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  1. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  2. 76 FR 78151 - Special Local Regulations; Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Boca Raton, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... of moving buffer zones around participant vessels as they transit from C- 15 Canal to the... entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within any of the buffer zones unless authorized... Raton Holiday Boat Parade. The special local regulations consist of a series of buffer zones...

  3. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemborg, H. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has gone over pilot testing and entered the development stage which is expected to last several years. The development work is restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide `fairway' centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colorado. At last count, 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin's Raton and Vermejo formation coals.

  4. Hydrostratigraphic Framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad Aquifers in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    Exploration for and production of coalbed methane has increased substantially in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States since the 1990s. During 1999-2004, annual production of natural gas (coalbed methane) from the Raton Basin in Las Animas County, Colorado, increased from 28,129,515 to 80,224,130 thousand cubic feet, and the annual volume of ground water coproduced by coalbed methane wells increased from about 949 million gallons to about 2,879 million gallons. Better definition of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad aquifers in the Raton Basin of southern Colorado is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of coalbed methane development on the availability and sustainability of ground-water resources. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study to evaluate the hydrogeology of the Raton Basin in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado. Geostatistical methods were used to map the altitude of and depths to the bottoms and tops (structure) and the apparent thicknesses of the Trinidad Sandstone, the Vermejo Formation, and the Raton Formation in Las Animas County, based on completion reports and drillers' logs from about 1,400 coalbed methane wells in the Raton Basin. There was not enough subsurface control to map the structural surfaces and apparent thicknesses of the aquifers in Huerfano County. Geostatistical methods also were used to map the regional water table in the northern part of Las Animas County, based on reported depth to water from completion reports of water-supply wells. Although these maps were developed to better define the hydrostratigraphic framework, they also can be used to determine the contributing aquifer(s) of existing water wells and to estimate drilling depths of proposed water wells. These maps of the hydrostratigraphic framework could be improved with the addition of measured sections and mapping of geologic contacts at outcrops

  5. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hemborg, H.T.

    1996-11-11

    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has advanced past pilot testing and is entering into a development stage that should stretch out over several years. At last count 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin`s Raton and Vermejo formation coals (Early Paleocene to Latest Maastrichtian). This development work is currently restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide ``fairway`` centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colo., in the headwater area of the Purgatoire River. The paper discusses the companies involved in the basin development, geology of the coal seam, and water disposal from coal seam dewatering.

  6. Geologic framework of nonmarine cretaceous-tertiary boundary sites, raton basin, new mexico and colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Indium concentrations are anomalously high at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in fluvial sedimentary rocks of the lower part of the Raton Formation at several localities in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. The iridium anomaly is associated with a thin bed of kaolinitic claystone in a discontinuous carbonaceous shale and coal sequence.

  7. 75 FR 11936 - Radisys Corporation, Boca Raton, FL; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Radisys Corporation, Boca Raton, FL; Notice of Termination of... Corporation, Boca Raton, Florida. The petitioning worker group is covered by an earlier petition (TA-...

  8. Geologic framework of nonmarine cretaceous-tertiary boundary sites, raton basin, new Mexico and colorado.

    PubMed

    Pillmore, C L; Tschudy, R H; Orth, C J; Gilmore, J S; Knight, J D

    1984-03-16

    Iridium concentrations are anomalously high at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in fluvial sedimentary rocks of the lower part of the Raton Formation at several localities in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. The iridium anomaly is associated with a thin bed of kaolinitic claystone in a discontinuous carbonaceous shale and coal sequence.

  9. Potential for a basin-centered gas accumulation in the Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The Raton Basin appears to contain a significant continuous or basin-centered gas accumulation in sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Trinidad Sandstone and Vermejo Formation and Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Raton Formation. The accumulation is underpressured and occurs at comparatively shallow (<3,500 ft) depths. The sandstones are interbedded with coal beds that are currently being developed for coal-bed methane, and the coals are the likely source for gas found in the sandstones. Based on analogs with other Rocky Mountain basins, relatively water-free production should occur where levels of thermal maturity in the coals exceed a vitrinite reflectance value of 1.1 percent. This level of thermal maturity occurs over much of the central part of the Raton Basin. Because of the shallow depths, some of the accumulation has probably been degraded by surface water invasion.

  10. Field guide to the continental Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Nichols, D.J.; ,

    1999-01-01

    This guide consists of three general sections: an introduction that includes discussions of Raton basin stratigraphy and the Cretaceous Tertiary (K-T) boundary; descriptions of the geology along the route from Denver, Colorado, to Raton, New Mexico; and descriptions of several K-T sites in the Raton basin. Much of the information is from previous articles and field guides by the authors together with R. M. Flores and from road logs co-authored with Glenn R. Scott, both of the U.S.Geological Survey.

  11. Report of the Planning Commission for a New University at Boca Raton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    Following the decision to establish a new university at Boca Raton, the Board of Control of Florida's Board of Education appointed a committee to revise, refine and develop plans for the new institution and to make preliminary estimates of space requirements and costs. The plans and proposals in this report represent a thorough study by the…

  12. Ground-water hydrology of the central Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    1989-01-01

    The watersheds of the Purgatoire and Apishapa Rivers contain most of the public coal lands in the Raton Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, investigated the hydrogeology of this area from 1978 to 1982, inventorying 231 wells, 38 springs, and 6 mines, and collecting ground-water samples from 71 sites. The Raton Basin is an asymmetrical trough, containing 10,000 to 25,000 feet of sedimentary rocks that range in age from Pennsylvanian to Eocene. These rocks are intruded by Miocene igneous rocks, covered with Pleistocene and Holocene alluvium on pediments and in stream valleys, and underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Bituminous coal occurs in the Vermejo and Raton Formations of Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Virtually all of the sedimentary rocks transmit water. Stream alluvium is the most productive aquifer. Bedrock aquifers have smaller yields but greater distribution. The principal bedrock aquifers are the Cuchara-Poison Canyon and the Raton-Vermejo-Trinidad. Other formations are nearly impermeable or too deep to be utilized economically. The Cuchara-Poison Canyon aquifer provides small, nonsustainable yields to wells. Sandstone and coal layers in the Raton-Vermejo-Trinidad aquifer provide small, sustainable yields, but many of these beds are lenticular and can be missed easily by wells. Water in alluvium typically is less mineralized than in bedrock but more susceptible to contamination. Sodium and calcium bicarbonate waters predominate in the area, but sodium chloride water commonly occurs in the Cuchara-Poison Canyon aquifer and may occur in the Pierre Shale. Plumes of sulfate-enriched water extend from coal mines into bedrock and alluvial aquifers. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from less than 500 milligrams per liter in calcium bicarbonate water to more than 1,500 milligrams per liter in sulfate and chloride waters. Much of the ground water is hard. Nitrogen is enriched in shallow ground water

  13. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  14. Leaf assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jack A.; Upchurch, Garland R.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of leaf megafossil and dispersed leaf cuticle assemblages indicate that major ecologic disruption and high rates of extinction occurred in plant communities at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin. In diversity increase, the early Paleocene vegetational sequence mimics normal short-term ecologic succession, but on a far longer time scale. No difference can be detected between latest Cretaceous and early Paleocene temperatures, but precipitation markedly increased at the boundary. Higher survival rate of deciduous versus evergreen taxa supports occurrence of a brief cold interval (<1 year), as predicted in models of an “impact winter.” PMID:16593859

  15. Fossil Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales) from the Raton Formation, Colorado and New Mexico, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Fleming R.

    1989-01-01

    Fossilized coenobia of the alga Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales) were recovered in palynomorph assemblages from a lower Paleocene mudstone in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Raton Formation of Colorado and New Mexico. This is the first description of fossil Scenedesmus from Tertiary rocks. Two species, Scenedesmus tschudyi sp. nov. and Scenedesmus hanleyi sp. nov., are present in the assemblages. Coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. are characterized by lunate terminal cells and fusiform median cells. As in species of modern Scenedesmus, coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. occur with four or eight cells. Coenobia of S. hanleyi sp. nov. have four oval cells and are smaller than coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. Fossil coenobia of Scenedesmus co-occur with the fossil alga Pediastrum in Raton Formation mudstones. Because these genera co-occur in modern lakes and ponds, the co-occurrence of fossil Scenedesmus and Pediastrum in ancient nonmarine rocks is interpreted to indicate deposition of sediment in freshwater lakes and ponds. ?? 1989.

  16. Controls on natural fracture variability in the Southern Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, Russell G.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Herrin, James M.; Larson, Rich; Lorenz, John Clay; Basinski, Paul M.; Olsson, William Arthur

    2004-07-01

    Natural fractures in Jurassic through Tertiary rock units of the Raton Basin locally contain conjugate shear fractures that are mechanically compatible with associated extension fractures, i.e., they have a bisector to the acute angle that is parallel to the strike of associated extension fractures, normal to the thrust front at the western margin of the basin. Both sets of fractures are therefore interpreted to have formed during Laramide-age thrusting from west to east that formed the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and subsequently the foreland Raton Basin, and that imposed strong east-west compressive stresses onto the strata filling the basin. This pattern is not universal, however. Anomalous NNE-SSW striking fractures locally dominate strata close to the thrust front, and fracture patterns are irregular in strata associated with anticlinal structures within the basin. Of special interest are strike-slip style conjugate shear fractures within Dakota Sandstone outcrops 60 miles to the east of the thrust front. Mohr-Coulomb failure diagrams are utilized to describe how these formed as well as how two distinctly different types of fractures can be formed in the same basin under the same regional tectonic setting and at the same time. The primary controls in this interpretation are simply the mechanical properties of the specific rock units and the depth of burial rather than significant changes in the applied stress.

  17. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  18. The 2001-present induced earthquake sequence in the Raton Basin of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Ellsworth, William L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Benz, Harley M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the ongoing seismicity in the Raton Basin and find that the deep injection of wastewater from the coal‐bed methane field is responsible for inducing the majority of the seismicity since 2001. Many lines of evidence indicate that this earthquake sequence was induced by wastewater injection. First, there was a marked increase in seismicity shortly after major fluid injection began in the Raton Basin in 1999. From 1972 through July 2001, there was one M≥4 earthquake in the Raton Basin, whereas 12 occurred between August 2001 and 2013. The statistical likelihood that such a rate change would occur if earthquakes behaved randomly in time is 3.0%. Moreover, this rate change is limited to the area of industrial activity. Earthquake rates remain low in the surrounding area. Second, the vast majority of the seismicity is within 5 km of active disposal wells and is shallow, ranging between 2 and 8 km depth. The two most carefully studied earthquake sequences in 2001 and 2011 have earthquakes within 2 km of high‐volume, high‐injection‐rate wells. Third, injection wells in the area are commonly very high volume and high rate. Two wells adjacent to the August 2011 M 5.3 earthquake injected about 4.9 million cubic meters of wastewater before the earthquake, more than seven times the amount injected at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well that caused damaging earthquakes near Denver, Colorado, in the 1960s. The August 2011 M 5.3 event is the second‐largest earthquake to date for which there is clear evidence that the earthquake sequence was induced by fluid injection.

  19. Geology of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Raton-Springer area, Colfax and Union Counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.R.; Wilcox, R.E.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The most prominent geomorphic features of the Raton-Springer area are the widely distributed volcanic and subvolcanic rock formations, consisting of cinder cones, domes, lava-capped mesas, a domed sill complex, and dikes. Rock compositions range from mafic to salic, and many are alkalic. Rock names used in this report are based on the classification of La Roche and others (1980). Sixteen new K-Ar age determinations and three new fission-track age determinations are given here for selected rocks in this area. Reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Springer and Raton 30 feet x 60 feet quadrangles (September 1980 to May 1982) and preparation of the resulting maps provided much field and laboratory data about the igneous rocks of this part of the Great Plains. No published geologic map or report describes adequately the distribution and character of the alkalic rocks of this area. This report presents new descriptive information on field relations, chemical analyses, and K-Ar ages of igneous rocks in the area with the hope that others will be encouraged to investigate the geology of this interesting area in greater detail.

  20. Evolution of vegetation and soil nutrients after uranium mining in Los Ratones mine (Cáceres, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, María A; Vera-Tomé, Feliciano; Blanco-Rodríguez, María P; Lozano, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of vegetation structure following mine rehabilitation is rather scarce in the literature. The concentration of long-lived radionuclides of the (238)U series might have harmful effects on living organisms. We studied soil properties and the natural vegetation occurring along a gradient in Los Ratones, an area rehabilitated after uranium mining located in Cáceres, Spain. Soil and vegetation were sampled seasonally and physical and chemical properties of soil were analysed, including natural isotopes of (238)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra and (210)Pb. Species richness, diversity, evenness and plant cover were estimated and correlated in relation to soil physical and chemical variables. The location of the sampling sites along a gradient had a strong explanatory effect on the herbaceous species, as well as the presence of shrubs and trees. Seasonal effects of the four natural isotopes were observed in species richness, species diversity and plant cover; these effects were directly related to the pH values in the soil, this being the soil property that most influences the plant distribution. Vegetation in the studied area resembles that of the surroundings, thus proving that the rehabilitation carried out in Los Ratones mine was successful in terms of understorey cover recovery.

  1. Evolution of vegetation and soil nutrients after uranium mining in Los Ratones mine (Cáceres, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, María A; Vera-Tomé, Feliciano; Blanco-Rodríguez, María P; Lozano, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of vegetation structure following mine rehabilitation is rather scarce in the literature. The concentration of long-lived radionuclides of the (238)U series might have harmful effects on living organisms. We studied soil properties and the natural vegetation occurring along a gradient in Los Ratones, an area rehabilitated after uranium mining located in Cáceres, Spain. Soil and vegetation were sampled seasonally and physical and chemical properties of soil were analysed, including natural isotopes of (238)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra and (210)Pb. Species richness, diversity, evenness and plant cover were estimated and correlated in relation to soil physical and chemical variables. The location of the sampling sites along a gradient had a strong explanatory effect on the herbaceous species, as well as the presence of shrubs and trees. Seasonal effects of the four natural isotopes were observed in species richness, species diversity and plant cover; these effects were directly related to the pH values in the soil, this being the soil property that most influences the plant distribution. Vegetation in the studied area resembles that of the surroundings, thus proving that the rehabilitation carried out in Los Ratones mine was successful in terms of understorey cover recovery. PMID:24450758

  2. Intergenerational Educational Partnerships: A Lifetime of Talent To Share. Hearing Before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, First Session (Boca Raton, FL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    A senate hearing on the role of older volunteers in the schools was held at the Spanish River High School in Boca Raton, Florida. At the time of the hearing, Florida was the only state in the United States with a school volunteer program supported by legislation, appropriation, and a state program coordinating office. Students, volunteer program…

  3. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  4. Selected climatological and hydrologic data, Raton basin, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.; Abbott, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrology of the coal-bearing Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Data in the report were collected from 1977 to 1982, mainly in the watersheds of the Apishapa and Purgatoire Rivers; data from the Cucharas, Canadian, and Vermejo River watersheds are also included in the report. The report contains records of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, evaporation, and wind movement at U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers meteorological stations; records of soil water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey; records of stream discharge and quality at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations and miscellaneous sites; and a variety of ground-water data. The ground-water data includes records of 231 wells, springs, and mines, including 87 chemical analyses of the water, recorded water levels in 29 observation wells, results of 125 aquifer tests, and 87 logs of wells and test holes. (USGS)

  5. Seismological and geodetic constraints on the 2011 Mw5.3 Trinidad, Colorado earthquake and induced deformation in the Raton Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhart, William D.; Benz, Harley M.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Raton Basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico is an actively produced hydrocarbon basin that has experienced increased seismicity since 2001, including the August 2011 Mw5.3 Trinidad normal faulting event. Following the 2011 earthquake, regional seismic observations were used to relocate 21 events, including the 2011 mainshock, two foreshocks, and 13 aftershocks. Additionally, InSAR observations of both the 2011 event and pre-event basin deformation place constraint on the spatial kinematics of the 2011 event and localized basin subsidence due to ground water or gas withdrawal. We find that the 2011 earthquake ruptured an 8–10 km long segment of a normal fault at depths of 1.5-6.0 km within the crystalline Precambrian basement underlying the Raton Basin sedimentary rocks. The earthquake also nucleated within the crystalline basement in the vicinity of an active wastewater disposal site. The ensuing aftershock sequence demonstrated statistical properties expected for intraplate earthquakes, though the length of the 2011 earthquake is unexpectedly long for an Mw5.3 event, suggesting that wastewater disposal may have triggered a low stress drop, otherwise natural earthquake Additionally, pre- and post- event seismicity in the Raton Basin spatially correlates to regions of subsidence observed in InSAR time series analysis. While this suite of observations cannot discern a causal link between hydrocarbon production and seismicity, they place constraint on spatial relationships between active basin deformation and geological and anthropogenic features. Furthermore the InSAR observations highlight the utility of space-based geodetic observations for monitoring and assessing anthropogenically induced and triggered deformation.

  6. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  7. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development.

  8. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development. PMID:25204070

  9. A preliminary evaluation of vertical separation between production intervals of coalbed-methane wells and water-supply wells in the Raton basin, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    The Raton Basin in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico is undergoing increased development of its coalbed-methane resources. Annual production of methane from coalbeds in the Raton Basin in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, increased from about 28,000,000 thousand cubic feet from 478 wells to about 80,000,000 thousand cubic feet from 1,543 wells, during 1999-2004. Annual ground-water withdrawals for coalbed-methane production increased from about 1.45 billion gallons from 480 wells to about 3.64 billion gallons from 1,568 wells, during 1999-2004. Where the coalbeds are deeply buried near the center of the Raton Basin, water pressure may be reduced as much as 250 to 300 pounds per square inch to produce the methane from the coalbeds, which is equivalent to a 577- to 692-foot lowering of water level. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began an evaluation of the potential effects of coalbed- methane production on the availability and sustainability of ground-water resources. In 2003, there were an estimated 1,370 water-supply wells in the Raton Basin in Colorado, and about 90 percent of these water-supply wells were less than 450 feet deep. The tops of the production (perforated) interval of 90 percent of the coalbed-methane wells in the Raton Basin (for which data were available) are deeper than about 675 feet. The potential for interference of coalbed-methane wells with nearby water-supply wells likely is limited because in most areas their respective production intervals are separated by more than a hundred to a few thousand feet of rock. The estimated vertical separation between production intervals of coalbed-methane and water-supply wells is less than 100 feet in an area about 1 to 6 miles west and southwest of Trinidad Lake and a few other isolated areas. It is assumed that in areas with less than 100 feet of vertical separation, production by coalbed-methane wells has a greater

  10. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, L

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO(2) from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N(2)O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-), but the concentration of NO(3)(-) was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  11. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, L

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO(2) from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N(2)O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-), but the concentration of NO(3)(-) was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil. PMID:20692019

  12. How to Get from Cupertino to Boca Raton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Duane K.; Chiavacci, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes seven methods to transfer data from Apple computer disks to IBM computer disks and vice versa: print out data and retype; use a commercial software package, optical-character reader, homemade cable, or modem to pass or transfer data directly; pay commercial data-transfer service; or store files on mainframe and download. (MBR)

  13. Spatial and temporal evolution of the levels of tritium in the Tagus River in its passage through Caceres (Spain) and the Alentejo (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Brogueira, A M; Carreiro, M C; García, E; Gil, J M; Miró, C; Sequeira, M M; Teixeira, M M

    2001-03-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between Spanish and Portuguese laboratories. The specific objective was to quantify the time evolution during 1994, 1995 and 1996 of the radioecological impact of the liquid releases of 3H from the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) in the section of the Tagus River corresponding to Cáceres province in Spain and the Alentejo region in Portugal. We found that the temporal evolution of the levels of tritium depends on the management of the water held in the cooling reservoir of the ANPP and the presence of the dams that exist along the river. This management regime has a 12-month period. Also the movement of the mass of tritiated water (HTO) downriver was much faster during 1996 than 1995 or 1994 due to the hydrological differences between those years and consequently to the different amounts of water transferred between the reservoirs of the dams. From the hypothesis that hydrodynamically it is impossible to differentiate tritiated water from non-tritiated water, a model was constructed that satisfactorily reproduces the temporal evolution of the 3H in the zone of the Tagus River in which the exchange of water takes place, with the cooling reservoir of the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant. PMID:11228968

  14. Creative Interactive Teaching: Case Method & Other Techniques. Selected Papers of the International Conference on Case Methods Research & Application (16th, Caceres, Spain, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Hans E., Ed.

    This book presents a selection of papers from the international, interdisciplinary conference of the World Association for Case Method Research & Application. Papers are categorized into seven areas: (1) "International Case Studies" (e.g., event-based entrepreneurship, case studies on consumer complaints, and strategic quality management in an…

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Program on the South Florida Ecosystem; proceedings of South Florida Restoration Science Forum, May 17-19, 1999, Boca Raton, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerould, Sarah; Higer, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the forum is to highlight the powerful connection between science and management decisions in restoration efforts. The public's investment in science is paying off in support of better management decisions and restoration of imperiled south Florida Ecosystems, including the internationally recognized, globally significant Everglades. The forum affords a unique opportunity for elected officials and other policy- and decision makers, along with the general public, to see--under one roof--highlights of the most significant restoration science and management efforts underway. The forum promotes the link between science and management. Scientists and decisionmakers will come together to discuss the needs of each in order to ensure that plans for restoration are based in science and are the most cost effective and highest quality possible. Continued vigilance over south Florida ecosystems is essential to prevent further harm and to restore them. Representatives from numerous federal, state, local, and nongovernmental entities are organizing the forum for the Science Coordination Team of the South Florida Ecosystem Working Group. The U.S. Geological Survey and the South Florida Water Management District are the primary hosts of the forum.

  16. Mineralogy and petrology of the Cretaceous- Tertiary boundary clay bed and adjacent clay-rich rocks, Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.; Pillmore, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The K-T boundary occurs at the top of a kaolinitic claystone layer, commonly referred to as the 'boundary clay layer', in an interval of coal and carbonaceous shale. The boundary is defined by the disappearance of certain fossil-pollen taxa. The boundary clay layer also contains shocked quartz grains and abundance anomalies of iridium, chromium, and other elements. Each of these characteristics support the hypothesis of an asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous. -from Authors

  17. Foreign Languages: Teaching for Communication. A Compendium of Teacher-Authored Activities for Foreign Language Classes. Report of Workshops (Boca Raton, Florida, January 10, 1987-May 30, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saporita, Richard D., Ed.

    Phase 1 of a 2-phase project consisted of a series of 9 workshops designed to help teachers use the communicative approach to second language teaching in planning lessons. The workshops in turn resulted in a collection of 118 teacher-developed communicative activities and lesson plans in these categories: (1) developing communicative skills in the…

  18. Book review of Insect Symbiosis. Volume 2. Bourtzis, K.A. and Miller, T.A. editros. 2006 CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 276 pp. ISBN 0-8493-1286-8

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, M.A.

    2007-03-15

    There are several definitions of symbiosis, but in this book it involves an association where one organism (the symbiont) lives within or on the body of another organism (the host), regardless of the actual effect on the host. Some symbioses are mutualistic, some parasitic, and some involve commensalism, in which one partner derives some benefit without either harming or benefiting the other. This is the second volume in this exciting and rapidly advancing topic by these editors. The first volume was published in 2003 and during the intervening three years additional data have been produced that make this book a useful addition to your library. The first book provided chapters that provided an overview of insect symbiosis, discussions of the primary aphid symbiont Buchnera and other aphid symbionts, symbiosis in tsetse, symbionts in the weevil Sitophilus , the possible use of paratransgenic symbionts of Rhodnius prolixis to prevent disease transmission, bark beetle and fungal symbiosis, symbionts of tephritid fruit flies, symbionts affecting termite behavior, an overview of microsporidia as symbionts (parasites?) of insects, an overview of a newly discovered bacterium that causes sex-ratio distortion in insects and mites (from the Bacteroides group), symbionts that selectively kill male insects, and several chapters on the ubiquitous endosymbiont Wolbachia.

  19. Health Maintenance Organizations and the Elderly: Promises, Problems, and Prospects. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Boca Raton, Florida).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains the transcripts of witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to explore the impact of the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) on the health care system and on the elderly in particular. Opening statements are given from Representatives Dan Mica, Matthew Rinaldo, and Lawrence Smith.…

  20. 76 FR 52663 - Determination of Insufficient Assets To Satisfy Claims Against Financial Institution in Receivership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... determined that insufficient assets exist in the receivership of Sun American Bank, Boca Raton, Florida, to...-3925. Written correspondence may also be mailed to FDIC as Receiver of Sun American Bank, Attention... 5, 2010, Sun American Bank, Boca Raton, Florida, (FIN 10192) was closed by the Florida Office...

  1. 75 FR 48686 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...), 5725 Paradise Drive, 1000, Corte Madera, CA 94925, Officers: George W. Pasha, IV, President/CEO... Brooks, CEO (Qualifying Individual), Maria Caceres, Secretary, Application Type: Add Trade Name... 90501, Officers: Hyunmo (A.K.A. Sean) Yang, Secretary (Qualifying Individual), Michelle Suh,...

  2. 75 FR 12543 - Update to Notice of Financial Institutions for Which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... issue of the Federal Register (57 FR 29491). For further information concerning the identification of... American Bank.. Boca Raton FL 3/05/2010 10190 Waterfield Bank.... Germantown MD 3/05/2010 BILLING CODE...

  3. 29 CFR 1606.8 - Harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex, § 1604.11(a) n. 1, 45 FR 7476 sy 74677 (November 10...), and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, 524 U.S. 775 (1998). The Commission has issued a policy...

  4. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage.

  5. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. PMID:24912728

  6. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  7. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute. PMID:25757430

  8. Briareolate Esters from the Gorgonian Briareum asbestinum

    PubMed Central

    Meginley, Rian J.; Gupta, Prasoon; Schulz, Thomas C.; McLean, Amanda B.; Robins, Allan J.; West, Lyndon M.

    2012-01-01

    Two new briarane diterpenoids briareolate esters J (1) and K (2) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the octocoral Briareum asbestinum collected off the coast of Boca Raton, Florida. The structures of briaranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Briareolate ester K (2) showed weak growth inhibition activity against human embryonic stem cells (BG02). PMID:23015768

  9. 78 FR 67399 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ODVA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ..., GERMANY; Imperx, Inc., Boca Raton, FL; Wittenstein AG; Igersheim, GERMANY; Canrig Drilling Technologies..., Amphenol Sine Systems Corporation, Clinton Township, MI; Sanyo Machine Works, Ltd., Nishikasugai-gun, Aichi... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on February 15, 1996 (61 FR 6039). The last notification...

  10. Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.

  11. PHYTOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Handbook of Ecotoxicology. Second Edition.. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. 32 p.

    Phytoplankton, benthic and epiphytic microalgae, and macroalgae are energy sources critical to most aquatic ecosystems. Changes in their density and composition can effect the chemical and...

  12. 75 FR 9580 - Marine Mammals and Endangered Species; File Nos. 13544 and 14586

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...), humpback whales (Megaptera novaengliae), and the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). The... Wyneken, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, has applied in due form to conduct scientific... Permit No. 13544, issued on April 17, 2009 (74 FR 18354) is requested under the authority of...

  13. MICROBIAL BIOFILMS AS INTEGRATIVE SENSORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Snyder, Richard A., Michael A. Lewis, Andreas Nocker and Joe E. Lepo. In press. Microbial Biofilms as Integrative Sensors of Environmental Quality. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 34 p. (ERL,GB 1198).

    Microbial biofilms are comple...

  14. SEDIMENT HABITAT ASSESSMENT FOR TARGETED NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO: A SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A. In press. Sediment Habitat Assessment for Targeted Near-Coastal Areas of the Gulf of Mexico: A Summary. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 25 p. (ERL,GB 1201).

    Sediment chemical and biological quality is summarized ...

  15. Asociación de XMRV con enfermedades humanas se debe a contaminación

    Cancer.gov

    Nuevas investigaciones muestran que una asociación, mencionada en numerosos estudios, entre el retrovirus conocido como XMRV y el cáncer de próstata así como el síndrome de fatiga crónica, se debe a contaminación de laboratorio con un virus que se originó en ratones.

  16. Developing Leadership in a Multitype Library Consortium: Ten Years of SEFLIN Sun Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Elizabeth A.; Smithee, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Southeast Florida Library and Information Network (SEFLIN) has presented the Sun Seeker Leadership Institute biennially since 1997. SEFLIN, a multitype library consortium headquartered in Boca Raton, Florida, was one of the first groups to sponsor a library leadership institute held as a monthly series of events over the period of a year. One…

  17. A Contractual Management Arrangement: FAU and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William; Pellen, Rita

    1993-01-01

    Describes the problems IBM Corporation in Boca Raton, Florida, has had staffing and managing a corporate library and its cooperative agreement with Florida Atlantic University (FAU) to provide professional librarian services. Issues to consider in developing an academic/special libraries agreement are discussed. (EA)

  18. A Parent Involvement Program Including Communication to Parents Integrated with a Parent-Education Program and Its Effects on Academic Achievement, Classroom Conduct, Study Habits and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennies, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    To validate the Parent Communication Plus Program at Boca Raton (FL) Christian School, three groups of problem students were selected. Each group's parents received a different level of communication from the school. Results indicate that increased communication between school and parents results in higher student academic achievement. (CH)

  19. A Cook's Tour: The Journey to Become a Model Culinary Arts Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantang, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    This article is about how the West Boca Raton Community High School's Culinary Arts Academy achieved national model status as it works to prepare the next generation of culinary artists. The culinary academy, established in 2004, adopted national standards that have served as a foundation for its excellence. In November 2007, the National Career…

  20. 75 FR 43537 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... against HUD-approved mortgagees. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy A. Murray, Secretary to the.... Bank of Clark County, Vancouver, WA. 122. Bankcredit Mortgage Inc., Boca Raton, FL (Titles 1 & 2). 123..., FL. 301. Familyhomeloans.Net, Inc., Laguna Hills, CA. 302. Farmers State Bank of Fulton...

  1. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  2. Practical evolution of biofilm theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kree, D.M.; Chansler, J.M. )

    1993-12-01

    This article examines the sudden development of high coliform positives in the potable water distribution systems in Boca Raton, Florida. The topics of the article include the review of problems related to bacterial occurrences and related Safe Drinking Water Act new rules, typical water system disinfection, water use, a description of the infection event and corrective measures.

  3. Trace element patterns at a non-marine cretaceous-tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.; Orth, C.J.; Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    At the fossil-pollen-defined Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado, an iridium abundance anomaly and excess scandium, titanium, and chromium are associated with a thin ash or dust fallout bed (now kaolinitic clay) that was preserved in freshwater coal swamps. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Localization vs. Internationalization: E-Learning Programs for the Aviation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, Judith B.

    This paper presents a case study of a Web-based English language training program in the field of Aviation. Virtual Languages, Inc., (VL) of Boca Raton, Florida, develops and delivers distance learning courses that teach English as a Second Language (ESL) within an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) framework. This allows learners to improve…

  5. Focused Interactive Learning: A Tool for Active Class Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harton, Helen C.; Richardson, Deborah S.; Barreras, Ricardo E.; Rockloff, Matthew J.; Latane, Bibb

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of focused interactive learning (FIL), in which students participate in focused discussions with their peers to learn about psychological concepts. Evaluates the use of FIL at Florida Atlantic University (Boca Raton, Florida). Addresses student benefits resulting from this technique. (CMK)

  6. Selected plant microfossil records of the terminal Cretaceous event in terrestrial rocks, western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Terrestrial or nonmarine rocks of western North America preserve a record of major disruption and permanent alteration of plant communities precisely at the K-T boundary - in the same rocks that preserve geochemical and mineralogical evidence of the terminal Cretaceous impact event. Plant microfossil records from many localities show abrupt disappearance of pollen species (= plant extinctions) closely associated with impact ejecta deposits containing iridium and shocked quartz. Localities discussed in detail in this review are Starkville South, Clear Creek North, Old Raton Pass, and Sugarite in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico; West Bijou in the Denver Basin, Colorado; Sussex in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming; and Pyramid Butte and Mud Buttes in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Immunomodulatory role of dietary lipids in an immunosuppressed mouse model and infected with listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Cerón Rodríguez, José María; Puertollano Vacas, M Ángeles; Puertollano Vacas, M Elena; Alvarez de Cienfuegos López, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: La capacidad inmunomoduladora de los ácidos grasos de la dieta en situaciones de inmunosupresión puede diferir de acuerdo con el tipo de ácido graso presente. Objetivo: Analizar el efecto de diferentes tipos de dietas lipídicas, en la resistencia de animales inmunosuprimidos o no, frente a una infección experimental con Listeria monocytogenes. Métodos: Ratones Balb/c fueron divididos en cuatro grupos experimentales, según su tratamiento inmunosupresor: control (PBS), Ciclofosfamida (CPA), GK 1.5 y RB6-8C5. Cada grupo fue subdividido en cuatro subgrupos según la dieta lipídica utilizada: control con aceite de maíz 5% (BG); aceite de oliva 20% (AO); aceite de pescado 20% (AP) y aceite de girasol 20% (AG). Los animales se alimentaron durante un mes antes del tratamiento y posteriormente infectados con L. monocytogenes. Resultados: Mostramos incrementos en el número de bacterias viables en bazo e hígado, y bajos porcentajes de supervivencia en todos los grupos de ratones inmunosuprimidos y también en el grupo PBS alimentado con AP. Además, se observaron incrementos en la linfoproliferación, de bazos de ratones alimentados con AO y tratados con CPA. Discusión: La dieta AP, produce una disminución en la resistencia del hospedador en situaciones de inmunosupresión. Por el contrario, las dietas AO y AG muestran mayor eficacia en la eliminación de L. monocytogenes y mayores ventajas en animales inmunosuprimidos. El tratamiento con RB6-8C5, produce una reducción en la supervivencia de los ratones de los grupos estudiados, lo que induce a establecer que los granulocitos juegan un papel fundamental en el control de la infección.

  8. Dietary intake of ain-93 standard diet induces Fatty liver with altered hepatic fatty acid profile in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Farias Santos, Juliana; Suruagy Amaral, Monique; Lima Oliveira, Suzana; Porto Barbosa, Júnia; Rego Cabral-Jr, Cyro; Sofia Melo, Ingrid; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte Freitas, Johnatan; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio; Rocha Ataíde, Terezinha

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: En la investigación científica, hay varias dietas estándar para los animales, generalmente concebidas por instituciones científicas. La dieta AIN-93 es ampliamente utilizada, pero hay algunos informes de esteatosis hepática en ratones Wistar alimentadas con esta dieta. Objetivo: Evaluar las repercusiones hepáticas de la ingesta de la dieta estándar AIN-93 en ratones Wistar. Métodos: Cuarenta recién destetados, ratones Wistar machos, con 21 días de edad fueron alimentados con la dieta AIN-93 o una dieta comercial, durante 1 mes o 4 meses. El aumento de peso, la bioquímica sérica, la histología hepática y el perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos fueron analizados. Resultados: Se observó esteatosis hepática, especialmente en el grupo alimentado con la dieta AIN-93. Glucosa en suero, peso absoluto y relativo del hígado y los niveles hepáticos de ácidos grasos oleico, palmitoleico, esteárico y palmítico se relacionaron con la esteatosis observada, mientras el lipidograma y los marcadores sanguíneos de la función hepática, no se relacionaron. Conclusión: La dieta estándar AIN-93 causó esteatosis hepática aguda en ratones Wistar, que puede comprometer su uso como una dieta estándar para los estudios experimentales con roedores. El perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos se asoció con la esteatosis, con posibles implicaciones para el pronóstico de la enfermedad.

  9. CORRIGENDUM: Spin-coated Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films for organic light-emitting diodes Spin-coated Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films for organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Kim, Jinwoo; Chung, Seungjun; Jeong, Jaewook; Lee, Changhee; Hong, Yongtaek

    2009-07-01

    Two corrections should be made to the previously published version of this article. On page 1, right-hand column, the radius of Zn should be read as 0.074 nm. This value is taken from Lide D R 1991 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 71st edn (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press). In the first paragraph of section 2, Diethanolammine and its acronym DEA should be corrected to Monoethanolamine and MEA.

  10. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    PubMed

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia del consumo de una dieta cetogénica complementada con triheptanoína, un triacilglicerol de cadena media y anaplerótico, en el perfil de ácidos grasos del hígado de ratones Wistar. Métodos: tres grupos de ratones Wistar machos (n = 10) fueron sometidos durante 60 días a una dieta AIN-93 de control, una dieta cetogénica basada en triheptanoína o una dieta cetogénica a base de aceite de soja. Los hígados fueron escindidos y sometidos a extracción de lípidos y metilación para obtener los ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos, que se sometieron a cromatografía de gas-espectrometría de masa. Resultados y discusión: en comparación con los ratones alimentados con la dieta de control, los de ambas dietas cetogénicas mostraron una reducción significativa en las concentraciones de los ácidos grasos 9-hexadecenoico y 9-octadecenoico, mientras que los alimentados con triheptanoína mostraron niveles de ácido octadecenoico aumentados. Conclusión: los cambios en los perfiles de ácidos grasos del hígado de los ratones alimentados con dietas cetogénicas no están relacionados con la fuente de grasa de la dieta (triheptanoína o aceite de soja), sino más bien con la concentración total de lípidos.

  11. An iridium abundance anomaly at the palynological cretaceous-tertiary boundary in northern new Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orth, C J; Gilmore, J S; Knight, J D; Pillmore, C L; Tschudy, R H; Fassett, J E

    1981-12-18

    An iridium abundance anomaly, with concentrations up to 5000 parts per trillion over a background level of 4 to 20 parts per trillion, has been located in sedimentary rocks laid down under freshwater swamp conditions in the Raton Basin of northeastern New Mexico. The anomaly occurs at the base of a coal bed, at the same stratigraphic position at which several well-known species of Cretaceous-age pollen became extinct.

  12. Heat-recovery incinerator for a community hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, D.

    1996-12-01

    This article describes a project which features a heat recovery boiler that uses incinerator exhaust gas to produce free steam for a not-for-profit hospital in Boca Raton, Fla. Free steam is also used to reheat scrubber exhaust gas to provide for plume suppression and improved pollutant dispersion. The project saves $266,129 in annual energy and waste hauling costs. The project also has a simple payback of five years.

  13. [Metformin impact on purine metabolism in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Shatova, O P; Butenko, Eu V; Khomutov, Eu V; Kaplun, D S; Sedakov, I Eu; Zinkovych, I I

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of metformin in oncology practice. However, the mechanisms of implementation of the anti-tumor effect of this drug there is still need understanding. In this study we have investigated the effect of metformin on the activity of adenosine deaminase and respectively adenosinergic immunosuppression in tumors and their microenvironment. The material of the study was taken during surgery of breast cacer patients receiveing metformin, and also patients which did not take this drug. The adenosine deaminase activity and substrate (adenosine) and products (inosine, hypoxanthine) concentrations were determined by HPLC. Results of this study suggest that metformin significantly alters catabolism of purine nucleotides in the node breast adenocarcinoma tisue. However, the metformin-induced increase in the adenosine deaminase activity is not sufficient to reduce the level of adenosine in cancer tissue. Thus, in metformin treated patients the adenosine concentration remained unchanged, and inosine and hypoxanthine concentration significantly increased. PMID:27420623

  14. [Metformin impact on purine metabolism in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Shatova, O P; Butenko, Eu V; Khomutov, Eu V; Kaplun, D S; Sedakov, I Eu; Zinkovych, I I

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of metformin in oncology practice. However, the mechanisms of implementation of the anti-tumor effect of this drug there is still need understanding. In this study we have investigated the effect of metformin on the activity of adenosine deaminase and respectively adenosinergic immunosuppression in tumors and their microenvironment. The material of the study was taken during surgery of breast cacer patients receiveing metformin, and also patients which did not take this drug. The adenosine deaminase activity and substrate (adenosine) and products (inosine, hypoxanthine) concentrations were determined by HPLC. Results of this study suggest that metformin significantly alters catabolism of purine nucleotides in the node breast adenocarcinoma tisue. However, the metformin-induced increase in the adenosine deaminase activity is not sufficient to reduce the level of adenosine in cancer tissue. Thus, in metformin treated patients the adenosine concentration remained unchanged, and inosine and hypoxanthine concentration significantly increased.

  15. Economic aspects of production of Caiman crocodilus yacare.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Laura B T; Sabbag, Omar J

    2015-03-01

    The breeding of crocodilians is still a recent activity in Brazil. Its peak was in the 1990's, but it has gaps in its production, as there are no norms for the commercial breeding of these animals in captivity. However, its economic potential is great, and the search for ecological balance and viability of commercial production has become a challenge among farmers of this activity. Therefor, the objective of the study was to economically analyze the production of Caiman crocodilus yacare on a farm located in Caceres, state of Mato Grosso, identifying relevant items of costs in the activity, as well as the parameters related to the profitability and viability of the activity. The economic results for the breeding of this animal were positive, with profitability ratios higher than 70%. PMID:25806993

  16. Economic aspects of production of Caiman crocodilus yacare.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Laura B T; Sabbag, Omar J

    2015-03-01

    The breeding of crocodilians is still a recent activity in Brazil. Its peak was in the 1990's, but it has gaps in its production, as there are no norms for the commercial breeding of these animals in captivity. However, its economic potential is great, and the search for ecological balance and viability of commercial production has become a challenge among farmers of this activity. Therefor, the objective of the study was to economically analyze the production of Caiman crocodilus yacare on a farm located in Caceres, state of Mato Grosso, identifying relevant items of costs in the activity, as well as the parameters related to the profitability and viability of the activity. The economic results for the breeding of this animal were positive, with profitability ratios higher than 70%.

  17. Challenges in biotechnology at LLNL: from genes to proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Albala, J S

    1999-03-11

    This effort has undertaken the task of developing a link between the genomics, DNA repair and structural biology efforts within the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program at LLNL. Through the advent of the I.M.A.G.E. (Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression) Consortium, a world-wide effort to catalog the largest public collection of genes, accepted and maintained within BBRP, it is now possible to systematically express the protein complement of these to further elucidate novel gene function and structure. The work has ensued in four phases, outlined as follows: (1) Gene and System selection; (2) Protein expression and purification; (3) Structural analysis; and (4) biological integration. Proteins to be expressed have been those of high programmatic interest. This includes, in particular, proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity, particularly those involved in the repair of DNA damage, including ERCC1, ERCC4, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC9, HEX1, APN1, p53, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51. Full-length cDNA cognates of selected genes were isolated, and cloned into baculovirus-based expression vectors. The baculoviral expression system for protein over-expression is now well-established in the Albala laboratory. Procedures have been successfully optimized for full-length cDNA clining into expression vectors for protein expression from recombinant constructs. This includes the reagents, cell lines, techniques necessary for expression of recombinant baculoviral constructs in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The laboratory has also generated a high-throughput baculoviral expression paradigm for large scale expression and purification of human recombinant proteins amenable to automation.

  18. Mesophotic coral ecosystems under anthropogenic stress: a case study at Ponce, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appeldoorn, Richard; Ballantine, David; Bejarano, Ivonne; Carlo, Milton; Nemeth, Michael; Otero, Ernesto; Pagan, Francisco; Ruiz, Hector; Schizas, Nikolaos; Sherman, Clark; Weil, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) were compared between La Parguera and Ponce, off the south coast of Puerto Rico. In contrast to La Parguera, Ponce has a narrow insular shelf and hosts several river outlets, a commercial port, a regional sewage treatment plant with associated deep water outfall, and three deep dredge disposal sites. Off Ponce, MCEs receive higher (16×) rates of sedimentation than off La Parguera, a less impacted site. The most impacted sites were located offshore of Cayo Ratones and are in or down-current and in close proximity to one of the dredge disposal sites. There, MCEs are characterized by a steep, irregular, rocky slope with a cover of fine-grained, dark brown sediment, which increases with depth. At shallower depths, scattered rocky outcroppings are colonized by sponges, black corals and algae. The sediment cover contains two to three times the terrigenous content and a significantly higher percentage of the fine-grained fraction than off La Parguera. Thirteen remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives east and west of Ponce showed that the deepest depth at which corals were observed increased with distance from Cayo Ratones and did not approach depths observed off La Parguera except at the eastern-most (up-current) site, Caja de Muertos, which was also significantly further offshore. Benthic communities off Caja de Muertos were comparable to those at La Parguera, while off Cayo Ratones, there were no mesophotic corals and sparse development of other benthic macrobiota except sponges. Management authorities should include MCEs when assessing potential impacts from anthropogenic activities and take the necessary steps to reduce local threats.

  19. Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Almost the entire state of Florida, USA (28.0N, 81.5W) can be seen in this single view from space. The large urban area on the SE coast is the greater Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Boca Raton and West Palm Beach complex. Half way up the coast is the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral where the space shuttle lifts off into space. Even at this great distance, the huge Vehicle Assembly Building, causeway and launch areas can still be easily seen.

  20. Effect of computer radiation on weight and oxidant-antioxidant status of mice.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuexian; Gu, Qijun; Ye, Dongdong; Wang, Yang; Zou, Xu; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-10-20

    Objetivos: Explorar los efectos de la radiación de ordenador sobre el peso y el estado oxidativo-antioxidativo de los ratones, y además para confirmar si la vitamina C tiene efectos protectores contra la radiación de ordenador. Métodos: Sesenta ratones machos adultos ICR fueron aleatoriamente divididos en seis grupos. Cada grupo recibió un tratamiento diferente del modo siguiente: el grupo A fue el grupo de control, el grupo B recibió vitamina C, el grupo C fue sometido a una exposicion a la radiacion de ordenador de 8 h/día, el Grupo D recibió vitamina C y fue sometido a una exposicion a la radiacion de ordenador de 8 h/día, el Grupo E fue sometido a una radiación de ordenador de 16 h/día, el grupo F recibió vitamina C y fue sometido a una exposicion a la radiacion de ordenador de 16 h/día. Al cabo de siete semanas, los ratones fueron ejecutados para extraer las muestras de sangre, para detectar la capacidad antioxidante total (T-AOC) y el contenido de fosfatasa alcalina (ALP) en suero o en tejido hepático fue determinado mediante ELISA. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias en cuanto a cambio de peso entre los seis grupos diferentes. En los grupos C, D y F, el nivel en de T-AOC en tejido hepático fue más alto que en el grupo A. En los grupos B, C y E, el nivel de ALP en suero fue más bajo que en el Grupo A (P < 0,05). Conclusiones: El estudio indican que la radiación de ordenador puede tener un efecto adverso en los niveles de T-AOC y ALP de ratones, y que la vitamina C tendría un efecto protector contra la radiación del ordenador.

  1. Coalbed methane production potential in U. S. basins

    SciTech Connect

    Byer, C.W.; Mroz, T.H.; Covatch, G.L.

    1987-07-01

    The major emphasis of the U.S. DOE's coalbed methane research has been on estimating the magnitude of the resource and developing systems for recovery. Methane resource estimates for 16 basins show that the greatest potential is in the Piceance, Northern Appalachian, Central Appalachian, Powder River, and Greater Green River coal basins. Small, high-potential target areas have been selected for in-depth analysis of the resource. Industry interest is greatest in the Warrior, San Juan, Piceance, Raton Mesa, and Northern and Central Appalachian basins. Production curves for several coalbed methane wells in these basins are included.

  2. On the global behavior of a high-order rational difference equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Rastegar, Narges

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the (k+1)-order rational difference equation y={p+qy+ry}/{1+y},n=0,1,2,… where k∈{1,2,3,…}, and the initial conditions y,…,y,y and the parameters p, q and r are non-negative. We investigate the global stability, the periodic character and the boundedness nature of solutions of the above mentioned difference equation. In particular, our results solve the open problem introduced by Kulenovic and Ladas in their monograph [Dynamics of Second Order Rational Difference Equations with Open Problems and Conjectures, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, 2002].

  3. On the selection of auxiliary functions, operators, and convergence control parameters in the application of the Homotopy Analysis Method to nonlinear differential equations: A general approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.; Vajravelu, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Homotopy Analysis Method of Liao [Liao SJ. Beyond perturbation: introduction to the Homotopy Analysis Method. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press; 2003] has proven useful in obtaining analytical solutions to various nonlinear differential equations. In this method, one has great freedom to select auxiliary functions, operators, and parameters in order to ensure the convergence of the approximate solutions and to increase both the rate and region of convergence. We discuss in this paper the selection of the initial approximation, auxiliary linear operator, auxiliary function, and convergence control parameter in the application of the Homotopy Analysis Method, in a fairly general setting. Further, we discuss various convergence requirements on solutions.

  4. Spiritual leadership: a new model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Emily J

    2004-01-01

    Recent unethical business practices of some corporations and the overall loss of confidence by the public in corporate leadership have given rise to a unique leadership model--one that focuses on spirituality. "Ninety percent of our diverse American population and health-care workforce have spiritual and religious beliefs. While these beliefs may be mystical, religious, or secular, there are many common patterns that influence change and leadership within our organizations." So says Gary Strack, CHE, president and chief executive officer of Boca Raton (FL) Community Hospital. Strack presented a seminar on the topic at ACHE's 2003 Congress on Healthcare Management.

  5. Hydrology of Area 61, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, P.O.; Geldon, Arthur L.; Cain, Doug; Hall, Alan P.; Edelmann, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Area 61 is located on the Colorado-New Mexico boundary in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico, and includes the Raton Mesa coal region. The 5 ,900-square-mile area is an asymmetrical structural trough bounded by the Rocky Mountains on the west and the Great Plains on the east. The area is drained by the Huerfano, Apishapa, Purgatoire, and Canadian Rivers (and their tributaries), all tributary to the Arkansas River. The principal coal-bearing formations are the Vermejo Formation of Late Cretaceous age and the Raton Formation of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Much of the coal in the area is of coking quality, important to the metallurgical industry. Topographic relief in the area is greater than 8,700 feet, and this influences the climate which in turn affects the runoff pattern of area streams. Summer thunderstorms often result in flash floods. Virtually all geologic units in the region yield water. Depth to ground water ranges from land surface to 400 feet. Surface and ground water in the area contain mostly bicarbonate and sulfate ions; locally in the ground water, chloride ions predominate. Potential hydrologic problems associated with surface coal mining in the area are water-quality degradation, water-table decline, and increased erosion and sedimentation.

  6. Quality and petrographic characteristics of Paleocene coals from the Hanna basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    Coal beds from the Ferris and Hanna Formations, in the Hanna basin, south-central Wyoming, exhibit distinct differences in ash yield, sulfur content, and petrographic and palynologic constituents. These differences are interpreted to be controlled by tectonic changes of the Hanna basin and adjoining uplifts during evolutionary development, which, in turn, controlled mire chemistry and sedimentation. These conditions created two very different settings under which the peats developed during deposition of the Ferris and the Hanna Formations. In addition, there appears to be a geographic (latitudinal) and/or climatic control on the coal characteristics manifested by major differences of Paleocene coals in the Hanna basin compared to those in the Raton basin in Colorado and New Mexico and the Powder River basin in Wyoming.Coal beds from the Ferris and Hanna Formations, in the Hanna basin, south-central Wyoming, exhibit distinct differences in ash yield, sulfur content, and petrographic and palynologic constituents. These differences are interpreted to be controlled by tectonic changes of the Hanna basin and adjoining uplifts during evolutionary development, which, in turn, controlled mire chemistry and sedimentation. These conditions created two very different settings under which the peats developed during deposition of the Ferris and the Hanna Formations. In addition, there appears to be a geographic (latitudinal) and/or climatic control on the coal characteristics manifested by major differences of Paleocene coals in the Hanna basin compared to those in the Raton basin in Colorado and New Mexico and the Powder River basin in Wyoming.

  7. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Vermejo Peak area, Colfax and Taos Counties, New Mexico and Las Animas and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Pillmore, Charles L.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    This geologic map covers four 7.5-minute quadrangles-The Wall, NM-CO (New Mexico-Colorado), Vermejo Park, NM-CO, Ash Mountain, NM, and Van Bremmer Park, NM. The study area straddles the boundary between the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the western margin of the Raton Basin, with about two-thirds of the map area in the basin. The Raton Basin is a foreland basin that formed immediately eastward of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains during their initial uplift, in the Late Cretaceous through early Eocene Laramide orogeny. Subsequently, these mountains have been extensively modified during formation of the Rio Grande rift, from late Oligocene to present. The map area is within that part of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains that is called the Culebra Range. Additionally, the map covers small parts of the Devil's Park graben and the Valle Vidal half-graben, in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the map area, respectively. These two grabens are small intermontaine basins, that are satellitic to the main local basin of the Rio Grande rift, the San Luis Basin, that are an outlying, early- formed part of the rift, and that separate the Culebra Range from the Taos Range, to the southwest.

  8. The use of human adipose-derived stem cells based cytotoxicity assay for acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Abud, Ana Paula Ressetti; Zych, Jaiesa; Reus, Thamile Luciane; Kuligovski, Crisciele; de Moraes, Elizabeth; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; de Aguiar, Alessandra Melo

    2015-12-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) were evaluated as cell culture model for cytotoxicity assay and toxicity prediction by using the neutral red uptake assay (NRU). In this study, we compared ADSC and the murine cell line BALB/c 3T3 clone A31 to predict the toxicity of 12 reference substances as recommended by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods. We predicted the LD50 for RC-rat-only weight and RC-rat-only millimole regressions for both cell culture models. For RC rat-only weight regression, both cells had the same accordance (50%), while for RC rat-only millimole regression, the accordance was 50% for ADSC and 42% for 3T3s. Thus, ADSC have similar capability for GHS class prediction as the 3T3 cell line for the evaluated reference substances. Therefore, ADSCs showed the potential to be considered a novel model for use in evaluating cytotoxicity in drug development and industry as well as for regulatory purposes to reduce or replace the use of laboratory animals with acceptable sensitivity for toxicity prediction in humans. These cells can be used to complete the results from other models, mainly because of its human origin. Moreover, it is less expensive in comparison with other existing models.

  9. Hydrology of Area 61, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, P.O.; Geldon, Arthur L.; Cain, Doug; Hall, Alan P.; Edelmann, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Area 61 is located on the Colorado-New Mexico boundary in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico, and includes the Raton Mesa coal region. The 5 ,900-square-mile area is an asymmetrical structural trough bounded by the Rocky Mountains on the west and the Great Plains on the east. The area is drained by the Huerfano, Apishapa, Purgatoire, and Canadian Rivers (and their tributaries), all tributary to the Arkansas River. The principal coal-bearing formations are the Vermejo Formation of Late Cretaceous age and the Raton Formation of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Much of the coal in the area is of coking quality, important to the metallurgical industry. Topographic relief in the area is greater than 8,700 feet, and this influences the climate which in turn affects the runoff pattern of area streams. Summer thunderstorms often result in flash floods. Virtually all geologic units in the region yield water. Depth to ground water ranges from land surface to 400 feet. Surface and ground water in the area contain mostly bicarbonate and sulfate ions; locally in the ground water, chloride ions predominate. Potential hydrologic problems associated with surface coal mining in the area are water-quality degradation, water-table decline, and increased erosion and sedimentation. (USGS)

  10. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  11. Prognostic factors in patients with jaw sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Rafael Morales; Contreras, Sonia Julia Sacsaquispe; Canales, Janet Ofelia Guevara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors related to the survival of patients with sarcomas of the jaw treated in the Dr. Eduardo Caceres Graziani National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases, Lima, Peru. Age, gender, delay in consultation, diagnostic delay, therapeutic delay, tumor size, tumor location, facial asymmetry, pain, treatment type, and histopathological diagnosis were all evaluated as possible prognostic factors that would influence survival in those with jaw sarcomas. In the analysis, the following was used: mortality tables, Kaplan-Meier's product-limit method, log-rank, and Breslow and Tarone-Ware tests; for the prognostic factors, Cox's Regression Model was used. The overall survival rate, with the patient being free from disease at two years, was 55%, and that at five years was 45%. In the independent analysis of the prognostic factors, four variables were statistically significant in influencing survival: gender (p = 0.043), histopathologic diagnosis (p = 0.019), tumor location (p = 0.019), and treatment type (p = 0.030). According to Cox's Regression Model for the multivariate analysis, statistically significant prognostic factors were: gender (p = 0.086), tumor location (p = 0.020), and treatment type (p = 0.092). Thus, the variables of gender, tumor location, and treatment type were determined to be predictive factors for prognosis of survival.

  12. Eyewitness to history: Landmarks in the development of computerized electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Rautaharju, Pentti M

    2016-01-01

    The use of digital computers for ECG processing was pioneered in the early 1960s by two immigrants to the US, Hubert Pipberger, who initiated a collaborative VA project to collect an ECG-independent Frank lead data base, and Cesar Caceres at NIH who selected for his ECAN program standard 12-lead ECGs processed as single leads. Ray Bonner in the early 1970s placed his IBM 5880 program in a cart to print ECGs with interpretation, and computer-ECG programs were developed by Telemed, Marquette, HP-Philips and Mortara. The "Common Standards for quantitative Electrocardiography (CSE)" directed by Jos Willems evaluated nine ECG programs and eight cardiologists in clinically-defined categories. The total accuracy by a representative "average" cardiologist (75.5%) was 5.8% higher than that of the average program (69.7, p<0.001). Future comparisons of computer-based and expert reader performance are likely to show evolving results with continuing improvement of computer-ECG algorithms and changing expertise of ECG interpreters.

  13. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz. PMID:25420654

  14. Comparative study of phytosterol derivatives in monovarietal olive oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Fernandes, Gabriel D; Del Aguila-Sánchez, Chellah; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2014-06-18

    Plant sterols and their derivatives are minor compounds that have been extensively studied in vegetable oils, mainly in olive oil, where they are closely related with its identity. The objective of this work is to determine the content of free and esterified steryl glucosides and their profiles in olive oil in relation to different geographical situation of olive orchards, cultivar, farming modality, and sampling time. The orchards under study were located in the outer ring of the submetropolitan area of Madrid (Spain), where olives from Cornicabra, Manzanilla Cacereña, Manzanilla Castellana, and Picual varieties were grown under traditional and organic modes, and harvested in four different samplings. Conclusions state that cultivar, farming mode, and light exposure do not have outstanding effects, whereas pedoclimate might affect the steryl glucoside presence in a substantial way. Further studies are being carried out presently in order to confirm such statement. Also glucoside derivative profiles are discussed, and reasons for differences with results in previous studies pointed out. PMID:24861171

  15. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A.; Caceres, Ana I.; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-01-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca2+ influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.—Bessac, B. F., Sivula, M., von Hehn, C. A., Caceres, A. I., Escalera, J., Jordt, S.-E. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases. PMID:19036859

  16. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  17. Dynamic topography of the western Great Plains: landscape evidence for mantle-driven uplift associated with the Jemez lineament of NE New Mexico and SE Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nereson, A. L.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Heizler, M. T.; Kelley, S. A.; Brown, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic topography results when viscous stresses created by flow within the mantle are transmitted through the lithosphere and interact with, and deform, the Earth's surface. Because dynamic topography is characterized by low amplitudes and long wavelengths, its subtle effects may be best recorded in low-relief areas such as the Great Plains of the USA where they can be readily observed and measured. We apply this concept to a unique region of the western Great Plains in New Mexico and Colorado where basalt flows of the Jemez lineament (Raton-Clayton and Ocate fields) form mesas (inverted topography) that record the evolution of the Great Plains surface through time. This study uses multiple datasets to evaluate the mechanisms which have driven the evolution of this landscape. Normalized channel steepness index (ksn) analysis identifies anomalously steep river gradients across broad (50-100 km) convexities within a NE- trending zone of differential river incision where higher downstream incision rates in the last 1.5 Ma suggest headwater uplift. At 2-8 Ma timescales, 40Ar/39Ar ages of basalt-capped paleosurfaces in the Raton-Clayton and Ocate volcanic fields indicate that rates of denudation increase systematically towards the NW from a NE-trending zone of approximately zero denudation (that approximately coincides with the high ksn zone), also suggestive of regional warping above the Jemez lineament. Onset of more rapid denudation is observed in the Raton-Clayton field beginning at ca. 3.6 Ma. Furthermore, two 300-400-m-high NE-trending erosional escarpments impart a staircase-like topographic profile to the region. Tomographic images from the EarthScope experiment show that NE-trending topographic features of this region correspond to an ~8 % P-wave velocity gradient of similar trend at the margin of the low-velocity Jemez mantle anomaly. We propose that the erosional landscapes of this unique area are, in large part, the surface expression of dynamic mantle

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EUTERPE EDULIS FRUITS: APPLICABILITY ON GENETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Marques Cardoso, Luciana; Dias Novaes, Rômulo; Aparecida de Castro, Cynthia; Azevedo Novello, Alexandre; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Ricci-Silva, Maria Esther; de Oliveira Ramos, Humberto Josué; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Viana Leite, João Paulo

    2015-08-01

    El papel de los polifenoles en la prevención de enfermedades crónicas es controvertido. Objetivo: este estudio investigó la composición química y el potencial antioxidante de un extracto del fruto de Euterpe edulis rico en antocianinas (LPEF) y sus efectos en la esteatosis hepática en ratones apoE-/- knockout con dislipidemia. Material y métodos: los ratones fueron divididos en los siguientes grupos; G1 (C57BL/6) con una dieta estándar; G2 (apoE-/-) con dieta estándar; G3 G3 (apoE-/-) con 2% de LPEF; G4 (apoE-/-) con 6% de LPEF; G5 (apoE-/-) con 10% de LPEF y G6 (apoE-/-) con 2% acetato α-tocoferol (α-tocopherol acetate). Después de 75 días de tratamiento, los animales fueron eutanizados. El LPEF contenía un alto nivel de antocianinas monoméricas (301,4 mg/100 g) con notable actividad antioxidante. Resultados: la actividad catalasa fue reducida en los grupos G3, G4, G5 y G6 comparada con G2. La superoxidasa dismutasa solo se redujo en el grupo G4. Los animales de G4, G5 y G6 mostraron bajos niveles de HDL triglicéridos, comparados con G2. La proporción de lípidos en el tejido hepático fue reducida en G4 y G5, comparado con G2, G3 y G6. Conclusión: los resultados indicaron que la pulpa de E. edulis es rica en antocianinas, y que el consumo de LPEF en la dieta puede reducir la severidad de la esteatosis hepática en ratones apoE-/-, un efecto que es potencialmente mediado por la actividad antioxidante de este extracto y la modulación en los niveles séricos de triglicéridos.

  19. Determination of Granites' Mineral Specific Porosities by PMMA Method and FESEM/EDAX

    SciTech Connect

    Leskinen, A.; Penttinen, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Alanso, U.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Patelli, Alessandro

    2007-07-01

    Over extended periods, long-lived radionuclides (RN) or activation products within geologic disposal sites may be released from the fuel and migrate to the geo/biosphere. In the bedrock, contaminants will be transported along fractures by advection and retarded by sorption on mineral surfaces and by molecular diffusion into stagnant pore water in the matrix along a connected system of pores and micro-fissures. The objective of this paper was to determine the connective porosity and mineral-specific porosities for three granite samples by {sup 14}C methyl-methacrylate ({sup 14}C-PMMA) autoradiography. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses (FESEM/EDAX) were performed in order to study the pore apertures of porous regions in greater detail and to identify the corresponding minerals. Finally, the porosity results were used to evaluate the diffusion coefficients of RNs from previous experiments which determined apparent diffusion coefficients for the main minerals in three granite samples by the Rutherford Backscattering technique. The total porosity of the Grimsel granite (0.75%) was significantly higher than the porosities of the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites (0.3%). The porosities of the Grimsel granite feldspars were two to three times higher than the porosities of the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites feldspars. However, there was no significant difference between the porosities of the dark minerals. A clear difference was found between the various quartz grains. Quartz crystals were non-porous in the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites when measured by the PMMA method, but the quartz crystals in the Grimsel granite showed 0.5% intra granular porosity. The apparent diffusion coefficients calculated for uranium diffusion within Grimsel granite on different minerals were very similar (2.10{sup -13} {+-} 0.5 m{sup 2}/s), but differences within both Spanish granites were found from one mineral to another (9 {+-} 1.10{sup -14} m

  20. Geology along Mosca Pass Trail, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Klein, Terry L.; Valdez, Andrew; Webster, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Mosca Pass Trail takes the hiker on a journey into the Earth's crust. Here you can see the results of tremendous tectonic forces that bend and tear rocks apart and raise mountain ranges. The trail begins near the Sangre de Cristo fault, which separates the Sangre de Cristo Range from the San Luis Valley. The valley is part of the Rio Grande rift, a series of fault basins extending from southern New Mexico to central Colorado, wherein the Earth's crust has been pulled apart during the last 30 million years. Thousands of feet of sediment, brought by streams mostly from the Sangre de Cristo Range, fill the San Luis Valley beneath the Great Sand Dunes. The trail ends at Mosca Pass overlooking Huerfano Park. The park is part of the larger Raton Basin, formed by compression of the Earth's crust during the Laramide orogeny, which occurred 70–40 million years ago. Massive highlands, the remnants of which are preserved in the Sangre de Cristo Range, were uplifted and pushed over the western side of the Raton Basin. Streams eroded the highland as it rose and filled the Raton Basin with sediment. After the sediment was compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rock, the Huerfano River and other streams began to excavate the basin. Over an unknown but long timespan that probably lasted millions of years, relatively soft sedimentary rocks were removed by the river to form the valley we call "Huerfano Park." Between the ends of the trail, the hiker walks through an erosional "window," or opening, into red sedimentary rocks overridden by gneiss, a metamorphic rock, during the Laramide orogeny. This window gives the hiker a glimpse into the Laramide highland of 70–40 million years ago that preceded the present-day Sangre de Cristo Range. The window is the focus of this trail guide. At the east end of the trail, near Mosca Pass, another trail follows the ridgeline south to Carbonate Mountain. Immediately after reaching the first summit above tree line, this trail crosses a

  1. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils in body composition and lipid regulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Scalerandi, María Victoria; Gonzalez, Marcela Aida; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Las evidencias sugieren que las mezclas de Ácido Linoleico Conjugado (ALC) de origen comercial o natural diferencialmente afectan diferencialment al estado nutricional y al metabolismo lipídico. Objetivo: Investigar el efecto de dos preparaciones de ALC como complemento de grasas dietarias con diferentes proporciones de ácidos grasos (AG) n-9, n-6 y n-3 sobre composición corporal, niveles de triacilglicéridos (TG) y metabolismo lipídico en ratones. Métodos: Se alimentó a ratones en crecimiento con dietas con aceite de oliva, maíz y canola, o colza suplementadas con una mezcla equimolecular de ALC (mezcla-ALC) o aceites ricos en ácido ruménico (AR) por 30 días. Se evaluó: ganancia de peso, composición corporal, peso de tejidos, niveles de TG plasmáticos y séricos, y parámetros de regulación lipídica. Resultados: Independientemente de las grasas dietarias, la mezcla-ALC redujo el peso corporal y depósitos grasos relacionados con hepatomegalia, incremento de TG séricos y descenso de TG musculares. El aceite de canola previno la esteatosis hepática producida por la mezcla-ALC a aceites de oliva y maíz por incremento de la secreción de TG. AR decreció los depósitos grasos sin hepatomegalia, esteatosis hepática e hipertrigliceridemia. Aceite de oliva previno el incremento de TG musculares inducidos por suplementación con AR al aceite de maíz y canola. Discusión y conclusión: Las proporciones de AG insaturados dietarios modularon la respuesta de mezcla-ALC y AR al metabolismo lipídico en ratones. Finalmente, aceite de canola previno la esteatosis hepática inducida por mezcla-ALC, y los efectos benéficos más notorios fueron observados cuando aceite de oliva fue suplementado con AR, debido a la reducida acreción de lípidos sin cambios en los niveles de TG.

  2. Distribution and occurrence of aliphatic acid anions in deep subsurface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.B.

    1987-09-01

    This study reports 144 new analyses of short-chain aliphatic acid anions (acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate) in formation waters from eight localities: Eastern Venezuelan Basin, Denver Basin, Eastern Green River Basin, San Juan Basin, Piceance Basin, Raton Basin, Gulf Coast Basin, and the Western Overthrust. Reservoir temperature does not predict total or relative abundance of aliphatic acid anions, but does predict maximum total concentrations of these species. Maximum concentrations increase to approx. 90/sup 0/C. Above approx. 90/sup 0/C, maximum concentrations decrease. Above approx. 250/sup 0/C, maximum concentrations should not exceed approx. 1 mg/l. The general order of dominance is acetate >> propionate > butyrate > valerate, but for coal-associated waters is propionate greater than or equal to acetate > butyrate > valerate. Lack of longer-chain aliphatic acid anion dominance over acetate at low reservoir temperatures may suggest hydrologic communication with deeper reservoirs.

  3. PACS--and beyond. A journey to the digital promised land.

    PubMed

    Viau, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    A successful picture archiving and communication system (PACS) integration depends on much more than the technology; marketing also plays a large role. This fact was evident from the inception of the PACS project at Boca Raton Community Hospital (BRCH). Strategic and effective marketing efforts should target technologists, nurses, physicians (including radiologists), administration, and colleagues in other departments. The buy-in of these users is critical to the project's success. BRCH's first marketing effort took place during the initial PACS presentation made to the hospital's board of directors. Once approval was given and a 6-month implementation target was set, a strategic and effective marketing/education plan commenced. Posters, brochures, t-shirts, and promotional items were distributed in a coordinated effort to target hospital staff and referring physician offices. Through its "Got PACS?" branding and other identity materials, BRCH implemented a marketing plan that informed, educated, and engaged PACS users. PMID:15259686

  4. Evaluation of coalbed methane resource in western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, R.

    1984-04-01

    Of the new or unconventional fossil energy resources studied in recent years with federal, state, or industry funding, the recovery of methane from coalbeds is the one resource with the greatest probable near-term commercial potential. Well completion records and production data indicate that much, if not most, of the gas currently produced from the Fruitland Formation of the San Juan basin, for example, has its origin in or from coalbeds. All of the intermontane sedimentary basins of the Rocky Mountain region underlain by coal deposits, also contain methane that is genetically associated with those coals. Discussed will be individual characteristics of some of these basins that bear on methane formation and accumulation in each basin, techniques for estimating methane resources and defining target areas for exploration, amounts of gas contained in the basins, and identification of some completion and production problems. Basins specifically discussed will include Piceance, San Juan, Raton, and Powder River.

  5. Osmium Isotopic Composition of the Sumbar Cretaceous- Tertiary Boundary, Turkmenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Krahenbuhl, U.; Nazarov, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    Turekian (1982) propagated the use of the osmium isotopic composition as a cosmic indicator for the origin of the high osmium (and iridium) layers at the K/T boundaries. He did not consider the osmium isotopic signature of the terrestrial mantle, which also has a chondritic evolution of the Re-Os system. Osmium cannot serve alone as an infallible indicator of the impact theory, but interesting results can be obtained from their investigation. Different K/T boundary section have been analyzed so far for ^187Os/^186Os. An overview of the values is presented in the table. Boundary Clay layer Os ratio Reference Stevns Klint fish clay 1.66 Luck and Turekian, 1983 Woodside Creek 1.12 Lichte et al., 1986 Raton Basin 1.23 Kraehenbuehl et al., 1988 Raton Basin (several) 1.15-1.23 Esser and Turekian, 1989 Sumbar (0-1 cm) 1.16 This work We obtained a complete marine section of the K/T boundary in southern Turkmenia (decribed by Alekseyev, 1988). It shows a very high Ir concentration (66 ppb) at the boundary layer and a remarkable Ir enrichment over crustal rocks continuing up to 30 cm above the boundary. Our aim of this investigation is to analyze several samples from above and below the boundary for the ^187Os/^186Os ratio to obtain a complete picture of the isotopic evolution of the section. We want to evaluate mixing of Os with chondritic ratios with Os from upper crustal rocks. Another goal is to investigate a mobilization of Os. So far only one sample has been analyzed with NTI-MS after fire assay digestion of the sample. The sample 0 to 1 cm has an ^187Os/^186Os ratio of 1.162 +- 13, which is quite low. We expect an even lower value for the boundary clay (0 cm) itself not taking into account a contribution of radiogenic osmium from the decay of terrestrial rhenium. This might put this K/T boundary section closest of all to the present day chondritic value (approx. 1.05). Further analysis will be presented at the meeting. References Alekseyev A. S., Nazarov M. A

  6. On a geometric model of crystal growth on a flat substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brednikhina, Anna; Debelov, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to computer simulation of crystalline aggregates growth from a homogeneous solution. This process is considered from the geometric point of view, when crystals can be represented as a collection of flat faces, growing layer by layer with stable relative growth rates in the directions of their perpendiculars. Simply speaking, we extend Frank's model [H. Muller-Krumbhaar, Yu. Saito, Crystal Growth and Solidification, in: Surfactant Science Series, vol. 89, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000, pp. 853-854] to the case of simultaneous growth of several individuals placed on a flat unbounded static substrate. Attention is given not only to finding the outer boundary of an aggregate but to determining the interfacing surfaces between individuals. In other words, our goal is to construct detailed bounding surfaces of all individuals included in an aggregate.

  7. Application of pupil spherical aberration in tuning zoom lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen-Hung; Chang, Horng; Lin, Hoang Yan

    2012-06-01

    Fine tuning the performance of a zoom lens, at the final design stage, is still a challenging problem for lens designers. This is mainly due to the difficulties in setting up a reliable criterion as the discriminator. In this paper, following some previous studies on pupil spherical aberration (PSA, denoted as SVI) (Wynne 1952 Proc. Phys. Soc. 65 429-37, Kidger 1996 Proc. SPIE 2774 722-7) where the conditions for invariance of Seidel aberration during conjugate changes were given, a simple method was derived to analyze the steady zone of a zoom lens variator. A previously designed zoom system (Laikin 2006 Lens Design 3rd edn (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) pp 393-5) was selected as an example and it was shown how its image quality can be balanced and improved computationally. The potential application of our method was also addressed in the conclusion.

  8. Texaco presses projects for gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Texaco Inc. continues to press international ventures for its gasification process. A combine of Italian companies plans an $800 million integrated gasification/combined cycle power plant at a refinery in Sicily that will use Texaco's process to gasify refinery residual to produce electrical power. Other Italian refiners are expected to follow suit with similar projects. Meanwhile, Texaco and Bitor America Corp., have signed a letter of agreement to develop integrated gasification/combined cycle electrical power generation projects. The venture plans to use Texaco's gasification process and Orimulsion, a boiler fuel that is an emulsion of Venezuelan heavy crude, water, and surfactant, as feedstock. Bitor, Boca Raton, Fla., and its parent, Bitumenes Orinoco SA, are units of Venezuela's state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA.

  9. PACS--and beyond. A journey to the digital promised land.

    PubMed

    Viau, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    A successful picture archiving and communication system (PACS) integration depends on much more than the technology; marketing also plays a large role. This fact was evident from the inception of the PACS project at Boca Raton Community Hospital (BRCH). Strategic and effective marketing efforts should target technologists, nurses, physicians (including radiologists), administration, and colleagues in other departments. The buy-in of these users is critical to the project's success. BRCH's first marketing effort took place during the initial PACS presentation made to the hospital's board of directors. Once approval was given and a 6-month implementation target was set, a strategic and effective marketing/education plan commenced. Posters, brochures, t-shirts, and promotional items were distributed in a coordinated effort to target hospital staff and referring physician offices. Through its "Got PACS?" branding and other identity materials, BRCH implemented a marketing plan that informed, educated, and engaged PACS users.

  10. Critical Probabilities and Convergence Time of Percolation Probabilistic Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggi, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers a class of probabilistic cellular automata undergoing a phase transition with an absorbing state. Denoting by the neighbourhood of site , the transition probability is if or otherwise, . For any there exists a non-trivial critical probability that separates a phase with an absorbing state from a fluctuating phase. This paper studies how the neighbourhood affects the value of and provides lower bounds for . Furthermore, by using dynamic renormalization techniques, we prove that the expected convergence time of the processes on a finite space with periodic boundaries grows exponentially (resp. logarithmically) with the system size if (resp. ). This provides a partial answer to an open problem in Toom et al. (Stochastic Cellular Systems: Ergodicity, Memory, Morphogenesis, pp. 1-182. Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1990; Topics in Contemporary Probability and its Applications, pp. 117-157. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995).

  11. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  12. Observation Leads to Improved Operations in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Religioso, Deo G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of observation--going out and seeing what is happening in daily operations---would seem like a normal management activity, but the reality in practice of the philosophy and technique is often underutilized. Once an observation has been determined, the next steps are to test and validate any discoveries on paper. For process change to be implemented, numerical data is needed to back-up observations in order to be heard and taken seriously by the executive team. Boca Raton Regional Hospital saw an opportunity to improve the process for radiopharmaceutical standing orders within its nuclear imaging department. As a result of this observation, the facility realized improved savings and an increase in employee motivation.

  13. Observation Leads to Improved Operations in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Religioso, Deo G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of observation--going out and seeing what is happening in daily operations---would seem like a normal management activity, but the reality in practice of the philosophy and technique is often underutilized. Once an observation has been determined, the next steps are to test and validate any discoveries on paper. For process change to be implemented, numerical data is needed to back-up observations in order to be heard and taken seriously by the executive team. Boca Raton Regional Hospital saw an opportunity to improve the process for radiopharmaceutical standing orders within its nuclear imaging department. As a result of this observation, the facility realized improved savings and an increase in employee motivation. PMID:27172652

  14. 1979 summary of coal resources in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Colorado, with 8 coal-bearing regions and 20 coal fields, contains at least 11 percent of the total remaining coal resources of the United States to a depth of 6000 feet. Colorado coals range from early Late Cretaceous to Eocene in age. The higher rank bituminous coals and the largest reserves generally are found in the Upper Cretaceous Dakota and Mesa Verde Groups/Formations in western Colorado. The younger coals, generally of lower rank (subbituminous a to lignite), are found in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary rocks in the Green River, North and South Park, Raton Mesa, and Denver coal regions. Marginal and premium grades of coking coal are found in the Carbondale, Crested Butte, and Somerset fields, Uinta coal region; in the Trinidad field, Raton Mesa region; and in the Durango field, San Juan River region. Colorado coals range in rank from lignite to anthracite; over 70 percent of the resource is bituminous, approximately 23 percent is subbituminous, 5 percent lignite, and less than one percent anthracite. Moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents of Colorado coals vary considerably with rank from region to region. According to the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Colorado ranks seventh in the total U.S. demonstrated reserve base of coal (16.3 billion short tons) and fourth in the reserve base of bituminous coal. Furthermore, Colorado ranks first in the reserve base of underground-minable low sulphur bituminous coal. The Green River region produced over 9 million tons of the total 1978 state-wide coal production of 14.3 million tons. Projections for Colorado coal production through 1985 is in the order of 32.2 million tons per year.

  15. Provenance record of Paleogene exhumation and Laramide basin evolution along the southern Rocky Mountain front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, M. A.; Horton, B. K.; Murphy, M. A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Sangre de Cristo and Nacimiento uplifts of the southern Rocky Mountains formed key parts of a major Paleogene topographic boundary separating the Cordilleran orogenic system from the North American plate interior. This barrier largely isolated interior Laramide basins from a broad Laramide foreland with fluvial systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, and thereby played a critical role in the evolution of continental-scale paleodrainage patterns. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral provenance analyses of Cretaceous-Paleogene siliciclastic strata in the Raton, Galisteo-El Rito, and San Juan basins record the partitioning of the broad Cordilleran (Sevier) foreland basin by Laramide basement uplifts. These trends are recognized both in provenance signals and depositional styles corresponding to cratonward (eastward) propagation of the Laramide deformation front and resultant advance of flexural depocenters in the North American interior. Along the eastern flank of the deformation front, the Raton basin shows a mix of Cordilleran, Appalachian, and Grenville age zircons restricted to the Cretaceous Dakota and Vermejo formations, marine units of the Western Interior Seaway. Upsection, the Cordilleran age peaks are absent from Paleocene-Eocene units, consistent with significant Laramide drainage reorganization and isolation from Cordilleran sources to the west. In the Galisteo-El Rito basin system, a shift to dominantly Mazatzal-Yavapai basement ages is recognized in the Paleocene El Rito and Oligocene Ritito formations. The heavy mineral results show a corresponding shift to less mature, dominantly metamorphic source compositions. These new datasets bear upon Cretaceous-Cenozoic reconstructions of North American paleodrainage and have implications for potential linkages between major fluvial systems of the southern Rocky Mountains and Paleogene deepwater reservoir units in the Gulf of Mexico basin.

  16. Coal-bed methane in Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming: Resources, reserves, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, S.N. ); DeBruin, R.H. ); Tremain, C.M. ); Whitehead, N.H. III )

    1993-08-01

    Coal-bed methane reserves of 10 tcf, in-place resources up to 250 tcf, and dramatically increased production rates from Cretaceous and Tertiary formations affirm the importance of the Rocky Mountain gas province well into the 21st century. These resources have been calculated for the individual states and basins using a variety of criteria and methods and the resource numbers are not necessarily comparable. The Book Cliffs, Emery, Wastach Plateau, Kaiparowits Plateau, and Sego coal fields in Utah contain a coal-bed methane resource of 10.4 tcf. The Book Cliffs and Emery coal fields contain 8.3 tcf or 80% of this resource. The San Juan basin, New Mexico and Colorado, has 10 tcf (reserves), 40 tcf (resources) in the Fruitland Formation, and 28 tcf (resources) in the Menefee Formation. The Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico, has 10.2 tcf of resources in the Raton and Vermejo Formations. The Piceance and Sand Wash basins in Colorado have estimated resources of more than 96 tcf. The Powder River, Green River, Hams Fork, Wind River, Hanna, Rock Creek, and Bighorn coal fields in Wyoming have resources of 54.4 tcf. The Powder River, Wind River, Green River, and Hams Fork coal fields contain 87% of this resource. In August, 1992, coal-bed methane production accounted for 49% of all gas produced from the San Juan basin (New Mexico) and 30% of all New Mexico production. For 1991, coal-bed methane production in Colorado from the San Juan and Piceance basins was 16% of all Colorado gas production.

  17. A novel approach to assessing the prevalence and drivers of illegal bushmeat hunting in the serengeti.

    PubMed

    Nuno, Ana; Bunnefeld, Nils; Naiman, Loiruck C; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Assessing anthropogenic effects on biological diversity, identifying drivers of human behavior, and motivating behavioral change are at the core of effective conservation. Yet knowledge of people's behaviors is often limited because the true extent of natural resource exploitation is difficult to ascertain, particularly if it is illegal. To obtain estimates of rule-breaking behavior, a technique has been developed with which to ask sensitive questions. We used this technique, unmatched-count technique (UCT), to provide estimates of bushmeat poaching, to determine motivation and seasonal and spatial distribution of poaching, and to characterize poaching households in the Serengeti. We also assessed the potential for survey biases on the basis of respondent perceptions of understanding, anonymity, and discomfort. Eighteen percent of households admitted to being involved in hunting. Illegal bushmeat hunting was more likely in households with seasonal or full-time employment, lower household size, and longer household residence in the village. The majority of respondents found the UCT questions easy to understand and were comfortable answering them. Our results suggest poaching remains widespread in the Serengeti and current alternative sources of income may not be sufficiently attractive to compete with the opportunities provided by hunting. We demonstrate that the UCT is well suited to investigating noncompliance in conservation because it reduces evasive responses, resulting in more accurate estimates, and is technically simple to apply. We suggest that the UCT could be more widely used, with the trade-off being the increased complexity of data analyses and requirement for large sample sizes. Una Aproximación Novedosa para Evaluar la Prevalencia y Factores de la Cacería Ilegal en el Serengueti.

  18. Approach for delineation of contributing areas and zones of transport to selected public-supply wells using a regional ground-water flow model, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal

  19. PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION AND BIOACTIVITY EVALUATION OF THE CHIMERIC GENE DERIVED FROM THE GROUP 1 ALLERGENS OF DUST MITES.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-12-01

    Antecedentes: se reconstituyó con éxito el gen del grupo 1 alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo, y obtuvo un conjunto de genes barajadas. Con el fin de verificar la predicción en el gen quimérico, hemos clonado tentativamente R8 en el vector que se expresó prokaryoticly, purificó y se evaluó por sus actividades-bio. Métodos: el producto expresado se detectó por SDS-PAGE y la proteína diana se purificó. La proteína purificada R8 se detectó por ELISA. Setenta y cinco ratones BALB/ c se dividieron en 5 grupos, a saber: PBS, rDer f1, rDer p1, R8 y el grupo de asma. Los ratones fueron tratados con alérgenos de ácaros del polvo a los 0, 7, 14 días mediante inyección intraperitoneal y inhaladas desafío como aerosol en día 21 durante 7 días. La inmunoterapia específica para el alérgeno se realizó utilizando rDer f1, rDer p1 y alérgenos R8, respectivamente. El nivel de IFN e IL-4 en BALF se detectó por ELISA. Resultados: el gen quimérico R8 se expresó con una banda de aproximadamente Mr 35000. En comparación con los grupos de rDer f 1 y rDer p 1 [(80,44 ± 15,50) y (90,79 ± 10,38) μg/ml, respectivamente], la capacidad de unión a IgE de la proteína R8 (37,03 ± 12,46) μg/ml fue estadísticamente inferior (P.

  20. Did the short PETM trigger long-lasting changes in terrestrial environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, H. C.; Clyde, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a well-documented episode of warming where average temperatures increased 5-8 C in both marine and terrestrial settings before returning to pre-PETM values. As a result the PETM is generally thought of as a transient event that is superimposed on a longer-term trend of global change. Nevertheless not all aspects of the climatic-hydrologic-biologic system experienced a transient response to this event. For example, the well-known dispersal of mammals (Artiodactyls, Perrisopdactyls and Primates = APP taxa) at the beginning of the PETM resulted in fundamentally different terrestrial ecosystems dafter the PETM compared to before it. In this case the PETM can be considered not just a transient event, but a triggering, or threshold, event that resulted in long-term biotic change. Here we consider the possibility that the PETM acted as a threshold event for parts of the climatic and hydrologic system as well as the biologic system. A review of terrestrial/fluvial sections from Laramide basins of western North America (Bighorn, Green River, Huerfano/Raton, Piceance Creek, Powder River, San Juan, Tornillo, Uintah, Washakie, Williston, Wind River), reveals a pronounced difference between rocks of Paleocene and of Eocene age. Common differences include absence of lignites/coal beds in the Eocene, and the occurrence of highly oxidized paleosols and relatively fewer organic-rich mudstones compared to the Paleocene. These suggest drier conditions, either a decrease in mean annual precipitation or enhanced seasonal drying. In sections where the PETM can be identified on the basis of biostratigraphic indicators and carbon isotope excursions (Bighorn, Piceance Creek, Powder River and Williston Basins), and where the PETM can be inferred based on carbon isotope data alone (Huerfano/Raton?, Tornillo, Wind River Basins), it is associated with this transition from one long-lasting lithofacies (environment?) to another. This association

  1. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  2. Preparation and characterization of carbons for the retention of halogens in the condenser vacuum system of a thermonuclear plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, S.; González, J. F.; Gañán, J.; Sabio, E.; González-García, C. M.; Ramiro, A.; Mangut, V.

    2006-06-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by air and carbon dioxide activation, from almond tree pruning, with the aim of obtaining carbons that reproduce the textural and mechanical properties of the carbons currently used in the filtering system of the condenser vacuum installation of a Thermonuclear Plant (CNA; Central Nuclear de Almaraz in Caceres, Spain), produced from coconut shell. The variables studied in non-catalytic gasification series with air were the temperature (215-270 °C) and the time (1-16 h) and the influence of the addition of one catalyst (Co) and the time (1-2 h) in catalytic gasification. In the case of activation with CO 2, the influence of the temperature (700-950 °C) and the time (1-8 h) was studied. The resulting carbons were characterized in terms of their BET surface, porosity, and pore size distribution. The N 2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K for both series showed a type I behaviour, typical of microporous materials. The isotherms showed that with both gasificant agents the temperature rise produced an increase in the carbon porosity. With regards to the activation time, a positive effect on the N 2 adsorbed volume on the carbons was observed. The best carbons of each series, as well as the CNA (carbon currently used in the CNA), were characterized by mercury porosimetry and iodine solution adsorption isotherms. The results obtained allowed to state that several of the carbons produced had characteristics similar to the carbon that is target of reproduction (which has SBET of 741 m 2 g -1, Vmi of 0.39 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 429.3 mg g -1): carbon C (gasification with CO 2 at 850 °C during 1 h), with SBET of 523 m 2 g -1, Vmi of 0.33 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 402.5 mg g -1, and carbon D (gasification with CO 2 at 900 °C during 1 h), whose SBET is 672 m 2 g -1, Vmi is 0.28 cm 3 g -1 and has a iodine retention capacity of 345.2 mg g -1.

  3. Relation of NDVI obtained from different remote sensing at different space and resolutions sensors in Spanish Dehesas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano Rodríguez, Juan; Tarquis, Ana M.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite data are an important source of information and serve as monitoring crops on large scales. There are several indexes, but the most used for monitoring vegetation is NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), calculated from the spectral bands of red (RED) and near infrared (NIR), obtaining the value according to relationship: [(NIR - RED) / (NIR + RED)]. During the years 2010-2013 monthly monitoring was conducted in three areas of Spain (Salamanca, Caceres and Cordoba). Pasture plots were selected and satellite images of two different sensors, DEIMOS-1 and MODIS were obtained. DEIMOS-1 is based on the concept Microsat-100 from Surrey. It is designed for imaging the Earth with a resolution good enough to study terrestrial vegetation cover (20x20 m), although with a wide range of visual field (600 km) to get those images with high temporal resolution. By contrast, MODIS images present a much lower spatial resolution (500x500 m). Indices obtained from both sensors to the same area and date are compared and the results show r2 = 0.56; r2 = 0.65 and r2 = 0.90 for the areas of Salamanca, Cáceres and Cordoba respectively. According to the results obtained show that the NDVI obtained by MODIS is slightly larger than that obtained by the sensor for DEIMOS for same time and area. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y montaneras en dehesas. I Congreso Iberico de la Dehesa y el Montado. 6-7 Noviembre, 2013, Badajoz. J.A. Escribano Rodriguez, A.M. Tarquis, C.G. Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Pasture Drought Insurance Based on NDVI and SAVI. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU2012-13945, 2012. EGU General Assembly 2012. Juan Escribano Rodriguez, Carmelo Alonso, Ana Maria Tarquis, Rosa Maria Benito, Carlos Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Comparison of NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors

  4. Periodic behaviors in the observed vertical column abundances of atmospheric hydroxyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Elizabeth Beaver; Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.

    1989-01-01

    The data base for the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) for Fritz Peak Observatory, Colorado (40 N, 105 W), now extends from 1976 through 1988 and is composed of 8849 independent data sets, averaging about 15 percent uncertainty and 20-minute time resolution each. The dominant solar zenith angle (chi) dependence of the OH abundance is characterized by an empirical curve, N(88), which has been updated from N(82) to include all valid data from 1980 through 1988. The chi-dependence of the OH abundance has been, to a first order, removed from the data base by a normalization procedure in which each data point is divided by the N(88,AM) value for the corresponding solar zenith angle. The resulting normalized OH values may then be examined for other systematic effects, particularly for periodic variations. Observations have also been made at Boca Raton, Florida (26 N, 80 W) and at Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 N, 152 E). These data bases are much less extensive and, as such, are less amenable to analysis for periodic behaviors. Some comparisons with the Colorado data may be made, however.

  5. Geologic and geomorphic controls of coal development in some Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Previous investigations have not well defined the controls on the development of minable coals in fluvial environments. This study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding of these controls, particularly in of the lower Tertiary coal-bearing deposits of the Raton and Powder River basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In this region, large amounts of coals accumulated in swamps formed in the flow-through fluvial systems that infilled these intermontane basins. Extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonism partly controlled the stratigraphic and facies distributions of minable coal deposits. The regional accumulation of coals was favored by the rapid basin subsidence coupled with minimal uplift of the source area. During these events, coals developed in swamps associated with anastomosed and meandering fluvial systems and alluvial fans. The extensive and high rate of sediment input from these fluvial systems promoted the formation of ombrotrophic, raised swamps, which produced low ash and anomalously thick coals. The petrology and palynology of these coals, and the paleobotany of the associated sediments, suggest that ombrotrophic, raised swamps were common in the Powder River Basin, where the climate during the early Tertiary was paratropical. The paleoecology of these swamps is identical to that of the modern ombrotrophic, raised swamps of the Baram and Mahakam Rivers of Borneo. ?? 1993.

  6. Iridium abundance measurements across bio-event horizons in the geological record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Geochemical studies have been performed on thousands of rock samples collected across bio-event horizons in the fossil record using INAA for about 40 common and trace elements and radiochemical isolation procedures for Os, Ir, Pt, and Au on selected samples. These studies were begun soon after the Alvarez team announced their discovery of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Ir anomaly in marine rock sequences in Europe. With their encouragement the Authors searched for the anomaly in nearby continental (freshwater coal swamp) deposits. In collaboration with scientists from the U.S.G.S. in Denver, the anomaly was located and it was observed that a floral crisis occurred at the same stratigraphic position as the Ir spike. Further work in the Raton Basin has turned up numerous well-preserved K-T boundary sections. Although the Authors have continued to study the K-T boundary and provide geochemical measurements for other groups trying to precisely locate it, the primary effort was turned to examining the other bio-events in the Phanerozoic, especially to those that are older than the terminal Cretaceous. A list of horizons that were examined in collaboration with paleontologists and geologists is given. Results are also given and discussed.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of the heartbeats in public patient ECGs using an automated PD2i algorithm for risk stratification of arrhythmic death

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, James E; Anchin, Jerry M; Weiss, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects both cardiac autonomic function and risk of arrhythmic death (AD). Reduced indices of HRV based on linear stochastic models are independent risk factors for AD in post-myocardial infarct cohorts. Indices based on nonlinear deterministic models have a significantly higher sensitivity and specificity for predicting AD in retrospective data. A need exists for nonlinear analytic software easily used by a medical technician. In the current study, an automated nonlinear algorithm, the time-dependent point correlation dimension (PD2i), was evaluated. The electrocardiogram (ECG) data were provided through an National Institutes of Health-sponsored internet archive (PhysioBank) and consisted of all 22 malignant arrhythmia ECG files (VF/VT) and 22 randomly selected arrhythmia files as the controls. The results were blindly calculated by automated software (Vicor 2.0, Vicor Technologies, Inc., Boca Raton, FL) and showed all analyzable VF/VT files had PD2i < 1.4 and all analyzable controls had PD2i > 1.4. Five VF/VT and six controls were excluded because surrogate testing showed the RR-intervals to contain noise, possibly resulting from the low digitization rate of the ECGs. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity 85%, relative risk > 100; p < 0.01, power > 90%. Thus, automated heartbeat analysis by the time-dependent nonlinear PD2i-algorithm can accurately stratify risk of AD in public data made available for competitive testing of algorithms. PMID:18728829

  8. Basic Study to Develop Biosensors Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Beum; Chong, Woo-Suk; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Hohkawa, Kohji; Hong, Chul-Un; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we present a study of the bonding between piezoelectric substrates and semiconductor materials. We have studied [O. S. Wolfbesis: Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, 1st ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1991) p.~21.] the surface state (hydrophilic) of GaAs, LiNbO3 and quartz substrates after different treatments methods [R. Hughes, A. Ricco, M. Butler and S. Martin: Science 254 (1991) 74.], the effects of migration of water molecules out of bonding surfaces induced by microwave and laser radiation. When Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) is used as a piezoelectric material, we have evaluated if PMN-PT can be made practically available for a new surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor detecting protein. The experimental results clarified that improvements in the bonding process are effective in obtaining a stronger bonding interface between the piezoelectric substrate and semiconductor materials. The frequency filtering of the central frequency of the PMN-PT substrate is also superior to that of the LiTaO3 substrate, but the result was not completely satisfactory. However, the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the PMN-PT substrate is excellent, therefore it will be used as a SAW sensor, in the near future, provided that new interdigital transducer (IDT) design will also be available to increase the frequency of filtering.

  9. Efficacy, safety, and dose response of intravenous anti-D immune globulin (WinRho SDF) for the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, A; Mauger, D

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed data from 20 children treated for acute or chronic idiopathic (immune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) at a single institution to determine the relationship between dose of intravenous anti-D immune globulin (WinRho SDF; Nabi, Boca Raton, FL), increase in platelet count, and decrease in hemoglobin in the therapy of ITP. Higher doses of anti-D were clearly associated with a greater therapeutic response in the platelet count, with no increase in hemolysis for both acute and chronic ITP. A significant correlation was found between dose and peak increase in platelet count measured in the 14 days following administration. This effect was present for both acute ITP (17 infusions, P = .0001) and chronic ITP (30 infusions, P = .038). Although hemolysis was seen in nearly all infusions, with a median hemoglobin fall of 1.9 g/dL (range, 0 to 4.2), the decrease in hemoglobin was greater than 2.5 for only three infusions, and the largest fall in hemoglobin (4.2) was in a child with an underlying hemolytic anemia. Furthermore, for both acute and chronic ITP there was no relationship between the decrease in hemoglobin and the dose given (P = .22), nor between the increase in platelet count and fall in hemoglobin (P = .27). This analysis supports the use of higher doses of anti-D for the treatment of ITP, and demonstrates the need for a trial of high-dose anti-D (>100 microg/kg) in acute and chronic ITP.

  10. Filled Skutterudite Antimonides: A New Class of Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Brian

    1997-03-01

    One of the most promising new ideas in the field of thermoelectrics is the "electron crystal, phonon glass" (ECPG) concept originally proposed by Slack (G. A. Slack in Thermoelectric Handbook (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995)). In this picture a loosely bound atom with a large thermal parameter scatters phonons much more strongly than electrons, thus permitting a glasslike thermal conductivity to coexist with the high electron mobilities found in crystals. A physical realization of the ECPG may occur in the filled skutterudite antimonides, in which a rare earth atom fills the two voids per unit cell that exist in the skutterudite structure. We recently reported (B.C. Sales, D. Mandrus, and R. K. Williams, Science 272, 1325 (1996)) a high thermoelectric figure of merit for LaFe3CoSb12 and CeFe3CoSb12, that was primarily due to a drastic reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of this material compared to its unfilled analog. Experimental data relevant to the crystal chemistry, transport, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of the filled skutterudite antimonides will be presented. The extent to which filled skutterudite antimonides can be considered as ideal ECPG materials will be discussed.

  11. Biomimetic growth of calcium oxalate crystals: synchrotron X-ray studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Stripe, Benjamin; Dutta, Pulak

    2010-03-01

    Oriented crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) form one of the major constituents of kidney stones in humans, and these crystals are also found in many plants. It is widely accepted that an organic matrix of lipids and proteins is involved in the crystallization of COM, though their role is not well-understood [1]. Langmuir monolayers of lipids on supersaturated aqueous solutions can be used to mimic the lipid-crystal interface during mineralization. We have studied nucleation and growth of COM crystals under heneicosanoic acid monolayers at the air-water interface. We used synchrotron x-rays in the grazing incidence geometry to determine the structure of the organic monolayer and the orientation of COM crystals in-situ during crystallization. We see that the (-101) faces of COM crystals are parallel to the organic matrix. There is a commensurate relationship between the heneicosanoic acid monolayer and the (-101) crystal face that may be responsible from the oriented growth. Evolution of the monolayer structure with time will be described. [1]S. R. Khan, Calcium Oxalate in Biological Systems, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995

  12. Assessing the local wind field at Sierra Grande Mountain in New Mexico with instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, K.M.; Reynolds, R.D.

    1981-05-01

    Six systems were installed on top of Sierra Grande, a nearly symmetrical mountain in New Mexico about halfway between Raton and Clayton, with a peak of 2659 m (8720 ft msl) standing over a wide mesa of approximately 1829 m (6000 ft msl). Two systems were on the peak, one at 10 m (33 ft) above the surface and the other at 20 m (66 ft) because the peak is often the most probable spot for the greatest wind energy. The two levels were needed to measure variations of speed with height. Four other systems with instruments at 10-m (33 ft) were located roughly north, east, south, and west from the center on secondary ridge lines to measure certain horizontal variations of the wind. The wind direction and speed were measured every 6 minutes, a time interval considerably shorter than the traditional 1 hour but long enough so that all WECS power outputs are expected to respond to these wind speed variations. All six systems were operated for a period of six months between 6 June 1979-5 December 1979.

  13. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  14. Examining the Local Structure of Titanium Carbide Derived Carbons: Experiment and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llobet, Anna; Palmer, Jeremy; Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Fischer, John; Gogotsi, Yury; Gubbins, Keith

    2010-03-01

    Titanium Carbide derived carbons (Ti-CDCs) are amorphous nanoporous materials synthesized by high-temperature chlorination of crystalline TiC [1]. Judicious choice of the synthesis conditions allow for fine control over many of the structural features of Ti-CDCs, enabling them to be optimized for a wide variety of energy-related applications [2]. We have combined both experimental and computational methods to investigate the structural and functional properties of Ti-CDCs. Atomic pair distributions functions obtained from neutron diffraction experiments reveal that the synthesis temperature has a dramatic effect on the local structural ordering in these materials and consequently their functional properties. Atomistic models for Ti-CDCs have also been developed with the aid of molecular dynamics. These models reproduce the observed experimental trends and are used to gain new insight into the complex structure-function relationship. 1. Gogotsi, Y. 2006. Carbon nanomaterials. CRC Press, Boca Raton 2. Dash et al. 2006. Carbon 44:2489-2497

  15. Micro-environmentally restricted hybridoma cell growth within polysaccharide hydrogel microbeads.

    PubMed

    Pajic-Lijakovic, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of micro-environmentally restricted hybridoma cell growth caused by action of local mechanical compression stress generated within various polysaccharide hydrogel matrixes is estimated by comparing the growth of hybridoma cells within (1) 1.5% Ca-alginate microbeads from Bugarski et al. [in: Fundamentals of Animal Cells Immobilization and Microencapsulation, M.F.A. Goosen, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993, p. 267] and (2) 1.3% alginate-agarose microbeads from Shen et al. [Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects, H. Murakami ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1992, p. 173].Consideration of restricted cell growth dynamics based on developed kinetic model and kinetic 3D Monte Carlo simulation include: (1) changes the fraction of active proliferating cells in the exponential phase and (2) changes of non-proliferating cell concentration in the plateau phase.Higher value of the specific decrease of active fraction of proliferating cells κ is obtained for 1.3% alginate-agarose compared to 1.5% alginate microbeads. It corresponds to higher compression stress generated within hydrogel matrix during cell growth obtained for 1.3% alginate-agarose microbeads. PMID:23988708

  16. A search for evidence of large body Earth impacts associated with biological crisis zones in the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Knight, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The natural history of the Earth, how the present plant and animal species developed, how others completely died out, etc., was studied. The rock strata sampled and studied were at the time of deposition at sea bottom. It was found that, exactly at the stratigraphic level corresponding to the extinction, a thin clay layer was greatly enriched in the the rare element iridium. It was hypothesized that the excess irridium at the boundary came from a large steroid like object that hit the earth, and that the impact of this object threw up a dust cloud dense enough and long lasting enough to bring about the extinction of a wide variety of plants and animals, producing the unique break in in the fossil record, the cretaceous-tertiary boundary. The same iridium and platinum metals enrichement are found in a thin clay layer that corresponds with the boundary as difined by sudden radical changes in plant populations. The irridium enrichement is confirmed at other fresh water origin rites in the Raton Basin.

  17. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  18. Mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.

    2014-08-01

    Using over 310,000 high-quality radial receiver functions recorded by the USArray and other seismic stations in the contiguous United States, the depths of the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities (d410 and d660) are mapped in over 1,000 consecutive overlapping circles with a radius of 1°. The average mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness for both the western and central/eastern U.S. is within 3 km from the global average of 250 km, suggesting an overall normal MTZ temperature beneath both areas. The Pacific Coast Ranges and the southern Basin and Range Province are underlain by a depressed d410, indicating higher-than-normal temperature in the upper MTZ. The proposed Yellowstone and Raton hot spots are not associated with clear undulations of the MTZ discontinuities, but d410 beneath another proposed hot spot, Bermuda, is depressed significantly and d660 has a normal depth. Low-temperature regions are found in the upper MTZ associated with the subducted Juan de Fuca slab beneath the northern Rocky Mountains and in two circular areas beneath the northern Basin and Range Province and the southern Colorado Plateau. Part of the Great Plains is characterized by a depressed d660. This observation, when combined with results from seismic tomography, suggests the existence of a cold region in the lower MTZ, probably associated with subducted Farallon slab segments.

  19. The edaphic quantitative protargol stain: a sampling protocol for assessing soil ciliate abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Mercado, Dimaris; Lynn, Denis H

    2003-06-01

    It has been suggested that species loss from microbial groups low in diversity that occupy trophic positions close to the base of the detrital food web could be critical for terrestrial ecosystem functioning. Among the protozoans within the soil microbial loop, ciliates are presumably the least abundant and of low diversity. However, the lack of a standardized method to quantitatively enumerate and identify them has hampered our knowledge about the magnitude of their active and potential diversity, and about the interactions in which they are involved. Thus, the Edaphic Quantitative Protargol Staining (EQPS) method is provided to simultaneously account for ciliate species richness and abundance in a quantitative and qualitative way. This direct method allows this rapid and simultaneous assessment by merging the Non-flooded Petri Dish (NFPD) method [Prog. Protistol. 2 (1987) 69] and the Quantitative Protargol Stain (QPS) method [Montagnes, D.J.S., Lynn, D.H., 1993. A quantitative protargol stain (QPS) for ciliates and other protists. In: Kemp, P.F., Sherr, B.F., Sherr, E.B., Cole, J.J. (Eds.), Handbook of Methods in Aquatic Microbial Ecology. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 229-240]. The abovementioned protocols were refined by experiments examining the spatial distribution of ciliates under natural field conditions, sampling intensity, the effect of storage, and the use of cytological preparations versus live observations. The EQPS could be useful in ecological studies since it provides both a "snapshot" of the active and effective diversity and a robust estimate of the potential diversity.

  20. Continuous symmetry of C60 fullerene and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sheka, E F; Razbirin, B S; Nelson, D K

    2011-04-21

    Conventionally, the I(h) symmetry of fullerene C(60) is accepted, which is supported by numerous calculations. However, this conclusion results from the consideration of the molecule electron system, of its odd electrons in particular, in a closed-shell approximation without taking the electron spin into account. Passing to the open-shell approximation has led to both the energy and the symmetry lowering up to C(i). Seemingly contradicting to a high-symmetry pattern of experimental recording, particularly concerning the molecule electronic spectra, the finding is considered in this Article from the continuous symmetry viewpoint. Exploiting continuous symmetry measure and continuous symmetry level approaches, it was shown that formal C(i) symmetry of the molecule is by 99.99% I(h). A similar continuous symmetry analysis of the fullerene monoderivatives gives a reasonable explanation of a large variety of their optical spectra patterns within the framework of the same C(1) formal symmetry exhibiting a strong stability of the C(60) skeleton. TOC color pictures present chemical portrait of C(60) in terms of atomic chemical susceptibility (Sheka, E. Fullerenes: Nanochemistry, Nanomagnetism, Nanomedicine, Nanophotonics; CRC Press: Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, 2011).

  1. Ground water in the vicinity of Capulin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, D.L.; Smith, Christian

    1979-01-01

    The alluvial deposits within a closed basin near Capulin, New Mexico, are estimated to have 189,000 acre-feet of water in storage. These deposits have an estimated average transmissivity of 400 feet squared per day and represent the major source of ground water. Well yields range from a few gallons per minute to as much as 900 gallons per minute, with average potential yields ranging from about 100 to 200 gallons per minute in areas of greatest saturated thickness. Additional large quantities of water are available for short-term supplies from the saturated basaltic cinders west and northwest of the town of Capulin. Wells completed in the cinders reportedly have produced as much as 2,000 gallons per minute. The chemical quality of water in the alluvium and cinder aquifers appears to be chemically satisfactory for municipal use. The ground water in storage is sufficient to supplement Raton, New Mexico 's water needs to the year 2030 at the water demand rate projected by the Bureau of Reclamation. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Vegetation, climatic and floral changes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.; Upchurch, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    he western interior of North America has the only known non-marine sections that contain the iridium-rich clay interpreted as the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary1-7. Because vegetation and climate can be directly inferred from physiognomy of leaves8-15 and because leaf species typically represent low taxonomic categories, studies of leaf floras in these sections provide data on the effects of a terminal Cretaceous event on the land flora, vegetation and climate. A previous study based on detailed sampling of leaves and their dispersed cuticle16 in the Raton Basin provides a framework for interpretation of other leaf sequences over 20 degrees of latitude. We conclude that at the boundary there were: (1) High levels of extinction in the south and low levels in the north; (2) major ecological disruption followed by long-term vegetational changes that mimicked normal ecological succession; (3) a major increase in precipitation; and (4) a brief, low-temperature excursion, which supports models of an 'impact winter'. ?? 1986 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Who provided maize to Chaco Canyon after the mid-12th-century drought?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.

    2010-01-01

    Between A.D. 1181 and 1200, in the early part of a climatically wet period, corn was imported to Chaco Canyon from a region outside the Chaco Halo (defined in this paper as the region between the base of the Chuska Mountains and Raton Wells). Strontium-isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses of 12 corn cobs dating to this period match 87Sr/86Sr ratios from five potential source areas, including: the Zuni region, the Mesa Verde-McElmo Dome area, the Totah, the Defiance Plateau, and Lobo Mesa. The latter two areas were eliminated from consideration as possible sources of corn in that they appear to have been unpopulated during the time period of interest. Therefore, it appears that the corn cobs were imported from the Zuni region, the Mesa Verde-McElmo Dome area, or the Totah area during a time when the climate was relatively wet and when a surplus of corn was produced in regions outside Chaco Canyon. Based on proximity to and cultural affiliation with Chaco Canyon, it is hypothesized that the corn probably was imported from the Totah.

  4. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    enfocan más en los conductores del comportamiento humano y en las implicaciones de varias fuentes de incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones de manejo. La cacería de trofeos ha sido sugerida como una herramienta de conservación porque le otorga valor económico a la vida silvestre, pero ejemplos recientes muestran que la sobrecolecta es un problema sustancial y que las limitaciones de datos son abundantes. Usamos el estudio de caso de la cacería de trofeos de un antílope en peligro, el nyala de las montañas (Tragelaphus buxtoni), para explorar como las incertidumbres generadas por el monitoreo de poblaciones y el tráfico de especies interactúan con la toma de decisiones de 2 actores clave: las compañías de safari y el gobierno. Construimos un modelo de evaluación de estrategia de manejo que incluye la dinámica poblacional del nyala de las montañas, un modelo de monitoreo y un modelo de toma de decisiones de una compañía. Investigamos escenarios de inversión en el combate del tráfico de especies y el monitoreo por el gobierno y las compañías de safari. La estrategia de colecta fue robusta hacia la incertidumbre en los estimados de población obtenidos del monitoreo, pero el tráfico de especies tuvo un efecto más fuerte sobre la cuota y la sustentabilidad; por esto, reducir el tráfico de especies está dentro de los intereses de compañías que desean incrementar la rentabilidad de las empresas, por ejemplo al hacer participar a los miembros de la comunidad como guías de caza. Hay un nivel umbral de incertidumbre en los estimados de población más allá del cual la variación anual en la cuota de trofeos previene la planeación por parte de las compañías de safari. Esto sugiere un papel para el gobierno asegurando que un nivel base de monitoreo de población se lleve a cabo para que este nivel no sea excedido. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia de considerar los incentivos de partes interesadas múltiples al designar marcos de trabajo para

  5. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    enfocan más en los conductores del comportamiento humano y en las implicaciones de varias fuentes de incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones de manejo. La cacería de trofeos ha sido sugerida como una herramienta de conservación porque le otorga valor económico a la vida silvestre, pero ejemplos recientes muestran que la sobrecolecta es un problema sustancial y que las limitaciones de datos son abundantes. Usamos el estudio de caso de la cacería de trofeos de un antílope en peligro, el nyala de las montañas (Tragelaphus buxtoni), para explorar como las incertidumbres generadas por el monitoreo de poblaciones y el tráfico de especies interactúan con la toma de decisiones de 2 actores clave: las compañías de safari y el gobierno. Construimos un modelo de evaluación de estrategia de manejo que incluye la dinámica poblacional del nyala de las montañas, un modelo de monitoreo y un modelo de toma de decisiones de una compañía. Investigamos escenarios de inversión en el combate del tráfico de especies y el monitoreo por el gobierno y las compañías de safari. La estrategia de colecta fue robusta hacia la incertidumbre en los estimados de población obtenidos del monitoreo, pero el tráfico de especies tuvo un efecto más fuerte sobre la cuota y la sustentabilidad; por esto, reducir el tráfico de especies está dentro de los intereses de compañías que desean incrementar la rentabilidad de las empresas, por ejemplo al hacer participar a los miembros de la comunidad como guías de caza. Hay un nivel umbral de incertidumbre en los estimados de población más allá del cual la variación anual en la cuota de trofeos previene la planeación por parte de las compañías de safari. Esto sugiere un papel para el gobierno asegurando que un nivel base de monitoreo de población se lleve a cabo para que este nivel no sea excedido. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia de considerar los incentivos de partes interes

  6. Active site structure in cytochrome c peroxidase and myoglobin mutants: effects of altered hydrogen bonding to the proximal histidine.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Hallam, S; Chen, M; Chance, B; Powers, L

    1996-11-26

    The globins and peroxidases, while performing completely different chemistry, share features of the iron heme active site: a protoporphyrin IX prosthetic group is linked to the protein by the proximal histidine residue. X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides a method to determine the local structure of iron heme active sites in proteins. Our previous studies using X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed a significant difference in the Fe-N epsilon bond length between the peroxidases and the globins [for a review, see Powers, L. (1994) Molecular Electronics and Molecular Electronic Devices, Vol. 3, p 211 CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL]. Globins typically have an Fe-N epsilon distance close to 2.1 A while the Fe-N epsilon distance in the peroxidases is closer to 1.9 A. We have proposed [Sinclair, R., Powers, L., Bumpus, J., Albo, A., & Brock, B. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 4892] that strong hydrogen bonding to the proximal histidine is responsible for the shorter bond length in the peroxidases. Here we use site-specific mutagenesis to eliminate the strong proximal hydrogen bonding in cytochrome c peroxidase and to introduce strong proximal hydrogen bonding in myoglobin. Consistent with our hypothesis, elimination of the Asp235-His175 hydrogen bond in CcP results in elongation of Fe-N epsilon from approximately 1.9 to approximately 2.1 A. Conversely, introduction of a similar strong proximal hydrogen bond in myoglobin shortens Fe-N epsilon from approximately 2.1 to approximately 1.9 A. These results correlate well with other biochemical data.

  7. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  8. Face-related segregation reversal at Pt 50Ni 50 surfaces studied with the embedded atom method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deurinck, P.; Creemers, C.

    1999-11-01

    The segregation to the three low-index surfaces of a Pt50Ni50 single crystal is modelled by Monte Carlo simulations combined with the embedded atom method (EAM). Using the best fit EAM parameters from the literature for the six transition metals of the Ni and Cu groups does not yield satisfactory results. In this work the EAM parameters are recalculated and optimised exclusively for the Pt-Ni alloy system under study. Only then does EAM reliably reproduce the driving forces for segregation. The experimental results [Y. Gauthier et al., Phys. Rev. B 31 (1985) 6216; Y. Gauthier et al., Phys. Rev. B 35 (1987) 7867; S.M. Foiles, in: P.A. Dobson, A. Miller (Eds.), Surface Segregation Phenomena, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1990, p. 79] reveal a face-related segregation reversal for the Pt50Ni50 single crystal. It appears from the simulations that this is caused by a relatively small difference in surface energy in close competition with the elastic strain release. At the open (110) surface the difference in surface energy dominates causing Ni segregation. At the (100) and (111) surfaces the difference in surface energy is overpowered by the elastic strain leading to Pt segregation. The simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results and reproduce quantitatively the Ni segregation to the (110) surface and the Pt segregation to the (100) and (111) surfaces. Only at the (110) surface significant relaxations are predicted in good agreement with experimental evidence. Atomic vibrations can be included by allowing a large number of very small displacements or with a more classical treatment of vibrational entropy. Both approaches yield the same results and show that the inclusion of atomic vibrations is important only for the (110) surface and tend to attenuate the Ni segregation profile.

  9. Nanometer-scale features on micrometer-scale surface texturing: a bone histological, gene expression, and nanomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo G; Takayama, Tadahiro; Yoo, Daniel; Jimbo, Ryo; Karunagaran, Sanjay; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N; Yamano, Seiichi

    2014-08-01

    Micro- and nanoscale surface modifications have been the focus of multiple studies in the pursuit of accelerating bone apposition or osseointegration at the implant surface. Here, we evaluated histological and nanomechanical properties, and gene expression, for a microblasted surface presenting nanometer-scale texture within a micrometer-scale texture (MB) (Ossean Surface, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) versus a dual-acid etched surface presenting texture at the micrometer-scale only (AA), in a rodent femur model for 1, 2, 4, and 8weeks in vivo. Following animal sacrifice, samples were evaluated in terms of histomorphometry, biomechanical properties through nanoindentation, and gene expression by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Although the histomorphometric, and gene expression analysis results were not significantly different between MB and AA at 4 and 8 weeks, significant differences were seen at 1 and 2 weeks. The expression of the genes encoding collagen type I (COL-1), and osteopontin (OPN) was significantly higher for MB than for AA at 1 week, indicating up-regulated osteoprogenitor and osteoblast differentiation. At 2 weeks, significantly up-regulated expression of the genes for COL-1, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osterix, and osteocalcin (OCN) indicated progressive mineralization in newly formed bone. The nanomechanical properties tested by the nanoindentation presented significantly higher-rank hardness and elastic modulus for the MB compared to AA at all time points tested. In conclusion, the nanotopographical featured surfaces presented an overall higher host-to-implant response compared to the microtextured only surfaces. The statistical differences observed in some of the osteogenic gene expression between the two groups may shed some insight into the role of surface texture and its extent in the observed bone healing mechanisms. PMID:24813260

  10. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    PubMed

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data. PMID:26946495

  11. Fullerenes, Noble Gases and the Flux of Extraterrestrial Debris to

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert; Bunch, Ted

    The discovery of fullerenes in deposits associated with two separate impact events involving a large bolide with the Earth suggests that these carbon (C) molecules may also be an indicator of extraterrestrial (ET) events over geologic time. Fullerenes were detected in carbon-rich breccias (Onaping Fm.) associated with the 1.85 byr Sudbury Crater (Becker et al., Science 265, 1994) and in clay sediments within the 65 myr old Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary (Heymann et al., Science 265, 1994). To determine the origin of the Sudbury fullerenes, we searched for noble gases trapped inside the fullerene molecules (Saunders et al., Science 259, 1993). The Sudbury fullerenes contain trapped 3He/4He ratios (~5.5 times 10^{-4}) similar to those found in meteorites and some interplanetary dust particles (Becker et al., Science 272, 1996). Preliminary measurements of He in a continental K/T fullerene residue from Raton Basin (Colorado) revealed ^3He/^4He ratios some 100 times above air. A marine K/T residue from Stevns Klint, (Denmark) revealed ^3He/^4He ratios several thousand times above air in the high temperature fraction! We attribute the anomalously high ^3He/^4He ratios and high ^3He concentration in Stevns Klint to the abundance of higher fullerenes in the residue. The high ^3He/^4He ratio in the K/T fullerenes suggests that they were present in the bolide and somehow survived the impact event. Confirmation of these results could have broad implications concerning the importance of exogenous delivery in providing carbon, volatiles and perhaps other organics to the early Earth's crustal reservoir.

  12. Earthquake Rate Models for Evolving Induced Seismicity Hazard in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Injection-induced earthquake rates can vary rapidly in space and time, which presents significant challenges to traditional probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies that are based on a time-independent model of mainshock occurrence. To help society cope with rapidly evolving seismicity, the USGS is developing one-year hazard models for areas of induced seismicity in the central and eastern US to forecast the shaking due to all earthquakes, including aftershocks which are generally omitted from hazards assessments (Petersen et al., 2015). However, the spatial and temporal variability of the earthquake rates make them difficult to forecast even on time-scales as short as one year. An initial approach is to use the previous year's seismicity rate to forecast the next year's seismicity rate. However, in places such as northern Oklahoma the rates vary so rapidly over time that a simple linear extrapolation does not accurately forecast the future, even when the variability in the rates is modeled with simulations based on an Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, JASA, 1988) to account for earthquake clustering. Instead of relying on a fixed time period for rate estimation, we explore another way to determine when the earthquake rate should be updated. This approach could also objectively identify new areas where the induced seismicity hazard model should be applied. We will estimate the background seismicity rate by optimizing a single set of ETAS aftershock triggering parameters across the most active induced seismicity zones -- Oklahoma, Guy-Greenbrier, the Raton Basin, and the Azle-Dallas-Fort Worth area -- with individual background rate parameters in each zone. The full seismicity rate, with uncertainties, can then be estimated using ETAS simulations and changes in rate can be detected by applying change point analysis in ETAS transformed time with methods already developed for Poisson processes.

  13. Composites with tuned effective magnetic permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2007-07-01

    Pendry et al. [J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999)] and Smith et al. [D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000)] have shown that the effective magnetic permeability, μ, of free space can be rendered negative over a certain frequency range by a periodic arrangement of very thin conductors with suitable magnetic resonance properties, the so-called split-ring resonators. Because of its rather bulky architecture, this structure does not lend itself to a proper integration into a reasonably thin real composite structural panel. To remedy this fundamental barrier, we invented a new magnetic resonator consisting of very thin folded plates that are suitably nested within one another to form folded-doubled resonators (FDRs) that can be integrated into an actual composite panel. Measurements, using a focused beam electromagnetic characterization system combined with time-domain numerical simulations of the reflection and transmission coefficients of such a composite slab have revealed that indeed the composite has a negative μ over a frequency range of about 9.1-9.35 GHz [S. Nemat-Nasser, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, T. A. Plaisted, A. Starr, and A. Vakil Amirkhizi, in Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies, edited by Y. Bar Cohen (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006)]. Thus, it has become possible to construct a structural composite panel with negative index of refraction by simultaneously creating negative effective ɛ and μ [V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968); R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001); A. F. Starr, P. M. Rye, D. R. Smith, and S. Nemat-Nasser, Phys. Rev. B 70, 113102 (2004)].

  14. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by UPb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krogh, T.E.; Kamo, S.L.; Bohor, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    UPb isotopic dating of single 1-3 ??g zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 ?? 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, white those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 ?? 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With UPb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age. ?? 1993.

  15. 2016 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-03-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a 1-year seismic hazard forecast for 2016 for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes. The model assumes that earthquake rates calculated from several different time windows will remain relatively stationary and can be used to forecast earthquake hazard and damage intensity for the year 2016. This assessment is the first step in developing an operational earthquake forecast for the CEUS, and the analysis could be revised with updated seismicity and model parameters. Consensus input models consider alternative earthquake catalog durations, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground motion estimates, and represent uncertainties in earthquake occurrence and diversity of opinion in the science community. Ground shaking seismic hazard for 1-percent probability of exceedance in 1 year reaches 0.6 g (as a fraction of standard gravity [g]) in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2 g in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in north-central Texas near Dallas. Near some areas of active induced earthquakes, hazard is higher than in the 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model (NHSM) by more than a factor of 3; the 2014 NHSM did not consider induced earthquakes. In some areas, previously observed induced earthquakes have stopped, so the seismic hazard reverts back to the 2014 NSHM. Increased seismic activity, whether defined as induced or natural, produces high hazard. Conversion of ground shaking to seismic intensity indicates that some places in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Arkansas may experience damage if the induced seismicity continues unabated. The chance of having Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) VI or greater (damaging earthquake shaking) is 5–12 percent per year in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, similar to the chance of damage caused by natural earthquakes

  16. Quantification of Massive Seasonal Aggregations of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Kajiura, Stephen M.; Tellman, Shari L.

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Florida witnesses an enormous seasonal influx of upper trophic level marine predators each year as massive aggregations of migrating blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) overwinter in nearshore waters. The narrow shelf and close proximity of the Gulf Stream current to the Palm Beach County shoreline drive tens of thousands of sharks to the shallow, coastal environment. This natural bottleneck provides a unique opportunity to estimate relative abundance. Over a four year period from 2011–2014, an aerial survey was flown approximately biweekly along the length of Palm Beach County. A high definition video camera and digital still camera mounted out of the airplane window provided a continuous record of the belt transect which extended 200 m seaward from the shoreline between Boca Raton Inlet and Jupiter Inlet. The number of sharks within the survey transect was directly counted from the video. Shark abundance peaked in the winter (January-March) with a maximum in 2011 of 12,128 individuals counted within the 75.6 km-2 belt transect. This resulted in a maximum density of 803.2 sharks km-2. By the late spring (April-May), shark abundance had sharply declined to 1.1% of its peak, where it remained until spiking again in January of the following year. Shark abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature and large numbers of sharks were found only when water temperatures were less than 25°C. Shark abundance was also correlated with day of the year but not with barometric pressure. Although shark abundance was not correlated with photoperiod, the departure of the sharks from southeast Florida occurred around the vernal equinox. The shark migration along the United States eastern seaboard corresponds spatially and temporally with the spawning aggregations of various baitfish species. These baseline abundance data can be compared to future studies to determine if shark population size is changing and if sharks are restricting their southward

  17. 17β-Estradiol and natural progesterone for menopausal hormone therapy: REPLENISH phase 3 study design of a combination capsule and evidence review.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, Sebastian; Amadio, Julia M; Bernick, Brian A; Pickar, James H; Archer, David F

    2015-05-01

    Several formulations combining estrogens and progestins for hormone therapy (HT) have been approved worldwide for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, yet recent data indicate a decline in their use and an increase in compounded bioidentical HT. Up to now, no single product combining natural 17β-estradiol and progesterone has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the European Medicines Agency (EMA). A phase 3 trial (REPLENISH) is underway to study a novel oral formulation of solubilized 17β-estradiol and natural progesterone combined in a single gelatin capsule (TX-001HR; TherapeuticsMD, Inc, Boca Raton, FL) for treating vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in postmenopausal women. The REPLENISH trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of TX-001HR (4 doses) versus placebo for the reduction of moderate to severe VMS frequency and severity at 4 and 12 weeks and evaluates the endometrial safety of the combinations at 1 year. TX-001HR contains hormones that are molecularly identical to endogenous estradiol and progesterone and is intended as an option for women who prefer bioidentical hormones; further, it does not contain peanut oil, a common allergen. The constituents of TX-001HR, in a pharmacokinetic report, showed similar bioavailability and safety compared with reference estradiol tablets and micronized progesterone capsules administered together. Published data suggest a safer profile of estradiol and natural progesterone compared with HT containing conjugated equine estrogens and progestins. This report summarizes the methodology of the REPLENISH trial and reviews the evidence suggesting clinical differences between HT containing progesterone or progestins, and estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens.

  18. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water. PMID:19329695

  19. Coarse-grained fluvial lithofacies associated with the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in the Huerfano Basin, Colorado, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, D.; Foreman, B.; Fricke, H. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a rapid interval of global warming that occurred ~56 Ma. The PETM is characterized by an abrupt increase in mean annual temperature and decreased latitudinal temperature gradient. Resulting circulation changes likely modified the hydrologic cycle impacting spatiotemporal distribution of rainfall, fluvial sedimentation, and continental runoff. The goal of this study is to evaluate PETM global warming as an allogenic forcing on fluvial systems in the Huerfano Basin in southern Colorado as a point of comparison to other Laramide basins. Huerfano Basin is a Laramide structural basin comprising the northernmost extension of the Raton Basin. Huerfano Basin is located to the south and east of previously identified PETM records in the Bighorn, Axehandle, and Piceance basins. Alluvial deposits of the Poison Canyon and Cuchara formations are exposed along the western basin margin and are of known Paleocene-Eocene age. Depauperate biostratigraphic data place the Paleocene-Eocene boundary near the contact between the two formations. Globally, the PETM is identifiable by a distinctive negative carbon isotope excursion in terrestrial and marine strata. In the Huerfano Basin, initial bulk organic carbon isotope analyses presented herein yield isotope ratios suggestive of other terrestrial records. A prominent basal conglomerate in the Cuchara Formation is approximately coeval with the isotope excursion values. These observations suggest sedimentation in Huerfano Basin responded similarly to Bighorn and Piceance basins as the PETM generated pulses of coarse-grained alluvial lithofacies. However, the grain-sizes mobilized in Huerfano Basin are significantly coarser. Potentially this reflects the proximity to the Mississippi Embayment, the primary moisture source at the time. Overall this southern locality will allow systematic geographic comparisons in the hydrologic cycle response to the PETM in North America.

  20. Surface applied water treatment residuals affect bioavailable phosphorus losses in Florida sands.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Olawale O; O'Connor, George A; Brinton, Scott R

    2008-09-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTR) can reduce runoff P loss and surface co-application of P-sources and WTR is a practical way of land applying the residuals. In a rainfall simulation study, we evaluated the effects of surface co-applied P-sources and an Al-WTR on runoff and leacheate bioavailable P (BAP) losses from a Florida sand. Four P-sources, namely poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids (high water-soluble P), Pompano biosolids (moderate water-soluble P), and triple super phosphate (TSP) were surface applied at 56 and 224 kg P ha(-1) (by weight) to represent low and high soil P loads typical of P- and N-based amendments rates. The treatments further received surface applied WTR at 0 or 10 g WTR kg(-1) soil. BAP loss masses were greater in leachate (16.4-536 mg) than in runoff (0.91-46 mg), but were reduced in runoff and leachate by surface applied WTR. Masses of total BAP lost in the presence of surface applied WTR were less than approximately 75% of BAP losses in the absence of WTR. Total BAP losses from each of the organic sources applied at N-based rates were not greater than P loss from TSP applied at a P-based rate. The BAP loss at the N-based rate of moderate water-soluble P-source (Pompano biosolids) was not greater than BAP losses at the P-based rates of other organic sources tested. The hazards of excess P from applying organic P-sources at N-based rates are not greater than observed at P-based rates of mineral fertilizer. Results suggest that management of the environmental P hazards associated with N-based rates of organic materials in Florida sands is possible by either applying P-sources with WTR or using a moderate water-soluble P-source.

  1. A fast algorithm for the recursive calculation of dominant singular subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastronardi, N.; van Barel, M.; Vandebril, R.

    2008-09-01

    In many engineering applications it is required to compute the dominant subspace of a matrix A of dimension m×n, with m[not double greater-than sign]n. Often the matrix A is produced incrementally, so all the columns are not available simultaneously. This problem arises, e.g., in image processing, where each column of the matrix A represents an image of a given sequence leading to a singular value decomposition-based compression [S. Chandrasekaran, B.S. Manjunath, Y.F. Wang, J. Winkeler, H. Zhang, An eigenspace update algorithm for image analysis, Graphical Models and Image Process. 59 (5) (1997) 321-332]. Furthermore, the so-called proper orthogonal decomposition approximation uses the left dominant subspace of a matrix A where a column consists of a time instance of the solution of an evolution equation, e.g., the flow field from a fluid dynamics simulation. Since these flow fields tend to be very large, only a small number can be stored efficiently during the simulation, and therefore an incremental approach is useful [P. Van Dooren, Gramian based model reduction of large-scale dynamical systems, in: Numerical Analysis 1999, Chapman & Hall, CRC Press, London, Boca Raton, FL, 2000, pp. 231-247]. In this paper an algorithm for computing an approximation of the left dominant subspace of size k of , with k[double less-than sign]m,n, is proposed requiring at each iteration O(mk+k2) floating point operations. Moreover, the proposed algorithm exhibits a lot of parallelism that can be exploited for a suitable implementation on a parallel computer.

  2. Measurement of d15 in Fe100-xGax (x=12.5,15,18.4,22), Fe50Co50, and Fe81Al19 highly textured polycrystalline rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Clark, A. E.

    2008-04-01

    We report the first measurements of d15, which relate torsion to an applied field, in the high magnetostriction Galfenol alloys Fe100-xGax (x=12.5,15,18.4,22), Fe50Co50, and Fe81Al19. Measurements were performed on highly textured polycrystalline 6.4×50.8mm2 rods by simultaneously applying a longitudinal magnetic field H∥ (-1200Raton, 1993), 212] results for H⊥≪H∥, modified for our nearly cubic samples: d15=2ξ/j, where j is the current density in the sample. In the Fe100-xGax system, d15 (in nm/A) were 4.5±1, x =12.5 (sample 1); 7±2, x =12.5 (sample 2); 2.8±0.5, x =15; 16±3, x =22 (stress annealed); and 11.4±0.4, x =22. The Fe81.6Ga18.4 measurements did not yield a value. For Fe50Co50, d15=29±4 and for Fe81Al19, d15=8±1. Estimated values of λ111 were obtained by fitting ξ to 1/H∥ and are compared to those obtained from single crystal measurements.

  3. Preparation and use of sea urchin egg homogenates.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Anthony J; Galione, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Cell homogenates provide a simple and yet powerful means of investigating the actions of Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messengers and their target Ca(2+) stores. The sea urchin egg homogenate is particularly useful and almost unique in retaining robust Ca(2+) responses to all three major messengers, i.e., inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), cyclic ADP-ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) (Lee and Aarhus. J Biol Chem 270: 2152-2172, 1995). It is not only invaluable for probing the pharmacology and mechanism of action of these messengers, but can also be used to assay Ca(2+) uptake mechanisms (Churchill et al. Cell 111: 703-708, 2002), second messenger production (Morgan et al. Methods in cADPR and NAADP research. In: Putney JW Jr (ed) Methods in calcium signalling, CRC: Boca Raton, FL, 2006), and dynamics of luminal pH (pHL) changes within acidic Ca(2+) stores (Lee and Epel. Dev Biol 98: 446-454, 1983; Morgan and Galione. Biochem J 402: 301-310, 2007). Here, we detail the protocols for preparing and using egg homogenates, wherein eggs are shed and collected into artificial sea water (ASW), dejellied, washed several times in Ca(2+)-free ASW, and then finally washed and resuspended in an intracellular-like medium. Homogenization is effected with a Dounce glass tissue homogenizer (at 50 % (v/v)) and aliquots frozen and stored at -80 °C. For Ca(2+) (or pHL) measurements, homogenate is thawed and sequentially diluted in an intracellular-like medium and the fluorescence of Ca(2+)- or pHL-sensitive dyes monitored in a standard fluorimeter or plate-reader. PMID:24567213

  4. Soil and geomorphic evolution within the rolling red plains using pleistocene volcanic ash deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Brian J.; Ward, Phil A.; Shannon, Jean T.

    1990-09-01

    Pleistocene volcanic ash deposits are found within alluvium from the Arkansas river south to the Brazos river. This drainage area includes tributaries originating in the High Plains, the Raton volcanic field and the Rocky Mountain Front Range within the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Texas, and Oklahoma. Thirteen ash deposits are dated from within the High Plains of Kansas and Texas eastward into central Oklahoma to understand the geomorphic history and improve soil and geologic mapping. Within the study area unsolidated Tertiary and Quaternary sediments deposited in a west to east direction overlie Triassic, Permian, and Pennsylvanian bedrock. Volcanic ash deposits are predominantly Early to Middle Pleistocene age. Volcanic ash deposits were dated by the fission track method on shards. The ash deposits are contained within four land resource regions, the Southern and Central High Plains, the High Plains Breaks, the Rolling Red Plains, and the Reddish Prairies. Extensive Middle Pleistocene constructional stream terrace surfaces occur within the Rolling Red Plains. Multiple stream terrace surfaces were recognized across the study area with the highest level being dated Early Pleistocene to Pliocene and the lowest bordering the Holocene floodplains. Topographic cross-sections (100 km long at 1:24,000 scale) transecting dated ash deposits and perpendicular to major river systems were used to distinguish terrace levels. Constructional terrace surfaces dated by ash deposits range from 21 to 100 m above and 1 to 16 km distance from present river channels. Soil orders formed in Quaternary alluvium are Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Alfisols and Vertisols. Ustic and udic soil moisture regimes and a thermic (15 to 22°C mean annual temperature) soil temperature regime dominate the study area. The same soil series is often mapped on terrace surfaces spanning Early to Middle Pleistocene age because current classification does not recognize differences in deeply

  5. Quantification of Massive Seasonal Aggregations of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Stephen M; Tellman, Shari L

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Florida witnesses an enormous seasonal influx of upper trophic level marine predators each year as massive aggregations of migrating blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) overwinter in nearshore waters. The narrow shelf and close proximity of the Gulf Stream current to the Palm Beach County shoreline drive tens of thousands of sharks to the shallow, coastal environment. This natural bottleneck provides a unique opportunity to estimate relative abundance. Over a four year period from 2011-2014, an aerial survey was flown approximately biweekly along the length of Palm Beach County. A high definition video camera and digital still camera mounted out of the airplane window provided a continuous record of the belt transect which extended 200 m seaward from the shoreline between Boca Raton Inlet and Jupiter Inlet. The number of sharks within the survey transect was directly counted from the video. Shark abundance peaked in the winter (January-March) with a maximum in 2011 of 12,128 individuals counted within the 75.6 km(-2) belt transect. This resulted in a maximum density of 803.2 sharks km(-2). By the late spring (April-May), shark abundance had sharply declined to 1.1% of its peak, where it remained until spiking again in January of the following year. Shark abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature and large numbers of sharks were found only when water temperatures were less than 25 °C. Shark abundance was also correlated with day of the year but not with barometric pressure. Although shark abundance was not correlated with photoperiod, the departure of the sharks from southeast Florida occurred around the vernal equinox. The shark migration along the United States eastern seaboard corresponds spatially and temporally with the spawning aggregations of various baitfish species. These baseline abundance data can be compared to future studies to determine if shark population size is changing and if sharks are restricting their southward

  6. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in J Chem Educ 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students' understanding of periodic table is vital for their success in chemistry, and the online periodic table has the potential to advance learners' understanding of chemical elements and fundamental chemistry concepts (Brito et al. in J Res Sci Teach 42(1):84-111, 2005). The ten sites were compared for accuracy of data with the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (HCP, Haynes in CRC handbook of chemistry and physics: a ready-reference book of chemical and physical data. CRC Press, Boca Raton 2012). The 10 sites are the most visited periodic table Web sites available. Four different elements, carbon, gold, argon, and plutonium, were selected for comparison, and 11 different attributes for each element were identified for evaluating accuracy. A wide variation of accuracy was found among the 10 periodic table sources. Chemicool was the most accurate information provider with 66.67 % accuracy when compared to the HCP. The 22 types of information including meaning of name and use in industry and society provided by these sites were, also, compared. WebElements, "Chemicool", "Periodic Table Live", and "the Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements" were the most information providers, providing 86.36 % of information among the 10 Web sites. "WebElements" provides the most links among the 10 Web sites. It was concluded that if an individual teacher or student desires only raw physical data from element, the Internet might not be the best choice.

  7. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water.

  8. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Culebra Peak Area, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Las Animas and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Kirkham, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map provides new geologic mapping at 1:50,000-scale in the Culebra Peak area of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south-central Colorado. The map area includes all of the El Valle Creek, Stonewall, Culebra Peak, and Torres 7.5' quadrangles. Paleoproterozoic crystalline basement rocks are exposed along the crest of the Culebra Range which include a calc-alkaline gneiss sequence and a metasedimentary and bimodal metavolcanic sequence which are strongly foliated and display a northeast-southwest oriented structural trend. These rocks are intruded by several large granitic bodies and smaller amphibolitic and pegmatitic bodies which are also foliated. These basement rocks are intruded by a set of younger Neoproterozoic to lower Paleozoic gabbro dikes which are nonfoliated. These crystalline rocks are overlain to the east of the Culebra Range by a thick sequence of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks which include upper Paleozoic syn-tectonic sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Trough related to the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, Mesozoic post-tectonic sedimentary rocks, Cretaceous interior seaway sediments, and Laramide-age syn-tectonic sedimentary rocks of the Raton Basin. These rocks are faulted and folded by Laramide-age deformation. Tertiary igneous and volcaniclastic rocks that postdate the Laramide Orogeny are exposed throughout the map area and to the west of the Culebra Range, syntectonic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Sante Fe Group were deposited as fill in basins of the Rio Grande rift. These deposits are cut by rift-related extensional faults. Surficial units include alluvial, lacustrine, glacial, and mass-wasting deposits.

  9. Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities beneath the Contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The depths of the 410 km (d410) and 660 km (d660) discontinuities are robust indicators of in-situ temperature in the upper and lower boundary, respectively, of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), and thus can provide critical constraints on the depth extent of major tectonic features. Using over 310,000 high-quality radial receiver functions recorded by the USArray and other seismic stations in the contiguous United States, the depths of the d410 and d660 are mapped in over 1000 consecutive overlapping circles with a radius of 1 degree. The average MTZ thickness for both the western and central/eastern US is within 3 km from the global average of 250 km, suggesting an overall normal MTZ temperature beneath both areas. The Pacific Coast Ranges and the southern Basin and Range Province are underlain by a depressed d410, indicating higher-than-normal temperature in the upper MTZ. The proposed Yellowstone and Raton hotspots are not associated with clear undulations of the MTZ discontinuities, but d410 beneath another proposed hotspot, Bermuda, is depressed significantly and d660 has a normal depth. Low-temperature regions are found in the upper MTZ associated with the subducted Juan de Fuca slab beneath the northern Rocky Mountains, and in two circular areas beneath the northern Basin and Range Province and the southern Colorado Plateau. Part of the Great Plains is characterized by a depressed d660. This observation, when combined with results from seismic tomography, suggests the existence of a cold region in the lower MTZ, probably associated with subducted Farallon slab segments.

  10. Concepts to utilize in describing thermoregulation and neurophysiological evidence for how the system works.

    PubMed

    Kanosue, Kazuyuki; Crawshaw, Larry I; Nagashima, Kei; Yoda, Tamae

    2010-05-01

    We would like to emphasize about the system involved with homeostatic maintenance of body temperature. First, the primary mission of the thermoregulatory system is to defend core temperature (T (core)) against changes in ambient temperature (T (a)), the most frequently encountered disturbance for the system. T (a) should be treated as a feedforward input to the system, which has not been adequately recognized by thermal physiologists. Second, homeostatic demands from outside the thermoregulatory system may require or produce an altered T (core), such as fever (demand from the immune system). There are also conditions where some thermoregulatory effectors might be better not recruited due to demands from other homeostatic systems, such as during dehydration or fasting. Third, many experiments have supported the original assertion of Satinoff that multiple thermoregulatory effectors are controlled by different and relatively independent neuronal circuits. However, it would also be of value to be able to characterize strictly regulatory properties of the entire system by providing a clear definition for the level of regulation. Based on the assumption that T (core) is the regulated variable of the thermoregulatory system, regulated T (core) is defined as the T (core) that pertains within the range of normothermic T (a) (Gordon in temperature and toxicology: an integrative, comparative, and environmental approach, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005), i.e., the T (a) range in which an animal maintains a stable T (core). The proposed approach would facilitate the categorization and evaluation of how normal biological alterations, physiological stressors, and pathological conditions modify temperature regulation. In any case, of overriding importance is to recognize the means by which an alteration in T (core) (and modification of associated effector activities) increases the overall viability of the organism. PMID:19882166

  11. Methane recovery from coalbeds project. Monthly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Progress made on the Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project (MRCP) is reported in the Raton Mesa Coal Region. The Uinta and Warrior basin reports have been reviewed and will be published and delivered in early December. A cooperative core test with R and P Coal Company on a well in Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was negotiated. In a cooperative effort with the USGS Coal Branch on three wells in the Wind River Basin, desorption of coal samples showed little or no gas. Completed field testing at the Dugan Petroleum well in the San Juan Basin. Coal samples showed minimal gas. Initial desorption of coal samples suggests that at least a moderate amount of gas was obtained from the Coors well test in the Piceance Basin. Field work for the Piceance Basin Detailed Site Investigation was completed. In the Occidental Research Corporation (ORC) project, a higher capacity vacuum pump to increase CH/sub 4/ venting operations has been installed. Drilling of Oxy No. 12 experienced delays caused by mine gas-offs and was eventually terminated at 460 ft after an attempt to drill through a roll which produced a severe dog leg and severely damaged the drill pipe. ORC moved the second drill rig and equipment to a new location in the same panel as Oxy No. 12 and set the stand pipe for Oxy No. 13. Drill rig No. 1 has been moved east of the longwall mining area in anticipation of drilling cross-panel on 500 foot intervals. Waynesburg College project, Equitable Gas Company has received the contract from Waynesburg College and has applied to the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission for a new tariff rate. Waynesburg College has identified a contractor to make the piping connections to the gas line after Equitable establishes their meter and valve requirements.

  12. Prebiotics prevent the appearance of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of BALB/c mice for increasing the gene expression of p16 protein.

    PubMed

    Gomides, Antônio Frederico Freitas; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Ferreira, Célia Lúcia de Luces Fortes; Comastri, Débora Silva; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2014-10-01

    Existen estudios que demuestran la eficacia de fibras para reducir la aparición de focos de cripta aberrantes (FCA) en roedores. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio consistió en investigar los efectos preventivos de los fructooligosacáridos (FOS) y el prebiótico inulina sobre la aparición de FCA en ratones. Materiales y métodos: Las técnicas empleadas fueron: RT-PCR para evaluar la expresión génica de p16, p21, p54, ciclina D1 y ciclina E en el colon distal; la cuantificación del Número de FCA y la medición de la actividad de la catalasa en el hígado y el colon distal. Los animales fueron divididos en cinco tratamientos (n=8); C-: dieta AIN93M sin fibra + DMH (1.2-dimetilhidrazina); INL: dieta AIN93M con inulina; INLCA: dieta AIN93M con inulina + DMH; FOS: dieta ANIN93M con FOS; FOSCA: dieta AIN93M con FOS + DMH, durante 15 semanas. Resultados: La inulina previno la aparición de FCA en el colon proximal, medio y distal, comparado con el control sin fibras. En el colon medio y distal, FOS también fue efectiva para prevenir la incidencia de FCA. Esta efectividad podría ser atribuida al aumento de la expresión génica de p16 tras el tratamiento con FOS. Ambos prebióticos también disminuyeron la actividad de la catalasa en el colon distal, lo que sugiere un efecto antioxidante. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren un efecto antioxidante de los prebióticos que podría atribuirse a un aumento de la expresión génica de p16.

  13. 2016 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a 1-year seismic hazard forecast for 2016 for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes. The model assumes that earthquake rates calculated from several different time windows will remain relatively stationary and can be used to forecast earthquake hazard and damage intensity for the year 2016. This assessment is the first step in developing an operational earthquake forecast for the CEUS, and the analysis could be revised with updated seismicity and model parameters. Consensus input models consider alternative earthquake catalog durations, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground motion estimates, and represent uncertainties in earthquake occurrence and diversity of opinion in the science community. Ground shaking seismic hazard for 1-percent probability of exceedance in 1 year reaches 0.6 g (as a fraction of standard gravity [g]) in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2 g in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in north-central Texas near Dallas. Near some areas of active induced earthquakes, hazard is higher than in the 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model (NHSM) by more than a factor of 3; the 2014 NHSM did not consider induced earthquakes. In some areas, previously observed induced earthquakes have stopped, so the seismic hazard reverts back to the 2014 NSHM. Increased seismic activity, whether defined as induced or natural, produces high hazard. Conversion of ground shaking to seismic intensity indicates that some places in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Arkansas may experience damage if the induced seismicity continues unabated. The chance of having Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) VI or greater (damaging earthquake shaking) is 5–12 percent per year in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, similar to the chance of damage caused by natural earthquakes

  14. SU-E-J-167: Dosimetric Consequences From Minimal Displacements in APBI with SAVI Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekara, S; Dumitru, N; Hyvarinen, M; Pella, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the importance of providing proper solid immobilization in every fraction of treatment in APBI with brachytherapy. Methods: 125 patients treated with APBI brachytherapy with SAVI applicators at SFRO Boca Raton, from 2013–2015 were considered for this retrospective study. The CT scans of each patient, which were taken before each treatment, were imported in to the Oncentra treatment planning system. Then they were compared with the initial CT scan which was used for the initial plan. Deviation in displacements in reference to ribs and skin surface was measured and dosimetric evaluations respective to the initial image were performed. Results: Small deviations in displacements were observed from the SAVI applicator to the ribs and the skin surface. Dosimetric evaluations revealed, very small changes in the inter-fractionation position make significant differences in the maximum dose to critical organs. Additionally, the volume of the cavity also changed between fractions. As a Result, the maximum dose manifested variance between 10% and 32% in ribs and skin surface respectively. Conclusion: It appears that taking a CT scan before each treatment is necessary to minimize the risk of delivering undesired high doses to the critical organs. This study indicates, in 30% of the cases re-planning was necessary between treatments. We conclude that, treatment planning teams should evaluate the placement of the device by analyzing the CT images before each treatment and they must be prepared for re-planning if needed. This study also reveals the urgent need of improving the immobilization methods with APBI when treating with the SAVI applicator.

  15. Cathodoluminescence of shocked quartz at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Michael R.; Anders, Mark H.

    1988-01-01

    Empirical studies have documented an association between rock type and the cathodoluminescence color of constituent quartz grains. Quartz from extrusive igneous sources luminesces uniform pale blue. Quartz from intrusive igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks generally luminesces darker purple-blue, whereas quartz recrystallized under low-grade metamorphic conditions luminesces reddish-brown. Quartz grains in most sandstones luminesce a heterogeneous mixture of these colors because the grains were derived from a variety of ultimate source rocks. If shocked quartz found at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary is volcanic in origin, its cathodoluminescence should be predominantly pale blue. Alternatively, quartz grains derived from bolide impact upon, and ejection of, mixed igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks should luminesce a variety of colors. Grain mounts of sand collected at the K-T boundary horizon from the Clear Creek North site in the Raton Basin, Colorado were examined. Shocked quartz luminesced a variety of colors and very few grains luminesced the pale blue color that is typical of volcanic quartz. It was concluded that the shocked quartz was derived from a petrologically diverse source region without substantial volcanic contribution. Most shocked grains apparently were derived from low-grade metamorphic rocks, with a slightly smaller contribution from high-grade metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks. Rare quartz grains with brown-luminescing rims reflect a minor addition from detrital sedimentary sources. The apparent relative abundances of intrusive (and rare extrusive) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary ultimate source rocks suggested by CL colors of shock-deformed quartz at the K-T boundary is consistent with a crustal/supracrustal origin for the grains.

  16. Measurement and calculation of recoil pressure produced during CO{sub 2} laser interaction with ice

    SciTech Connect

    Semak, V.V.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Maccallum, D.O.; Noble, D.R.; Kanouff, M.P.

    1999-12-09

    Evaporation is a classical physics problem which, because of its significant importance for many engineering applications, has drawn considerable attention by previous researchers. Classical theoretical models [Ta. I. Frenkel, Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1946] represent evaporation in a simplistic way as the escape of atoms with highest velocities from a potential well with the depth determined by the atomic binding energy. The processes taking place in the gas phase above the rapidly evaporating surface have also been studied in great detail [S.I.Anisimov and V. A. Khokhlov, Instabilities in Lasser-Matter Interaction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995]. The description of evaporation utilizing these models is known to adequately characterize drilling with high beam intensity, e.g., >10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2}. However, the interaction regimes when beam intensity is relatively low, such as during welding or cutting, lack both theoretical and experimental consideration of the evaporation. It was shown recently that if the evaporation is treated in accordance with Anisimov et.al.'s approach, then predicted evaporation recoil should be a substantial factor influencing melt flow and related heat transfer during laser beam welding and cutting. To verify the applicability of this model for low beam intensity interaction, the authors compared the results of measurements and calculations of recoil pressure generated during laser beam irradiation of a target. The target material used was water ice at {minus}10 C. The displacement of a target supported in a nearly frictionless air bearing under irradiation by a defocused laser beam from a 14 kW CO{sub 2} laser was recorded and Newton's laws of motion used to derive the recoil pressure.

  17. Quantification of Massive Seasonal Aggregations of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Stephen M; Tellman, Shari L

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Florida witnesses an enormous seasonal influx of upper trophic level marine predators each year as massive aggregations of migrating blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) overwinter in nearshore waters. The narrow shelf and close proximity of the Gulf Stream current to the Palm Beach County shoreline drive tens of thousands of sharks to the shallow, coastal environment. This natural bottleneck provides a unique opportunity to estimate relative abundance. Over a four year period from 2011-2014, an aerial survey was flown approximately biweekly along the length of Palm Beach County. A high definition video camera and digital still camera mounted out of the airplane window provided a continuous record of the belt transect which extended 200 m seaward from the shoreline between Boca Raton Inlet and Jupiter Inlet. The number of sharks within the survey transect was directly counted from the video. Shark abundance peaked in the winter (January-March) with a maximum in 2011 of 12,128 individuals counted within the 75.6 km(-2) belt transect. This resulted in a maximum density of 803.2 sharks km(-2). By the late spring (April-May), shark abundance had sharply declined to 1.1% of its peak, where it remained until spiking again in January of the following year. Shark abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature and large numbers of sharks were found only when water temperatures were less than 25 °C. Shark abundance was also correlated with day of the year but not with barometric pressure. Although shark abundance was not correlated with photoperiod, the departure of the sharks from southeast Florida occurred around the vernal equinox. The shark migration along the United States eastern seaboard corresponds spatially and temporally with the spawning aggregations of various baitfish species. These baseline abundance data can be compared to future studies to determine if shark population size is changing and if sharks are restricting their southward

  18. A tribute to Charles David Kelman MD: ophthalmologist, inventor and pioneer of phacoemulsification surgery.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suresh K; Milverton, E John; Maloof, Anthony J

    2004-10-01

    Charles David Kelman was born in Brooklyn, New York, USA, on 23 May 1930 and passed away in Boca Raton, Florida, USA, on 1 June 2004 at the age of 74 years after a long battle with cancer. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from Tufts University in 1950 and completed medical studies at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, in 1956. He was Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at New York Medical College and an Attending Surgeon at New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. Although a prolific inventor, he will be best remembered for developing phacoemulsification, following his realization while sitting in a dentist's chair, that ultrasonic vibrations could be used to emulsify the aged crystalline lens through a very small incision. His pioneering work revolutionized cataract surgery. He also pioneered cryo-extraction of cataracts, the use of freezing for the repair of retinal detachments and designed numerous ophthalmic instruments and intraocular lenses. Dr Kelman received numerous awards, including the American Academy of Ophthalmology Achievement Award (1970), the Ridley Medal from the International Congress of Ophthalmology (1990), and the Inventor of the Year Award from The New York Patent, Trademark and Copyright Law Association (1992). Most recently (2003), Dr Kelman was honoured by the American Academy of Ophthalmology with the Laureate Recognition award. Dr Kelman was also an accomplished Broadway producer, composer and jazz saxophonist. With his demise, the ophthalmic and medical community lost a famed inventor with multifaceted talents and one of the great ophthalmologists of the twentieth century.

  19. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    PubMed

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data.

  20. Comparison of optimal design methods in inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, H. T.; Holm, K.; Kappel, F.

    2011-07-01

    Typical optimal design methods for inverse or parameter estimation problems are designed to choose optimal sampling distributions through minimization of a specific cost function related to the resulting error in parameter estimates. It is hoped that the inverse problem will produce parameter estimates with increased accuracy using data collected according to the optimal sampling distribution. Here we formulate the classical optimal design problem in the context of general optimization problems over distributions of sampling times. We present a new Prohorov metric-based theoretical framework that permits one to treat succinctly and rigorously any optimal design criteria based on the Fisher information matrix. A fundamental approximation theory is also included in this framework. A new optimal design, SE-optimal design (standard error optimal design), is then introduced in the context of this framework. We compare this new design criterion with the more traditional D-optimal and E-optimal designs. The optimal sampling distributions from each design are used to compute and compare standard errors; the standard errors for parameters are computed using asymptotic theory or bootstrapping and the optimal mesh. We use three examples to illustrate ideas: the Verhulst-Pearl logistic population model (Banks H T and Tran H T 2009 Mathematical and Experimental Modeling of Physical and Biological Processes (Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC)), the standard harmonic oscillator model (Banks H T and Tran H T 2009) and a popular glucose regulation model (Bergman R N, Ider Y Z, Bowden C R and Cobelli C 1979 Am. J. Physiol. 236 E667-77 De Gaetano A and Arino O 2000 J. Math. Biol. 40 136-68 Toffolo G, Bergman R N, Finegood D T, Bowden C R and Cobelli C 1980 Diabetes 29 979-90).

  1. Effect of clozapine on interval timing and working memory for time in the peak-interval procedure with gaps.

    PubMed

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Meck, Warren H

    2007-02-22

    Previous research indicates that dopamine controls both the speed of an internal clock [Maricq, A.V., Church, R.M., 1983. The differential effects of haloperidol and methamphetamine on time estimation in the rat. Psychopharmacology 79, 10-15] and sharing of resources between the timer and other cognitive processes [Buhusi, C.V., 2003. Dopaminergic mechanisms of interval timing and attention. In: Meck, W.H. (Ed.), Functional and Neural Mechanisms of Interval Timing. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 317-338]. For example, dopamine agonist methamphetamine increases the speed of an internal clock and resets timing after a gap, while dopamine antagonist haloperidol decreases the speed of an internal clock and stops timing during a gap [Buhusi, C.V., Meck, W.H., 2002. Differential effects of methamphetamine and haloperidol on the control of an internal clock. Behav. Neurosci. 116, 291-297]. Using a 20-s peak-interval procedure with gaps we examined the acute effects of clozapine (2.0mg/kg i.p.), which exerts differential effects on dopamine and serotonin in the cortex and striatum, two brain areas involved in interval timing and working memory. Relative to saline, clozapine injections shifted the response functions leftward both in trials with and without gaps, suggesting that clozapine increased the speed of an internal clock and facilitated the maintenance of the pre-gap interval in working memory. These results suggest that clozapine exerts effects in different brain areas in a manner that allows for the pharmacological separation of clock speed and working memory as a function of peak trials without and with gaps.

  2. A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Rachelle K; Klain, Sarah C; Ardoin, Nicole M; Satterfield, Terre; Woodside, Ulalia; Hannahs, Neil; Daily, Gretchen C; Chan, Kai M

    2015-01-01

    Servicios Ambientales Culturales Resumen Los deseos, necesidades y valores no materiales de los accionistas influyen frecuentemente sobre el éxito de los proyectos de conservación. Estas consideraciones son difíciles de articular y caracterizar, lo que resulta en entendimiento limitado en el manejo y la política. Concebimos un protocolo de entrevista diseñado para mejorar el entendimiento de los servicios ambientales culturales (SAC). El protocolo inicia con la discusión de actividades relacionadas con ecosistemas (p. ej.: recreación, cacería) y manejo; después señala a los SAC, dando pie a los valores que encierran conceptos identificados en la Evaluación Ambiental del Milenio (2005) y explorado en otras investigaciones sobre SAC. Hicimos pruebas piloto del protocolo en Hawái y Columbia Británica. En cada localidad entrevistamos a 30 individuos de diversos entornos. Analizamos los resultados de las dos localidades para determinar la efectividad del protocolo de entrevista en la obtención de valores no materiales. Los componentes cualitativos y espaciales del protocolo nos ayudaron a caracterizar los valores culturales, sociales y éticos asociados con el ecosistema de múltiples maneras. Los mapas y las preguntas de situación, o de tipo viñeta, ayudaron a los encuestados a articular valores difíciles de discutir. Las preguntas abiertas permitieron a los encuestados expresar una diversidad de valores ambientales y demostraron ser suficientemente flexibles para que los encuestados comunicaran valores que el protocolo no buscaba explícitamente. Finalmente, los resultados sugieren que ciertos valores, aquellos mencionados frecuentemente en la entrevista, son particularmente prominentes para poblaciones particulares. El protocolo puede proporcionar datos eficientes, contextuales y basados en lugar sobre la importancia de atributos ambientales particulares para el bienestar humano. Los datos cualitativos son complementarios para las evaluaciones cuantitativas y

  3. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Ana; Kustas, William. P.; Anderson, Martha C.; Carrara, Arnaud; Patrocinio Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs, and it is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for his importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). The ecosystem is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with recurrent and severe droughts. Over the last decades the Dehesa has faced multiple environmental threats, derived from intensive agricultural use and socio-economic changes, which have caused environmental degradation of the area, namely reduction in tree density and stocking rates, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al. 2004; Schnabel and Ferreira, 2004; Montoya 1998; Pulido and Díaz, 2005). Understanding the hydrological, atmospheric and physiological processes that affect the functioning of the ecosystem will improve the management and conservation of the Dehesa. One of the key metrics in assessing ecosystem health, particularly in this water-limited environment, is the capability of monitoring evaporation (ET). To make large area assessments requires the use of remote sensing. Thermal-based energy balance techniques that distinguish soil/substrate and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and radiation/turbulent fluxes have proven to be reliable in such semi-arid sparse canopy-cover landscapes. In particular, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. (1995) and Kustas and Norman (1999) has shown to be robust for a wide range of partially-vegetated landscapes. The TSEB formulation is evaluated at a flux tower site located in center Spain (Majadas del Tietar, Caceres). Its application in this environment is

  4. A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Rachelle K; Klain, Sarah C; Ardoin, Nicole M; Satterfield, Terre; Woodside, Ulalia; Hannahs, Neil; Daily, Gretchen C; Chan, Kai M

    2015-01-01

    Servicios Ambientales Culturales Resumen Los deseos, necesidades y valores no materiales de los accionistas influyen frecuentemente sobre el éxito de los proyectos de conservación. Estas consideraciones son difíciles de articular y caracterizar, lo que resulta en entendimiento limitado en el manejo y la política. Concebimos un protocolo de entrevista diseñado para mejorar el entendimiento de los servicios ambientales culturales (SAC). El protocolo inicia con la discusión de actividades relacionadas con ecosistemas (p. ej.: recreación, cacería) y manejo; después señala a los SAC, dando pie a los valores que encierran conceptos identificados en la Evaluación Ambiental del Milenio (2005) y explorado en otras investigaciones sobre SAC. Hicimos pruebas piloto del protocolo en Hawái y Columbia Británica. En cada localidad entrevistamos a 30 individuos de diversos entornos. Analizamos los resultados de las dos localidades para determinar la efectividad del protocolo de entrevista en la obtención de valores no materiales. Los componentes cualitativos y espaciales del protocolo nos ayudaron a caracterizar los valores culturales, sociales y éticos asociados con el ecosistema de múltiples maneras. Los mapas y las preguntas de situación, o de tipo viñeta, ayudaron a los encuestados a articular valores difíciles de discutir. Las preguntas abiertas permitieron a los encuestados expresar una diversidad de valores ambientales y demostraron ser suficientemente flexibles para que los encuestados comunicaran valores que el protocolo no buscaba explícitamente. Finalmente, los resultados sugieren que ciertos valores, aquellos mencionados frecuentemente en la entrevista, son particularmente prominentes para poblaciones particulares. El protocolo puede proporcionar datos eficientes, contextuales y basados en lugar sobre la importancia de atributos ambientales particulares para el bienestar humano. Los datos cualitativos son complementarios para las evaluaciones cuantitativas y

  5. Comparison of fractal dimensions based on segmented NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, C.; Benito, R. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    such complexities from remote sensing images and will applied in this study to see the scaling behavior for each sensor in generalized fractal dimensions. The studied area is located in the provinces of Caceres and Salamanca (east of Iberia Peninsula) with an extension of 32 x 32 km2. The altitude in the area varies from 1,560 to 320 m, comprising natural vegetation in the mountain area (forest and bushes) and agricultural crops in the valleys. Scaling analysis were applied to Landsat-5 and MODIS TERRA to the normalized derived vegetation index (NDVI) on the same region with one day of difference, 13 and 12 of July 2003 respectively. From these images the area of interest was selected obtaining 1024 x 1024 pixels for Landsat image and 128 x 128 pixels for MODIS image. This implies that the resolution for MODIS is 250x250 m. and for Landsat is 30x30 m. From the reflectance data obtained from NIR and RED bands, NDVI was calculated for each image focusing this study on 0.2 to 0.5 ranges of values. Once that both NDVI fields were obtained several fractal dimensions were estimated in each one segmenting the values in 0.20-0.25, 0.25-0.30 and so on to rich 0.45-0.50. In all the scaling analysis the scale size length was expressed in meters, and not in pixels, to make the comparison between both sensors possible. Results are discussed. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish MEC under Projects No. AGL2010-21501/AGR, MTM2009-14621 and i-MATH No. CSD2006-00032

  6. Visceral adiposity influences glucose and glycogen metabolism in control and hyperlipidic-fed animals.

    PubMed

    Kaiser de Souza, Danielle; de Souza, Fabiana A; de Fraga, Luciano Stürmer; Peres Konrad, Signorá; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Martins da Silva, Roselis Silveira; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las evidencias sugieren que la ingesta de grasas, obesidad visceral y lípidos intracelulares están relacionados con resistencia a la acción de la insulina. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue correlacionar la obesidad visceral con alteraciones metabólicas en los animales controles (CTR) y alimentados con la dieta de cafeteria hiperlipidica (CFT). Metodos: Después de 6 meses de tratamiento con dieta, el hígado y lo musculo esqueletico de los ratones se utilizaron para determinar la captación de glucosa y el metabolismo del glucógeno después de la administración de la insulina 0.4 UI/kg in vivo y correlacionar la adiposidad visceral a estos dos parámetros. Resultados: Una amplia gama de respuestas fisiológicas a la composición corporal era encontrado. No se encontraron diferencias en la glucemia y triglicéridos después de la acción de la insulina en ambos grupos, sin embargo CFT grupo acumuló mayor adiposidad, principalmente adiposidad visceral, y mostraron menor contenido de glucógeno en el hígado. También se encontró una correlación inversa entre la adiposidad visceral y la captación de glucosa y una disminución de la forma activa de la enzima glucógeno sintasa en el hígado. Animales CTR demostrado una correlación inversa entre la captación de glucosa y la adiposidad visceral en el músculo. Discusión y conclusiones: Se observó una gran variabilidad de alteraciones metabólicas en los animales que se pueden relacionados con las tasas de acumulación de la adiposidad visceral y la ingestión de grasas dietéticas. Más estudios serán necesarios para aclarar las razones de las alteraciones observadas en el hígado de los animales CFT y las alteraciones musculares en animales CTR.

  7. Geochemistry and Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous/tertiary Boundary Impact Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, Alan Russell

    1992-01-01

    An array of stratigraphic, chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical evidence indicates that an impact terminated the Cretaceous Period. The 180-km-diameter Chicxulub crater, which now lies buried on the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, was probably formed by the impact. The impactor was probably a long-period comet. Shock devolatization of the thick carbonate/evaporite sequence impacted at Chicxulub probably led to a severe and long-lasting greenhouse warming and a prompt pulse of sulfuric acid rain. The fallout of crater ejecta formed two layers: a lower layer which varies in thickness following a power -law relation based on distance from the Chicxulub crater and an upper, globally-distributed, uniformly ~3-mm-thick layer. The upper layer probably represents the fallout of condensates and entrained solid and liquid particles which were distributed globally by the impact fireball. The lower layer consists of brecciated rock and impact melt near the crater and largely altered tektites far from the crater. The clasts of this layer were probably ballistically transported. The Raton, New Mexico K/T boundary section preserves the fireball and ejecta layers in a coal-free nonmarine environment. Siderophile, chalcophile, and lithophile trace element anomalies occur similar to those found at marine K/T boundary localities. Soot occurs peaking in the 3-mm-thick fireball layer and the immediately overlying 3 mm of sediment, implying prompt burning of the Cretaceous forests. The Brazos River, Texas continental-shelf K/T sections preserve coarse boundary sediments which were probably produced by impact waves. Siderophile and chalcophile trace-element anomalies occur suggesting that the fireball layer and possibly part of the ejecta layer are interbedded with the coarse boundary sediments. The Beloc, Haiti deep-sea K/T sections preserve a thick ejecta sequence including altered and unaltered tektites and shocked minerals capped by the fireball layer. The thick K/T ejecta preserved at

  8. Some Factors Controlling the Seismic Hazard due to Earthquakes Induced by Fluid Injection at Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2012-12-01

    The maximum seismic moment (or moment magnitude) is an important measure of the seismic hazard associated with earthquakes induced by deep fluid injection. Although it would be advantageous to be able to predict the induced earthquake outcome, including the maximum seismic moment, of a specified fluid injection project in advance, this capability has, to date, proved to be elusive because the geomechanical and hydrological factors that control the seismic response to injection are too poorly understood. Fortunately, the vast majority of activities involving the injection of fluids into deep aquifers do not cause earthquakes that are large enough to be of any consequence. There have been, however, significant exceptions during the past 50 years, starting with the earthquakes induced by injection of wastewater at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Well, during the 1960s, that caused extensive damage in the Denver, CO, area. Results from numerous case histories of earthquakes induced by injection activities, including wastewater disposal at depth and the development of enhanced geothermal systems, suggest that it may be feasible to estimate bounds on maximum magnitudes based on the volume of injected liquid. For these cases, volumes of injected liquid ranged from approximately 11.5 thousand to 5 million cubic meters and resulted in main shock moment magnitudes from 3.4 to 5.3. Because the maximum seismic moment appears to be linearly proportional to the total volume of injected fluid, this upper bound is expected to increase with time as long as a given injection well remains active. For example, in the Raton Basin, southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, natural gas is produced from an extensive coal bed methane field. The deep injection of wastewater associated with this gas production has induced a sequence of earthquakes starting in August 2001, shortly after the beginning of major injection activities. Most of this seismicity defines a northeast striking plane dipping

  9. Can industry`s `fourth` fossil fuel establish presence in US?

    SciTech Connect

    Armor, A.F.; Dene, C.E.

    1996-09-01

    After five years of commercial experience burning Orimulsion overseas, US utilities are now evaluating the new fuel as a serious alternative to oil. In their relentless drive to remain competitive, electric utilities with oil-fired generating units are searching for lower cost fuel alternatives. Because of high fuel prices, oil-fired units have low capacity factors. Only 23 out of 142 oil-capable units in the US had capacity factors greater than 50% in 1993; the average was a mere 24%. Utility consumption of fuel oil slid from over 600,000 barrels (bbl)/day in 1989 to less than 200,000 bbl/day last year. Orimulsion now fuels nearly 3,000 MW/yr worldwide. The UK`s PowerGen Ltd, currently the world`s largest consumer of Orimulsion, fires some 10-million bbl/yr at two 500-MW units at its Ince plant and three 120-MW units at its Richborough plant. Both plants formerly burned fuel oil, and have been using Orimulsion since 1991. Canada`s New Brunswick Power Corp has fired Orimulsion in two units at its Dalhousie plant since 1994 (Power, April 1995, p 27); one 105-MW unit was originally designed for fuel oil, the other 212-MW unit was designed for coal. Last year, Denmark`s SK Power converted its coal-fired, 700-MW Asnaes Unit 5 to Orimulsion firing. And in the US, Florida Power and Light Co. (FP and L) has signed a 20-yr fuel supply contract with Bitor America Corp (Boca Raton, Fla.), for two 800-MW units at the oil-fired Manatee plant, contingent on securing necessary permits. The Manatee installation (Power, September 1994, p 57) would be the first in the US to burn the fuel. Today, five years after Orimulsion begun to be used commercially, many of the lingering questions involving the new fuel`s handling, transportation, combustion, emissions control, spill control, and waste utilization have been settled. Several US utilities have expressed serious interest in the fuel as an alternative to oil.

  10. Effects of lowering interior canal stages on salt-water intrusion into the shallow aquifer in Southeast Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.

    1975-01-01

    Land in southeast Palm Beach County is undergoing a large-scale change in use, from agricultural to residential. To accommodate residential use, a proposal has been made by developers to the Board of the Lake Worth Drainage District to lower the canal stages in the interior part of the area undergoing change. This report documents one of the possible effects of such lowering. Of particular interest to the Board was whether the lower canal stages would cause an increase in salt-water intrusion into the shallow aquifer along the coast. The two main tools used in the investigation were a digital model for aquifer evaluation and an analytical technique for predicting the movement of the salt-water front in response to a change of ground-water flow into the ocean. The method of investigation consisted of developing a digital ground-water flow model for three east-west test strips. They pass through the northern half of municipal well fields in Lake Worth, Delray Beach, and Boca Raton. The strips were first modeled with no change in interior canal stages. Then they were modeled with a change in canal stages of 2 to 4 feet (0.6 to 1.6 metres). Also, two land development schemes were tested. One was for a continuation of the present level of land development, simulated by continuing the present pumpage rates. The second scheme was for land development to continue until the maximum allowable densities were reached, simulated by increasing the pumping rates. The results of the test runs for an east-west strip through Lake Worth show that lowering part of the interior canal water levels 3 feet (1.0 metre), as done in 1961, does not affect the aquifer head or salt-water intrusion along the coastal area of Lake Worth. As a result, no effect in the coastal area would be expected as a result of canal stage lowering in other, interior parts of the study area. Results from the other test runs show that lowering interior canal water levels by as much as 4 feet (1.2 metres) would

  11. Walter Rowe Courtenay, Jr. (1933–2014)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    WALTER R. COURTENAY, JR., ichthyologist and retired professor, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, died in Gainesville, Florida, on 30 January 2014 at age 80. Walt was born in Neenah, Wisconsin, on 6 November 1933, son of Walter and Emily Courtenay. Walt's interest in fish began at a young age as evidenced by a childhood diary in which at 13 years of age he wrote about his first catch—a two-and-a-half pound “pike” from Lake Winnebago. When Walt turned ten, the family moved from Wisconsin to Nashville, Tennessee, the move precipitated by his father accepting a position as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. During those early days in Nashville, Walt's father would take summers off and travel to Michigan to teach at Camp Miniwanca along the shore of Lake Michigan where father and son honed their angling skills. It was also at that time Walt's father had definite views on what his son should be doing in adult life—in Walt's case it was to become a medical doctor. However, his Woods Hole internship in marine biology and oceanography toward the end of his undergraduate years was a transformative experience for him so much so that he abandoned all ideas of becoming a medical doctor and instead specialized in ichthyology and oceanography. Apart from the inherent interest and opportunities Woods Hole opened to him, being back at the shore of a large body of water, in this case the Atlantic Ocean, was far more interesting than sitting in lectures on organic chemistry. With that, Walt completed his B.A. degree at Vanderbilt University in 1956. In 1960 while in graduate school in Miami, Walt met and married Francine Saporito, and over the next several years had two children, Walter III and Catherine. He went on to receive his M.S. in 1961 from The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami on the systematics of the genus Haemulon (grunts) and his Ph.D. degree in 1965 working under his advisor C. Richard

  12. Direct observations of gas-hydrate formation in natural porous media on the micro-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouachi, M.; Sell, K.; Falenty, A.; Enzmann, F.; Kersten, M.; Pinzer, B.; Saenger, E. H.; Kuhs, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    liquid (and not into the gas phase as sometimes suggested). The observations of the 2D slices after full transformation show for all systems studied that hydrates tend to concentrate in the center of pore spaces and do not adhere in a systematic manner to quartz grains. Whether or not a thin film of water remained at the quartz-GH interface after completion of the reaction is presently under investigation. Sloan, E.D., Koh, C.A., (2008) Clathrate hydrates of natural gases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

  13. Inference of pCO2 Levels during the Late Cretaceous Using Fossil Lauraceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, J. D.; Upchurch, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Botanical estimates of pCO2 for the Late Cretaceous have most commonly used Stomatal Index (SI) in fossil Ginkgo. Recently, SI in fossil Lauraceae has been used to infer changes in pCO2 across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, based on the relation between SI and pCO2 in extant Laurus and Hypodaphnis. To provide a broad-scale picture of pCO2 based on fossil Lauraceae, we examined dispersed cuticle of the leaf macrofossil genus Pandemophyllum from: 1) the early to middle Cenomanian of the Potomac Group of Maryland (Mauldin Mountain locality, lower Zone III) and 2) the Maastrichtian of southern Colorado (Raton Basin, Starkville South and Berwind Canyon localities). These samples fall within the Late Cretaceous decline in pCO2 inferred from geochemical modeling and other proxies. SI was calculated from fossil cuticle fragments using ImageJ and counts of up to 56,000 cells per sample, a far greater number of cells than are counted in most studies. CO2 levels were estimated using the relation between SI and CO2 published for Laurus nobilis and Hypodaphnis zenkeri. Early to middle Cenomanian atmospheric pCO2 is estimated at 362-536 parts per million (ppm). This represents the absolute minimum and maximum estimated CO2 levels from the ±95% confidence intervals (CI) of the relation between SI and CO2 for the modern equivalents, and SI ± 1 Standard Deviation (SD) in the fossil genus Pandemophyllum. Late Maastrichtian atmospheric pCO2 is estimated at 358-534 ppm. The Maastrichtian estimates falls within the range of published estimates from other proxies. The Cenomanian estimate, in contrast, is low relative to most other estimates. The 95% confidence intervals of our pCO2 estimates overlap each other and many of the assemblages published by Barclay et al. (2010) for Lauraceae across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. This could indicate that 1) pCO2 did not undergo a major long-term decline during the Late Cretaceous, 2) Lauraceae show low sensitivity to high pCO2, or 3

  14. Numerical simulation study of polar lows in Russian Arctic: dynamical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verezemskaya, Polina; Baranyuk, Anastasia; Stepanenko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    weather study using satellite passive microwave sensing. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(13), 3347-3350. doi:10.1002/grl.50664 3. V. Sadovnichy, A. Tikhonravov, Vl. Voevodin, and V. Opanasenko "Lomonosov": Supercomputing at Moscow State University. In Contemporary High Performance Computing: From Petascale toward Exascale (Chapman & Hall/CRC Computational Science), pp.283-307, Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press, 2013. 4. B. J. Hoskins, M.E. McIntyre, A.W. Robertson, On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps, Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, OCTOBER 1985, № 470, vol. 111(6).

  15. Impacts on Air Quality due to Photosensitized Production of Excited State O2 (1Δg) by PAHs and Oxy-PAHs in the Lower Atmosphere: An Experimental and Computational Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, G. A.; Carreras-Sospedra, M.; Montoya, J.; Dabdub, D.; Foster, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    -427. 3 Frimer, A. A. (1985), Singlet O2, CRC, Boca Raton, FL.

  16. Effects of the alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist dexefaroxan on neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb of the adult rat in vivo: selective protection against neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Bauer, S; Moyse, E; Jourdan, F; Colpaert, F; Martel, J C; Marien, M

    2003-01-01

    A dysfunction of noradrenergic mechanisms originating in the locus coeruleus has been hypothesised to be the critical factor underlying the evolution of central neurodegenerative diseases [Colpaert FC (1994) Noradrenergic mechanism Parkinson's disease: a theory. In: Noradrenergic mechanisms in Parkinson's disease (Briley M, Marien M, eds) pp 225-254. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press Inc.]. alpha(2)-Adrenoceptor antagonists, presumably in part by facilitating central noradrenergic transmission, afford neuroprotection in vivo in models of cerebral ischaemia, excitotoxicity and devascularization-induced neurodegeneration. The present study utilised the rat olfactory bulb as a model system for examining the effects of the selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist dexefaroxan upon determinants of neurogenesis (proliferation, survival and death) in the adult brain in vivo. Cell proliferation (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labelling) and cell death associated with DNA fragmentation (terminal dideoxynucleotidyl transferase-catalysed 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate nick end-labelling assay) were quantified following a 7-day treatment with either vehicle or dexefaroxan (0.63 mg/kg i.p., three times daily), followed by a 3-day washout period. The number of terminal dideoxynucleotidyl transferase-catalysed 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate nick end-labelling-positive nuclei in the olfactory bulb was lower in dexefaroxan-treated rats, this difference being greatest and significant in the subependymal layer (-52%). In contrast, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-immunoreactive nuclei were more numerous (+68%) in the bulbs of dexefaroxan-treated rats whilst no differences were detected in the proliferating region of the subventricular zone. Terminal dideoxynucleotidyl transferase-catalysed 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate nick end-labelling combination with glial fibrillary acidic protein or neuronal-specific antigen immunohistochemistry revealed that terminal dideoxynucleotidyl transferase

  17. Statistical Analysis of TEC Enhancements during Geomagnetic Disturbances in Extreme Solar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, F.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades, a remarkable set of comprehensive studies and review articles enriched theresearch of the Earth's ionospheric response to geomagnetic disturbances[Prolss, 1995; Buonsanto,1999; Mendillo, 2006]. However, comparative studies of TEC response during geomagnetic disturbances in solar minimum and solar maximum have not been reported yet. Here we present some new results of TEC enhancements during geomagnetic disturbancesin extreme solar maximum and deep solar minimum. The JPL TEC maps from 12/01/2000 to 12/31/2003 during high solar activity and from 01/01/2007 to 12/31/2010 during low solar activity are used. The deviation of TEC is defined as the differences between TEC and TECq, which represents the 27-day sliding smooth median. The geomagnetic disturbances selected have peaks of geomagnetic index Ap>20. We found that the winter anomaly appears in both extreme solar cycle conditions and has longer-lived patterns than other seasons.The nighttime enhancement is more significant in solar maximum than solar minimum. The mean duration of TEC enhancements is longer in solar minimum than solar maximum. The mean delay at the beginning of positive anomaly responds fastest at around 1500 LT and slowest at around midnight during solar minimum.The mean intensity of enhancements is stronger at higher latitudes and weaker at lower latitudes, and the mean delay is smaller at higher latitudes and larger at lower latitudes in both extreme solar cycle conditions. Acknowledgments: Thiswork was supportedby the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 41204107. We thank JPL and Word Data Center for Geomagnetism at Kyoto University for making available the data. Prolss, G. W., Ionospheric F region storms, in Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, vol. 2, edited by H. Volland, pp. 195 - 248, CRC Press,Boca Raton, Fla., 1995. Buonsanto, M., Ionospheric storm: A review,Space Science Review, vol. 88, pp. 563 - 601, 1999. Mendillo, M.: Storms in the

  18. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Costilla Peak area, Taos County, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    This map covers the Big Costilla Peak, New Mex.&nash;Colo. quadrangle and adjacent parts of three other 7.5 minute quadrangles: Amalia, New Mex.–Colo., Latir Peak, New Mex., and Comanche Point, New Mex. The study area is in the southwesternmost part of that segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains known as the Culebra Range; the Taos Range segment lies to the southwest of Costilla Creek and its tributary, Comanche Creek. The map area extends over all but the northernmost part of the Big Costilla horst, a late Cenozoic uplift of Proterozoic (1.7-Ga and less than 1.4-Ga) rocks that is largely surrounded by down-faulted middle to late Cenozoic (about 40 Ma to about 1 Ma) rocks exposed at significantly lower elevations. This horst is bounded on the northwest side by the San Pedro horst and Culebra graben, on the northeast and east sides by the Devils Park graben, and on the southwest side by the (about 30 Ma to about 25 Ma) Latir volcanic field. The area of this volcanic field, at the north end of the Taos Range, has undergone significantly greater extension than the area to the north of Costilla Creek. The horsts and grabens discussed above are all peripheral structures on the eastern flank of the San Luis basin, which is the axial part of the (about 26 Ma to present) Rio Grande rift at the latitude of the map. The Raton Basin lies to the east of the Culebra segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This foreland basin formed during, and is related to, the original uplift of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains which was driven by tectonic contraction of the Laramide (about 70 Ma to about 40 Ma) orogeny. Renewed uplift and structural modification of these mountains has occurred during formation of the Rio Grande rift. Surficial deposits in the study area include alluvial, mass-movement, and glacial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age.

  19. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  20. Multifractal analysis of forest fires in complex regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Orozco, C. D.; Kanevski, M.; Golay, J.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

    2012-04-01

    indicates the scaling of overdense regions and strong singularities, and for q < 0, Dq exhibits the behaviour of small fluctuations (underdense regions) [2]. Multifractal analysis for forest fires in canton Ticino are performed using raw data, the anthropogenic- and natural-caused patterns and the random patterns simulated within the three different support domains. Results of these different patterns are compared. These analyses revealed non-linear behaviour of the generalized dimensions Dq, depicting inhomogeneous nature of the physical fire-ignition conditions as well as the presence of nonlinear interactions between scales. Keywords: forest fires, point process, box counting, fractal dimension, multifractal. [1] Mandelbrot, B. (1982). The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. [2] Seuront, L. (2009). Fractals and Multifractals in Ecology and Aquatic Science. Boca Raton (USA): CRC Press.

  1. THE ACTION OF AVOCADO OIL ON THE LIPIDOGRAM OF WISTAR RATS SUBMITTED TO PROLONGED ANDROGENIC STIMULUM.

    PubMed

    de Souza Abboud, Renato; Alves Pereira, Vivian; Soares da Costa, Carlos Alberto; Teles Boaventura, Gilson; Alves Chagas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: el uso abusivo de hormonas esteroides administradas crónicamente puede ocasionar cambios en el perfil lipídico, lo que lleva a un aumento de LDL y niveles reducidos de HDL. El promedio (53,44%) de la composición de lípidos de la pulpa de aguacate está compuesto por ácido oleico (que es un fitosterol), y el estudio del efecto hipolipemiante de estas sustancias se ha celebrado para la prevención y el control de la dislipemia. Objetivo: evaluar el potencial de reducción de lípidos del aceite de aguacate en ratones Wistar machos adultos sometidos a hiperestimulación androgénica prolongada. Material y métodos: veintiocho ratas se dividieron en 4 grupos de 7 animales: Grupo Control (GC); Grupo de Aceite de Aguacate (GOA), alimentado a base de aceite de aguacate; Grupo Inducido (GI) y el grupo alimentado con base de aceite de aguacate inducida por la dieta (GIOA). La indución fue hecha mediante perdigones de silicona subcutáneos, implantados por cirugía, llenos de 1 ml de propionato de testosterona, que fueron cambiados cada 4 semanas. Resultados: VLDL (GIOA: 28,14 ± 4,45; GI: 36,83 ± 5,56 mg/ml); triglicéridos (GIOA: 140.07 ± 22.66, GI 187: 2 ± 27 mg/ml); HDL (GIOA: 40,67 ± 1,2; GI: 35,09 ± 0,8; GOA: 32,31 ± 2,61 eGC: 32,36 ± 4,93 mg/ml); testosterona (GIOA: 1,42 ± 0,46; GI: 2,14 ± 0,88; GOA: 2,97 ± 1,34 eGC: 1,86 ± 0,79 ng/ml). Conclusión: El aceite de aguacate ha tenido un efecto regulador directo sobre el perfil lipídico, actuando eficazmente en los animales sometidos a estimulación de andrógenos durante períodos prolongados.

  2. The Western North American Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary interval and its content of shock-metamorphosed minerals: Implications concerning the K-T boundary impact-extinction theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izett, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    At 20 sites in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, and at several other sites in Wyoming, Montana, and Canada, a pair of claystone units, an Ir abundance anomaly, and a concentration of shock-metamorphosed minerals mark the palynological K-T boundary. The K-T boundary claystone, which is composed of kaolinite and small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay, is similar in most respects to kaolinite tonstein layers in coal beds. At some, but not all, K-T boundary localities, the boundary claystone contains solid kaolinite and hollow and solid goyazite spherules, 0.05 to 1.2 mm in diameter. The upper unit, the K-T boundary impact layer, consists chiefly of kaolinite and various amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay. The impact layer and boundary claystone are similar chemically, except that the former has slightly more Fe, K, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, V, and Zn than the latter. The facts that the boundary claystone and impact layer contain anomalous amounts of Ir, comprise a stratigraphic couplet at Western North American sites, and form thin, discrete layers, similar to air-fall units (volcanic or impact), suggest that the claystone units are of impact origin. Significantly, the impact layer contains as much as 2 percent clastic mineral grains, about 30 percent of which contain multiple sets of shock lamellae. Only one such concentration of shocked minerals has been found near the K-T boundary. The type of K-T boundary shock-metamorphosed materials (quartzite and metaquartzite) in the impact layer and the lack of shock lamellae in quartz and feldspar of pumice lapilli and granitic xenoliths in air-fall pumice units of silicic tuffs, such as the Bishop Tuff, eliminate the possibility that the shock-metamorphosed minerals in the K-T impact layer are of volcanic origin. The global size distribution and abundance of shock-metamorphosed mineral grains suggest that the K-T impact occurred in North America.

  3. Seismic hazard and risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated in the Moldavian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Popescu, Emilia; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Toma Danila, Dragos; Borleanu, Felix; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldoveanu, Traian

    2016-04-01

    public training for evacuation. The work is supported from PNII/PCCA 2013 Project DARING 69/2014, financed by UEFISCDI, Romania. Bureau GJ (2003) "Dams and appurtenant facilities" Earthquake Engineering Handbook, CRS Press, WF Chen, and C Scawthorn (eds.), Boca Raton, pp. 26.1-26.47. Bureau GJ and Ballentine GD (2002) "A comprehensive seismic vulnerability and loss assessment of the State of Carolina using HAZUS. Part IV: Dam inventory and vulnerability assessment methodology", 7th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, July 21-25, Boston, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA. Moldovan IA, Popescu E, Constantin A (2008), "Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Romania: application for crustal seismic active zones", Romanian Journal of Physics, Vol.53, Nos. 3-4

  4. Influence of plant roots on electrical resistivity measurements of cultivated soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Blanchy, Guillaume; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    . Reference Lobet G, Hachez C, Chaumont F, Javaux M, Draye X. Root water uptake and water flow in the soil-root domain. In: Eshel A and Beeckman T, editors. Plant Roots. The Hidden Half. Boca Raton (US):CRC Press,2013. p. 24-1 - 24-13.

  5. Orimulsion conversion boosts prospects of `fourth` fossil fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This article describes how, by retrofitting a 100-MW oil-fired and a 215-MW coal-fired unit, one utility turned a plant destined for peaking service into a base-load asset with a predictable fuel bill and manageable emissions-even in environmentally sensitive Atlantic Canada. Six years ago, New Brunswick Power Corp (NB Power) found itself on the horns of a dilemma. For years, the utility had been searching for a powerplant fuel with a more stable price than oil, which at the time was fueling one-third of its generating capacity. Buying and burning more domestic coal-even at twice the price of offshore supplies-was the preferred option, because that would also help keep New Brunswick`s coal mines open. But by 1989, federal and provincial legislation had begun to plan for stringent limits on SO{sub 2} emissions that would take the local-coal card out of NB Power`s hand. Containing up to 8% sulfur, New Brunswick coal would be too dirty to burn by itself; emissions from a 200-MW unit would alone use up nearly half of the utility`s system-wide annual quota for SO{sub 2} emissions schedules for imposition in 1994. Enter Bitor America Corp, the Boca Raton (Fla) marketing subsidiary of the world`s third-largest oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PdVSA). Looking to further the fortunes of Orimulsion, a liquid emulsion of bitumen and water from the Orinoco region of Venezuela, Bitor funded and provided technical support for the first large-scale test burn of the fuel in the 100-MW Unit 1 of NB Power`s Dalhousie station in northern New Brunswick. After making the required modifications, NB Power burned Orimulsion in Unit 1 for two years. By 1991, the utility had cleanly converted more than a million barrels of the fuel to nearly half a million megawatt-hours of electricity-in the process finding few reasons not to commit to permanently converting Dalhousie`s Unit 1, as well as coal fired 215-MW Unit 2, to burn Orimulsion.

  6. U-Pb isotopic results for single shocked and polycrystalline zircons record 550-65.5-Ma ages for a K-T target site and 2700-1850-Ma ages for the Sudbury impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The refractory mineral zircon develops distinct morphological features during shock metamorphism and retains these features under conditions that would anneal them in other minerals. In addition, weakly shocked zircon grains give primary ages for the impact site, while highly reconstituted (polycrystalline) single grains give ages that approach the age of the impact event. Data for a series of originally coeval grains will define a mixing line that gives both of these ages providing that no subsequent geological disturbances have overprinted the isotopic systematics. In this study, we have shown that the three zircon grain types described by Bohor, from both K-T distal ejecta (Fireball layer, Raton Basin, Colorado) and the Onaping Formation, represent a progressive increase in impact-related morphological change that coincides with a progressive increase in isotopic resetting in zircons from the ejecta and basement rocks. Unshocked grains are least affected by isotopic resetting while polycrystalline grains are most affected. U-Pb isotopic results for 12 of 14 single zircon grains from the Fireball layer plot on or close to a line recording a primary age of 550 +/- 10 Ma and a secondary age of 65.5 +/- 3 Ma. Data for the least and most shocked grains plot closest to the primary and secondary ages respectively. The two other grains each give ages between 300 and 350 Ma. This implies that the target ejecta was dominated by 550-Ma rocks and that the recrystallization features of the zircon were superimposed during the impact event at 65.5 Ma. A predominant age of 550 Ma for zircons from the Fireball layer provides an excellent opportunity to identify the impact site and to test the hypothesis that multiple impacts occurred at this time. A volcanic origin for the Fireball layer is ruled out by shock-related morphological changes in zircon and the fact that the least shocked grains are old. Basement Levack gneisses north of the Sudbury structure have a primary age of

  7. Influence of plant roots on electrical resistivity measurements of cultivated soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Blanchy, Guillaume; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    . Reference Lobet G, Hachez C, Chaumont F, Javaux M, Draye X. Root water uptake and water flow in the soil-root domain. In: Eshel A and Beeckman T, editors. Plant Roots. The Hidden Half. Boca Raton (US):CRC Press,2013. p. 24-1 - 24-13.

  8. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Applied to Hydrocarbon Resource Development Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Ball, L. B.; Finn, C.; Kass, A.; Thamke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Application of airborne geophysical surveys ranges in scale from detailed site scale such as locating abandoned well casing and saline water plumes to landscape scale for mapping hydrogeologic frameworks pertinent to ground water and tectonic settings relevant to studies of induced seismicity. These topics are important in understanding possible effects of hydrocarbon development on the environment. In addition airborne geophysical surveys can be used in establishing baseline "snapshots", to provide information in beneficial uses of produced waters, and in mapping ground water resources for use in well development. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted airborne geophysical surveys over more than 20 years for applications in energy resource environmental studies. A majority of these surveys are airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys to map subsurface electrical conductivity related to plumes of saline waters and more recently to map hydrogeologic frameworks for ground water and plume migration. AEM surveys have been used in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to characterize the near surface geologic framework for siting produced water disposal ponds and for beneficial utilization in subsurface drip irrigation. A recent AEM survey at the Fort Peck Reservation, Montana, was used to map both shallow plumes from brine pits and surface infrastructure sources and a deeper concealed saline water plume from a failed injection well. Other reported applications have been to map areas geologically favorable for shallow gas that could influence drilling location and design. Airborne magnetic methods have been used to image the location of undocumented abandoned well casings which can serve as conduits to the near surface for coproduced waters. They have also been used in conjunction with geologic framework studies to understand the possible relationships between tectonic features and induced earthquakes in the Raton Basin. Airborne gravity as well as developing deeper

  9. Upregulation of biotransformation genes in gills of oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed in situ to urban effluents, Florianópolis Bay, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessatti, Tomás B; Lüchmann, Karim H; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia C; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2016-09-01

    The release of untreated sanitary sewage, combined with unplanned urban growth, are major factors contributing to degradation of coastal ecosystems in developing countries, including Brazil. Sanitary sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals that can negatively affect aquatic organisms. The use of molecular biomarkers can help to understand and to monitor the biological effects elicited by contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in transcript levels of genes related to xenobiotic biotransformation in the gills of oysters Crassostrea brasiliana transplanted and kept for 24h at three areas potentially contaminated by sanitary sewage (Bücheller river, BUC; Biguaçu river, BIG; and Ratones island, RAT), one farming area (Sambaqui beach, SAM) and at one reference site (Forte beach, FOR) in the North Bay of Santa Catarina Island (Florianópolis, Brazil). Transcript levels of four cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP3A-like, CYP356A1-like and CYP20A1-like), three glutathione S-transferase (GST alpha-like, GST pi-like and GST microsomal 3-like) and one sulfotransferase gene (SULT-like) were evaluated by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Chemical analysis of the sediment from each site were performed and revealed the presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and fecal sterols in the contaminated areas (BUC and BIG). Water quality analysis showed that these sites had the highest levels of fecal coliforms and other parameters evidencing the presence of urban sewage discharges. Among the results for gene transcription, CYP2AU1 and SULT-like levels were upregulated by 20 and 50-fold, respectively, in the oysters kept for 24h at the most contaminated site (BUC), suggesting a role of these genes in the detoxification of organic pollutants. These data reinforce that gills possibly have an important role in xenobiotic metabolism and highlight the use of C. brasiliana as a sentinel for monitoring

  10. [IN VIVO EFFECT OF RED WINE UNDILUTED, DILUTED (75%) AND ALCOHOL-FREE ON THE GENOTOXIC DAMAGE INDUCED BY POTENTIAL CARCINOGENIC METALS: CHROMIUM [VI

    PubMed

    García Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Mateos Nava, Rodrigo Aníbal; Altamirano Lozano, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la carcinogénesis puede ser iniciada y promovida por el daño oxidativo al ADN. Los compuestos de cromo (Cr) [VI] generan estrés oxidativo (EOx) y son reconocidos como cancerígenos en humanos. En este sentido, se plantea que bebidas que presentan un alto potencial antioxidante, como el vino tinto, pudieran tener efectos protectores o moduladores del daño oxidativo al ADN. Objetivo: estudiar los efectos de la administración in vivo de vino tinto sin diluir, diluido (75%) y sin alcohol, sobre el daño genotóxico inducido por metales cancerígenos (Cr [VI]), mediante la evaluación de micronúcleos (MN) en eritrocitos policromáticos (EPC) de ratones (CD-1). Material y método: se conformaron aleatoriamente los siguientes grupos: (i) testigo, (ii) vino tinto sin diluir, diluido o sin alcohol (libre acceso), (iii) CrO3 (20 mg/kg por vía intraperitoneal) y (iv) vino tinto-CrO3. Las evaluaciones se realizaron en muestras de sangre obtenidas de la vena caudal, en las que se identificaron los MN en EPC antes, durante y después de los tratamientos. Resultados y discusión: el vino tinto (diluido y sin alcohol) fue capaz de disminuir los promedios de MN inducidos por el CrO3, lo que muestra su capacidad para modular in vivo el daño oxidativo al ADN causado por cancerígenos inductores de EOx. La administración únicamente de vino tinto sin diluir presentó efectos tóxicos. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados generan expectativas sobre el empleo de sustancias como el vino tinto en la protección o modulación del daño genotóxico, lo que podría conducir a su aplicación en los procesos de carcinogénesis y mutagénesis.

  11. Quantification of massive seasonal aggregations of blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida

    DOE PAGES

    Kajiura, Stephen M.; Tellman, Shari L.; Patterson, Heather M.

    2016-03-30

    Southeast Florida witnesses an enormous seasonal influx of upper trophic level marine predators each year as massive aggregations of migrating blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) overwinter in nearshore waters. The narrow shelf and close proximity of the Gulf Stream current to the Palm Beach County shoreline drive tens of thousands of sharks to the shallow, coastal environment. This natural bottleneck provides a unique opportunity to estimate relative abundance. Over a four year period from 2011–2014, an aerial survey was flown approximately biweekly along the length of Palm Beach County. A high definition video camera and digital still camera mounted out ofmore » the airplane window provided a continuous record of the belt transect which extended 200 m seaward from the shoreline between Boca Raton Inlet and Jupiter Inlet. The number of sharks within the survey transect was directly counted from the video. Shark abundance peaked in the winter (January-March) with a maximum in 2011 of 12,128 individuals counted within the 75.6 km-2 belt transect. This resulted in a maximum density of 803.2 sharks km-2. By the late spring (April-May), shark abundance had sharply declined to 1.1% of its peak, where it remained until spiking again in January of the following year. Shark abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature and large numbers of sharks were found only when water temperatures were less than 25°C. Shark abundance was also correlated with day of the year but not with barometric pressure. Although shark abundance was not correlated with photoperiod, the departure of the sharks from southeast Florida occurred around the vernal equinox. The shark migration along the United States eastern seaboard corresponds spatially and temporally with the spawning aggregations of various baitfish species. As a result, these baseline abundance data can be compared to future studies to determine if shark population size is changing and if sharks are restricting

  12. Experimental evaluation of connectivity influence on dispersivity under confined and unconfined radial convergent flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzi, Silvia; Molinari, Antonio; Fallico, Carmine; Pedretti, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    of the presence of preferential flow paths which have been found to strongly control the highest values of the average velocity at the source and affect the resulting longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study showed additional lights on the impact of connectivity on transport and its role to obtain effective measurements of macrodispersion throughout the aquifer under RC transport. Reference: Fernàndez-Garcia D. et al. (2002) Convergent-flow tracer tests in heterogeneous media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 57 129-145. Fischer H. B. (1966) Longitudinal Dispersion in Laboratory and Natural Streams. Technical Rep. KH-R-12, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. Gaspar E. (1987) Modern Trends in Tracer Hydrology, Volume II. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA.

  13. Electromagnetic methods for rapidly characterizing porosity distributions in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer, southern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, G. J.; Comas, X.; Cunningham, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    Gregory J. Mount1, Xavier Comas1, and Kevin J. Cunningham2 1Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 2U.S. Geological Survey, 3110 SW 9th Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33315 Although conventional hydrological techniques of aquifer characterization, which rely on data obtained from boreholes and wells can provide very valuable direct information about porosity, storativity and transmissivity, they are invasive and can often become time consuming and relatively expensive. Near-surface electromagnetic techniques, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), provide indirect measurements of aquifer properties that complement traditional point measurements and provide a laterally continuous subsurface image in an efficient and cost effective manner with a minimal impact on the environment. We investigated the carbonate rocks of the uppermost part (3-5 meters) of the Biscayne aquifer in Everglades National Park to better understand the distribution of karst features that can create concentrated flow of groundwater, nutrients, and contaminants. As the Biscayne aquifer is the primary source of drinking water for millions of people in southern Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade counties, knowledge about these features could create a more complete understanding of a critical natural resource. These macroporous elements contribute to the overall storage, permeability, and transmissivity of the aquifer and for that reason, delineation of their distribution and areal extent should aid in the development of more accurate groundwater flow models. The macroporous elements create numerous hyperbolic diffractions in GPR common offset profiles, and these diffractions are used directly used to estimate two-dimensional (2D) models of electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity in the subsurface. Such models are further contrasted with one-dimensional (1D) velocity models using GPR common mid-point surveys at selected locations. In order to estimate

  14. Upregulation of biotransformation genes in gills of oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed in situ to urban effluents, Florianópolis Bay, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessatti, Tomás B; Lüchmann, Karim H; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia C; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2016-09-01

    The release of untreated sanitary sewage, combined with unplanned urban growth, are major factors contributing to degradation of coastal ecosystems in developing countries, including Brazil. Sanitary sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals that can negatively affect aquatic organisms. The use of molecular biomarkers can help to understand and to monitor the biological effects elicited by contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in transcript levels of genes related to xenobiotic biotransformation in the gills of oysters Crassostrea brasiliana transplanted and kept for 24h at three areas potentially contaminated by sanitary sewage (Bücheller river, BUC; Biguaçu river, BIG; and Ratones island, RAT), one farming area (Sambaqui beach, SAM) and at one reference site (Forte beach, FOR) in the North Bay of Santa Catarina Island (Florianópolis, Brazil). Transcript levels of four cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP3A-like, CYP356A1-like and CYP20A1-like), three glutathione S-transferase (GST alpha-like, GST pi-like and GST microsomal 3-like) and one sulfotransferase gene (SULT-like) were evaluated by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Chemical analysis of the sediment from each site were performed and revealed the presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and fecal sterols in the contaminated areas (BUC and BIG). Water quality analysis showed that these sites had the highest levels of fecal coliforms and other parameters evidencing the presence of urban sewage discharges. Among the results for gene transcription, CYP2AU1 and SULT-like levels were upregulated by 20 and 50-fold, respectively, in the oysters kept for 24h at the most contaminated site (BUC), suggesting a role of these genes in the detoxification of organic pollutants. These data reinforce that gills possibly have an important role in xenobiotic metabolism and highlight the use of C. brasiliana as a sentinel for monitoring

  15. Cancer-Associated Perturbations in Alternative Pre-messenger RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Bell, Brendan; Revil, Timothée; Venables, Julian P; Prinos, Panagiotis; Elela, Sherif Abou; Chabot, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    removed by the spliceosome, other splice junctions are not used systematically, generating the phenomenon of alternative splicing. Alternative splicing is therefore the process by which a single species of pre-mRNA can be matured to produce different mRNA molecules (Fig. 1). Depending on the number and types of alternative splicing events, a pre-mRNA can generate from two to several thousands different mRNAs leading to the production of a corresponding number of proteins. It is now believed that the expression of at least 70 % of human genes is subjected to alternative splicing, implying an enormous contribution to proteomic diversity, and by extension, to the development and the evolution of complex animals. Defects in splicing have been associated with human diseases (Caceres and Kornblihtt, Trends Genet 18(4):186-93, 2002, Cartegni et al., Nat Rev Genet 3(4):285-98, 2002, Pagani and Baralle, Nat Rev Genet 5(5):389-96, 2004), including cancer (Brinkman, Clin Biochem 37(7):584-94, 2004, Venables, Bioessays 28(4):378-86, 2006, Srebrow and Kornblihtt, J Cell Sci 119(Pt 13):2635-2641, 2006, Revil et al., Bull Cancer 93(9):909-919, 2006, Venables, Transworld Res Network, 2006, Pajares et al., Lancet Oncol 8(4):349-57, 2007, Skotheim and Nees, Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:1432-1449, 2007). Numerous studies have now confirmed the existence of specific differences in the alternative splicing profiles between normal and cancer tissues. Although there are a few cases where specific mutations are the primary cause for these changes, global alterations in alternative splicing in cancer cells may be primarily derived from changes in the expression of RNA-binding proteins that control splice site selection. Overall, these cancer-specific differences in alternative splicing offer an immense potential to improve the diagnosis and the prognosis of cancer. This review will focus on the functional impact of cancer-associated alternative splicing variants, the molecular determinants that

  16. Closed-Head TBI Model of Multiple Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Floyd J; Hou, Jiamei; Bose, Prodip K

    2016-01-01

    Successful therapy for TBI disabilities awaits refinement in the understanding of TBI neurobiology, quantitative measurement of treatment-induced incremental changes in recovery trajectories, and effective translation to human TBI using quantitative methods and protocols that were effective to monitor recovery in preclinical models. Details of the specific neurobiology that underlies these injuries and effective quantitation of treatment-induced changes are beginning to emerge utilizing a variety of preclinical and clinical models (for reviews see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Fujimoto et al., Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:365-378, 2004; Cernak, NeuroRx 2:410-422, 2005; Smith et al., J Neurotrauma 22:1485-1502, 2005; Bose et al., J Neurotrauma 30:1177-1191, 2013; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Bose et al., Brain neurotrauma: molecular, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation aspects, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2015)). Preclinical models of TBI, essential for the efficient study of TBI neurobiology, benefit from the setting of controlled injury and optimal opportunities for biometric quantitation of injury and treatment-induced changes in the trajectories of disability. Several preclinical models are currently used, and each offer opportunities for study of different aspects of TBI primary and secondary injuries (for review see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Dixon et al., J Neurotrauma 5:91-104, 1988)). The closed-head, impact-acceleration model of TBI designed by Marmarou et al., 1994 (J Neurosurg 80:291-300, 1994), when used to produce mild to moderate TBI, produces diffuse axonal injuries without significant additional focal injuries of the

  17. Pore scale simulations for the extension of the Darcy-Forchheimer law to shear thinning fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Lince, Federica; Boccardo, Gianluca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    results of flow simulations show the superposition of two contributions to pressure drops: one, strictly related to the non-Newtonian properties of the fluid, dominates at low Reynolds numbers, while a quadratic one, arising at higher Reynolds numbers, is dependent only on the porous medium properties. The results suggest that, for Newtonian flow, the porous medium can be fully described by two macroscopic parameters, namely permeability K and inertial coefficient β. Conversely, for non-Newtonian flow, an additional parameter is required, represented by the shift factor α, which depends on the properties of both porous medium and fluid, which is not easy to be determined in laboratory tests, but can be in turn calculated from 2D or 3D pore-scale flow simulations, following the approach which was adopted in this work. References 1. Sorbie, K.S. Polymer-improved oil recovery; Blackie ; CRC Press: Glasgow, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991. 2. Xue, D.; Sethi, R. Viscoelastic gels of guar and xanthan gum mixtures provide long-term stabilization of iron micro- and nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 2012, 14(11). 3. Bird, R.B.; Armstrong, R.C.; Hassager, O. Dynamics of polymeric liquids. Volume 1. Fluid mechanics; John Wiley and Sons Inc.: New York - NY, 1977. 4. Tosco, T.; Marchisio, D.L.; Lince, F.; Sethi, R. Extension of the Darcy-Forchheimer Law for Shear-Thinning Fluids and Validation via Pore-Scale Flow Simulations. Transport in Porous Media 2013, 96(1), 1-20.

  18. Assessment of CO2 Sequestration and ECBM Potential of U.S. Coalbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Reeves

    2003-03-31

    .S. coalbeds is estimated to be about 90 Gt. Of this, about 38 Gt is in Alaska (even after accounting for high costs associated with this province), 14 Gt is in the Powder River basin, 10 Gt is in the San Juan basin, and 8 Gt is in the Greater Green River basin. By comparison, total CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation plants is currently about 2.2 Gt/year. (2) The ECBM recovery potential associated with this sequestration is estimated to be over 150 Tcf. Of this, 47 Tcf is in Alaska (even after accounting for high costs associated with this province), 20 Tcf is in the Powder River basin, 19 Tcf is in the Greater Green River basin, and 16 Tcf is in the San Juan basin. By comparison, total CBM recoverable resources are currently estimated to be about 170 Tcf. (3) Between 25 and 30 Gt of CO{sub 2} can be sequestered at a profit, and 80-85 Gt can be sequestered at costs of less than $5/ton. These estimates do not include any costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, and only represent geologic sequestration. (4) Several Rocky Mountain basins, including the San Juan, Raton, Powder River and Uinta appear to hold the most favorable conditions for sequestration economics. The Gulf Coast and the Central Appalachian basin also appear to hold promise as economic sequestration targets, depending upon gas prices. (5) In general, the 'non-commercial' areas (those areas outside the main play area that are not expected to produce primary CBM commercially) appear more favorable for sequestration economics than the 'commercial' areas. This is because there is more in-place methane to recover in these settings (the 'commercial' areas having already been largely depleted of methane).

  19. Closed-Head TBI Model of Multiple Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Floyd J; Hou, Jiamei; Bose, Prodip K

    2016-01-01

    Successful therapy for TBI disabilities awaits refinement in the understanding of TBI neurobiology, quantitative measurement of treatment-induced incremental changes in recovery trajectories, and effective translation to human TBI using quantitative methods and protocols that were effective to monitor recovery in preclinical models. Details of the specific neurobiology that underlies these injuries and effective quantitation of treatment-induced changes are beginning to emerge utilizing a variety of preclinical and clinical models (for reviews see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Fujimoto et al., Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:365-378, 2004; Cernak, NeuroRx 2:410-422, 2005; Smith et al., J Neurotrauma 22:1485-1502, 2005; Bose et al., J Neurotrauma 30:1177-1191, 2013; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Bose et al., Brain neurotrauma: molecular, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation aspects, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2015)). Preclinical models of TBI, essential for the efficient study of TBI neurobiology, benefit from the setting of controlled injury and optimal opportunities for biometric quantitation of injury and treatment-induced changes in the trajectories of disability. Several preclinical models are currently used, and each offer opportunities for study of different aspects of TBI primary and secondary injuries (for review see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Dixon et al., J Neurotrauma 5:91-104, 1988)). The closed-head, impact-acceleration model of TBI designed by Marmarou et al., 1994 (J Neurosurg 80:291-300, 1994), when used to produce mild to moderate TBI, produces diffuse axonal injuries without significant additional focal injuries of the

  20. DIETARY RATIOS OF N-6/N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS DURING MATERNAL PREGNANCY AFFECT HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND APOPTOSIS IN MOUSE OFFSPRING.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Sun, Wenfei; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Xia, Lulu; Lu, Yuanyuan; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Qi, Kemin

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: a pesar de que los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 (PUFAs por sus siglas en inglés) desempeñan un papel fundamental en el desarrollo y en las funciones cerebrales, aún no está bien definido el nivel óptimo de PUFAs n-3 ni la ratio óptima de PUFA n-6/n-3 en la dieta materna. En este estudio hemos investigado los efectos de las ratios nutricionales de PUFA n-6/n-3 durante la gestación sobre la neurogénesis y la apoptosis en el cerebro de crías de ratón. Métodos: se alimentó a hembras de ratón C57BL/6J con una de las tres dietas de estudio: ratio alta, media y baja de PUFA n-6/n-3 (15,7:1, 6,3:1, 1,6:1). También se añadió una dieta rica en aceite de pescado con una ratio n-6/n-3 de 1:5,7; como control se empleó una dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3. Los regímenes alimenticios se iniciaron dos meses antes de la concepción de los ratones y continuó durante todo el embarazo. Se detectó la neurogénesis y apoptosis del área hipocampal CA3 en las crías. Resultados: en comparación con la dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3, las dietas con PUFA que contienen n-3, particularmente aquellas con ratios PUFA n-6/n-3 de 6,3:1 y 1,6:1, aumentaron significativamente la fosforilación de histona H3 en la Ser10 (p-H3ser10) y las células calretinina positivas en el área hipocampal CA3 de las crías. Además, se detectó un aumento de la expresión de proteína Bcl2, una reducción de la expresión de proteína Bax, y una reducción de la actividad de caspasa 3, así como de las cifras de células apoptósicas TUNEL en las tres dietas, con ratios altas, medias y bajas de PUFA n-6/n-3. Sin embargo, no se observó diferencias en ninguno de estos parámetros entre el grupo de dieta rica en aceite de pescado y el grupo de dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3. Conclusiones: estos datos sugieren que una ingesta más elevada de PUFA n-3 con una ratio más baja de PUFAs n-6/n-3 entre 6:1 y 1:1 aproximadamente, administrada a las madres durante la gestación, podría ser

  1. Supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): results of animal bioassays published in the general literature in 1993 to 1994 and by the National Toxicology Program in 1995 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Gold, L S; Manley, N B; Slone, T H; Rohrbach, L

    1999-08-01

    experiment even though the doses were not toxic. Among chemicals carcinogenic in both monkeys and rodents, there is some support for target site concordance, but it is primarily restricted to liver tumors. Potency values are highly correlated between rodents and monkeys. The plot in this paper can be used in conjunction with the earlier results published in the CRC Handbook of Carcinogenic Potency and Genotoxicity Databases [Gold LS, Zeiger E, eds. Boca Raton FL:CRC Press, 1997] and with our web site (http://potency.berkeley.edu), which includes a guide to the plot of the database, a complete description of the numerical index of carcinogenic potency (TD50), and a discussion of the sources of data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. Two summary tables permit easy access to the literature of animal cancer tests by target organ and by chemical. For readers using the CPDB extensively, a combined plot on diskette or other format is available from the first author. It includes all results published earlier and in this paper, ordered alphabetically by chemical. A SAS database is also available.

  2. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles. All of these questions are important in trying to understand human health impacts. More information on climate change, soils, and human health issues can be found in Brevik (2012). References Brevik, E.C. 2012. Climate change, soils, and human health. In: E.C. Brevik and L. Burgess (Eds). Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. pp. 1-18. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds). Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  3. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    their effort and support of our endeavour. References [1] Young T 1805 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 95 65 [2] Lucas R 1918 Kolloidn. Zh. 23 15 [3] Washburn E W 1921 Phys. Rev. 17 273 [4] de Gennes P G 1985 Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 827 [5] Ralston J, Popescu M and Sedev R 2008 Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.38 23 [6] High Temperature Capillarity Focus Issue 2005 Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 9 149-254 [7] Starov V M, Velarde M G and Radke C J 2007 Wetting and Spreading Dynamics (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) [8] Golub J 2008 Phys. Today 61 8 [9] Homsby G M (ed) 2008 Multimedia Fluid Mechanics 2nd edn (New York: Cambridge University Press) (Also see www.efluids.com)

  4. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    ., Wan, X.S., Nuth, M., Davis, J., Ko, Y.-H., Sayers, C.M., Baran, M., Ware, J.H. and Kennedy, A.R. Dietary antioxidants protect hematopoietic cells and improve animal survival following total body irradiation. Radiation Res. (in press) [9] Kennedy, A.R., Davis, J.G., Carlton, W. and Ware, J.H. Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation on the development of malignancies and other neoplastic lesions in mice exposed to proton or iron ion radiation. Radiation Res. (submitted) [10] Kennedy, A.R. The Status of Human Trials Utilizing Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate from Soybeans. In: Soy in Health and Disease Prevention, edited by Michihiro Sugano, CRC Press Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, Chapter 12, pp. 207-223, 2005. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; This work was supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58.

  5. The Impact of Afforestation on the Carbon Stocks of Mineral Soils Across the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    conifer, broadleaf, and mixed (broadleaf and conifer) and soil type: brown earth, podzol, brown podzolic, gley and brown earth. The paired plot method involves selecting a second site that represents the same soil type and physical characteristics as the forest site. The only difference between the two sites should be the current land-use of the pair site, which should represent the pre-afforestation land-use of the forest site. Each forest site and its pair site will be sampled in the top 30 cm of soil for bulk density and organic carbon %, while litter and F/H layer samples will be taken and analysed for carbon. This data should provide an analysis of the carbon stocks of the soil and litter of both the forest site and its pair site allowing for comparison and thus the impact of afforestation on carbon stocks. References. Byrne, K.A., & Milne, R. (2006). Carbon stocks and sequestration in plantation forests in the Republic of Ireland. Forestry, 79, no. 4: 361. Davis, M.R., & Condron, L.M. (2002). Impact of grassland afforestation on soil carbon in New Zealand: a review of paired-site studies. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 40, no. 4: 675-690. Kyoto Protocol. 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1, Decision 1/CP.3, Annex 7. UN. National Forest Inventory: NFI Methodology. (2007). Forest Service, The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Wexford, Ireland. Pilcher, J.R. & Mac an tSaoir, S. (1995). Wood, Trees and Forests in Ireland. (Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Renou, F. & Farrell, E.P. (2005). Reclaiming peatlands for forestry: the Irish experience. In: Stanturf, J.A. and Madsen, P.A. (eds.). Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton. p.541-557. UNFCCC. 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Palais des Nations, Geneva. http://www.unfccc.de/index.html

  6. Books Noted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Edward J.

    1999-10-01

    The Colloidal Domain: Where Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Technology Meet, 2nd edition

    D. Fennell Evans and Hakan Wennerstroem. Advances in Interfacial Engineering Series. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xl + 632 pp. ISBN 0-471-24247-0. 89.95.

    Commercial Nuclear Power: Assuring Safety for the Future

    Charles B. Ramsey and Mohammed Modarres. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1998. xxviii + 508 pp. ISBN 0-471-29186-2. 79.95.

    Advances in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 4

    Bruce E. Maryanoff and Allen B. Reitz, Eds. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. ISBN 1-7623-0064-7. 109.50.

    Advances in Strained and Interesting Organic Molecules, Vol. 7

    Brian Halton, Ed. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. xii + 259 pp. ISBN 0-7623-0530-4. 109.50.

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Vol. 6

    Patrick S. Mariano, Ed. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. x + 171 pp. ISBN 0-7623-0213-5. 109.50.

    Automating Science and Engineering Laboratories with Visual Basic

    Mark F. Russo and Martin M. Echols. Wiley-Interscience Series on Laboratory Automation. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xx + 355 pp. ISBN 0-471-25493-2. 49.95.

    Plantwide Process Control

    Kelvin T. Erickson and John L. Hedrick. Wiley Series in Chemical Engineering. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xii + 547 pp. ISBN 0-471-17835-7. 89.95.

    Heme Peroxidases

    H. Brian Dunford. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xiii + 507 pp. ISBN 0-471-24244-6. 195.00.

    Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Wastes

    Stanley E. Manahan. Lewis: Boca Raton, FL, 1999. 318 pp. ISBN 1-56670-381-6. 69.95.

    Reviews in Computational Chemistry, Vol. 13

    Kenny B. Lipkowitz and Donald B. Boyd. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999

  7. PREFACE: Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut

    2010-08-01

    functional theory versus kinetic theory of simple fluids J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364110 [28] Majaniemi S, Provatas N and Nonomura M 2010 Effective model hierarchies for dynamic and static classical density functional theories J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364111 [29] Warshavsky V B and Song X 2010 Perturbation theory for solid-liquid interfacial free energies J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364112 [30] Rosenfeld Y, Schmidt M, Löwen H and Tarazona P 1997 Phys. Rev. E 55 4245 [31] Roth R, Evans R, Lang A and Kahl G 2002 J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14 12063 [32] Tarazona P, Cuesta J A and Martinez-Raton Y 2008 Density Functional Theories of Hard Particle Systems (Springer Lecture Notes in Physics vol 753) (Berlin: Springer) p 247 [33] Roth R 2010 J. Phys: Condens. Matter 22 063102 [34] Schmidt M, Löwen H, Brader J M and Evans R 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1934 [35] Schmidt M, Löwen H, Brader J M and Evans R 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 9353 [36] Hansen-Goos H and Mecke K 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 018302 [37] Esztermann A, Reich H and Schmidt M 2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 011409 [38] Ramakrishnan T V and Yussouff M 1979 Phys. Rev. B 19 2775 [39] Denton A R and Ashcroft N W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 4701 [40] Hasegawa M 1994 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 63 2215 [41] Kol A and Laird B B 1997 Mol. Phys. 90 951 [42] van Teeffelen S, Löwen H and Likos C N 2008 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 404217 [43] van Teeffelen S, Hoffmann N, Likos C N and Löwen H 2006 Europhys. Lett. 75 583 [44] Likos C N, Hoffmann N, Löwen H and Louis A A 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 7681 [45] Curtin W A and Ashcroft N W 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 2775 [46] Likos C N, Németh Z T and Löwen H 1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 10965 [47] Poniewierski A and Holyst R 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 2461 [48] Graf H and Löwen H 1999 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11 1435 [49] Bolhuis P and Frenkel D 1997 J. Chem. Phys. 106 666 [50] Frenkel D, Mulder B M and McTague J P 1984 Phys. Rev. Lett. 52 287 [51] Härtel A and Löwen H 2010 J. Phys

  8. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and their effects, resource sustainability and environmental quality. A general definition of soil quality is the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use. The existence of multiple definitions suggests that the soil quality concept continues to evolve (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Recent attention has focused on the sustainability of human uses of soil, based on concerns that soil quality may be declining (Boehn and Anderson, 1997). We use sustainable to mean that a use or management of soil will sustain human well-being over time. Lal (1995) described the land resources of the world (of which soil is one component) as "finite, fragile, and nonrenewable," and reported that only about 22% (3.26 billion ha) of the total land area on the globe is suitable for cultivation and at present, only about 3% (450 million ha) has a high agricultural production capacity. Because soil is in large but finite supply, and some soil components cannot be renewed within a human time frame, the condition of soils in agriculture and the environment is an issue of global concern (Howard, 1993; FAO, 1997). Concerns include soil losses from erosion, maintaining agricultural productivity and system sustainability, protecting natural areas, and adverse effects of soil contamination on human health (Haberern, 1992; Howard, 1993; Sims et al., 1997). Parr et al. (1992) state, "...soil degradation is the single most destructive force diminishing the world's soil resource base." Soil quality guidelines are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions, relative to a specific use." Increasingly, contemporary discussion of soil quality includes the environmental cost of production and the potential for reclamation of degraded soils (Várallyay, 2005). Reasons for assessing soil quality in an agricultural or managed system may be somewhat different than reasons for assessing soil quality in a natural ecosystem. In an agricultural context, soil quality may be managed, to maximize production without adverse environmental effect, while in a natural ecosystem, soil quality may be observed, as a baseline value or set of values against which future changes in the system may be compared (Várallyay, 1994; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Soil quality has historically been equated with agricultural productivity, and thus is not a new idea. Soil conservation practices to maintain soil productivity are as old as agriculture itself, with documentation dating to the Roman Empire (Jenny, 1961). The Storie Index (Storie, 1932) and USDA Land Capability Classification (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973) were developed to separate soils into different quality classes. Soil quality is implied in many decisions farmers make about land purchases and management, and in the economic value rural assessors place on agricultural land for purposes of taxation. Beginning in the 1930s, soil productivity ratings were developed in the United States and elsewhere to help farmers select crops and management practices that would maximize production and minimize erosion or other adverse environmental effects (Huddleston, 1984). These rating systems are important predecessors of recent attempts to quantitatively assess soil quality. In the 1970s, attempts were made to identify and protect soils of the highest productive capacity by defining "prime agricultural lands" (Miller, 1979). An idea related to soil quality is "carrying capacity". Carrying capacity is the number of individuals that can be supported in a given area (Budd, 1992). Soils with high productivity have high carrying capacity, and are considered to be high quality. Sustainability implies that a system does not exceed its carrying capacity over time. Recent attempts to define soil quality and develop indices to measure it have many of the properties of the earlier soil productivity ratings (Doran and Jones, 1996; Snakin et al., 1996; Seybold et al., 1997). Cox (1995) calls for national goals for soil quality that "... recognize the inherent links between soil, water and air quality." Haberern (1992) suggests that the decade of the 1990s is the time to study the soil as we have recognized and studied air quality and water quality in the preceding two decades. Air and water quality standards are generally based on maximum allowable concentrations of materials hazardous to human health. They are specified and enforced by regulators according to public uses of these resources. The result is that changes in air and water quality are now monitored to protect human health. With few exceptions, soil quality standards have not been set, nor have regulations been created regarding maintenance of soil quality (Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). To the extent that soil has been the disposal site of hazardous wastes, as well as a pathway by which contamination or other applied chemicals may present a human health risk, sporadic 40 regulations of soil quality (in terms of contamination) does exist in the 27 European Union (EU) countries for not just new ones but an estimated 30 000 existing chemicals, today. These regulations are in the form of laws regulating hazardous waste, toxic substances, and pesticides. However, these standards are often contradictory, inconsistent with each other and with current methods of assessing risk. For example, in the United States, federal regulations supporting CERCLA (40 CFR) is a list of "hazardous substances" and the levels in various media (e.g., soil, water) to which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must respond with a cleanup effort. However, EPA has fielded considerable controversy about contaminant levels and chemical forms that legitimately constitute a human health risk. Target cleanup levels have also been subject to debate and legislation. Soil quality assessment requires definition of a "clean" soil (Sims et al., 1997). From this point of view, good quality soil has been defined as posing "...no harm to any normal use by humans, plants or animals; not adversely affecting natural cycles or functions; and not contaminating other components of the environment" (Moen, 1988). The parallel to air and water quality is easy to draw on a conceptual level, but designation of soil quality standards is significantly complicated by soil variability and heterogeneity (Smith et al., 1993). Among the authors (Merker, 1956; Odell et al. 1984; Johnston et al., 1986; Reganold et al., 1990; Granatstein and Bezdicek, 1992; Kádár, 1992; Beke et al., 1994; Jenkinson et al., 1994; Schjenning et al., 1994; Murata et al., 1995; Biederbeck et al., 1996; Lindert et al., 1996; Romig et al., 1995; Warkentin, 1995; Carter et al., 1997; Gerzabeck et al., 1997; Seybold et al., 1997; Malcolm, 2000; Várallyay, 2005) and organizations defining soil quality are Larson and Pierce (1991), Karlen et al. (1997). The next section reviews some of the definitions and soil characteristics used to define soil quality. The reader should understand that the definition of soil quality and selection of soil characteristics needed to quantify soil quality are continuing to evolve. For example, Bouma (1989) recognized that an essential problem with definitions that produce carefully limited suitability classes is that empirical decisions must be made to separate the classes along what is essentially a continuum. That is, if soil organic matter is part of a soil quality definition, where on the continuum of soil organic matter content does one draw the line between a high quality and low quality soil? Does high organic matter content always indicate high soil quality? These are non-trivial questions under discussion by the soil science community. Carter et al. (1997) suggest a framework for evaluating soil quality that includes: 1. describing each soil function on which quality is to be based, 2. selecting soil characteristics or properties that influence the capacity of the soil to provide each function, 3. choosing indicators of characteristics that can be measured, and 4. using methods that provide accurate measurement of those indicators. The following soil functions appear frequently in the soil science literature: 1. soil maintains biological activity/productivity (Karlen et al., 1997), serves as medium for plant/crop growth (Arshad and Coen, 1992), supports plant productivity/yield (Arshad and Coen, 1992), supports human/animal health (Karlen et al., 1997); 2. partitions and regulates water/ solute flow through environment (Larson and Pierce, 1991; Arshad and Coen, 1992); 3. serves as an environmental buffer/filter (Larson and Pierce, 1991), maintains environmental quality (Arshad and Ccen, 1992); 4. cycles nutrients, water, energy and other elements through the biosphere (Anderson and Gregorich, 1984). Clearly, these functions are interrelated. Later in this chapter, discussion focuses on the first and third functions (productivity and environmental buffering) as encompassing those aspects of soil quality most debated in the literature. Larson and Pierce (1991) defined soil quality as "the capacity of a soil to function within the ecosystem boundaries and interact positively with the environment external to that ecosystem." Three soil functions are considered essential: provide a medium for plant growth, regulate and partition waterllow through the environment, and serve as an effective environmental filter. Arshad and Coen (1992) define soil quality as "the sustaining capability of a soil to accept, store and recycle water, minerals and energy for production of crops at optimum levels while preserving a healthy environment." They discuss terrain, climate and hydrology as site factors that contribute to soil quality and suggest that socioeconomic factors such as land use, operator and management should be included in a soil quality analysis. This approach is consistent with the FAO approach to land quality analysis (FAO, 1997). Karlen et al. (1992) define soil quality as "the ability of the soil to serve as a natural medium for the growth of plants that sustain human and animal life." Their definition is based on the role of soil quality in the long-term productivity of soil and maintenance of environmental quality. Doran and Parkin (1994) defined soil quality as "the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health." Gregorich et al. (1994) define soil quality as "a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions relative to a specific use" or "the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use." The Soil Science Society of America Ad Hoc Committee on Soil Health proposed that soil quality is "the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation" (Karlen et al., 1997). This definition requires that five functions must be evaluated to describe soil quality: 1. sustaining biological activity, diversity, and productivity; 2. regulating and partitioning water and solute flow; 3. filtering, buffering, degrading, immobilizing and detoxifying organic and inorganic materials, including industrial and municipal byproducts and atmospheric deposition; 4. storing and cycling nutrients and other elements within the earth's biosphere; and 5. providing support of socioeconomic structures and protection for archeological treasures associated with human habitation. No soil is likely to successfully provide all of these functions, some of which occur in natural ecosystems and some of which are the result of human modification. We can summarize by saying that soil quality depends on the extent to which soil functions to benefit humans. Thus, for food production or mediation of contamination, soil quality means the extent to which a soil fulfills the role we have defined for it. Within agriculture, high quality equates to maintenance of high productivity without significant soil or environmental degradation. The Glossary of Soil Science terms produced by the Soil Science Society of America (1996) states that soil quality is an inherent attribute of a soil that is inferred from soil characteristics or indirect observations. To proceed from a dictionary definition to a measure of soil quality, a minimum dataset (MDS) of soil characteristics that represents soil quality must be selected and quantified (Papendick et al., 1995). The MDS may include biological, chemical or physical soil characteristics [Organic matter (OM), Aggregation (A), Bulk density (BD), Depth to hardpan (DH), Electrical conductivity (EC), Fertility (F), Respiration (R), pH, Soil test (ST), Yield (Y), Infiltration (I), Mineralizable nitrogen potential (MNP), Water holding capacity (WHC)]. For agriculture, the measurement of properties should lead to a relatively simple and accurate way to rank soils based on potential plant production without soil degradation. Unfortunately, commonly identified soil quality parameters may not correlate well with yield (Reganold, 1988). In the next section, we consider these four points concerning the selection and quantification of soil characteristics: 1. soil characteristics may be desirable or undesirable, 2. soil renewability involves judgment of the extent to which soil characteristics can be controlled or managed, 3. rates of change in soil characteristics vary, and 4. there may be significant temporal or spatial variation in soil characteristics. Components of soil quality definitions may include desirable and undesirable characteristics. Desirable soil characteristics may either be the presence of a property that benefits soil productivity and/or other important soil functions, or the absence of a property that is detrimental to these functions. A soil characteristic may include a range of values that contributes positively to quality and a range that contributes negatively. Soil pH, for example, may be a positive or negative characteristic depending on its value. Larson and Pierce (1991) suggest that ranges of property values can be defined as optimal, suboptimal or superoptimal. A pH range of 6 to 7.5 is optimal for production of most crops. Outside of this range, pH is suboptimal and soil quality is lower than at the optimal pH range. The complexity of the soil quality concept is illustrated by the fact that the choice of optimal pH range is crop or use dependent. Letey (1985) suggested that identification of a range of water content that is nonlimiting to plant productivity might be a good way of assessing the collective effect of soil physical characteristics that contribute to crop productivity. For soils of decreasing quality, the width of the nonlimiting water range decreases. Undesirable soil characteristics may be either the presence of contaminants or a range of values of soil characteristics that contribute negatively to soil quality. The presence of chemicals that inhibit plant root growth or the absence of nutrients that result in low yields or poor crop quality are examples of undesirable soil characteristics that lower soil quality. The extent to which soil is viewed as a renewable resource shapes our approach to soil quality. "Soil" in this context is the natural, three-dimensional, horizonated individual, not something created by earth moving machinery. For the purpose of assessing human impact on sustainability of soil quality, it may be appropriate to use only those soil properties that are slowly or nonrenewable. Shorter term assessments may be based on those properties that change rapidly and are subject to easy management. Willis and Evans (1977) argued that soil is not renewable over the short term based on studies that suggest that 30 to more than 1,000 years are required to develop 25 mm of surface soil from parent material by natural processes. Jenny (1980) also argued that soil is not renewable over the time scale to which humans relate. Howard (1993) suggests defining soil quality based on undisturbed natural soils and to set quality standards based on changes in soils which cannot be reversed naturally or by ecological approaches. The renewability of soil depends on the soil property considered. For example, once soil depth is reduced by wind or water erosion so that it is too shallow to support crops, it is not renewable within a human or management time frame. Some important soil characteristics are slowly renewable. Organic matter, most nutrients and some physical properties may be renewed through careful long-term management. Certain chemical properties (pH, salinity, N, P, K content) may be altered to a more satisfactory range for agriculture within a growing season or two, while removal of unwanted chemicals may take much longer. No soil property is permanent, but rates and frequency of change vary widely among properties. Soil properties also vary with ecosystem, arguably depending most on climate. In rangelands, for example, temporal variability is high and relatively unpredictable due to the strong dependence of soil properties on soil wetness (Herrick and Whitford, 1995). Variability in soil wetness is not restricted to rangelands and may be an especially important determinant of microbial community structure and function in both irrigated and rainfed agricultural systems. Arnold et al. (1990) suggest that changes in soil properties can be nonsystematic, periodic, or trend. Nonsystematic changes are short term and unpredictable. Periodic are predictable and trend changes tend to be in one direction over time. Carter et al. (1997) distinguish between dynamic soil properties that are most subject to change through human use and are strongly influenced by agronomic practices, and intrinsic or static properties that are not subject to rapid change or management. Examples of dynamic soil characteristics are the size, membership, distribution, and activity of a soil's microbiological community; the soil solution composition, pH, and nutrient ion concentrations, and the exchangeable cation population. Soils respond quickly to changes in conditions such as water content. As a result, the optimal frequency and distribution of soil measurements vary with the property being measured. Soil mineralogy, particle size distribution and soil depth are static soil quality indicators. Although changes occur continuously, they are slow under natural conditions. Organic matter content may be a dynamic variable, but the chemical properties of organic matter may change only over periods on the order of 100 to 1,500 years depending on texture. Soil properties that change quickly present a problem because many measurements are needed to know the average value and to determine if changes in the average indicate improvement or degradation of soil quality. Conversely, properties that change very slowly are insensitive measures of short-term changes in soil quality. Papendick et al. (1995) argue that the MDS required for soil quality analysis includes a mix of "dynamic" and relatively "static" properties. A soil quality assessment must specify area. One could use the pedon (the three-dimensional soil individual) as the unit of measure, or a soil map unit, a landscape, a field or an entire watershed. The choice will depend to some degree on what property is of interest and the spatial variability of the property. Karlen et al. (1997) propose that soil quality can be evaluated at scales ranging from points to regional, national and international. They suggest that the more detailed scales provide an opportunity to "understand" soil quality while larger scale approaches provide interdisciplinary monitoring of soil quality and changes in soil quality. Pennock et al. (1994) discuss scaling up data from discrete sampling points to landscape and regional scales. Soil physical characteristics [Aeration (A), Aggregate stability (AS), Bulk density (BD), Clay mineralogy (CM), Color (C), Consistence (dry (CD), moist (CM), wet (CW)), Depth to root limiting layer (DRLL), Hydraulic conductivity (HC), Oxygen diffusion rate (ODR), Particle size distribution (PSD), Penetration resistence (PR), Pore connectivity (PC), Pore size distribution (PSD), Soil strength (SS), Soil tilth (ST), Structure type (STY), Temperature (T), Total porosity (TP), Water-holding capacity (WHC)] are a necessary part of soil quality assessment because they often cannot be easily improved (Wagenet and Hutson, 1997). Larson and Pierce (1991) summarize the physical indicators of soil quality as those properties that influence crop production by determining: 1. whether a soil can accommodate unobstructed root growth and provide pore space of sufficient size and continuity for root penetration and expansion, 2. the extent to which the soil matrix will resist deformation, and 3. the capacity of soil for water supply and aeration. Factors such as effective rooting depth, porosity or pore size distribution, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, soil strength and particle size distribution capture these soil functions (Malcolm, 2000; Várallyay, 2005). Reganold and Palmer (1995) use texture, color, dry and moist consistence, structure type, a structure index, bulk density of the 0-5 cm zone, penetration resistance of 0 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm zones and topsoil thickness as physical determinants of soil quality. Letey (1994) suggests that structure, texture, bulk density, and profile characteristics affect management practices in agriculture but are not directly related to plant productivity. He proposes that water potential, oxygen diffusion rate, temperature, and mechanical resistance directly affect plant growth, and thus are the best indicators of the physical quality of a soil for production. Soil tilth, a poorly defined term that describes the physical condition of soil, also may be an indicator of a soil's ability to support crops. Farmers may assess soil tilth by kicking a soil clod. More formal measurements to describe soil ti]th include bulk density, porosity, structure, roughness and aggregate characteristics (Karlen et al., 1992). Many of the processes that contribute to soil structure, aggregate stability, bulk density and porosity are not well understood, making soil tilth a difficult parameter to quantify. Soil depth is an easily measured and independent property that provides direct information about a soil's ability to support plants. Effective soil depth is the depth available for roots to explore for water and nutrients. Layers that restrict root growth or water movement include hard rock, naturally dense soil layers such as fragipans, petrocalcic and, petroferric horizons, duripans, and human-induced layers of high bulk density such as plow pans and traffic pans. Effective soil depth is a problem for agricultural use of over 50% of soils in Africa (Eswaran et al., 1997). Soil depth requirements vary with crop or species. Many vegetable crops, for example, are notably shallow rooted while grain crops and some legumes like alfalfa are deep rooted. Variation will be even greater in unmanaged, natural systems. Wheat yield in Colorado was shown to decrease from 2,700 to 1,150 kg ha' over a 60-yr period of cultivation primarily due to decrease in soil depth (Bowman et al., 1990). Assessment of soil quality based on soil chemistry, whether the property is a contaminant or part of a healthy system, requires a sampling protocol, a method of chemical analysis, an understanding of how its chemistry affects biological systems and interacts with mineral forms, methods for location of possible contamination, and standards for soil characterization (Várallyay, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Some soil chemical properties suggested as soil quality indicators are: Base saturation percentage (BSP), Cation exchange capacity (CEC), Contaminant availability (CA), Contaminant concentration (CC), Contaminant mobility (CM), Contaminant presence (CP), Electrical conductivity (EC), ESP, Nutrient cycling rates (NCR), Ph, Plant nutrient availability (PNA), Plant nutrient content (PNC) and SAR. Nutrient availability depends on soil physical and chemical processes, such as weathering and buffering, and properties such as organic matter content, CEC and pH (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). At low and high pH, for example, some nutrients become unavailable to plants and some toxic elements become more available. Larson and Pierce (1991) chose those chemical properties that either inhibit root growth or that affect nutrient supply due to the quantity present or the availability. Reganold and Palmer (1995) used chemical parameters related to nutrient availability as measures of soil quality, including CEC, total N and P, pH and extractable P, S, Ca, Mg and K. Karlen et al. (1992) suggest that total and available plant nutrients, and nutrient cycling rates, should be included in soil quality assessments. Soil properties may be severely compromised by intended or unintended human additions of chemical compounds and soil productivity reduced if unwanted chemicals exceed safe thresholds. Data are required to determine whether or not a site is significantly polluted and if it requires clean-up (Sims et al., 1997). International standard methods have been created to maintain the quality of measurements (Hortensius and Welling, 1996). A difficult determination is the level of each chemical that is considered an ecological risk. Beck et al. (1995) provide a list of levels for organic chemicals adopted by The Netherlands and Canada. EPA uses similar lists for compounds considered hazardous (e.g., 40 CFR). Sims et al. (1997) argue that clean and unclean are two extremes of a continuum and that it is more appropriate to define the physical, chemical and biological state of the soil as acceptable or unacceptable. In The Netherlands, soil quality reference values have been created for heavy metals and organic chemicals based on a linear relationship with soil clay and organic matter content. The Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment has used the maximum of a range of reference values for a given substance as a provisional reference value for good soil quality (Howard, 1993). The focus of many soil quality definitions is soil biology [Organic carbon (OC), Microbial biomass (MB), C and N, Total bacterial biomass (TBB), Total fungal biomass (TFB), Potentially mineralizable N (PMN), Soil respiration (SR), Enzymes (Dehydrogenase, Phosphatase, Arlysulfatase), Biomass C/total organic carbon, Respiration/biomass, Microbial community fingerprinting (MCF), Substrate utilization (SU), Fatty acid analysis (FAA), Nucleic acid analysis (NAA)]. Soil supports a diverse population of organisms, ranging in size from viruses to large mammals, that usually interacts positively with plants and other system components (Paul and Clark, 1996). However, some soil organisms such as nematodes, bacterial and fungal pathogens reduce plant productivity. Many proposed soil quality definitions focus on the presence of beneficial rather than absence of detrimental organisms, although both are critically important. Various measures of microbial community viability have been suggested as measures or indices of soil quality. Community level studies consider species diversity and frequency of occurrence of species. Visser and Parkinson (1992) found that diverse soil microbiological criteria may be used to indicate deteriorating or improving soil quality. They suggested testing the biological criteria for soil quality at three levels: population, community and ecosystem. Microorganisms and microbial communities are dynamic and diverse, making them sensitive to changes in soil conditions (Kennedy and Papendick, 1995). Their populations include fungi, bacteria including actinomycetes, protozoa, and algae. Soil microorganisms form crucial symbiotic relationships with plants, including mycorrhizal infection for P and N acquisition and bacterial infection for fixation of atmospheric N. Authors emphasizing use of biological factors as indicators of soil quality often equate soil quality with relatively dynamic properties such as microbial biomass, microbial respiration, organic matter mineralization and denitrification, and organic matter content (Yakovchenko et al., 1996; Franzluebbers and Arshad, 1997), or soil microbial C, phospholipid analyses and soil enzymes (Gregorich et al., 1997), or total organic C and N (Franco-Vizcaino, 1997). Visser and Parkinson (1992) question the suitability of enzyme assays for microbial activity and soil quality assessments. Waksman (1927), who studied measurements of soil microorganisms that could indicate soil fertility, found that physical and chemical factors as well as soil biology were needed to predict soil fertility. Meso- and macrofauna populations have also been considered as part of soil quality definitions (Berry, 1994). One could choose to use presence or absence of a particular species or population of a particular species as a measure of soil quality. Stork and Eggleton (1992) discuss species richness as a powerful indicator of invertebrate community and soil quality, although determining the number of species is a problem. They suggest that keystone species, taxonomic diversity at the group level, and species richness of several dominant groups of invertebrates can be used as part of a soil quality definition. Measuring soil fauna populations involves decisions about which organisms to measure and how to measure them. An example is the earthworm population, the size of which is frequently mentioned as an important measure of soil quality. Measurement choices include numbers of organisms per volume or weight of soil, number of species, or a combination of numbers of organisms and species. Reganold and Palmer (1995) use total earthworms per square meter, total earthworm weight (g m-') and average individual earthworm weight as biological indicators of soil quality. Measurement of one or more components of the N cycle including ammonification, nitrification and nitrogen fixation, may be used to assess soil fertility and soil quality (Visser and Parkinson, 1992). Presumably, high rates of N turnover may infer a dynamic and healthy soil biological community. In contrast, low soil quality or poor soil health may be inferred from lack of N turnover. The interpretation of N turnover rates is highly dependent on the kinds of substrates added to soils and climate variables such as soil temperature and moisture. One needs to be careful when comparing N turnover rates within soils and among different soils to be sure that the cause of differences is a soil quality parameter and not natural variability. Presence of pesticide residues, for example, may reduce N turnover rate. In such an instance, both the presence of the pesticide and the N turnover rate would be needed to determine that the soil quality had been impaired. Production incorporates use of and need for functioning soil resources in agriculture, and environmental buffering incorporates the direct and indirect effects of human use on ecosystem function and human health (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Worldwide agriculture is the most extensive human land use, and soil characteristics are a critical determinant of agricultural productivity. Agriculture includes irrigated and rainfed cultivated cropland, permanent crops such as orchards and vineyards, irrigated pasture, range, and forestry. Each cropping system has distinct soil and soil management conditions for optimal production. It has been suggested that soil productivity is the net resultant of soil degradation processes and soil conservation practices (Parr et al., 1990). An appropriate definition of soil quality and the criteria necessary to evaluate and monitor soil quality is a step toward "the development of systematic criteria of sustainability". Issues to be considered when discussing soil quality for agriculture include: 1. How are productivity and sustainability related? 2. Is the cropping system in question cultivated or non-cultivated? 3. Is the cropping system in question an irrigated or dryland system? Sustainability of agricultural systems is critical to human welfare and is an a subject of research and debate (Letey, 1994). High productivity and sustainability must be converging goals if the growing human population is to be fed without destroying the resources necessary to produce food. Sustainability implies that a system is at a desirable steady state. Thermodynamically, soil is an open system through which matter and energy flow and a steady state is characterized by a minimum production of entropy (Andiscott, 1995). Ellert et al. (1997) review related literature on ways of assessing soil function on an ecosystem scale, commenting that the complexity and organization of living systems, which seem to defy the second law of thermodynamics (increasing disorder/entropy), may provide a means to broadly assess ecosystem function. The purpose of agriculture is to provide products for human sustenance and by definition is not sustainable unless the nutrients removed in the products are returned to the soil. Many of the arguments about the sustainability of agricultural systems relate to the form in which nutrients are most sustainably returned. No agricultural system will be sustainable in the long run without management that considers nutrient cycling and energy budgets. The more intense the agricultural system, the more energy and resources must be expended to maintain the system. The relative quality of a soil for agriculture can depend on the resources available to farmers. In the United States, resources may be readily available for management of dynamic soil properties such as nutrient or water status. In other countries, farmers may be resource poor, and agricultural systems are generally low input, meaning that large-scale irrigation is absent, use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides is minimal, and high energy, mechanized equipment is not available (Eswaran et a1.,1997). This means, for example, that soil quality for agriculture will be more dependent on climate than if the same soils were part of a highly managed, irrigated system. Similarly, sustainability is more dependent on maintenance of dynamic soil properties because resources may not exist to remedy losses (Várallyay, 2005; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). It is difficult to overstate the importance of irrigation to food production. One-third of the total global harvest of food comes from the 17% (250 million ha) of the world's cropland that is irrigated (Hoffman et al., 1990); three-quarters of which are in developing countries (Tribe, 1994). India, China, the former Soviet Union, the United States and Pakistan have the greatest area of irrigated land. Should soil quality criteria be the same for irrigated and dryland agriculture? Sojka (1996) suggests that the arid and semi-arid soils that support most irrigated agriculture have thin erodible surfaces, characteristics that would classify such soils as having poor quality. Yet under irrigation, they feed much of the world. Without irrigation, for example, in many African soils, moisture stress becomes a significant factor limiting production, and the water-holding capacity of a soil becomes crucial (Eswaran et al., 1997). This suggests that a standard set of criteria based on potential productivity is not a sufficient definition of soil quality. Soils that are not cultivated are a much larger component of agriculture, broadly defined, than those that are cultivated. About 65% of the land in the United States is forest (284 million ha) or range land (312 million ha), with only about 284 million hacultivated (NRC,1994). Herrick and Whitford (1995) suggest that range land soils, which often serve multiple uses, present unique challenges and opportunities for assessing soil quality because spatial and temporal variability are higher than in cropped systems. On range lands and forest lands, food, fiber, timber production, biomass for fuel, wildlife, biodiversity, recreation, and water supply are all potential uses that may have diverse criteria for quality soils. Herrick and Whitford (1995) give the example of a thick O horizon that may be an indicator of good timber production but has no predictive value of soil quality for the rancher. The National Research Council (NRC, 1994) recommends that range land health be determined using three criteria: degree of soil stability and watershed function, integrity of nutrient cycles and energy flows, and presence of functioning recovery mechanisms. Soil erosion by wind and water and infiltration or capture of precipitation were selected as processes that could be used as indicators of soil stability and watershed function. Specific indicators or properties need to be related to these two broad processes. The amount of nutrients available, the speed with which nutrients cycle, and measures of the integrity of energy flow through the system were considered fundamental components of range land health. Finally, the capacity of range land ecosystems to react to change depends on recovery mechanisms that result in capture and cycling of nutrients, capture of energy, conservation of nutrients, energy and water, and resilience to change. Specific indicators include status of vegetation, age class and distribution (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). The evaluation of land quality for forestry is a well-known practice. Indices range from quantitative through semi-quantitative to qualitative. Quantitative evaluations, such as site index, use regression equations to predict tree height at a predetermined tree age based on soil and climate data. Qualitative evaluations assign land to classes based on soil and climate properties. In soil science, the term "buffer" refers collectively to processes that constrain shifts in the dissolved concentration of any ion when it is added to or removed from the soil system (Singer and Munns, 1996). Soils "buffer" nutrients as well as contaminants and other solutes, via sorption to or incorporation into clay and organic materials. The extent to which a soil immobilizes or chemically alters substances that are toxic, thus effectively detoxifying them, reflects "quality" in the sense that humans or other biological components of the system are protected from harm. This is the basis for the European concept of soil quality (Moen, 1988; Siegrist, 1989; Denneman and Robberse, 1990). Lack of soil function in this category is reflected as direct toxicity or as contamination of air or water. Identifying substances that qualify as "contaminants" can be challenging because some, such as nitrates and phosphates, are important plant nutrients as well as potential water pollutants. An example is agricultural runoff containing N03 or soluble P (Yli-Halla et al., 1995). This chapter does not attempt a comprehensive review of research in this area, which is covered in an earlier chapter, but instead presents a few sample articles pertinent to this aspect of soil quality. Holden and Firestone (1997) define soil quality in this context as "the degree to which the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the soil serve to attenuate environmental pollution." Howard (1993) defines the ecological risk of a chemical in the environment as "the probability that a random species in a large community is exposed to a concentration of the chemical greater than its no-effect level." The extent to which a soil is capable of reducing the probability of exposure is a measure of its quality. A well-studied example of a common soil contaminant is Pb (McBride et al., 1997). Although legislated limits may be on a concentration basis in soil (e.g., 500 ftg kg-'), risk assessment techniques have attempted to account for the chemical form of Pb present, as well as the observed relative relationship between the amount of Pb present in soil and blood levels in local residents (Bowers and Gauthier, 1994). Critics have questioned analytical techniques used to determine bioavailable levels of Pb in soil, as well as the degree to which toxicity data account for its chemical fate and ecologically damaging properties (Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Natural variability of soils and variation within a soil series make average values or average background values inadequate for soil quality assessments. In addition, bioaccumulation and toxicity need to be considered when establishing levels of toxicants that may not be exceeded in a "high quality" soil for a given use (Traas et al. 1996). Another example is the effect of heavy metals such as Cr(VI) on soil biological properties. Based on a study of three New Zealand soils of contrasting texture, organic matter content, and CEC, Speir et al. (1995) propose an "ecological dose value" that represents the inhibitory effects of a heavy metal (in this case, Cr(VI)) on the kinetics of soil biological properties, and serves as a generic index for determination of permissible concentration levels for heavy metals in soils. A single soil characteristic is of limited use in evaluating differences in soil quality (Reganold and Palmer, 1995). Using more than one quantitative variable requires some system for combining the measurements into a useful index (Halvorson et al., 1996). The region, crop, or general soil use for which an index was created will likely limit its effectiveness outside the scope of its intended application. Even an index designed only to rate productivity is not likely to be useful for all crops and soils, leading Gersmehl and Brown (1990) to advocate regionally targeted systems. Rice is a good example of a crop requiring significantly different soil properties than other crops. It is a food staple for a large proportion of the world population. Approximately 146 million ha were in rice production in 1989 (FAO, 1989) mainly (90%) in Asia. High quality soils for paddy rice may be poor quality for most other irrigated and dryland crops because they may be saline or sodic, and high in clay with slow infiltration and permeability. These physical and chemical properties often constrain production of other crops. Although they are not reviewed here, various land suitability classifications specifically for rice have been developed since the turn of the century (Dent, 1978). Examples of several soil quality indexing systems are presented in the following sections. To some extent, recent attempts to enumerate the factors of soil quality resemble Jenny's (1941) introduction of the interrelated factors of soil formation. An index is categorized here as nonquantitative if it does not combine evaluated parameters into a numerical index that rates soils along a continuous scale. Examples are the USDA Land Capability Classification and the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Irrigation Suitability. The purpose of the Land Capability Classification (LCC) was to place arable soils into groups based on their ability to sustain common cultivated crops that do not require specialized site conditioning or treatment (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973). Nonarable soils, unsuitable for long-term, sustained cultivation, are grouped according to their ability to support permanent vegetation, and according to the risk of soil damage if mismanaged. The LCC combines three rating values at different levels of abstraction: capability class, subclass, and unit. At the most general level, soils are placed in eight classes according to whether they (a) are capable of producing adapted plants under good management (classes I to N), (b) are capable of producing specialized crops under highly intensive management involving "elaborate practices for soil and water conservation" (classes V to VII), or (c) do not return on-site benefits as a result of management inputs for crops, grasses or trees without major reclamation (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973). The four possible limitations/hazards under the subclass rating are erosion hazard, wetness, rooting zone limitations and climate. The capability unit groups soils that have about the same responses to systems of management and have longtime estimated yields that do not vary by more than 25% under comparable management. The issue of critical limits is a difficult one in soils because of the range of potential uses and the interactions among variables (Arshad and Ccen, 1992). Several studies have shown that lands of higher LCC have higher productivity than lands of lower LCC (Patterson and Mackintosh, 1976; van Vliet et al., 1979; Reganold and Singer, 1984). In a study of 744 alfalfa, corn, cotton, sugar beet and wheat growing fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California, those with LCC ratings between 1 and 3 had significantly lower input/output ratios than fields with ratings between 3.01 and 6 (Reganold and Singer, 1984). This suggests that use of the LCC system provides an economically meaningful assessment of soil quality for agriculture. This was a frequently used system of land evaluation for irrigation in the Western US during the period of rapid expansion of water delivery systems (McRae and Burnham, 1981). It combines social and economic evaluations of the land with soil and other ecological variables to determine if the land has the productive capacity, once irrigated, to repay the investment necessary to bring water to an area. It recognizes the unique importance of irrigation to agriculture and the special qualities of soils that make them irrigable. Quantitative systems result in a numerical index, typically with the highest number being assigned to the best quality soils. Systems may be additive, multiplicative or more complex functions. They have two important advantages over nonquantitative systems: 1. they are easier to use with GIS and other automated data retrieval and display systems, and 2. they typically provide a continuous scale of assessment. No single national system is presently in use but several state or regional systems exist. Although he considered the productivity of the land to be dependent on 32 soil, climate and vegetative properties [Surface conditions: Physiographic position, Slope, Microrelief, Erosion deposition, External drainage, runoff. Soil physical conditions: Soil color, Soil depth, Soil density and porosity, Soil permeability, Soil texture, Stoniness, Soil structure, Soil workability-consistence, Internal drainage, Water-holding capacity, Plant-available water. Soil chemical conditions: Organic matter, Nitrogen, Reaction, Calcium carbonate, bases, Exchange capacity, Salts: Cl, SO Na, Toxicities, e.g., B, Available P, Available K, Minor elements, e.g., Zn, Fe, Fertility. Mineralogical conditions: Mineralogy. Climate: Precipitation Temperature Growing season Winds. Vegetativé cover: Natural vegetation], only nine properties were used in the SIR, because incorporating a greater number of factors made the system unwieldy. The nine factors are soil morphology (A), surface texture (B), slope (C), and six variables (X.) that rate drainage class, sodicity, acidity, erosion, microrelief and fertility; rated from 1% to 100%. These are converted to their decimal value and multiplied together (Storie, 1964). Values for each factor were derived from Storie's experience mapping and evaluating soils in California, and in soil productivity studies in cooperation with the California Agricultural Experiment Station cost-efficiency projects relating to orchard crops, grapes and cotton. In describing the SIR (SIR= [AxBxCxIIXi]x100), Storie (1932, 1964) explicitly mentioned "soil quality". Soils that were deep, had no restricting subsoil horizons, and held water well had the greatest potential for the widest range of crops. The usefulness of the SIR as a soil quality index would be greatest if there was a statistically significant relationship between SIR values and an economic indicator of land value. Reganold and Singer (1984) found that area-weighted average SIR values between 60 and 100 for 744 fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California had lower but statistically insignificant input/output ratios than fields with indices < 60. The lack of statistical significance does not mean that better quality lands could not be farmed at economically lower cost or at higher cost and higher output than the lower quality lands. We productivity index model (PI) was developed to evaluate soil productivity in the top 100 cm, especially with reference to potential productivity loss due to soil erosion (Neill, 1979; Kiniry et al., 1983). The PI model rates soils on the sufficiency for root growth based on potential available water storage capacity, bulk density, aeration, pH, and electrical conductivity. A value from zero to one is assigned to each property describing the importance of that parameter for root development. The product of these five index values is used to describe the fractional sufficiency of any soil layer for root development. Pierce et al. (1983) modified the PI to include the assumption that nutrients were not limiting and that climate, management and plant differences are constant. A number of authors found that it is useful to various degrees (Gantzer and McCarty, 1987; Lindstrom et al., 1992). Parr et al. (1992) suggest that a SQI could take the form of Equation: SQI = f (SP, P, E, H, ER, BD, FQ, MI) where SQI is a function of soil properties (SP), potential productivity (P), environmental factors (E), human and animal health (H), erodibility (ER), biological diversity (BD), food quality and safety (FQ) and management inputs (MI). Determination of the specific measurable indicators of each variable and the interactions among these diverse variables is a daunting task. Moreover, the mathematical method of combining these factors, as well as the resulting value that would indicate a high quality soil, is not specified. The inclusion of variables BD, FQ and MI make this a land quality index as suggested by FAO (1997). Larson and Pierce (1991) defined soil quality (Q) as the state of existence of soil relative to a standard or in terms of a degree of excellence. They argue that defining Q in terms of productivity is too limiting and does not serve us well. Rather, Q is defined as the sum of individual soil qualities q. and expressed as Equation: Q=f(qi ...qn). These authors do not identify the best subset of properties or their functional and quantitative relationship, but do suggest that a MDS should be selected from those soil characteristics in which changes are measurable and relatively rapid (i.e., "dynamic" properties), arguing that it is more important to know about changes in soil quality (dQ) than the magnitude of Q (Larson and Pierce, 1991). Changes in soil quality are a function of changes in soil characteristics (q) over time (t): dQ = f[(qi.t - qit0 )... (qn.t-qnt0)]. If dQ/dt is ≥0, the soil or ecosystem is improving relative to the standard at time to. If dQ/dt <0, soil degradation is occurring. Time zero can be selected to meet management needs or goals. If there is a drastic change in management, time zero can be defined as prior to the change. If a longer time period of comparison is considered more appropriate, properties of an uncultivated or pristine soil could be used. The MDS recommended by Larson and Pierce (1991) includes N mineralization potential or P buffering capacity, total organic C, labile organic C, texture, plant-available water capacity, structure (bulk density is recommended as a surrogate variable), strength, maximum rooting depth, pH and EC. In instances when data are unavailable, pedotransfer functions (Bouma, 1989) can be used to estimate values of soil characteristics. These estimates can then be used as part of the minimum dataset to estimate soil quality or changes in soil quality brought about by management. Although this is a quantitative system, some qualitative judgments are needed to make decisions about changes in soil quality. In particular, interpretation of the meaning of magnitude of changes in a characteristic or the number of characteristics to change from time zero to the time of the measurement is qualitative. The authors do not address how large a change in pH, soil depth, bulk density or organic C represents serious soil degradation, or the values that define soil as high or low quality. Karlen et al. (1994) developed QI based on a 10-year crop residue management study. QI is based on four soil functions: (1) accommodating water entry, (2) retaining and supplying water to plants, (3) resisting degradation, and (4) supporting plant growth. Numerous properties were measured and values normalized based on standard scoring functions. One function is based on the concept that more of a property is better, one that less is better and the third that an optimum is better. Lower threshold values receive a score of zero, upper threshold values receive a score of one, and baseline values receive a score of one-half. Priorities are then assigned to each value. For example, aggregate stability was given the highest weight among factors important in water entry. After normalizing, each value is then multiplied by its weighting factor (wt) and products are summed Equation: QI=qwe (wt) + qwt (wt)+qrd (wt) + qspg (wt). Subscripts refer to the four main functions described earlier. It should also be noted that resisting degradation (rd) and sustaining plant growth (spg) are assigned secondary and tertiary levels of properties that themselves are normalized and weighted before a final value is calculated and incorporated into Equation. The resulting index resulted in values between zero and one. Of the three systems in the study, the one with the highest rate of organic matter return to the soil had the highest index value, and the soil with the lowest had the lowest value. The authors suggest that this demonstrates the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status and change in status of a soil as a function of management. They also suggest that the index and the soil characteristics that go into the index may change as the index is refined (Karlen et al. 1994). Snakin et al. (1996) developed an index of soil degradation that assigns three separate values from one to five reflecting the degree to which a soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are degraded, as well as the rate of degradation. The Canadian soil capability classification system is similar to the older US systems and is quantitative. In a study in southwestern Ontario, Patterson and Mackintosh (1976) found that high gross returns per ha were three times as likely if the productivity index of land, based on the soil capability classification, was between 90 and 100 than if it fell between 80 and 89. Smith et al. (1993) and Halvorson et al. (1996) propose a multiple-variable indicator transform procedure to combine values or ranges of values that represent the best estimate of soil quality. Their system converts measured data values into a single value according to specified criteria. They do not attempt to define soil quality or specify what soil characteristics are to be used. They combine this procedure with kriging to develop maps that indicate the probabilities of meeting a soil quality criterion on a landscape level. Critical threshold values must be known, assumed, or determined in order to separate different soil qualities. Numerous additive productivity rating systems have been developed for specific states, as reviewed by Huddleston (1984). In these systems, soil properties are assigned numerical values according to their expected impact on plant growth. The index is usually calculated as the sum of the values assigned to each property with 100 the maximum value. Huddleston (1984) notes advantages and disadvantages to such a system which are similar to those for many of the soil quality indices previously discussed. Additive systems become complex as the number of factors, cropping systems, and soil and climatic conditions increases. A unique problem of subtractive systems (one in which 100 is the starting point and values are deducted for problem conditions) is that negative values result when multiple factors are less than satisfactory. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils, because soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. It is a compound characteristic that cannot be directly measured. Many definitions of soil quality can be found in the literature and no set of soil characteristics has been universally adopted to quantify definitions. Soil quality is often equated with agricultural productivity and sustainability. An approach toward developing soil quality definitions is one that assesses soil quality in the context of a soil's potential to perform given functions in a system; e.g., maintains productivity, partitions and regulates water and solute flow through an ecosystem, serves as an environmental buffer, and cycles nutrients, water, and energy through the biosphere. Air and water quality standards are usually based on maximum allowable concentrations of materials hazardous to human health. A definition of soil quality based on this concept would encompass only a fraction of the important roles soils play in agriculture and the environment but could be essential to soil remediation. To proceed from a definition to a measure of soil quality, a minimum dataset of soil characteristics that represent soil quality must be selected and quantified. Many soil physical, chemical and biological properties have been suggested to separate soils of different quality. These include desirable and undesirable properties. Desirable soil characteristics may either be the presence of a property that benefits crop productivity and environmental buffering and/or other important soil functions, or the absence of a property that is detrimental to these functions. In particular, absence of contaminants is an important soil quality characteristic. 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