connectivity by processes on the slopes. For example in such a sediment routing system, sediment originating from debris flows on the slopes is delivered along sediment pathways to the channel system and can be transported further downstream as solid load. Interruption of instream coarse sediment connectivity is closely related to the existence of channel blocking barriers which also can be formed by biota. By storing sediment large wood (LW) log jams disrupt in-channel sediment connectivity. We present a study design in order to decipher the short to long term effects (c. 10-2-102 years) of sediment (dis)connectivity effects of large wood. The study areas are two basins in mountain ranges in Germany and Austria. In Austria the drainage area of the river Fugnitz was chosen which is located in the National Park Thayatal. The other drainage area of the river Sieber in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, is located in the Harz National Park. Since studies on LW and its geomorphological effects in Central European rivers are still rare the main goals of the project are: •to identify important triggers for LW transport from slopes into the channels •to examine the spatial distribution and characterization of LW in main and slope channels by mapping and dGPS measurements •to determine the effects of LW on channel hydraulic parameters (e.g. slope, width, grains size composition, roughness) by field measurements of channel long profiles and cross section with dGPS and Wolman particle counts •to quantify the direct effects of LW on discharge and bed load transport by measuring flow velocity with an Ott-Nautilus current meter and to measure bed load up- and downstream of log jams using a portable Helley

  8. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under

  9. Development of a Large Field of View Shadowgraph System for a 16 Ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Michael A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Goodman, Wesley L.

    2000-01-01

    A large field of view shadowgraph flow visualization system for the Langley 16 ft. Transonic Tunnel (16 ft.TT) has been developed to provide fast, low cost, aerodynamic design concept evaluation capability to support the development of the next generation of commercial and military aircraft and space launch vehicles. Key features of the 16 ft. TT shadowgraph system are: (1) high resolution (1280 X 1024) digital snap shots and sequences; (2) video recording of shadowgraph at 30 frames per second; (3) pan, tilt, & zoom to find and observe flow features; (4) one microsecond flash for freeze frame images; (5) large field of view approximately 12 X 6 ft; and (6) a low maintenance, high signal/noise ratio, retro-reflective screen to allow shadowgraph imaging while test section lights are on.

  10. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  11. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  12. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C.; Payne, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  13. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  14. Logged In and Zoned Out.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Susan M; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2017-02-01

    Laptop computers are widely prevalent in university classrooms. Although laptops are a valuable tool, they offer access to a distracting temptation: the Internet. In the study reported here, we assessed the relationship between classroom performance and actual Internet usage for academic and nonacademic purposes. Students who were enrolled in an introductory psychology course logged into a proxy server that monitored their online activity during class. Past research relied on self-report, but the current methodology objectively measured time, frequency, and browsing history of participants' Internet usage. In addition, we assessed whether intelligence, motivation, and interest in course material could account for the relationship between Internet use and performance. Our results showed that nonacademic Internet use was common among students who brought laptops to class and was inversely related to class performance. This relationship was upheld after we accounted for motivation, interest, and intelligence. Class-related Internet use was not associated with a benefit to classroom performance.

  15. Log-Normality and Multifractal Analysis of Flame Surface Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2013-11-01

    The turbulent flame surface is typically highly wrinkled and folded at a multitude of scales controlled by various flame properties. It is useful if the information contained in this complex geometry can be projected onto a simpler regular geometry for the use of spectral, wavelet or multifractal analyses. Here we investigate local flame surface statistics of turbulent flame expanding under constant pressure. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally obtained from high-speed Mie scattering images. For spherically expanding flame, length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors is defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at corresponding area-ratio pdfs. Both the pdfs are found to be near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis. Currently at Indian Institute of Science, India.

  16. Completely automated open-path FT-IR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter R; Shao, Limin; Leytem, April B

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric analysis by open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry has been possible for over two decades but has not been widely used because of the limitations of the software of commercial instruments. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of the hardware and software that constitutes a contemporary OP/FT-IR spectrometer. We then describe advances that have been made in our laboratory that have enabled many of the limitations of this type of instrument to be overcome. These include not having to acquire a single-beam background spectrum that compensates for absorption features in the spectra of atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide. Instead, an easily measured "short path-length" background spectrum is used for calculation of each absorbance spectrum that is measured over a long path-length. To accomplish this goal, the algorithm used to calculate the concentrations of trace atmospheric molecules was changed from classical least-squares regression (CLS) to partial least-squares regression (PLS). For calibration, OP/FT-IR spectra are measured in pristine air over a wide variety of path-lengths, temperatures, and humidities, ratioed against a short-path background, and converted to absorbance; the reference spectrum of each analyte is then multiplied by randomly selected coefficients and added to these background spectra. Automatic baseline correction for small molecules with resolved rotational fine structure, such as ammonia and methane, is effected using wavelet transforms. A novel method of correcting for the effect of the nonlinear response of mercury cadmium telluride detectors is also incorporated. Finally, target factor analysis may be used to detect the onset of a given pollutant when its concentration exceeds a certain threshold. In this way, the concentration of atmospheric species has been obtained from OP/FT-IR spectra measured at intervals of 1 min over a period of many hours with no operator intervention.

  17. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  18. MultiLog: a tool for the control and output merging of multiple logging applications.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Jonathan; Alexander, Jason

    2016-12-01

    MultiLog is a logging tool that controls, gathers, and combines the output, on-the-fly, from existing research and commercial logging applications or "loggers." Loggers record a specific set of user actions on a computing device, helping researchers to better understand environments or interactions, guiding the design of new or improved interfaces and applications. MultiLog reduces researchers' required implementation effort by simplifying the set-up of multiple loggers and seamlessly combining their output. This in turn increases the availability of logging systems to non-technical experimenters for both short-term and longitudinal observation studies. MultiLog supports two operating modes: "researcher mode" where experimenters configure multiple logging systems, and "deployment mode" where the system is deployed to user-study participants' systems. Researcher mode allows researchers to install, configure log filtering and obfuscation, observe near real-time event streams, and save configuration files ready for deployment. Deployment mode simplifies data collection from multiple loggers by running in the system tray at user log-in, starting loggers, combining their output, and securely uploading the data to a web-server. It also supports real-time browsing of log data, pausing of logging, and removal of log lines. Performance evaluations show that MultiLog does not adversely affect system performance, even when simultaneously running several logging systems. Initial studies show the system runs reliably over a period of 10 weeks.

  19. Ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine in Graves' hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Momotani, Naoko; Fukada, Shuji; Ito, Koichi; Miyauchi, Akira; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2005-10-01

    The serum T3 to T4 ratio is a useful indicator for differentiating destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis from Graves' thyrotoxicosis. However, the usefulness of the serum free T3 (FT3) to free T4 (FT4) ratio is controversial. We therefore systematically evaluated the usefulness of this ratio, based on measurements made using two widely available commercial kits in two hospitals. Eighty-two untreated patients with thyrotoxicosis (48 patients with Graves' disease and 34 patients with painless thyroiditis) were examined in Kuma Hospital, and 218 patients (126 with Graves' disease and 92 with painless thyroiditis) and 66 normal controls were examined in Ito Hospital. The FT3 and FT4 values, as well as the FT3/FT4 ratios, were significantly higher in the patients with Graves' disease than in those with painless thyroiditis in both hospitals, but considerable overlap between the two disorders was observed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the FT3 and FT4 values and the FT3/FT4 ratios of patients with Graves' disease and those with painless thyroiditis seen in both hospitals were prepared, and the area under the curves (AUC), the cut-off points for discriminating Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis, the sensitivity, and the specificity were calculated. AUC and sensitivity of the FT(3)/FT(4) ratio were smaller than those of FT(3) and FT(4) in both hospitals. The patients treated at Ito hospital were then divided into 4 groups according to their FT4 levels (A: < or =2.3, B: >2.3 approximately < or =3.9, C: 3.9 approximately < or =5.4, D: >5.4 ng/dl), and the AUC, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the FT(3)/FT(4) ratios were calculated. The AUC and sensitivity of each group increased with the FT4 levels (AUC: 57.8%, 72.1%, 91.1%, and 93.4%, respectively; sensitivity: 62.6%, 50.0%, 77.8%, and 97.0%, respectively). The means +/- SE of the FT3/FT4 ratio in the Graves' disease groups were 3.1 +/- 0.22, 3.1 +/- 0.09, 3.2 +/- 0.06, and 3.1 +/- 0

  20. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the...antenna which has a simplified feeding configuration. The result is a log periodic antenna design that can be used from high frequencies through microwave frequencies.

  1. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... principal radiotelegraph operating room during the voyage. (c) Public coast station logs. Public coast... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  2. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... principal radiotelegraph operating room during the voyage. (c) Public coast station logs. Public coast... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  3. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... principal radiotelegraph operating room during the voyage. (c) Public coast station logs. Public coast... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  4. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... principal radiotelegraph operating room during the voyage. (c) Public coast station logs. Public coast... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  5. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... principal radiotelegraph operating room during the voyage. (c) Public coast station logs. Public coast... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  6. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  7. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  8. log(MPl/m3/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martin, Johannes; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ratz, Michael

    2005-12-02

    Flux compactifications of string theory seem to require the presence of a fine-tuned constant in the superpotential. We discuss a scheme where this constant is replaced by a dynamical quantity which we argue to be a 'continuous Chern-Simons term'. In such a scheme, the gaugino condensate generates the hierarchically small scale of supersymmetry breakdown rather than adjusting its size to a constant. A crucial ingredient is the appearance of the hierarchically small quantity exp(-) which corresponds to the scale of gaugino condensation. Under rather general circumstances, this leads to a scenario of moduli stabilization, which is endowed with a hierarchy between the mass of the lightest modulus, the gravitino mass and the scale of the soft terms, mmodulus {approx} m3/2 {approx} 2 msoft. The 'little hierarchy' is given by the logarithm of the ratio of the Planck scale and the gravitino mass, {approx} log(MPl/m3/2) {approx} 4{pi}2. This exhibits a new mediation scheme of supersymmetry breakdown, called mirage mediation. We highlight the special properties of the scheme, and their consequences for phenomenology and cosmology.

  9. Design note of an air-cooled 2 ft x 2 ft x 10. 5 ft long muon spoiler

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.; Pathiyil, J.

    1988-01-06

    This note describes the construction of a muon spoiler (magnetized steel assembly) with a cross section of 2 ft by 2 ft and a length of 10.5 ft. Two such spoilers are operated in series at an average field of about 15 kGauss, from one 100 ADC, 40 V power supply. The purpose of the spoilers is to prevent muons from easily escaping beyond the muon laboratory experimental area by bending them down so that they have to pass through more earth. The spoilers reduce the muon dose rate beyond the experimental area by about a factor of 15 to 20. These types of spoilers are not precision devices. They were inexpensive to build from scrap materials using rough flame cutting methods. It took about 14 days to fabricate them.

  10. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  11. Log analysis of six boreholes in conjunction with geologic characterization above and on top of the Weeks Island salt dome

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1996-04-01

    Six boreholes were drilled during the geologic characterization and diagnostics of the Weeks Island sinkhole that is over the two-tiered salt mine which was converted for oil storage by the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. These holes were drilled to provide for geologic characterization of the Weeks Island Salt Dome and its overburden in the immediate vicinity of the sinkhole (mainly through logs and core); to establish a crosswell configuration for seismic tomography; to establish locations for hydrocarbon detection and tracer injection; and to Provide direct observations of sinkhole geometry and material properties. Specific objectives of the logging program were to: (1) identify the top of and the physical state of the salt dome; (2) identify the water table; (3) obtain a relative salinity profile in the aquifer within the alluvium, which ranges from the water table directly to the top of the Weeks Island salt dome; and (4) identify a reflecting horizon seen on seismic profiles over this salt dome. Natural gamma, neutron, density, sonic, resistivity and caliper logs were run. Neutron and density logs were run from inside the well casing because of the extremely unstable condition of the deltaic alluvium overburden above the salt dome. The logging program provided important information about the salt dome and the overburden in that (1) the top of the salt dome was identified at {approximately}189 ft bgl (103 ft msl), and the top of the dome contains relatively few fractures; (2) the water table is approximately 1 ft msl, (3) this aquifer appears to become steadily more saline with depth; and (4) the water saturation of much of the alluvium over the salt dome is shown to be influenced by the prevalent heavy rainfall. This logging program, a part of the sinkhole diagnostics, provides unique information about this salt dome and the overburden.

  12. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Limits of rapid log P determination methods for highly lipophilic and flexible compounds.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sophie; Begnaud, Frédéric; Schuler, William; Gillerat, Fabrice; Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2016-04-07

    Lipophilicity is of crucial importance in many fields including pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetic and food industries. Whereas different experimental strategies have been developed for rapid lipophilicity determination of new chemical entities, log P determination of highly lipophilic compounds is always challenging. In this study, three published chromatographic methods have been compared on a series of phenylalkanoic acids including the pro-perfume HaloscentD (HD-C12). Different log P values were obtained depending on the chromatographic method used for log P estimation. Molecular modelling suggested that log P variations may be due to the chromatographic conditions applied (isocratic or gradient mode, ratio methanol/water in the mobile phase), responsible of specific conformations of the molecule in solution. Thus, for flexible compounds, published methods have to be used with caution and considered as a good tool to estimate a log P range, depending on the molecular conformational state.

  14. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  15. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  16. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  17. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  18. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  19. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  20. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  1. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  2. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  3. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  4. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  5. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  6. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  7. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  8. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  9. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  10. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell.

  11. Analysis of dammar resin with MALDI-FT-ICR-MS and APCI-FT-ICR-MS.

    PubMed

    Vahur, Signe; Teearu, Anu; Haljasorg, Tõiv; Burk, Piia; Leito, Ivo; Kaljurand, Ivari

    2012-03-01

    Comprehensive analysis of high-resolution mass spectra of aged natural dammar resin obtained with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is presented. Dammar resin is one of the most important components of painting varnishes. Dammar resin is a terpenoid resin (dominated by triterpenoids) with intrinsically very complex composition. This complexity further increases with aging. Ten different solvents and two-component solvent mixtures were tested for sample preparation. The most suitable solvent mixtures for the MALDI-FT-ICR-MS analysis were dichloromethane-acetone and dichloromethane-ethanol. The obtained MALDI-FTMS mass spectrum contains nine clusters of peaks in the m/z range of 420-2200, and the obtained APCI-FTMS mass spectrum contains three clusters of peaks in the m/z range of 380-910. The peaks in the clusters correspond to the oxygenated derivatives of terpenoids differing by the number of C(15)H(24) units. The clusters, in turn, are composed of subclusters differing by the number of oxygen atoms in the molecules. Thorough analysis and identification of the components (or groups of components) by their accurate m/z ratios was carried out, and molecular formulas (elemental compositions) of all major peaks in the MALDI-FTMS and APCI-FTMS spectra were identified (and groups of possible isomeric compounds were proposed). In the MALDI-FTMS and APCI-FTMS mass spectrum, besides the oxidized C(30), triterpenoids also peaks corresponding to C(29) and C(31) derivatives of triterpenoids (demethylated and methylated, correspondingly) were detected. MALDI and APCI are complementary ionization sources for the analysis of natural dammar resin. In the MALDI source, preferably polar (extensively oxidized) components of the resin are ionized (mostly as Na(+) adducts), whereas in the APCI source, preferably nonpolar (hydrocarbon and

  12. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  13. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  14. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paepe, A. T. G.; Dyke, J. M.; Hendra, P. J.; Langkilde, F. W.

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  15. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, A T; Dyke, J M; Hendra, P J; Langkilde, F W

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  16. Logging Report 1 – Temperature/Gamma Ray/Collar Locator Log, EE-2A, 2450 psig Shut-in Log, August 8, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, Donald S.; Anderson, David W.

    1991-08-14

    Oil Well Perforators (OWP) was mobilized on August 5th and arrived on August 6th. OWP's grease injection head was installed on the LANL wireline and the wireline was re-headed with a LANL cable head. OWP provided the following pressure control equipment: a 40 ft long 5-1/2" API 5000 psig WP (working pressure) casing lubricator, a 5-1/2" API 3000 psig WP wireline blow-out-preventer, a 15000 psig WP grease injection head with 0.425-0.430" flow tubes and a grease injection system, and the 15000 psig WP high pressure hoses needed to connect the grease system to the grease head. The grease head included three flow sections, two active and one reserve, and two injection hoses were run to the head. All of the instruments operated throughout the logging operation. There were no problems with lowering or raising the tools. The pressure control equipment performed well and leakage at the grease head was insignificant.

  17. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    SciTech Connect

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Leslie, H.D.; Wheelis, W.B.

    1984-09-01

    An experimental and numerical wave mechanics study of cement bond logs demonstrated that wellsite computer processing can now segregate wellbore fluid effects from the sonic signal response to changing cement strength. Traditionally, cement logs have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore, without consideration of wellbore fluid effects. These effects were assumed to be negligible. However, with the increasing number of logs being run in completion fluids such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/, large variations in cement bond logs became apparent. A Schlumberger internal paper showing that bond log amplitude is related to the acoustic impedance of the fluid in which the tool is run led to a comprehensive study of wellbore fluid effects. Numerical and experimental models were developed simulating wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 95/8-in. casings by varying the wellbore fluid densities, viscosities, and fluid types (acoustic impedance). Parallel numerical modeling was undertaken using similar parameters. The results showed that the bond log amplitude varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid's acoustic impedance; for example, there was a 70 percent increase in the signal amplitude for 11.5-lb/ gal CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a Fluid-Compensated Bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of varying wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  18. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  19. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  20. Coal log pipeline research at University of Missouri. Second quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1996-06-01

    During this quarter, significant progress has been made in the following, fronts of coal log pipeline research, development and technology transfer: 1. Design of the special 300-ton coal log compaction machine was completed, Furthermore, much progress has been made in the design of the system needed to feed coal into the coal log compaction machine, and the design of the system to remove logs automatically as soon as they are compacted. 2. Coal mixtures containing different amounts of moisture were compacted into 1.91- inch-diameter coal logs rapidly (in 6 seconds). It was found that for the Mettiki coal tested, the optimum moisture is around 8%. Under the test conditions (room temperature and 3% binders), the rapidly compacted coal logs with 8% moisture had less than 4% weight loss in 350 cycles of circulation. 3. Completed evaluation of the effectiveness of using wall lubricants to enhance coal log quality. Both calcium sterarate and MoS{sub 2} were found to be effective. 4. It was found that when the interior of a mold is not cleaned after coal log has been compacted, the coal mixture film clinging to the wall hardens in time and form a hard crust which affects the quality of the next log to be produced. But, if the second log is produced immediately after the first, no hard crust is formed and the quality of the second log, is not affected. 5. Coal logs made with the coal crushed by the Gundlach Company were found to be better than coal logs made with the coal crushed by the CPRC`s hammer mill. 7. A 320-ft-long, 6-inch-diameter coal log pipeline test facility was constructed in Rolla during this period. 8. Completed the simulation of an 8-inch-diameter, 20-mile-long coal log pipeline recirculating loop driven by a pump bypass. 9. Continued improvement was accomplished in the hydraulic model of HCP and CLP to predict pressure drop and capsule velocity for both single capsules and capsule train. Also, work has started to extend the analysis to sloped pipelines.

  1. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  2. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  3. Nuclear logging and geothermal log interpretation: formation temperature sonde evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, E.W.; Vagelatos, N.; Dickerson, J.M.; Nguyen, V.

    1982-01-01

    The theory and methodology of the neutron-based technique for the determination of the formation temperature in geothermal fields are discussed. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated before start of the present development phase. The present work is intended to evaluate the response of the temperature probe in a simulated fracture porosity granite matrix at temperatures likely to be encountered in known geothermal reservoirs. An above ground borehole model has been designed and constructed. The effect of high ambient temperatures on the response of the neutron detectors in the probe mockup used in the measurements was investigated and used to correct the detector counts. An improved data analysis method has been developed to account properly for the effects of low porosity and high temperatures. Measurements, using the above ground borehole model, have shown that a linear correlation between the ratio of thermal counts from a Gd-filtered detector to counts from a bare detector and formation temperature is good at temperatures as high as 380/sup 0/F. The present results are consistent with earlier data obtained in high-porosity laboratory models at lower temperatures (T < 167/sup 0/F). Further measurements at high temperature at various porosities and formation neutron absorption cross sections would be necessary for a more extensive comparison.

  4. Branching ratio for sup 10 C superallowed Fermi. beta. decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Y.; Kunihiro, K.; Toriyama, T.; Harada, S.; Torii, Y.; Yoshida, A. ); Nomura, T.; Tanaka, J. ); Shinozuka, T. )

    1991-01-01

    The branching ratio for {sup 10}C superallowed Fermi {beta} decay has been measured accurately by a newly developed method. The result is 1.473{plus minus}0.007 %. The {ital Ft} value is derived as 3065.4{plus minus}14.7 sec, which is consistent with the {ital Ft} values determined accurately for heavier nuclei and with predictions of conserved vector current hypothesis. The method developed here can be applied to the high precision {beta}-{gamma} spectroscopy.

  5. Resistivity logging of fractured basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Stefansson, V.; Axelsson, G.; Sigurdsson, O.

    1982-01-01

    A lumped double porosity model was studied in order to estimate the effect of fractures on resistivity - porosity relations. It is found that the relationship between resistivity and porosity for fractured rock is in general not simple and depends both on the amounts of matrix porosity as well as the fracture orientation. However, when fractures dominate over matrix porosity the exponent is close to 1.0. Resistivity-porosity relations have been determined for large amounts of basaltic formations in Iceland. An exponent close to 1.0 is found in all cases investigated. This is interpreted as fractures constitute a considerable part of the porosity of the basalts. In the IRDP-hole in Eastern Iceland it is found that the ratio of fracture porosity to total porosity decreases with depth.

  6. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  7. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-08

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas.

  8. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  9. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  10. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  11. Non-destructive determination of soluble solids in chufa by FT-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang; Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Fu, Xiaping; Yu, Haiyan; Liu, Yande

    2005-11-01

    The near infrared (NIR) method based on fibre-optic FT-NIR spectrometer was tested to determine soluble solids content (SSC) non-destructively in chufa (Eleocharis tuberose schult). A total of 240 chufas (120 of cv. 'Jinhua' and 120 of cv. 'Yongkang') sampled from eight positions in the different fields to increase variation in soluble solids content, were measured after 2-days storage and the measurements randomly assigned to a calibration data set and a prediction data set. Thus the calibration set and the prediction set represented exactly the same distribution. The calibration data set was used to select the wavelengths best correlated with Brix and different regression methods (partial least squares (PLS) regression and multiple linear regression (MLR)) that was applied to calculate the Brix value in the prediction data set. The most significant r (0.9056) was found with the first derivative of log (1/R) (where R reflectance), yielding standard error of calibration (SEC)=0.545 Brix, standard error of prediction (SEP)=0.632 Brix. Analysis of different methods performed on the actual and the predicted Brix showed PLS is better than MLR. This NIR method seems reliable for determining soluble solids contents of chufa non-destructively, and could prove useful for it.

  12. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  13. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  14. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  15. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  16. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  17. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  18. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  19. Web Logs in the English Classroom: More Than Just Chat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2003-01-01

    Details the use and appeal of Web logs to enhance classroom discussion and allow for outside involvement in the classroom. Defines a Web log, addresses discussing literature in a Web log, and describes the author's first attempts at using Web-log technology. Presents considerations for using Web logs as part of classroom instruction. (SG)

  20. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  1. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  2. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  3. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  4. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  5. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  6. Fourier-Transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Errol W.

    2014-03-28

    FT-ICR MS achieves the highest resolution and best mass measurement accuracy of any mass spectrometry method. These remarkable achievements are due to several factors, including multi-channel detection, measurement of frequency, magnetic field stability, and dependence of cyclotron frequency on only the magnetic field and ion mass to charge ratio, not on ion kinetic energy and other factors. Significant advances in magnet technology, instrument design and construction continue to enhance the capabilities of FT-ICR MS. FT-ICR has been applied to a variety of analytical challenges and is particularly suited to the analysis of complex mixtures and in applications where high resolution and mass measurement accuracy are critical analytical parameters.

  7. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  8. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  9. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics. [Patient application

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1980-11-05

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or epithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  10. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, Ralston W.; Jensen, Dal H.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or eqithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  11. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  12. Rill Erosion in Post Wildfire Forests after Salvage Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Peter; Wagenbrenner, Joseph; Brown, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Despite the dominance of concentrated flow or rill erosion in the erosion processes especially in steep forest environments that have been affected by wildfire or management activities few studies have quantified these effects on rill erosion. This study quantified the effects of wildfire and post-fire timber salvage operations on rill runoff quantity, runoff velocity, and rill erosion. Simulated rill experiments were conducted at various sites in the Western US after wildfire and timber salvage operations. The onsite conditions consists of burned only, salvage logged, skid or snig trail, or skid trails with extra logging debris added. For each rill experiment, concentrated flow was applied at the top of the plot through an energy dissipater at five inflow rates for 12 min each. Runoff was sampled every 2 min and runoff volume and sediment concentration were determined for each sample. The runoff velocity was measured using a dyed calcium chloride solution and two conductivity probes placed a known distance apart. Runoff volume, runoff velocities, and sediment concentrations increased with increasing levels of disturbance. The burned only plots had lower runoff rates and sediment concentrations than any of the other disturbances. The salvage logged plots had greater responses than the burn only plots and the mitigation treatment had a marginal effect on runoff ratios, runoff velocities and sediment concentrations. These results suggest that additional disturbance after a wildfire can increase the erosional response and that proper erosion control mitigation may be an important consideration for post fire management to reduce onsite erosion.

  13. Geophysical-log and hydraulic-test analyses of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community, Menominee County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Anderson, J. Alton; Lampe, David C.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Hannahville Indian Community, evaluated the geohydrology of the bedrock formations and hydraulic properties of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community in Menominee County, Michigan. Geophysical logs were collected from five wells at two sites during September 2012. The logs were analyzed to characterize the lithostratigraphy, bedding and fractures, and hydraulic properties of the geologic formations and aquifers beneath the Hannahville Indian Community. The geophysical logs collected included natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, wellbore image, caliper, ambient and stressed flowmeter, fluid resistivity, temperature, and wellbore deviation. The geophysical logs were analyzed with results from short-term hydraulic tests to estimate the transmissivity and water-level altitudes of flow zones penetrated by the wells. The geophysical log analysis indicated the wells penetrated four distinct lithostratigraphic units—shale and carbonate rock, upper carbonate rock, carbonate rock and glauconitic sandstone, and lower carbonate rock. Most of the fractures penetrated by the wellbores appeared to be related bedding partings. The lower carbonate rock unit contained solution features. Analysis of the geophysical logs and hydraulic tests indicated that each of the five wells penetrated from one to four flow zones. The Casino 5 well penetrated a flow zone that was associated with solution features and had an estimated total transmissivity of 4,280 feet squared per day (ft2/d), the highest estimate for all the wells. The Casino 3 well penetrated four flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 3,570 ft2/d. The flow zones penetrated in the lower carbonate rock unit by the Casino 3 and 5 wells were hydraulically connected. The Golf Shack well penetrated two flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 40 ft2/d, the lowest estimate for all the wells. The Community 1

  14. 1. Zinc Plant, looking north, down Government Gulch. 610 ft. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Zinc Plant, looking north, down Government Gulch. 610 ft. tall stack replaced original 200 ft. radial brick stack formerly at rear of Cottrell treater. - Sullivan Electrolytic Zinc Plant, Government Gulch, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  15. BLACKSMITH SHOP ROOF STRUCTURE AT JUNCTION BETWEEN 60 FT. AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLACKSMITH SHOP ROOF STRUCTURE AT JUNCTION BETWEEN 60 FT. AND 90 FT. SPAN ROOF TRUSSES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Blacksmith Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. Determination of pediatric reference levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH measured with ECLusys kits.

    PubMed

    Iwaku, Kenji; Noh, Jaeduk Yoshimura; Minagawa, Akinobu; Kosuga, Yuka; Suzuki, Miho; Sekiya, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Masako; Ohye, Hidemi; Kunii, Yo; Yoshihara, Ai; Watanabe, Natsuko; Mukasa, Koji; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Reference ranges for serum thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in children were set using the assay kits currently used in clinical settings. A total of 342 children (111 males and 231 females) who were negative for antithyroid antibodies (TgAb, TPOAb) and were found to have no abnormalities on ultrasonographic examination of the thyroid gland were divided into 6 age groups: 4-6 years (45 children), 7-8 years (40), 9-10 years (53), 11-12 years (65), 13-14 years (83), and 15 years (56) for the study. FT3, FT4 and TSH levels were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) (ECLusys FT3, FT4 and TSH).The reference range for FT3 (pg/mL) was 2.91-4.70 for the age group of 4-6 years, 3.10-5.10 for the age group of 7-8 years, 3.10-4.87 for the age group of 9-10 years, 2.78-4.90 for the age group of 11-12 years, 2.77-4.59 for the age group of 13-14 years, and 2.50-4.64 for the age group of 15 years . The reference range for FT4 (ng/dL) was 1.12-1.67, 1.07-1.61, 0.96-1.60, 1.02-1.52, 0.96-1.52, 0.95-1.53. The reference range for TSH (μU/mL) was 0.62-4.90, 0.53-5.16, 0.67-4.52, 0.62-3.36, 0.54-2.78, 0.32-3.00. Serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in children differ from those in adults. It is, therefore, of importance to perform evaluation of thyroid function in children using reference values appropriate for the chronological ages, because misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism or inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH) and oversight of mild subclinical hypothyroidism could occur if the diagnosis is made using reference values for adults.

  17. 5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half dovetail notching on hand-hewn logs. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. 55. VIEW OF STEAMOPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF STEAM-OPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING LOGS INTO RALPH HULL LUMBER CO. LOG POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1942. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  19. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  20. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 4th Quarterly report for 1994, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Wilson, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Several factors involved in coal log fabrication, storage and handling, such as curing time, aspect ratio and particle size distribution, were evaluated during the fourth quarter of 1994. When Orimulsion is used for coal log fabrication, a certain period of time is required to build up the strength of coal log. From the test results obtained, the longer the curing period the greater the wear resistance of the coal log. From previous studies, the coal log length to diameter ratio (aspect) was found to be an important factor affecting coal log performance during the pipeline degradation test. From the 2 inches pipeline degradation test results, coal logs with aspect ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 traveled in a more stable manner, and had lower weight loss than coal logs with aspect ratios less than 1.6. The influence of particle size on the performance of a coal log was evaluated to determine the optimum particle size for coal log fabrication, based on practical and economical considerations.

  1. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  2. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  3. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroume, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3-min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors which in turn provides model uncertainties. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. Particularly dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

  4. Prediction of saturation using the carbon/oxygen log

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, S.C.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1984-09-01

    This project investigates the nature of Dresser-Atlas Carbon/Oxygen Log gamma ray spectra. It presents an attempt to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the C/O and Si/Ca parameters used by Dresser-Atlas to determine oil saturation. Two techniques were developed to subtract the Compton background from the spectral data. Neither technique significantly improves the accuracy of the cased-hole prediction of oil saturation. However, it has been shown that it is possible to develop a satisfactory correlation for oil saturation on a well-by-well basis. This correlation can then be used to generate oil-in-place from the C/O and Si/Ca ratios. 17 references.

  5. High-loading, 1800 ft/sec tip speed transonic compressor fan stage. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. L.; Halle, J. E.; Kennedy, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A single stage fan with a tip speed of 1800 ft/sec (548.6m/sec) and hub/tip ratio of 0.5 was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 2.285:1 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.0%. The design flow per inlet annulus area is 38.7 lbm/sq ft-sec (188.9KG/sqm-sec). Rotor blades have modified multiple-circular-arc and precompression airfoil sections. The stator vanes have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections.

  6. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  7. Lithologic logs and geophysical logs from test drilling in Palm Beach County, Florida, since 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, Leo J.; McGovern, Michael C.; Fischer, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Test-hole data that may be used to determine the hydrogeology of the zone of high permeability in Palm Beach County, Fla., are presented. Lithologic logs from 46 test wells and geophysical logs from 40 test wells are contained in this report. (USGS)

  8. LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honerman, James

    1999-01-01

    Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

  9. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  10. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of (235)U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  11. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  12. Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

    1999-07-01

    A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

  13. MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

  14. FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, D.

    1998-06-01

    FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial, plant animal or human cells, tissues, and body fluids are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions, and differentiate between various disease states. The spectral information potentially useful for biomedical characterizations may be distributed over the entire infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. over the near-, mid-, and far-infrared. It is therefore a key problem how the characteristic vibrational spectroscopic information can be systematically extracted from the infrared spectra of complex biological samples. In this report these questions are addressed by applying factor and cluster analysis treating the classification problem of microbial infrared spectra as a model task. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the FT-IR spectrometer. FT-IR spectra of single microcolonies of less than 40 μm in diameter can be obtained from colony replica applying a stamping technique that transfers the different, spatially separated microcolonies from the culture plate to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x,y-stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro-organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. Since high quality, essentially fluorescence free Raman spectra may now be obtained in relatively short time intervals on previously intractable biological specimens, FT-IR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used in tandem to characterize biological samples. This approach seems to open up new horizons for biomedical characterizations of complex biological systems.

  15. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    SciTech Connect

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  17. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  18. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  19. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  20. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  1. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  2. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  5. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  6. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  7. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  9. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  10. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  11. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  12. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  13. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  14. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  16. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  17. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  18. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  19. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  20. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  1. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  2. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  3. Precision prediction of the log power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repp, A.; Szapudi, I.

    2017-01-01

    At translinear scales, the log power spectrum captures significantly more cosmological information than the standard power spectrum. At high wavenumbers k, the Fisher information in the standard power spectrum P(k) fails to increase in proportion to k, in part due to correlations between large- and small-scale modes. As a result, P(k) suffers from an information plateau on these translinear scales, so that analysis with the standard power spectrum cannot access the information contained in these small-scale modes. The log power spectrum PA(k), on the other hand, captures the majority of this otherwise lost information. Until now there has been no means of predicting the amplitude of the log power spectrum apart from cataloging the results of simulations. We here present a cosmology-independent prescription for the log power spectrum; this prescription displays accuracy comparable to that of Smith et al., over a range of redshifts and smoothing scales, and for wavenumbers up to 1.5 h Mpc-1.

  4. [Human development and log-periodic law].

    PubMed

    Cash, Roland; Chaline, Jean; Nottale, Laurent; Grou, Pierre

    2002-05-01

    We suggest applying the log-periodic law formerly used to describe various crisis phenomena, in biology (evolutionary leaps), inorganic systems (earthquakes), societies and economy (economic crisis, market crashes) to the various steps of human ontogeny. We find a statistically significant agreement between this model and the data.

  5. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

  6. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other device is then hooked to the lifting or pulling machine. Danger tree. A standing tree that... delivery, such as, but not limited to, marking danger trees and trees/logs to be cut to length, felling... danger tree shall be felled, removed or avoided. Each danger tree, including lodged trees and...

  7. Data logging technology in ambulatory medical instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Lyons, G M

    2001-05-01

    This paper reviews the advancements made in ambulatory data logging used in the study of human subjects since the inception of the analogue tape based data logger in the 1960s. Research into the area of ambulatory monitoring has been rejuvenated due to the development of novel storage technologies during the 1990s. Data logging systems that were previously impractical due to lack of processing power, practical size and cost are now available to the practitioner. An overview of the requirements of present day ambulatory data logging is presented and analogue tape, solid-state memory and disk drive storage recording systems that have been described in the literature are investigated in detail. It is proposed that digital based technology offers the best solution to the problems encountered during human based data logging. The appearance of novel digital storage media will continue the trend of increased recording durations, signal resolution and number of parameters thus allowing the momentum gained throughout the last several decades to continue.

  8. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  9. The Design Log: A New Informational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The design log is a record of observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, and performance specifications for each space in a structure. It is a systematic approach to design that integrates information about user needs with traditional architectural programming and design. (Author/MLF)

  10. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    SciTech Connect

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Wheelis, W.B. Jr.; Leslie, H.D.

    1986-08-01

    Simulations of cement bond logging (CBL) have shown that wellbore fluid effects can be segregated from sonic-signal response to changing cement strengths. Traditionally, the effects have been considered negligible and the CBL's have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore. However, large variations in CBL's have become apparent with the increasing number of logs run in completion fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/. To study wellbore fluid effects, physical and numerical models were developed that simulated the wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 9 5/8-in. casings for a range of wellbore fluid types and for both densities and viscosities. Parallel numerical modeling used similar parameters. Results show that bond-log amplitudes varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid acoustic impedance-i.e., there was a 70% increase in signal amplitudes for 11.5 lbm/gal (1370-kg/m/sup 3/) CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a fluid-compensated bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of various wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  11. Micro FT-IR Characterization Of Human Lung Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Enzo; Teodori, L.; Vergamini, Piergiorgio; Trinca, M. L.; Mauro, F.; Salvati, F.; Spremolla, Giuliano

    1989-12-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has opened up a new approach to the analytical study of cell transformation. Investigations carried out in normal and leukemic lymphocytes have evidenced an increase in DNA with respect to proteic components in neoplastic cells.(1) The evaluation of the ratio of the integrated areas(A) of the bands at 1080 cm-1 (mainly DNA) and at 1540 cm-1 (proteic components) has allowed us to establish a parameter which indicates, for values above 1.5, the neoplastic nature of cells. Recently, this approach has been applied to the study of human lung tumor cells. Several monocellular suspension procedures of the tissue fragment (mechanical and/or chemical) were tested to obtain reproducible and reliable spectra able to differentiate clearly between normal and patological cells. Chemical treatment (EDTA, Pepsin, Collagenase, etc.) produced additional bands in the spectra of the cells causing distortion of the profiles of some absorptions, and as a result, mechanical treatment was preferred. The normal and neoplastic cells homogeneously distributed by cytospin preparation on BaF2 windows were examined by means of FT-IR microscopy. An examination of several microareas of each sample yielded reproducible spectra, with values of the A 1080 cm-1 / A 1540 cm-1 parameter within a very narrow range for each sample, even if certain differences still remained among the different cases, in good agreement with the results obtained for leukemic cells.(1) The value of this parameter was found to be lower for cells isolated from the normal area of lung, than in the case of those corresponding to the tumoral area, meaning that an increase occurs in DNA with respect to the proteic components. These insights, which provide a basis to obtain indications at the molecular level, can open up new possibilities in clinical practice, in order to obtain diagnosis confirmation, to detect early stages of disease and to offer additional indications in cases of dubious interpretation.

  12. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-09-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but potentially overlook important geomorphic responses on shorter time scales immediately following timber harvest. Sediments fluxes are commonly estimated from linear regression of intermittent measurements of water and sediment discharge using sediment rating curves (SRCs). However, these often unsatisfactorily reproduce non-linear effects such as discharge-load hystereses. We resolve such important dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3 min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~ 0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~ 80% of the total sediment load was transported during rare but high magnitude runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. The variability of sediment flux of these rare events spans four orders of magnitude. In particular dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more moderate events. We show that QRFs outperforms traditional SRCs in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment discharge at high temporal resolution.

  13. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-03-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux often focus on annual timescales but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics with non-parametric quantile regression forests (QRF) based on high-frequency (3 min) discharge measurements and sediment concentration data sampled every 30-60 min in similar-sized (˜0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the random forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ˜80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. In particular, dry-season logging dampened the relative role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We show that QRFs outperform traditional sediment rating curves (SRCs) in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

  14. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers

    PubMed Central

    Carlos Martinez-Motta, J; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-01-01

    Introduction We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Methods Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes and drop-down lists, and data were uploaded to a central database via the internet. To evaluate the feasibility of this system, we tracked the utilization of this data collection system. Benefits and disadvantages were assessed through surveys. Results All 11 trainees successfully uploaded data to the central database, but only six (55%) continued to upload data on a regular basis. The most common reason cited for not using the system pertained to initial technical problems with data uploading. From 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003, a total of 914 procedures were logged. Significant variability was noted in the number of procedures logged by individual trainees (range 13–242). The database generated by regular users provided potentially useful information to the training program director regarding the scope and location of procedural training among the different rotations and hospitals. Conclusion A handheld computer procedure logging system can be effectively used in a critical care training program. However, user acceptance was not uniform, and continued training and support are required to increase user acceptance. Such a procedure database may provide valuable information that may be used to optimize trainees' educational experience and to document clinical training experience for licensing and accreditation. PMID:15469577

  15. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  16. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  17. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  18. FT-IR and FT-Raman study of hydrothermally degraded groundwood containing paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proniewicz, Leonard M.; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Barański, Andrzej; Dutka, Dorota

    2002-09-01

    Accelerated aging test of paper is used to understand mechanisms of acidic hydrolysis and oxidative degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In recent years FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy have been used together with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance as well as chemometrics methods to characterize degradation products of paper. In this work we present FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of hydrothermally treated sample of acid paper (Paper 3—bleached sulfite softwood pulp) in extreme humid conditions (100% humidity and 100 °C). Degradation reaction is monitored mainly based on CO stretching vibrations formed during the process of carbonyl compounds, however, some changes in CC stretching vibrations are also noticed. We showed that in these conditions paper undergoes oxidation process in which at least three new carbonyl species that can be characterized by their CO stretches are formed. Additionally, during this process, one can observe disappearance of the CC stretching that can be associated with changes that involve, for example, coniferyl alcohol. We also show that water molecules play very important role in this process. Thus, we report here, changes caused by hydrothermal treatment of groundwood containing paper mainly associated with the appearance of new carbonyl species, besides others, as well as rearrangement of existing hydrogen bond network.

  19. Determination of the degree of cure of dental resins using Raman and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shin, W S; Li, X F; Schwartz, B; Wunder, S L; Baran, G R

    1993-09-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has traditionally been used to determine the degree of conversion of dental resins. FT-Raman scattering provided an alternate method of obtaining degrees of conversion for these systems and was particularly useful for measuring spectra of materials without any sample preparation. Raman and FT-Raman spectroscopy gave identical results, but the latter technique was preferred for the highly fluorescent samples often encountered in commercial composites. Linear calibration curves were obtained for the aromatic mixtures Bis-GMA/TEGDMA and Bisphenol-A/TEGDMA using C = C/phi, and for the wholly aliphatic mixture EGDMA/EGDA using C = C/C = O, over a wide range of mole ratios. If both the mole and intensity ratios [C = C/phi or C = C/C = O] were known for an uncured dental resin, then the degrees of conversion could be obtained for the cured materials using Raman spectroscopy. However, if the mole ratios for the uncured resin were unknown, then the degree of conversion depended on the calibration curve, since the Raman scattering cross section of the vibrational modes depended on the molecules to which they were attached.

  20. Results of borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in the John Wagner and Sons, Inc former production well, Ivyland, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    A suite of borehole geophysical logs and heat-pulse-flowmeter measurements run in the former production well at the John Wagner and Sons, Inc. plant indicate two zones of borehole flow. In the upper part of the well, water enters the borehole through a fracture at 90 ft (feet) below floor level, moves upward, and exits the borehole through a fracture at 72 ft below floor level. Water also enters the borehole through fractures at 205-213, 235, and 357 ft below floor level; moves downward; and exits the borehole through fractures at 450-459, 468-470, and 483-490 ft below floor level. Five zones were selected for aquifer-isolation (packer) tests on the basis of borehole geophysical logs. The zones were isolated using a straddle-packer assembly. The lowermost three zones (below 248, 223 to 248, and 198 to 223 ft below floor level) were hydraulically isolated from zones above and below. Specific capacities were 0.12, 0.034, and 0.15 gallons per minute per foot, respectively. The hydrograph from zone 2 (223 to 248 ft below floor level) showed interference from a nearby pumping well. For the upper two zones (81 to 106 and 57 to 81 ft below floor level), similar drawdowns in the isolated zone and the zones above and below the isolated zone indicate that these fractures are hydraulically connected outside the borehole in the unconfined part of the Stockton Formation. The specific capacity of zones 4 and 5 are similar--0.82 and 0.61, respectively.

  1. Theoretical (DFT) and experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR) investigations on 7-Acetoxy-4-(bromomethyl)coumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogdu, Y.; Saglam, S.; Dereli, Ö.

    2015-09-01

    An analysis of the results of the structural and spectroscopic studies of 7-Acetoxy-4-(bromomethyl) coumarin (7A4BMC) molecule were performed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and quantum chemical calculations. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 7A4BMC were recorded in the 400-4000 and 50-3500 cm-1 region, respectively. The molecular conformations of 7A4BMC were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular structure and spectral calculations were calculated by means of B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p), cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The whole vibrational characteristics of the 7A4BMC molecule are given.

  2. Estimators and characteristics of logging residue in California. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.O.; Bulgrin, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    Ratios are presented for estimating volume and characteristics of logging residue. The ratios relate cubic-foot volume of residue to thousand board feet of timber harvested and to acres harvested. Tables show gross and net volume of residue with and without bark, by diameter and length classes, by number of pieces per acre, by softwoods and hardwoods, by percent soundness, and by degree of slope and distance to roads.

  3. Determination of polymer log D distributions by micellar and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoyun; Leclercq, Laurent; Cottet, Hervé

    2013-11-29

    The characterization of the hydrophobicity of polymer compounds in solution remains a challenging issue of importance, especially for biomedical or pharmaceutical applications. To our knowledge, there is no data of polymer hydrophobicity (log D) in the literature. In this work, for the first time, the log D distributions of cationic polymers were characterized using micellar or microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography at physiological pH. The log D distributions of the polymer samples were obtained from the electrophoretic/chromatographic retardation of the polymer derivatives in presence of neutral micelles (or neutral microemulsion), using small cationic molecules for calibration. Separating electrolytes were based on a TRIS–chloride buffer containing a neutral surfactant (polyoxyethyleneglycoldodecyl ether) for the formation of micelles (in water) or microemulsion (in water/n-pentanol mixture).The log D distributions obtained at pH 7.4 using this method were in good agreement with the chemical structures of cationic polypeptides: poly(lys, phe) 1:1 > poly(lys, tyr) 1:1 > poly(lys, trp) 4:1 > poly(lys, ser)3:1 > poly(l-lysine), where x:y represents the molar ratio of each amino acid in the copolymer. Weight average octanol–water log D values and the dispersion of the log D distribution were also defined and determined for each polymer sample.

  4. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    “Lonely guy” (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a “PGGXGTXXE” motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms. PMID:27507425

  5. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-08-10

    "Lonely guy" (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a "PGGXGTXXE" motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms.

  6. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test and Binary Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nydick, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common method for terminating item response theory (IRT)-based adaptive classification tests. To decide whether a classification test should stop, the SPRT compares a simple log-likelihood ratio, based on the classification bound separating two categories, to prespecified critical values. As has…

  7. Novel FT-IR Microspectroscopic Census of Simple Starch Granules for Octenyl Succinate Ester Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Y.; Shi, Y; Wetzel, D

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was used to investigate reaction homogeneity of octenyl succinic anhydride modification on waxy maize starch and detect uniformity of blends of modified and native starches. For the first time, the level and uniformity of chemical substitution on individual starch granules were analyzed by FT-IR microspectroscopy. More than 100 starch granules of each sample were analyzed one by one by FT-IR microspectroscopy. In comparison to the native starch, modified starch had two additional bands at 1723 and 1563 cm{sup -1}, indicative of ester formation in the modified starch. For the 3% modification level, the degree of substitution (DS) was low (0.019) and the distribution of the ester group was not uniform among starch granules. For the modified starch with DS of 0.073, 99% of individual starch granules had a large carbonyl band area, indicating that most granules were modified to a sufficient extent that the presence of their carbonyl ester classified them individually as being modified. However, the octenyl succinate concentration varied between granules, suggesting that the reaction was not uniform. When modified starch (DS = 0.073) was blended with native starch (3:7, w/w) to achieve a mixture with an average DS of 0.019, FT-IR microspectroscopy was able to detect heterogeneity of octenyl succinate in the blend and determine the ratio of the modified starch to the native starch granules.

  8. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation

  9. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  10. Stochastic theory of log-periodic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canessa, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    We introduce an analytical model based on birth-death clustering processes to help in understanding the empirical log-periodic corrections to power law scaling and the finite-time singularity as reported in several domains including rupture, earthquakes, world population and financial systems. In our stochastic theory log-periodicities are a consequence of transient clusters induced by an entropy-like term that may reflect the amount of co-operative information carried by the state of a large system of different species. The clustering completion rates for the system are assumed to be given by a simple linear death process. The singularity at t0 is derived in terms of birth-death clustering coefficients.

  11. Quantifying logging residue - before the fact

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Tree biomass estimation, which is being integrated into the U.S. Forest Service Renewable Resources Evaluation Program, will give foresters the ability to estimate the amount of logging residues they might expect from harvested treetops and branches and residual rough, rotten, and small trees before the actual harvest. With planning, and increased demand for such timber products as pulpwood and fuelwood, product recovery could be increased by up to 43 percent in softwood stands and 99% in hardwoods. Recovery levels affect gross product receipts and site preparation costs. An example of product recovery and residue generation is presented for three harvesting options in Pennsylvania hardwood stands. Under the whole-tree harvesting option, 46% more product was recovered than in single product harvesting, and logging residue levels were reduced by 58%.

  12. No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2010-03-01

    At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing on a unitary quantization. While the TMG Hilbert space is continuous at the chiral point, the left-moving Virasoro generators become ill-defined and cannot be used to define a chiral truncation. In a sense, the left-moving asymptotic symmetries are spontaneously broken at the chiral point. In contrast, in a non-unitary quantization of TMG, both the Hilbert space and charges are continuous at the chiral point and define a unitary theory of chiral gravity at the linearized level.

  13. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  14. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  15. Light bending in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of f(T) gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian f(T) = T + αT2, where α is a small constant which parametrizes the departure from general relativity (GR). In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter α by means of observations. In particular, on taking into account the astrometric accuracy in the Solar System, we obtain that |α|≤ 1.85 × 105m2; this bound is looser than those deriving from the analysis of Solar System dynamics, e.g. |α|≤ 5 × 10-1m2 [L. Iorio, N. Radicella and M. L. Ruggiero, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1508 (2015) 021, arXiv:1505.06996 [gr-qc].], |α|≤ 1.8 × 104m2 [L. Iorio and E. N. Saridakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 (2012) 1555, arXiv:1203.5781 [gr-qc].] or |α|≤ 1.2 × 102m2 [Y. Xie and X. M. Deng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 (2013) 3584, arXiv:1312.4103 [gr-qc].]. However, we suggest that, since the effect only depends on the impact parameter, better constraints could be obtained by studying light bending from planetary objects.

  16. Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, S.

    2013-04-01

    The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my “ASTRO 101” class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

  17. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  18. Theoretical studies of permeability inversion from seismoelectric logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Guan, W.; Zhao, W.

    2012-04-01

    Permeability is one of the most important parameters for evaluating the level of difficulty in oil and gas exploitation. A quick, continuous and accurate in-situ estimate of reservoir permeability is highly significant. Stoneley wave logs have been used to determine formation permeability (Tang and Cheng, 1996). However, the inversion errors of this method are too big in low-permeability formations, especially in high-porosity and low-permeability formations resulting from the high clay content in pores. In this study, we propose to invert permeability by using the full waveforms of seismoelectric logs with low frequencies. This method is based on the relationship of permeability with the ratio of the electric excitation intensity to the pressure field's (REP) with respect to the Stoneley wave in seismoelectric logs. By solving the governing equations for electrokinetic coupled wavefields in homogeneous fluid-saturated porous media (Pride, 1994), we calculate the full waveforms of the borehole seismoelectric wavefields excited by a point pressure source and investigate frequency-dependent excitation intensities of the mode waves and excitation intensities of the real branch points in seismoelectric logs. It is found that the REP's phase, which reflects the phase discrepancy between the Stoneley-wave-induced electric field and the acoustic pressure, is sensitive to formation permeability. To check the relation between permeability and REP's phase qualitatively, an approximate expression of the tangent of the REP's argument is derived theoretically as tan(θEP) ≈-ωc/ω = -φη/ (2πfα ∞ρfκ0), where θEPdenotes the arguments of the REP and their principal value is the REP's phase,ω is the angular frequency,ωc is a critical angular frequency that separates the low-frequency viscous flow from the high-frequency inertial flow, φ is the porosity, α∞ is the tortuosity, κ0 is the Darcy permeability, ρf and η are the density and the viscosity of the pore

  19. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  20. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables.

  1. Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance. PMID:28119871

  2. Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-12-01

    Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance.

  3. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR) and computational studies on 3-methoxyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaranjini, T.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Karabacak, M.; Asiri, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molecular structure, vibrational, UV and NMR spectra of 3-methoxyaniline (abbreviated as 3MOA, C7H9NO) were studied. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded. The ground-state molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP methods and 6-311++G(d, p) as a basis set. The fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 3MOA with calculated results by HF and DFT methods indicates that B3LYP is superior to HF method for molecular vibrational problems. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. A study on the Mulliken atomic charges, the electronic properties were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach, Frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed and compared with methoxybenzene and aniline. The electric dipole moment (μ) and the first hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results also show that the 3MOA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results.

  4. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  5. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation.

  6. Characterization of the Marcellus Shale based on computer-assisted correlation of wireline logs in Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Coleman, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian basin extends from central Ohio on the west to eastern New York on the east, and from north-central New York on the north to northern Tennessee on the south. Its thickness ranges from 0 feet (ft) where it pinches out to the west to as much as 700 ft in its eastern extent. Within the Broadtop synclinorium, the thickness of the Marcellus Shale ranges from 250 to 565 ft. Although stratigraphic complexities have been documented, a significant range in thickness most likely is because of tectonic thickening from folds and thrust faults. Outcrop studies in the Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateaus provinces illustrate the challenges of interpreting the relation of third-order faults, folds, and “disturbed” zones to the regional tectonic framework. Recent field work within the Valley and Ridge province determined that significant faulting and intraformational deformation are present within the Marcellus Shale at the outcrop scale. In an attempt to determine if this scale of deformation is detectable with conventional wireline logs, petrophysical properties (primarily mineralogy and porosity) were measured by interpretation of gamma-ray and bulk-density logs. The results of performing a statistical correlation of wireline logs from nine wells indicated that there are discontinuities within the Millboro Shale (undifferentiated Marcellus Shale and Mahantango Formation) where there are significant thickness differences between wells. Also, some intervals likely contain mineralogy that makes these zones more prone to layer-shortening cleavage duplexes. The Correlator program proved to be a useful tool in a region of contractional deformation.

  7. Walking Training and Cortisol to DHEA-S Ratio in Postmenopause: an Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Izzicupo, Pascal; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Gallina, Sabina; Bucci, Ines; Giuliani, Cesidio; Di Santo, Serena; Di Iorio, Angelo; Ripari, Patrizio; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2017-03-22

    The literature indicates that the plasma cortisol-to-dihydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) ratio is a marker of health status after menopause, when a decline in both estrogens and DHEA-S, and an increase in cortisol occur. An increase in the cortisol-to-DHEA-S ratio has been positively correlated with metabolic syndrome, all-cause mortality, cancer and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a walking program on the plasma cortisol-to-DHEA-S ratio in postmenopausal women. Fifty-one postmenopausal women participated in a 13-week supervised walking program, in the metropolitan area of Pescara (Italy), from June to September 2013. Participants were evaluated in April-May and September-October of the same year. The linear mixed model showed that the variation of the log10Cortisol-to-log10DHEA-S ratio was associated with the volume of exercise (p = .03). Participants having lower adherence to the walking program did not have a significantly modified either log10Cortisol, nor log10DHEA-S, while those having the highest adherence had a significant reduction in log10Cortisol (p = .016), and a nearly significant increase in log10DHEA-S (p = .084). Walking training appeared to reduce the plasma log10Cortisol-to-log10DHEA-S ratio, although a minimum level of training was necessary to achieve this significant reduction.

  8. Definition of Good Tetrads for f(T) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanini, N.; Böhmer, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of choosing suitable tetrads for the study of exact solutions in f(T) gravity is discussed. For any given metric, we define the concept of good tetrads as the tetrads satisfying the field equations without constrainig the function f(T). Employing local Lorentz transformations, good tetrads in the context of spherical symmetry are found for Schwarzschild-de Sitter solutions.

  9. A 928 sq m (10000 sq ft) solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    As the power requirements for space vehicles increases, the area of solar arrays that convert solar energy to usable electrical power increases. The requirements for a 928 sq m (10,000 sq ft) array, its design, and a full-scale demonstration of one quadrant (232 sq m (2500 sq ft)) deployed in a one-g field are described.

  10. FT-Raman Spectroscopy: A Catalyst for the Raman Explosion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, which is used to detect and analyze the scattered radiation, are discussed. FT-Raman has served to revitalize a field that was lagging and the presence of Raman instrumentation as a routine analytical tool is established for the foreseeable future.

  11. Misleading FT4 measurement: Assay-dependent antibody interference

    PubMed Central

    Revet, Ingrid; Boesten, Lianne SM; Linthorst, Jan; Yildiz, Elif; Janssen, Johannes W; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Albersen, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Commonly used free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays can be falsely elevated due to interference causing misinterpreted thyroid function. We present two cases with high FT4 concentrations due to antibody interference. This study’s aim was to investigate the source of the FT4 immunoassay interference and possibility of its removal by two different techniques in order to correct the discrepancy between obtained FT4 values and the patient’s clinical status. Materials and methods Two patients presented at their general practitioners’ with elevated FT4 concentrations in combination with a normal and increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Clinical symptoms differed between patients but did not correspond with the hyperthyroid status suggested by the laboratory results. FT4 concentrations from both patients were measured on four common commercial immunoassays and the dialysis method before and after treatment with heterophilic blocking tubes and protein A/G. Results Removal of interfering antibodies using protein A/G resulted in normal FT4 concentrations. Conclusion This report illustrates falsely elevated FT4 concentrations due to assay interference on the Immulite immunoassay analyser caused by heterophilic antibodies, which were eliminated by protein A/G treatment. We point out the importance of a close collaboration between doctors and the laboratory to avoid unnecessary clinical intervention.

  12. 8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED JACKSLIP USED FOR HAULING LOGS UP TO SAWMILL. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  13. 2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS FROM POND TO JACK LADDER--AN ENDLESS CHAIN CONVEYOR THAT MOVES LOGS INTO MILL - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  14. 5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing Dutch door and square notching at wall corner. View to east. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Draft Horse Barn, 290 feet southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. 6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION AND CHIMNEY STACK - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  16. 8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, detail of log construction - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  17. 3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALFDOVETAIL JOINTS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALF-DOVETAIL JOINTS; LATHE AND PLASTER ADDITION; AND CLAPBOARD SIDING - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  18. 4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on later extension. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  19. 35. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF EAST CHIMNEY BASE SHOWING CONTINUOUS LOG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF EAST CHIMNEY BASE SHOWING CONTINUOUS LOG FOUNDATION OVER VAULT AND THE WEST CRIBBING LOG WITH STONE FILL ON THE EAST. - Penacook House, Daniel Webster Highway (U.S. Route 3), Boscawen, Merrimack County, NH

  20. Movement of geothermal fluid in the Cerro Prieto field as determined from well log and reservoir engineering data

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in its undisturbed state, developed on the basis of well log and reservoir engineering data, is discussed. According to this model, geothermal fluid enters the field from the east through a deep (>10,000 ft) sandstone aquifer which is overlain by a thick shale unit which locally prevents the upward migration of the fluid. As it flows westward, the fluid gradually rises through faults and sandy gaps in the shale unit. Eventually, some of the fluid leaks to the surface in the western part of the field, while the rest mixes with surrounding colder waters.

  1. FT and florigen long-distance flowering control in plants.

    PubMed

    Putterill, Joanna; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2016-10-01

    The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified. Although floral promotion via graft transmission of FT has not been demonstrated in trees, FT-like genes have been successfully applied to reducing the long juvenile (pre-flowering) phase of many trees enabling fast track breeding.

  2. Deadwood stocks increase with selective logging and large tree frequency in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ben S; Koerner, Sally E; Medjibe, Vincent P; White, Lee J T; Poulsen, John R

    2017-04-01

    Deadwood is a major component of aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests and is important as habitat and for nutrient cycling and carbon storage. With deforestation and degradation taking place throughout the tropics, improved understanding of the magnitude and spatial variation in deadwood is vital for the development of regional and global carbon budgets. However, this potentially important carbon pool is poorly quantified in Afrotropical forests and the regional drivers of deadwood stocks are unknown. In the first large-scale study of deadwood in Central Africa, we quantified stocks in 47 forest sites across Gabon and evaluated the effects of disturbance (logging), forest structure variables (live AGB, wood density, abundance of large trees), and abiotic variables (temperature, precipitation, seasonality). Average deadwood stocks (measured as necromass, the biomass of deadwood) were 65 Mg ha(-1) or 23% of live AGB. Deadwood stocks varied spatially with disturbance and forest structure, but not abiotic variables. Deadwood stocks increased significantly with logging (+38 Mg ha(-1) ) and the abundance of large trees (+2.4 Mg ha(-1) for every tree >60 cm dbh). Gabon holds 0.74 Pg C, or 21% of total aboveground carbon in deadwood, a threefold increase over previous estimates. Importantly, deadwood densities in Gabon are comparable to those in the Neotropics and respond similarly to logging, but represent a lower proportion of live AGB (median of 18% in Gabon compared to 26% in the Neotropics). In forest carbon accounting, necromass is often assumed to be a constant proportion (9%) of biomass, but in humid tropical forests this ratio varies from 2% in undisturbed forest to 300% in logged forest. Because logging significantly increases the deadwood carbon pool, estimates of tropical forest carbon should at a minimum use different ratios for logged (mean of 30%) and unlogged forests (mean of 18%).

  3. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  4. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  5. Apparatus for focused electrode induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1986-04-15

    An induced polarization logging tool is described for measuring parameters of a formation surrounding a borehole. The logging tool consists of: a non-conductive logging sonde; a plurality of electrodes disposed on the sonde, the electrodes including at least a survey current electrode and guard electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the survey current electrode, a non-polarizing voltage measuring electrode, a non-polarizing voltage reference electrode and a current return electrode, both the voltage reference and current return electrodes being located a greater distance from the survey current electrode than the guard electrodes; means connected to the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes for generating a signal representative of the potential difference in the formation between the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes; first control means directly coupled to the survey current electrode, the first control means controlling the current flow to the survey current electrode in response to the potential difference signal; a second control means directly coupled to the guard electrodes to control the current flow to the guard electrodes in response to the potential difference signal; a source of alternating current located at the surface, one end of the source being coupled to the two control means and the other to the current return electrode, the source supplying alternating current at various discrete frequencies between substantially 0.01 and 100 Hz; measurement means directly coupled to the voltage measurement and survey current electrodes to measure the amplitude and phase of the voltage induced in the formation and the amplitude and phase of the current flow to the survey electrode; and transmission means for transmitting the measurements to the surface.

  6. Automatic log spectrum restoration of atmospheric seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, R.; Gomez, R.; Santamaria, J.

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic method for (1) digital estimation of the width of the atmospherical seeing in astronomical images of extended objects and (2) image restoration by using the constrained Jansson-Van Cittert deconvolution algorithm. The estimation of the seeing is achieved by computing the radial profile of the averaged log spectrum of the image. The result of this estimation is then applied to compute the Point Spread Function (PSF) used in the deconvolution process. The method is applied to a photographical image of a sunspot. The quality of the restoration assesses the power and usefulness of the method.

  7. Acoustic Logging Modeling by Refined Biot's Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    An explicit uniform completely conservative finite difference scheme for the refined Biot's equations is proposed. This system is modified according to the modern theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in a fluid-saturated elastic porous media. The approximate local boundary transparency conditions are constructed. The acoustic logging device is simulated by the choice of appropriate boundary conditions on its external surface. This scheme and these conditions are satisfactory for exploring borehole acoustic problems in permeable formations in a real axial-symmetrical situation. The developed approach can be adapted for a nonsymmetric case also.

  8. Identifying related journals through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

  9. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  10. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  11. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  12. VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benoît.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

  13. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  14. The Learning Log as an Integrated Instructional Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topaz, Beverley

    1997-01-01

    Use of student learning logs is recommended as a means for both students and teacher to assess second-language learning. The approach encourages learners to analyze their learning difficulties and plan for overcoming them. Incorporated into portfolios, logs can be used to analyze progress. Sample log sheet and chart used as a framework for…

  15. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  16. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  17. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  18. Learning Logs in the Science Classroom: The Literacy Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenson, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses one of the most functional forms of writing to learn, the two-column learning logs. Two-column learning logs are based on the premise that collecting information and processing information are two very different aspects of learning. Two-column logs allow students to connect the facts and theories of science to…

  19. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  20. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During... date and time of each measurement and test must be recorded in the vessel's log....

  1. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  2. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  3. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  4. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  5. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  6. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  7. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  8. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During... date and time of each measurement and test must be recorded in the vessel's log....

  9. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  10. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  11. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  12. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  13. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  14. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  15. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  16. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During... date and time of each measurement and test must be recorded in the vessel's log....

  17. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  18. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During... date and time of each measurement and test must be recorded in the vessel's log....

  19. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  20. Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft

  1. An NMR log echo data de-noising method based on the wavelet packet threshold algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangning; Xie, Ranhong; Li, Changxi; Hu, Falong; Li, Chaoliu; Zhou, Cancan

    2015-12-01

    To improve the de-noising effects of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log echo data, this paper applies the wavelet packet threshold algorithm to the data. The principle of the algorithm is elaborated in detail. By comparing the properties of a series of wavelet packet bases and the relevance between them and the NMR log echo train signal, ‘sym7’ is found to be the optimal wavelet packet basis of the wavelet packet threshold algorithm to de-noise the NMR log echo train signal. A new method is presented to determine the optimal wavelet packet decomposition scale; this is within the scope of its maximum, using the modulus maxima and the Shannon entropy minimum standards to determine the global and local optimal wavelet packet decomposition scales, respectively. The results of applying the method to the simulated and actual NMR log echo data indicate that compared with the wavelet threshold algorithm, the wavelet packet threshold algorithm, which shows higher decomposition accuracy and better de-noising effect, is much more suitable for de-noising low SNR-NMR log echo data.

  2. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin

    2007-05-01

    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples.

  3. Parameter-adjusted stochastic resonance system for the aperiodic echo chirp signal in optimal FrFT domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-feng; Yu, Lei; Wang, Huiqi; Zhong, Suchuan

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the system performance for moving target detection and localization, this paper presents a new aperiodic chirp signal and additive noise driving stochastic dynamical system, in which the internal frequency has the linear variation matching with the driving frequency. By using the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) operator with the optimal order, the proposed time-domain dynamical system is transformed into the equivalent FrFT-domain system driven by the periodic signal and noise. Therefore, system performance is conveniently analyzed from the view of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in optimal FrFT domain. Simulation results demonstrate that the output SNR, as a function of system parameter, shows the different generalized SR behaviors in the case of various internal parameters of driving chirp signal and external parameters of the moving target.

  4. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Schmidt, Walter; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Chan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w). FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. PMID:28231130

  5. Selected borehole geophysical logs and drillers' logs, northern coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murashige, J.E.; Birkelo, B.A.; Pucci, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents lithologic data compiled during the initial phase of a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resources to assess the hydrogeology of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The report includes 109 geophysical logs and 328 drillers ' logs that were selected as representative of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. A description of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system also is give. (USGS)

  6. Ice logging with light and sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay, Ryan C.; Bramall, Nathan; Price, P. Buford

    Polar ice may well be the purest solid substance on Earth, and yet the impurities it contains—gases, dust, and micro-organisms—provide a rich record of Earth's past climate, volcanism, and one-celled life going back ˜400,000 years. Until recently detailed records had been deciphered mostly in chemical and biological laboratories from meter-long ice cores removed by drills capable of coring to bedrock thousands of meters down. Now, borehole instruments are adding a new dimension to the study of ice sheets. They can rapidly log records of past climate, volcanism, c-axis ice fabric, and soon, even microbial life and grain size. Gary Clow, a pioneer in borehole logging, has been measuring temperature profiles that provide information on climate and ice flow [Dahl-Jensen et al., 1998]. From sonic velocity profiles, Kendrick Taylor and Gregg Lamorey are able to infer c-axis fabrics, which record the history of ice flow Robert Hawley and Ed Waddington have developed a video logger that detects annual layers in firn ice.

  7. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  8. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  9. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  10. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  11. Three-class classification models of logS and logP derived by using GA-CG-SVM approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Ming-Li; Ma, Chang-Ying; Huang, Qi; Li, Wei; Xie, Yang; Wei, Yu-Quan; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-05-01

    In this investigation, three-class classification models of aqueous solubility (logS) and lipophilicity (logP) have been developed by using a support vector machine (SVM) method combined with a genetic algorithm (GA) for feature selection and a conjugate gradient method (CG) for parameter optimization. A 5-fold cross-validation and an independent test set method were used to evaluate the SVM classification models. For logS, the overall prediction accuracy is 87.1% for training set and 90.0% for test set. For logP, the overall prediction accuracy is 81.0% for training set and 82.0% for test set. In general, for both logS and logP, the prediction accuracies of three-class models are slightly lower by several percent than those of two-class models. A comparison between the performance of GA-CG-SVM models and that of GA-SVM models shows that the SVM parameter optimization has a significant impact on the quality of SVM classification model.

  12. Additional borehole geophysical logging at Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This technical memorandum describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected coreholes at Waste Area Grouping 1 between March and November 1991 in support of the remedial investigation. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify fractured bedrock zones and identify those fractured bedrock zones participating in active groundwater flow, (2) correlate the fractured intervals with the regional stratigraphy described, and (3) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic correlations with existing logs for coreholes CH001 through CH005. Fractured bedrock zones and active or open fractures were identified in all coreholes logged. The fracture identification and analysis process was intended to distinguish between open or active fractures participating in active groundwater flow and closed or inactive fractures that are partially or completely filled (such as with calcite mineralization) and do not support groundwater circulation. Most of the fractures identified are bedding plane. Fracture occurrence varies with the different units of the Chickamauga Group; the greatest density of fractures and active fractures occurs in the upper 150 ft of stratum cored. Fractures actively contributing to groundwater flow were also identified, and direction of fluid movement within fractures was identified for those coreholes with flowmeter data.

  13. In-situ gas hydrate hydrate saturation estimated from various well logs at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed detailed analysis and interpretation of available 2-D and 3-D seismic data and proposed a viable method for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the gas hydrate stability zone in the Milne Point area of northern Alaska. To validate the predictions of the USGS and to acquire critical reservoir data needed to develop a long-term production testing program, a well was drilled at the Mount Elbert prospect in February, 2007. Numerous well log data and cores were acquired to estimate in-situ gas hydrate saturations and reservoir properties.Gas hydrate saturations were estimated from various well logs such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), P- and S-wave velocity, and electrical resistivity logs along with pore-water salinity. Gas hydrate saturations from the NMR log agree well with those estimated from P- and S-wave velocity data. Because of the low salinity of the connate water and the low formation temperature, the resistivity of connate water is comparable to that of shale. Therefore, the effect of clay should be accounted for to accurately estimate gas hydrate saturations from the resistivity data. Two highly gas hydrate-saturated intervals are identified - an upper ???43 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 54% and a lower ???53 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 50%; both zones reach a maximum of about 75% saturation. ?? 2009.

  14. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering.

  15. A comparison of new ultrasonic cement and casing evaluation logs with standard cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Sheives, T.C.; Tello, L.N.; Maki, V.E. Jr.; Standley, T.E.; Blankinship, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    New ultrasonic inspection techniques have been implemented to evaluate cement bond and casing conditions. These techniques, relying on state of the art downhole, high-speed waveform digitization, can successfully determine cement voids and channels and also provide accurate bond information in the presence of a microannulus. The downhole microprocessor controlled electronics transmits the digitized waveforms to the surface for computations and display. The downhole waveforms are then viewed by the operator in real time to insure proper log quality. Numerous log examples showing comparisons with the standard Cement Bond Log (CBL) demonstrate that the accuracy and resolution of the new approach provide much more information. Casing conditions are determined using both acoustic caliper measurements and a new casing thickness measurement technique. The acoustic caliper measurement not only determines accurately the casing inside diameter, but also detects the pipe gap at casing collars. The new measurement determines actual casing thickness variations due to internal or external pipe wear or corrosion. Experimental results along with log examples show the effectiveness and accuracy of measuring the actual casing thickness at the well site in real time.

  16. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.

  17. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  18. Tolerance bounds for log gamma regression models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Scholz, F. W.; Ossiander, M.; Shorack, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present procedure for finding lower confidence bounds for the quantiles of Weibull populations, on the basis of the solution of a quadratic equation, is more accurate than current Monte Carlo tables and extends to any location-scale family. It is shown that this method is accurate for all members of the log gamma(K) family, where K = 1/2 to infinity, and works well for censored data, while also extending to regression data. An even more accurate procedure involving an approximation to the Lawless (1982) conditional procedure, with numerical integrations whose tables are independent of the data, is also presented. These methods are applied to the case of failure strengths of ceramic specimens from each of three billets of Si3N4, which have undergone flexural strength testing.

  19. Calibration Tests of a Japanese Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.

    1949-01-01

    A Japanese log rodmeter of the rotating-vane impeller type, with a co mmutator on the impeller shaft, was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1. The rotational speed of two impellers was determined for forward speeds up to 24 knots at angles of yaw up to ?10 0 . In general, the rota tional speeds of two apparently identical impellers tested in the rod meter decreased with increasing yaw angle, right yaw causing a greate r decrease than left yaw. The difference in calibration between the t wo impellers was approximately the same as that produced by a change in yaw angle from 50 left to 50 right. Evidence of cavitation within the impeller fairing appeared at speeds above 24 knots.

  20. Dogfish egg case structural studies by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Georgaka, Martha E; Chryssikos, Georgios D; Gionis, Vassilis; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2007-06-01

    The dogfish egg case is a composite structure that combines mechanical tensile strength, toughness and elasticity with high permeability to small molecules and ions. Presumably, it provides both a protective and a filtering role for the egg/embryo contained within it. In this work, we performed structural studies of the Galeus melastomus egg case at two different stages of the hardening process, utilizing ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Based on these data we deduce that: (a) The G. melastomus egg case, in close analogy to that of the related species Scyliorhinus cunicula, is a complex, composite structure which consists mainly of an analogue of collagen IV. This network forming protein appears to have common secondary structural characteristics in the entire egg case. (b) The outermost layer of the non-sclerotized egg case is especially rich in tyrosine, while the innermost layer is rich in polysaccharides, presumably glycosaminoglycans, and lipids. These differences are diminished upon hardening. (c) Disulfide bonds do not appear to play a significant role in cross-linking. However, cross-links involving tyrosine residues appear to sclerotize the egg case. It is proposed that the intensity of the Raman band at ca. 1615 cm(-1), which is due to ring stretching vibrations of Tyr, might be a useful indicator of the sclerotization status of a certain proteinaceous tissue, when tyrosines are involved in sclerotization mechanisms.

  1. FT-Raman, FT-IR spectroscopic and DFT studies of hexaphenoxycyclotriphosphazene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Padie, C.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman measurements of zero Gc0‧ -H and first Gc1‧ -H generations of phosphorus dendrimer built from cyclotriphosphazene core with phenoxy and deuterophenoxy terminal groups have been performed. In order to evaluate how much the frequencies, shift when changing the electronics of the system the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of phosphorus‒containing dendron with five terminal oxybenzaldehyde and one ester function Gci‧ have been also studied. Structural optimization and normal mode analysis were obtained for Gc0‧ -H and Gc0‧ -D by the density functional theory (DFT). It is discovered that dendrimer molecule exists in a stable conformation with six phenoxy terminal groups spaced above and below the flat cyclotriphosphazene core. Optimized geometric bond length and angles obtained by DFT show good agreement with a previously-published X-ray study. The phenoxy terminal groups are characterized by the well-defined line at 993 cm-1 in the experimental Raman spectrum of Gc0‧ -H and by line at 960 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of Gc0‧ -D. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed for the studied dendrimers. The frequencies and relative intensity of the bands at 1589, 1487 cm-1 in the IR spectra show marked difference in dependence of the substituents on the aromatic ring.

  2. Applications of FT-IR spectrometry to plasma contents analysis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleris, Gerard Y. R.; Petibois, Cyril

    2002-03-01

    We devoted efforts to develop an analytical method of plasma able to provide both a high sensitivity and a global overview of its biomolecular contents along with the variations of these ones. Among candidates, transmittance FT-IR spectrometry has proved to be highly efficient. It has been used to analyze plasma micro samples using an iterative process. Results in accordance with clinical data were obtained from a single FT-IR spectrum for the following biomolecules: amino-acids, fatty acids, albumin, glucose, fibrinogen, lactate, triglycerides, glycerol, urea, (alpha) 1-antitrypsin, alpha2-macroglobulin, transferin, Apo-A1, Apo-B, Apo-C3, IgA, IgD, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, haptoglobin, and (alpha) 1-acid glycoprotein. Moreover, cholesterol contribution may be determined on the same IR spectrum. Therefore, as only micro samples are necessary, high frequency blood analysis become available. This method was used to monitor inflammatory processes related to given metabolic stresses. Moreover, FT-IR spectrum constitutes a 'metabolic photography' of the subject, allowing classification between metabolic groups (pathologic or others). It was used on difference spectra in order to raise 'signal to noise' ratio by elimination of the unvarying spectral contribution. Among others, it allowed to uncover overtraining in high-level sportsmen several weeks before any physiologic or clinical symptom occurred.

  3. Geophysical logging case history of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Moens, T.A.

    1980-04-01

    Drilling to evaluate the geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley began in 1974 and resulted in the discovery of a geothermal reservoir at a depth of approximately 1523 m (500 ft). Several organizations and companies have been involved in the geophysical logging program. There is no comprehensive report on the geophysical logging, nor has there been a complete interpretation. The objectives of this study are to make an integrated interpretation of the available data and compile a case history. Emphasis has been on developing a simple interpretation scheme from a minimum of data sets. The Raft River geothermal system occurs in the Raft River Valley, which is a portion of the Basin and Range geomorphic province located in south central Idaho, south of the Snake River Plain. The valley is a late Cenozoic structural downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. The downwarp is filled with Tertiary and Paleozoic sediments, metasediments, and volcanics that overlie Precambrian rocks. The variety of rock types, the presence of alteration products, and the variability of fracturing make reliable interpretations difficult. However, the cross plotting of various parameters has allowed a determination of rock types and an analysis of the degree of alteration and the density of fractures. Thus, one can determine the relevant data necessary to assess a geothermal reservoir in similar rock types and use cross plots to potentially define the producing zones.

  4. N cycling and the composition of terpenes and tannins in boreal forest soils: Effects of logging residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko; Kukkola, Mikko; Tamminen, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing evidence available that certain terpenes and tannins may mediate substantial changes in nitrogen cycling processes in boreal forest soils. Terpenes and tannins are two important groups of plant secondary metabolites: Terpenes are hydrocarbons having different number of isoprene-derived units and tannins are complex polyphenolic compounds able to interact with proteins. Logging residues, consisting of fresh tree tops and branches with needles contain large amounts of terpenes and tannins. Currently there is increasing demand for forest biomass for bioenergy production. Therefore, harvesting of logging residues has become more common from both clear-cutting and thinning stands, instead of conventional stem-only harvest where logging residues are retained on the site. Our aim was to determine how logging residues affect soil N cycling processes in Scots pine and Norway spruce thinning stands in long-term, and how these processes are related to the composition of terpenes and tannins in the soil. Samples were taken from the humus layer of pine and spruce experiments which had been thinned 4-to-19 years before; in the thinning different amounts of logging residues had been distributed on the plots. Logging residues had only little effect on soil microbial biomass N or C. However, in several sites logging residues increased the rate of net N mineralization and the ratios net N mineralization/ C mineralization and net N mineralization/microbial biomass N, and these positive effects were very long-lasting. Logging residues also changed the composition of different terpenes and condensed tannins in soil. In general, with regard to the processes and ratios indicating N availability, stem-only harvest seems to be more favorable than whole-tree harvest. The results from long-term field experiments will be discussed in relation to the effects of different terpenes and tannins, observed in short-term laboratory experiments, on N cycling processes.

  5. Sandia SWiFT Site Safe Work Planning Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility provides research site with multiple wind turbines at a scale useful for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. Safety of workers and the public is the top and overriding priority at SWiFT. Central to safe operations are formal planning processes . This manual provides an overview of test planning and work planning processes and requirements in adherence with the Sandia corporate Engineered Safety Work Planning and Control process. It is required reading for all SWiFT site staff, Sandia workers, and collaborators who oversee, conduct, or participate in test activities or who are involved in modifying Sandia SWiFT site assets.

  6. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm-1. Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm-1, calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm-1, hydroxyl apatite 959 cm-1, struvite 575 cm-1, uric acid 1283 cm-1 and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm-1 are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed.

  7. Large-scale structure in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Li Baojiu; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Barrow, John D.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we study the cosmology of the general f(T) gravity theory. We express the modified Einstein equations using covariant quantities, and derive the gauge-invariant perturbation equations in covariant form. We consider a specific choice of f(T), designed to explain the observed late-time accelerating cosmic expansion without including an exotic dark energy component. Our numerical solution shows that the extra degree of freedom of such f(T) gravity models generally decays as one goes to smaller scales, and consequently its effects on scales such as galaxies and galaxies clusters are small. But on large scales, this degree of freedom can produce large deviations from the standard {Lambda}CDM scenario, leading to severe constraints on the f(T) gravity models as an explanation to the cosmic acceleration.

  8. Use of Image Analyses Techniques To Quantify Rock Morphological Characteristics of Lava Flows By Fms Logs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechnig, R.; Ramani, S.; Bartetzko, A.; Clauser, C.

    Borehole wall images obtained from downhole measurements are mostly used for structure analyses (picking of fractures, foliation, layering) and qualitative descrip- tions of geological features. Qualitative results are difficult to compare with petro- physical data sets, either from laboratory measurements or form logging. We report on an application of image analyses techniques on FMS (Formation Micro Scanner) data, in order to select and quantify rock morphological characteristics. We selected image logs from subaerial basalts, drilled during Leg 183 in the Kerguelen Large Ig- neous Province Plateau. The selected subaerial basalts penetrated in Hole 1137 show significant morphological features, such as vesicles and fractures of different size, shape, distribution, and orientation. The excellent core recovery in this hole and the high quality of the standard and FMS logs provides a good opportunity to test the usefulness of image analyses in such rock types. We used the Zeiss K4000 software system for image analyses. The selection was performed by color scale definitions, where darker colors are associated with electrically conductive rock elements, which are in this case fluid or clay mineral filled voids, vesicles and fractures. Besides the se- lection of these morphological features, the application of this technique also allows to calculate aspect ratios for the selected elements and to discriminate between vesicles and fractures. This way, the qualitative information of the FMS logs was transferred to quantitative log curves, which may be used as input for statistical log processing. In our case, we used the information to relate rock morphological characteristics to the seismic properties of the drilled rocks.

  9. The FT/TFL1 gene family in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Carmona, María José; Calonje, Myriam; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel

    2007-03-01

    The FT/TFL1 gene family encodes proteins with similarity to phosphatidylethanolamine binding proteins which function as flowering promoters and repressors. We show here that the FT/TFL1 gene family in Vitis vinifera is composed of at least five genes. Sequence comparisons with homologous genes identified in other dicot species group them in three major clades, the FT, MFT and TFL1 subfamilies, the latter including three of the Vitis sequences. Gene expression patterns are in agreement with a role of VvFT and VvMFT as flowering promoters; while VvTFL1A, VvTFL1B and VvTFL1C could be associated with vegetative development and maintenance of meristem indetermination. Overexpression of VvFT in transgenic Arabidopsis plants generates early flowering phenotypes similar to those produced by FT supporting a role for this gene in flowering promotion. Overexpression of VvTFL1A does not affect flowering time but the determination of flower meristems, strongly altering inflorescence structure, which is consistent with the biological roles assigned to similar genes in other species.

  10. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control) forests burned at high severity in northern Montana, eastern Washington, and southern British Columbia to quantify rill overland flow and sediment production rates (fluxes) after ground-based salvage logging. We tested different types of logging equipment-feller-bunchers, tracked and wheeled skidders, and wheeled forwarders-as well as traffic levels and the addition of slash to skid trails as a best management practice. Rill experiments were done at each location in the first year after the fire and repeated in subsequent years. Logging was completed in the first or second post-fire year. We found that ground-based logging using heavy equipment compacted soil, reduced soil water repellency, and reduced vegetation cover. Vegetation recovery rates were slower in most logged areas than the controls. Runoff rates were higher in the skidder and forwarder plots than their respective controls in the Montana and Washington sites in the year that logging occurred, and the difference in runoff between the skidder and control plots at the British Columbia site was nearly significant (p = 0.089). Most of the significant increases in runoff in the logged plots persisted for subsequent years. The type of skidder, the addition of slash, and the amount of forwarder traffic did not significantly affect the runoff rates. Across the three sites, rill sediment fluxes were 5-1900% greater in logged plots than the controls in the year of logging, and the increases were significant for all logging treatments except the low use forwarder trails. There was no difference in the first-year sediment fluxes between the feller

  11. The logN-logS relationship of normal X-ray emitting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We have selected a flux limited serendipitous sample of galaxies from the cross-correlation of the BMW (Brera Multiscale Wavelet) ROSAT HRI and the LEDA (Lyon - Meudon Extragalactic Database) Catalogues. This sample is used to study the X-ray properties of normal galaxies in the local universe. We also find that the logN-logS distribution we derived for a serendipitous subsample, optically and X-ray flux limited, is consistent with the euclidean slope in the flux range FX(0.5 - 2) ˜ 1.1 - 110 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We further show that the same law is valid over 4 decades, from the bright sample derived from the RASS data to the very faint detections in deep XMM-Newton fields.

  12. Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

  13. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  14. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  15. Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Khatchikian, A.

    1983-12-01

    The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

  16. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  17. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  18. Continuous Tamper-proof Logging using TPM2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-16

    Continuous Tamper-proof Logging using TPM2.0 Paul England, Limin Jia, James Lorch, and Arunesh Sinha July 9, 2013 (Revised June 16...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Continuous Tamper-proof Logging using TPM2.0 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Auditing system logs is an important means of ensuring systems’ security in situations where run-time

  19. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  20. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  1. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  2. Tracking the Inside Intruder Using Net Log on Debug Logging in Microsoft Windows Server Operating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, CS

    2004-01-20

    In today's well-connected environments of the Internet, intranets, and extranets, protecting the Microsoft Windows network can be a daunting task for the security engineer. Intrusion Detection Systems are a must-have for most companies, but few have either the financial resources or the people resources to implement and maintain full-scale intrusion detection systems for their networks and hosts. Many will at least invest in intrusion detection for their Internet presence, but others have not yet stepped up to the plate with regard to internal intrusion detection. Unfortunately, most attacks will come from within. Microsoft Windows server operating systems are widely used across both large and small enterprises. Unfortunately, there is no intrusion detection built-in to the Windows server operating system. The security logs are valuable but can be difficult to manage even in a small to medium sized environment. So the question arises, can one effectively detect and identify an in side intruder using the native tools that come with Microsoft Windows Server operating systems? One such method is to use Net Logon Service debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity. This paper discusses how to use Net Logon debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity both in real-time and for forensic analysis.

  3. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  4. Effects of postfire salvage logging on deadwood-associated beetles.

    PubMed

    Cobb, T P; Morissette, J L; Jacobs, J M; Koivula, M J; Spence, J R; Langor, D W

    2011-02-01

    In Canada and the United States pressure to recoup financial costs of wildfire by harvesting burned timber is increasing, despite insufficient understanding of the ecological consequences of postfire salvage logging. We compared the species richness and composition of deadwood-associated beetle assemblages among undisturbed, recently burned, logged, and salvage-logged, boreal, mixed-wood stands. Species richness was lowest in salvage-logged stands, largely due to a negative effect of harvesting on the occurrence of wood- and bark-boring species. In comparison with undisturbed stands, the combination of wildfire and logging in salvage-logged stands had a greater effect on species composition than either disturbance alone. Strong differences in species composition among stand treatments were linked to differences in quantity and quality (e.g., decay stage) of coarse woody debris. We found that the effects of wildfire and logging on deadwood-associated beetles were synergistic, such that the effects of postfire salvage logging could not be predicted reliably on the basis of data on either disturbance alone. Thus, increases in salvage logging of burned forests may have serious negative consequences for deadwood-associated beetles and their ecological functions in early postfire successional forests.

  5. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  6. Primary detection of hardwood log defects using laser surface scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Thomas, Liya; Mili, Lamine; Ehrich, Roger W.; Abbott, A. Lynn; Shaffer, Clifford

    2003-05-01

    The use of laser technology to scan hardwood log surfaces for defects holds great promise for improving processing efficiency and the value and volume of lumber produced. External and internal defect detection to optimize hardwood log and lumber processing is one of the top four technological needs in the nation"s hardwood industry. The location, type, and severity of defects on hardwood logs are the key indicators of log quality and value. These visual cues provide information about internal log characteristics and products for which the log is suitable. We scanned 162 logs with a high-resolution industrial four-head laser surface scanner. The resulting data sets contain hundreds of thousands of three-dimensional coordinate points. The size of the data and noise presented special problems during processing. Robust regression models were used to fit geometric shapes to the data. The estimated orthogonal distances between the fitted model and the log surface are converted to a two-dimensional image to facilitate defect detection. Using robust regression methods and standard image processing tools we have demonstrated that severe surface defects on hardwood logs can be detected using height and contour analyses of three-dimensional laser scan data.

  7. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging... training, evaluation, or flight experience, and each person conducting the preflight inspection...

  8. Use of borehole neutron logs to estimate moisture content in the unsaturated zone of an alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones-Aponte, Vicente; Carrasquillo, Ramon A.; Quinones, Ferdinand; Sanchez, A.V.; Smith, H.

    1986-01-01

    he neutron borehole logging tool was calibrated for the determination of moisture content in theunsaturated zone of an alluvial aquifer. A continuous core sample was collected to a depth of 15 ft from the unsaturated zone.Moisture content and other soil properties were determined by standard soil-laboratory techniques. The neutron logs profile was correlated to moisture content. The first correlation included all the data points within the unsaturated zone. A correlation coefficient of 0.72 was obtained. An inspection of the plotted data showed that points at the upper extreme of the fitted line departed significantly. A second correlation was tried eliminating data points 1, 3, and 5 which fell too low in the first trial. An almost perfect correlation coefficient of 0.99 was obtained for the data points that were included in the second trial. The criteria used to select the data points for the second correlation trial was that all these points also fell on the left most limit of the neutronprofile. The neutron logs profile, which is like a type of harmonic curve seems to be affected by an undefined factor. Analyzing the shape of the neutron profile it is inferred that hysteresis is the most probable phenomena that is affecting this moisture content profile. Although correlating neutron logs to moisture content is not a straight forward procedure, with an appropriate analysis, calibrated neutron logging tools can be used to determine the moisture content within the unsaturated zone of aquifers. Moisture content should be determined for calibration purposes at least at every foot of depth. Measurements of other elements or factors which may produce the harmonic curve effect might be included in further studies. 

  9. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2014-08-01

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes.

  10. Complementary Log Regression for Sufficient-Cause Modeling of Epidemiologic Data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-12-13

    The logistic regression model is the workhorse of epidemiological data analysis. The model helps to clarify the relationship between multiple exposures and a binary outcome. Logistic regression analysis is readily implemented using existing statistical software, and this has contributed to it becoming a routine procedure for epidemiologists. In this paper, the authors focus on a causal model which has recently received much attention from the epidemiologic community, namely, the sufficient-component cause model (causal-pie model). The authors show that the sufficient-component cause model is associated with a particular 'link' function: the complementary log link. In a complementary log regression, the exponentiated coefficient of a main-effect term corresponds to an adjusted 'peril ratio', and the coefficient of a cross-product term can be used directly to test for causal mechanistic interaction (sufficient-cause interaction). The authors provide detailed instructions on how to perform a complementary log regression using existing statistical software and use three datasets to illustrate the methodology. Complementary log regression is the model of choice for sufficient-cause analysis of binary outcomes. Its implementation is as easy as conventional logistic regression.

  11. Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

    2012-11-01

    Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

  12. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  13. Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  14. Well Logging and Logging Analysis of UHP metamorphic Rocks in CCSD Main Hole (0-2000m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, H.; Niu, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhu, L.; Xu, D.; Wu, H.; Li, S.; Luo, M.

    2004-12-01

    CCSD logging engineering gather many modern high technologies and employs various advanced logging tools to survey the sidewall continuously. This can obtain various physical, chemical, geometrical, etc in-situ information of the borehole's profile. So well logging is one of the most important parts and pivotal technologies in the project of CCSD. The main logging methods in CCSD-MH(0-2000m) are laterolog (Rd,Rs), gamma ray(GR), nature gamma spectrometry(U, TH, K), density(DEN), photo electric section exponent (Pe), compensated neutron(CNL), multipole array acoustic (Vp, Vs, Vst), Simultaneous Acoustic-Resistivity-image(Star-II), temperature(T),magnetic susceptibility(MS), three component borehole magnetic and redox potential log,etc. The various metamorphic rocks can be classified by logging curves,and their physical parameters can be acquired by analyzing the response characters of various metamorphic rocks and by statistics. According to the logging cross plot, We can research the clustering of metamorphite's physical property. Five lithologic segments can be obtainend by logging curves. The GR, Th, U, K logging values of segment 1 is lower than the third, fourth and fiveth segment, higher than segment 2; The DEN, Pe values of segment 1 higher than the third, fourth and fiveth segments. The main rocks in segment 1,2,3,4,5 are eclogites, serpentinites, paragneiss, orthogneiss, and eclogites(containing silicon and muscovite ) respectively. Generally, eclogite contain rutile, silicon, muscovite, etc. minerals. These minerals have response obviously on log curves.There are rutile,ilmenite, pyrite mineralized, etc. Making use of DEN, Pe, susceptibility log values, these mineralized layers can be goodly demarcation. For example, on the rutile mineralzed layer, the logging curve response characters are of high density and Pe obviously. The key data of the synthetical seismic record is wave impedance. In this paper, Utilize the data of AC, DEN curves to calculate the

  15. Novel methodology for accurate resolution of fluid signatures from multi-dimensional NMR well-logging measurements.

    PubMed

    Anand, Vivek

    2017-03-01

    A novel methodology for accurate fluid characterization from multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements is introduced. This methodology overcomes a fundamental challenge of poor resolution of features in multi-dimensional NMR distributions due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of well-logging measurements. Based on an unsupervised machine-learning concept of blind source separation, the methodology resolves fluid responses from simultaneous analysis of large quantities of well-logging data. The multi-dimensional NMR distributions from a well log are arranged in a database matrix that is expressed as the product of two non-negative matrices. The first matrix contains the unique fluid signatures, and the second matrix contains the relative contributions of the signatures for each measurement sample. No a priori information or subjective assumptions about the underlying features in the data are required. Furthermore, the dimensionality of the data is reduced by several orders of magnitude, which greatly simplifies the visualization and interpretation of the fluid signatures. Compared to traditional methods of NMR fluid characterization which only use the information content of a single measurement, the new methodology uses the orders-of-magnitude higher information content of the entire well log. Simulations show that the methodology can resolve accurate fluid responses in challenging SNR conditions. The application of the methodology to well-logging data from a heavy oil reservoir shows that individual fluid signatures of heavy oil, water associated with clays and water in interstitial pores can be accurately obtained.

  16. Novel methodology for accurate resolution of fluid signatures from multi-dimensional NMR well-logging measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Vivek

    2017-03-01

    A novel methodology for accurate fluid characterization from multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements is introduced. This methodology overcomes a fundamental challenge of poor resolution of features in multi-dimensional NMR distributions due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of well-logging measurements. Based on an unsupervised machine-learning concept of blind source separation, the methodology resolves fluid responses from simultaneous analysis of large quantities of well-logging data. The multi-dimensional NMR distributions from a well log are arranged in a database matrix that is expressed as the product of two non-negative matrices. The first matrix contains the unique fluid signatures, and the second matrix contains the relative contributions of the signatures for each measurement sample. No a priori information or subjective assumptions about the underlying features in the data are required. Furthermore, the dimensionality of the data is reduced by several orders of magnitude, which greatly simplifies the visualization and interpretation of the fluid signatures. Compared to traditional methods of NMR fluid characterization which only use the information content of a single measurement, the new methodology uses the orders-of-magnitude higher information content of the entire well log. Simulations show that the methodology can resolve accurate fluid responses in challenging SNR conditions. The application of the methodology to well-logging data from a heavy oil reservoir shows that individual fluid signatures of heavy oil, water associated with clays and water in interstitial pores can be accurately obtained.

  17. Quantum mechanical study of the structure and vibrational spectroscopic (FT-IR and FT-Raman), first-order hyperpolarizability, NBO and HOMO-LUMO studies of 4-bromo-3-nitroanisole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, V.; Karunakaran, V.

    2013-04-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-bromo-3-nitroanisole (BNA) molecule have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. Optimized geometrical structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies, intensities, reduced mass, force constants and depolarization ratio have been computed by ab initio HF and the B3LYP density functional levels using 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. The observed FT-IR and FT-Raman vibrational frequencies are analyzed and compared with theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies. The geometries and normal modes of vibration obtained from DFT method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The first-order hyperpolarizability (β) of the investigated molecule were computed using DFT calculations. Besides, charge transfer occurring in the molecule between HOMO and LUMO energies, frontier energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. The influences of bromine atom, nitrile group and methyl group on the geometry of benzene and its normal modes of vibrations have also been discussed.

  18. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  19. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar Carter, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Netto, Mario M.; Soares, Fernando A.

    2004-07-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been extensively studied as a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to provide information about the chemical and morphologic structure of tissue. Raman Spectroscpy is an inelastic scattering process that can provide a wealth of spectral features that can be related to the specific molecular structure of the sample. This article reports results of an in vitro study of the FT-Raman human breast tissue spectra. An Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman Spectrometer. The neoplastic human breast samples, both Fibroadenoma and ICD, were obtained during therapeutical routine medical procedures required by the primary disease, and the non-diseased human tissue was obtained in plastic surgery. No sample preparation was needed for the FT-Raman spectra collection. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded from normal, benign (Fibroadenomas) and malignant (IDC-Intraductal Carcinoma) samples, adding up 51 different areas. The main spectral differences of a typical FT-Raman spectra of a Normal (Non-diseased), Fibroadenoma, and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast tissue at the interval of 600 to 1800cm-1, which may differentiate diagnostically the sample, were found in the bands of 1230 to 1295cm-1, 1440 to 1460 cm-1 and 1650 to 1680 cm-1, assigned to the vibrational bands of the carbohydrate-amide III, proteins and lipids, and carbohydrate-amide I, respectively.

  20. Organic Scintillator Detector Response Simulations with DRiFT

    DOE PAGES

    Andrews, Madison Theresa; Bates, Cameron Russell; Mckigney, Edward Allen; ...

    2016-06-11

    Here, this work presents the organic scintillation simulation capabilities of DRiFT, a post-processing Detector Response Function Toolkit for MCNPR output. DRiFT is used to create realistic scintillation detector response functions to incident neutron and gamma mixed- field radiation. As a post-processing tool, DRiFT leverages the extensively validated radiation transport capabilities of MCNPR®6, which also provides the ability to simulate complex sources and geometries. DRiFT is designed to be flexible, it allows the user to specify scintillator material, PMT type, applied PMT voltage, and quenching data used in simulations. The toolkit's capabilities, which include the generation of pulse shape discrimination plotsmore » and full-energy detector spectra, are demonstrated in a comparison of measured and simulated neutron contributions from 252Cf and PuBe, and photon spectra from 22Na and 228Th sources. DRiFT reproduced energy resolution effects observed in EJ-301 measurements through the inclusion of scintillation yield variances, photon transport noise, and PMT photocathode and multiplication noise.« less

  1. Organic Scintillator Detector Response Simulations with DRiFT

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Madison Theresa; Bates, Cameron Russell; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr.; Sood, Avneet

    2016-06-11

    Here, this work presents the organic scintillation simulation capabilities of DRiFT, a post-processing Detector Response Function Toolkit for MCNPR output. DRiFT is used to create realistic scintillation detector response functions to incident neutron and gamma mixed- field radiation. As a post-processing tool, DRiFT leverages the extensively validated radiation transport capabilities of MCNPR®6, which also provides the ability to simulate complex sources and geometries. DRiFT is designed to be flexible, it allows the user to specify scintillator material, PMT type, applied PMT voltage, and quenching data used in simulations. The toolkit's capabilities, which include the generation of pulse shape discrimination plots and full-energy detector spectra, are demonstrated in a comparison of measured and simulated neutron contributions from 252Cf and PuBe, and photon spectra from 22Na and 228Th sources. DRiFT reproduced energy resolution effects observed in EJ-301 measurements through the inclusion of scintillation yield variances, photon transport noise, and PMT photocathode and multiplication noise.

  2. Organic scintillator detector response simulations with DRiFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, M. T.; Bates, C. R.; McKigney, E. A.; Solomon, C. J.; Sood, A.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the organic scintillation simulation capabilities of DRiFT, a post-processing Detector Response Function Toolkit for MCNP® output. DRiFT is used to create realistic scintillation detector response functions to incident neutron and gamma mixed-field radiation. As a post-processing tool, DRiFT leverages the extensively validated radiation transport capabilities of MCNP® 6 , which also provides the ability to simulate complex sources and geometries. DRiFT is designed to be flexible, it allows the user to specify scintillator material, PMT type, applied PMT voltage, and quenching data used in simulations. The toolkit's capabilities, which include the generation of pulse shape discrimination plots and full-energy detector spectra, are demonstrated in a comparison of measured and simulated neutron contributions from 252Cf and PuBe, and photon spectra from 22Na and 228Th sources. DRiFT reproduced energy resolution effects observed in EJ-301 measurements through the inclusion of scintillation yield variances, photon transport noise, and PMT photocathode and multiplication noise.

  3. Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines in Water by Varying the Ratio of Formic Acid to Triethylamine.

    PubMed

    Shende, Vaishali S; Deshpande, Sudhindra H; Shingote, Savita K; Joseph, Anu; Kelkar, Ashutosh A

    2015-06-19

    Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) of imines has been performed with variation in formic acid (F) and triethylamine (T) molar ratios in water. The F/T ratio is shown to affect both the reduction rate and enantioselectivity, with the optimum ratio being 1.1 in the ATH of imines with the Rh-(1S,2S)-TsDPEN catalyst. Use of methanol as a cosolvent enhanced reduction activity. A variety of imine substrates have been reduced, affording high yields (94-98%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (89-98%). In comparison with the common azeotropic F-T system, the reduction with 1.1/1 F/T is faster.

  4. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve an... following requirements: (a) The applicant shall satisfy the general requirements specified in § 30.33...

  5. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve an... following requirements: (a) The applicant shall satisfy the general requirements specified in § 30.33...

  6. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve an... following requirements: (a) The applicant shall satisfy the general requirements specified in § 30.33...

  7. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve an... following requirements: (a) The applicant shall satisfy the general requirements specified in § 30.33...

  8. Design and Use of the Stratigraphic Strip Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichter, Lynn Stanton

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of a strip log as a diagrammatic representation of the information available in a sequence of sedimentary rocks. Describes the design of the strip log (both symbolically and by visual/spatial patterns) and some of the possible interpretations that can be made using them. (TW)

  9. How to Keep an Infusion Log: Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG)

    MedlinePlus

    How to keep an INFUSION LOG Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) How to keep an INFUSION LOG The Value of Keeping Records Excellence in health care ... keeping track of your Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) infusions. Each of the manufacturers prepares IVIG in a ...

  10. Log-Multiplicative Association Models as Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn J.; Yu, Hsiu-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Log-multiplicative association (LMA) models, which are special cases of log-linear models, have interpretations in terms of latent continuous variables. Two theoretical derivations of LMA models based on item response theory (IRT) arguments are presented. First, we show that Anderson and colleagues (Anderson & Vermunt, 2000; Anderson & Bockenholt,…

  11. Enhancing General Education Science Courses: Written Logs on Popular Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Allen B.

    1993-01-01

    Requiring students in one introductory college course on weather/climate to keep logs with articles from popular media was found to produce three types of log topics with three kinds of relationship to course content. The technique helped students think more actively and provided the teacher with new course material. (MSE)

  12. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  17. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained.

  18. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  19. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  20. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  1. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor... Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for records... subsequently furnished, the number of staff hours and grade levels of persons who spent time responding to...

  2. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  3. Real-Time System Log Monitoring/Analytics Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Dillow, David A; Park, Byung H; Shipman, Galen M; Geist, Al; Gunasekaran, Raghul

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing system logs provides useful insights for identifying system/application anomalies and helps in better usage of system resources. Nevertheless, it is simply not practical to scan through the raw log messages on a regular basis for large-scale systems. First, the sheer volume of unstructured log messages affects the readability, and secondly correlating the log messages to system events is a daunting task. These factors limit large-scale system logs primarily for generating alerts on known system events, and post-mortem diagnosis for identifying previously unknown system events that impacted the systems performance. In this paper, we describe a log monitoring framework that enables prompt analysis of system events in real-time. Our web-based framework provides a summarized view of console, netwatch, consumer, and apsched logs in real- time. The logs are parsed and processed to generate views of applications, message types, individual/group of compute nodes, and in sections of the compute platform. Also from past application runs we build a statistical profile of user/application characteristics with respect to known system events, recoverable/non-recoverable error messages and resources utilized. The web-based tool is being developed for Jaguar XT5 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing facility.

  4. Web Log Analysis: A Study of Instructor Evaluations Done Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Kenneth J.; Smith, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing a relatively simple method for analyzing web-logs. It also explores the challenges and benefits of web-log analysis. The study of student behavior on this site provides insights into website design and the effectiveness of this site in particular. Another benefit realized from the paper is the ease with which these…

  5. Comparing GPS, Log, Survey, and Accelerometry to Measure Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Weissman, Jennifer; Wolf, Jean; Mumford, Karen; Contant, Cheryl K.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Taylor, Lynne; Glanz, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Both self-report and objective measures have strengths and limitations for studying physical activity (PA) and travel. We explored how objectively measured global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data matches with travel logs and questionnaires in predicting trip duration and PA. Methods In a study of PA and travel among residents in Atlanta, GA conducted in 2008–2009, 99 participants wore GPS devices and accelerometers, and recorded all trips in a log for 5 consecutive days. Participants also completed a self-administered questionnaire on PA and travel behaviors. Results There was good agreement between GPS and log for assessment of trip duration, although log measures overestimated trip duration (concordance correlation coefficient 0.53 [0.47, 0.59]; Bland-Altman estimate 0.76 [0.16, 3.71] comparing GPS to log). Log measures underestimated light PA and overestimated moderate PA compared to accelerometry when greater than zero moderate PA was reported. Conclusions It is often not feasible to deploy accelerometry or GPS devices in population research because these devices are expensive and require technical expertise and data processing. Questionnaires and logs provide inexpensive tools to assess PA and travel with reasonable concordance with objective measures. However, they have shortcomings in evaluating the presence and amount of light and moderate PA. Future questionnaires and logs should be developed to evaluate sensitivity to light and moderate PA. PMID:26685821

  6. Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Anke; Mpoudi, Mireille; Butel, Christelle; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngolé, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric

    2004-01-01

    We found a high seroprevalence of HIV among young women in a commercial logging area in Cameroon. The vulnerability of these young women could be related to commercial logging and the social and economic networks it induces. The environmental changes related to this industry in Equatorial Africa may facilitate HIV dissemination. PMID:15550206

  7. Data-Logging in Practical Science: Research and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Leonard R.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys some of the benefits claimed for data-logging methods identified through research. Discusses findings from research that sought to explore the translation of these benefits into the real-world of science classrooms and identify the range of influences on science teachers adopting and developing data-logging methods. (SAH)

  8. New Data-Logging Tools--New Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Laurence

    1997-01-01

    Presents examples of the types of investigations which exploit the tools now commonly featured in data-logging software. Emphasizes the importance of designing tasks that encourage pupils to think about the data and the principles which underpin worthwhile data-logging tasks. (Author/ASK)

  9. A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.L.

    1985-03-01

    The Cement Bond Log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal in order to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than twenty years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation, ostensibly, with Cement Bond Logs. Cement Bond Logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed upon the log measurements is needed in order to properly evaluate the log. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of Cement Bond Logs which fall into this category are presented.

  10. A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.L.

    1985-07-01

    The cement bond log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than 20 years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation with cement bond logs. Cement bond logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed on the log measurements is needed to evaluate the log properly. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of cement bond logs that fall into this category are be presented.

  11. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Official log entries. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entries. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  12. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  13. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  14. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source.

  15. Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

  16. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Official log entries. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entries. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  17. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  18. 22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  19. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  20. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. Mid-Infrared Fine-Structure Line Ratios in Active Galactic Nuclei Observed with the Spitzer IRS: Evidence for Extinction by the Torus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-20

    ble types, bolometric luminosities [log (LBOL) 40Y46,median¼ 43], and Eddington ratios [log (L/LEdd) 6:5Y0.3; median ¼ 2:5]. The entire sample...of central black hole in solar masses; col. (6): log of the hard X-ray luminosity (2Y10 keV) in ergs s1. Col. (8): log of the Eddington ratio. (The...many orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity and Eddington ratio for these AGNs, or (2) that the temperature of the gas is high (from 105 to 106 K) and

  2. Free thyroxine (FT4) and anemia in relation to drinking status of Japanese men: the Nagasaki islands study.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuji; Nakazato, Mio; Sekita, Takaharu; Kadota, Koichiro; Arima, Kazuhiko; Yamasaki, Hironori; Goto, Hisashi; Takamura, Noboru; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that hypothyroidism is associated with anemia. It has also been reported that alcohol consumption may affect thyroid function. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels of drinkers are reportedly higher than those of non-drinkers. However, no published study has investigated the association between thyroid function evaluated with the free thyroxine (FT4) test and anemia while taking drinking status into account. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 843 men aged 30-89 years undergoing general health checks. While no significant associations were noted between FT4 and anemia for total subjects, when the analysis was limited to non-drinkers, a significant association was observed. After adjustment for classical cardiovascular risk factors and thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an increment of 1SD (standard deviation) for FT4 (0.17 ng/dL) for anemia were 0.85 (0.67-1.09) for total subjects, 0.59 (0.41-0.85) for non-drinkers, and 1.23 (0.83-1.83) for drinkers. In conclusion, FT4 is inversely associated with anemia for non-drinking but not for drinking men. However, drinking may act as a confounding factor for this association.

  3. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopic census of single starch granules for octenyl succinate ester modification.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yanjie; Shi, Yong-Cheng; Wetzel, David L

    2009-07-22

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was used to investigate reaction homogeneity of octenyl succinic anhydride modification on waxy maize starch and detect uniformity of blends of modified and native starches. For the first time, the level and uniformity of chemical substitution on individual starch granules were analyzed by FT-IR microspectroscopy. More than 100 starch granules of each sample were analyzed one by one by FT-IR microspectroscopy. In comparison to the native starch, modified starch had two additional bands at 1723 and 1563 cm(-1), indicative of ester formation in the modified starch. For the 3% modification level, the degree of substitution (DS) was low (0.019) and the distribution of the ester group was not uniform among starch granules. For the modified starch with DS of 0.073, 99% of individual starch granules had a large carbonyl band area, indicating that most granules were modified to a sufficient extent that the presence of their carbonyl ester classified them individually as being modified. However, the octenyl succinate concentration varied between granules, suggesting that the reaction was not uniform. When modified starch (DS = 0.073) was blended with native starch (3:7, w/w) to achieve a mixture with an average DS of 0.019, FT-IR microspectroscopy was able to detect heterogeneity of octenyl succinate in the blend and determine the ratio of the modified starch to the native starch granules.

  4. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, A.H.

    1994-05-31

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

  5. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests.

  6. Navjot's nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilcove, David S; Giam, Xingli; Edwards, David P; Fisher, Brendan; Koh, Lian Pin

    2013-09-01

    In 2004, Navjot Sodhi and colleagues warned that logging and agricultural conversion of Southeast Asia's forests were leading to a biodiversity disaster. We evaluate this prediction against subsequent research and conclude that most of the fauna of the region can persist in logged forests. Conversely, conversion of primary or logged forests to plantation crops, such as oil palm, causes tremendous biodiversity loss. This loss is exacerbated by increased fire frequency. Therefore, we conclude that preventing agricultural conversion of logged forests is essential to conserving the biodiversity of this region. Our analysis also suggests that, because Southeast Asian forests are tightly tied to global commodity markets, conservation payments commensurate with combined returns from logging and subsequent agricultural production may be required to secure long-term forest protection.

  7. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  8. Introducing high performance distributed logging service for ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarias, Jorge A.; López, Joao S.; Maureira, Cristián; Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a software framework that provides the infrastructure for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other projects. ACS, based on CORBA, offers basic services and common design patterns for distributed software. Every properly built system needs to be able to log status and error information. Logging in a single computer scenario can be as easy as using fprintf statements. However, in a distributed system, it must provide a way to centralize all logging data in a single place without overloading the network nor complicating the applications. ACS provides a complete logging service infrastructure in which every log has an associated priority and timestamp, allowing filtering at different levels of the system (application, service and clients). Currently the ACS logging service uses an implementation of the CORBA Telecom Log Service in a customized way, using only a minimal subset of the features provided by the standard. The most relevant feature used by ACS is the ability to treat the logs as event data that gets distributed over the network in a publisher-subscriber paradigm. For this purpose the CORBA Notification Service, which is resource intensive, is used. On the other hand, the Data Distribution Service (DDS) provides an alternative standard for publisher-subscriber communication for real-time systems, offering better performance and featuring decentralized message processing. The current document describes how the new high performance logging service of ACS has been modeled and developed using DDS, replacing the Telecom Log Service. Benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. A benchmark is presented comparing the differences between the implementations.

  9. Stability of anisotropic compact objects in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, M. Zaeem-Ul-Haq; Yousaf, Z.; Hanif, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    We exhibit the dynamical instability of cylindrical compact object in the gravitational field of f(T) gravity, which is the simplest modification of teleparallel theory (TPT). We explore the field equations and conservation laws to provide the extra degrees of freedom governed by f(T) gravity. We investigate the behavior of small perturbations on geometric and material profile in the background of collapsing fluid configuration. The un/stable eras are studied under Newtonian (N) and post-Newtonian (pN) approximations. Our results show that the stiffness parameter has major role in determining the un/stable epochs of cylindrical object. The dark source terms of f(T) gravity lead to relatively more unstable configuration during its evolutionary process.

  10. Comparison between Pre-log and Post-log Statistical Models in Ultra-Low-Dose CT Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Kim, Soo Mee; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul; Chang, Zhiqian; Sauer, Ken; Kalra, Mannudeep; De Man, Bruno

    2016-11-09

    X-ray detectors in clinical computed tomography (CT) usually operate in current-integrating mode. Their complicated signal statistics often lead to intractable likelihood functions for practical use in model-based image reconstruction (MBIR). It is therefore desirable to design simplified statistical models without losing the essential factors. Depending on whether the CT transmission data are logarithmically transformed, pre-log and post-log models are two major categories of choices in CT MBIR. Both being approximations, it remains an open question whether one model can notably improve image quality over the other on real scanners. In this study, we develop and compare several pre-log and post-log MBIR algorithms under a unified framework. Their reconstruction accuracy based on simulation and clinical datasets are evaluated. The results show that pre-log MBIR can achieve notably better quantitative accuracy than post-log MBIR in ultra-low-dose CT, although in less extreme cases, post-log MBIR with handcrafted pre-processing remains a competitive alternative. Pre-log MBIR could play a growing role in emerging ultra-low-dose CT applications.

  11. Regulation of FT splicing by an endogenous cue in temperate grasses.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhengrui; Wu, Jiajie; Geng, Shuaifeng; Feng, Nan; Chen, Fengjuan; Kong, Xingchen; Song, Gaoyuan; Chen, Kai; Li, Aili; Mao, Long; Wu, Liang

    2017-02-01

    Appropriate flowering timing is crucial for plant reproductive success. The florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and the bZIP transcription factor FD, functioning at core nodes in multiple flowering pathways. There are two FT homologues, FT1 and FT2, in Brachypodium distachyon. Here we show that FT2 undergoes age-dependent alternative splicing (AS), resulting in two splice variants (FT2α and FT2β). The FT2β-encoded protein cannot interact with FD or 14-3-3s but is able to form heterodimers with FT2α and FT1, thereby interfering with the florigen-mediated assembly of the flowering initiation complex. Notably, transgenic plants overproducing FT2β exhibit delayed flowering, while transgenic plants in which FT2β is silenced by an artificial microRNA display accelerated flowering, demonstrating a dominant-negative role of FT2β in flowering induction. Furthermore, we show that the AS splicing of FT2 is conserved in important cereal crops, such as barley and wheat. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel posttranscriptional mode of FT regulation in temperate grasses.

  12. Regulation of FT splicing by an endogenous cue in temperate grasses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhengrui; Wu, Jiajie; Geng, Shuaifeng; Feng, Nan; Chen, Fengjuan; Kong, Xingchen; Song, Gaoyuan; Chen, Kai; Li, Aili; Mao, Long; Wu, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate flowering timing is crucial for plant reproductive success. The florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and the bZIP transcription factor FD, functioning at core nodes in multiple flowering pathways. There are two FT homologues, FT1 and FT2, in Brachypodium distachyon. Here we show that FT2 undergoes age-dependent alternative splicing (AS), resulting in two splice variants (FT2α and FT2β). The FT2β-encoded protein cannot interact with FD or 14-3-3s but is able to form heterodimers with FT2α and FT1, thereby interfering with the florigen-mediated assembly of the flowering initiation complex. Notably, transgenic plants overproducing FT2β exhibit delayed flowering, while transgenic plants in which FT2β is silenced by an artificial microRNA display accelerated flowering, demonstrating a dominant-negative role of FT2β in flowering induction. Furthermore, we show that the AS splicing of FT2 is conserved in important cereal crops, such as barley and wheat. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel posttranscriptional mode of FT regulation in temperate grasses. PMID:28145403

  13. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  14. Raman and FT-IR studies of ocular tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Aritake

    1991-05-01

    Two examples of Raman and FT-IR studies of the ocular tissues are reviewed in this paper. The first example treats Raman studies on cataract development cataract-related lens hydration and structural changes in the lens proteins monitored in situ by Raman spectroscopy are described. The second example is concerned with FT-IR studies on the ocular tissues contain ing collagen nondestructive identification of Type I and IV collagen in the tissues and their structural differences elucidated by infrared spectroscopy are discussed. 1 .

  15. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem

  16. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and UV-Vis) investigation on benzil dioxime using quantum computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, D.; Periandy, S.; Xavier, S.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral analysis of benzil dioxime is carried out using the FTIR, FT Raman, FT NMR and UV-Vis spectra of the compound with the help of quantum computations by density functional theories. The FT-IR (4000 - 400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) spectra are recorded in solid phase, the 1H and 13C NMR spectra in DMSO phase and the UV spectrum (200-400 nm) in ethanol phase. The different conformers of the compound and their minimum energies are studied by potential energy surface scan, using semi-empirical method PM6. The computed wavenumbers from different methods are scaled so as to agree with the experimental values and the scaling factors are reported. All the fundamental modes have been assigned based on the potential energy distribution (PED) values and the structure the molecule is analyzed interms of parameters like bond length, bond angle and dihedral angles predicted byB3LYP and CAM-B3LYP methods with cc-pVDZ basis sets. The values of dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule are reported, using which the non -linear optical property of the molecule is discussed. The HOMO-LUMO mappings are reported which reveals the different charge transfer possibilities within the molecule. The isotropic chemical shifts predicted for 1H and 13C atoms using gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) theory show good agreement with experimental shifts and the same is discussed in comparison with atomic charges, predicted by Mullikan and APT charge analysis. NBO analysis is carried out to picture the probable electronic transitions in the molecule.

  17. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopic study of carotenoids from saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) and some derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantilis, Petros A.; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Manfait, Michel; Polissiou, Moschos

    1998-04-01

    The carotenoids of saffron, crocins (CRCs), were extracted and their derivatives, dimethylcrocetin (DMCRT) and crocetin (CRT) were prepared from the extract by alkaline hydrolysis in methanol (DMCRT) and by alkaline hydrolysis in water followed by acidification (CRT), respectively. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopies were used to study these compounds. The FT-IR spectra of CRCs, DMCRT and CRT have characteristic absorbance bands between 1706 and 1664 cm -1 ( νCO) and in the region between 1243 and 1228 cm -1 ( νC-O). Two main Raman lines were observed near 1540 and 1166 cm -1 which are respectively assigned to ( νCC) and ( νC-C) stretching modes.

  18. The Search for the Manila Galleon Log Books.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Wayne V.

    1990-11-01

    Spanish merchant ships, called Manila Galleons, made the round-trip between the Philippine Islands and the ports on the west coast of what is now Mexico, almost every year for the 250-yr period between 1565 and 1815. The log books of these galleons contained weather information which was thought to be of value in the study of the historical climatology of the tropical and mid-latitude areas of the Pacific Ocean. A search was made for the log books of the Manila Galleons to determine how many are still extant and the nature of the weather data that they contained. The search was made with the assistance of expert historians and paleographers who ware experienced in searching archives where the log books wore thought to be on file. The following archives were searched: the Museo Naval in Madrid, Spain; the Archivo General do Simancas in Simancas, Spain; Archiyo De lndias in Seville, Spain; Archivo General do la Nación in Mexico City, Mexico; and the National Archives in Manila, The Philippine Islands. Only sixteen log books were on file In the archives in Madrid and Seville. All of the logs that wore found ware from the period between 1766 and 1808. The inevitable conclusions that were reached were that log books for some of the earlier voyages may never have been written and that most of the log books that were written were either physically lost or were lost due to the ravages of time, moisture, insects or war.

  19. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  20. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.