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Sample records for ratones albala caceres

  1. 76 FR 78151 - Special Local Regulations; Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Boca Raton, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Boca Raton Holiday Boat... Waterway in Boca Raton, Florida during the Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade on Saturday, December 17, 2011... information about this year's Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade until November 7, 2011. As a result, the Coast...

  2. Seismic exploration in Raton basin

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Rose, P.R.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration in the Raton basin has delineated complex mountain-front structure in the asymmetric basin, and defined possible basin-centered gas. Exploration has included subsurface and surface geology, remote sensing, and seismic reflection. The Raton basin is a north-south-trending structural basin straddling the Colorado-New Mexico boundary. It is bounded on the west by the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, on the north and northeast by the Wet Mountains and Apishapa arch, and the Sierra Grande uplift on the south and southeast. The basin is asymmetric with transcurrent faulting and thrusting associated with the steeper western flank of the basin. Rocks range from Devonian-Mississippian overlying Precambrian basement to Miocene volcanics associated with the Spanish Peaks. Principal targets include the Entrada, Dakota, Codell, and Trinidad Sandstones and the Purgatoire and Raton Formations. Seismic data include explosive and Vibroseis data. Data quality is good in the basin center and is fair in the thrusted areas. Correlations are difficult from line to line. However, a strike line in the disturbed area would probably be more disrupted by out-of-the-plane reflections than the dip lines would be. Significant stratigraphic changes are seen in both the Trinidad and Dakota intervals. Integrated seismic and geological studies are keys to exploration in the basin. Subsequent work will rely heavily on improved seismic information.

  3. 76 FR 22015 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Municipal Airport/Crews Field, Raton, NM. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management... additional controlled airspace at Raton Municipal Airport/ Crews Field (76 FR 5305) Docket No. FAA-2010-1239... accommodate new RNAV standard instrument approach procedures at Raton Municipal Airport/Crews Field, Raton,...

  4. 76 FR 5305 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Raton Municipal Airport/Crews Field. The FAA... instrument approach procedures at Raton Municipal Airport/Crews Field, Raton, NM. Controlled airspace is... authority as it would establish controlled airspace at Raton Municipal Airport/ Crews Field, Raton, NM....

  5. Raton Basin, Colorado Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in the Raton Basin of Colorado to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred.

  6. Geophysical Investigation of the Raton Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Dane, 1962). The Trinidad Sandstone is composed of arkosic sandstone with thin interbed- ded shale; it intertongues with the shale, coal, and arkosic ...Vermejo Formation. It has a maximum thickness of 1,700 feet and is composed of arkosic sandstone, shale, and coal. The Poison Canyon Formation of...Paleocene age lies unconformably on the Raton Forma- tion. It consists of as much as 2,500 feet of arkosic sandstone, con- glomerate, and thin shale. The

  7. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  8. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  9. Coal bed methane potential of the Raton Mesa coal region, Raton Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tremain, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Raton Mesa coal region of Colorado is an 1100 sq mi area in the western portion of the Raton Basin. Coal rank data, desorption of coal samples, structure mapping on the Trinidad Sandstone, isopach mapping of Vermejo coal beds, coal mine methane emission data, and records of oil and gas tests in the region all define a 179 sq mi area containing 1.56 trillion cubic ft of gas in Vermejo coal beds. These Vermejo coals occur in beds up to 14 ft thick; total coal thicknesses in the Vermejo Formation reach a maximum of 30 ft in the 179 sq mi high potential area. These coals contain up to 514 ft/sup 3/ of gas per ton of coal and are less than 2000 feet below the surface in the high potential area. Currently, 3 wells are being drilled to test these Vermejo coals. 33 references, 26 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Hydraulic Fracturing in Coalbed Methane Development, Raton Basin, Southern Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pioneer Natural Resources has performed hydraulic fractures on 2400 shallow CBM wells in the Raton Basin with no impact to drinking water. This presentation, given by Pioneer Natural Resources, discusses why might be.

  11. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemborg, H. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has gone over pilot testing and entered the development stage which is expected to last several years. The development work is restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide `fairway' centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colorado. At last count, 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin's Raton and Vermejo formation coals.

  12. Cold storage of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' mill olives from super-high density orchards.

    PubMed

    Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez, Ana G; Casanova, Laura; García, José M

    2017-12-15

    The suitability of the cold storage (2°C) of fruit to maintain the quality of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' intended for virgin olive oil extraction was investigated. This temperature was effective in keeping the best commercial category of oil quality in both manually harvested olives and in mechanically harvested 'Manzanilla Cacereña' fruits for 11days. Mechanical harvesting induced significant decreases in oxidative stability and in the main phenolic compounds contents in the oils during cold storage and, only initially, in the total volatiles, regardless of the cultivar considered. However, the contents of volatile esters, associated to fruity flavor, were always higher in the oils from mechanically harvested fruits. 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' oils exhibited higher total volatiles during fruit cold storage, regardless of the harvesting system used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrostratigraphic Framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad Aquifers in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    Exploration for and production of coalbed methane has increased substantially in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States since the 1990s. During 1999-2004, annual production of natural gas (coalbed methane) from the Raton Basin in Las Animas County, Colorado, increased from 28,129,515 to 80,224,130 thousand cubic feet, and the annual volume of ground water coproduced by coalbed methane wells increased from about 949 million gallons to about 2,879 million gallons. Better definition of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad aquifers in the Raton Basin of southern Colorado is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of coalbed methane development on the availability and sustainability of ground-water resources. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study to evaluate the hydrogeology of the Raton Basin in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado. Geostatistical methods were used to map the altitude of and depths to the bottoms and tops (structure) and the apparent thicknesses of the Trinidad Sandstone, the Vermejo Formation, and the Raton Formation in Las Animas County, based on completion reports and drillers' logs from about 1,400 coalbed methane wells in the Raton Basin. There was not enough subsurface control to map the structural surfaces and apparent thicknesses of the aquifers in Huerfano County. Geostatistical methods also were used to map the regional water table in the northern part of Las Animas County, based on reported depth to water from completion reports of water-supply wells. Although these maps were developed to better define the hydrostratigraphic framework, they also can be used to determine the contributing aquifer(s) of existing water wells and to estimate drilling depths of proposed water wells. These maps of the hydrostratigraphic framework could be improved with the addition of measured sections and mapping of geologic contacts at outcrops

  14. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hemborg, H.T.

    1996-11-11

    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has advanced past pilot testing and is entering into a development stage that should stretch out over several years. At last count 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin`s Raton and Vermejo formation coals (Early Paleocene to Latest Maastrichtian). This development work is currently restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide ``fairway`` centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colo., in the headwater area of the Purgatoire River. The paper discusses the companies involved in the basin development, geology of the coal seam, and water disposal from coal seam dewatering.

  15. 75 FR 11936 - Radisys Corporation, Boca Raton, FL; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Radisys Corporation, Boca Raton, FL; Notice of Termination of... Corporation, Boca Raton, Florida. The petitioning worker group is covered by an earlier petition (TA- W-72,784...

  16. Geologic framework of nonmarine cretaceous-tertiary boundary sites, raton basin, new mexico and colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Indium concentrations are anomalously high at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in fluvial sedimentary rocks of the lower part of the Raton Formation at several localities in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. The iridium anomaly is associated with a thin bed of kaolinitic claystone in a discontinuous carbonaceous shale and coal sequence.

  17. The Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Boca Raton, Fla. awarded $30,000 Environmental Justice Small Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - An Environmental Justice Small Grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been awarded to the Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Boca Raton, Fla. for their project titled: Replicable and Scalable Community Climate Resi

  18. Ground-water hydrology of the central Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Geldon, L.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic investigation of the central Raton coal basin indicates that ground water is scarce but sufficient to meet existing demands. Stream alluvium is a productive aquifer, the Cuchara-Poison Canyon and Raton-Vermejo-Trinidad aquifers have smaller yields but greater distribution. Ground water is most abundant on the western side of the area. Although ground water generally is acceptable for human consumption, the quality has deteriorated near coal mines.

  19. Stishovite at the cretaceous-tertiary boundary, raton, new Mexico.

    PubMed

    McHone, J F; Nieman, R A; Lewis, C F; Yates, A M

    1989-03-03

    Stishovite, a dense phase of silica, has become widely accepted as an indicator of terrestrial impact events. Stishovite occurs at several impact structures but has not been found at volcanic sites. Solid-state silicon-29 magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (silicon-29 MAS NMR) and X-ray diffraction of samples from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer at Raton, New Mexico, indicate that stishovite occurs in crystalline mineral grains. Stishovite was indicated by a single, sharp resonance with a chemical shift value of -191.3 ppm, characteristic of silicon in octahedral coordination, that disappeared after heating the sample at 850 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. An X-ray diffraction pattern of HF residuals from the unheated sample displayed more than 120 peaks, most of which correspond to quartz, zircon, rutile, and anatase. Eight unambiguous weak to moderate reflections could be ascribed to d-spacings characteristic of stishovite.

  20. National uranium resource evaluation. Raton Quadrangle New Mexico and Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, B.E.; Griswold, G.B.; Jacobsen, L.C.; Lessard, R.H.

    1980-12-01

    Using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria, the Raton Quadrangle (New Mexico and Colorado) contains one environment favorable for uranium deposits, the permeable arkosic sandstone members of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Sangre de Cristo Formation for either peneconcordant or roll-type deposits. The favorable parts of the Sangre de Cristo lie mostly in the subsurface in the Raton and Las Vegas Basins in the eastern part of the quadrangle. An area in the Costilla Peak Massif was investigated for uranium by determining geochemical anomalies in stream sediments and spring waters. Further work will be required to determine plutonic environment type. Environments unfavorable for uranium deposits include the Ogallala, Raton, and Vermejo Formations, the Trinidad Sandstone, the Pierre Shale, the Colorado Group, the Dakota Sandstone, the Morrison Formation, the Entrada and Glorieta Sandstones, Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks, quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatities, and Tertiary granitic stocks.

  1. Potential for a basin-centered gas accumulation in the Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The Raton Basin appears to contain a significant continuous or basin-centered gas accumulation in sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Trinidad Sandstone and Vermejo Formation and Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Raton Formation. The accumulation is underpressured and occurs at comparatively shallow (<3,500 ft) depths. The sandstones are interbedded with coal beds that are currently being developed for coal-bed methane, and the coals are the likely source for gas found in the sandstones. Based on analogs with other Rocky Mountain basins, relatively water-free production should occur where levels of thermal maturity in the coals exceed a vitrinite reflectance value of 1.1 percent. This level of thermal maturity occurs over much of the central part of the Raton Basin. Because of the shallow depths, some of the accumulation has probably been degraded by surface water invasion.

  2. Raton basin, New Mexico - exploration frontier for fracture reservoirs in Cretaceous shales

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    The Raton basin contains up to 3000 ft (900 m) of marine shale and subordinate carbonate rocks of Cretaceous age, including (in ascending order) the Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Limestone, Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Pierre Shale. Clastic reservoir rocks are sparse in this part of the section and drilling for them in the Raton basin has led to disappointing results. However, brittle siltstone and carbonate-rich interbeds within the Cretaceous shale intervals are capable of providing fracture reservoirs under the right conditions. Carbonate-rich beds of the Greenhorn Limestone and Niobrara Formation appear to be the most widespread and thickest intervals that might develop fracture reservoirs. Siltstone or orthoquartzitic interbeds in the Graneros, Carlile, and Pierre Shales may provide other zones with fracture systems. Hydrocarbon shows have been reported from the Graneros, Greenhorn, Niobrara, and Pierre Formations in the New Mexico parts of the Raton basin. Also, minor gas was produced from the Garcia field near Trinidad, Colorado. Fracturing appears to have enhanced the reservoir characteristics of the Wagon Mound Dakota gas field in the southern part of the basin. Structure contour maps and lithofacies maps showing brittle interbeds in dominantly shaly sequences are the basic tools used in exploration for fracture reservoirs. These maps for the Raton basin indicate numerous exploration targets.

  3. Field guide to the continental Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Nichols, D.J.; ,

    1999-01-01

    This guide consists of three general sections: an introduction that includes discussions of Raton basin stratigraphy and the Cretaceous Tertiary (K-T) boundary; descriptions of the geology along the route from Denver, Colorado, to Raton, New Mexico; and descriptions of several K-T sites in the Raton basin. Much of the information is from previous articles and field guides by the authors together with R. M. Flores and from road logs co-authored with Glenn R. Scott, both of the U.S.Geological Survey.

  4. Ground-water hydrology of the central Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    1989-01-01

    The watersheds of the Purgatoire and Apishapa Rivers contain most of the public coal lands in the Raton Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, investigated the hydrogeology of this area from 1978 to 1982, inventorying 231 wells, 38 springs, and 6 mines, and collecting ground-water samples from 71 sites. The Raton Basin is an asymmetrical trough, containing 10,000 to 25,000 feet of sedimentary rocks that range in age from Pennsylvanian to Eocene. These rocks are intruded by Miocene igneous rocks, covered with Pleistocene and Holocene alluvium on pediments and in stream valleys, and underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Bituminous coal occurs in the Vermejo and Raton Formations of Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Virtually all of the sedimentary rocks transmit water. Stream alluvium is the most productive aquifer. Bedrock aquifers have smaller yields but greater distribution. The principal bedrock aquifers are the Cuchara-Poison Canyon and the Raton-Vermejo-Trinidad. Other formations are nearly impermeable or too deep to be utilized economically. The Cuchara-Poison Canyon aquifer provides small, nonsustainable yields to wells. Sandstone and coal layers in the Raton-Vermejo-Trinidad aquifer provide small, sustainable yields, but many of these beds are lenticular and can be missed easily by wells. Water in alluvium typically is less mineralized than in bedrock but more susceptible to contamination. Sodium and calcium bicarbonate waters predominate in the area, but sodium chloride water commonly occurs in the Cuchara-Poison Canyon aquifer and may occur in the Pierre Shale. Plumes of sulfate-enriched water extend from coal mines into bedrock and alluvial aquifers. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from less than 500 milligrams per liter in calcium bicarbonate water to more than 1,500 milligrams per liter in sulfate and chloride waters. Much of the ground water is hard. Nitrogen is enriched in shallow ground water

  5. Leaf assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jack A.; Upchurch, Garland R.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of leaf megafossil and dispersed leaf cuticle assemblages indicate that major ecologic disruption and high rates of extinction occurred in plant communities at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin. In diversity increase, the early Paleocene vegetational sequence mimics normal short-term ecologic succession, but on a far longer time scale. No difference can be detected between latest Cretaceous and early Paleocene temperatures, but precipitation markedly increased at the boundary. Higher survival rate of deciduous versus evergreen taxa supports occurrence of a brief cold interval (<1 year), as predicted in models of an “impact winter.” PMID:16593859

  6. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  7. Leaf Assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Jack A.; Upchurch, Garland R., Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Analyses of leaf megafossil and dispersed leaf cuticle assemblages indicate that major ecologic disruption and high rates of extinction occurred in plant communities at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin. In diversity increase, the early Paleocene vegetational sequence mimics normal short-term ecologic succession, but on a far longer time scale. No difference can be detected between latest Cretaceous and early Paleocene temperatures, but precipitation markedly increased at the boundary. Higher survival rate of deciduous versus evergreen taxa supports occurrence of a brief cold interval (<1 year), as predicted in models of an “impact winter.”

  8. Fossil Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales) from the Raton Formation, Colorado and New Mexico, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Fleming R.

    1989-01-01

    Fossilized coenobia of the alga Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales) were recovered in palynomorph assemblages from a lower Paleocene mudstone in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Raton Formation of Colorado and New Mexico. This is the first description of fossil Scenedesmus from Tertiary rocks. Two species, Scenedesmus tschudyi sp. nov. and Scenedesmus hanleyi sp. nov., are present in the assemblages. Coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. are characterized by lunate terminal cells and fusiform median cells. As in species of modern Scenedesmus, coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. occur with four or eight cells. Coenobia of S. hanleyi sp. nov. have four oval cells and are smaller than coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. Fossil coenobia of Scenedesmus co-occur with the fossil alga Pediastrum in Raton Formation mudstones. Because these genera co-occur in modern lakes and ponds, the co-occurrence of fossil Scenedesmus and Pediastrum in ancient nonmarine rocks is interpreted to indicate deposition of sediment in freshwater lakes and ponds. ?? 1989.

  9. Controls on natural fracture variability in the Southern Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, Russell G.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Herrin, James M.; Larson, Rich; Lorenz, John Clay; Basinski, Paul M.; Olsson, William Arthur

    2004-07-01

    Natural fractures in Jurassic through Tertiary rock units of the Raton Basin locally contain conjugate shear fractures that are mechanically compatible with associated extension fractures, i.e., they have a bisector to the acute angle that is parallel to the strike of associated extension fractures, normal to the thrust front at the western margin of the basin. Both sets of fractures are therefore interpreted to have formed during Laramide-age thrusting from west to east that formed the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and subsequently the foreland Raton Basin, and that imposed strong east-west compressive stresses onto the strata filling the basin. This pattern is not universal, however. Anomalous NNE-SSW striking fractures locally dominate strata close to the thrust front, and fracture patterns are irregular in strata associated with anticlinal structures within the basin. Of special interest are strike-slip style conjugate shear fractures within Dakota Sandstone outcrops 60 miles to the east of the thrust front. Mohr-Coulomb failure diagrams are utilized to describe how these formed as well as how two distinctly different types of fractures can be formed in the same basin under the same regional tectonic setting and at the same time. The primary controls in this interpretation are simply the mechanical properties of the specific rock units and the depth of burial rather than significant changes in the applied stress.

  10. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  11. Sangre de Cristo Mountains: East flank Culebra range thrust fault and Raton basin prospects, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, E.K.

    1989-09-01

    Drilling in the Stonewall area west of Trinidad confirms seismic evidence of major thrust faulting displacing the surface complex a minimum of 2.5 km (1.5 mi) eastward over the west flank of the Raton basin. There is no direct evidence of this master fault where it apparently intersects the surface in the poorly exposed Pierre Shale section east of the Dakota stonewall. This mountain-to-basin relationship has been established in some of the frontal ranges to the north, but it had not been proven in this part of the Sangre de Cristo. Although commercial hydrocarbons were not found in this test, the structural information provides encouragement for exploration of hidden traps in other sectors of the mountain front.

  12. Abrupt appearance of shocked quartz at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Izett, G.A.; Pillmore, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Unique quartz grains as large as 0.5 mm and having up to 6 sets of closely spaced microfractures (CSM) occur at the palynological K-T boundary at 9 scattered sites from Trinidad, Colorado, south 50 km to Raton, New Mexico. Similar quartz grains at the K-T boundary in Montana and Europe were ascribed a shock-metamorphic origin by B. Bohor and colleagues in 1984-85. In the Raton Basin, quartz grains with CSM are concentrated at the top and base of a 2.5-cm-tick kaolinite bed in a nonmarine sequence of somber-colored sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal. No quartz grains with CSM have yet been found below the K-T bed in the Raton Basin, but a few have been found about 25 cm below the K-T bed at Brownie Butte, Montana. Most quartz grains having CSM are single optical units, but some are compound grains showing sutured boundaries (metaquartzite). Nearly all quartz grains with CSM have refractive indices and birefringence normal for quartz which suggests they formed at not more than 100 kb (low shock); however, a few have n/sub 0/ lowered to 1.538, but have normal birefringence. About half of 100 measured CSM in quartz make an angle of 15-25 degrees with the base (0001). The K-T kaolinite bed in the Raton Basin contains anomalously large amounts of Ir and is possibly coeval with marine, Ir-bearing K-T claystone beds in Europe described in 1980 by W. Alvarez and his associated who suggested they formed when a large bolide struck the Earth causing mass extinction of certain animals and plants. The shocked quartz and metaquartzite at the K-T boundary is compelling evidence that a bolide struck an onland-area of quartz-rich crustal rocks--not in an ocean.

  13. Raton-Clayton Volcanic Field magmatism in the context of the Jemez Lineament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, C. M.; Pontbriand, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Raton-Clayton Volcanic Field (RCVF) was active from 9 Ma to approximately 50 Ka and stretches from Raton, New Mexico in the west to Clayton, New Mexico in the east. The field occurs in the Great Plains at the northeastern end of the Jemez Lineament, a major crustal feature and focus of volcanism that extends southwest to the Colorado Plateau in Arizona and encompasses five other major volcanic fields. Jemez Lineament magmatism is temporally related to Rio Grande Rift magmatism, though it extends NE and SW from the rift itself, and it has been suggested that it represents an ancient crustal suture that serves as a conduit for magmatism occurring beneath the larger region of north and central New Mexico (Magnani et al., 2004, GEOL SOC AM BULL, 116:7/8, pp. 1-6). This study extends our work into the RCVF from prior and ongoing work in the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, where we identified different mantle sources with varying degrees of subduction alteration and we determined some of the crustal processes that contribute to the diversity of magma chemistry and eruptive styles there (e.g., AGU Fall Meeting, abst. #V43D-2884 and #V43D-2883). In the RCVF, we are analyzing multiple phases by electron microprobe and plagioclase phenocrysts and glomerocrysts by LA-ICPMS for Sr isotopes and trace elements. We are undertaking this investigation with the following goals: (1) to evaluate previous magma mixing and crustal assimilation models for Sierra Grande andesites (Zhu, 1995, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Rice University; Hesse, 1999, unpublished M.S. thesis, Northern Arizona University); (2) to evaluate subduction-modified mantle as the source for RCVF basanites (specifically those at Little Grande); and (3) to assess the possible role of deep crustal cumulates in buffering transitional basalts. In the larger context, these data will be used to evaluate the varying degree of subduction-modification and the effect of crustal thickness on magmatism along the Jemez

  14. The 2001-present induced earthquake sequence in the Raton Basin of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Ellsworth, William L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Benz, Harley M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the ongoing seismicity in the Raton Basin and find that the deep injection of wastewater from the coal‐bed methane field is responsible for inducing the majority of the seismicity since 2001. Many lines of evidence indicate that this earthquake sequence was induced by wastewater injection. First, there was a marked increase in seismicity shortly after major fluid injection began in the Raton Basin in 1999. From 1972 through July 2001, there was one M≥4 earthquake in the Raton Basin, whereas 12 occurred between August 2001 and 2013. The statistical likelihood that such a rate change would occur if earthquakes behaved randomly in time is 3.0%. Moreover, this rate change is limited to the area of industrial activity. Earthquake rates remain low in the surrounding area. Second, the vast majority of the seismicity is within 5 km of active disposal wells and is shallow, ranging between 2 and 8 km depth. The two most carefully studied earthquake sequences in 2001 and 2011 have earthquakes within 2 km of high‐volume, high‐injection‐rate wells. Third, injection wells in the area are commonly very high volume and high rate. Two wells adjacent to the August 2011 M 5.3 earthquake injected about 4.9 million cubic meters of wastewater before the earthquake, more than seven times the amount injected at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well that caused damaging earthquakes near Denver, Colorado, in the 1960s. The August 2011 M 5.3 event is the second‐largest earthquake to date for which there is clear evidence that the earthquake sequence was induced by fluid injection.

  15. U-Pb provenance ages of shocked zircons from the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic systematics from analyses of single zircons identify at least two provenance ages, approximately 575 Ma and approximately 330 Ma, for zircons from the impact layer of the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado. These data are a preliminary confirmation of results reported from the same layer. The zircon provenance ages provide a unique signature for identification of the source crater since igneous rocks of these ages (or sedimentary rocks derived from them) must characterize part of the impact stratigraphy.

  16. Mixed regressive-transgressive coastal deposits in Upper Cretaceous prograding sequence, southwest Raton basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Haymes, S.R.; Flores, R.M.

    1988-07-01

    A record of mixed regressive-transgressive deposits of an overall prograding barrier of a deltaic-interdeltaic system is found in the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, Trinidad Sandstone, and Vermejo Formation in the southwest Raton basin, New Mexico. The upper Pierre Shale consists of bioturbated and rippled shales, siltstones, and sandstones that coarsen upward into the Trinidad Sandstone. The Trinidad Sandstone consists of an eastward-pinching lower unit and a westward-pinching upper unit separated by an eastward-pinching tongue of the Vermejo Formation. The lower Trinidad consists of coarsening-upward, bioturbated, hummocky, and planar to trough cross-bedded sandstone in the lower part and fining-upward, planar to trough cross-bedded, parallel-ripple laminated, and rooted sandstone in the upper part. This sandstone represents a regressive wave-influenced, barred beach to shoreface complex. Siltstone, mudstone, carbonaceous shale, and coal beds of the overlying Vermejo tongue represent back-beach swamp and estuarine environments. The upper Trinidad Sandstone is basally erosional and coarsens upward. It consists of multiple scoured bodies of trough and planar cross-bedded and convolute-bedded sandstone. The lower sandstone bodies of this unit are bioturbated and contain Toredo-bored wood. The upper Trinidad Sandstone records a transgressive (backstepping) pulse that resulted in tidal-channel inlet and estuarine environments. This unit merges westward into sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, carbonaceous shale, and coal beds of the Vermejo Formation. Sandstones of the Vermejo are interbedded with and grade into carbonaceous shale and coal, mudstone, and siltstone. Some sandstone beds are lenticular, erosional based, and trough cross-bedded; they fine upward and have parallel and ripple laminations.

  17. Evolution of vegetation and soil nutrients after uranium mining in Los Ratones mine (Cáceres, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, María A; Vera-Tomé, Feliciano; Blanco-Rodríguez, María P; Lozano, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of vegetation structure following mine rehabilitation is rather scarce in the literature. The concentration of long-lived radionuclides of the (238)U series might have harmful effects on living organisms. We studied soil properties and the natural vegetation occurring along a gradient in Los Ratones, an area rehabilitated after uranium mining located in Cáceres, Spain. Soil and vegetation were sampled seasonally and physical and chemical properties of soil were analysed, including natural isotopes of (238)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra and (210)Pb. Species richness, diversity, evenness and plant cover were estimated and correlated in relation to soil physical and chemical variables. The location of the sampling sites along a gradient had a strong explanatory effect on the herbaceous species, as well as the presence of shrubs and trees. Seasonal effects of the four natural isotopes were observed in species richness, species diversity and plant cover; these effects were directly related to the pH values in the soil, this being the soil property that most influences the plant distribution. Vegetation in the studied area resembles that of the surroundings, thus proving that the rehabilitation carried out in Los Ratones mine was successful in terms of understorey cover recovery.

  18. Characteristics of deltaic deposits in the Cretaceous Pierre shale. Trinidad sandstone, and Vermejo formation. Raton Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, R.M.; Tur, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    The depositional models previously described for the regressive sequence of Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, Trinidad Sandstone, and Vermejo Formation lithologies in the Raton Basin, Colorado, indicate to some degree the constructional--and destructional--deltaic characteristics of the sequence. However, the relationships of specific deltaic environments and deltaic abandonment phases to coal accumulation and distribution in the Vermejo Formation are not well understood. Detailed facies analyses of closely spaced measured surface sections in the Trinidad and adjacent areas of Colorado reflect deposition in the river-influenced delta. That this deltaic system was accompanied by abandonment of subdeltas is indicated by a destructional-deltaic facies of heavily bioturbated, carbonaceous sandstones, siltstones, and shales best recorded in the delta front deposits of the Trinidad Sandstone. This destructional-deltaic facies commonly separates overlapped distributary mouth-bar sandstones. Like their modern counterparts in the Mississippi delta system, the abandoned delta-front deposits are affected by wave reworking, as indicated by their mature and clean characteristics, although associated offshore barrier islands apparently were not formed. Perhaps the difference between these modern and ancient deltaic deposits is related to associated basinal processes attendant to a uniformly subsiding system in the highly muddy prodeltaic depositional environment in the Raton Basin. Although abandonment of subdeltas had a limited influence on the characteristics of the Vermejo coal deposits, coal accumulation nevertheless remained primarily controlled by persistent organic sedimentation in interdistributary backswamps.

  19. Geology of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Raton-Springer area, Colfax and Union Counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.R.; Wilcox, R.E.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The most prominent geomorphic features of the Raton-Springer area are the widely distributed volcanic and subvolcanic rock formations, consisting of cinder cones, domes, lava-capped mesas, a domed sill complex, and dikes. Rock compositions range from mafic to salic, and many are alkalic. Rock names used in this report are based on the classification of La Roche and others (1980). Sixteen new K-Ar age determinations and three new fission-track age determinations are given here for selected rocks in this area. Reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Springer and Raton 30 feet x 60 feet quadrangles (September 1980 to May 1982) and preparation of the resulting maps provided much field and laboratory data about the igneous rocks of this part of the Great Plains. No published geologic map or report describes adequately the distribution and character of the alkalic rocks of this area. This report presents new descriptive information on field relations, chemical analyses, and K-Ar ages of igneous rocks in the area with the hope that others will be encouraged to investigate the geology of this interesting area in greater detail.

  20. The 2001 - Present Triggered Seismicity Sequence in the Raton Basin of Southern Colorado/Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, J. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; McGarr, A.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of an earthquake of magnitude (M) 5.3 near Trinidad, CO, on 23 August 2011 renewed interest in the possibility that an earthquake sequence in this region that began in August 2001 is the result of industrial activities. Our investigation of this seismicity, in the Raton Basin of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, led us to conclude that the majority, if not all of the earthquakes since August 2001 have been triggered by the deep injection of wastewater related to the production of natural gas from the coal-bed methane field here. The evidence that this earthquake sequence was triggered by wastewater injection is threefold. First, there was a marked increase in seismicity shortly after major fluid injection began in the Raton Basin. From 1970 through July of 2001, there were five earthquakes of magnitude 3 and larger located in the Raton Basin. In the subsequent 10 years from August of 2001 through the end of 2011, there were 95 earthquakes of magnitude 3 and larger. The statistical likelihood of this rate increase occurring naturally was determined to be 0.01%. Second, the vast majority of the seismicity is located close (within 5km) to active disposal wells in this region. Additionally, this seismicity is primarily shallow, ranging in depth between 2 and 8 km, with the shallowest seismicity occurring within 500 m depth of the injection intervals. Finally, these wells have injected exceptionally high volumes of wastewater. The 23 August 2011 M5.3 earthquake, located adjacent to two high-volume disposal wells, is the largest earthquake to date for which there is compelling evidence of triggering by fluid injection activities; indeed, these two nearly-co-located wells injected about 4.9 million cubic meters of wastewater during the period leading up to the M5.3 earthquake, more than 7 times as much as the disposal well at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal that caused damaging earthquakes in the Denver, CO, region in the 1960s. Much of the seismicity

  1. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  2. Selected climatological and hydrologic data, Raton basin, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.; Abbott, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrology of the coal-bearing Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Data in the report were collected from 1977 to 1982, mainly in the watersheds of the Apishapa and Purgatoire Rivers; data from the Cucharas, Canadian, and Vermejo River watersheds are also included in the report. The report contains records of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, evaporation, and wind movement at U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers meteorological stations; records of soil water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey; records of stream discharge and quality at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations and miscellaneous sites; and a variety of ground-water data. The ground-water data includes records of 231 wells, springs, and mines, including 87 chemical analyses of the water, recorded water levels in 29 observation wells, results of 125 aquifer tests, and 87 logs of wells and test holes. (USGS)

  3. Seismicity in the Raton Basin of Southern Colorado and Northern New Mexico, USA, as Recorded by a Local Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macartney, H.

    2013-12-01

    Microseismic events (Raton Basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, USA, over a period of 18 months following the occurrence of a 5.3 magnitude event near Trinidad CO in August, 2011. Micro-seismicity was observed in the region, concentrated in six clusters at depths of 6-12 km below the surface, deep in the basement, and 4-10 km below zones used for fluid disposal from an overlying coalbed methane natural gas field. Clusters are separated from disposal zones by large aseismic intervals. The clusters are mixed in character; both planar and elongate amorphous swarms, some continually active and some as short-lived bursts, with larger initial events tending to occur deeper and smaller after-shocks propagating upward and away from the nucleating events. Magnitudes range between 0 and 3, with the vast majority being less than 1.5M. Most of the clusters have no disposal wells above and no seismic activity was correlated with changes in fluid disposal. No seismicity was detected from hydraulic fracturing operations.

  4. Seismological and geodetic constraints on the 2011 Mw5.3 Trinidad, Colorado earthquake and induced deformation in the Raton Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Benz, H. M.; Hayes, G. P.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Bergman, E.

    2014-10-01

    The Raton Basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico is an actively produced hydrocarbon basin that has experienced increased seismicity since 2001, including the August 2011 Mw5.3 Trinidad normal faulting event. Following the 2011 earthquake, regional seismic observations were used to relocate 21 events, including the 2011 main shock, two foreshocks, and 13 aftershocks. Additionally, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations of both the 2011 event and preevent basin deformation place constraint on the spatial kinematics of the 2011 event and localized basin subsidence due to ground water or gas withdrawal. We find that the 2011 earthquake ruptured an 8-10 km long segment of a normal fault at depths of 1.5-6.0 km within the crystalline Precambrian basement underlying the Raton Basin sedimentary rocks. The earthquake also nucleated within the crystalline basement in the vicinity of an active wastewater disposal site. The ensuing aftershock sequence demonstrated statistical properties expected for intraplate earthquakes, though the length of the 2011 earthquake is unexpectedly long for an Mw5.3 event, suggesting that wastewater disposal may have triggered a low stress drop, otherwise natural earthquake. Additionally, preevent and postevent seismicity in the Raton Basin spatially correlates to regions of subsidence observed in InSAR time series analysis. While these observations cannot discern a causal link between hydrocarbon production and seismicity, they constrain spatial relationships between active basin deformation and geological and anthropogenic features. Furthermore, the InSAR observations highlight the utility of space-based geodetic observations for monitoring and assessing anthropogenically induced and triggered deformation.

  5. Seismological and geodetic constraints on the 2011 Mw5.3 Trinidad, Colorado earthquake and induced deformation in the Raton Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhart, William D.; Benz, Harley M.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Raton Basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico is an actively produced hydrocarbon basin that has experienced increased seismicity since 2001, including the August 2011 Mw5.3 Trinidad normal faulting event. Following the 2011 earthquake, regional seismic observations were used to relocate 21 events, including the 2011 main shock, two foreshocks, and 13 aftershocks. Additionally, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations of both the 2011 event and preevent basin deformation place constraint on the spatial kinematics of the 2011 event and localized basin subsidence due to ground water or gas withdrawal. We find that the 2011 earthquake ruptured an 8–10 km long segment of a normal fault at depths of 1.5–6.0 km within the crystalline Precambrian basement underlying the Raton Basin sedimentary rocks. The earthquake also nucleated within the crystalline basement in the vicinity of an active wastewater disposal site. The ensuing aftershock sequence demonstrated statistical properties expected for intraplate earthquakes, though the length of the 2011 earthquake is unexpectedly long for an Mw5.3 event, suggesting that wastewater disposal may have triggered a low stress drop, otherwise natural earthquake. Additionally, preevent and postevent seismicity in the Raton Basin spatially correlates to regions of subsidence observed in InSAR time series analysis. While these observations cannot discern a causal link between hydrocarbon production and seismicity, they constrain spatial relationships between active basin deformation and geological and anthropogenic features. Furthermore, the InSAR observations highlight the utility of space-based geodetic observations for monitoring and assessing anthropogenically induced and triggered deformation.

  6. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  7. A case study of waste fluid injection and induced seismicity in the Raton Basin, Trinidad, CO, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M. B.; Ge, S.

    2012-12-01

    Waste fluid injection into rock formations has been speculated to cause seismicity. This study analyzed the link between the injection of fluid waste from coal-bed methane production and recent earthquakes swarms around the town of Trinidad, Colorado, USA. The study area is in a relatively quiescent intraplate zone, located in the Mesozoic sedimentary formations of the Raton Basin. Since 1999, when waste fluid injection began in the vicinity of Trinidad, more than 175 earthquakes of greater than M2.5 have occurred, representing a more than 30-fold increase in the number of earthquakes as compared with the previous 3 decades. The vast majority of earthquake epicenters are located within 5 km of one of the 24 injection wells. Two years after waste fluid injection began, an earthquake swarm occurred on a NE-trending fault structure, but a causal relationship between the fluid injection and swarm could not be definitively made. Earthquakes and injection continued and, in 2011, another earthquake swarm occurred, possibly reactivating the same NE-trending fault structure. Due to the lack of robust spatial seismometer coverage, earthquake hypocentral depths often have significant uncertainties, but could be at depths co-located with injection depths. The link between fluid waste injection and seismicity is characterized by spatial and temporal correlations as well as pore pressure changes sufficient to induce seismicity at depth. Pore pressure calculations were performed using a two-dimensional analytical solution for a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0x10^-7 m/s and storage coefficient of 5.0x10^-5. Reservoir model parameters are representative of the Dakota Sandstone, a fluvial and conglomeratic sandstone sequence, which is the dominant formation for injection. Computed pressure buildup in the aquifer was correlated spatially and temporally to earthquake epicenters. Preliminary results suggest that pore pressure changes in the

  8. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development.

  9. A preliminary evaluation of vertical separation between production intervals of coalbed-methane wells and water-supply wells in the Raton basin, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    The Raton Basin in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico is undergoing increased development of its coalbed-methane resources. Annual production of methane from coalbeds in the Raton Basin in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, increased from about 28,000,000 thousand cubic feet from 478 wells to about 80,000,000 thousand cubic feet from 1,543 wells, during 1999-2004. Annual ground-water withdrawals for coalbed-methane production increased from about 1.45 billion gallons from 480 wells to about 3.64 billion gallons from 1,568 wells, during 1999-2004. Where the coalbeds are deeply buried near the center of the Raton Basin, water pressure may be reduced as much as 250 to 300 pounds per square inch to produce the methane from the coalbeds, which is equivalent to a 577- to 692-foot lowering of water level. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began an evaluation of the potential effects of coalbed- methane production on the availability and sustainability of ground-water resources. In 2003, there were an estimated 1,370 water-supply wells in the Raton Basin in Colorado, and about 90 percent of these water-supply wells were less than 450 feet deep. The tops of the production (perforated) interval of 90 percent of the coalbed-methane wells in the Raton Basin (for which data were available) are deeper than about 675 feet. The potential for interference of coalbed-methane wells with nearby water-supply wells likely is limited because in most areas their respective production intervals are separated by more than a hundred to a few thousand feet of rock. The estimated vertical separation between production intervals of coalbed-methane and water-supply wells is less than 100 feet in an area about 1 to 6 miles west and southwest of Trinidad Lake and a few other isolated areas. It is assumed that in areas with less than 100 feet of vertical separation, production by coalbed-methane wells has a greater

  10. Depositional environments, diagenesis, hydrocarbons: Codell and Juana Lopez members of Carlile shale (upper Cretaceous), Canon City-Raton basins, south-central Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Krutak, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Codell and Juana Lopez strata in the Canon City and northern Raton basins comprise a nearshore marine system which was deposited in a series of barrier islands, lagoon fills, tidal deltas, and offshore bars. Codell thicknesses vary but average 6 m (20 ft). Three areally significant Codell paleoenvironments occur: barrier island, lagoonal, and offshore bar. Juana Lopez rocks are thinner, usually less than 1.8 m (6 ft). Five distinctive lithofacies/paleoenvironments occur in the Juana Lopez: (1) a calcarenite or limy sandstone (tidal flat); (2) a sandstone with limonitized borings (offshore bar complex); (3) a shaly to massive sandstone sequence (subaerial beach/dune ); (4) a sandy limestone or biosparite (lagoonal/bay molluscan biostromes); and (5) a sandy shale (offshore bar sequence). These deposits accumulated along a northeastward-trending coast that prograded southeastward in response to a gradual drop in sea level. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopy study reveals the following diagenetic sequence in the Codell Sandstone: (1) modification by authigenic, syntaxial quartz overgrowths; (2) chert cementation; (3) dissolution episodes causing corrosion of quartz, chert, and feldspar; (4) calcite cementation; (5) late-stage limonitization; and, in rare instances, (6) dehydration of limonite to hematite. Diagenetic changes in the Juana Lopez Member involve minor dolomitization, precipitation of calcite rim cement, and limonitic staining. Stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbons occur in bioturbated, relict shelf Codell sandstones in the west-central portion of the Denver basin. Valley-fill( ) Codell sandstones of the northern Denver basin are generally tight but do produce. Juana Lopez calcarenites and fetid biosparities may lack commercial hydrocarbons.

  11. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, L

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO(2) from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N(2)O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-), but the concentration of NO(3)(-) was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  12. Improved Lg attenuations maps in the central U.S.-Rocky Mountain transition zone: New insight from induced seismicity in Oklahoma, Kansas, and the Raton Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdelHameid, D.; Levandowski, W. B.; Boyd, O. S.; McNamara, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Regional-scale differences in seismic attenuation exist across the continental United States, and it is well established that attenuation of Lg-phase waves is greater west of the Rocky Mountains than east of the Rocky Mountains. Yet there is less clarity in defining the transition in attenuation, as few near-field strong motion observations have been available in the central United States. A recent abundance of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, southern Kansas, and the Raton Basin have provided unprecedented coverage. Utilizing Lg-phase waves recorded at regional distances (200-1500 km) at 300 seismic stations from Oklahoma to central Nevada, we compute the path-averaged apparent Q, source terms, and local amplification factors at one-octave frequency bands centered at 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 Hz. Amplification correlates better with km-scale topographic relief than local slope on the Great Plains and Gulf Coast, and is generally greater east of the Rocky Mountain Front than west. We do not observe any difference between magnitude-source term scaling for induced events and for natural seismicity, suggesting that either source term is not a proxy for stress drop or that the stress drops of induced events are not lower than for natural events. Subsequently subdividing the study area into distinct physiographic regions, we quantify the average path-averaged Q in the Basin and Range, Colorado Plateau, Rocky Mountains, Gulf Coast, and Great Plains. As in previous work, we find roughly 50-100% greater Q in the Plains and Plateau than in the Rockies and Basin and Range. Preliminary 2-D tomography delineates a sharp (100-200 km-wide) boundary between adjacent Q-provinces. Our refined Q(f) model supplements the attenuation component of the USGS National Crustal Model and provides improved ground motion characterization in the USGS National Seismic Hazard map, particularly in the central United States in which shaking from induced seismicity is of increasing concern.

  13. Acerca de las ratas y los ratones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hay muchas especies de roedores, entre ellas, la ardilla, la ardilla listada, el castor, el perro de la pradera, la rata y el ratón. Se puede ver las medidas más importantes para eliminar y prevenir las infestaciones causadas por roedores.

  14. [Trend of lipid profile in general population from Caceres Health Area].

    PubMed

    Labrador Gómez, P J; González Sanchidrián, S; Fuentes Rodríguez, J M; Gómez-Martino Arroyo, J R

    Dyslipidaemias are a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of our study was to analyse lipid profile in general population, prevalence, and trend in five years. From January 2010 to December 2014, all biochemical controls from Primary Care in 18 years-old adults were analysed. We used as reference for lipid levels those stablished for the European Society Cardiology and Hypertension. When several controls from same patient were found, the best and worst levels were used for prevalence. 304.523 controls were included from 97.470 patients (mean age 53.4±19.4 years, 57.2% were women). Mean levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides were 193.2±38.7mg/dL, 114.9±33.6mg/dL, 56.9±15.4mg/dL and 113.2±78.1mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-c, low HDL-c and hypertriglyceridemia, in the best and worst levels, were 33.9% vs. 63.4%, 31.7% vs. 59.1%, 11.2% vs 23.9% and 9.9% vs. 27.5%. Between 2010 and 2014, mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-c decreased in 12.2% and 14%. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia is high, although a decreased in mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-c has been achieved. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrospective Case Study in the Raton Basin, Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Study site locations in Las Animas and Huerfano Counties were selected in response to ongoing complaints about changes in appearance, odor, and taste associated with drinking water in domestic wells. \

  16. How to Get from Cupertino to Boca Raton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Duane K.; Chiavacci, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes seven methods to transfer data from Apple computer disks to IBM computer disks and vice versa: print out data and retype; use a commercial software package, optical-character reader, homemade cable, or modem to pass or transfer data directly; pay commercial data-transfer service; or store files on mainframe and download. (MBR)

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transit observations of the super-Earth GJ1214b (Caceres+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, C.; Kabath, P.; Hoyer, S.; Ivanov, V. D.; Rojo, P.; Girard, J. H.; Miller-Ricci Kempton, E.; Fortney, J. J.; Minniti, D.

    2014-03-01

    Files contain data points from the obtained light curves of the transiting planet GJ 1214b we obtained with the SOI (in the I-Bessel filter) and OSIRIS (with a narrow-band filter centered on 2.14um) instruments at the SOAR telescope. They include the BJD of observation, the measured flux, and the photometric error estimation. (2 data files).

  18. Creative Interactive Teaching: Case Method & Other Techniques. Selected Papers of the International Conference on Case Methods Research & Application (16th, Caceres, Spain, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Hans E., Ed.

    This book presents a selection of papers from the international, interdisciplinary conference of the World Association for Case Method Research & Application. Papers are categorized into seven areas: (1) "International Case Studies" (e.g., event-based entrepreneurship, case studies on consumer complaints, and strategic quality…

  19. Spatial and temporal evolution of the levels of tritium in the Tagus River in its passage through Caceres (Spain) and the Alentejo (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Brogueira, A M; Carreiro, M C; García, E; Gil, J M; Miró, C; Sequeira, M M; Teixeira, M M

    2001-03-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between Spanish and Portuguese laboratories. The specific objective was to quantify the time evolution during 1994, 1995 and 1996 of the radioecological impact of the liquid releases of 3H from the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) in the section of the Tagus River corresponding to Cáceres province in Spain and the Alentejo region in Portugal. We found that the temporal evolution of the levels of tritium depends on the management of the water held in the cooling reservoir of the ANPP and the presence of the dams that exist along the river. This management regime has a 12-month period. Also the movement of the mass of tritiated water (HTO) downriver was much faster during 1996 than 1995 or 1994 due to the hydrological differences between those years and consequently to the different amounts of water transferred between the reservoirs of the dams. From the hypothesis that hydrodynamically it is impossible to differentiate tritiated water from non-tritiated water, a model was constructed that satisfactorily reproduces the temporal evolution of the 3H in the zone of the Tagus River in which the exchange of water takes place, with the cooling reservoir of the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant.

  20. Creative Interactive Teaching: Case Method & Other Techniques. Selected Papers of the International Conference on Case Methods Research & Application (16th, Caceres, Spain, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Hans E., Ed.

    This book presents a selection of papers from the international, interdisciplinary conference of the World Association for Case Method Research & Application. Papers are categorized into seven areas: (1) "International Case Studies" (e.g., event-based entrepreneurship, case studies on consumer complaints, and strategic quality…

  1. Characteristics of deltaic deposits in the Cretaceous Pierre Shale, Trinidad Sandstone, and Vermejo Formation, Raton Basin, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.; Tur, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed facies analyses of closely spaced measured surface sections in the Trinidad and adjacent areas of Colorado reflect deposition in the river-influenced delta. That this deltaic system was accompanied by abandonment of subdeltas is indicated by a destructional-deltaic facies of heavily bioturbated, carbonaceous sandstones, siltstones, and shales best recorded in the delta front deposits of the Trinidad Sandstone. Coal accumulation of the Vermejo deposits nevertheless remained primarily controlled by persistent organic sedimentation in interdistributary backswamps. These backswamps, which accumulated thick, lenticular coals, were formed during the normal constructional phase of the delta plain. -from Authors

  2. Effects of Bucephalus sp. (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) on Perna perna mussels from a culture station in Ratones Grande Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Patrícia M; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Barracco, Margherita A

    2002-03-01

    This study reports the prevalence of Bucephalus sp. in Perna perna populations from a culture station of southern Brazil and its effect on the mussel reproductive tissue and immune system. The prevalence of Bucephalus sp. in P. perna (n = 1871) was considered low (3.1%) and did not seasonally vary. Histological sections of the mantle of infected mussels revealed a marked (80%) reduction of the reproductive tissue that was severe even in mussels exhibiting a moderate infection degree. The total (THC) and differential (DHC) hemocyte counts were lower in infected mussels (3.9 x 10(6) hem/ml; granular hemocytes = 33%) as compared with non-infected animals (5.5 x 10(6) hem/ml; granular hemocytes = 40%). The plasma protein concentration did not vary upon infection. Hemocyte infiltration was significantly higher only in mussels with a very heavy infection degree. The parasite sporocysts were never seen encapsulated by the host hemocytes. Our results indicate that Bucephalus sp. promotes a severe castration in its host and apparently evades the mussel immune system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Geotechnical and Geoacoustic Properties of Sediments Off South Florida: Boca Raton, Indian River Beach, Lower Tampa Bay, and the Lower Florida Keys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-24

    stereo photographs were processed as continuous rolls and examined for clarity and exhibition of representative features of the experiment site...sediments with Image-1 image analysis software for measures of geometric and geomorphic features of particles. 20 2.5 Mollusc Identifications (Stephens...past preset positions. An additional feature of the hydraulics system is automatic retraction of the probes from sediment if the 150 VDC top-side

  4. Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response : Patrick Meier, 2015, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL, 978-1-4822-4839-5, 259 pp.).

    PubMed

    Dave, Anushree

    2017-10-05

    This is a review of Patrick Meier's 2015 book, Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Program on the South Florida Ecosystem - Proceedings of South Florida Restoration Science Forum, May 17-19, 1999, Boca Raton, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    the fauna (benthic foraminifers , ostracodes, and molluscs) and flora (palynomorphs and diatoms) present at each site are recorded. (Data from the...over time, and that dense seagrass coverage is not necessarily the "natural state" for Florida Bay. A preliminary analysis of the benthic foraminifers ... foraminifers and molluscs were added to the previous suite of terrestrial and freshwater molluscs. Dwarf-mangrove assemblages became established

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Program on the South Florida Ecosystem; proceedings of South Florida Restoration Science Forum, May 17-19, 1999, Boca Raton, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerould, Sarah; Higer, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the forum is to highlight the powerful connection between science and management decisions in restoration efforts. The public's investment in science is paying off in support of better management decisions and restoration of imperiled south Florida Ecosystems, including the internationally recognized, globally significant Everglades. The forum affords a unique opportunity for elected officials and other policy- and decision makers, along with the general public, to see--under one roof--highlights of the most significant restoration science and management efforts underway. The forum promotes the link between science and management. Scientists and decisionmakers will come together to discuss the needs of each in order to ensure that plans for restoration are based in science and are the most cost effective and highest quality possible. Continued vigilance over south Florida ecosystems is essential to prevent further harm and to restore them. Representatives from numerous federal, state, local, and nongovernmental entities are organizing the forum for the Science Coordination Team of the South Florida Ecosystem Working Group. The U.S. Geological Survey and the South Florida Water Management District are the primary hosts of the forum.

  7. Mineralogy and petrology of the Cretaceous- Tertiary boundary clay bed and adjacent clay-rich rocks, Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.; Pillmore, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The K-T boundary occurs at the top of a kaolinitic claystone layer, commonly referred to as the 'boundary clay layer', in an interval of coal and carbonaceous shale. The boundary is defined by the disappearance of certain fossil-pollen taxa. The boundary clay layer also contains shocked quartz grains and abundance anomalies of iridium, chromium, and other elements. Each of these characteristics support the hypothesis of an asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous. -from Authors

  8. Estudio de reflectancia enfocado a la cartografia litologica de rocas igneas, efectos de distintos tipos de metamorfismo y analisis estructural en materiales precambricos, basado en datos espectrales de laboratorio e imagenes thematic mapper (Macizo Hesperico Central, Prov. de Caceres y Badajoz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza Garcia, Maria Asuncion

    The rampant success of quantum theory is the result of applications of the 'new' quantum mechanics of Schrodinger and Heisenberg (1926-7), the Feynman-Schwinger-Tomonaga Quantum Electro-dynamics (1946-51), the electro-weak theory of Salaam, Weinberg, and Glashow (1967-9), and Quantum Chromodynamics (1973-); in fact, this success of 'the' quantum theory has depended on a continuous stream of brilliant and quite disparate mathematical formulations. In this carefully concealed ferment there lie plenty of unresolved difficulties, simply because in churning out fabulously accurate calculational tools there has been no sensible explanation of all that is going on. It is even argued that such an understanding is nothing to do with physics. A long-standing and famous illustration of this is the paradoxical thought-experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (1935). Fundamental to all quantum theories, and also their paradoxes, is the location of sub-microscopic objects; or, rather, that the specification of such a location is fraught with mathematical inconsistency. This project encompasses a detailed, critical survey of the tangled history of Position within quantum theories. The first step is to show that, contrary to appearances, canonical quantum mechanics has only a vague notion of locality. After analysing a number of previous attempts at a 'relativistic quantum mechanics', two lines of thought are considered in detail. The first is the work of Wan and students, which is shown to be no real improvement on the iisu.al 'nonrelativistic' theory. The second is based on an idea of Dirac's - using backwards-in-time light-cones as the hypersurface in space-time. There remain considerable difficulties in the way of producing a consistent scheme here. To keep things nicely stirred up, the author then proposes his own approach - an adaptation of Feynman's QED propagators. This new approach is distinguished from Feynman's since the propagator or Green's function is not obtained by Feynman's rule. The type of equation solved is also different: instead of an initial-value problem, a solution that obeys a time-symmetric causality criterion is found for an inhomogeneous partial differential equation with homogeneous boundary conditions. To make the consideration of locality more precise, some results of Fourier transform theory are presented in a form that is directly applicable. Somewhat away from the main thrust of the thesis, there is also an attempt to explain, the manner in which quantum effects disappear as the number of particles increases in such things as experimental realisations of the EPR and de Broglie thought experiments.

  9. The Philippine Insurrection: The U.S. Navy in a Military Operation Other Than War, 1899-1902

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    under General Antonio Luna presented formable defenses around Calumpit, and again in conjunction with the terrain and weather, took a toll on the...opening through the CINC Asiatic to naval vessels. The ports of Nueva Caceres and Pasacao on Luzon were opened for coastal trade on February 28, 1900. On...capital of Nueva Caceres, the army was greatly aided by the gunboat’s efforts, and took the capital on the 22nd.259 On February 23, 1900, the town of

  10. The Path of the Blind Watchmaker: A Model of Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-06

    Introduction to Computational Biology. (pp. 135-60). Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall / CRC Press. [11] John L. Hennessey, & David A. Patterson. (2003...Dynamic Programming Alignment of Two Sequences. In Introduction to Computational Biology. (pp. 183-232). Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall / CRC ...Computational Biology. (pp. 233-52). Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall / CRC Press. [79] Dan Graur, & Li Wen-Hsiung. (2000). Molecular Phylogenetics. In

  11. Book review of Insect Symbiosis. Volume 2. Bourtzis, K.A. and Miller, T.A. editros. 2006 CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 276 pp. ISBN 0-8493-1286-8

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, M.A.

    2007-03-15

    There are several definitions of symbiosis, but in this book it involves an association where one organism (the symbiont) lives within or on the body of another organism (the host), regardless of the actual effect on the host. Some symbioses are mutualistic, some parasitic, and some involve commensalism, in which one partner derives some benefit without either harming or benefiting the other. This is the second volume in this exciting and rapidly advancing topic by these editors. The first volume was published in 2003 and during the intervening three years additional data have been produced that make this book a useful addition to your library. The first book provided chapters that provided an overview of insect symbiosis, discussions of the primary aphid symbiont Buchnera and other aphid symbionts, symbiosis in tsetse, symbionts in the weevil Sitophilus , the possible use of paratransgenic symbionts of Rhodnius prolixis to prevent disease transmission, bark beetle and fungal symbiosis, symbionts of tephritid fruit flies, symbionts affecting termite behavior, an overview of microsporidia as symbionts (parasites?) of insects, an overview of a newly discovered bacterium that causes sex-ratio distortion in insects and mites (from the Bacteroides group), symbionts that selectively kill male insects, and several chapters on the ubiquitous endosymbiont Wolbachia.

  12. Plasmonic Coupling on Dielectric Nanowire Core-Metal Sheath Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    sensitizer solution ‘#93’: 20 wt% propyl alcohol , 5 wt% hydrochloric acid and 5 wt% stannous chloride in water. To meet the needs for the formation of...Fleischmann M, Hendra P J and McQuillan A 1974 J. Chem. Phys. Lett. 26 163 [13] Alvarez- Puebla R A, Contreras-Caceres R, Pastoriza-Santos I, Perez-Juste J

  13. Phytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance and Decision Trees, Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    N. Terry and G. S. Bañuelos, eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Bañuelos, G. S., H. A. Ajwa, L. Wu, and S. Zambrzuski. 1998. “Selenium Accumulation...Knight. 1996. Treatment Wetlands. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, Lewis Publishers. Kadlec, R. H., and R. L. Knight. 1998. Creating and Using Wetlands for...Plant and Soil 123: 89–93. Pais, I., and J. B. Jones, Jr. 1997. The Handbook of Trace Elements. Boca Raton, Fla.: St. Lucie Press. Paterson, K

  14. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback), 787 pages

  15. Assessment of Muscle Fatigue from TF Distributions of SEMG Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Raton, FL, 2003. [6] A. Luttmann, M. Jäger, and W. Laurig. Electromyographical indication of muscular fatigue in occupational field studies. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , 25:645–660, 2000.

  16. Book review: Reptiles and amphibians: Self-assessment color review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, David E.

    2017-01-01

    No abstract available.Book information: Reptiles and Amphibians: Self-Assessment Color Review. 2nd Edition. By Fredric L. Frye. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida USA. 2015. 252 pp. ISBN 9781482257601.

  17. Proceedings of the Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (19th), held in Charleston, South Carolina, 21 - 24 March 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Gore, B.F. (2008). Chapter 32: Human performance: Evaluating the cognitive aspects. In V. Duffy (ed.), Handbook of digital human modeling, (pp.32-1...32-18), Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. Gore, B.F., Hooey, B.L., Foyle, D.C., & Scott-Nash, S. (2008). Meeting the challenge of cognitive...B. Hooey (eds.), Human performance modeling in aviation, (pp.321-349), Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. Joint Planning and Development

  18. A 1998 Workshop on Heterogeneous Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    support for heterogeneous computing," in The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook , A. B. Tucker, Jr., ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1997, pp...for heterogeneous computing," in The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook , edited by Allen B. Tucker, Jr., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1997, pp... Handbook . CRC Press, Boca Ra- ton, FL, 1997. [35] V. S. Sunderam. PVM: A framework for paral- lel distributed computing. Concurrency: Practice and

  19. Toxicities of TNT and RDX to Terrestrial Plants in Five Soils with Contrasting Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    132. Natr, L.; Lawlor, D.W. Photosynthetic Plant Productivity. In Handbook of Photosynthesis, 2 nd ed.; Pessarakli, M., Ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton...leaf and flower tissue (Harvey et al., 1991; Simini et al., 1995; Winfield, 2001) despite their relatively low water solubilities (Major et al...Eds.; CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group: Boca Raton, FL, 2009; pp 5–33. Monteil-Rivera, F.; Paquet, L.; Deschamps, S.; Balakrishnan, V.K.; Beaulieu

  20. Air Vehicle Path Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-13

    method of finite differences. Here an approximation to the cost funcional J = ∫ F (x, y, ẏ) dx is performed by using numerical methods of integration...edited by William H. Beyer, Boca Raton Florida: CRC Press, 1991. 15. Freund, E. and H. Hoyer. “Pathfinding in Multi-Robot Systems: Solution and Ap...March 2000. 35. Polyanin, Andrei D. and Valentin F. Zaitsev. Handbook of Exact Solutions for Ordinary Differential Equations. Boca Raton Florida: CRC

  1. Treatment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-14

    P.T., Barria, E.O., Ruedas, L.A., Tinnin, D.S., Munoz, C., de Mosca, I.B., Guerrero, G., Kant, R., Garcia, A., Caceres, L., Gracio, F.G., Quiroz , E...1271–1273. Approved for public releasincent, M.J., Quiroz , E., Gracia, F., Sanchez, A.J., Ksiazek, T.G., Kitsutani, P.T., Ruedas, L.A., Tinnin, D.S

  2. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of General Gerardo Johansen, General Marcial Samaniero, General Juan Caceres and others." Incidentally, the loyalty of the armed forces to the...the United States are taking part in the present annual meeting. Great interest is generated by the forthcoming discussions on the foreign trade...Singer, General Electric, and Litton Industries. The Soviet Union advocates establishing normal conditions for the favorable development of Soviet-U.S

  3. A Concise Physical Interpretation of Several Analytical Grueneisen Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    RUSSIA 1 TOMSK STATE UNIV A G GERASIMOV 5-TH ARMY ST 29-61 TOMSK 634024 RUSSIA 5 DEPARTMENTO DE QUIMICA FISICA I FACULTAD DE...CIENCIAS QUIMICAS UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID V G BAONZA M TARAVILLO J E F RUBIO J NUNEZ M CACERES 28040 MADRID...UNIVERSIDAD DE OVIEDO FACULTAD DE QUIMICA DEPARTMENTO DE QUIMICA FISICA Y ANALITICA E FRANCISCO AVENIDA JULIAN CLAVERIA S/N 33006

  4. Vaccines against human papillomaviruses--a major breakthrough in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Vonka, Vladimír; Hamsíková, Eva

    2007-12-01

    Carcinoma of the cervix (CaCer) is the second most frequent malignancy in women on a global scale. Epidemiological studies carried out at the beginning of the second half of the 20th century showed that CaCer was of infectious nature and that its agent was transmitted by sexual intercourse. For some 15 years, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), the genital herpes virus, was suspected to be the etiological agent. This hypothesis was disproved just in the time when the first convincing evidence that the agents of the disease were human papillomaviruses (HPVs) was produced. Copious new findings obtained during the 1980's and 1990's unequivocally confirmed that HPVs were the causative agents. The most dangerous among the over 100 HPV types are types 16 and 18, which together account for over 70% of CaCer cases and very likely also for most of the other malignancies of the anogenital region and the oropharynx. Extensive research of the HPV biology and immunology enabled the development of vaccines based on the s.c. virus-like particles (VLP) prepared by genetic engineering. At present, there is one HPV vaccine on the market; it contains, besides types 16 and 18, also types 6 and 11, the causative agents of certain benign tumours of the genital area and of the larynx. A new vaccine, comprising types 16 and 18 only, the product of another firm, is to appear on the market soon. Both vaccines have already been tested in extensive clinical trials. They are nearly 100% effective, only very weakly reactogenic and they undoubtedly belong among the most perfect vaccines ever produced. The darker side of the anti-HPV vaccines is their high price, the fact that the highest benefits they bring will only become evident in 20 or 30 years, and that they do not afford protection against all oncogenic HPVs. It is therefore imperative that organized cytological screening be continued: it is destined to remain the main instrument of CaCer prevention for several decades. With all

  5. Composite Failure Analysis Handbook. Volume 2: Technical Handbook. Part 1 - Procedures and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    of a wrong :Pa~tArial much as a 250,~F curing prepirte in pl~acc of a :350’F curing 6-201 I . . . . i • I ’. t .H - CH SU Epoxude funcional .I ..i . I...and Physics, 65th edition, R.C. Weast (ed.), CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 1985, p. E-130. 6. Ratner, B.D., McElroy, B.J., in Spectroscopy in...the Biomedical Sciences, R.M. Gendreau (ed.), CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 1986, pp. 107-140. @ 7. Daniel, I.M., "The Behavior of Uniaxial

  6. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  7. High temperature densification forming of alumina powder -- Constitutive model and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y.S.; Kim, K.T.

    1996-10-01

    Densification and grain growth of alumina powder compacts were investigated under pressureless sintering, sinter forging, and hot pressing. A set of constitutive equations by Kwon et al. was used to predict densification under diffusional creep. A novel grain growth equation is proposed by generalizing the grain growth model of Wilkinson and Caceres to predict grain growth during densification forming process of ceramic powders under general loading states. Material parameters in the constitutive equations were determined from experimental data under pressureless sintering and sinter forging. Theoretical predictions by using the constitutive equations for creep densification and grain growth were compared with experimental data of alumina powder compacts.

  8. Freeze-Spray Deposition of Layered Alumina/Zirconia Composites (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    see Fig. 7 (a)). The AGG of alumina may be attributed to the presence of certain 8 impurities such as CaO [29, 30] and SiO2 [31-33]. As a result of...This work was supported by the Air Force Research Laboratories under contract FA8650-04-C- 5704. We thank Drs . M. Leu, G. Hilmas, R. Landers, and S...Caceres, D.S. Wilkinson, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 (1994) 2137-44 3 J. Requena, R. Moreno, J.S. Moya , J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72 (1989) 1511-3. 4 C. You

  9. The Battle for Leyte Gulf. October 1944. Strategical and Tactical Analysis. Volume II. Operations from 0719 October 17th until October 20th (D- Day)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-01-01

    a combination of Allied carrier-based aircraft and submarines. Two tank landing ships and one submarine chaser had beer , sunk in addition.** (1...from the RATON reporting that she had sunk four cargo ships and one destroyer from the BLUEGILL’s convoy, that a typhoon was brewing , and requesting

  10. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Flowering forbs in these floodplain wetlands include springbeauty (Clay- tonia virginica), troutlily (Erythronium umbilicatum), mayapple (Podo- phyllum...Symplocarpus foetidus), cardinal flower , jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), tearthumbs (Polygonum arifolium and P. sagittatum), ferns, greenbriers...wetland delineation, classification, and mapping. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Includes reviews of various sampling tech- niques and provides a list of

  11. Vector Analysis of Ice Fabric Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Diggle and Fisher(1985) describe a program that compose an orientation diagram that depicts the relative computes these eigenvalues and eigenvectors...CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. -arch and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL Report Diggle , P.J. and N.I. Fisher (1985) Sphere: A con- 87-3. touring

  12. 78 FR 67399 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ODVA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ..., GERMANY; Imperx, Inc., Boca Raton, FL; Wittenstein AG; Igersheim, GERMANY; Canrig Drilling Technologies... Helmholz GmbH, Grossenseebach, GERMANY; C.E. Electronics, Inc., Bryan, OH; CTH Systems Inc., Calgary..., Amphenol Sine Systems Corporation, Clinton Township, MI; Sanyo Machine Works, Ltd., Nishikasugai-gun, Aichi...

  13. Maximizing Federal IT Dollars: A Connection Between IT Investments and Organizational Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Nicholas Brealey. Kaplan , R. S., & Norton , D. P. (2005). The balanced scorecard : Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 83(7/8...performance metrics from the private to the public sector. Retrieved from Balanced Scorecard Institute website: http://www.balancedscorecard. org...172–180. Keyes, J. (2005). Implementing the IT balanced scorecard : Aligning IT with corporate strategy. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications

  14. Modeling Continuous IED Supply Chains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    1839609/. [6] Ackleh, Hearfott, Allen and Seshaiyer. Classical and Modern Numerical Analysis. Chapman and Hall, Boca Raton, Florida, 2010. [7] Arney, David...Briscoe, Erica, Ethan Trewhitt, Lora Weiss, and Elizabeth Whitaker. Modeling Behavioral Activities Related to Deploying IEDs in Iraq. Technical report

  15. An Analysis Of Personalized Learning Systems For Navy Training And Education Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    PERSONALIZED LEARNING ...................23 A. TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY-BASED INSTRUCTION ......................24 1. DOD-Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI...Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI), Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL), and Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), in order to maximize both the...perspective. Boca Raton, FL: Brown Walker Press. 61 Holden, J. (2011, August). Learning styles: Do they really matter?-Implications for multimedia

  16. Regional tectonic setting for the Trinidad earthquake swarms (2000-2012) from gravity and magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Kass, Mason A.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes in the Raton basin near Trinidad, Colorado, (Figure 1) are located (Rubenstein et. al., 2014) near a major gravity and magnetic boundary. These earthquakes also occur in an area of hydrocarbon production that includes several high-capacity produced water injection wells. This presentation gives a very basic outline of the relation between the earthquakes, the potential field data, and possible basement structure.

  17. A Cook's Tour: The Journey to Become a Model Culinary Arts Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantang, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    This article is about how the West Boca Raton Community High School's Culinary Arts Academy achieved national model status as it works to prepare the next generation of culinary artists. The culinary academy, established in 2004, adopted national standards that have served as a foundation for its excellence. In November 2007, the National Career…

  18. SIMPLE: A Prototype Software Fault-Injection Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    54 1. CSMA/CD Software Description In their network utilization study, Sadiku and Ilyas implemented software to simulate a local area network that...cs2.html]. 2002. 49. Sadiku , M. and Ilyas, M., Simulation of Local Area Networks, Boca Raton, Florida. CRC Press, 1994, pp. 112- 133. 50. Hightower

  19. Reflections on the Impact of a Long Term Theatre for Community Development Project in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueira, Marcia Pompeo

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses a community theatre project initiated in 1991 in Ratones, a community in Southern Brazil. It began as an extension project of the State University of Santa Catarina and became an independent project coordinated by former participants, still in collaboration with the university. Aiming to evaluate the benefits of this theatre…

  20. Development of Elastomeric Polypeptide Biomaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Wieland, T., Heinke, B., and Vogeler, K. (1962). Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 655, 189-194. Yeh, H., Ornstein-Goldstein, N., Indik, Z., Sheppard, P...TssueAnalogues, (Williams, D.F., ed.) CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida 89 (1985). 14. Weiland, Th., Heinke, B. and Vogeler, J., Justus Liebiqs Ann

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies for a Bio-Impedance Vital-Sign Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Patterson R: Bioelectric impedance measurement. In: Bronzino JD. The biomedical engineering handbook. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1995. pp 1223-1230. 35 11...28. Cohen A: Biomedical signals: Origin and dynamic characteristics; frequency domain analysis. In: Bronzino JD. The biomedical engineering handbook

  2. Reflections on the Impact of a Long Term Theatre for Community Development Project in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueira, Marcia Pompeo

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses a community theatre project initiated in 1991 in Ratones, a community in Southern Brazil. It began as an extension project of the State University of Santa Catarina and became an independent project coordinated by former participants, still in collaboration with the university. Aiming to evaluate the benefits of this theatre…

  3. EPA Takes Action to Protect the Public from an Unregistered Pesticide/EPA issues order to stop the sale of OxiTitan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued an order to EcoActive Surfaces, Inc. in Pompano Beach, Fla.; WellShield, LLC in Boca Raton, Fla.; and, BioRelief, Inc. in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. to stop the sale, use or removal of

  4. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  5. MICROBIAL BIOFILMS AS INTEGRATIVE SENSORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Snyder, Richard A., Michael A. Lewis, Andreas Nocker and Joe E. Lepo. In press. Microbial Biofilms as Integrative Sensors of Environmental Quality. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 34 p. (ERL,GB 1198).

    Microbial biofilms are comple...

  6. 75 FR 11179 - Update to Notice of Financial Institutions for Which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... 12/14/2000 Metropolis, The. 4654 Net First National Bank.... Boca Raton FL 3/01/2002 10001 Netbank... TN 11/08/2002 4665 Bank of Ephraim Ephraim UT 6/25/2004 4644 Bank of Falkner Falkner MS 9/29/2000... Dollar Savings Bank........ Newark NJ 2/14/2004 10183 1st American State Bank of Hancock MN...

  7. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  8. Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.

  9. Practical evolution of biofilm theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kree, D.M.; Chansler, J.M. )

    1993-12-01

    This article examines the sudden development of high coliform positives in the potable water distribution systems in Boca Raton, Florida. The topics of the article include the review of problems related to bacterial occurrences and related Safe Drinking Water Act new rules, typical water system disinfection, water use, a description of the infection event and corrective measures.

  10. Localization vs. Internationalization: E-Learning Programs for the Aviation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, Judith B.

    This paper presents a case study of a Web-based English language training program in the field of Aviation. Virtual Languages, Inc., (VL) of Boca Raton, Florida, develops and delivers distance learning courses that teach English as a Second Language (ESL) within an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) framework. This allows learners to improve…

  11. Probability-Based Parameter Selection for Black-Box Fuzz Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    tion,” as described by John Holland in his book Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems [23]. At this point, we satisfied the first two criteria...embedded/025613.htm [Accessed 22 August 2012]. [25] A. Gelman, J. Carlin , H. Stern, and D. Rubin, Bayesian Data Analysis, Second Edition, Boca Raton

  12. A Cost-Benefit Analysis on the Deletion of the Inertial Upper Stage Factory Acceptance Testing Versus a Decrease in Mission Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    1977 (AD-A048675). 9. Hord, Michael R. Handbook of Space Technology : Status and Projections. Boca Raton FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1985. 10. Houston, Edward S...modification to the program could be implemented. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 80 Reliability, Test and Evaluation, Space Technology , 6

  13. Multi-Point Hermes Acoustic Modem for High-Speed, High-Frequency Acoustic Communications with Low-Frequency Acoustic Control Loop for Real-Time Transmission of AUV-Carried High-Resolution Images and Navigation Data in Support of Ship Hulls Inspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-31

    REPORT NUMBER Building 36, 777 Glades Rd, Boca Raton FL 33431 9 . SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM...82 9 . Appendix B - Topside software architecture...source transducer Jetasonic H320). ................................................................................................................ 9

  14. SEDIMENT HABITAT ASSESSMENT FOR TARGETED NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO: A SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A. In press. Sediment Habitat Assessment for Targeted Near-Coastal Areas of the Gulf of Mexico: A Summary. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 25 p. (ERL,GB 1201).

    Sediment chemical and biological quality is summarized ...

  15. PHYTOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Handbook of Ecotoxicology. Second Edition.. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. 32 p.

    Phytoplankton, benthic and epiphytic microalgae, and macroalgae are energy sources critical to most aquatic ecosystems. Changes in their density and composition can effect the chemical and...

  16. PACS and Digital Medicine: Essential Principles and Modern Practice.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G

    2012-10-01

    PACS and Digital Medicine: Essential Principles and Modern Practice. Y. Liu J. Wang CRC, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2011. Hardcover, 367 pp. Price: $135.95. ISBN: 978-1-4200-83651. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. SEDIMENT HABITAT ASSESSMENT FOR TARGETED NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO: A SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A. In press. Sediment Habitat Assessment for Targeted Near-Coastal Areas of the Gulf of Mexico: A Summary. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 25 p. (ERL,GB 1201).

    Sediment chemical and biological quality is summarized ...

  18. Briareolate Esters from the Gorgonian Briareum asbestinum

    PubMed Central

    Meginley, Rian J.; Gupta, Prasoon; Schulz, Thomas C.; McLean, Amanda B.; Robins, Allan J.; West, Lyndon M.

    2012-01-01

    Two new briarane diterpenoids briareolate esters J (1) and K (2) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the octocoral Briareum asbestinum collected off the coast of Boca Raton, Florida. The structures of briaranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Briareolate ester K (2) showed weak growth inhibition activity against human embryonic stem cells (BG02). PMID:23015768

  19. COHb Prediction Model for PC Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    of Requirement: Armoured vehicles are subject to CO contamination from weapons discharge ( Sabiston and Severs 1994). Exposures are acute with an...hemoglobin vs. histotoxic mechanisms. In: Carbon Monoxide. Penney DG (ed). CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, p 163 - 186. Sabiston BH, Severs Y (1994). Armoured

  20. PHYTOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Handbook of Ecotoxicology. Second Edition.. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. 32 p.

    Phytoplankton, benthic and epiphytic microalgae, and macroalgae are energy sources critical to most aquatic ecosystems. Changes in their density and composition can effect the chemical and...

  1. Cognitive Models of the Effect of Audio Cueing on Attentional Shifts in a Complex Multimodal, Dual-Display Dual Task

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    developing techniques for directing attention in complex operational settings using three-dimensional (3D) or “spatialized” sound ( Begault , 1994...Saccades. In (Carpenter, R. H. S., ed.) Eye movements. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Begault , D. (1994). 3-D sound for virtual reality and multimedia

  2. Multiobjective Collaborative Optimization of Systems of Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    operationally independent. (System-ysem 1)..y Design ,I ’"esignReqm ts ... .em (Sy stem 1) S stems F S Funcion Overlap Reqmts...te m...284. Maier, M.W. & Rechtin, E. (2002). The art of systems architecting. (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC. Marglin, S. (1967). Public

  3. Physics and Technology of Resonant-Tunneling Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    conception of new electron beam. The fabricaition of doe comples, device. including electron devices with enhanced funcionality , vacuum microelectonic diodes...lEE, vol. 123, pp. 285-290, 1976. VI. INCREASED FREQUENCY AND POWER [3] CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 61st ed. Boca Raton, FL: The

  4. Conference on Standards for the Interoperability of Defense Simulations (2nd) Held in Orlando, Florida on 15-17 January 1990. Volume 3. Position Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Jan 1990. [2] Chemical Rubber Company, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 60th ed ( Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1979). 94 Position Paper: On...Multiple Access with Message-Based Priority Funcions ", MEE Trans. on Communications, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 185 - 200, January, 1982 9. Doner J.R

  5. Design of a Synthetic Aperture Array to Support Experiments in Active Control of Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988. [8] Beyer, W.H. editor, Standard Mathematical Tables. 28th Edition, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL. 1987. [9...X) CALCULATES MODIFIED BESSEL FUNCIONS OF ZERO ORDER *ADAPTED FROM NUMERICAL RECIPES IN C BY PRESS ET. AL.* float bessi0(x) float x; float ax, ans

  6. Quantum Simulation of Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Free Energies at the Water-Metal Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-06

    occurring, the potential was modified by the addition of a hard repulsive wall alog the 0-H bond, given by the funcional form 2h + Gh (l (,o.. - r(o...T. Hynes, in The Theory of Chemical Reactions, edited by M. Baer (CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1985); B. J. Berne, in Multiple Timescales, edited by J. V

  7. Long-Term Corrosion Fatigue of Welded Marine Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Selected Seawater Parameters Measured Over a One-Year Period at the Marine Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, Florida Atlantic University at Boca Raton...ar no ralyknw btloldb exceptC AND C AS FUNCION OFa Re0 AND posCbl lctoaPrcecudbaSeD I D THE ITERTUREFOR MOOT, VETICA, SUaACE 5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~PECN

  8. A Contractual Management Arrangement: FAU and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William; Pellen, Rita

    1993-01-01

    Describes the problems IBM Corporation in Boca Raton, Florida, has had staffing and managing a corporate library and its cooperative agreement with Florida Atlantic University (FAU) to provide professional librarian services. Issues to consider in developing an academic/special libraries agreement are discussed. (EA)

  9. MICROBIAL BIOFILMS AS INTEGRATIVE SENSORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Snyder, Richard A., Michael A. Lewis, Andreas Nocker and Joe E. Lepo. In press. Microbial Biofilms as Integrative Sensors of Environmental Quality. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 34 p. (ERL,GB 1198).

    Microbial biofilms are comple...

  10. Environmental Restoration - Expedient Methods and Technologies: A User Guide with Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Soil Ecotoxicology . Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, 1997. Testa, Stephen M. The Reuse and Recycling of Contaminated Soil. Lewis Publishers, Boca...145 A. Environmental Models and Modeling for Risk Assessment .................. 146 B. Regulatory Impact on Technology Selection...146 C. On-Site Characterization Risk Assessment ............................................ 146 D. Incorporating ISO 14000

  11. Trace element patterns at a non-marine cretaceous-tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.; Orth, C.J.; Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    At the fossil-pollen-defined Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado, an iridium abundance anomaly and excess scandium, titanium, and chromium are associated with a thin ash or dust fallout bed (now kaolinitic clay) that was preserved in freshwater coal swamps. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selected plant microfossil records of the terminal Cretaceous event in terrestrial rocks, western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Terrestrial or nonmarine rocks of western North America preserve a record of major disruption and permanent alteration of plant communities precisely at the K-T boundary - in the same rocks that preserve geochemical and mineralogical evidence of the terminal Cretaceous impact event. Plant microfossil records from many localities show abrupt disappearance of pollen species (= plant extinctions) closely associated with impact ejecta deposits containing iridium and shocked quartz. Localities discussed in detail in this review are Starkville South, Clear Creek North, Old Raton Pass, and Sugarite in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico; West Bijou in the Denver Basin, Colorado; Sussex in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming; and Pyramid Butte and Mud Buttes in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quarterly review of methane from coal seams technology. Volume 10, Number 3, July-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.; Lombardi, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Because some gas wells are not specifically documented as coalbed methane tests, following a basin's coalbed methane exploration activities necessarily involves evaluating wells targeted either for 'coal-bearing formations' (for example, the Fruitland Formation in the San Juan basin or the Vermejo Formation in the Raton basin) or for potential reservoirs lying adjacent to major coal zones (for example, the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan basin or the Trinidad Sandstone in the Raton basin). Reporting activities in this manner allows companies and individuals to evaluate those wells in question relative to the producing stratigraphic units. The following reports summarize the results of recent exploration, testing, and production in the coal basins.

  15. Challenges in biotechnology at LLNL: from genes to proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Albala, J S

    1999-03-11

    This effort has undertaken the task of developing a link between the genomics, DNA repair and structural biology efforts within the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program at LLNL. Through the advent of the I.M.A.G.E. (Integrated Molecular Analysis of Genomes and their Expression) Consortium, a world-wide effort to catalog the largest public collection of genes, accepted and maintained within BBRP, it is now possible to systematically express the protein complement of these to further elucidate novel gene function and structure. The work has ensued in four phases, outlined as follows: (1) Gene and System selection; (2) Protein expression and purification; (3) Structural analysis; and (4) biological integration. Proteins to be expressed have been those of high programmatic interest. This includes, in particular, proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity, particularly those involved in the repair of DNA damage, including ERCC1, ERCC4, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC9, HEX1, APN1, p53, RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51. Full-length cDNA cognates of selected genes were isolated, and cloned into baculovirus-based expression vectors. The baculoviral expression system for protein over-expression is now well-established in the Albala laboratory. Procedures have been successfully optimized for full-length cDNA clining into expression vectors for protein expression from recombinant constructs. This includes the reagents, cell lines, techniques necessary for expression of recombinant baculoviral constructs in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The laboratory has also generated a high-throughput baculoviral expression paradigm for large scale expression and purification of human recombinant proteins amenable to automation.

  16. Association between Sleep Duration and the Mini-Mental Score: The Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Alberto R.; Dong, Chuanhui; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Short and long sleep duration are associated with increased mortality and worse global cognitive function, but is unclear if these relations persist after accounting for the risk of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). The aim of our study is determine the association between short and long sleep duration with worse global cognitive function in a racially/ethnically diverse elderly cohort. Methods: We examined sleep hours and global cognitive function cross-sectionally within the population-based Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We conducted nonparametric and logistic regression to examine associations between continuous, short (< 6 h) and long (≥ 9 h) sleep hours with performance on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results: There were 927 stroke-free participants with data on self-reported sleep hours and MMSE scores (mean age 75 ± 9 years, 61% women, 68% Hispanics). The median (interquartile range) MMSE was 28 (10-30). Sleep hours (centered at 7 h) was associated with worse MMSE (β = -0.01; SE [0.004], p = 0.0113) adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, medications, and risk for SDB. Reporting long sleep (≥ 9 h) compared to 6 to 8 h of sleep (reference) was significantly and inversely associated with MMSE (adjusted β = -0.06; SE [0.03], p = 0.012), while reporting short sleep was not significantly associated with MMSE performance. Long sleep duration was also associated with low MMSE score when dichotomized (adjusted OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.0). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis among an elderly community cohort, long sleep duration was associated with worse MMSE performance. Citation: Ramos AR; Dong C; Elkind MSV; Boden-Albala B; Sacco RL; Rundek T; Wright CB. Association between Sleep Duration and the Mini-Mental Score: The Northern Manhattan Study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):669-673. PMID:23853560

  17. Engineering Graphene Mechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-05

    Mohiuddin, T. M. G.; Morozov, S. V.; Blake, P.; Halsall, M. P.; Ferrari , A. C.; Boukhvalov, D. W.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, K. S. Science...22) Bower, A. F. Linear Elastic Material Behavior. In Applied Mechanics of Solids; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2010; pp 83−86. (23) Gomez -Navarro, C...Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 105505. (26) Ferrari , A. C.; Meyer, J. C.; Scardaci, V.; Casiraghi, C.; Lazzeri, M.; Mauri, F.; Piscanec, S.; Jiang, D

  18. An Anion Characterization of a Constructed Wetland Used for Chlorinated Ethene Remediation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    chlorinated solvents, 93% of Superfund sites still use this technique (National Research Council, 1997). One of the most common forms of in-situ...environment. Their ubiquitous nature in wetlands and integral component to the processes conducive to bioremediation suggest the need for this research ...Soil Cleanup. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997. 247 Norris, Robert D and others. Handbook of Bioremediation . Boca Raton, FL

  19. Composite-Nanoparticles Thermal History Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    M. Rowe, CRC Handbook of Thermoelectrics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA (1995). 2. D. Khokhlov, Lead Chalcogenides Physics and Applications...temperature is further increased to 160 !C, a flower -like morphology as shown in Figure 3c was observed. Figure 3d is the low magnificati n SEM image...When the hydrothermal treatment temperature is further increased to 160 !C, a flower -like morphology as shown in Figure 3c was observed. Figure 3d is

  20. Integrated Control and Assessment of Knapweed and Cheatgrass on Department of Defense Installations. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Forest Service, GTR INT-313. Munshower, F.F. 1994. Practical Handbook of Disturbed Land Revegetation. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FL. Paschke, M. W... flowering and reduced seed production (Powell 1990). A root-boring weevil, Cyphocleonus achates, which has reduced plant size in controlled experiments...plant is growing among determinate grasses that largely cease growing after flowering in the spring or early summer (Harris and Clapperton 1997

  1. Evaluation of Alternative Causes of Widespread, Low Concentration Perchlorate Impacts to Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    cm (4-inch) stainless steel flower bulb planter. The soil was divided between two pre-labeled sample containers, sealed and stored on ice in a...Quality Workgroup (DoD EDQW). 2006. DoD Perchlorate Handbook . March 2006. Driscoll. F.G. 1986. Groundwater and Wells (2nd edition). Reynolds Guyar... CRC Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. Pp 183 pp Sturchio NC, JK Böhlke, B Gu, J Horita, GM Brown, A Beloso, LJ Patterson, PB Hatzinger, WA Jackson

  2. Selective Dry Etch for Defining Ohmic Contacts for High Performance ZnO TFTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    and Iniewski, K. (editors), Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook , chapter 54. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, 2013. [2] Bayraktaroglu, B., Leedy, K...barriers and Ohmic contacts”. Journal of Applied Physics, 190(12):1–33, 15 June 2011. [8] Brody, T. P. “The Thin Film Transistor - A Late Flowering Bloom...Upper Saddle River NJ, 2000. [51] Rai-Choudhury, P. Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication - Volume 1: Microlithography. SPIE

  3. Evaluation of Alternative Causes of Widespread, Low Concentration Perchlorate Impacts to Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    the sod were collected using a 10.16 cm (4-inch) stainless steel flower bulb planter. The soil was divided between two pre-labeled sample...Department of Defense Environmental Data Quality Workgroup (DoD EDQW). 2006. DoD Perchlorate Handbook . March 2006. Driscoll. F.G. 1986. Groundwater and...Prevention, Maintenance and Rehabilitation. CRC Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. Pp 183 pp Sturchio NC, JK Böhlke, B Gu, J Horita, GM Brown, A Beloso, LJ

  4. Application of Optical Forces in Microphotonic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    University of Southern California Contracts and Grants 3720 S. Flower Street Los Angeles, CA 90089 -0701 2 ABSTRACT Application of optical forces in...Coupled Resonators," in Slow Light: Science and Applications( CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2009). 47 30 [25]. S. Fan, S. Sandhu, C. Otey, and M. Povinelli...24]. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1999). 98 81 [25]. V. A. Parsegian, Van der Waals forces : a handbook for

  5. Development and Application of a Physiological-based Framework for Assessing the Biological Significance of Military Activities on Threatened and Endangered Animal Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-17

    genera of unknown plant seeds. Scat samples included roots, rhizomes, stems, prickles, thorns/spines, leaves, whole flowers , petals, fruits, and seeds...Explosives and Unexploded Ordnance, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Eglin AFB. 2003. Range C-52 North and Range C-62 open burn/open detonation units. Fourth...Dipteria: Chironomidae). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 27:1118-1127. Leslie, M. 1996. Conserving biodiversity on military lands: a handbook for natural

  6. In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Suppressor-Ultra", Document Number 031367, Rev. 03, Section 5.1, Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA, December, 1988. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and...Physics. Standard Solutions for Calibrating Conductivity Cells, p. D-166, 70 th Ed., 1989-1990, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 31 TABLE 1...Book 9, Handbooks for Water-Resources Investigations, variously paginated. Wilkin, R.T., M.S. McNeil, C.J. Adair and J.T. Wilson, 2001, Field

  7. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Alexandria, Virginia. Zedler JB (ed.). 2001. Handbook for Restoring Tidal Wetlands. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Zolezzi G, A Bellin, MC Bruno...the photo was taken during the sampling in September and the prevalence of nodding beggartick (Bidens cernua), a late season yellow- flowered ...Sensing Change Detection: Environmental Monitoring Methods and Applications. CRC Press, New York. Luo W. 2000. “Quantifying groundwater-sapping

  8. Predicting the Onset of PTSD: An Analysis of Facial Expression of Emotion in Reaction to Aggressive Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    revulsion and convince an interviewer, who could not see the film, that they were enjoying a film of beautiful flowers (Ekman, 2009). The study results...resilience to stress. In B. Lukey, & V. Tepe. Biobehavioral Resilience to Stress. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 4. This text discusses many aspects of PTSD...stress and anxiety. Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2008). Handbook of Emotions. New York: The Guilford Press. This book

  9. A Watershed Modeling System for Fort Benning, GA Using the US EPA BASINS Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    new USGS sites are the RED flower symbols: Pine Knot Creek Near Eelbeeck, GA (Station No. 02341725) Upatoi Creek Below Baker Creek Near Upatoi...Brossett, and J. R. Olson, editors. 2010. Rapid Bioassessment of Stream Health. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL. Ikeda, S., G. Parker and K. Sawai, 1981. “Bend...Ratios. National Engineering Handbook , Section 3, Sedimentation. U.S. Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC. Weintraub, L., C.W. Chen, W. Tsai, J. Herr

  10. Cottonwood Management Plan / Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment. Proposed Implementation of a Cottonwood Management Plan Along Six Priority Segments of the Missouri River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Conifers; Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 p...Nebraska. Prairie Nat. 15(4):145-154 [from Corps 2004a]. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 1998. Property Acquisition Handbook for Local...Planning and Decision Making. Edited by Davis, W. S., and T. P. Simon, pp. 31-47. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Inglis, G. J., H. Hurren, J

  11. Transcriptional Analysis of Four Family 4 P450s in a Puerto Rico Strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Compared With an Orlando Strain and Their Possible Functional Roles in Permethrin Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Rd., Auburn, AL 36832. 6 Corresponding author, e-mail: Julia.pridgeon@ars.usda.gov. 7 Current address: Institute of Vegetables and Flowers , Chinese...Golic, and R. S. Hawley. 2005. Dro- sophila: a laboratory handbook . Cold Spring Harbor Lab- oratory Press, Woodbury, NY. Fig. 1. RT-PCR of transgenic D...Arboviruses, vol. 2. Epidemiology and Ecol- ogy. CRC , Boca Raton, FL. Gubler, D. J., and G. G. Clark. 1995. Dengue/dengue hem- orrhagic fever: the

  12. Investigation of Chemical Reactivity, Mass Recovery and Biological Activity During Thermal Treatment of DNAPL Source Zones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies Handbook . C.H. Oh (Ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Chapter 4.6. Stookey, L.L. 1970. Ferrozine - A new...Research h hour H hydrogen H+ hydrogen ion H2 hydrogen gas H2CO3 carbonic acid HFK Helgeson-Kirkham- Flowers HP Hewlett-Packard HPLC...using the Helgeson-Kirkham- Flowers (HKF) equation of state. A final feature of Figure 4-6 concerns the entropy of vaporization, which increased with

  13. Bioassay-Guided Investigation of Two Monarda Essential Oils as Repellents of Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-06

    American Ethnobotany; Timber Press: Portland, OR, 1998. (13) Duke, J. A. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs; 2nd ed. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002. Journal...by providing a source of plant-based pest repellents. In addition to their role in attracting insect pollinators to gardens with their showy flowers ...Wei, L. Chemical composition of antibacterial activity of essential oil from Monarda citriodora flowers . Adv. Mater. Res. 2011, 183−185, 920−923. (15

  14. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    alloy, while being larger and more needle- and flower petal-shaped nearer to the steel [19]. In the case of galvanized steels, iron-zinc (Fe-Zn...ASM Handbook , Vol 9: Metallography and Microstructures. 2004. 49. J.C. Russ. Practical Stereology 2nd ed. New York: Plenum Press. 1999. 50. P. J...Characterization of Aluminum, Steel, and Superalloys. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl. 2006. 53. O. Engler, V. Randle. Introduction to Texture Analysis

  15. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    session, and were provided with a study handbook . During the study orientation, subjects were interviewed and prompted about incidental exposure to...Novotny DA, McCarty KS, Cox EB, Soper JT, Mutch DG, Creasman WT, Flowers JL, McCarty KS, Jr. Immunohistochemical analyses of estrogen receptor in...and sex hormone metabolism. In: Rowland I, edi- tor. Nutrition, toxicity, and cancer. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1991. p. 137–194. 46. Severi G, Morris

  16. Heat-recovery incinerator for a community hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, D.

    1996-12-01

    This article describes a project which features a heat recovery boiler that uses incinerator exhaust gas to produce free steam for a not-for-profit hospital in Boca Raton, Fla. Free steam is also used to reheat scrubber exhaust gas to provide for plume suppression and improved pollutant dispersion. The project saves $266,129 in annual energy and waste hauling costs. The project also has a simple payback of five years.

  17. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 18, Number 2, Issue 58, April 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    IL: Nicholas Brealey. Kaplan , R. S., & Norton , D. P. (2005). The balanced scorecard : Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 83(7/8...performance metrics from the private to the public sector. Retrieved from Balanced Scorecard Institute website: http://www.balancedscorecard. org...172–180. Keyes, J. (2005). Implementing the IT balanced scorecard : Aligning IT with corporate strategy. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications

  18. Effects of Pharmacologic and Immunologic Intervention on the Pseudomonas Porcine Model of ARDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    step. In addition to oxygen free radicals , neutrophils and monocytes also release vasoactive substances such as eicosanoids and leukotrienes which...neutrophil adhesiveness induced by complement fragments C5a and C5a desarg and formyl -methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine in vitro. J.Clin. Invest. 74:1581...monitoring of superoxide production by phagocytes. In: Greenwald, RA. C.R.C. handbook of methods for oxygen radical research, Boca Raton, Fla.. CRC Press

  19. Effects of Pulsed and CW (Continuous Wave) 2450 MHz Radiation on Transformation and Chromosomes of Human Lymphocytes in vitro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    the subject of two brief communi- cations: one at the IRPA -7 Congress in April, 1988 in Sydney Australia (attachment 2), and a second one at the 10th...Society (2 presentations) in Stamford, Connecticut in 1988 and at the 7th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association ( IRPA ...Electromagnetic Fields. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl.; 1986; pp 229-272. IRPA 7 Seventh Intemational Congress of the International Radiation Protection

  20. The U.S. Navy’s Experience with Resuscitation of Wounded Servicemen in Vietnam Using Frozen Washed Red Blood Cells - 1966-1973; Developments from This Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-18

    to evaluate the Huggins technique and equipment, and to anticipate and deal with the logistics of supporting a frozen blood bank in a combat area. To...Rubber Company, Boca Raton, Florida, 1981. 134. Valeri, C. R., R. Mercado-Lugo, and D. Danon : Relationship between osmotic fragility and in vivo...erythrocytes. Transfusion 6:543-553, 1966a. Valeri, C. R., L. E. McCallum, and D. Danon : Relationships between in vivo survival and (1) density distribution

  1. Development of Field Guidance for Assessing Feasibility of Intrinsic Bioremediation to Restore Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    oxygen in ground water is limited by the solubility of oxygen. At 25°C, the maximum solubility of oxygen, according to Henry’s Law, is 8.32 mg/L ( Manahan ... Manahan , 1991:94). Nitrate. The use of nitrate as an anaerobic electron acceptor is wildly observed in intrinsic bioremediation. The primary reason is...Physical-Chemical Properties and Environm gll Fate for Organic Chemicals. Vol I. II. III. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers, 1992. Manahan , Stanley E

  2. Rational Inhibitors of DNA Base Excision Repair Enzymes: New Tools for Elucidating the Role of BER in Cancer Chemotherapy. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    30. Drohat, A. C., Jagadeesh, J., Ferguson, E., and Stivers, J. T. (1999) The role of electrophilic and base catalysis in the mechanism of Escherichia...based on a duplex previously used in rapid kinetic studies of base flipping by UDG (Figure 2) (5). The 2′ fluorinated deoxyuridine substrate analogue...Boca Raton, FL. 32. Drohat, A. C., Jagadeesh, J., Ferguson, E., and Stivers, J. T. (1999) Role of electrophilic and general base catalysis in the

  3. Enhanced Soft Tissue Attachment and Fixation Using a Mechanically-Stimulated Cytoselective Tissue-Specific ECM Coating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    vivo evaluation of a tri- phasic composite scaffold for anterior cruciate ligament -to-bone integration. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2006;1:525-8...Spector M. Tissue Engineering of Tendons and Ligaments . In: Ma PX, Elisseeff J, editors. Scaffolding in Tissue Engineering. Boca Raton: CRC Press...Soslowsky LJ. Twenty-five years of tendon and ligament research. J Orthop Res 2008;26(10):1297-305. 5. Goldberg V, Caplan A. Princlples of Tissue

  4. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    PubMed

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia del consumo de una dieta cetogénica complementada con triheptanoína, un triacilglicerol de cadena media y anaplerótico, en el perfil de ácidos grasos del hígado de ratones Wistar. Métodos: tres grupos de ratones Wistar machos (n = 10) fueron sometidos durante 60 días a una dieta AIN-93 de control, una dieta cetogénica basada en triheptanoína o una dieta cetogénica a base de aceite de soja. Los hígados fueron escindidos y sometidos a extracción de lípidos y metilación para obtener los ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos, que se sometieron a cromatografía de gas-espectrometría de masa. Resultados y discusión: en comparación con los ratones alimentados con la dieta de control, los de ambas dietas cetogénicas mostraron una reducción significativa en las concentraciones de los ácidos grasos 9-hexadecenoico y 9-octadecenoico, mientras que los alimentados con triheptanoína mostraron niveles de ácido octadecenoico aumentados. Conclusión: los cambios en los perfiles de ácidos grasos del hígado de los ratones alimentados con dietas cetogénicas no están relacionados con la fuente de grasa de la dieta (triheptanoína o aceite de soja), sino más bien con la concentración total de lípidos.

  5. Highly Efficient Flexible Hybrid Photovoltaic Cells Based on Low-Band-Gap Conjugated Polymers Sensitized by Nanoparticle-Grafted Carbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    described in the proposal. Task #3. Thin Film Flexible Solar Cells The awardee shall collaborate with sub-awardee and/or the Air Force Research Lab to...develop and evaluate thin film flexible solar cells or photo detectors fabricated from the developed materials. Task #4. Other Tasks and...and Dalton, L., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 2008, chapter 14, pp 401-420. b) Sun, S. “Organic and Polymeric Solar Cells

  6. An Ecohydrological Approach to Managing Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams on Department of Defense Lands in the Southwestern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    tridentata), blue paloverde (Parkinsonia florida ), littleleaf paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla), white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa), desert lavender (Hyptis...Analyses Using R. Second Edition. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. Farid, A., Rautenkranz, D., Goodrich, D.C., Marsh ... wetland classification review and application. Technical reference 1737-21. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Denver, CO. BLM/ST

  7. Biologically Inspired Strategies, Algorithms and Hardware for Visual Guidance of Autonomous Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-02

    Approaches. (S. Jarau, M. Hrncir, eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA. PP. 165-182. M.V. Srinivasan and J. Reinhard (2008) Bees : Beyond the Honey . In: The...effect of wind and the role of vision on the landing performance of honey bees . International Congress of Neuroethology, 2-7 August 2010, Salamanca...Angry Bee : Target tracking and interception by aggressive honeybees. Abstract, Conference of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects

  8. Cyberpower as a Coercive Instrument

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    infected over 359,000 US computers in just under 14 hours.35F8 The Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis ( CAIDA ) estimated damage caused...Micki Krause, Information Security Management Handbook, Edition: 6, (Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 2007), 405. 10 The Spread of the Code Red Worm, CAIDA ...1009_3-10216205-83.htmlU (accessed 9 April 2009). Moore, David and Shannon, Colleen. “The Spread of the Code Red Worm.” CAIDA : The Cooperative

  9. Dietary intake of ain-93 standard diet induces Fatty liver with altered hepatic fatty acid profile in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Farias Santos, Juliana; Suruagy Amaral, Monique; Lima Oliveira, Suzana; Porto Barbosa, Júnia; Rego Cabral-Jr, Cyro; Sofia Melo, Ingrid; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte Freitas, Johnatan; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio; Rocha Ataíde, Terezinha

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: En la investigación científica, hay varias dietas estándar para los animales, generalmente concebidas por instituciones científicas. La dieta AIN-93 es ampliamente utilizada, pero hay algunos informes de esteatosis hepática en ratones Wistar alimentadas con esta dieta. Objetivo: Evaluar las repercusiones hepáticas de la ingesta de la dieta estándar AIN-93 en ratones Wistar. Métodos: Cuarenta recién destetados, ratones Wistar machos, con 21 días de edad fueron alimentados con la dieta AIN-93 o una dieta comercial, durante 1 mes o 4 meses. El aumento de peso, la bioquímica sérica, la histología hepática y el perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos fueron analizados. Resultados: Se observó esteatosis hepática, especialmente en el grupo alimentado con la dieta AIN-93. Glucosa en suero, peso absoluto y relativo del hígado y los niveles hepáticos de ácidos grasos oleico, palmitoleico, esteárico y palmítico se relacionaron con la esteatosis observada, mientras el lipidograma y los marcadores sanguíneos de la función hepática, no se relacionaron. Conclusión: La dieta estándar AIN-93 causó esteatosis hepática aguda en ratones Wistar, que puede comprometer su uso como una dieta estándar para los estudios experimentales con roedores. El perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos se asoció con la esteatosis, con posibles implicaciones para el pronóstico de la enfermedad.

  10. An iridium abundance anomaly at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.; Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.; Fassett, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    An iridium abundance anomaly, with concentrations up to 5000 parts per trillion over a background level of 4 to 20 parts per trillion, has been located in sedimentary rocks laid down under freshwater swamp conditions in the Raton Basin of northeastern New Mexico. The anomaly occurs at the base of a coal bed, at the same stratigraphic position at which several well-known species of Cretaceous-age pollen became extinct. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  11. Stochastic Analysis of Facilities Hardened Against Conventional Weapons Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    repect to a set of weigl-ing funcions with the equations taling the form S= 0 k=1,2,...,n, (3.16) 0 0 1=1,2,...,n, (3.17) Where el, and e, denote the...and Survivability Analysis of Protective Strctures,"Cbapter 3, Analysis of Fuzzy InformationCRC Press Inc, Boca Raton,Fl. Wright,S.,Coltharp,D.R

  12. Development of a Mathematical Model for the Thermal Decomposition of Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    and Physics, 63rd Edition, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, p. F-1 (1982-1983). 59. Levenspiel , 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering , John Wiley & Sons...Crittenden, B. D., Hout, S. A.. and Alderman, N. J., "Model Experiments of Chemical Reaction Fouling," Chemical Engineering Research & Design, Vol. 65. pp...these steps, in turn, can occur by a number of different mechanisms. The chemical reactions leading to gum formation depend on temperature, pressure

  13. Crime Scene Intelligence. An Experiment in Forensic Entomology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Investigation (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993), 72. 23 Smith, 86. 24 G. Bianchini, “La Biologia Del Cadaver, ” Archivic Antropologia ...39 May R. Barenbaum, Ninety-Nine More Maggots, Mites, and Munchers ( Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1985), 10-46. 40 Gail and...Future Urban Operations (Monterey, CA: Rand, 2002), Summary. 75 May R. Barenbaum, Ninety-Nine More Maggots, Mites, and Munchers ( Urbana and Chicago

  14. Cognitive Work Analysis: Foundations, Extensions, and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Organisation 506 Lorimer St Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207 Australia Telephone: (03) 9626 7000 Fax: (03) 9626 7999 © Commonwealth of Australia...strategies for human error management (Naikar & Saunders, 2003), and development of recommendations for automation and role allocation (Bisantz, Roth ...work analysis. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Bisantz, A. M., Roth , E., Brickman, B., Gosbee, L. L., Hettinger, L., & McKinney, J. (2003). Integrating

  15. The Prediction of Biological Activity Using Molecular Connectivity Indices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-23

    toxicities of 15 organotin compounds against Daphnia magna . -18- This study confirmed that molecular topology can be employed to model the behavior...parameter correlation of the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Daphnia Pulex with 0XV: -log LC50 = 0.5346 OXV - 7.004 (r = 0.9972, n...CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, * 1983, chap. 4, pp. 105-140. 8. L.B. Kier and L.H. Hall, Molecular Connectivity in Chemistry and Drug * Research

  16. Studying the Role of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF4E) Phosphorylation by MNK1/2 Kinases in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Krop,  I.  E.,  Rousseau ,  C.,  Cocolakis,  E.,  Borden,  K.  L.,  Benz,  C.  C.,  and Miller, W.  H.,  Jr.  (2011) Clin Cancer Res 17, 2874‐2884  7...S., Long, J. C., and Caceres, J. F. (2006) Mol Cell Biol 26, 5744‐5758  15.  Buxade, M., Parra, J. L.,  Rousseau , S., Shpiro, N., Marquez, R

  17. [Metformin impact on purine metabolism in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Shatova, O P; Butenko, Eu V; Khomutov, Eu V; Kaplun, D S; Sedakov, I Eu; Zinkovych, I I

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of metformin in oncology practice. However, the mechanisms of implementation of the anti-tumor effect of this drug there is still need understanding. In this study we have investigated the effect of metformin on the activity of adenosine deaminase and respectively adenosinergic immunosuppression in tumors and their microenvironment. The material of the study was taken during surgery of breast cacer patients receiveing metformin, and also patients which did not take this drug. The adenosine deaminase activity and substrate (adenosine) and products (inosine, hypoxanthine) concentrations were determined by HPLC. Results of this study suggest that metformin significantly alters catabolism of purine nucleotides in the node breast adenocarcinoma tisue. However, the metformin-induced increase in the adenosine deaminase activity is not sufficient to reduce the level of adenosine in cancer tissue. Thus, in metformin treated patients the adenosine concentration remained unchanged, and inosine and hypoxanthine concentration significantly increased.

  18. Management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Covaro, Augusto; Vilà-Canet, Gemma; de Frutos, Ana García; Ubierna, Maite T.; Ciccolo, Francesco; Caceres, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis has become one of the most disabling pathologies in the elderly population. Some additional conditions such as foraminal stenosis or degenerative spondylosis with a history of back pain and leg pain must be considered before treatment. A completely appropriate protocol and unified management of spinal stenosis have not yet been well defined. The objective of this literature review is to provide evidence-based recommendations reflected in the highest-quality clinical literature available to address key clinical questions surrounding the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Cite this article: Covaro A, Vilà-Canet G, García de Frutos A, Ubierna MT, Ciccolo F, Caceres E. Management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: an evidence-based review article. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:267-274. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000030. PMID:28461958

  19. Mesophotic coral ecosystems under anthropogenic stress: a case study at Ponce, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appeldoorn, Richard; Ballantine, David; Bejarano, Ivonne; Carlo, Milton; Nemeth, Michael; Otero, Ernesto; Pagan, Francisco; Ruiz, Hector; Schizas, Nikolaos; Sherman, Clark; Weil, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) were compared between La Parguera and Ponce, off the south coast of Puerto Rico. In contrast to La Parguera, Ponce has a narrow insular shelf and hosts several river outlets, a commercial port, a regional sewage treatment plant with associated deep water outfall, and three deep dredge disposal sites. Off Ponce, MCEs receive higher (16×) rates of sedimentation than off La Parguera, a less impacted site. The most impacted sites were located offshore of Cayo Ratones and are in or down-current and in close proximity to one of the dredge disposal sites. There, MCEs are characterized by a steep, irregular, rocky slope with a cover of fine-grained, dark brown sediment, which increases with depth. At shallower depths, scattered rocky outcroppings are colonized by sponges, black corals and algae. The sediment cover contains two to three times the terrigenous content and a significantly higher percentage of the fine-grained fraction than off La Parguera. Thirteen remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives east and west of Ponce showed that the deepest depth at which corals were observed increased with distance from Cayo Ratones and did not approach depths observed off La Parguera except at the eastern-most (up-current) site, Caja de Muertos, which was also significantly further offshore. Benthic communities off Caja de Muertos were comparable to those at La Parguera, while off Cayo Ratones, there were no mesophotic corals and sparse development of other benthic macrobiota except sponges. Management authorities should include MCEs when assessing potential impacts from anthropogenic activities and take the necessary steps to reduce local threats.

  20. InSAR Analysis of Induced Seismicity: Examples From Southern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, W. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present interferormetric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) analysis of human-induced ground deformation in the Raton Basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, including displacements from a wastewater injection-induced earthquake. Geodetic observations of both seismic and aseismic surface displacements provide an additional tool to further constrain spatially and temporally variable deformation within these basins. Using Envisat observations, we image co-seismic surface displacements of the 2011 Trinidad earthquake and find that the earthquake slipped within the crystalline basement underlying basin sedimentary rocks and in the vicinity of high-volume wastewater injection wells. The spatial and temporal separation between the earthquake and the wastewater wells suggests a pore pressure migration triggering mechanism is present. The finite slip distributions further highlight the location and orientation of previously unmapped, seismogenic faults. Lastly, the precise earthquake location afforded by InSAR observations provides a well-located earthquake source that can be used to calibrate other regional earthquakes locations. Additionally, we derive InSAR time series observations from ALOS imagery acquired from 2007-2011. These results highlight ongoing regions of surface subsidence within the basin, presumably caused by extraction of coal-bed methane and water that is later reinjected. While it is not clear if there is a causative relationship between regions of co-located surface subsidence and recorded earthquakes, the time series permits us to exclude several other hypotheses for the causes of increased seismicity in the Raton Basin, including volcanic activity related to the Rio Grande Rift. Furthermore, the InSAR time series analysis provides a calibration source for hydrological models that assess subsurface stress changes from the removal and injection of fluids. Forthcoming work will provide a detailed time series of surface deformation occurring

  1. Six Sigma and Lean concepts, a case study: patient centered care model for a mammography center.

    PubMed

    Viau, Mark; Southern, Becky

    2007-01-01

    Boca Raton Community Hospital in South Florida decided to increase return while enhancing patient experience and increasing staff morale. They implemented a program to pursue "enterprise excellence" through Six Sigma methodologies. In order to ensure the root causes to delays and rework were addressed, a multigenerational project plan with 3 major components was developed. Step 1: Stabilize; Step 2: Optimize; Step 3: Innovate. By including staff and process owners in the process, they are empowered to think differently about what they do and how they do it. A team that works collaboratively to identify problems and develop solutions can only be a positive to any organization.

  2. Biomonitoring: Guide for the Use of Biological Endpoints in Monitoring Species, Habitats, and Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Exposure Factors Handbook (USEPA, 1993a, b) or primary literature sources. If little is known about how a species may be exposed or affected by a...Environmental Change. A Handbook . Environmental Science Research Vol. 50. Plenum Press, New York, NY. Barbour, M.T., J. Gerristen, B.D. Snyder, and J.B...Pages 177-216 in: Couch, J.A., and J.W. Fournie, eds., Pathobiology of Marine and Estuarine Organisms. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Hoque, M.T

  3. Application of Landscape Mosaic Technology to Complement Coral Reef Resource Mapping and Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    In W.E. Precht [ed.], Coral Reef Restoration Handbook . CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida. Smith, T.B., R.S. Nemeth, J. Blondeau, J.M. Calnan, E...14.5” and 19”) of a number of flower pots placed on the sea floor. The height has been determined from the top of the object to a nearby point on the...R.P.Reid 141 Figure B6. Control points for 3D point and click calibration. Flower pots of known dimension were placed on the seafloor and

  4. Magnesium Aluminum Borides as Explosive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-20

    Analog to MgB2,” Phys. Rev. B, 73[18] 180501-4 (2006). 29. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 63rd Edition ( CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1982). 30. R. Naslain...Engineering Properties of Borides,” Engineered Materials Handbook , Ceramics and Glasses, Vol. 4 (ASM, Metals Park, PA. 1991). 2. G. V. Samsonov and...I. M. Vinitskii, Handbook of Refractory Compounds (Plenum Press, 1980). 3. T. Lundstrom, “Transition Metal Borides,” pp. 351-376 in Boron and

  5. Composite-Nanoparticles Thermal History Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    The work was partially supported by DOE DE-FG02-00ER45805, NSF NIRT 0304506, and Intel. References and Notes 1. D. M. Rowe, CRC Handbook of...Thermoelectrics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA (1995). 2. D. Khokhlov, Lead Chalcogenides Physics and Applications, Taylor and Francis Books, Inc.: London...160 !C, a flower -like morphology as shown in Figure 3c was observed. Figure 3d is the low magnificati n SEM image showing the abundance of the morph l

  6. Accurate Methods for Large Molecular Systems (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-06

    Tajti, A.; Stanton, J. F. Mol. Phys. 2005, 103, 2159. (k) HEAT: Tajti, A.; Szalay, P. G.; Császár, A. G.; Kallay, M.; Gauss, J.; Valeev, E. F.; Flowers ...Quantum Chemistry; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2008. (b) Olson, R. M.; Bentz, J. L.; Kendall, R. A.; Schmidt, M. W.; Gordon, M. S. J. Chem. Theory...Eds. Handbook of Molecular Physics and Quantum Chemistry; Wiley: Chichester, U.K., 2000; Vol. 2, pp 272-313. (64) Jeziorski, B.; Moszynski, R

  7. Nutrition and Performance at Environmental Extremes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    practical guidelines for recrea- tional or expedition meal planning in environmental extremes are shown in Table 5. Proper nutrition can prevent or...SNUTRITION in EXERCISE and SPORT 0_2nd Edition Si n l Editors F. -9. %im -a15 1994 Ira Wolinsky, Ph.D. Professor of Nutrition Department of Human...Reproduced From Boca Raton Ann Arbor Lo do.o appoved Best Available Copy J for p-H:•I .; -. !nd sIah: its 94 2 14 050 NUTRITION in EXERCISE and SPORT 2nd

  8. On the global behavior of a high-order rational difference equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Rastegar, Narges

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the (k+1)-order rational difference equation y={p+qy+ry}/{1+y},n=0,1,2,… where k∈{1,2,3,…}, and the initial conditions y,…,y,y and the parameters p, q and r are non-negative. We investigate the global stability, the periodic character and the boundedness nature of solutions of the above mentioned difference equation. In particular, our results solve the open problem introduced by Kulenovic and Ladas in their monograph [Dynamics of Second Order Rational Difference Equations with Open Problems and Conjectures, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, 2002].

  9. Study of Toxic and Antigenic Structures of Botulinum Neurotoxins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Nacional. Research Council (D ? •" Iica:ion No. (NIH) 73-23, Revised 1973). Accession Fcr S::TIS G•A&I rKIc TABS C U:• anounced Justificstio By...Botulism (ed. G. E. Lewis). pp. 1-19. Academic Press , N.Y. (1981). 3. DasGupta, B. R. "Microbial food.toxicar:ts: Clostridium botulinum toxins", in CRC...Handbook of Foodborne Diseases of biological origin (ed. M. Recheigl, Jr.). pp. 25-55. CRC Press , Inc., Boca Raton, Fla. (1983). 4. 3asGupta, B. R. and

  10. Coal-bed gas resources of the Rocky Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Nuccio, V.F.; Flores, R.M.; Johnson, R.C.; Roberts, S.B.; Collett, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain region contains several sedimentary provinces with extensive coal deposits and significant accumulations of coal-bed gas. This summary includes coal-bed gas resources in the Powder River Basin (Wyoming and Montana), Wind River Basin (Wyoming), Southwest Wyoming (Greater Green River Basin of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah), Uinta-Piceance Basin (Colorado and Utah), Raton Basin (Colorado and New Mexico), and San Juan Basin (Colorado and New Mexico). Other provinces in the Rocky Mountain region may contain significant coal-bed gas resources, but these resource estimates are not available at this time.

  11. Novel Carboxamides as Potential Mosquito Repellents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    products from nitric acid by n,n-disubstituted amides and effect of -ray irradiation on the extraction. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 178: 99Ð107. Barnard...Strickman (eds.), Insect repellents: principles, methods, and uses. CRC, Boca Raton, FL. Bernier, U. R., K. D. Furman, D. L. Kline, S. A. Allan, and D...Entomol. 42: 306Ð311. Clem, J. R.,D. E.Havemann, andM.A. Raebel. 1993. Insect repellent (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) cardiovascular tox- icity in an adult

  12. Zeta functions of Dirac and Laplace-type operators over finite cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsten, Klaus; Loya, Paul; Park, Jinsung

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, a complete description of the zeta functions and corresponding zeta determinants for Dirac and Laplace-type operators over finite cylinders using the contour integration method, for example described in [K. Kirsten, Spectral Functions in Mathematics and Physics, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001] is given. Different boundary conditions, local and non-local ones, are considered. The method is shown to be very powerful in that it is easily adapted to each situation and in that answers are very elegantly obtained.

  13. On the selection of auxiliary functions, operators, and convergence control parameters in the application of the Homotopy Analysis Method to nonlinear differential equations: A general approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.; Vajravelu, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Homotopy Analysis Method of Liao [Liao SJ. Beyond perturbation: introduction to the Homotopy Analysis Method. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press; 2003] has proven useful in obtaining analytical solutions to various nonlinear differential equations. In this method, one has great freedom to select auxiliary functions, operators, and parameters in order to ensure the convergence of the approximate solutions and to increase both the rate and region of convergence. We discuss in this paper the selection of the initial approximation, auxiliary linear operator, auxiliary function, and convergence control parameter in the application of the Homotopy Analysis Method, in a fairly general setting. Further, we discuss various convergence requirements on solutions.

  14. Fatty Acid and Phenolic Compound Concentrations in Eight Different Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oils from Extremadura and the Relationship with Oxidative Stability

    PubMed Central

    Montaño, Alfonso; Hernández, Marcos; Garrido, Inmaculada; Llerena, José Luís; Espinosa, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils have been shown to be more resistant to oxidation than other vegetable fats, mainly due to their fatty acid (FA) profile which is rich in oleic acid and to their high content of antioxidants, principally phenols and tocopherols. This has situated virgin olive oils (VOOs) among the fats of high nutritional quality. However, it is important to stress that the oil’s commercial category (olive oil, virgin olive oil, extra-virgin olive oil), the variety of the source plant, and the extraction-conservation systems all decisively influence the concentration of these antioxidants and the oil’s shelf-life. The present work studied the fatty acid (FA) and phenolic composition and the oxidative stability (OS) of eight olive varieties grown in Extremadura (Arbequina, Cornicabra, Manzanilla Cacereña, Manzanilla de Sevilla, Morisca, Pico Limón, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz), with the olives being harvested at different locations and dates. The Cornicabra, Picual, and Manzanilla Cacereña VOOs were found to have high oleic acid contents (>77.0%), while the VOOs of Morisca and Verdial de Badajoz had high linoleic acid contents (>14.5%). Regarding the phenol content, high values were found in the Cornicabra (633 mg·kg−1) and Morisca (550 mg·kg−1) VOOs, and low values in Arbequina (200 mg·kg−1). The OS was found to depend upon both the variety and the date of harvesting. It was higher in the Cornicabra and Picual oils (>55 h), and lower in those of Verdial de Badajoz (26.3 h), Arbequina (29.8 h), and Morisca (31.5 h). In relating phenols and FAs with the OS, it was observed that, while the latter, particularly the linoleic content (R = −0.710, p < 0.001, n = 135), constitute the most influential factors, the phenolic compounds, especially o-diphenols, are equally influential when the oils’ linoleic content is ≥12.5% (R = 0.674, p < 0.001, n = 47). The results show that VOOs’ resistance to oxidation depends not only on the FA or phenolic profile

  15. [Lipid control in patients with coronary artery disease in a healthcare area in Cáceres (Spain): LIPICERES study].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Barrado, José J; Ortiz, Carolina; Gómez-Turégano, Marta; Gómez-Turégano, Paula; Garcipérez-de-Vargas, Francisco J; Sánchez-Calderón, Pablo

    Current guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) target of <70mg/dl for patients with coronary artery disease. Despite the well-established benefits of strict lipid control, the most recent studies show that control rate of lipid targets are alarmingly low. An analysis was performed on the lipid targets attained according to current guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in coronary patients in a Caceres healthcare area. An observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in a healthcare area in Caceres (Spain). The study included a total of 741 patients admitted for coronary disease between 2009 and 2015 with available lipid profile in the last 3 years Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides (TG) and non-HDLc were analysed. The majority (74.4%) of patients were male, with a mean age of 68.5±13.1 years; 76.3±11.8 for women and 65.8±12.6 for men (P<.001). A total of 52.3% patients achieved the LDLc target of <70mg/dl, with no gender differences. Only 44.8% of the patients <55 years achieved their lipid targets, compared to 59.3% of the patients >75 years. About 68.2% of men had an HDLc>40mg/dl, and 54.8% of women had an HDLc>50mg/dl. Overall, 79.4% of patients had a TG<150mg/dl, with no gender differences, and 59.8% had a non-HDLc<100mg/dl. Approximately one half of patients with coronary disease do not achieve their target lipid levels as defined in the European guidelines, and this rate is less than reported in previous studies. There are no gender differences in achieving lipid goals, and age is a predictor of adherence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatty Acid and Phenolic Compound Concentrations in Eight Different Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oils from Extremadura and the Relationship with Oxidative Stability.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Alfonso; Hernández, Marcos; Garrido, Inmaculada; Llerena, José Luís; Espinosa, Francisco

    2016-11-23

    Olive oils have been shown to be more resistant to oxidation than other vegetable fats, mainly due to their fatty acid (FA) profile which is rich in oleic acid and to their high content of antioxidants, principally phenols and tocopherols. This has situated virgin olive oils (VOOs) among the fats of high nutritional quality. However, it is important to stress that the oil's commercial category (olive oil, virgin olive oil, extra-virgin olive oil), the variety of the source plant, and the extraction-conservation systems all decisively influence the concentration of these antioxidants and the oil's shelf-life. The present work studied the fatty acid (FA) and phenolic composition and the oxidative stability (OS) of eight olive varieties grown in Extremadura (Arbequina, Cornicabra, Manzanilla Cacereña, Manzanilla de Sevilla, Morisca, Pico Limón, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz), with the olives being harvested at different locations and dates. The Cornicabra, Picual, and Manzanilla Cacereña VOOs were found to have high oleic acid contents (>77.0%), while the VOOs of Morisca and Verdial de Badajoz had high linoleic acid contents (>14.5%). Regarding the phenol content, high values were found in the Cornicabra (633 mg·kg(-1)) and Morisca (550 mg·kg(-1)) VOOs, and low values in Arbequina (200 mg·kg(-1)). The OS was found to depend upon both the variety and the date of harvesting. It was higher in the Cornicabra and Picual oils (>55 h), and lower in those of Verdial de Badajoz (26.3 h), Arbequina (29.8 h), and Morisca (31.5 h). In relating phenols and FAs with the OS, it was observed that, while the latter, particularly the linoleic content (R = -0.710, p < 0.001, n = 135), constitute the most influential factors, the phenolic compounds, especially o-diphenols, are equally influential when the oils' linoleic content is ≥12.5% (R = 0.674, p < 0.001, n = 47). The results show that VOOs' resistance to oxidation depends not only on the FA or phenolic profile, but also on

  17. Quality and petrographic characteristics of Paleocene coals from the Hanna basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    Coal beds from the Ferris and Hanna Formations, in the Hanna basin, south-central Wyoming, exhibit distinct differences in ash yield, sulfur content, and petrographic and palynologic constituents. These differences are interpreted to be controlled by tectonic changes of the Hanna basin and adjoining uplifts during evolutionary development, which, in turn, controlled mire chemistry and sedimentation. These conditions created two very different settings under which the peats developed during deposition of the Ferris and the Hanna Formations. In addition, there appears to be a geographic (latitudinal) and/or climatic control on the coal characteristics manifested by major differences of Paleocene coals in the Hanna basin compared to those in the Raton basin in Colorado and New Mexico and the Powder River basin in Wyoming.Coal beds from the Ferris and Hanna Formations, in the Hanna basin, south-central Wyoming, exhibit distinct differences in ash yield, sulfur content, and petrographic and palynologic constituents. These differences are interpreted to be controlled by tectonic changes of the Hanna basin and adjoining uplifts during evolutionary development, which, in turn, controlled mire chemistry and sedimentation. These conditions created two very different settings under which the peats developed during deposition of the Ferris and the Hanna Formations. In addition, there appears to be a geographic (latitudinal) and/or climatic control on the coal characteristics manifested by major differences of Paleocene coals in the Hanna basin compared to those in the Raton basin in Colorado and New Mexico and the Powder River basin in Wyoming.

  18. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Vermejo Peak area, Colfax and Taos Counties, New Mexico and Las Animas and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Pillmore, Charles L.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    This geologic map covers four 7.5-minute quadrangles-The Wall, NM-CO (New Mexico-Colorado), Vermejo Park, NM-CO, Ash Mountain, NM, and Van Bremmer Park, NM. The study area straddles the boundary between the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the western margin of the Raton Basin, with about two-thirds of the map area in the basin. The Raton Basin is a foreland basin that formed immediately eastward of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains during their initial uplift, in the Late Cretaceous through early Eocene Laramide orogeny. Subsequently, these mountains have been extensively modified during formation of the Rio Grande rift, from late Oligocene to present. The map area is within that part of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains that is called the Culebra Range. Additionally, the map covers small parts of the Devil's Park graben and the Valle Vidal half-graben, in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the map area, respectively. These two grabens are small intermontaine basins, that are satellitic to the main local basin of the Rio Grande rift, the San Luis Basin, that are an outlying, early- formed part of the rift, and that separate the Culebra Range from the Taos Range, to the southwest.

  19. Hydrology of Area 61, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, P.O.; Geldon, Arthur L.; Cain, Doug; Hall, Alan P.; Edelmann, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Area 61 is located on the Colorado-New Mexico boundary in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico, and includes the Raton Mesa coal region. The 5 ,900-square-mile area is an asymmetrical structural trough bounded by the Rocky Mountains on the west and the Great Plains on the east. The area is drained by the Huerfano, Apishapa, Purgatoire, and Canadian Rivers (and their tributaries), all tributary to the Arkansas River. The principal coal-bearing formations are the Vermejo Formation of Late Cretaceous age and the Raton Formation of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Much of the coal in the area is of coking quality, important to the metallurgical industry. Topographic relief in the area is greater than 8,700 feet, and this influences the climate which in turn affects the runoff pattern of area streams. Summer thunderstorms often result in flash floods. Virtually all geologic units in the region yield water. Depth to ground water ranges from land surface to 400 feet. Surface and ground water in the area contain mostly bicarbonate and sulfate ions; locally in the ground water, chloride ions predominate. Potential hydrologic problems associated with surface coal mining in the area are water-quality degradation, water-table decline, and increased erosion and sedimentation. (USGS)

  20. The use of human adipose-derived stem cells based cytotoxicity assay for acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Abud, Ana Paula Ressetti; Zych, Jaiesa; Reus, Thamile Luciane; Kuligovski, Crisciele; de Moraes, Elizabeth; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; de Aguiar, Alessandra Melo

    2015-12-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) were evaluated as cell culture model for cytotoxicity assay and toxicity prediction by using the neutral red uptake assay (NRU). In this study, we compared ADSC and the murine cell line BALB/c 3T3 clone A31 to predict the toxicity of 12 reference substances as recommended by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods. We predicted the LD50 for RC-rat-only weight and RC-rat-only millimole regressions for both cell culture models. For RC rat-only weight regression, both cells had the same accordance (50%), while for RC rat-only millimole regression, the accordance was 50% for ADSC and 42% for 3T3s. Thus, ADSC have similar capability for GHS class prediction as the 3T3 cell line for the evaluated reference substances. Therefore, ADSCs showed the potential to be considered a novel model for use in evaluating cytotoxicity in drug development and industry as well as for regulatory purposes to reduce or replace the use of laboratory animals with acceptable sensitivity for toxicity prediction in humans. These cells can be used to complete the results from other models, mainly because of its human origin. Moreover, it is less expensive in comparison with other existing models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  2. Eyewitness to history: Landmarks in the development of computerized electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Rautaharju, Pentti M

    2016-01-01

    The use of digital computers for ECG processing was pioneered in the early 1960s by two immigrants to the US, Hubert Pipberger, who initiated a collaborative VA project to collect an ECG-independent Frank lead data base, and Cesar Caceres at NIH who selected for his ECAN program standard 12-lead ECGs processed as single leads. Ray Bonner in the early 1970s placed his IBM 5880 program in a cart to print ECGs with interpretation, and computer-ECG programs were developed by Telemed, Marquette, HP-Philips and Mortara. The "Common Standards for quantitative Electrocardiography (CSE)" directed by Jos Willems evaluated nine ECG programs and eight cardiologists in clinically-defined categories. The total accuracy by a representative "average" cardiologist (75.5%) was 5.8% higher than that of the average program (69.7, p<0.001). Future comparisons of computer-based and expert reader performance are likely to show evolving results with continuing improvement of computer-ECG algorithms and changing expertise of ECG interpreters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A.; Caceres, Ana I.; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-01-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca2+ influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.—Bessac, B. F., Sivula, M., von Hehn, C. A., Caceres, A. I., Escalera, J., Jordt, S.-E. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases. PMID:19036859

  4. Epidemiology of the sarcomas of the jaws in a Peruvian population

    PubMed Central

    Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia J.; Morales-Vadillo, Rafael; Sánchez Lihón, Juvenal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of the clinical characteristics of patients with Sarcomas of the Jaws treated in the “Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas. Dr. Eduardo Caceres Graziani” from 1952-2007. Study Design: Review of 155 clinical records of patients with Sarcomas of the Jaws and record of age, gender, size, location, clinical symptoms and signs, histopathological diagnoses and type of treatment. The data obtained were analyzed by means of Student’s statistical t-test, Fisher and Friedman’s test. Results: Analysis of 155 Sarcomas of the Jaws. The average age of patients was 36.8 years old (range: 1-80 years); the female gender was the most frequent (52.9%); the average tumor size was 5.5 cm; in upper jaw 54.84% occurred and 45.16% in the lower jaw; the predominant sign was facial asymmetry (87.74%) and the predominant symptom: pain (63.23%). The most frequent diagnosis was Osteosarcoma 50.3% followed by Chondrosarcoma 18%. Surgery plus radiation therapy was the treatment type of choice with 21.94% of cases. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the delayed diagnosis and facial asymmetry and pain appear as the most important events for the diagnosis of Sarcomas of the Jaws. Key words: Sarcoma, jaw, jaw neoplasms, mouth neoplasms. PMID:22143684

  5. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity. Review of the literature and experience in a Peruvian Population

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Morales, Mario M.; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia J.; Sánchez-Lihón, Juvenal; Morales-Vadillo, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological profile of malignant melanoma cases treated at the National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases “Dr. Eduardo Caceres Graziani” (INEN) over the period 1952 to 2008. Study Design: All clinical records with complete data of patients presenting a histopathological diagnosis of malignant melanoma of the oral cavity were reviewed. Data such as age, gender, location, tumor size, disease length, presence of metastasis, treatment received and year of admission were recorded. Results: During the study period 97 cases were found. The average age of patients was 52.85±1.6 years old mostly between 50 and 59 years old; the predominant gender was the female. The most common location was the palate and there was 58.8% of cases with a tumor size bigger than or equal to 4 cm. The length of the disease in 38.1% of the cases was longer than a year and in great part of the cases (69.1%) there was no metastasis. The treatment of choice was the surgery plus radiotherapy in 38.1% of the cases. According to the admission date it was also noted that the number of cases is increasing. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate a late diagnosis and an increasing frequency of this neoplasia in the oral cavity. Key words: Melanoma, oral cavity, epidemiology. PMID:22143709

  6. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  7. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz.

  8. Geology along Mosca Pass Trail, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Klein, Terry L.; Valdez, Andrew; Webster, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Mosca Pass Trail takes the hiker on a journey into the Earth's crust. Here you can see the results of tremendous tectonic forces that bend and tear rocks apart and raise mountain ranges. The trail begins near the Sangre de Cristo fault, which separates the Sangre de Cristo Range from the San Luis Valley. The valley is part of the Rio Grande rift, a series of fault basins extending from southern New Mexico to central Colorado, wherein the Earth's crust has been pulled apart during the last 30 million years. Thousands of feet of sediment, brought by streams mostly from the Sangre de Cristo Range, fill the San Luis Valley beneath the Great Sand Dunes. The trail ends at Mosca Pass overlooking Huerfano Park. The park is part of the larger Raton Basin, formed by compression of the Earth's crust during the Laramide orogeny, which occurred 70–40 million years ago. Massive highlands, the remnants of which are preserved in the Sangre de Cristo Range, were uplifted and pushed over the western side of the Raton Basin. Streams eroded the highland as it rose and filled the Raton Basin with sediment. After the sediment was compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rock, the Huerfano River and other streams began to excavate the basin. Over an unknown but long timespan that probably lasted millions of years, relatively soft sedimentary rocks were removed by the river to form the valley we call "Huerfano Park." Between the ends of the trail, the hiker walks through an erosional "window," or opening, into red sedimentary rocks overridden by gneiss, a metamorphic rock, during the Laramide orogeny. This window gives the hiker a glimpse into the Laramide highland of 70–40 million years ago that preceded the present-day Sangre de Cristo Range. The window is the focus of this trail guide. At the east end of the trail, near Mosca Pass, another trail follows the ridgeline south to Carbonate Mountain. Immediately after reaching the first summit above tree line, this trail crosses a

  9. Dynamic topography of the western Great Plains: landscape evidence for mantle-driven uplift associated with the Jemez lineament of NE New Mexico and SE Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nereson, A. L.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Heizler, M. T.; Kelley, S. A.; Brown, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic topography results when viscous stresses created by flow within the mantle are transmitted through the lithosphere and interact with, and deform, the Earth's surface. Because dynamic topography is characterized by low amplitudes and long wavelengths, its subtle effects may be best recorded in low-relief areas such as the Great Plains of the USA where they can be readily observed and measured. We apply this concept to a unique region of the western Great Plains in New Mexico and Colorado where basalt flows of the Jemez lineament (Raton-Clayton and Ocate fields) form mesas (inverted topography) that record the evolution of the Great Plains surface through time. This study uses multiple datasets to evaluate the mechanisms which have driven the evolution of this landscape. Normalized channel steepness index (ksn) analysis identifies anomalously steep river gradients across broad (50-100 km) convexities within a NE- trending zone of differential river incision where higher downstream incision rates in the last 1.5 Ma suggest headwater uplift. At 2-8 Ma timescales, 40Ar/39Ar ages of basalt-capped paleosurfaces in the Raton-Clayton and Ocate volcanic fields indicate that rates of denudation increase systematically towards the NW from a NE-trending zone of approximately zero denudation (that approximately coincides with the high ksn zone), also suggestive of regional warping above the Jemez lineament. Onset of more rapid denudation is observed in the Raton-Clayton field beginning at ca. 3.6 Ma. Furthermore, two 300-400-m-high NE-trending erosional escarpments impart a staircase-like topographic profile to the region. Tomographic images from the EarthScope experiment show that NE-trending topographic features of this region correspond to an ~8 % P-wave velocity gradient of similar trend at the margin of the low-velocity Jemez mantle anomaly. We propose that the erosional landscapes of this unique area are, in large part, the surface expression of dynamic mantle

  10. Determination of Granites' Mineral Specific Porosities by PMMA Method and FESEM/EDAX

    SciTech Connect

    Leskinen, A.; Penttinen, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Alanso, U.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Patelli, Alessandro

    2007-07-01

    Over extended periods, long-lived radionuclides (RN) or activation products within geologic disposal sites may be released from the fuel and migrate to the geo/biosphere. In the bedrock, contaminants will be transported along fractures by advection and retarded by sorption on mineral surfaces and by molecular diffusion into stagnant pore water in the matrix along a connected system of pores and micro-fissures. The objective of this paper was to determine the connective porosity and mineral-specific porosities for three granite samples by {sup 14}C methyl-methacrylate ({sup 14}C-PMMA) autoradiography. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses (FESEM/EDAX) were performed in order to study the pore apertures of porous regions in greater detail and to identify the corresponding minerals. Finally, the porosity results were used to evaluate the diffusion coefficients of RNs from previous experiments which determined apparent diffusion coefficients for the main minerals in three granite samples by the Rutherford Backscattering technique. The total porosity of the Grimsel granite (0.75%) was significantly higher than the porosities of the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites (0.3%). The porosities of the Grimsel granite feldspars were two to three times higher than the porosities of the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites feldspars. However, there was no significant difference between the porosities of the dark minerals. A clear difference was found between the various quartz grains. Quartz crystals were non-porous in the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites when measured by the PMMA method, but the quartz crystals in the Grimsel granite showed 0.5% intra granular porosity. The apparent diffusion coefficients calculated for uranium diffusion within Grimsel granite on different minerals were very similar (2.10{sup -13} {+-} 0.5 m{sup 2}/s), but differences within both Spanish granites were found from one mineral to another (9 {+-} 1.10{sup -14} m

  11. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils in body composition and lipid regulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Scalerandi, María Victoria; Gonzalez, Marcela Aida; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Las evidencias sugieren que las mezclas de Ácido Linoleico Conjugado (ALC) de origen comercial o natural diferencialmente afectan diferencialment al estado nutricional y al metabolismo lipídico. Objetivo: Investigar el efecto de dos preparaciones de ALC como complemento de grasas dietarias con diferentes proporciones de ácidos grasos (AG) n-9, n-6 y n-3 sobre composición corporal, niveles de triacilglicéridos (TG) y metabolismo lipídico en ratones. Métodos: Se alimentó a ratones en crecimiento con dietas con aceite de oliva, maíz y canola, o colza suplementadas con una mezcla equimolecular de ALC (mezcla-ALC) o aceites ricos en ácido ruménico (AR) por 30 días. Se evaluó: ganancia de peso, composición corporal, peso de tejidos, niveles de TG plasmáticos y séricos, y parámetros de regulación lipídica. Resultados: Independientemente de las grasas dietarias, la mezcla-ALC redujo el peso corporal y depósitos grasos relacionados con hepatomegalia, incremento de TG séricos y descenso de TG musculares. El aceite de canola previno la esteatosis hepática producida por la mezcla-ALC a aceites de oliva y maíz por incremento de la secreción de TG. AR decreció los depósitos grasos sin hepatomegalia, esteatosis hepática e hipertrigliceridemia. Aceite de oliva previno el incremento de TG musculares inducidos por suplementación con AR al aceite de maíz y canola. Discusión y conclusión: Las proporciones de AG insaturados dietarios modularon la respuesta de mezcla-ALC y AR al metabolismo lipídico en ratones. Finalmente, aceite de canola previno la esteatosis hepática inducida por mezcla-ALC, y los efectos benéficos más notorios fueron observados cuando aceite de oliva fue suplementado con AR, debido a la reducida acreción de lípidos sin cambios en los niveles de TG.

  12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EUTERPE EDULIS FRUITS: APPLICABILITY ON GENETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Marques Cardoso, Luciana; Dias Novaes, Rômulo; Aparecida de Castro, Cynthia; Azevedo Novello, Alexandre; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Ricci-Silva, Maria Esther; de Oliveira Ramos, Humberto Josué; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Viana Leite, João Paulo

    2015-08-01

    El papel de los polifenoles en la prevención de enfermedades crónicas es controvertido. Objetivo: este estudio investigó la composición química y el potencial antioxidante de un extracto del fruto de Euterpe edulis rico en antocianinas (LPEF) y sus efectos en la esteatosis hepática en ratones apoE-/- knockout con dislipidemia. Material y métodos: los ratones fueron divididos en los siguientes grupos; G1 (C57BL/6) con una dieta estándar; G2 (apoE-/-) con dieta estándar; G3 G3 (apoE-/-) con 2% de LPEF; G4 (apoE-/-) con 6% de LPEF; G5 (apoE-/-) con 10% de LPEF y G6 (apoE-/-) con 2% acetato α-tocoferol (α-tocopherol acetate). Después de 75 días de tratamiento, los animales fueron eutanizados. El LPEF contenía un alto nivel de antocianinas monoméricas (301,4 mg/100 g) con notable actividad antioxidante. Resultados: la actividad catalasa fue reducida en los grupos G3, G4, G5 y G6 comparada con G2. La superoxidasa dismutasa solo se redujo en el grupo G4. Los animales de G4, G5 y G6 mostraron bajos niveles de HDL triglicéridos, comparados con G2. La proporción de lípidos en el tejido hepático fue reducida en G4 y G5, comparado con G2, G3 y G6. Conclusión: los resultados indicaron que la pulpa de E. edulis es rica en antocianinas, y que el consumo de LPEF en la dieta puede reducir la severidad de la esteatosis hepática en ratones apoE-/-, un efecto que es potencialmente mediado por la actividad antioxidante de este extracto y la modulación en los niveles séricos de triglicéridos.

  13. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  14. PACS--and beyond. A journey to the digital promised land.

    PubMed

    Viau, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    A successful picture archiving and communication system (PACS) integration depends on much more than the technology; marketing also plays a large role. This fact was evident from the inception of the PACS project at Boca Raton Community Hospital (BRCH). Strategic and effective marketing efforts should target technologists, nurses, physicians (including radiologists), administration, and colleagues in other departments. The buy-in of these users is critical to the project's success. BRCH's first marketing effort took place during the initial PACS presentation made to the hospital's board of directors. Once approval was given and a 6-month implementation target was set, a strategic and effective marketing/education plan commenced. Posters, brochures, t-shirts, and promotional items were distributed in a coordinated effort to target hospital staff and referring physician offices. Through its "Got PACS?" branding and other identity materials, BRCH implemented a marketing plan that informed, educated, and engaged PACS users.

  15. Frameless Stereotactic Insertion of Viewsite Brain Access System with Microscope-Mounted Tracking Device for Resection of Deep Brain Lesions: Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Lall, Rohan; Fanous, Andrew A; Boockvar, John; Langer, David J

    2017-01-01

    The surgical management of deep brain tumors is often challenging due to the limitations of stereotactic needle biopsies and the morbidity associated with transcortical approaches. We present a novel microscopic navigational technique utilizing the Viewsite Brain Access System (VBAS) (Vycor Medical, Boca Raton, FL, USA) for resection of a deep parietal periventricular high-grade glioma as well as another glioma and a cavernoma with no related morbidity. The approach utilized a navigational tracker mounted on a microscope, which was set to the desired trajectory and depth. It allowed gentle continuous insertion of the VBAS directly to a deep lesion under continuous microscopic visualization, increasing safety by obviating the need to look up from the microscope and thus avoiding loss of trajectory. This technique has broad value for the resection of a variety of deep brain lesions. PMID:28331774

  16. Frameless Stereotactic Insertion of Viewsite Brain Access System with Microscope-Mounted Tracking Device for Resection of Deep Brain Lesions: Technical Report.

    PubMed

    White, Tim; Chakraborty, Shamik; Lall, Rohan; Fanous, Andrew A; Boockvar, John; Langer, David J

    2017-02-04

    The surgical management of deep brain tumors is often challenging due to the limitations of stereotactic needle biopsies and the morbidity associated with transcortical approaches. We present a novel microscopic navigational technique utilizing the Viewsite Brain Access System (VBAS) (Vycor Medical, Boca Raton, FL, USA) for resection of a deep parietal periventricular high-grade glioma as well as another glioma and a cavernoma with no related morbidity. The approach utilized a navigational tracker mounted on a microscope, which was set to the desired trajectory and depth. It allowed gentle continuous insertion of the VBAS directly to a deep lesion under continuous microscopic visualization, increasing safety by obviating the need to look up from the microscope and thus avoiding loss of trajectory. This technique has broad value for the resection of a variety of deep brain lesions.

  17. Osmium Isotopic Composition of the Sumbar Cretaceous- Tertiary Boundary, Turkmenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Krahenbuhl, U.; Nazarov, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    Turekian (1982) propagated the use of the osmium isotopic composition as a cosmic indicator for the origin of the high osmium (and iridium) layers at the K/T boundaries. He did not consider the osmium isotopic signature of the terrestrial mantle, which also has a chondritic evolution of the Re-Os system. Osmium cannot serve alone as an infallible indicator of the impact theory, but interesting results can be obtained from their investigation. Different K/T boundary section have been analyzed so far for ^187Os/^186Os. An overview of the values is presented in the table. Boundary Clay layer Os ratio Reference Stevns Klint fish clay 1.66 Luck and Turekian, 1983 Woodside Creek 1.12 Lichte et al., 1986 Raton Basin 1.23 Kraehenbuehl et al., 1988 Raton Basin (several) 1.15-1.23 Esser and Turekian, 1989 Sumbar (0-1 cm) 1.16 This work We obtained a complete marine section of the K/T boundary in southern Turkmenia (decribed by Alekseyev, 1988). It shows a very high Ir concentration (66 ppb) at the boundary layer and a remarkable Ir enrichment over crustal rocks continuing up to 30 cm above the boundary. Our aim of this investigation is to analyze several samples from above and below the boundary for the ^187Os/^186Os ratio to obtain a complete picture of the isotopic evolution of the section. We want to evaluate mixing of Os with chondritic ratios with Os from upper crustal rocks. Another goal is to investigate a mobilization of Os. So far only one sample has been analyzed with NTI-MS after fire assay digestion of the sample. The sample 0 to 1 cm has an ^187Os/^186Os ratio of 1.162 +- 13, which is quite low. We expect an even lower value for the boundary clay (0 cm) itself not taking into account a contribution of radiogenic osmium from the decay of terrestrial rhenium. This might put this K/T boundary section closest of all to the present day chondritic value (approx. 1.05). Further analysis will be presented at the meeting. References Alekseyev A. S., Nazarov M. A

  18. The pH-dependent surface charging and points of zero charge: V. Update.

    PubMed

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The points of zero charge (PZC) and isoelectric points (IEP) from the recent literature are discussed. This study is an update of the previous compilation [M. Kosmulski, Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2009] and of its previous update [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337 (2009) 439]. In several recent publications, the terms PZC/IEP have been used outside their usual meaning. Only the PZC/IEP obtained according to the methods recommended by the present author are reported in this paper, and the other results are ignored. PZC/IEP of albite, sepiolite, and sericite, which have not been studied before, became available over the past 2 years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 2017 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Shumway, Allison; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    We produce the 2017 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes that updates the 2016 one-year forecast; this map is intended to provide information to the public and to facilitate the development of induced seismicity forecasting models, methods, and data. The 2017 hazard model applies the same methodology and input logic tree as the 2016 forecast, but with an updated earthquake catalog. We also evaluate the 2016 seismic hazard forecast to improve future assessments. The 2016 forecast indicated high seismic hazard (greater than 1% probability of potentially damaging ground shaking in one-year) in five focus areas: Oklahoma-Kansas, the Raton Basin (Colorado/New Mexico border), north Texas, north Arkansas, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone. During 2016, several damaging induced earthquakes occurred in Oklahoma within the highest hazard region of the 2016 forecast; all of the 21 magnitude (M) ≥ 4 and three M ≥ 5 earthquakes occurred within the highest hazard area in the 2016 forecast. Outside the Oklahoma-Kansas focus area two earthquakes with M ≥ 4 occurred near Trinidad, Colorado (in the Raton Basin focus area), but no earthquakes with M ≥ 2.7 were observed in the north Texas or north Arkansas focus areas. Several observations of damaging ground shaking levels were also recorded in the highest hazard region of Oklahoma. The 2017 forecasted seismic rates are lower in regions of induced activity due to lower rates of earthquakes in 2016 compared to 2015, which may be related to decreased wastewater injection, caused by regulatory actions or by a decrease in unconventional oil and gas production. Nevertheless, the 2017 forecasted hazard is still significantly elevated in Oklahoma compared to the hazard calculated from seismicity before 2009.

  20. 2017 One‐year seismic‐hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Shumway, Allison; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    We produce a one‐year 2017 seismic‐hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes that updates the 2016 one‐year forecast; this map is intended to provide information to the public and to facilitate the development of induced seismicity forecasting models, methods, and data. The 2017 hazard model applies the same methodology and input logic tree as the 2016 forecast, but with an updated earthquake catalog. We also evaluate the 2016 seismic‐hazard forecast to improve future assessments. The 2016 forecast indicated high seismic hazard (greater than 1% probability of potentially damaging ground shaking in one year) in five focus areas: Oklahoma–Kansas, the Raton basin (Colorado/New Mexico border), north Texas, north Arkansas, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone. During 2016, several damaging induced earthquakes occurred in Oklahoma within the highest hazard region of the 2016 forecast; all of the 21 moment magnitude (M) ≥4 and 3 M≥5 earthquakes occurred within the highest hazard area in the 2016 forecast. Outside the Oklahoma–Kansas focus area, two earthquakes with M≥4 occurred near Trinidad, Colorado (in the Raton basin focus area), but no earthquakes with M≥2.7 were observed in the north Texas or north Arkansas focus areas. Several observations of damaging ground‐shaking levels were also recorded in the highest hazard region of Oklahoma. The 2017 forecasted seismic rates are lower in regions of induced activity due to lower rates of earthquakes in 2016 compared with 2015, which may be related to decreased wastewater injection caused by regulatory actions or by a decrease in unconventional oil and gas production. Nevertheless, the 2017 forecasted hazard is still significantly elevated in Oklahoma compared to the hazard calculated from seismicity before 2009.

  1. Provenance record of Paleogene exhumation and Laramide basin evolution along the southern Rocky Mountain front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, M. A.; Horton, B. K.; Murphy, M. A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Sangre de Cristo and Nacimiento uplifts of the southern Rocky Mountains formed key parts of a major Paleogene topographic boundary separating the Cordilleran orogenic system from the North American plate interior. This barrier largely isolated interior Laramide basins from a broad Laramide foreland with fluvial systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, and thereby played a critical role in the evolution of continental-scale paleodrainage patterns. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral provenance analyses of Cretaceous-Paleogene siliciclastic strata in the Raton, Galisteo-El Rito, and San Juan basins record the partitioning of the broad Cordilleran (Sevier) foreland basin by Laramide basement uplifts. These trends are recognized both in provenance signals and depositional styles corresponding to cratonward (eastward) propagation of the Laramide deformation front and resultant advance of flexural depocenters in the North American interior. Along the eastern flank of the deformation front, the Raton basin shows a mix of Cordilleran, Appalachian, and Grenville age zircons restricted to the Cretaceous Dakota and Vermejo formations, marine units of the Western Interior Seaway. Upsection, the Cordilleran age peaks are absent from Paleocene-Eocene units, consistent with significant Laramide drainage reorganization and isolation from Cordilleran sources to the west. In the Galisteo-El Rito basin system, a shift to dominantly Mazatzal-Yavapai basement ages is recognized in the Paleocene El Rito and Oligocene Ritito formations. The heavy mineral results show a corresponding shift to less mature, dominantly metamorphic source compositions. These new datasets bear upon Cretaceous-Cenozoic reconstructions of North American paleodrainage and have implications for potential linkages between major fluvial systems of the southern Rocky Mountains and Paleogene deepwater reservoir units in the Gulf of Mexico basin.

  2. 1979 summary of coal resources in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Colorado, with 8 coal-bearing regions and 20 coal fields, contains at least 11 percent of the total remaining coal resources of the United States to a depth of 6000 feet. Colorado coals range from early Late Cretaceous to Eocene in age. The higher rank bituminous coals and the largest reserves generally are found in the Upper Cretaceous Dakota and Mesa Verde Groups/Formations in western Colorado. The younger coals, generally of lower rank (subbituminous a to lignite), are found in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary rocks in the Green River, North and South Park, Raton Mesa, and Denver coal regions. Marginal and premium grades of coking coal are found in the Carbondale, Crested Butte, and Somerset fields, Uinta coal region; in the Trinidad field, Raton Mesa region; and in the Durango field, San Juan River region. Colorado coals range in rank from lignite to anthracite; over 70 percent of the resource is bituminous, approximately 23 percent is subbituminous, 5 percent lignite, and less than one percent anthracite. Moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents of Colorado coals vary considerably with rank from region to region. According to the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Colorado ranks seventh in the total U.S. demonstrated reserve base of coal (16.3 billion short tons) and fourth in the reserve base of bituminous coal. Furthermore, Colorado ranks first in the reserve base of underground-minable low sulphur bituminous coal. The Green River region produced over 9 million tons of the total 1978 state-wide coal production of 14.3 million tons. Projections for Colorado coal production through 1985 is in the order of 32.2 million tons per year.

  3. A monitoring programme for 1,3-dichloropropene and metabolites in groundwater in five EU countries.

    PubMed

    Terry, Adrian S; Carter, Andrée D; Humphrey, Rebecca L; Capri, Ettore; Grua, Bruno; Panagopoulous, Andreas C; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Kennedy, Stephen H

    2008-09-01

    1,3 Dichloropropene (1,3-D) is a preplanting soil fumigant for the control of cyst and free-living nematodes and is currently undergoing a resubmission under Annex 1 listing of Directive 91/414/EEC. The characteristics of 1,3-D are such that the risk of it or its soil metabolites leaching through the soil profile cannot be excluded. As such, groundwater monitoring programmes were established in five EU countries representing a wide range of agricultural, climatic and hydrogeological situations, covering a range of groundwater vulnerability scenarios. All monitoring was conducted in areas where there has been historical use of 1,3-D. Over 5000 groundwater samples were analysed for the presence of 1,3-D and its metabolites over a 2 year period. Almost all analyses (for parent and metabolites) yielded concentrations of <0.1 microg L(-1). There were just two detections of >0.1 microg L(-1) (0.12 microg L(-1) and 0.4 microg L(-1)) for the 3-chloroacrylic acid metabolite in shallow groundwater samples of the alluvial gravels of the River Tiétar in the Caceres region of Spain. Groundwater monitoring programmes have been conducted in the EU in five countries. These have demonstrated that there is negligible contamination of groundwater with 1,3-D or its metabolites across a range of agroclimatic regions where 1,3-D is known to have been used for a number of years. Local scientific knowledge of geological features, hydrology, agricultural practice and specific local issues was essential to the conduct of the study.

  4. Neural injury alters proliferation and integration of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Perederiy, Julia V.; Luikart, Bryan W.; Washburn, Eric K.; Schnell, Eric; Westbrook, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Neural plasticity following brain injury illustrates the potential for regeneration in the central nervous system. Lesioning of the perforant path, which innervates the outer 2/3rds of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, was one of the first models to demonstrate structural plasticity of mature granule cells (Parnavelas, 1974; Caceres and Steward, 1983; Diekmann et al., 1996). The dentate gyrus also harbors a continuously proliferating population of neuronal precursors that can integrate into functional circuits and show enhanced short-term plasticity (Schmidt-Hieber et al., 2004; Abrous et al., 2005). To examine the response of adult-generated granule cells to unilateral complete transection of the perforant path in vivo, we tracked these cells using transgenic POMC-EGFP mice or by retroviral expression of GFP. Lesioning triggered a marked proliferation of newborn neurons. Subsequently, the dendrites of newborn neurons showed reduced complexity within the denervated zone, but dendritic spines still formed in the absence of glutamatergic nerve terminals. Electron micrographs confirmed the lack of intact presynaptic terminals apposing spines on mature cells and on newborn neurons. Newborn neurons, but not mature granule cells, had a higher density of dendritic spines in the inner molecular layer post-lesion, accompanied by an increase in miniature EPSC amplitudes and rise times. Our results indicate that injury causes an increase in newborn neurons and lamina-specific synaptic reorganization, indicative of enhanced plasticity. The presence of de novo dendritic spines in the denervated zone suggests that the post-lesion environment provides the necessary signals for spine formation. PMID:23486947

  5. Ahuachapan Geothermal Power Plant, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, Ronald

    1980-12-01

    The Ahuachapan geothermal power plant has been the subject of several recent reports and papers (1-7). This article is a condensation of the author's earlier writings (5-7), and incorporates new information on the geothermal activities in El Salvador obtained recently through a telephone conversation with Ing. R. Caceres of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) who has been engaged in the design and engineering of the newest unit at Ahuachapan. El Salvador is the first of the Central American countries to construct and operate a geothermal electric generating station. Exploration began in the mid-1960's at the geothermal field near Ahuachapan in western El Salvador. The first power unit, a separated-steam or so-called ''single-flash'' plant, was started up in June 1975, and was followed a year later by an identical unit. In July 1980, the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) will complete the installation of a third unit, a dual-pressure (or ''double-flash'') unit rated at 35 MW. The full Ahuachapan plant will then constitute about 20% of the total installed electric generating capacity of the country. During 1977, the first two units generated nearly one-third of all the electricity produced in El Salvador. C.E.L. is actively pursuing several other promising sites for additional geothermal plants. There is the possibility that eventually geothermal energy will contribute about 450 MW of electric generating capacity. In any event it appears that by 1985 El Salvador should be able to meet its domestic needs for electricity by means of its indigenous geothermal and hydroelectric power plants, thus eliminating any dependence on imported petroleum for power generation.

  6. Coca chewing for exercise: hormonal and metabolic responses of nonhabitual chewers.

    PubMed

    Favier, R; Caceres, E; Guillon, L; Sempore, B; Sauvain, M; Koubi, H; Spielvogel, H

    1996-11-01

    To determine the effects of acute coca use on the hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise, 12 healthy nonhabitual coca users were submitted twice to steady-state exercise (approximately 75% maximal O2 uptake). On one occasion, they were asked to chew 15 g of coca leaves 1 h before exercise, whereas on the other occasion, exercise was performed after 1 h of chewing a sugar-free chewing gum. Plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin, glucagon, and metabolites (glucose, lactate, glycerol, and free fatty acids) were determined at rest before and after coca chewing and during the 5th, 15th, 30th, and 60th min of exercise. Simultaneously to these determinations, cardiorespiratory variables (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen uptake, and respiratory gas exchange ratio) were also measured. At rest, coca chewing had no effect on plasma hormonal and metabolic levels except for a significantly reduced insulin concentration. During exercise, the oxygen uptake, heart rate, and respiratory gas exchange ratio were significantly increased in the coca-chewing trial compared with the control (gum-chewing) test. The exercise-induced drop in plasma glucose and insulin was prevented by prior coca chewing. These results contrast with previous data obtained in chronic coca users who display during prolonged submaximal exercise an exaggerated plasma sympathetic response, an enhanced availability and utilization of fat (R. Favier, E. Caceres, H. Koubi, B. Sempore, M. Sauvain, and H. Spielvogel. J. Appl. Physiol. 80: 650-655, 1996). We conclude that, whereas coca chewing might affect glucose homeostasis during exercise, none of the physiological data provided by this study would suggest that acute coca chewing in nonhabitual users could enhance tolerance to exercise.

  7. A novel approach to assessing the prevalence and drivers of illegal bushmeat hunting in the serengeti.

    PubMed

    Nuno, Ana; Bunnefeld, Nils; Naiman, Loiruck C; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Assessing anthropogenic effects on biological diversity, identifying drivers of human behavior, and motivating behavioral change are at the core of effective conservation. Yet knowledge of people's behaviors is often limited because the true extent of natural resource exploitation is difficult to ascertain, particularly if it is illegal. To obtain estimates of rule-breaking behavior, a technique has been developed with which to ask sensitive questions. We used this technique, unmatched-count technique (UCT), to provide estimates of bushmeat poaching, to determine motivation and seasonal and spatial distribution of poaching, and to characterize poaching households in the Serengeti. We also assessed the potential for survey biases on the basis of respondent perceptions of understanding, anonymity, and discomfort. Eighteen percent of households admitted to being involved in hunting. Illegal bushmeat hunting was more likely in households with seasonal or full-time employment, lower household size, and longer household residence in the village. The majority of respondents found the UCT questions easy to understand and were comfortable answering them. Our results suggest poaching remains widespread in the Serengeti and current alternative sources of income may not be sufficiently attractive to compete with the opportunities provided by hunting. We demonstrate that the UCT is well suited to investigating noncompliance in conservation because it reduces evasive responses, resulting in more accurate estimates, and is technically simple to apply. We suggest that the UCT could be more widely used, with the trade-off being the increased complexity of data analyses and requirement for large sample sizes. Una Aproximación Novedosa para Evaluar la Prevalencia y Factores de la Cacería Ilegal en el Serengueti.

  8. Update of the USGS 2016 One-year Seismic Hazard Forecast for the Central and Eastern United States From Induced and Natural Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, M. D.; Mueller, C. S.; Moschetti, M. P.; Hoover, S. M.; Llenos, A. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Michael, A. J.; Rubinstein, J. L.; McGarr, A.; Rukstales, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey released a 2016 one-year forecast for seismic hazard in the central and eastern U.S., which included the influence from both induced and natural earthquakes. This forecast was primarily based on 2015 declustered seismicity rates but also included longer-term rates, 10- and 20- km smoothing distances, earthquakes between Mw 4.7 and maximum magnitudes of 6.0 or 7.1, and 9 alternative ground motion models. Results indicate that areas in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone have a significant chance for damaging ground shaking levels in 2016 (greater than 1% chance of exceeding 0.12 PGA and MMI VI). We evaluate this one-year forecast by considering the earthquakes and ground shaking levels that occurred during the first half of 2016 (earthquakes not included in the forecast). During this period the full catalog records hundreds of events with M ≥ 3.0, but the declustered catalog eliminates most of these dependent earthquakes and results in much lower numbers of earthquakes. The declustered catalog based on USGS COMCAT indicates a M 5.1 earthquake occurred in the zone of highest hazard on the map. Two additional earthquakes of M ≥ 4.0 occurred in Oklahoma, and about 82 earthquakes of M ≥ 3.0 occurred with 77 in Oklahoma and Kansas, 4 in Raton Basin Colorado/New Mexico, and 1 near Cogdell Texas. In addition, 72 earthquakes occurred outside the zones of induced seismicity with more than half in New Madrid and eastern Tennessee. The catalog rates in the first half of 2016 and the corresponding seismic hazard were generally lower than in 2015. For example, the zones for Irving, Venus, and Fashing, Texas; Sun City, Kansas; and north-central Arkansas did not experience any earthquakes with M≥ 2.7 during this period. The full catalog rates were lower by about 30% in Raton Basin and the Oklahoma-Kansas zones but the declustered catalog rates did not drop as much. This decrease in earthquake

  9. PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION AND BIOACTIVITY EVALUATION OF THE CHIMERIC GENE DERIVED FROM THE GROUP 1 ALLERGENS OF DUST MITES.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-12-01

    Antecedentes: se reconstituyó con éxito el gen del grupo 1 alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo, y obtuvo un conjunto de genes barajadas. Con el fin de verificar la predicción en el gen quimérico, hemos clonado tentativamente R8 en el vector que se expresó prokaryoticly, purificó y se evaluó por sus actividades-bio. Métodos: el producto expresado se detectó por SDS-PAGE y la proteína diana se purificó. La proteína purificada R8 se detectó por ELISA. Setenta y cinco ratones BALB/ c se dividieron en 5 grupos, a saber: PBS, rDer f1, rDer p1, R8 y el grupo de asma. Los ratones fueron tratados con alérgenos de ácaros del polvo a los 0, 7, 14 días mediante inyección intraperitoneal y inhaladas desafío como aerosol en día 21 durante 7 días. La inmunoterapia específica para el alérgeno se realizó utilizando rDer f1, rDer p1 y alérgenos R8, respectivamente. El nivel de IFN e IL-4 en BALF se detectó por ELISA. Resultados: el gen quimérico R8 se expresó con una banda de aproximadamente Mr 35000. En comparación con los grupos de rDer f 1 y rDer p 1 [(80,44 ± 15,50) y (90,79 ± 10,38) μg/ml, respectivamente], la capacidad de unión a IgE de la proteína R8 (37,03 ± 12,46) μg/ml fue estadísticamente inferior (P.

  10. Did the short PETM trigger long-lasting changes in terrestrial environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, H. C.; Clyde, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a well-documented episode of warming where average temperatures increased 5-8 C in both marine and terrestrial settings before returning to pre-PETM values. As a result the PETM is generally thought of as a transient event that is superimposed on a longer-term trend of global change. Nevertheless not all aspects of the climatic-hydrologic-biologic system experienced a transient response to this event. For example, the well-known dispersal of mammals (Artiodactyls, Perrisopdactyls and Primates = APP taxa) at the beginning of the PETM resulted in fundamentally different terrestrial ecosystems dafter the PETM compared to before it. In this case the PETM can be considered not just a transient event, but a triggering, or threshold, event that resulted in long-term biotic change. Here we consider the possibility that the PETM acted as a threshold event for parts of the climatic and hydrologic system as well as the biologic system. A review of terrestrial/fluvial sections from Laramide basins of western North America (Bighorn, Green River, Huerfano/Raton, Piceance Creek, Powder River, San Juan, Tornillo, Uintah, Washakie, Williston, Wind River), reveals a pronounced difference between rocks of Paleocene and of Eocene age. Common differences include absence of lignites/coal beds in the Eocene, and the occurrence of highly oxidized paleosols and relatively fewer organic-rich mudstones compared to the Paleocene. These suggest drier conditions, either a decrease in mean annual precipitation or enhanced seasonal drying. In sections where the PETM can be identified on the basis of biostratigraphic indicators and carbon isotope excursions (Bighorn, Piceance Creek, Powder River and Williston Basins), and where the PETM can be inferred based on carbon isotope data alone (Huerfano/Raton?, Tornillo, Wind River Basins), it is associated with this transition from one long-lasting lithofacies (environment?) to another. This association

  11. Approach for delineation of contributing areas and zones of transport to selected public-supply wells using a regional ground-water flow model, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal

  12. Preparation and characterization of carbons for the retention of halogens in the condenser vacuum system of a thermonuclear plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, S.; González, J. F.; Gañán, J.; Sabio, E.; González-García, C. M.; Ramiro, A.; Mangut, V.

    2006-06-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by air and carbon dioxide activation, from almond tree pruning, with the aim of obtaining carbons that reproduce the textural and mechanical properties of the carbons currently used in the filtering system of the condenser vacuum installation of a Thermonuclear Plant (CNA; Central Nuclear de Almaraz in Caceres, Spain), produced from coconut shell. The variables studied in non-catalytic gasification series with air were the temperature (215-270 °C) and the time (1-16 h) and the influence of the addition of one catalyst (Co) and the time (1-2 h) in catalytic gasification. In the case of activation with CO 2, the influence of the temperature (700-950 °C) and the time (1-8 h) was studied. The resulting carbons were characterized in terms of their BET surface, porosity, and pore size distribution. The N 2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K for both series showed a type I behaviour, typical of microporous materials. The isotherms showed that with both gasificant agents the temperature rise produced an increase in the carbon porosity. With regards to the activation time, a positive effect on the N 2 adsorbed volume on the carbons was observed. The best carbons of each series, as well as the CNA (carbon currently used in the CNA), were characterized by mercury porosimetry and iodine solution adsorption isotherms. The results obtained allowed to state that several of the carbons produced had characteristics similar to the carbon that is target of reproduction (which has SBET of 741 m 2 g -1, Vmi of 0.39 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 429.3 mg g -1): carbon C (gasification with CO 2 at 850 °C during 1 h), with SBET of 523 m 2 g -1, Vmi of 0.33 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 402.5 mg g -1, and carbon D (gasification with CO 2 at 900 °C during 1 h), whose SBET is 672 m 2 g -1, Vmi is 0.28 cm 3 g -1 and has a iodine retention capacity of 345.2 mg g -1.

  13. New follow-up study of the atmosphere of GJ1214b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabath, P.; Cáceres, C.; Hoyer, S.; Ivanov, V. D.; Rojo, P.; Girard, J. H.; Kempton, E. M.-R.; Fortney, J. J.; Minniti, D.

    2014-03-01

    GJ1214b is an extremely interesting 6.55Mearth and 2.6 Earth radii sub-Neptune planet orbiting a M-dwarf host. Its proximity, only 14pc, makes it an excellent target for studies of exoplanetary atmospheres (Charbonneau et al. 2009). Furthermore, the sub-Neptunes/Super Earth-sized planets are only one step between Jupiter-sized and habitable Earth-sized planets with a biosphere. Due to favorable parameters of GJ1214 system, we posses great coverage of many wavelengths in planetary transmission spectra from optical to NIR regions (Miller-Ricci & Fortney 2009). However, the scenarios for the atmospheric compositions are still open. Based on the available measurements, the solar composition (hydrogen rich) atmosphere can be most probably ruled out. That is given by fact that we observe rather a flat spectrum than the absorption features in the hydrogen rich model. Thus, currently more plausible models are atmosphere composed of heavy elements such as water or atmosphere covered by clouds (Bean, Desert, Kabath et al. 2011). Here, we present our spectrophotometric and photometric measurements obtained with SOI and OSIRIS instruments (both SOAR telescope) and SOFI (ESO NTT). We observed 5 transit events of GJ1214b and determined the Rp/Rs ratios for every measured wavelength (Caceres, Kabath, Hoyer et al. 2013). Our photometric measurements at 0.8 micron (Bessel-I) and at 2.14 micron (NIR narrow band) correlate with the flat transmission spectrum, therefore strongly supporting the water or cloudy atmosphere. Our spectrophotometric measurements in the H+K region do not posses the sufficient precision in the Rp/Rs ratios. We conclude that the hydrogen rich model is less probable. However, to be able to decide if the planetary atmosphere is hidden in clouds or if we encountered a water world, we still need more measurements with extremely high accuracy. Here, literally, every new point counts. Finally, we would like to present preliminary results obtained from our 2013

  14. Exposure and bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils from the La Parrilla mine, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawar, H. M.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Murciego, A.; Buyolo, T.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic derived from mining activity may contaminate water, soil and plant ecosystems resulting in human health and ecotoxicological risks. In this study, exposure assessment of arsenic (As) in soil, spoil, pondwater and plants collected from the areas contaminated by mine tailings and spoils in and around the La Parrilla mine, Caceres province, Spain, was carried out using AAS method. Water solubility, bioavailability and soil-plant transfer coefficients of As and phytoremediation potential of plants were determined. Arsenic concentrations varied from 148 to 2,540 mg/kg in soils of site 1 and from 610 to 1,285 mg/kg in site 2 exceeding the guideline limit for agricultural soil (50 mg/kg). Arsenic concentrations in pond waters varied from 8.8 to 101.4 μg/l. High concentrations of water-soluble As in the soils that ranged from 0.10 to 4.71 mg/kg in site 1 and from 0.46 to 4.75 mg/kg in site 2 exceeded the maximum permitted level of water-soluble As (0.04 mg/kg) in agricultural soils. Arsenic concentrations varied from 0.8 to 149.5 mg/kg dry wt in the plants of site 1 and from 2.0 to 10.0 mg/kg in the plants of site 2. Arsenic concentrations in plants increased in the approximate order: Retama sphaerocarpa < Pteridium aquilinum < Erica australis < Juncus effusus < Phalaris caerulescens < Spergula arvensis in site 1. The soil-plant transfer coefficients for As ranged from 0.001 to 0.21 in site 1 and from 0.004 to 0.016 in site 2. The bioconcentration factor based on water-soluble As of soil varied from 3.2 to 593.9 in the plants of site 1 whereas it varied from 2.1 to 20.7 in the plants of site 2. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Europe to report that the fern species P. aquilinum accumulates extremely low contents of As in its fronds despite high As levels in the soils. Therefore, the S. arvensis, P. caerulescens and J. effusus plant species grown in this area might be used to partly remove the bioavailable toxic As for the purpose of minimization of

  15. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  16. Relation of NDVI obtained from different remote sensing at different space and resolutions sensors in Spanish Dehesas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano Rodríguez, Juan; Tarquis, Ana M.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite data are an important source of information and serve as monitoring crops on large scales. There are several indexes, but the most used for monitoring vegetation is NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), calculated from the spectral bands of red (RED) and near infrared (NIR), obtaining the value according to relationship: [(NIR - RED) / (NIR + RED)]. During the years 2010-2013 monthly monitoring was conducted in three areas of Spain (Salamanca, Caceres and Cordoba). Pasture plots were selected and satellite images of two different sensors, DEIMOS-1 and MODIS were obtained. DEIMOS-1 is based on the concept Microsat-100 from Surrey. It is designed for imaging the Earth with a resolution good enough to study terrestrial vegetation cover (20x20 m), although with a wide range of visual field (600 km) to get those images with high temporal resolution. By contrast, MODIS images present a much lower spatial resolution (500x500 m). Indices obtained from both sensors to the same area and date are compared and the results show r2 = 0.56; r2 = 0.65 and r2 = 0.90 for the areas of Salamanca, Cáceres and Cordoba respectively. According to the results obtained show that the NDVI obtained by MODIS is slightly larger than that obtained by the sensor for DEIMOS for same time and area. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y montaneras en dehesas. I Congreso Iberico de la Dehesa y el Montado. 6-7 Noviembre, 2013, Badajoz. J.A. Escribano Rodriguez, A.M. Tarquis, C.G. Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Pasture Drought Insurance Based on NDVI and SAVI. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU2012-13945, 2012. EGU General Assembly 2012. Juan Escribano Rodriguez, Carmelo Alonso, Ana Maria Tarquis, Rosa Maria Benito, Carlos Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Comparison of NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors

  17. Assessing the local wind field at Sierra Grande Mountain in New Mexico with instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, K.M.; Reynolds, R.D.

    1981-05-01

    Six systems were installed on top of Sierra Grande, a nearly symmetrical mountain in New Mexico about halfway between Raton and Clayton, with a peak of 2659 m (8720 ft msl) standing over a wide mesa of approximately 1829 m (6000 ft msl). Two systems were on the peak, one at 10 m (33 ft) above the surface and the other at 20 m (66 ft) because the peak is often the most probable spot for the greatest wind energy. The two levels were needed to measure variations of speed with height. Four other systems with instruments at 10-m (33 ft) were located roughly north, east, south, and west from the center on secondary ridge lines to measure certain horizontal variations of the wind. The wind direction and speed were measured every 6 minutes, a time interval considerably shorter than the traditional 1 hour but long enough so that all WECS power outputs are expected to respond to these wind speed variations. All six systems were operated for a period of six months between 6 June 1979-5 December 1979.

  18. Log for Joint SEPM-Colorado Scientific Society field trip, September 20-21, 1986: late Paleozoic sedimentation and Laramide tectonics of the Sangre de Cristo Range, from Westcliffe to Crestone, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This trip will cross the northern Sangre de Cristo Range, from Westcliffe to Crestone, Colorado, by way of the Hermit Pass Road and the Rito Alto pack trail (Fig. 1 below; road and trail shown on Fig. 2). The traverse is designed to give the geologist a sample of the structure and stratigraphy of this part of the range. Emphasis will be on the relationship between the horst of the Sangre de Cristo Range and adjacent down-dropped valleys, on the Laramide thrusted structure of the range, and on the stratigraphy and depositional environments of Pennsylvanian and Permian sedimentary rocks in the range.The northern Sangre de Cristo Range is composed mostly of Early and Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks and Paleozoic clastic sedimentary rocks (see geologic map, Fig. 2). Proterozoic rocks, mostly gneiss and quartz monzonite, are overlain on the west side of the range by about 100 m of early Paleozoic quartzite, dolomite, limestone, and shale. Early Paleozoic rocks are in turn unconformably overlain by Pennsylvanian and Permian clastic rocks. Southeast of the range, in Huerfano Park, Paleozoic rocks are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks of the Raton basin.

  19. Dielectrophoresis of particles on the nanometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Michael

    2003-03-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the phenomenon of force induced on particles suspended in non-uniform electric fields, the magnitude and direction of that force being dependent on such factors as the dielectric properties of particle and medium, and the frequency and magnitude of the applied electric field (Pohl 1978). Dielectrophoresis has been well-characterised over many years for particles on the micrometer scale such as cells. However, as the size of the particle is reduced below the micrometer scale, so other effects begin to dominate the dielectrophoretic response. In fact, for many years, manipulation of nanoparticles was presumed impossible because of the influence of effects such as the action of Brownian motion, electrohydrodynamic forces, high electric field gradients, the dominance of the motion of charges across the surface of the particle and the dielectric properties of the electrical double layer. However, experimental work in the last decade has shown that in fact, dielectrophoresis can be performed on particles down to molecular scale. By understanding the physics underlying the dielectrophoresis of nanoparticles, it is possible to determine the surface properties of such particles, as well as to separate them and manipulate them for particle detection (Hughes 2002). This technology may ultimately have a range of applications, from enhancing biosensors to detect viral bioterrorist attack, to the manipulation of molecules and DNA, and the ultimate goal of single molecule manipulation for nanotechnology. REFERENCES: Pohl, H. A. (1978) Dielectrophoresis (Cambridge; Cambridge University Press) Hughes, M. P (2002) Nanoelectromechanics in Engineering and Biology (Boca Raton; CRC Press)

  20. Book review: Biology and management of invasive quagga and zebra mussels in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.

    2017-01-01

    Water is a precious and limited commodity in the western United States and its conveyance is extremely important. Therefore, it is critical to do as much as possible to prevent the spread of two species of dreissenid mussels, both non-native and highly invasive aquatic species already well-established in the eastern half of the United States. This book addresses the occurrences of the two dreissenid mussels in the West, the quagga mussel and the zebra mussel, that are both known to negatively impact water delivery systems and natural ecosystems. It is edited by two researchers whom have extensive experience working with the mussels in the West and is composed of 34 chapters, or articles, written by a variety of experts.Book information: Biology and Management of Invasive Quagga and Zebra Mussels in the Western United States. Edited by Wai Hing Wong and Shawn L. Gerstenberger. Boca Raton (Florida): CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group). $149.95. xx + 545 p.; ill.; index. ISBN: 978-1-4665-9561-3. [Compact Disc included.] 2015.

  1. Evidence of sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The rapid development of unconventional gas resources has been accompanied by an increase in public awareness regarding the potential effects of drilling operations on drinking water sources. Incidents have been reported involving blowouts (e.g., Converse County, WY; Lawrence Township, PA; Aliso Canyon, CA) and home/property explosions (e.g., Bainbridge Township, OH; Dimock, PA; Huerfano County, CO) caused by methane migration in the subsurface within areas of natural gas development. We evaluated water quality characteristics in the northern Raton Basin of Colorado and documented the response of the Poison Canyon aquifer system several years after upward migration of methane gas occurred from the deeper Vermejo Formation coalbed production zone. Results show persistent secondary water quality impacts related to the biodegradation of methane. We identify four distinct characteristics of groundwater methane attenuation in the Poison Canyon aquifer: (i) consumption of methane and sulfate and production of sulfide and bicarbonate, (ii) methane loss coupled to production of higher-molecular-weight (C2+) gaseous hydrocarbons, (iii) patterns of 13C enrichment and depletion in methane and dissolved inorganic carbon, and (iv) a systematic shift in sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate, indicative of microbial sulfate reduction. We also show that the biogeochemical response of the aquifer system has not mobilized naturally occurring trace metals, including arsenic,

  2. A search for evidence of large body Earth impacts associated with biological crisis zones in the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Knight, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The natural history of the Earth, how the present plant and animal species developed, how others completely died out, etc., was studied. The rock strata sampled and studied were at the time of deposition at sea bottom. It was found that, exactly at the stratigraphic level corresponding to the extinction, a thin clay layer was greatly enriched in the the rare element iridium. It was hypothesized that the excess irridium at the boundary came from a large steroid like object that hit the earth, and that the impact of this object threw up a dust cloud dense enough and long lasting enough to bring about the extinction of a wide variety of plants and animals, producing the unique break in in the fossil record, the cretaceous-tertiary boundary. The same iridium and platinum metals enrichement are found in a thin clay layer that corresponds with the boundary as difined by sudden radical changes in plant populations. The irridium enrichement is confirmed at other fresh water origin rites in the Raton Basin.

  3. The Synergistic Effect of Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Micrometer/Nanometer Surface Texturing on Bone Healing around Immediately Placed Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N.; Marao, Heloisa Fonseca; Pinto, Nelson; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated the effects of L-PRF presence and implant surface texture on bone healing around immediately placed implants. Methods. The first mandibular molars of 8 beagle dogs were bilaterally extracted, and implants (Blossom™, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) were placed in the mesial or distal extraction sockets in an interpolated fashion per animal. Two implant surfaces were distributed per sockets: (1) dual acid-etched (DAE, micrometer scale textured) and (2) micrometer/nanometer scale textured (Ossean™ surface). L-PRF (Intraspin system, Intra-Lock International) was placed in a split-mouth design to fill the macrogap between implant and socket walls on one side of the mandible. The contralateral side received implants without L-PRF. A mixed-model ANOVA (at α = 0.05) evaluated the effect of implant surface, presence of L-PRF, and socket position (mesial or distal), individually or in combination on bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Results. BAFO values were significantly higher for the Ossean relative to the DAE surface on the larger mesial socket. The presence of L-PRF resulted in higher BAFO. The Ossean surface and L-PRF presence resulted in significantly higher BAFO. Conclusion. L-PRF and the micro-/nanometer scale textured surface resulted in increased bone formation around immediately placed implants. PMID:28042577

  4. Grace buys aquatic quimica to boost water treatment stake

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.

    1993-02-17

    How W.R. Grace (Boca Raton, FL) president and newly appointed CEO J.P. Bolduc plans to expand Grace's core businesses following his drastic portfolio pruning during the past 18 months is a key question for Grace watchers. Grace's acquisition of $70-million/year water treatment firm Aquatec Quimica (Sao Paulo) is one indicator. Grace's $300-million/year Dearborn water treatment business is currently a weak number three [in the world market], and we want to be number one or number two, nothing less, Bolduc insists. The Aquatc buy meets his criterion of a synergistic and strategic acquisition with which he plans to expand the business, backed by more focused R D. Disposal last month of Homco oil field services operation, for $98.5 million, takes Bolduc toward his $500-million target for the year for asset sales. These totaled $1.1 billion at the end of 1992. The final tally will be more than the $1.5-billion target previously stated, Bolduc says, due to higher realizations on certain sales and additions to the list, including Grace Culinary and Colowyo Coal.

  5. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10 days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at the foramen of Monro, and obstructive hydrocephalus of both lateral ventricles. The patient was then referred to our hospital. Neurological examination on admission to our hospital showed memory disturbance (Mini-Mental State Examination 20/30) and wide-based gait. A cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro was diagnosed based on the typical popcorn-like appearance of the lesion on MRI. The lesion was completely removed by neuroendoscope-assisted transcortical surgery with the Viewsite Brain Access System (Vycor Medical Inc., Boca Raton, FL), leading to a reduction in the size of the ventricles. The resected mass was histologically confirmed to be cavernous angioma. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately and there were no postoperative complications. Minimally invasive neuroendoscope-assisted surgery was used to successfully treat a cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro.

  6. Application of mass spectrometry to hair analysis for forensic toxicological investigations.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Marco; Salomone, Alberto; Gerace, Enrico; Pirro, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The increasing role of hair analysis in forensic toxicological investigations principally owes to recent improvements of mass spectrometric instrumentation. Research achievements during the last 6 years in this distinctive application area of analytical toxicology are reviewed. The earlier state of the art of hair analysis was comprehensively covered by a dedicated book (Kintz, 2007a. Analytical and practical aspects of drug testing in hair. Boca Raton: CRC Press and Taylor & Francis, 382 p) that represents key reference of the present overview. Whereas the traditional organization of analytical methods in forensic toxicology divided target substances into quite homogeneous groups of drugs, with similar structures and chemical properties, the current approach often takes advantage of the rapid expansion of multiclass and multiresidue analytical procedures; the latter is made possible by the fast operation and extreme sensitivity of modern mass spectrometers. This change in the strategy of toxicological analysis is reflected in the presentation of the recent literature material, which is mostly based on a fit-for-purpose logic. Thus, general screening of unknown substances is applied in diverse forensic contexts than drugs of abuse testing, and different instrumentation (triple quadrupoles, time-of-flight analyzers, linear and orbital traps) is utilized to optimally cope with the scope. Other key issues of modern toxicology, such as cost reduction and high sample throughput, are discussed with reference to procedural and instrumental alternatives.

  7. Evidence of sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The rapid development of unconventional gas resources has been accompanied by an increase in public awareness regarding the potential effects of drilling operations on drinking water sources. Incidents have been reported involving blowouts (e.g., Converse County, WY; Lawrence Township, PA; Aliso Canyon, CA) and home/property explosions (e.g., Bainbridge Township, OH; Dimock, PA; Huerfano County, CO) caused by methane migration in the subsurface within areas of natural gas development. We evaluated water quality characteristics in the northern Raton Basin of Colorado and documented the response of the Poison Canyon aquifer system several years after upward migration of methane gas occurred from the deeper Vermejo Formation coalbed production zone. Results show persistent secondary water quality impacts related to the biodegradation of methane. We identify four distinct characteristics of groundwater methane attenuation in the Poison Canyon aquifer: (i) consumption of methane and sulfate and production of sulfide and bicarbonate, (ii) methane loss coupled to production of higher-molecular-weight (C2+) gaseous hydrocarbons, (iii) patterns of 13C enrichment and depletion in methane and dissolved inorganic carbon, and (iv) a systematic shift in sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate, indicative of microbial sulfate reduction. We also show that the biogeochemical response of the aquifer system has not mobilized naturally occurring trace metals, including arsenic,

  8. Evidence of Sulfate-Dependent Anaerobic Methane Oxidation within an Area Impacted by Coalbed Methane-Related Gas Migration.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Amy L; Wilkin, Richard T

    2017-02-07

    We evaluated water quality characteristics in the northern Raton Basin of Colorado and documented the response of the Poison Canyon aquifer system several years after upward migration of methane gas occurred from the deeper Vermejo Formation coalbed production zone. Results show persistent secondary water quality impacts related to the biodegradation of methane. We identify four distinct characteristics of groundwater-methane attenuation in the Poison Canyon aquifer: (i) consumption of methane and sulfate and production of sulfide and bicarbonate, (ii) methane loss coupled to production of higher molecular weight (C2+) gaseous hydrocarbons, (iii) patterns of (13)C enrichment and depletion in methane and dissolved inorganic carbon, and (iv) a systematic shift in sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate, indicative of microbial sulfate reduction. We also show that the biogeochemical response of the aquifer system has not mobilized naturally occurring trace metals, including arsenic, chromium, cobalt, nickel, and lead, likely due to the microbial production of hydrogen sulfide which favors stabilization of metals in aquifer solids.

  9. Periodic behaviors in the observed vertical column abundances of atmospheric hydroxyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Elizabeth Beaver; Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.

    1989-01-01

    The data base for the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) for Fritz Peak Observatory, Colorado (40 N, 105 W), now extends from 1976 through 1988 and is composed of 8849 independent data sets, averaging about 15 percent uncertainty and 20-minute time resolution each. The dominant solar zenith angle (chi) dependence of the OH abundance is characterized by an empirical curve, N(88), which has been updated from N(82) to include all valid data from 1980 through 1988. The chi-dependence of the OH abundance has been, to a first order, removed from the data base by a normalization procedure in which each data point is divided by the N(88,AM) value for the corresponding solar zenith angle. The resulting normalized OH values may then be examined for other systematic effects, particularly for periodic variations. Observations have also been made at Boca Raton, Florida (26 N, 80 W) and at Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 N, 152 E). These data bases are much less extensive and, as such, are less amenable to analysis for periodic behaviors. Some comparisons with the Colorado data may be made, however.

  10. Simultaneous sinus-lift and implantation using microthreaded implants and leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material: a six-year experience.

    PubMed

    Simonpieri, Alain; Choukroun, Joseph; Del Corso, Marco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2011-02-01

    To assess the relevance of simultaneous sinus-lift and implantation with leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF, Choukroun's technique) as sole subsinus filling material. Twenty-three lateral sinus elevations (SA4 sinus) were performed on 20 patients with simultaneous implant placement. Seven patients were treated with 19 Astra implants (AstraTech, Mölndal, Sweden) and 13 patients with 33 Intra-Lock implants (Intra-Lock Ossean, Boca Raton, FL). L-PRF membranes were used to cover the Schneiderian membrane, the implant tips served as "tent pegs" for the L-PRF-patched sinus membranes, and the subsinus cavity was finally filled with L-PRF clots. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed just after implant placement, after 6 months, 1 year and each following year. Six months after surgery, all implants were clinically stable during abutment tightening. The maximum follow-up was 6 years, and all patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. No implant was lost during this 6-year experience, and the vertical bone gain was always substantial, between 8.5 and 12 mm bone gain (10.4 ± 1.2). The final level of the new sinus floor was always in continuation with the implant apical end, and the periimplant crestal bone height was stable. The use of L-PRF as sole filling material during simultaneous sinus-lift and implantation seems to be a reliable surgical option promoting natural bone regeneration.

  11. Continuous symmetry of C60 fullerene and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sheka, E F; Razbirin, B S; Nelson, D K

    2011-04-21

    Conventionally, the I(h) symmetry of fullerene C(60) is accepted, which is supported by numerous calculations. However, this conclusion results from the consideration of the molecule electron system, of its odd electrons in particular, in a closed-shell approximation without taking the electron spin into account. Passing to the open-shell approximation has led to both the energy and the symmetry lowering up to C(i). Seemingly contradicting to a high-symmetry pattern of experimental recording, particularly concerning the molecule electronic spectra, the finding is considered in this Article from the continuous symmetry viewpoint. Exploiting continuous symmetry measure and continuous symmetry level approaches, it was shown that formal C(i) symmetry of the molecule is by 99.99% I(h). A similar continuous symmetry analysis of the fullerene monoderivatives gives a reasonable explanation of a large variety of their optical spectra patterns within the framework of the same C(1) formal symmetry exhibiting a strong stability of the C(60) skeleton. TOC color pictures present chemical portrait of C(60) in terms of atomic chemical susceptibility (Sheka, E. Fullerenes: Nanochemistry, Nanomagnetism, Nanomedicine, Nanophotonics; CRC Press: Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, 2011).

  12. Iridium abundance measurements across bio-event horizons in the geological record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Geochemical studies have been performed on thousands of rock samples collected across bio-event horizons in the fossil record using INAA for about 40 common and trace elements and radiochemical isolation procedures for Os, Ir, Pt, and Au on selected samples. These studies were begun soon after the Alvarez team announced their discovery of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Ir anomaly in marine rock sequences in Europe. With their encouragement the Authors searched for the anomaly in nearby continental (freshwater coal swamp) deposits. In collaboration with scientists from the U.S.G.S. in Denver, the anomaly was located and it was observed that a floral crisis occurred at the same stratigraphic position as the Ir spike. Further work in the Raton Basin has turned up numerous well-preserved K-T boundary sections. Although the Authors have continued to study the K-T boundary and provide geochemical measurements for other groups trying to precisely locate it, the primary effort was turned to examining the other bio-events in the Phanerozoic, especially to those that are older than the terminal Cretaceous. A list of horizons that were examined in collaboration with paleontologists and geologists is given. Results are also given and discussed.

  13. Biomimetics--using nature to inspire human innovation.

    PubMed

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-03-01

    Evolution has resolved many of nature's challenges leading to lasting solutions. Nature has always inspired human achievements and has led to effective materials, structures, tools, mechanisms, processes, algorithms, methods, systems, and many other benefits (Bar-Cohen Y (ed) 2005 Biomimetics-Biologically Inspired Technologies (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) pp 1-552). This field, which is known as biomimetics, offers enormous potential for inspiring new capabilities for exciting future technologies. There are numerous examples of biomimetic successes that involve making simple copies, such as the use of fins for swimming. Others examples involved greater mimicking complexity including the mastery of flying that became possible only after the principles of aerodynamics were better understood. Some commercial implementations of biomimetics, including robotic toys and movie subjects, are increasingly appearing and behaving like living creatures. More substantial benefits of biomimetics include the development of prosthetics that closely mimic real limbs and sensory-enhancing microchips that are interfaced with the brain to assist in hearing, seeing and controlling instruments. A review is given of selected areas that were inspired by nature, and an outlook for potential development in biomimetics is presented.

  14. Vegetation, climatic and floral changes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.; Upchurch, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    he western interior of North America has the only known non-marine sections that contain the iridium-rich clay interpreted as the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary1-7. Because vegetation and climate can be directly inferred from physiognomy of leaves8-15 and because leaf species typically represent low taxonomic categories, studies of leaf floras in these sections provide data on the effects of a terminal Cretaceous event on the land flora, vegetation and climate. A previous study based on detailed sampling of leaves and their dispersed cuticle16 in the Raton Basin provides a framework for interpretation of other leaf sequences over 20 degrees of latitude. We conclude that at the boundary there were: (1) High levels of extinction in the south and low levels in the north; (2) major ecological disruption followed by long-term vegetational changes that mimicked normal ecological succession; (3) a major increase in precipitation; and (4) a brief, low-temperature excursion, which supports models of an 'impact winter'. ?? 1986 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  16. Wavelet filtering of network traffic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, I.; Ivanov V., Vi.; Ivanov, Va. V.; Zrelov, P. V.

    2003-06-01

    The “Caterpillar”-SSA (Principal Components of Time Series: Caterpillar Method, St. Petersburg University Press, 1997; Analysis of Time Series Structure: SSA and Related Techiques, Chapman & Hall/CRC, London/Boca Raton, FL, 2001) and statistical analysis based on the joint utilization of χ2 and ω2 tests provided the possibility to divide the whole set of components into two classes (VIII International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research, ACAT’2002, 24-28 June 2002, Moscow, Russia, Book of abstracts, p. 176 (submitted to Physica D)). The first class includes leading components responsible for the main contribution to network traffic (Physica D 167 (2002) 72), and the second class involves residual components that can be interpreted as noise. More detailed analysis of the boundary region between these two classes may give additional information on traffic components and, thus, simplify the understanding of traffic dynamics. In this connection, we apply wavelet filtering to traffic measurements, and analyze its influence both on the characteristics of individual principal components and on the sum distributions of leading and residual components.

  17. Preconcentration and determination of rare-earth elements in iron-rich water samples by extraction chromatography and plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Hernández González, Carolina; Cabezas, Alberto J Quejido; Díaz, Marta Fernández

    2005-11-15

    A 100-fold preconcentration procedure based on rare-earth elements (REEs) separation from water samples with an extraction chromatographic column has been developed. The separation of REEs from matrix elements (mainly Fe, alkaline and alkaline-earth elements) in water samples was performed loading the samples, previously acidified to pH 2.0 with HNO(3), in a 2ml column preconditioned with 20ml 0.01M HNO(3). Subsequently, REEs were quantitatively eluted with 20ml 7M HNO(3). This solution was evaporated to dryness and the final residue was dissolved in 10ml 2% HNO(3) containing 1mugl(-1) of cesium used as internal standard. The solution was directly analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), using ultrasonic nebulization, obtaining quantification limits ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 ngl(-1). The proposed method has been applied to granitic waters running through fracture fillings coated by iron and manganese oxy-hydroxides in the area of the Ratones (Cáceres, Spain) old uranium mine.

  18. pH-dependent surface charging and points of zero charge. IV. Update and new approach.

    PubMed

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-09-15

    The recently published points of zero charge (PZC) and isoelectric points (IEPs) of various materials are compiled to update the previous compilation [M. Kosmulski, Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009]. Unlike in previous compilations by the same author [Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces, Dekker, New York, 2001; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 253 (2002) 77; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 275 (2004) 214; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 298 (2006) 730], the materials are sorted not only by the chemical formula, but also by specific product, that is, by brand name (commercially available materials), and by recipe (home-synthesized materials). This new approach indicated that the relatively consistent PZC/IEP reported in the literature for materials having the same chemical formula are due to biased choice of specimens to be studied. Specimens which have PZC/IEP close to the "recommended" value are selected more often than other specimens (PZC/IEP not reported before or PZC/IEP reported, but different from the "recommended" value). Thus, the previously published PZC/IEP act as a self-fulfilling prophecy.

  19. Cell poking. Determination of the elastic area compressibility modulus of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, B; Elson, E L; Zahalak, G I

    1984-01-01

    Cell poking, a new method for measuring mechanical properties of single cells was used to determine the elastic area compressibility modulus of osmotically swollen human erythrocytes. With this method we determined the force required to indent cells attached to a glass coverslip (Petersen, N.O., W. B. McConnaughey , and E. L. Elson , 1982, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79:5327. Forces on the order of one millidyne and indentations on the order of one micron were detected. An analysis of these data in terms of a simplified mechanical model yielded the elastic area compressibility modulus. This analysis used a variational approach to minimize the isothermal elastic potential energy density function given by E. A. Evans and R. Skalak (Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Biomembranes, 1980, CRC Press, Boca Raton , FL). Measurements on swollen erythrocytes gave a range of values, depending in part on the osmotic conditions, of 17.9 +/- 8.2 to 34.8 +/- 12.0 mdyn /micron for the elastic area compressibility modulus at 25 degrees C. Fractional area expansion greater than 2.6 +/- 0.8% produced rapid cell lysis. These values were not corrected for the reversible movement of water across the cell membrane in response to hydrostatic pressure gradients. Our results agree reasonably with those obtained by Evans et al. (Evans, E.A., R. Waugh , and L. Melnick , 1976, Biophys. J., 16:585-595.) using micropipette aspiration under similar conditions. PMID:6722261

  20. The Synergistic Effect of Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Micrometer/Nanometer Surface Texturing on Bone Healing around Immediately Placed Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Rodrigo F; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N; Marao, Heloisa Fonseca; Bonfante, Estevam Augusto; Pinto, Nelson; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated the effects of L-PRF presence and implant surface texture on bone healing around immediately placed implants. Methods. The first mandibular molars of 8 beagle dogs were bilaterally extracted, and implants (Blossom™, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) were placed in the mesial or distal extraction sockets in an interpolated fashion per animal. Two implant surfaces were distributed per sockets: (1) dual acid-etched (DAE, micrometer scale textured) and (2) micrometer/nanometer scale textured (Ossean™ surface). L-PRF (Intraspin system, Intra-Lock International) was placed in a split-mouth design to fill the macrogap between implant and socket walls on one side of the mandible. The contralateral side received implants without L-PRF. A mixed-model ANOVA (at α = 0.05) evaluated the effect of implant surface, presence of L-PRF, and socket position (mesial or distal), individually or in combination on bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Results. BAFO values were significantly higher for the Ossean relative to the DAE surface on the larger mesial socket. The presence of L-PRF resulted in higher BAFO. The Ossean surface and L-PRF presence resulted in significantly higher BAFO. Conclusion. L-PRF and the micro-/nanometer scale textured surface resulted in increased bone formation around immediately placed implants.

  1. Empirical processes with estimated parameters under auxiliary information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genz, Michael; Haeusler, Erich

    2006-02-01

    Empirical processes with estimated parameters are a well established subject in nonparametric statistics. In the classical theory they are based on the empirical distribution function which is the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator for a completely unknown distribution function. In the presence of some "nonparametric" auxiliary information about the distribution, like a known mean or a known median, for example, the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator is a modified empirical distribution function which puts random masses on the observations in order to take the available information into account [see Owen, Biometrika 75 (1988) 237-249, Ann. Statist. 18 (1990) 90-120, Empirical Likelihood, Chapman & Hall/CRC, London/Boca Raton, FL; Qin and Lawless, Ann. Statist. 22 (1994) 300-325]. Zhang [Metrika 46 (1997) 221-244] has proved a functional central limit theorem for the empirical process pertaining to this modified empirical distribution function. We will consider the corresponding empirical process with estimated parameters here and derive its asymptotic distribution. The limiting process is a centered Gaussian process with a complicated covariance function depending on the unknown parameter. The result becomes useful in practice through the bootstrap, which is shown to be consistent in case of a known mean. The performance of the resulting bootstrap goodness-of-fit test based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic is studied through simulations.

  2. Examining the Local Structure of Titanium Carbide Derived Carbons: Experiment and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llobet, Anna; Palmer, Jeremy; Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Fischer, John; Gogotsi, Yury; Gubbins, Keith

    2010-03-01

    Titanium Carbide derived carbons (Ti-CDCs) are amorphous nanoporous materials synthesized by high-temperature chlorination of crystalline TiC [1]. Judicious choice of the synthesis conditions allow for fine control over many of the structural features of Ti-CDCs, enabling them to be optimized for a wide variety of energy-related applications [2]. We have combined both experimental and computational methods to investigate the structural and functional properties of Ti-CDCs. Atomic pair distributions functions obtained from neutron diffraction experiments reveal that the synthesis temperature has a dramatic effect on the local structural ordering in these materials and consequently their functional properties. Atomistic models for Ti-CDCs have also been developed with the aid of molecular dynamics. These models reproduce the observed experimental trends and are used to gain new insight into the complex structure-function relationship. 1. Gogotsi, Y. 2006. Carbon nanomaterials. CRC Press, Boca Raton 2. Dash et al. 2006. Carbon 44:2489-2497

  3. On the determination of elastic coefficients from indentation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardieu, N.; Constantinescu, A.

    2000-06-01

    The main result of this paper is the extension of the adjoint state method to variational inequalities. This is done for the Signorini contact problem (Kikuchi N and Oden J T 1988 Contact Problems in Elasticity: a Study of Variational Inequalities and Finite Element Methods (Philadelphia: SIAM)) and used for the identification of elastic coefficients from an indentation test. The result is obtained by two independent approaches based on the penalized and respectively, mixed formulations of the direct problem, a Signorini contact problem. An important and astonishing result is that the obtained adjoint problem is a linear problem with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This is expected for problems described with variational equalities (Bui H D 1993 Introduction Aux Problèmes Inverses en Mécanique des Matériaux (Paris: Eyrolles) (Engl. Transl. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press)), Lions J L 1968 Contrôle Optimal des Systèmes Gouvernés par des Équations aux Dérivées Partielles (Dunod)), but is a new result for problems described with variational inequalities. As an application, the elastic coefficients of an isotropic body have been identified from the knowledge of a displacement-force curve measured during an indentation test. The efficiency of the method is illustrated on numerical examples for the identification of a bimaterial and a functional gradient material.

  4. Bounded components of positive solutions of abstract fixed point equations: mushrooms, loops and isolas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gómez, Julián; Molina-Meyer, Marcela

    In this work a general class of nonlinear abstract equations satisfying a generalized strong maximum principle is considered in order to study the behavior of the bounded components of positive solutions bifurcating from the curve of trivial states (λ,u)=(λ,0) at a nonlinear eigenvalue λ=λ0 with geometric multiplicity one. Since the unilateral theorems of Rabinowitz (J. Funct. Anal. 7 (1971) 487, Theorems 1.27 and 1.40) are not true as originally stated (cf. the very recent counterexample of Dancer, Bull. London Math. Soc. 34 (2002) 533), in order to get our main results the unilateral theorem of López-Gómez (Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis, Research Notes in Mathematics, vol. 426, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001, Theorem 6.4.3) is required. Our analysis fills some serious gaps existing is some published papers that were provoked by a direct use of Rabinowitz's unilateral theory. Actually, the abstract theory developed in this paper cannot be covered with the pioneering results of Rabinowitz (1971), since in Rabinowitz's context any component of positive solutions must be unbounded, by a celebrated result attributable to Dancer (Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 52 (1973) 181).

  5. Impact of folivory on photosynthesis is greater than the sum of its holes

    PubMed Central

    Zangerl, A. R.; Hamilton, J. G.; Miller, T. J.; Crofts, A. R.; Oxborough, K.; Berenbaum, M. R.; de Lucia, E. H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of herbivores on plant production and fitness may not relate directly to the quantity of biomass removed because folivory may alter photosynthetic rates at a considerable distance from the damaged tissue [Welter, S. C. (1989) in Insect-Plant Interactions, ed. Bernays, E. A. (CRC, Boca Raton), pp. 135–151.]. An impediment to understanding the effects of leaf damage on photosynthesis has been an inability to map photosynthetic function within a single leaf. We developed an instrument for imaging chlorophyll fluorescence and used it to map the effects of caterpillar feeding on whole-leaf photosynthesis in wild parsnip. The adverse effects of caterpillar feeding on photosynthesis were found to extend well beyond the areas of the leaflet in which caterpillars removed tissue. These “indirectly” affected areas remained impaired for at least 3 days after the caterpillars were removed and were six times as large as the area directly damaged by the caterpillars. Although photosynthesis in indirectly affected areas was reduced and not eliminated, these areas accounted for three times as much of the overall reduction in photosynthesis as the area removed by the caterpillars. The size of the indirect effects was positively correlated with defense-related synthesis of furanocoumarins, suggesting that costs of chemical defense may be one factor that accounts for the indirect effects of herbivory on plants. PMID:11792866

  6. Who provided maize to Chaco Canyon after the mid-12th-century drought?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.

    2010-01-01

    Between A.D. 1181 and 1200, in the early part of a climatically wet period, corn was imported to Chaco Canyon from a region outside the Chaco Halo (defined in this paper as the region between the base of the Chuska Mountains and Raton Wells). Strontium-isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses of 12 corn cobs dating to this period match 87Sr/86Sr ratios from five potential source areas, including: the Zuni region, the Mesa Verde-McElmo Dome area, the Totah, the Defiance Plateau, and Lobo Mesa. The latter two areas were eliminated from consideration as possible sources of corn in that they appear to have been unpopulated during the time period of interest. Therefore, it appears that the corn cobs were imported from the Zuni region, the Mesa Verde-McElmo Dome area, or the Totah area during a time when the climate was relatively wet and when a surplus of corn was produced in regions outside Chaco Canyon. Based on proximity to and cultural affiliation with Chaco Canyon, it is hypothesized that the corn probably was imported from the Totah.

  7. Detrital record of initial basement exhumation along the Laramide deformation front, southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Meredith A.; Horton, Brian K.; Murphy, Michael A.; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2016-09-01

    New geochronological constraints on upper crustal exhumation in the southern Rocky Mountains help delineate the latest Cretaceous-Paleogene history of drainage reorganization and landscape evolution during Laramide flat-slab subduction beneath western North America. Detrital zircon U-Pb results for the Raton basin of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico define the inception of coarse-grained siliciclastic sedimentation and a distinctive shift in provenance, from distal to proximal sources, that recorded shortening-related uplift and unroofing along the Laramide deformation front of the northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This Maastrichtian-early Paleocene ( 70-65 Ma) change—from distal foreland accumulation of sediment derived from the thin-skinned Cordilleran (Sevier) fold-thrust belt to coarse-grained sedimentation proximal to a Laramide basement block uplift—reflects cratonward (eastward) deformation advance and reorganization of drainage systems that supplied a large volume of Paleocene-lower Eocene sediments to the Gulf of Mexico. The timing of unroofing along the eastern deformation front is synchronous with basement-involved shortening across the interior of the Laramide province, suggesting abrupt wholesale uplift rather than a systematic inboard advance of deformation. The growth and infilling of broken foreland basins within the interior and margins of the Laramide province had a significant impact on continental-scale drainage systems, as several ponded/axial Laramide basins trapped large volumes of sediment and induced reorganization of major source-to-sink sediment pathways.

  8. Mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.

    2014-08-01

    Using over 310,000 high-quality radial receiver functions recorded by the USArray and other seismic stations in the contiguous United States, the depths of the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities (d410 and d660) are mapped in over 1,000 consecutive overlapping circles with a radius of 1°. The average mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness for both the western and central/eastern U.S. is within 3 km from the global average of 250 km, suggesting an overall normal MTZ temperature beneath both areas. The Pacific Coast Ranges and the southern Basin and Range Province are underlain by a depressed d410, indicating higher-than-normal temperature in the upper MTZ. The proposed Yellowstone and Raton hot spots are not associated with clear undulations of the MTZ discontinuities, but d410 beneath another proposed hot spot, Bermuda, is depressed significantly and d660 has a normal depth. Low-temperature regions are found in the upper MTZ associated with the subducted Juan de Fuca slab beneath the northern Rocky Mountains and in two circular areas beneath the northern Basin and Range Province and the southern Colorado Plateau. Part of the Great Plains is characterized by a depressed d660. This observation, when combined with results from seismic tomography, suggests the existence of a cold region in the lower MTZ, probably associated with subducted Farallon slab segments.

  9. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  10. Weather, geography, and vehicle-related hyperthermia in children.

    PubMed

    Grundstein, Andrew; Null, Jan; Meentemeyer, Vernon

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle-related hyperthermia is an unfortunate tragedy that leads to the accidental deaths of children each year. This research utilizes the most extensive dataset of child vehicle-related hyperthermia deaths in the United States, including 414 deaths between 1998 and 2008. Deaths follow a seasonal pattern, with a peak in July and no deaths in December or January. Also, deaths occurred over a wide range of temperature and radiation levels and across virtually all regions, although most of them took place across the southern United States. In particular, the Phoenix, Houston, Dallas, and Las Vegas metropolitan areas had the greatest number of deaths. We utilize our vehicle hyperthermia index (vhi) to compare expected deaths versus actual deaths in a metropolitan area, based on the number of children in the area who are under the age of five and on the frequency of hot days in the area. The vhi indicates that the Memphis, West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, and Las Vegas metropolitan areas are the most dangerous places for vehicle-related hyperthermia. We conclude by discussing several recommendations with public health policy implications.

  11. Geologic and geomorphic controls of coal development in some Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Previous investigations have not well defined the controls on the development of minable coals in fluvial environments. This study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding of these controls, particularly in of the lower Tertiary coal-bearing deposits of the Raton and Powder River basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In this region, large amounts of coals accumulated in swamps formed in the flow-through fluvial systems that infilled these intermontane basins. Extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonism partly controlled the stratigraphic and facies distributions of minable coal deposits. The regional accumulation of coals was favored by the rapid basin subsidence coupled with minimal uplift of the source area. During these events, coals developed in swamps associated with anastomosed and meandering fluvial systems and alluvial fans. The extensive and high rate of sediment input from these fluvial systems promoted the formation of ombrotrophic, raised swamps, which produced low ash and anomalously thick coals. The petrology and palynology of these coals, and the paleobotany of the associated sediments, suggest that ombrotrophic, raised swamps were common in the Powder River Basin, where the climate during the early Tertiary was paratropical. The paleoecology of these swamps is identical to that of the modern ombrotrophic, raised swamps of the Baram and Mahakam Rivers of Borneo. ?? 1993.

  12. Nonlinear analysis of the heartbeats in public patient ECGs using an automated PD2i algorithm for risk stratification of arrhythmic death

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, James E; Anchin, Jerry M; Weiss, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects both cardiac autonomic function and risk of arrhythmic death (AD). Reduced indices of HRV based on linear stochastic models are independent risk factors for AD in post-myocardial infarct cohorts. Indices based on nonlinear deterministic models have a significantly higher sensitivity and specificity for predicting AD in retrospective data. A need exists for nonlinear analytic software easily used by a medical technician. In the current study, an automated nonlinear algorithm, the time-dependent point correlation dimension (PD2i), was evaluated. The electrocardiogram (ECG) data were provided through an National Institutes of Health-sponsored internet archive (PhysioBank) and consisted of all 22 malignant arrhythmia ECG files (VF/VT) and 22 randomly selected arrhythmia files as the controls. The results were blindly calculated by automated software (Vicor 2.0, Vicor Technologies, Inc., Boca Raton, FL) and showed all analyzable VF/VT files had PD2i < 1.4 and all analyzable controls had PD2i > 1.4. Five VF/VT and six controls were excluded because surrogate testing showed the RR-intervals to contain noise, possibly resulting from the low digitization rate of the ECGs. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity 85%, relative risk > 100; p < 0.01, power > 90%. Thus, automated heartbeat analysis by the time-dependent nonlinear PD2i-algorithm can accurately stratify risk of AD in public data made available for competitive testing of algorithms. PMID:18728829

  13. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    enfocan más en los conductores del comportamiento humano y en las implicaciones de varias fuentes de incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones de manejo. La cacería de trofeos ha sido sugerida como una herramienta de conservación porque le otorga valor económico a la vida silvestre, pero ejemplos recientes muestran que la sobrecolecta es un problema sustancial y que las limitaciones de datos son abundantes. Usamos el estudio de caso de la cacería de trofeos de un antílope en peligro, el nyala de las montañas (Tragelaphus buxtoni), para explorar como las incertidumbres generadas por el monitoreo de poblaciones y el tráfico de especies interactúan con la toma de decisiones de 2 actores clave: las compañías de safari y el gobierno. Construimos un modelo de evaluación de estrategia de manejo que incluye la dinámica poblacional del nyala de las montañas, un modelo de monitoreo y un modelo de toma de decisiones de una compañía. Investigamos escenarios de inversión en el combate del tráfico de especies y el monitoreo por el gobierno y las compañías de safari. La estrategia de colecta fue robusta hacia la incertidumbre en los estimados de población obtenidos del monitoreo, pero el tráfico de especies tuvo un efecto más fuerte sobre la cuota y la sustentabilidad; por esto, reducir el tráfico de especies está dentro de los intereses de compañías que desean incrementar la rentabilidad de las empresas, por ejemplo al hacer participar a los miembros de la comunidad como guías de caza. Hay un nivel umbral de incertidumbre en los estimados de población más allá del cual la variación anual en la cuota de trofeos previene la planeación por parte de las compañías de safari. Esto sugiere un papel para el gobierno asegurando que un nivel base de monitoreo de población se lleve a cabo para que este nivel no sea excedido. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia de considerar los incentivos de partes interesadas múltiples al designar marcos de trabajo para

  14. Seismic‐hazard forecast for 2016 including induced and natural earthquakes in the central and eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a one‐year (2016) probabilistic seismic‐hazard assessment for the central and eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes that are constructed with probabilistic methods using alternative data and inputs. This hazard assessment builds on our 2016 final model (Petersen et al., 2016) by adding sensitivity studies, illustrating hazard in new ways, incorporating new population data, and discussing potential improvements. The model considers short‐term seismic activity rates (primarily 2014–2015) and assumes that the activity rates will remain stationary over short time intervals. The final model considers different ways of categorizing induced and natural earthquakes by incorporating two equally weighted earthquake rate submodels that are composed of alternative earthquake inputs for catalog duration, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground‐motion models. These alternatives represent uncertainties on how we calculate earthquake occurrence and the diversity of opinion within the science community. In this article, we also test sensitivity to the minimum moment magnitude between M 4 and M 4.7 and the choice of applying a declustered catalog with b=1.0 rather than the full catalog with b=1.3. We incorporate two earthquake rate submodels: in the informed submodel we classify earthquakes as induced or natural, and in the adaptive submodel we do not differentiate. The alternative submodel hazard maps both depict high hazard and these are combined in the final model. Results depict several ground‐shaking measures as well as intensity and include maps showing a high‐hazard level (1% probability of exceedance in 1 year or greater). Ground motions reach 0.6g horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in north‐central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2g PGA in the Raton basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in

  15. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by U-Pb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1993-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of single 1 - 3 micrograms zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 +/- 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, while those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 +/- 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With U-Pb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age.

  16. Methane recovery from coalbeds project. Monthly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Progress made on the Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project (MRCP) is reported in the Raton Mesa Coal Region. The Uinta and Warrior basin reports have been reviewed and will be published and delivered in early December. A cooperative core test with R and P Coal Company on a well in Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was negotiated. In a cooperative effort with the USGS Coal Branch on three wells in the Wind River Basin, desorption of coal samples showed little or no gas. Completed field testing at the Dugan Petroleum well in the San Juan Basin. Coal samples showed minimal gas. Initial desorption of coal samples suggests that at least a moderate amount of gas was obtained from the Coors well test in the Piceance Basin. Field work for the Piceance Basin Detailed Site Investigation was completed. In the Occidental Research Corporation (ORC) project, a higher capacity vacuum pump to increase CH/sub 4/ venting operations has been installed. Drilling of Oxy No. 12 experienced delays caused by mine gas-offs and was eventually terminated at 460 ft after an attempt to drill through a roll which produced a severe dog leg and severely damaged the drill pipe. ORC moved the second drill rig and equipment to a new location in the same panel as Oxy No. 12 and set the stand pipe for Oxy No. 13. Drill rig No. 1 has been moved east of the longwall mining area in anticipation of drilling cross-panel on 500 foot intervals. Waynesburg College project, Equitable Gas Company has received the contract from Waynesburg College and has applied to the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission for a new tariff rate. Waynesburg College has identified a contractor to make the piping connections to the gas line after Equitable establishes their meter and valve requirements.

  17. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by UPb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krogh, T.E.; Kamo, S.L.; Bohor, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    UPb isotopic dating of single 1-3 ??g zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 ?? 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, white those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 ?? 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With UPb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age. ?? 1993.

  18. SU-E-J-167: Dosimetric Consequences From Minimal Displacements in APBI with SAVI Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekara, S; Dumitru, N; Hyvarinen, M; Pella, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the importance of providing proper solid immobilization in every fraction of treatment in APBI with brachytherapy. Methods: 125 patients treated with APBI brachytherapy with SAVI applicators at SFRO Boca Raton, from 2013–2015 were considered for this retrospective study. The CT scans of each patient, which were taken before each treatment, were imported in to the Oncentra treatment planning system. Then they were compared with the initial CT scan which was used for the initial plan. Deviation in displacements in reference to ribs and skin surface was measured and dosimetric evaluations respective to the initial image were performed. Results: Small deviations in displacements were observed from the SAVI applicator to the ribs and the skin surface. Dosimetric evaluations revealed, very small changes in the inter-fractionation position make significant differences in the maximum dose to critical organs. Additionally, the volume of the cavity also changed between fractions. As a Result, the maximum dose manifested variance between 10% and 32% in ribs and skin surface respectively. Conclusion: It appears that taking a CT scan before each treatment is necessary to minimize the risk of delivering undesired high doses to the critical organs. This study indicates, in 30% of the cases re-planning was necessary between treatments. We conclude that, treatment planning teams should evaluate the placement of the device by analyzing the CT images before each treatment and they must be prepared for re-planning if needed. This study also reveals the urgent need of improving the immobilization methods with APBI when treating with the SAVI applicator.

  19. 2016 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-03-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a 1-year seismic hazard forecast for 2016 for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes. The model assumes that earthquake rates calculated from several different time windows will remain relatively stationary and can be used to forecast earthquake hazard and damage intensity for the year 2016. This assessment is the first step in developing an operational earthquake forecast for the CEUS, and the analysis could be revised with updated seismicity and model parameters. Consensus input models consider alternative earthquake catalog durations, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground motion estimates, and represent uncertainties in earthquake occurrence and diversity of opinion in the science community. Ground shaking seismic hazard for 1-percent probability of exceedance in 1 year reaches 0.6 g (as a fraction of standard gravity [g]) in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2 g in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in north-central Texas near Dallas. Near some areas of active induced earthquakes, hazard is higher than in the 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model (NHSM) by more than a factor of 3; the 2014 NHSM did not consider induced earthquakes. In some areas, previously observed induced earthquakes have stopped, so the seismic hazard reverts back to the 2014 NSHM. Increased seismic activity, whether defined as induced or natural, produces high hazard. Conversion of ground shaking to seismic intensity indicates that some places in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Arkansas may experience damage if the induced seismicity continues unabated. The chance of having Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) VI or greater (damaging earthquake shaking) is 5–12 percent per year in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, similar to the chance of damage caused by natural earthquakes

  20. Composites with tuned effective magnetic permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2007-07-01

    Pendry et al. [J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999)] and Smith et al. [D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000)] have shown that the effective magnetic permeability, μ, of free space can be rendered negative over a certain frequency range by a periodic arrangement of very thin conductors with suitable magnetic resonance properties, the so-called split-ring resonators. Because of its rather bulky architecture, this structure does not lend itself to a proper integration into a reasonably thin real composite structural panel. To remedy this fundamental barrier, we invented a new magnetic resonator consisting of very thin folded plates that are suitably nested within one another to form folded-doubled resonators (FDRs) that can be integrated into an actual composite panel. Measurements, using a focused beam electromagnetic characterization system combined with time-domain numerical simulations of the reflection and transmission coefficients of such a composite slab have revealed that indeed the composite has a negative μ over a frequency range of about 9.1-9.35 GHz [S. Nemat-Nasser, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, T. A. Plaisted, A. Starr, and A. Vakil Amirkhizi, in Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies, edited by Y. Bar Cohen (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006)]. Thus, it has become possible to construct a structural composite panel with negative index of refraction by simultaneously creating negative effective ɛ and μ [V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968); R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001); A. F. Starr, P. M. Rye, D. R. Smith, and S. Nemat-Nasser, Phys. Rev. B 70, 113102 (2004)].

  1. Histomorphometric evaluation of bioceramic molecular impregnated and dual acid-etched implant surfaces in the human posterior maxilla.

    PubMed

    Shibli, Jamil Awad; Grassi, Sauro; Piattelli, Adriano; Pecora, Gabriele E; Ferrari, Daniel S; Onuma, Tatiana; d'Avila, Susana; Coelho, Paulo G; Barros, Raquel; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2010-12-01

    Physical and bioceramic incorporation surface treatments at the nanometer scale showed higher means of bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and torque values compared with surface topography at the micrometer scale; however, the literature concerning the effect of nanometer scale parameters is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different implant surfaces on the percentage bone-to-implant contact (BIC%) and bone osteocyte density in the human posterior maxilla after 2 months of unloaded healing. The implants utilized presented dual acid-etched (DAE) surface and a bioceramic molecular impregnated treatment (Ossean®, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL, USA) serving as control and test, respectively. Ten subjects (59 ± 9 years of age) received two implants (one of each surface) during conventional implant surgery in the posterior maxilla. After the non-loaded period of 2 months, the implants and the surrounding tissue were removed by means of a trephine and were non-decalcified processed for ground sectioning and analysis of BIC%, bone density in threaded area (BA%), and osteocyte index (Oi). Two DAE implants were found to be clinically unstable at time of retrieval. Histometric evaluation showed significantly higher BIC% and Oi for the test compared to the control surface (p < .05), and that BA% was not significantly different between groups. Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to compare the differences of histomorphometric variables between implant surfaces. The significance test was conducted at a 5% level of significance. The histological data suggest that the bioceramic molecular impregnated surface-treated implants positively modulated bone healing at early implantation times compared to the DAE surface. © 2009, Copyright the Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in J Chem Educ 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students' understanding of periodic table is vital for their success in chemistry, and the online periodic table has the potential to advance learners' understanding of chemical elements and fundamental chemistry concepts (Brito et al. in J Res Sci Teach 42(1):84-111, 2005). The ten sites were compared for accuracy of data with the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (HCP, Haynes in CRC handbook of chemistry and physics: a ready-reference book of chemical and physical data. CRC Press, Boca Raton 2012). The 10 sites are the most visited periodic table Web sites available. Four different elements, carbon, gold, argon, and plutonium, were selected for comparison, and 11 different attributes for each element were identified for evaluating accuracy. A wide variation of accuracy was found among the 10 periodic table sources. Chemicool was the most accurate information provider with 66.67 % accuracy when compared to the HCP. The 22 types of information including meaning of name and use in industry and society provided by these sites were, also, compared. WebElements, "Chemicool", "Periodic Table Live", and "the Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements" were the most information providers, providing 86.36 % of information among the 10 Web sites. "WebElements" provides the most links among the 10 Web sites. It was concluded that if an individual teacher or student desires only raw physical data from element, the Internet might not be the best choice.

  3. Isotopic composition of continental and marine waters in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, T.; Durazo, J.; Morales, P.; Cienfuegos, E.

    2007-05-01

    The region interesting to the present hydrologically-oriented study is part of the Costa Chica, between the state line of Guerrero and Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, which includes the warm and subhumid lowlands of the 6136 km2 watershed of the Ometepec river. This perennial, although highly seasonal river, drains the southern flank of Sierra Madre del Sur, an elevated mountain range parallel to the Pacific Ocean shoreline, with peaks up to 3000 m asl, and at 98º 43' W; 16º 30' N, discharges into this ocean around 3 × 109 m3 of pristine water per year. So far, anthropic alterations of the whole environment are not immediately obvious. Its coastal wetlands have become a new international Ramsar Site. Our region of interest is a large scale unperturbed natural laboratory, waiting to be studied. The present study shows a several years ongoing survey of 64 paired measurements, (δ 18O, δ 2H) in permil versus Vienna SMOW, of the oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations of the continental and marine waters of the study region. Rain water was not sampled. The objective is to show and personally discuss the sole "isotopic picture" in a threefold way: i) To test locally the meteoric line, the fractionation coefficients, and the altitude effect, all of them documented for central Mexico through other studies, and, also, to compare the isotope data available for other locations nearby; ii) To display the regularities we found in surface and ground waters, potentially useful studying its catchment isotope hydrology; and iii) To show marine water features that could be indicative of local continental discharges inside the sea, the ones that should be taken into account in future hydrological and ecological balances [in: Zektser IS, RG Dzhamalov, LG Everett (2007). Submarine Groundwater. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 446 pp.

  4. Comparison of total body tissue interface pressure of specialized pressure-relieving mattresses.

    PubMed

    Hickerson, William L; Slugocki, George M; Thaker, Reuben L; Dunkan, Robert; Bishop, John F; Parks, Judy K

    2004-01-01

    The pressure-relieving ability of three specialized support surface mattresses was investigated and compared to a standard hospital mattress by measuring total body tissue interface pressure in a laboratory experiment designed to simulate clinical conditions predisposing to formation of pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are commonly seen in the elderly; in patients with trauma, burns, spinal cord injury, neurological deficits, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke; and in other patient groups with debilitating or emaciating illness. They represent from 4 to 29% of all hospital admissions. This study was undertaken to compare three different types of specialty beds to a standard hospital mattress in order to find a mattress that prevents the occurrence of pressure ulcers. The tested beds and mattresses were the Orthoderm Convertible II (Bio-Clinic Inc., Ontario, Canada) low air-loss mattress on a Stryker PMS (Stryker Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA) bed; the FluidAir Elite (KCI Inc., San Antonio, Texas, USA) air-fluidized bed; the Pegasus Airwave mattress (Pegasus Airwave Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA) on a Stryker PMS bed; and a standard hospital mattress on a Stryker PMS bed. The nineteen test subjects were all healthy with exclusion criteria of spinal cord injury, immobility, or other neurological or physical impairment. The Force Management System (Numotech Inc., Northridge, California, USA) was used to measure tissue interface pressure. The study data show that the Pegasus Airwave mattress total surface pressure values of the anatomical regions (total body, torso, hips) of the body are lower than those of the other three tested mattresses. The total body and hip pressure resulting from pressure maturation is significantly less on the Pegasus Airwave mattress than on to the hospital bed, the air-fluidized bed, and the low air-loss bed. The Pegasus Airwave mattress outperforms the other tested support surfaces by decreasing overall pressure. Therefore, the

  5. The relevance of Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin and metronidazole during complex maxillary rehabilitations using bone allograft. Part II: implant surgery, prosthodontics, and survival.

    PubMed

    Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2009-06-01

    Extensive bone grafting remains a delicate procedure, due to the slow and difficult integration of the grafted material into the physiological architecture. The recent use of platelet concentrates aims to improve this process of integration by accelerating bone and mucosal healing. Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a healing biomaterial that concentrates in a single autologous fibrin membrane, most platelets, leukocytes, and cytokines from a 10-mL blood harvest, without artificial biochemical modification (no anticoagulant, no bovine thrombin). In this second part, we describe the implant and prosthetic phases of a complex maxillary rehabilitation, after preimplant bone grafting using allograft, Choukroun's PRF membranes, and metronidazole. Twenty patients were treated using this new technique and followed up during 2.1 years (1-5 years). Finally, 184 dental implants were placed, including 54 classical screw implants (3I, Palm Beach Gardens, FL) and 130 implants with microthreaded collar (46 from AstraTech, Mölndal, Sweden; 84 from Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL). No implant or graft was lost in this case series, confirming the validity of this reconstructive protocol. However, the number of implants used per maxillary rehabilitation was always higher with simple screw implants than with microthreaded implants, the latter presenting a stronger initial implant stability. Finally, during complex implant rehabilitations, PRF membranes are particularly helpful for periosteum healing and maturation. The thick peri-implant gingiva is related to several healing phases on a PRF membrane layer and could explain the low marginal bone loss observed in this series. Microthreaded collar and platform-switching concept even improved this result. Multiple healing on PRF membranes seems a new opportunity to improve the final esthetic result.

  6. Seismicity of the rocky mountains and Rio Grande Rift from the EarthScope Transportable Array and CREST temporary seismic networks, 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, J. S.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bilek, S. L.

    2017-03-01

    We developed a catalog of small magnitude (ML -0.1 to 4.7) seismicity across Colorado and New Mexico from the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array and CREST (Colorado Rocky Mountains Experiment and Seismic Transects) seismic networks from 2008 to 2010 to characterize active deformation in the Rio Grande Rift. We recorded over 900 earthquakes in the Rio Grande Rift region, not including induced earthquakes and mine blasts, and find that the rift is actively deforming both broadly and in distinct regions. Seismic events that are likely induced, mostly in the Raton Basin, make up 66% of the catalog (1837 earthquakes). Neogene faults in the northern rift in north central Colorado are seismically active in the North Park Basin and northwestern Colorado. The central rift from the San Luis Basin (southern Colorado) to south of the Socorro Magma Body is the most seismically active rift region, and seismicity delineates the deformation in the Colorado Plateau transition zone, which is spatially correlated with volcanic vents, dikes, and faults within the western Jemez Lineament. The eastern Jemez Lineament is nearly aseismic and surrounded by a halo of seismicity culminating in boundaries defined by recent moderate (Mw 3.9 and Mw 3.3) earthquakes. The southern rift is characterized by diffuse seismicity in Texas and Mexico. This study provides an updated seismic catalog built with uniformity in seismometer coverage and low epicentral uncertainties ( 2 km) that allows for regional evaluation of seismicity. During this time period, clusters of seismicity and moderate magnitude earthquakes characterize deformation in a low-strain rate extensional environment.

  7. Preparation and use of sea urchin egg homogenates.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Anthony J; Galione, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Cell homogenates provide a simple and yet powerful means of investigating the actions of Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messengers and their target Ca(2+) stores. The sea urchin egg homogenate is particularly useful and almost unique in retaining robust Ca(2+) responses to all three major messengers, i.e., inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), cyclic ADP-ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) (Lee and Aarhus. J Biol Chem 270: 2152-2172, 1995). It is not only invaluable for probing the pharmacology and mechanism of action of these messengers, but can also be used to assay Ca(2+) uptake mechanisms (Churchill et al. Cell 111: 703-708, 2002), second messenger production (Morgan et al. Methods in cADPR and NAADP research. In: Putney JW Jr (ed) Methods in calcium signalling, CRC: Boca Raton, FL, 2006), and dynamics of luminal pH (pHL) changes within acidic Ca(2+) stores (Lee and Epel. Dev Biol 98: 446-454, 1983; Morgan and Galione. Biochem J 402: 301-310, 2007). Here, we detail the protocols for preparing and using egg homogenates, wherein eggs are shed and collected into artificial sea water (ASW), dejellied, washed several times in Ca(2+)-free ASW, and then finally washed and resuspended in an intracellular-like medium. Homogenization is effected with a Dounce glass tissue homogenizer (at 50 % (v/v)) and aliquots frozen and stored at -80 °C. For Ca(2+) (or pHL) measurements, homogenate is thawed and sequentially diluted in an intracellular-like medium and the fluorescence of Ca(2+)- or pHL-sensitive dyes monitored in a standard fluorimeter or plate-reader.

  8. 17β-Estradiol and natural progesterone for menopausal hormone therapy: REPLENISH phase 3 study design of a combination capsule and evidence review.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, Sebastian; Amadio, Julia M; Bernick, Brian A; Pickar, James H; Archer, David F

    2015-05-01

    Several formulations combining estrogens and progestins for hormone therapy (HT) have been approved worldwide for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, yet recent data indicate a decline in their use and an increase in compounded bioidentical HT. Up to now, no single product combining natural 17β-estradiol and progesterone has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the European Medicines Agency (EMA). A phase 3 trial (REPLENISH) is underway to study a novel oral formulation of solubilized 17β-estradiol and natural progesterone combined in a single gelatin capsule (TX-001HR; TherapeuticsMD, Inc, Boca Raton, FL) for treating vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in postmenopausal women. The REPLENISH trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of TX-001HR (4 doses) versus placebo for the reduction of moderate to severe VMS frequency and severity at 4 and 12 weeks and evaluates the endometrial safety of the combinations at 1 year. TX-001HR contains hormones that are molecularly identical to endogenous estradiol and progesterone and is intended as an option for women who prefer bioidentical hormones; further, it does not contain peanut oil, a common allergen. The constituents of TX-001HR, in a pharmacokinetic report, showed similar bioavailability and safety compared with reference estradiol tablets and micronized progesterone capsules administered together. Published data suggest a safer profile of estradiol and natural progesterone compared with HT containing conjugated equine estrogens and progestins. This report summarizes the methodology of the REPLENISH trial and reviews the evidence suggesting clinical differences between HT containing progesterone or progestins, and estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens.

  9. Measurement and calculation of recoil pressure produced during CO{sub 2} laser interaction with ice

    SciTech Connect

    Semak, V.V.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Maccallum, D.O.; Noble, D.R.; Kanouff, M.P.

    1999-12-09

    Evaporation is a classical physics problem which, because of its significant importance for many engineering applications, has drawn considerable attention by previous researchers. Classical theoretical models [Ta. I. Frenkel, Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1946] represent evaporation in a simplistic way as the escape of atoms with highest velocities from a potential well with the depth determined by the atomic binding energy. The processes taking place in the gas phase above the rapidly evaporating surface have also been studied in great detail [S.I.Anisimov and V. A. Khokhlov, Instabilities in Lasser-Matter Interaction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995]. The description of evaporation utilizing these models is known to adequately characterize drilling with high beam intensity, e.g., >10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2}. However, the interaction regimes when beam intensity is relatively low, such as during welding or cutting, lack both theoretical and experimental consideration of the evaporation. It was shown recently that if the evaporation is treated in accordance with Anisimov et.al.'s approach, then predicted evaporation recoil should be a substantial factor influencing melt flow and related heat transfer during laser beam welding and cutting. To verify the applicability of this model for low beam intensity interaction, the authors compared the results of measurements and calculations of recoil pressure generated during laser beam irradiation of a target. The target material used was water ice at {minus}10 C. The displacement of a target supported in a nearly frictionless air bearing under irradiation by a defocused laser beam from a 14 kW CO{sub 2} laser was recorded and Newton's laws of motion used to derive the recoil pressure.

  10. Prebiotics prevent the appearance of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of BALB/c mice for increasing the gene expression of p16 protein.

    PubMed

    Gomides, Antônio Frederico Freitas; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Ferreira, Célia Lúcia de Luces Fortes; Comastri, Débora Silva; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2014-10-01

    Existen estudios que demuestran la eficacia de fibras para reducir la aparición de focos de cripta aberrantes (FCA) en roedores. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio consistió en investigar los efectos preventivos de los fructooligosacáridos (FOS) y el prebiótico inulina sobre la aparición de FCA en ratones. Materiales y métodos: Las técnicas empleadas fueron: RT-PCR para evaluar la expresión génica de p16, p21, p54, ciclina D1 y ciclina E en el colon distal; la cuantificación del Número de FCA y la medición de la actividad de la catalasa en el hígado y el colon distal. Los animales fueron divididos en cinco tratamientos (n=8); C-: dieta AIN93M sin fibra + DMH (1.2-dimetilhidrazina); INL: dieta AIN93M con inulina; INLCA: dieta AIN93M con inulina + DMH; FOS: dieta ANIN93M con FOS; FOSCA: dieta AIN93M con FOS + DMH, durante 15 semanas. Resultados: La inulina previno la aparición de FCA en el colon proximal, medio y distal, comparado con el control sin fibras. En el colon medio y distal, FOS también fue efectiva para prevenir la incidencia de FCA. Esta efectividad podría ser atribuida al aumento de la expresión génica de p16 tras el tratamiento con FOS. Ambos prebióticos también disminuyeron la actividad de la catalasa en el colon distal, lo que sugiere un efecto antioxidante. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren un efecto antioxidante de los prebióticos que podría atribuirse a un aumento de la expresión génica de p16.

  11. Earthquake Rate Models for Evolving Induced Seismicity Hazard in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Injection-induced earthquake rates can vary rapidly in space and time, which presents significant challenges to traditional probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies that are based on a time-independent model of mainshock occurrence. To help society cope with rapidly evolving seismicity, the USGS is developing one-year hazard models for areas of induced seismicity in the central and eastern US to forecast the shaking due to all earthquakes, including aftershocks which are generally omitted from hazards assessments (Petersen et al., 2015). However, the spatial and temporal variability of the earthquake rates make them difficult to forecast even on time-scales as short as one year. An initial approach is to use the previous year's seismicity rate to forecast the next year's seismicity rate. However, in places such as northern Oklahoma the rates vary so rapidly over time that a simple linear extrapolation does not accurately forecast the future, even when the variability in the rates is modeled with simulations based on an Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, JASA, 1988) to account for earthquake clustering. Instead of relying on a fixed time period for rate estimation, we explore another way to determine when the earthquake rate should be updated. This approach could also objectively identify new areas where the induced seismicity hazard model should be applied. We will estimate the background seismicity rate by optimizing a single set of ETAS aftershock triggering parameters across the most active induced seismicity zones -- Oklahoma, Guy-Greenbrier, the Raton Basin, and the Azle-Dallas-Fort Worth area -- with individual background rate parameters in each zone. The full seismicity rate, with uncertainties, can then be estimated using ETAS simulations and changes in rate can be detected by applying change point analysis in ETAS transformed time with methods already developed for Poisson processes.

  12. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by U-Pb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1993-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of single 1 - 3 micrograms zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 +/- 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, while those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 +/- 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With U-Pb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age.

  13. Quantification of Massive Seasonal Aggregations of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Kajiura, Stephen M.; Tellman, Shari L.

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Florida witnesses an enormous seasonal influx of upper trophic level marine predators each year as massive aggregations of migrating blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) overwinter in nearshore waters. The narrow shelf and close proximity of the Gulf Stream current to the Palm Beach County shoreline drive tens of thousands of sharks to the shallow, coastal environment. This natural bottleneck provides a unique opportunity to estimate relative abundance. Over a four year period from 2011–2014, an aerial survey was flown approximately biweekly along the length of Palm Beach County. A high definition video camera and digital still camera mounted out of the airplane window provided a continuous record of the belt transect which extended 200 m seaward from the shoreline between Boca Raton Inlet and Jupiter Inlet. The number of sharks within the survey transect was directly counted from the video. Shark abundance peaked in the winter (January-March) with a maximum in 2011 of 12,128 individuals counted within the 75.6 km-2 belt transect. This resulted in a maximum density of 803.2 sharks km-2. By the late spring (April-May), shark abundance had sharply declined to 1.1% of its peak, where it remained until spiking again in January of the following year. Shark abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature and large numbers of sharks were found only when water temperatures were less than 25°C. Shark abundance was also correlated with day of the year but not with barometric pressure. Although shark abundance was not correlated with photoperiod, the departure of the sharks from southeast Florida occurred around the vernal equinox. The shark migration along the United States eastern seaboard corresponds spatially and temporally with the spawning aggregations of various baitfish species. These baseline abundance data can be compared to future studies to determine if shark population size is changing and if sharks are restricting their southward

  14. Quantification of Massive Seasonal Aggregations of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Stephen M; Tellman, Shari L

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Florida witnesses an enormous seasonal influx of upper trophic level marine predators each year as massive aggregations of migrating blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) overwinter in nearshore waters. The narrow shelf and close proximity of the Gulf Stream current to the Palm Beach County shoreline drive tens of thousands of sharks to the shallow, coastal environment. This natural bottleneck provides a unique opportunity to estimate relative abundance. Over a four year period from 2011-2014, an aerial survey was flown approximately biweekly along the length of Palm Beach County. A high definition video camera and digital still camera mounted out of the airplane window provided a continuous record of the belt transect which extended 200 m seaward from the shoreline between Boca Raton Inlet and Jupiter Inlet. The number of sharks within the survey transect was directly counted from the video. Shark abundance peaked in the winter (January-March) with a maximum in 2011 of 12,128 individuals counted within the 75.6 km(-2) belt transect. This resulted in a maximum density of 803.2 sharks km(-2). By the late spring (April-May), shark abundance had sharply declined to 1.1% of its peak, where it remained until spiking again in January of the following year. Shark abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature and large numbers of sharks were found only when water temperatures were less than 25 °C. Shark abundance was also correlated with day of the year but not with barometric pressure. Although shark abundance was not correlated with photoperiod, the departure of the sharks from southeast Florida occurred around the vernal equinox. The shark migration along the United States eastern seaboard corresponds spatially and temporally with the spawning aggregations of various baitfish species. These baseline abundance data can be compared to future studies to determine if shark population size is changing and if sharks are restricting their southward

  15. Determination of serum IgG antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in environmental sampling workers using a fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, R; Sammons, D; Smith, J; Page, E; Snawder, J; Striley, C; MacKenzie, B

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate potential exposure to Bacillis anthracis (Ba) spores in sampling/decontamination workers in the aftermath of an anthrax terror attack. Methods: Fifty six serum samples were obtained from workers involved in environmental sampling for Ba spores at the American Media, Inc. (AMI) building in Boca Raton, FL after the anthrax attack there in October 2001. Nineteen sera were drawn from individuals both pre-entry and several weeks after entrance into the building. Nine sera each were drawn from unique individuals at the pre-entry and follow up blood draws. Thirteen donor control sera were also evaluated. Individuals were surveyed for Ba exposure by measurement of serum Ba anti-protective antigen (PA) specific IgG antibodies using a newly developed fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay (FCMIA). Results: Four sera gave positive anti-PA IgG results (defined as anti-PA IgG concentrations ⩾ the mean µg/ml anti-PA IgG from donor control sera (n = 13 plus 2 SD which were also inhibited ⩾ 85% when the serum was pre-adsorbed with PA). The positive sera were the pre-entry and follow up samples of two workers who had received their last dose of anthrax vaccine in 2000. Conclusion: It appears that the sampling/decontamination workers of the present study either had insufficient exposure to Ba spores to cause the production of anti-PA IgG antibodies or they were exposed to anthrax spores without producing antibody. The FCMIA appears to be a fast, sensitive, accurate, and precise method for the measurement of anti-PA IgG antibodies. PMID:15258278

  16. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    PubMed

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data.

  17. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water.

  18. Homonymous Hemianopia: A Critical Analysis of Optical Devices, Compensatory Training, and NovaVision.

    PubMed

    Pelak, Victoria S; Dubin, Mark; Whitney, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Homonymous hemianopia (HH) results from damage to visual pathways posterior to the optic chiasm. Due to the significant functional impairment that can result, rehabilitative techniques and devices intended to improve visual function after HH have been explored and are reviewed here. Two basic treatment strategies include use of optical devices and compensatory training. A third strategy, purported to be based on the principles of neuronal plasticity of the visual cortex, is aimed at visual field recovery by computerized training. This strategy is trademarked as visual restoration therapy (VRT) by NovaVision (Boca Raton, FL), which began marketing its commercialized therapy program in 2003 for the treatment of visual loss related to stroke and traumatic brain injury. In regard to compensatory training and optical devices, a standardized methodology is lacking, and very few controlled studies exist in regard to efficacy. Outcome data regarding effectiveness of VRT are conflicting, as are the opinions of investigators who have studied and reviewed VRT. There is some evidence that expansion of visual fields by VRT may be the result of very small eye movements. Functional outcomes for each strategy reveal subjective, but limited evidence or no objective evidence of functional improvement; therefore, it is difficult to recommend a specific treatment based on evidence for most patients. The decision to treat and the type of treatment to pursue for patients with HH should be individualized and guided by the type of injury, associated deficits, available resources, and the level of functional impairment manifested by the HH. Consultation with a low-vision specialist (preferably a specialist endorsed by an ophthalmologist or neuro-ophthalmologist) for treatment guidance is recommended.

  19. Surface applied water treatment residuals affect bioavailable phosphorus losses in Florida sands.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Olawale O; O'Connor, George A; Brinton, Scott R

    2008-09-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTR) can reduce runoff P loss and surface co-application of P-sources and WTR is a practical way of land applying the residuals. In a rainfall simulation study, we evaluated the effects of surface co-applied P-sources and an Al-WTR on runoff and leacheate bioavailable P (BAP) losses from a Florida sand. Four P-sources, namely poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids (high water-soluble P), Pompano biosolids (moderate water-soluble P), and triple super phosphate (TSP) were surface applied at 56 and 224 kg P ha(-1) (by weight) to represent low and high soil P loads typical of P- and N-based amendments rates. The treatments further received surface applied WTR at 0 or 10 g WTR kg(-1) soil. BAP loss masses were greater in leachate (16.4-536 mg) than in runoff (0.91-46 mg), but were reduced in runoff and leachate by surface applied WTR. Masses of total BAP lost in the presence of surface applied WTR were less than approximately 75% of BAP losses in the absence of WTR. Total BAP losses from each of the organic sources applied at N-based rates were not greater than P loss from TSP applied at a P-based rate. The BAP loss at the N-based rate of moderate water-soluble P-source (Pompano biosolids) was not greater than BAP losses at the P-based rates of other organic sources tested. The hazards of excess P from applying organic P-sources at N-based rates are not greater than observed at P-based rates of mineral fertilizer. Results suggest that management of the environmental P hazards associated with N-based rates of organic materials in Florida sands is possible by either applying P-sources with WTR or using a moderate water-soluble P-source.

  20. Cloning and characterization of chicken growth hormone binding protein (cGHBP).

    PubMed

    Lau, J S; Yip, C W; Law, K M; Leung, F C

    2007-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is indispensable for the growth of animals and its biological activity is mediated by binding to the growth hormone receptor (GHR) [Harvey S, Scanes CG, Daughaday WH. Growth hormone. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1995]. GHR is a transmembrane protein responsible for signal transduction upon GH binding. GH also binds to the growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) which is the soluble form of GHR extracellular domain existing in circulation. Actions of GHBP include prolongation of GH bioavailability and prevention of GH signaling system from over-stimulation. To date, little is known about the mechanisms generating the chicken GHBP (cGHBP). Elucidating the genomic structure of cGHR will provide insights into such underlying mechanisms. Using polymerase chain reaction and library screening methods, we have characterized the genomic organization of chicken GHR (cGHR). The full-length coding region of the cGHR transcript is composed of eight exons (exons 2-10), lacking a human homolog exon 3 and spans at least 71 kb on the genome. A novel transcript of size 1.2kb was isolated from chicken liver total RNA using 5' and 3' rapid cDNA ends amplification (RACE). It was generated by utilizing a previously unknown polyadenylation signal located at the intron 6. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that this transcript is widely expressed in a variety of tissues. This transcript has an open reading frame comprising 203 amino acids. In vitro binding assay using ELISA demonstrated that Escherichia coli expressed recombinant protein encoded by this transcript was able to bind with chicken GH. Hence, this transcript is a potential candidate for cGHBP.

  1. Concepts to utilize in describing thermoregulation and neurophysiological evidence for how the system works.

    PubMed

    Kanosue, Kazuyuki; Crawshaw, Larry I; Nagashima, Kei; Yoda, Tamae

    2010-05-01

    We would like to emphasize about the system involved with homeostatic maintenance of body temperature. First, the primary mission of the thermoregulatory system is to defend core temperature (T (core)) against changes in ambient temperature (T (a)), the most frequently encountered disturbance for the system. T (a) should be treated as a feedforward input to the system, which has not been adequately recognized by thermal physiologists. Second, homeostatic demands from outside the thermoregulatory system may require or produce an altered T (core), such as fever (demand from the immune system). There are also conditions where some thermoregulatory effectors might be better not recruited due to demands from other homeostatic systems, such as during dehydration or fasting. Third, many experiments have supported the original assertion of Satinoff that multiple thermoregulatory effectors are controlled by different and relatively independent neuronal circuits. However, it would also be of value to be able to characterize strictly regulatory properties of the entire system by providing a clear definition for the level of regulation. Based on the assumption that T (core) is the regulated variable of the thermoregulatory system, regulated T (core) is defined as the T (core) that pertains within the range of normothermic T (a) (Gordon in temperature and toxicology: an integrative, comparative, and environmental approach, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005), i.e., the T (a) range in which an animal maintains a stable T (core). The proposed approach would facilitate the categorization and evaluation of how normal biological alterations, physiological stressors, and pathological conditions modify temperature regulation. In any case, of overriding importance is to recognize the means by which an alteration in T (core) (and modification of associated effector activities) increases the overall viability of the organism.

  2. Origin of life on earth and Shannon's theory of communication.

    PubMed

    Yockey, H P

    2000-01-01

    The genetic information system is segregated, linear and digital. It is astonishing that the technology of information theory and coding theory has been in place in biology for at least 3.850 billion years (Mojzsis, S.J., Kishnamurthy, Arrhenius, G., 1998. Before RNA and after: geological and geochemical constraints on molecular evolution 1-47. In: Gesteland, R.F. (Ed.), The RNA World: The Nature of Modern RNA Suggests a Prebiotic RNA, second ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Boca Raton, FL). The genetic code performs a mapping between the sequences of the four nucleotides in mRNA to the sequences of the 20 amino acids in protein. It is highly relevant to the origin of life that the genetic code is constructed to confront and solve the problems of communication and recording by the same principles found both in the genetic information system and in modern computer and communication codes. There is nothing in the physico-chemical world that remotely resembles reactions being determined by a sequence and codes between sequences. The existence of a genome and the genetic code divides living organisms from non-living matter. If the historic process of the origin and evolution of life could be followed, it would prove to be a purely chemical process (Wächtershäuser, G., 1997. The origin of life and its methodological challenge. J. Theor. Biol. 187, 483-694). The question is whether this historic process or any reasonable part of it is available to human experiment and reasoning; there is no requirement that Nature's laws be plausible or even known to mankind. Bohr (Bohr, N., 1933. Light and life. Nature 308, 421-423, 456-459) argued that life is consistent with but undecidable by human reasoning from physics and chemistry. Perhaps scientists will come closer and closer to the riddle of how life emerged on Earth, but, like Zeno's Achilles, never achieve a complete solution.

  3. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Culebra Peak Area, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Las Animas and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Kirkham, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map provides new geologic mapping at 1:50,000-scale in the Culebra Peak area of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south-central Colorado. The map area includes all of the El Valle Creek, Stonewall, Culebra Peak, and Torres 7.5' quadrangles. Paleoproterozoic crystalline basement rocks are exposed along the crest of the Culebra Range which include a calc-alkaline gneiss sequence and a metasedimentary and bimodal metavolcanic sequence which are strongly foliated and display a northeast-southwest oriented structural trend. These rocks are intruded by several large granitic bodies and smaller amphibolitic and pegmatitic bodies which are also foliated. These basement rocks are intruded by a set of younger Neoproterozoic to lower Paleozoic gabbro dikes which are nonfoliated. These crystalline rocks are overlain to the east of the Culebra Range by a thick sequence of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks which include upper Paleozoic syn-tectonic sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Trough related to the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, Mesozoic post-tectonic sedimentary rocks, Cretaceous interior seaway sediments, and Laramide-age syn-tectonic sedimentary rocks of the Raton Basin. These rocks are faulted and folded by Laramide-age deformation. Tertiary igneous and volcaniclastic rocks that postdate the Laramide Orogeny are exposed throughout the map area and to the west of the Culebra Range, syntectonic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Sante Fe Group were deposited as fill in basins of the Rio Grande rift. These deposits are cut by rift-related extensional faults. Surficial units include alluvial, lacustrine, glacial, and mass-wasting deposits.

  4. Cathodoluminescence of shocked quartz at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Michael R.; Anders, Mark H.

    Empirical studies have documented an association between rock type and the cathodoluminescence color of constituent quartz grains. Quartz from extrusive igneous sources luminesces uniform pale blue. Quartz from intrusive igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks generally luminesces darker purple-blue, whereas quartz recrystallized under low-grade metamorphic conditions luminesces reddish-brown. Quartz grains in most sandstones luminesce a heterogeneous mixture of these colors because the grains were derived from a variety of ultimate source rocks. If shocked quartz found at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary is volcanic in origin, its cathodoluminescence should be predominantly pale blue. Alternatively, quartz grains derived from bolide impact upon, and ejection of, mixed igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks should luminesce a variety of colors. Grain mounts of sand collected at the K-T boundary horizon from the Clear Creek North site in the Raton Basin, Colorado were examined. Shocked quartz luminesced a variety of colors and very few grains luminesced the pale blue color that is typical of volcanic quartz. It was concluded that the shocked quartz was derived from a petrologically diverse source region without substantial volcanic contribution. Most shocked grains apparently were derived from low-grade metamorphic rocks, with a slightly smaller contribution from high-grade metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks. Rare quartz grains with brown-luminescing rims reflect a minor addition from detrital sedimentary sources. The apparent relative abundances of intrusive (and rare extrusive) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary ultimate source rocks suggested by CL colors of shock-deformed quartz at the K-T boundary is consistent with a crustal/supracrustal origin for the grains.

  5. Comparison of optimal design methods in inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, H. T.; Holm, K.; Kappel, F.

    2011-07-01

    Typical optimal design methods for inverse or parameter estimation problems are designed to choose optimal sampling distributions through minimization of a specific cost function related to the resulting error in parameter estimates. It is hoped that the inverse problem will produce parameter estimates with increased accuracy using data collected according to the optimal sampling distribution. Here we formulate the classical optimal design problem in the context of general optimization problems over distributions of sampling times. We present a new Prohorov metric-based theoretical framework that permits one to treat succinctly and rigorously any optimal design criteria based on the Fisher information matrix. A fundamental approximation theory is also included in this framework. A new optimal design, SE-optimal design (standard error optimal design), is then introduced in the context of this framework. We compare this new design criterion with the more traditional D-optimal and E-optimal designs. The optimal sampling distributions from each design are used to compute and compare standard errors; the standard errors for parameters are computed using asymptotic theory or bootstrapping and the optimal mesh. We use three examples to illustrate ideas: the Verhulst-Pearl logistic population model (Banks H T and Tran H T 2009 Mathematical and Experimental Modeling of Physical and Biological Processes (Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC)), the standard harmonic oscillator model (Banks H T and Tran H T 2009) and a popular glucose regulation model (Bergman R N, Ider Y Z, Bowden C R and Cobelli C 1979 Am. J. Physiol. 236 E667-77 De Gaetano A and Arino O 2000 J. Math. Biol. 40 136-68 Toffolo G, Bergman R N, Finegood D T, Bowden C R and Cobelli C 1980 Diabetes 29 979-90).

  6. Cathodoluminescence of shocked quartz at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Michael R.; Anders, Mark H.

    1988-01-01

    Empirical studies have documented an association between rock type and the cathodoluminescence color of constituent quartz grains. Quartz from extrusive igneous sources luminesces uniform pale blue. Quartz from intrusive igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks generally luminesces darker purple-blue, whereas quartz recrystallized under low-grade metamorphic conditions luminesces reddish-brown. Quartz grains in most sandstones luminesce a heterogeneous mixture of these colors because the grains were derived from a variety of ultimate source rocks. If shocked quartz found at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary is volcanic in origin, its cathodoluminescence should be predominantly pale blue. Alternatively, quartz grains derived from bolide impact upon, and ejection of, mixed igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks should luminesce a variety of colors. Grain mounts of sand collected at the K-T boundary horizon from the Clear Creek North site in the Raton Basin, Colorado were examined. Shocked quartz luminesced a variety of colors and very few grains luminesced the pale blue color that is typical of volcanic quartz. It was concluded that the shocked quartz was derived from a petrologically diverse source region without substantial volcanic contribution. Most shocked grains apparently were derived from low-grade metamorphic rocks, with a slightly smaller contribution from high-grade metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks. Rare quartz grains with brown-luminescing rims reflect a minor addition from detrital sedimentary sources. The apparent relative abundances of intrusive (and rare extrusive) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary ultimate source rocks suggested by CL colors of shock-deformed quartz at the K-T boundary is consistent with a crustal/supracrustal origin for the grains.

  7. Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities beneath the Contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The depths of the 410 km (d410) and 660 km (d660) discontinuities are robust indicators of in-situ temperature in the upper and lower boundary, respectively, of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), and thus can provide critical constraints on the depth extent of major tectonic features. Using over 310,000 high-quality radial receiver functions recorded by the USArray and other seismic stations in the contiguous United States, the depths of the d410 and d660 are mapped in over 1000 consecutive overlapping circles with a radius of 1 degree. The average MTZ thickness for both the western and central/eastern US is within 3 km from the global average of 250 km, suggesting an overall normal MTZ temperature beneath both areas. The Pacific Coast Ranges and the southern Basin and Range Province are underlain by a depressed d410, indicating higher-than-normal temperature in the upper MTZ. The proposed Yellowstone and Raton hotspots are not associated with clear undulations of the MTZ discontinuities, but d410 beneath another proposed hotspot, Bermuda, is depressed significantly and d660 has a normal depth. Low-temperature regions are found in the upper MTZ associated with the subducted Juan de Fuca slab beneath the northern Rocky Mountains, and in two circular areas beneath the northern Basin and Range Province and the southern Colorado Plateau. Part of the Great Plains is characterized by a depressed d660. This observation, when combined with results from seismic tomography, suggests the existence of a cold region in the lower MTZ, probably associated with subducted Farallon slab segments.

  8. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  9. A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Rachelle K; Klain, Sarah C; Ardoin, Nicole M; Satterfield, Terre; Woodside, Ulalia; Hannahs, Neil; Daily, Gretchen C; Chan, Kai M

    2015-01-01

    Servicios Ambientales Culturales Resumen Los deseos, necesidades y valores no materiales de los accionistas influyen frecuentemente sobre el éxito de los proyectos de conservación. Estas consideraciones son difíciles de articular y caracterizar, lo que resulta en entendimiento limitado en el manejo y la política. Concebimos un protocolo de entrevista diseñado para mejorar el entendimiento de los servicios ambientales culturales (SAC). El protocolo inicia con la discusión de actividades relacionadas con ecosistemas (p. ej.: recreación, cacería) y manejo; después señala a los SAC, dando pie a los valores que encierran conceptos identificados en la Evaluación Ambiental del Milenio (2005) y explorado en otras investigaciones sobre SAC. Hicimos pruebas piloto del protocolo en Hawái y Columbia Británica. En cada localidad entrevistamos a 30 individuos de diversos entornos. Analizamos los resultados de las dos localidades para determinar la efectividad del protocolo de entrevista en la obtención de valores no materiales. Los componentes cualitativos y espaciales del protocolo nos ayudaron a caracterizar los valores culturales, sociales y éticos asociados con el ecosistema de múltiples maneras. Los mapas y las preguntas de situación, o de tipo viñeta, ayudaron a los encuestados a articular valores difíciles de discutir. Las preguntas abiertas permitieron a los encuestados expresar una diversidad de valores ambientales y demostraron ser suficientemente flexibles para que los encuestados comunicaran valores que el protocolo no buscaba explícitamente. Finalmente, los resultados sugieren que ciertos valores, aquellos mencionados frecuentemente en la entrevista, son particularmente prominentes para poblaciones particulares. El protocolo puede proporcionar datos eficientes, contextuales y basados en lugar sobre la importancia de atributos ambientales particulares para el bienestar humano. Los datos cualitativos son complementarios para las evaluaciones cuantitativas y

  10. Comparison of fractal dimensions based on segmented NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, C.; Benito, R. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    such complexities from remote sensing images and will applied in this study to see the scaling behavior for each sensor in generalized fractal dimensions. The studied area is located in the provinces of Caceres and Salamanca (east of Iberia Peninsula) with an extension of 32 x 32 km2. The altitude in the area varies from 1,560 to 320 m, comprising natural vegetation in the mountain area (forest and bushes) and agricultural crops in the valleys. Scaling analysis were applied to Landsat-5 and MODIS TERRA to the normalized derived vegetation index (NDVI) on the same region with one day of difference, 13 and 12 of July 2003 respectively. From these images the area of interest was selected obtaining 1024 x 1024 pixels for Landsat image and 128 x 128 pixels for MODIS image. This implies that the resolution for MODIS is 250x250 m. and for Landsat is 30x30 m. From the reflectance data obtained from NIR and RED bands, NDVI was calculated for each image focusing this study on 0.2 to 0.5 ranges of values. Once that both NDVI fields were obtained several fractal dimensions were estimated in each one segmenting the values in 0.20-0.25, 0.25-0.30 and so on to rich 0.45-0.50. In all the scaling analysis the scale size length was expressed in meters, and not in pixels, to make the comparison between both sensors possible. Results are discussed. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish MEC under Projects No. AGL2010-21501/AGR, MTM2009-14621 and i-MATH No. CSD2006-00032

  11. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Ana; Kustas, William. P.; Anderson, Martha C.; Carrara, Arnaud; Patrocinio Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs, and it is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for his importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). The ecosystem is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with recurrent and severe droughts. Over the last decades the Dehesa has faced multiple environmental threats, derived from intensive agricultural use and socio-economic changes, which have caused environmental degradation of the area, namely reduction in tree density and stocking rates, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al. 2004; Schnabel and Ferreira, 2004; Montoya 1998; Pulido and Díaz, 2005). Understanding the hydrological, atmospheric and physiological processes that affect the functioning of the ecosystem will improve the management and conservation of the Dehesa. One of the key metrics in assessing ecosystem health, particularly in this water-limited environment, is the capability of monitoring evaporation (ET). To make large area assessments requires the use of remote sensing. Thermal-based energy balance techniques that distinguish soil/substrate and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and radiation/turbulent fluxes have proven to be reliable in such semi-arid sparse canopy-cover landscapes. In particular, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. (1995) and Kustas and Norman (1999) has shown to be robust for a wide range of partially-vegetated landscapes. The TSEB formulation is evaluated at a flux tower site located in center Spain (Majadas del Tietar, Caceres). Its application in this environment is

  12. Upregulation of biotransformation genes in gills of oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed in situ to urban effluents, Florianópolis Bay, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessatti, Tomás B; Lüchmann, Karim H; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia C; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2016-09-01

    The release of untreated sanitary sewage, combined with unplanned urban growth, are major factors contributing to degradation of coastal ecosystems in developing countries, including Brazil. Sanitary sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals that can negatively affect aquatic organisms. The use of molecular biomarkers can help to understand and to monitor the biological effects elicited by contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in transcript levels of genes related to xenobiotic biotransformation in the gills of oysters Crassostrea brasiliana transplanted and kept for 24h at three areas potentially contaminated by sanitary sewage (Bücheller river, BUC; Biguaçu river, BIG; and Ratones island, RAT), one farming area (Sambaqui beach, SAM) and at one reference site (Forte beach, FOR) in the North Bay of Santa Catarina Island (Florianópolis, Brazil). Transcript levels of four cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP3A-like, CYP356A1-like and CYP20A1-like), three glutathione S-transferase (GST alpha-like, GST pi-like and GST microsomal 3-like) and one sulfotransferase gene (SULT-like) were evaluated by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Chemical analysis of the sediment from each site were performed and revealed the presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and fecal sterols in the contaminated areas (BUC and BIG). Water quality analysis showed that these sites had the highest levels of fecal coliforms and other parameters evidencing the presence of urban sewage discharges. Among the results for gene transcription, CYP2AU1 and SULT-like levels were upregulated by 20 and 50-fold, respectively, in the oysters kept for 24h at the most contaminated site (BUC), suggesting a role of these genes in the detoxification of organic pollutants. These data reinforce that gills possibly have an important role in xenobiotic metabolism and highlight the use of C. brasiliana as a sentinel for monitoring

  13. Effects of lowering interior canal stages on salt-water intrusion into the shallow aquifer in Southeast Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.

    1975-01-01

    Land in southeast Palm Beach County is undergoing a large-scale change in use, from agricultural to residential. To accommodate residential use, a proposal has been made by developers to the Board of the Lake Worth Drainage District to lower the canal stages in the interior part of the area undergoing change. This report documents one of the possible effects of such lowering. Of particular interest to the Board was whether the lower canal stages would cause an increase in salt-water intrusion into the shallow aquifer along the coast. The two main tools used in the investigation were a digital model for aquifer evaluation and an analytical technique for predicting the movement of the salt-water front in response to a change of ground-water flow into the ocean. The method of investigation consisted of developing a digital ground-water flow model for three east-west test strips. They pass through the northern half of municipal well fields in Lake Worth, Delray Beach, and Boca Raton. The strips were first modeled with no change in interior canal stages. Then they were modeled with a change in canal stages of 2 to 4 feet (0.6 to 1.6 metres). Also, two land development schemes were tested. One was for a continuation of the present level of land development, simulated by continuing the present pumpage rates. The second scheme was for land development to continue until the maximum allowable densities were reached, simulated by increasing the pumping rates. The results of the test runs for an east-west strip through Lake Worth show that lowering part of the interior canal water levels 3 feet (1.0 metre), as done in 1961, does not affect the aquifer head or salt-water intrusion along the coastal area of Lake Worth. As a result, no effect in the coastal area would be expected as a result of canal stage lowering in other, interior parts of the study area. Results from the other test runs show that lowering interior canal water levels by as much as 4 feet (1.2 metres) would

  14. Inference of pCO2 Levels during the Late Cretaceous Using Fossil Lauraceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, J. D.; Upchurch, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Botanical estimates of pCO2 for the Late Cretaceous have most commonly used Stomatal Index (SI) in fossil Ginkgo. Recently, SI in fossil Lauraceae has been used to infer changes in pCO2 across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, based on the relation between SI and pCO2 in extant Laurus and Hypodaphnis. To provide a broad-scale picture of pCO2 based on fossil Lauraceae, we examined dispersed cuticle of the leaf macrofossil genus Pandemophyllum from: 1) the early to middle Cenomanian of the Potomac Group of Maryland (Mauldin Mountain locality, lower Zone III) and 2) the Maastrichtian of southern Colorado (Raton Basin, Starkville South and Berwind Canyon localities). These samples fall within the Late Cretaceous decline in pCO2 inferred from geochemical modeling and other proxies. SI was calculated from fossil cuticle fragments using ImageJ and counts of up to 56,000 cells per sample, a far greater number of cells than are counted in most studies. CO2 levels were estimated using the relation between SI and CO2 published for Laurus nobilis and Hypodaphnis zenkeri. Early to middle Cenomanian atmospheric pCO2 is estimated at 362-536 parts per million (ppm). This represents the absolute minimum and maximum estimated CO2 levels from the ±95% confidence intervals (CI) of the relation between SI and CO2 for the modern equivalents, and SI ± 1 Standard Deviation (SD) in the fossil genus Pandemophyllum. Late Maastrichtian atmospheric pCO2 is estimated at 358-534 ppm. The Maastrichtian estimates falls within the range of published estimates from other proxies. The Cenomanian estimate, in contrast, is low relative to most other estimates. The 95% confidence intervals of our pCO2 estimates overlap each other and many of the assemblages published by Barclay et al. (2010) for Lauraceae across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. This could indicate that 1) pCO2 did not undergo a major long-term decline during the Late Cretaceous, 2) Lauraceae show low sensitivity to high pCO2, or 3

  15. THE ACTION OF AVOCADO OIL ON THE LIPIDOGRAM OF WISTAR RATS SUBMITTED TO PROLONGED ANDROGENIC STIMULUM.

    PubMed

    de Souza Abboud, Renato; Alves Pereira, Vivian; Soares da Costa, Carlos Alberto; Teles Boaventura, Gilson; Alves Chagas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: el uso abusivo de hormonas esteroides administradas crónicamente puede ocasionar cambios en el perfil lipídico, lo que lleva a un aumento de LDL y niveles reducidos de HDL. El promedio (53,44%) de la composición de lípidos de la pulpa de aguacate está compuesto por ácido oleico (que es un fitosterol), y el estudio del efecto hipolipemiante de estas sustancias se ha celebrado para la prevención y el control de la dislipemia. Objetivo: evaluar el potencial de reducción de lípidos del aceite de aguacate en ratones Wistar machos adultos sometidos a hiperestimulación androgénica prolongada. Material y métodos: veintiocho ratas se dividieron en 4 grupos de 7 animales: Grupo Control (GC); Grupo de Aceite de Aguacate (GOA), alimentado a base de aceite de aguacate; Grupo Inducido (GI) y el grupo alimentado con base de aceite de aguacate inducida por la dieta (GIOA). La indución fue hecha mediante perdigones de silicona subcutáneos, implantados por cirugía, llenos de 1 ml de propionato de testosterona, que fueron cambiados cada 4 semanas. Resultados: VLDL (GIOA: 28,14 ± 4,45; GI: 36,83 ± 5,56 mg/ml); triglicéridos (GIOA: 140.07 ± 22.66, GI 187: 2 ± 27 mg/ml); HDL (GIOA: 40,67 ± 1,2; GI: 35,09 ± 0,8; GOA: 32,31 ± 2,61 eGC: 32,36 ± 4,93 mg/ml); testosterona (GIOA: 1,42 ± 0,46; GI: 2,14 ± 0,88; GOA: 2,97 ± 1,34 eGC: 1,86 ± 0,79 ng/ml). Conclusión: El aceite de aguacate ha tenido un efecto regulador directo sobre el perfil lipídico, actuando eficazmente en los animales sometidos a estimulación de andrógenos durante períodos prolongados.

  16. Seismic hazard and risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated in the Moldavian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Popescu, Emilia; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Toma Danila, Dragos; Borleanu, Felix; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldoveanu, Traian

    2016-04-01

    public training for evacuation. The work is supported from PNII/PCCA 2013 Project DARING 69/2014, financed by UEFISCDI, Romania. Bureau GJ (2003) "Dams and appurtenant facilities" Earthquake Engineering Handbook, CRS Press, WF Chen, and C Scawthorn (eds.), Boca Raton, pp. 26.1-26.47. Bureau GJ and Ballentine GD (2002) "A comprehensive seismic vulnerability and loss assessment of the State of Carolina using HAZUS. Part IV: Dam inventory and vulnerability assessment methodology", 7th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, July 21-25, Boston, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA. Moldovan IA, Popescu E, Constantin A (2008), "Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Romania: application for crustal seismic active zones", Romanian Journal of Physics, Vol.53, Nos. 3-4

  17. Walter Rowe Courtenay, Jr. (1933–2014)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    WALTER R. COURTENAY, JR., ichthyologist and retired professor, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, died in Gainesville, Florida, on 30 January 2014 at age 80. Walt was born in Neenah, Wisconsin, on 6 November 1933, son of Walter and Emily Courtenay. Walt's interest in fish began at a young age as evidenced by a childhood diary in which at 13 years of age he wrote about his first catch—a two-and-a-half pound “pike” from Lake Winnebago. When Walt turned ten, the family moved from Wisconsin to Nashville, Tennessee, the move precipitated by his father accepting a position as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. During those early days in Nashville, Walt's father would take summers off and travel to Michigan to teach at Camp Miniwanca along the shore of Lake Michigan where father and son honed their angling skills. It was also at that time Walt's father had definite views on what his son should be doing in adult life—in Walt's case it was to become a medical doctor. However, his Woods Hole internship in marine biology and oceanography toward the end of his undergraduate years was a transformative experience for him so much so that he abandoned all ideas of becoming a medical doctor and instead specialized in ichthyology and oceanography. Apart from the inherent interest and opportunities Woods Hole opened to him, being back at the shore of a large body of water, in this case the Atlantic Ocean, was far more interesting than sitting in lectures on organic chemistry. With that, Walt completed his B.A. degree at Vanderbilt University in 1956. In 1960 while in graduate school in Miami, Walt met and married Francine Saporito, and over the next several years had two children, Walter III and Catherine. He went on to receive his M.S. in 1961 from The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami on the systematics of the genus Haemulon (grunts) and his Ph.D. degree in 1965 working under his advisor C. Richard

  18. Influence of plant roots on electrical resistivity measurements of cultivated soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Blanchy, Guillaume; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    . Reference Lobet G, Hachez C, Chaumont F, Javaux M, Draye X. Root water uptake and water flow in the soil-root domain. In: Eshel A and Beeckman T, editors. Plant Roots. The Hidden Half. Boca Raton (US):CRC Press,2013. p. 24-1 - 24-13.

  19. Numerical simulation study of polar lows in Russian Arctic: dynamical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verezemskaya, Polina; Baranyuk, Anastasia; Stepanenko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    weather study using satellite passive microwave sensing. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(13), 3347-3350. doi:10.1002/grl.50664 3. V. Sadovnichy, A. Tikhonravov, Vl. Voevodin, and V. Opanasenko "Lomonosov": Supercomputing at Moscow State University. In Contemporary High Performance Computing: From Petascale toward Exascale (Chapman & Hall/CRC Computational Science), pp.283-307, Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press, 2013. 4. B. J. Hoskins, M.E. McIntyre, A.W. Robertson, On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps, Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, OCTOBER 1985, № 470, vol. 111(6).

  20. The Western North American Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary interval and its content of shock-metamorphosed minerals: Implications concerning the K-T boundary impact-extinction theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izett, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    At 20 sites in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, and at several other sites in Wyoming, Montana, and Canada, a pair of claystone units, an Ir abundance anomaly, and a concentration of shock-metamorphosed minerals mark the palynological K-T boundary. The K-T boundary claystone, which is composed of kaolinite and small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay, is similar in most respects to kaolinite tonstein layers in coal beds. At some, but not all, K-T boundary localities, the boundary claystone contains solid kaolinite and hollow and solid goyazite spherules, 0.05 to 1.2 mm in diameter. The upper unit, the K-T boundary impact layer, consists chiefly of kaolinite and various amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay. The impact layer and boundary claystone are similar chemically, except that the former has slightly more Fe, K, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, V, and Zn than the latter. The facts that the boundary claystone and impact layer contain anomalous amounts of Ir, comprise a stratigraphic couplet at Western North American sites, and form thin, discrete layers, similar to air-fall units (volcanic or impact), suggest that the claystone units are of impact origin. Significantly, the impact layer contains as much as 2 percent clastic mineral grains, about 30 percent of which contain multiple sets of shock lamellae. Only one such concentration of shocked minerals has been found near the K-T boundary. The type of K-T boundary shock-metamorphosed materials (quartzite and metaquartzite) in the impact layer and the lack of shock lamellae in quartz and feldspar of pumice lapilli and granitic xenoliths in air-fall pumice units of silicic tuffs, such as the Bishop Tuff, eliminate the possibility that the shock-metamorphosed minerals in the K-T impact layer are of volcanic origin. The global size distribution and abundance of shock-metamorphosed mineral grains suggest that the K-T impact occurred in North America.

  1. Calibrated Multiple Event Relocations of the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, W. L.; Benz, H.; McNamara, D. E.; Bergman, E.; Herrmann, R. B.; Myers, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake locations are a first-order observable which form the basis of a wide range of seismic analyses. Currently, the ANSS catalog primarily contains published single-event earthquake locations that rely on assumed 1D velocity models. Increasing the accuracy of cataloged earthquake hypocenter locations and origin times and constraining their associated errors can improve our understanding of Earth structure and have a fundamental impact on subsequent seismic studies. Multiple-event relocation algorithms often increase the precision of relative earthquake hypocenters but are hindered by their limited ability to provide realistic location uncertainties for individual earthquakes. Recently, a Bayesian approach to the multiple event relocation problem has proven to have many benefits including the ability to: (1) handle large data sets; (2) easily incorporate a priori hypocenter information; (3) model phase assignment errors; and, (4) correct for errors in the assumed travel time model. In this study we employ bayseloc [Myers et al., 2007, 2009] to relocate earthquakes in the Central and Eastern United States from 1964-present. We relocate ~11,000 earthquakes with a dataset of ~439,000 arrival time observations. Our dataset includes arrival-time observations from the ANSS catalog supplemented with arrival-time data from the Reviewed ISC Bulletin (prior to 1981), targeted local studies, and arrival-time data from the TA Array. One significant benefit of the bayesloc algorithm is its ability to incorporate a priori constraints on the probability distributions of specific earthquake locations parameters. To constrain the inversion, we use high-quality calibrated earthquake locations from local studies, including studies from: Raton Basin, Colorado; Mineral, Virginia; Guy, Arkansas; Cheneville, Quebec; Oklahoma; and Mt. Carmel, Illinois. We also add depth constraints to 232 earthquakes from regional moment tensors. Finally, we add constraints from four historic (1964

  2. Viscosity of argon at temperatures >2000 K from measured shock thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrossan, Michael N.; Lilley, Charles R.

    2003-11-01

    Mott-Smith's kinetic theory of shock structure [Phys. Rev. 82, 885 (1951); C. Muckenfuss, Phys. Fluids 5, 1325 (1962)] suggests that, for any intermolecular potential, the average number of collisions undergone by a molecule as it crosses the shock approaches a limit as the Mach number increases. We check this with direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations and use it to estimate the gas viscosity at high temperatures from measurements of shock thickness. We consider a monatomic gas (γ=5/3) for five different collision models and hence five different viscosity laws μ=μ(T). The collision models are: the variable hard sphere, σ∝1/g2v, with three values of v; the generalized hard sphere; and the Maitland-Smith potential. For shock Mach numbers M1≳4.48, all these collision models predict a shock thickness Δ=11.0λs±2.5%, where λs is a suitably defined "shock length scale" which depends on a collision cross section derived from the viscosity of the gas at a temperature Tg, characteristic of the collisions between upstream and downstream molecules. Using Δ=11λs and the experimental measurements of shock thickness in argon given by Alsmeyer [J. Fluid Mech. 74, 498 (1976)], we estimate the viscosity of argon at high values of Tg. These estimates agree with the values recommended by the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001) at T≈1500 K. For T≳2000 K, for which there appear to be no reliable direct measurements of viscosity, our estimated values lie between those recommended by the CRC Handbook and those predicted by the simple power law μ=μref(T/Tref)0.72, with Tref=300 K and μref=2.283×10-5 Pa s. Taking the error in the experimental measurements of Δ as the scatter in the results of Alsmeyer (±2%), we estimate the uncertainty in the viscosity predictions as less than ±5%. To this accuracy, our results agree with the power law predictions and disagree with the CRC Handbook values, for T≳3000 K.

  3. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Applied to Hydrocarbon Resource Development Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Ball, L. B.; Finn, C.; Kass, A.; Thamke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Application of airborne geophysical surveys ranges in scale from detailed site scale such as locating abandoned well casing and saline water plumes to landscape scale for mapping hydrogeologic frameworks pertinent to ground water and tectonic settings relevant to studies of induced seismicity. These topics are important in understanding possible effects of hydrocarbon development on the environment. In addition airborne geophysical surveys can be used in establishing baseline "snapshots", to provide information in beneficial uses of produced waters, and in mapping ground water resources for use in well development. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted airborne geophysical surveys over more than 20 years for applications in energy resource environmental studies. A majority of these surveys are airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys to map subsurface electrical conductivity related to plumes of saline waters and more recently to map hydrogeologic frameworks for ground water and plume migration. AEM surveys have been used in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to characterize the near surface geologic framework for siting produced water disposal ponds and for beneficial utilization in subsurface drip irrigation. A recent AEM survey at the Fort Peck Reservation, Montana, was used to map both shallow plumes from brine pits and surface infrastructure sources and a deeper concealed saline water plume from a failed injection well. Other reported applications have been to map areas geologically favorable for shallow gas that could influence drilling location and design. Airborne magnetic methods have been used to image the location of undocumented abandoned well casings which can serve as conduits to the near surface for coproduced waters. They have also been used in conjunction with geologic framework studies to understand the possible relationships between tectonic features and induced earthquakes in the Raton Basin. Airborne gravity as well as developing deeper

  4. Paleomagnetism of Spanish Peaks, Silver Mountain, Associated Dike Swarms and Related Intrusions (South-Central Colorado): Refining the mid-Cenozoic Reference Paleomagnetic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, S.; Geissman, J.; Wawrzyniec, T.

    2005-12-01

    Exposed in the northernmost Raton Basin, the late Eocene to mid-Miocene Spanish Peaks igneous complex includes numerous discrete intrusions, with considerable temporal, spatial, chemical and thickness variations. The volcanic center includes a northern radial dike swarm (Silver Mountain), a set of N80E trending 10+ km long dikes, radial dikes centered on the Spanish Peaks intrusions, and a set of dikes, sills and stocks emplaced parallel to tilted strata along the eastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains. We have collected intrusions at 138 sites and have completed AF and thermal demagnetization for 95 of the sites, with 49 sites to date yielding highest quality, internally consistent and interpretable results. Of the remaining 46, many need remagnetization circle analysis, some have dispersed directions within-site, others have low within-site dispersion but deviate significantly from typical dipole directions, and a few are interpreted to be lightning-struck. The 36 normal polarity sites yield a mean of (Decl. = 010°, Incl. = 62°, α95 = 3°, k = 55) and 13 reverse polarity sites yield a mean of (Decl. = 183°, Incl. = -53°, α95 = 7°, k = 38). The grand mean for 49 sites is (Decl. = 008°, Incl. = 59°, α95 = 3°, k = 44). Previous work on some of these rocks by Larson and Strangway (JGR, 1969) resulted in a grand mean (Decl. = 351°, Incl. = 6°, α95 = 13°, k = 27) based on only five sites, all of normal polarity. Our data set passes the McFadden reversals test with a B classification. The VGP grand mean is (81.5N / 307.4E, A95 = 5°, K = 20.5, ASD = 17.9). The current dataset deviates from previously reported estimates of a mid-Cenozoic field direction for North America. Permissible, although not verified, explanations for this discrepancy include incomplete sampling of paleosecular variation or a very modest clockwise rotation of the region. Rock magnetic experiments completed on a representative set of the intrusions indicate for the reliable sites that a

  5. Quantification of massive seasonal aggregations of blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiura, Stephen M.; Tellman, Shari L.; Patterson, Heather M.

    2016-03-30

    Southeast Florida witnesses an enormous seasonal influx of upper trophic level marine predators each year as massive aggregations of migrating blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) overwinter in nearshore waters. The narrow shelf and close proximity of the Gulf Stream current to the Palm Beach County shoreline drive tens of thousands of sharks to the shallow, coastal environment. This natural bottleneck provides a unique opportunity to estimate relative abundance. Over a four year period from 2011–2014, an aerial survey was flown approximately biweekly along the length of Palm Beach County. A high definition video camera and digital still camera mounted out of the airplane window provided a continuous record of the belt transect which extended 200 m seaward from the shoreline between Boca Raton Inlet and Jupiter Inlet. The number of sharks within the survey transect was directly counted from the video. Shark abundance peaked in the winter (January-March) with a maximum in 2011 of 12,128 individuals counted within the 75.6 km-2 belt transect. This resulted in a maximum density of 803.2 sharks km-2. By the late spring (April-May), shark abundance had sharply declined to 1.1% of its peak, where it remained until spiking again in January of the following year. Shark abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature and large numbers of sharks were found only when water temperatures were less than 25°C. Shark abundance was also correlated with day of the year but not with barometric pressure. Although shark abundance was not correlated with photoperiod, the departure of the sharks from southeast Florida occurred around the vernal equinox. The shark migration along the United States eastern seaboard corresponds spatially and temporally with the spawning aggregations of various baitfish species. As a result, these baseline abundance data can be compared to future studies to determine if shark population size is changing and if

  6. Quantification of massive seasonal aggregations of blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida

    DOE PAGES

    Kajiura, Stephen M.; Tellman, Shari L.; Patterson, Heather M.

    2016-03-30

    Southeast Florida witnesses an enormous seasonal influx of upper trophic level marine predators each year as massive aggregations of migrating blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) overwinter in nearshore waters. The narrow shelf and close proximity of the Gulf Stream current to the Palm Beach County shoreline drive tens of thousands of sharks to the shallow, coastal environment. This natural bottleneck provides a unique opportunity to estimate relative abundance. Over a four year period from 2011–2014, an aerial survey was flown approximately biweekly along the length of Palm Beach County. A high definition video camera and digital still camera mounted out ofmore » the airplane window provided a continuous record of the belt transect which extended 200 m seaward from the shoreline between Boca Raton Inlet and Jupiter Inlet. The number of sharks within the survey transect was directly counted from the video. Shark abundance peaked in the winter (January-March) with a maximum in 2011 of 12,128 individuals counted within the 75.6 km-2 belt transect. This resulted in a maximum density of 803.2 sharks km-2. By the late spring (April-May), shark abundance had sharply declined to 1.1% of its peak, where it remained until spiking again in January of the following year. Shark abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature and large numbers of sharks were found only when water temperatures were less than 25°C. Shark abundance was also correlated with day of the year but not with barometric pressure. Although shark abundance was not correlated with photoperiod, the departure of the sharks from southeast Florida occurred around the vernal equinox. The shark migration along the United States eastern seaboard corresponds spatially and temporally with the spawning aggregations of various baitfish species. As a result, these baseline abundance data can be compared to future studies to determine if shark population size is changing and if sharks are restricting

  7. U-Pb isotopic results for single shocked and polycrystalline zircons record 550-65.5-Ma ages for a K-T target site and 2700-1850-Ma ages for the Sudbury impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The refractory mineral zircon develops distinct morphological features during shock metamorphism and retains these features under conditions that would anneal them in other minerals. In addition, weakly shocked zircon grains give primary ages for the impact site, while highly reconstituted (polycrystalline) single grains give ages that approach the age of the impact event. Data for a series of originally coeval grains will define a mixing line that gives both of these ages providing that no subsequent geological disturbances have overprinted the isotopic systematics. In this study, we have shown that the three zircon grain types described by Bohor, from both K-T distal ejecta (Fireball layer, Raton Basin, Colorado) and the Onaping Formation, represent a progressive increase in impact-related morphological change that coincides with a progressive increase in isotopic resetting in zircons from the ejecta and basement rocks. Unshocked grains are least affected by isotopic resetting while polycrystalline grains are most affected. U-Pb isotopic results for 12 of 14 single zircon grains from the Fireball layer plot on or close to a line recording a primary age of 550 +/- 10 Ma and a secondary age of 65.5 +/- 3 Ma. Data for the least and most shocked grains plot closest to the primary and secondary ages respectively. The two other grains each give ages between 300 and 350 Ma. This implies that the target ejecta was dominated by 550-Ma rocks and that the recrystallization features of the zircon were superimposed during the impact event at 65.5 Ma. A predominant age of 550 Ma for zircons from the Fireball layer provides an excellent opportunity to identify the impact site and to test the hypothesis that multiple impacts occurred at this time. A volcanic origin for the Fireball layer is ruled out by shock-related morphological changes in zircon and the fact that the least shocked grains are old. Basement Levack gneisses north of the Sudbury structure have a primary age of

  8. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Costilla Peak area, Taos County, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    This map covers the Big Costilla Peak, New Mex.&nash;Colo. quadrangle and adjacent parts of three other 7.5 minute quadrangles: Amalia, New Mex.–Colo., Latir Peak, New Mex., and Comanche Point, New Mex. The study area is in the southwesternmost part of that segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains known as the Culebra Range; the Taos Range segment lies to the southwest of Costilla Creek and its tributary, Comanche Creek. The map area extends over all but the northernmost part of the Big Costilla horst, a late Cenozoic uplift of Proterozoic (1.7-Ga and less than 1.4-Ga) rocks that is largely surrounded by down-faulted middle to late Cenozoic (about 40 Ma to about 1 Ma) rocks exposed at significantly lower elevations. This horst is bounded on the northwest side by the San Pedro horst and Culebra graben, on the northeast and east sides by the Devils Park graben, and on the southwest side by the (about 30 Ma to about 25 Ma) Latir volcanic field. The area of this volcanic field, at the north end of the Taos Range, has undergone significantly greater extension than the area to the north of Costilla Creek. The horsts and grabens discussed above are all peripheral structures on the eastern flank of the San Luis basin, which is the axial part of the (about 26 Ma to present) Rio Grande rift at the latitude of the map. The Raton Basin lies to the east of the Culebra segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This foreland basin formed during, and is related to, the original uplift of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains which was driven by tectonic contraction of the Laramide (about 70 Ma to about 40 Ma) orogeny. Renewed uplift and structural modification of these mountains has occurred during formation of the Rio Grande rift. Surficial deposits in the study area include alluvial, mass-movement, and glacial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age.

  9. Leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) as a regenerative medicine strategy for the treatment of refractory leg ulcers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Nelson R; Ubilla, Matias; Zamora, Yelka; Del Rio, Verónica; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Quirynen, Marc

    2017-07-20

    Chronic wounds (VLU: venous leg ulcer, DFU: diabetic foot ulcer, PU: pressure ulcer, or complex wounds) affect a significant proportion of the population. Despite appropriate standard wound care, such ulcers unfortunately may remain open for months or even years. The use of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) to cure skin ulcers is a simple and inexpensive method, widely used in some countries but unknown or neglected in most others. This auto-controlled prospective cohort study explored and quantified accurately for the first time the adjunctive benefits of topical applications of L-PRF in the management of such refractory ulcers in a diverse group of patients. Forty-four consecutive patients with VLUs (n = 28, 32 wounds: 17 ≤ 10 cm(2) and 15 > 10 cm(2)), DPUs (n = 9, 10 wounds), PUs (n = 5), or complex wounds (n = 2), all refractory to standard treatment for ≥3 months, received a weekly application of L-PRF membranes. L-PRF was prepared following the original L-PRF method developed more than 15 years ago (400g, 12 minutes) using the Intra-Spin L-PRF centrifuge/system and the XPression box kit (Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL, USA; the only CE/FDA cleared system for the preparation of L-PRF). Changes in wound area were recorded longitudinally via digital planimetry. Adverse events and pain levels were also registered. All wounds showed significant improvements after the L-PRF therapy. All VLUs ≤ 10 cm(2), all DFUs, as well as the two complex wounds showed full closure within a 3-month period. All wounds of patients with VLUs > 10 cm(2) who continued therapy (10 wounds) could be closed, whereas in the five patients who discontinued therapy improvement of wound size was observed. Two out of the five PUs were closed, with improvement in the remaining three patients who again interrupted therapy (surface evolution from 7.35 ± 4.31 cm(2) to 5.78 ± 3.81 cm(2)). No adverse events were observed. A topical application of L-PRF on

  10. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  11. Visceral adiposity influences glucose and glycogen metabolism in control and hyperlipidic-fed animals.

    PubMed

    Kaiser de Souza, Danielle; de Souza, Fabiana A; de Fraga, Luciano Stürmer; Peres Konrad, Signorá; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Martins da Silva, Roselis Silveira; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las evidencias sugieren que la ingesta de grasas, obesidad visceral y lípidos intracelulares están relacionados con resistencia a la acción de la insulina. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue correlacionar la obesidad visceral con alteraciones metabólicas en los animales controles (CTR) y alimentados con la dieta de cafeteria hiperlipidica (CFT). Metodos: Después de 6 meses de tratamiento con dieta, el hígado y lo musculo esqueletico de los ratones se utilizaron para determinar la captación de glucosa y el metabolismo del glucógeno después de la administración de la insulina 0.4 UI/kg in vivo y correlacionar la adiposidad visceral a estos dos parámetros. Resultados: Una amplia gama de respuestas fisiológicas a la composición corporal era encontrado. No se encontraron diferencias en la glucemia y triglicéridos después de la acción de la insulina en ambos grupos, sin embargo CFT grupo acumuló mayor adiposidad, principalmente adiposidad visceral, y mostraron menor contenido de glucógeno en el hígado. También se encontró una correlación inversa entre la adiposidad visceral y la captación de glucosa y una disminución de la forma activa de la enzima glucógeno sintasa en el hígado. Animales CTR demostrado una correlación inversa entre la captación de glucosa y la adiposidad visceral en el músculo. Discusión y conclusiones: Se observó una gran variabilidad de alteraciones metabólicas en los animales que se pueden relacionados con las tasas de acumulación de la adiposidad visceral y la ingestión de grasas dietéticas. Más estudios serán necesarios para aclarar las razones de las alteraciones observadas en el hígado de los animales CFT y las alteraciones musculares en animales CTR.

  12. Using high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to understand volcanic hazards within the Rio Grande rift and along the Jemez lineament, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerer, M. J.; McIntosh, W. C.; Heizler, M. T.; Lafferty, J.

    2014-12-01

    High-precision Ar/Ar ages were generated for late Quaternary volcanic fields in the Rio Grande rift and along the Jemez Lineament, New Mexico, to assess the time-space patterns of volcanism and begin quantifying volcanic hazards for the region. The published chronology of most late Quaternary volcanic centers in the region is not sufficiently precise, accurate, or complete for a comprehensive volcanic hazard assessment. Ar/Ar ages generated as part of this study were determined using the high-sensitivity, multi-collector ARGUS VI mass spectrometer, which provides about an order of magnitude more precise isotopic measurements compared to older generation, single-detector mass spectrometers. Ar/Ar ages suggest an apparent increase in eruption frequency during the late Quaternary within the Raton-Clayton volcanic field, northeastern NM. Only four volcanoes erupted between 426±8 and 97±3 ka. Contrastingly, four volcanoes erupted between 55±2 and 32±5 ka. This last eruptive phase displays a west to east migration of volcanism, has repose periods of 0 to 17 ka, and an average recurrence rate of 1 eruption per 5750 ka. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, west-central NM, is composed of the ~100 late Quaternary basaltic vents. Preliminary results suggest that most of the Chain of Craters, the largest and oldest part of the Zuni-Bandera field, erupted between ~100 and 250 ka. Volcanism then migrated to the east, where published ages indicate at least seven eruptions between 50 and 3 ka. Both volcanic fields display a west to east migration of volcanism during the last ~500 ka, although the pattern is more pronounced in the Zuni-Bandera field. A reassessment of low-precision published ages for other late Quaternary volcanic fields in region indicates that most fields display a similar west to east migration of volcanism during the last ~500 ka. One possible mechanism to explain the observed patterns of volcanism is the westward migration of the North American plate relative

  13. Statistical Analysis of TEC Enhancements during Geomagnetic Disturbances in Extreme Solar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, F.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades, a remarkable set of comprehensive studies and review articles enriched theresearch of the Earth's ionospheric response to geomagnetic disturbances[Prolss, 1995; Buonsanto,1999; Mendillo, 2006]. However, comparative studies of TEC response during geomagnetic disturbances in solar minimum and solar maximum have not been reported yet. Here we present some new results of TEC enhancements during geomagnetic disturbancesin extreme solar maximum and deep solar minimum. The JPL TEC maps from 12/01/2000 to 12/31/2003 during high solar activity and from 01/01/2007 to 12/31/2010 during low solar activity are used. The deviation of TEC is defined as the differences between TEC and TECq, which represents the 27-day sliding smooth median. The geomagnetic disturbances selected have peaks of geomagnetic index Ap>20. We found that the winter anomaly appears in both extreme solar cycle conditions and has longer-lived patterns than other seasons.The nighttime enhancement is more significant in solar maximum than solar minimum. The mean duration of TEC enhancements is longer in solar minimum than solar maximum. The mean delay at the beginning of positive anomaly responds fastest at around 1500 LT and slowest at around midnight during solar minimum.The mean intensity of enhancements is stronger at higher latitudes and weaker at lower latitudes, and the mean delay is smaller at higher latitudes and larger at lower latitudes in both extreme solar cycle conditions. Acknowledgments: Thiswork was supportedby the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 41204107. We thank JPL and Word Data Center for Geomagnetism at Kyoto University for making available the data. Prolss, G. W., Ionospheric F region storms, in Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, vol. 2, edited by H. Volland, pp. 195 - 248, CRC Press,Boca Raton, Fla., 1995. Buonsanto, M., Ionospheric storm: A review,Space Science Review, vol. 88, pp. 563 - 601, 1999. Mendillo, M.: Storms in the

  14. Using Transportable Array and CREST data to define seismicity in the Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bilek, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    compared to possible induced seismic events in the Raton basin along the Colorado - New Mexico border and southeastern New Mexico. Magnitude-frequency relations and catalog completeness will be analyzed to further characterize seismic events.

  15. The Long-Standing Antarctic Mantle Plume Hypothesis and Modeling Ongoing Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivins, E. R.; Seroussi, H. L.; Wiens, D.; Larour, E. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Alkaline basalts of the Marie Byrd Land (MBL) have been interpreted as evidence of a mantle plume impinging on the lithosphere from below at about 85-80 Ma and again at 30-20 Ma. Because of the lack of structural and stratigraphic mapping due to ice sheet cover, and even a general lack of sufficient bottom topography, it is impossible to identify and classify the main characteristics of such a putative plume with respect to ones that are well-studied, such as the Yellowstone or Raton hotspots. Recent POLENET seismic mapping has identified possible plume structures that could extend across the upper mantle beneath the Ruppert Coast (RC) in southeast MBL, and possible plume beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench (BST), some 1000 km to the southwest of RC, and on the opposite side of MBL. Mapping of subglacial lakes via altimetry allows reconstruction of basal conditions that are consistent with melt generation rates and patterns of basal water routing. We extensively model the hotspot heat flux caused by a plume buried beneath the crust of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and employing set of 3-D thermomechanical Stokes flow simulations with the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We discover that a mantle upwelling structure beneath the BST, upstream of Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) and Whillans Ice Stream is compatible when the peak plume-related geothermal heat flux, qGHF, approaches 200 mW/m^2, rather consistent with heat flux measurements at the WISSARD core site where heat flux probes penetrated into sediments of SLW. For a plume at RC the ISSM predictions do allow a plume, consistent with seismic mapping, but require the peak plume flux to be upper bound by qGHF ≤ 150 mW/m^2. New maps of the relatively slower upper mantle shear wave velocity beneath WAIS reveal that the slowest velocity corresponds to mantle below MLB. Using our new constraints on a 3-D plume interpretation of this slowness, we determine the perturbations to GIA modeling that are required to

  16. Some Factors Controlling the Seismic Hazard due to Earthquakes Induced by Fluid Injection at Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2012-12-01

    The maximum seismic moment (or moment magnitude) is an important measure of the seismic hazard associated with earthquakes induced by deep fluid injection. Although it would be advantageous to be able to predict the induced earthquake outcome, including the maximum seismic moment, of a specified fluid injection project in advance, this capability has, to date, proved to be elusive because the geomechanical and hydrological factors that control the seismic response to injection are too poorly understood. Fortunately, the vast majority of activities involving the injection of fluids into deep aquifers do not cause earthquakes that are large enough to be of any consequence. There have been, however, significant exceptions during the past 50 years, starting with the earthquakes induced by injection of wastewater at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Well, during the 1960s, that caused extensive damage in the Denver, CO, area. Results from numerous case histories of earthquakes induced by injection activities, including wastewater disposal at depth and the development of enhanced geothermal systems, suggest that it may be feasible to estimate bounds on maximum magnitudes based on the volume of injected liquid. For these cases, volumes of injected liquid ranged from approximately 11.5 thousand to 5 million cubic meters and resulted in main shock moment magnitudes from 3.4 to 5.3. Because the maximum seismic moment appears to be linearly proportional to the total volume of injected fluid, this upper bound is expected to increase with time as long as a given injection well remains active. For example, in the Raton Basin, southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, natural gas is produced from an extensive coal bed methane field. The deep injection of wastewater associated with this gas production has induced a sequence of earthquakes starting in August 2001, shortly after the beginning of major injection activities. Most of this seismicity defines a northeast striking plane dipping

  17. Impacts on Air Quality due to Photosensitized Production of Excited State O2 (1Δg) by PAHs and Oxy-PAHs in the Lower Atmosphere: An Experimental and Computational Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, G. A.; Carreras-Sospedra, M.; Montoya, J.; Dabdub, D.; Foster, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    -427. 3 Frimer, A. A. (1985), Singlet O2, CRC, Boca Raton, FL.

  18. Electromagnetic methods for rapidly characterizing porosity distributions in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer, southern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, G. J.; Comas, X.; Cunningham, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    Gregory J. Mount1, Xavier Comas1, and Kevin J. Cunningham2 1Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 2U.S. Geological Survey, 3110 SW 9th Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33315 Although conventional hydrological techniques of aquifer characterization, which rely on data obtained from boreholes and wells can provide very valuable direct information about porosity, storativity and transmissivity, they are invasive and can often become time consuming and relatively expensive. Near-surface electromagnetic techniques, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), provide indirect measurements of aquifer properties that complement traditional point measurements and provide a laterally continuous subsurface image in an efficient and cost effective manner with a minimal impact on the environment. We investigated the carbonate rocks of the uppermost part (3-5 meters) of the Biscayne aquifer in Everglades National Park to better understand the distribution of karst features that can create concentrated flow of groundwater, nutrients, and contaminants. As the Biscayne aquifer is the primary source of drinking water for millions of people in southern Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade counties, knowledge about these features could create a more complete understanding of a critical natural resource. These macroporous elements contribute to the overall storage, permeability, and transmissivity of the aquifer and for that reason, delineation of their distribution and areal extent should aid in the development of more accurate groundwater flow models. The macroporous elements create numerous hyperbolic diffractions in GPR common offset profiles, and these diffractions are used directly used to estimate two-dimensional (2D) models of electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity in the subsurface. Such models are further contrasted with one-dimensional (1D) velocity models using GPR common mid-point surveys at selected locations. In order to estimate

  19. Experimental evaluation of connectivity influence on dispersivity under confined and unconfined radial convergent flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzi, Silvia; Molinari, Antonio; Fallico, Carmine; Pedretti, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    of the presence of preferential flow paths which have been found to strongly control the highest values of the average velocity at the source and affect the resulting longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study showed additional lights on the impact of connectivity on transport and its role to obtain effective measurements of macrodispersion throughout the aquifer under RC transport. Reference: Fernàndez-Garcia D. et al. (2002) Convergent-flow tracer tests in heterogeneous media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 57 129-145. Fischer H. B. (1966) Longitudinal Dispersion in Laboratory and Natural Streams. Technical Rep. KH-R-12, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. Gaspar E. (1987) Modern Trends in Tracer Hydrology, Volume II. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA.

  20. Structural model of the outer vestibule and selectivity filter of the Shaker voltage-gated K+ channel.

    PubMed

    Durell, S R; Guy, H R

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of structural models were developed of the outer vestibule and ion-selective portion of the voltage-gated Shaker K+ channel. Some features of these models are similar to those that we have developed previously [Durrel S. R. and Guy H. R. (1992) Biophys. J. 62, 238-250; Guy H. R. (1990) In Monovalent Cations in Biological Systems (Pasternak C. A., Ed.), pp. 31-58, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL; Guy H. R. and Durell S. R. (1994) In Molecular Evolution of Physiological processes (Fambrough D., Ed.), pp. 197-212, The Rockefeller University Press, NY; Guy H. R. and Durell S. R. (1995) In Ion Channels and Genetic Diseases (Dawson D., Ed.), pp. 1-16, The Rockefeller University Press, NY] and other features were modified to make the models more consistent with recent experimental findings. The first part of the P segment is postulated, as always, to form a short alpha helix that spans only the outer portion of the membrane. The helix is tilted so that its C-terminal is nearer the pore than its N-terminal. The latter part of the P segment, P2, is postulated to have a relatively elongated conformation that is positioned approximately parallel to the axis of the pore. Four of the P2 segments assemble to form an ion-selective region that has two narrow regions; one formed by the Y445 side-chains at the outer entrance of the pore and one formed by the backbone of the T442 residues near the innermost part of the P segments. The S6 segment is postulated to form two alpha helices. The first S6 helix packs next to the P segments in our models. The NMR structures of two scorpion toxins, charybdotoxin and agitoxin 2, have been docked into the models of the outer vestibules. The shape of the outer vestibule has been modeled so that specific toxin-channel residue-residue interactions correspond to those that have been identified experimentally.

  1. Geochemistry and Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous/tertiary Boundary Impact Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, Alan Russell

    1992-01-01

    An array of stratigraphic, chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical evidence indicates that an impact terminated the Cretaceous Period. The 180-km-diameter Chicxulub crater, which now lies buried on the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, was probably formed by the impact. The impactor was probably a long-period comet. Shock devolatization of the thick carbonate/evaporite sequence impacted at Chicxulub probably led to a severe and long-lasting greenhouse warming and a prompt pulse of sulfuric acid rain. The fallout of crater ejecta formed two layers: a lower layer which varies in thickness following a power -law relation based on distance from the Chicxulub crater and an upper, globally-distributed, uniformly ~3-mm-thick layer. The upper layer probably represents the fallout of condensates and entrained solid and liquid particles which were distributed globally by the impact fireball. The lower layer consists of brecciated rock and impact melt near the crater and largely altered tektites far from the crater. The clasts of this layer were probably ballistically transported. The Raton, New Mexico K/T boundary section preserves the fireball and ejecta layers in a coal-free nonmarine environment. Siderophile, chalcophile, and lithophile trace element anomalies occur similar to those found at marine K/T boundary localities. Soot occurs peaking in the 3-mm-thick fireball layer and the immediately overlying 3 mm of sediment, implying prompt burning of the Cretaceous forests. The Brazos River, Texas continental-shelf K/T sections preserve coarse boundary sediments which were probably produced by impact waves. Siderophile and chalcophile trace-element anomalies occur suggesting that the fireball layer and possibly part of the ejecta layer are interbedded with the coarse boundary sediments. The Beloc, Haiti deep-sea K/T sections preserve a thick ejecta sequence including altered and unaltered tektites and shocked minerals capped by the fireball layer. The thick K/T ejecta preserved at

  2. Cancer-Associated Perturbations in Alternative Pre-messenger RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Bell, Brendan; Revil, Timothée; Venables, Julian P; Prinos, Panagiotis; Elela, Sherif Abou; Chabot, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    removed by the spliceosome, other splice junctions are not used systematically, generating the phenomenon of alternative splicing. Alternative splicing is therefore the process by which a single species of pre-mRNA can be matured to produce different mRNA molecules (Fig. 1). Depending on the number and types of alternative splicing events, a pre-mRNA can generate from two to several thousands different mRNAs leading to the production of a corresponding number of proteins. It is now believed that the expression of at least 70 % of human genes is subjected to alternative splicing, implying an enormous contribution to proteomic diversity, and by extension, to the development and the evolution of complex animals. Defects in splicing have been associated with human diseases (Caceres and Kornblihtt, Trends Genet 18(4):186-93, 2002, Cartegni et al., Nat Rev Genet 3(4):285-98, 2002, Pagani and Baralle, Nat Rev Genet 5(5):389-96, 2004), including cancer (Brinkman, Clin Biochem 37(7):584-94, 2004, Venables, Bioessays 28(4):378-86, 2006, Srebrow and Kornblihtt, J Cell Sci 119(Pt 13):2635-2641, 2006, Revil et al., Bull Cancer 93(9):909-919, 2006, Venables, Transworld Res Network, 2006, Pajares et al., Lancet Oncol 8(4):349-57, 2007, Skotheim and Nees, Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:1432-1449, 2007). Numerous studies have now confirmed the existence of specific differences in the alternative splicing profiles between normal and cancer tissues. Although there are a few cases where specific mutations are the primary cause for these changes, global alterations in alternative splicing in cancer cells may be primarily derived from changes in the expression of RNA-binding proteins that control splice site selection. Overall, these cancer-specific differences in alternative splicing offer an immense potential to improve the diagnosis and the prognosis of cancer. This review will focus on the functional impact of cancer-associated alternative splicing variants, the molecular determinants that

  3. Assessment of CO2 Sequestration and ECBM Potential of U.S. Coalbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Reeves

    2003-03-31

    .S. coalbeds is estimated to be about 90 Gt. Of this, about 38 Gt is in Alaska (even after accounting for high costs associated with this province), 14 Gt is in the Powder River basin, 10 Gt is in the San Juan basin, and 8 Gt is in the Greater Green River basin. By comparison, total CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation plants is currently about 2.2 Gt/year. (2) The ECBM recovery potential associated with this sequestration is estimated to be over 150 Tcf. Of this, 47 Tcf is in Alaska (even after accounting for high costs associated with this province), 20 Tcf is in the Powder River basin, 19 Tcf is in the Greater Green River basin, and 16 Tcf is in the San Juan basin. By comparison, total CBM recoverable resources are currently estimated to be about 170 Tcf. (3) Between 25 and 30 Gt of CO{sub 2} can be sequestered at a profit, and 80-85 Gt can be sequestered at costs of less than $5/ton. These estimates do not include any costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, and only represent geologic sequestration. (4) Several Rocky Mountain basins, including the San Juan, Raton, Powder River and Uinta appear to hold the most favorable conditions for sequestration economics. The Gulf Coast and the Central Appalachian basin also appear to hold promise as economic sequestration targets, depending upon gas prices. (5) In general, the 'non-commercial' areas (those areas outside the main play area that are not expected to produce primary CBM commercially) appear more favorable for sequestration economics than the 'commercial' areas. This is because there is more in-place methane to recover in these settings (the 'commercial' areas having already been largely depleted of methane).

  4. DIETARY RATIOS OF N-6/N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS DURING MATERNAL PREGNANCY AFFECT HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND APOPTOSIS IN MOUSE OFFSPRING.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Sun, Wenfei; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Xia, Lulu; Lu, Yuanyuan; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Qi, Kemin

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: a pesar de que los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 (PUFAs por sus siglas en inglés) desempeñan un papel fundamental en el desarrollo y en las funciones cerebrales, aún no está bien definido el nivel óptimo de PUFAs n-3 ni la ratio óptima de PUFA n-6/n-3 en la dieta materna. En este estudio hemos investigado los efectos de las ratios nutricionales de PUFA n-6/n-3 durante la gestación sobre la neurogénesis y la apoptosis en el cerebro de crías de ratón. Métodos: se alimentó a hembras de ratón C57BL/6J con una de las tres dietas de estudio: ratio alta, media y baja de PUFA n-6/n-3 (15,7:1, 6,3:1, 1,6:1). También se añadió una dieta rica en aceite de pescado con una ratio n-6/n-3 de 1:5,7; como control se empleó una dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3. Los regímenes alimenticios se iniciaron dos meses antes de la concepción de los ratones y continuó durante todo el embarazo. Se detectó la neurogénesis y apoptosis del área hipocampal CA3 en las crías. Resultados: en comparación con la dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3, las dietas con PUFA que contienen n-3, particularmente aquellas con ratios PUFA n-6/n-3 de 6,3:1 y 1,6:1, aumentaron significativamente la fosforilación de histona H3 en la Ser10 (p-H3ser10) y las células calretinina positivas en el área hipocampal CA3 de las crías. Además, se detectó un aumento de la expresión de proteína Bcl2, una reducción de la expresión de proteína Bax, y una reducción de la actividad de caspasa 3, así como de las cifras de células apoptósicas TUNEL en las tres dietas, con ratios altas, medias y bajas de PUFA n-6/n-3. Sin embargo, no se observó diferencias en ninguno de estos parámetros entre el grupo de dieta rica en aceite de pescado y el grupo de dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3. Conclusiones: estos datos sugieren que una ingesta más elevada de PUFA n-3 con una ratio más baja de PUFAs n-6/n-3 entre 6:1 y 1:1 aproximadamente, administrada a las madres durante la gestación, podría ser

  5. A convenient fluorometric method to study sulfur mustard-induced apoptosis in human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer microplate culture.

    PubMed

    Ray, Radharaman; Hauck, Stephanie; Kramer, Rachel; Benton, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard [SM; bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide], which causes skin blistering or vesication [(1991). Histo- and cytopathology of acute epithelial lesions. In: Papirmeister, B., Feister, A. J., Robinson, S. I., Ford, R. D., eds. Medical Defense Against Mustard Gas: Toxic Mechanisms and Pharmacological Implications. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 43-78.], is a chemical warfare agent as well as a potential terrorism agent. SM-induced skin blistering is believed to be due to epidermal-dermal detachment as a result of epidermal basal cell death via apoptosis and/or necrosis. Regarding the role of apoptosis in SM pathology in animal skin, the results obtained in several laboratories, including ours, suggest the following: 1) cell death due to SM begins via apoptosis that proceeds to necrosis via an apoptotic-necrotic continuum and 2) inhibiting apoptosis decreases SM-induced microvesication in vivo. To study the mechanisms of SM-induced apoptosis and its prevention in vitro, we have established a convenient fluorometric apoptosis assay using monolayer human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) adaptable for multiwell plates (24-, 96-, or 384-well) and high-throughput applications. This assay allows replication and multiple types of experimental manipulation in sister cultures so that the apoptotic mechanisms and the effects of test compounds can be compared statistically. SM affects diverse cellular mechanisms, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondrial functions, energy metabolism, and death receptors, each of which can independently trigger apoptosis. However, the biochemical pathway in any of these apoptotic mechanisms is characterized by a pathway-specific sequence of caspases, among which caspase-3 is a key member. Therefore, we exposed 80-90% confluent HEK cultures to SM and monitored apoptosis by measuring the fluorescence generated due to hydrolysis of a fluorogenic caspase-3 substrate (acetyl- or benzyl oxycarbonyl

  6. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles. All of these questions are important in trying to understand human health impacts. More information on climate change, soils, and human health issues can be found in Brevik (2012). References Brevik, E.C. 2012. Climate change, soils, and human health. In: E.C. Brevik and L. Burgess (Eds). Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. pp. 1-18. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds). Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  7. Closed-Head TBI Model of Multiple Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Floyd J; Hou, Jiamei; Bose, Prodip K

    2016-01-01

    Successful therapy for TBI disabilities awaits refinement in the understanding of TBI neurobiology, quantitative measurement of treatment-induced incremental changes in recovery trajectories, and effective translation to human TBI using quantitative methods and protocols that were effective to monitor recovery in preclinical models. Details of the specific neurobiology that underlies these injuries and effective quantitation of treatment-induced changes are beginning to emerge utilizing a variety of preclinical and clinical models (for reviews see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Fujimoto et al., Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:365-378, 2004; Cernak, NeuroRx 2:410-422, 2005; Smith et al., J Neurotrauma 22:1485-1502, 2005; Bose et al., J Neurotrauma 30:1177-1191, 2013; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Bose et al., Brain neurotrauma: molecular, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation aspects, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2015)). Preclinical models of TBI, essential for the efficient study of TBI neurobiology, benefit from the setting of controlled injury and optimal opportunities for biometric quantitation of injury and treatment-induced changes in the trajectories of disability. Several preclinical models are currently used, and each offer opportunities for study of different aspects of TBI primary and secondary injuries (for review see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Dixon et al., J Neurotrauma 5:91-104, 1988)). The closed-head, impact-acceleration model of TBI designed by Marmarou et al., 1994 (J Neurosurg 80:291-300, 1994), when used to produce mild to moderate TBI, produces diffuse axonal injuries without significant additional focal injuries of the

  8. Pore scale simulations for the extension of the Darcy-Forchheimer law to shear thinning fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Lince, Federica; Boccardo, Gianluca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    results of flow simulations show the superposition of two contributions to pressure drops: one, strictly related to the non-Newtonian properties of the fluid, dominates at low Reynolds numbers, while a quadratic one, arising at higher Reynolds numbers, is dependent only on the porous medium properties. The results suggest that, for Newtonian flow, the porous medium can be fully described by two macroscopic parameters, namely permeability K and inertial coefficient β. Conversely, for non-Newtonian flow, an additional parameter is required, represented by the shift factor α, which depends on the properties of both porous medium and fluid, which is not easy to be determined in laboratory tests, but can be in turn calculated from 2D or 3D pore-scale flow simulations, following the approach which was adopted in this work. References 1. Sorbie, K.S. Polymer-improved oil recovery; Blackie ; CRC Press: Glasgow, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991. 2. Xue, D.; Sethi, R. Viscoelastic gels of guar and xanthan gum mixtures provide long-term stabilization of iron micro- and nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 2012, 14(11). 3. Bird, R.B.; Armstrong, R.C.; Hassager, O. Dynamics of polymeric liquids. Volume 1. Fluid mechanics; John Wiley and Sons Inc.: New York - NY, 1977. 4. Tosco, T.; Marchisio, D.L.; Lince, F.; Sethi, R. Extension of the Darcy-Forchheimer Law for Shear-Thinning Fluids and Validation via Pore-Scale Flow Simulations. Transport in Porous Media 2013, 96(1), 1-20.

  9. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    their effort and support of our endeavour. References [1] Young T 1805 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 95 65 [2] Lucas R 1918 Kolloidn. Zh. 23 15 [3] Washburn E W 1921 Phys. Rev. 17 273 [4] de Gennes P G 1985 Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 827 [5] Ralston J, Popescu M and Sedev R 2008 Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.38 23 [6] High Temperature Capillarity Focus Issue 2005 Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 9 149-254 [7] Starov V M, Velarde M G and Radke C J 2007 Wetting and Spreading Dynamics (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) [8] Golub J 2008 Phys. Today 61 8 [9] Homsby G M (ed) 2008 Multimedia Fluid Mechanics 2nd edn (New York: Cambridge University Press) (Also see www.efluids.com)

  10. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    ., Wan, X.S., Nuth, M., Davis, J., Ko, Y.-H., Sayers, C.M., Baran, M., Ware, J.H. and Kennedy, A.R. Dietary antioxidants protect hematopoietic cells and improve animal survival following total body irradiation. Radiation Res. (in press) [9] Kennedy, A.R., Davis, J.G., Carlton, W. and Ware, J.H. Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation on the development of malignancies and other neoplastic lesions in mice exposed to proton or iron ion radiation. Radiation Res. (submitted) [10] Kennedy, A.R. The Status of Human Trials Utilizing Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate from Soybeans. In: Soy in Health and Disease Prevention, edited by Michihiro Sugano, CRC Press Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, Chapter 12, pp. 207-223, 2005. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; This work was supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58.

  11. Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournay, Robert C.

    northern New Mexico (Raton Mesa). Composite initial and boundary conditions were developed from reanalysis data, from which control runs of regional MCSs were made as well a series of idealized experiments with imposed large scale soil moisture (SM) anomalies to study to impact to each regional MCS on SM variations in initiation region as well down stream in the GP. Another idealized experiment was made to study the impact of varying the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization in the context of the idealized SM variations. While the distribution of SM has a major impact on CAPE and the location and magnitude of CI, also important is the differences in shear driven by the differences in large scale SM, playing a major, and varying depending on where the regional MCSs interact with the shear anomalies. Utilizing a different PBL parameterization impacts the timing and amount of initial CI, impacting the total precipitation produced by the MCSs, but not nearly the magnitude of alteration to the MCS as varying the SM distribution. A climatology of CI in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains is made using a high resolution observational dataset. From this climatology, the sensitivity of CI to land surface variables, including SM and vegetation is studied. It was found that the timing of CI had a stronger relationship with SM, with earlier CI over wetter than average soils, with the greatest difference in May in the north of the domain, nearly all statistical significant values across regions from north to south in June and July with little difference in August in the northern regions. Outside of May, which showed a strong relationship of earlier CI over less vegetated regions, the relationship was similar, but weaker than, that between SM and CI timing. Examining the CAPE, CIN and PW at CI and null points reveal that the values are generally more conducive to CI over wet soils and anomalously vegetated areas at both CI and null points, with stronger difference in

  12. The Impact of Afforestation on the Carbon Stocks of Mineral Soils Across the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    conifer, broadleaf, and mixed (broadleaf and conifer) and soil type: brown earth, podzol, brown podzolic, gley and brown earth. The paired plot method involves selecting a second site that represents the same soil type and physical characteristics as the forest site. The only difference between the two sites should be the current land-use of the pair site, which should represent the pre-afforestation land-use of the forest site. Each forest site and its pair site will be sampled in the top 30 cm of soil for bulk density and organic carbon %, while litter and F/H layer samples will be taken and analysed for carbon. This data should provide an analysis of the carbon stocks of the soil and litter of both the forest site and its pair site allowing for comparison and thus the impact of afforestation on carbon stocks. References. Byrne, K.A., & Milne, R. (2006). Carbon stocks and sequestration in plantation forests in the Republic of Ireland. Forestry, 79, no. 4: 361. Davis, M.R., & Condron, L.M. (2002). Impact of grassland afforestation on soil carbon in New Zealand: a review of paired-site studies. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 40, no. 4: 675-690. Kyoto Protocol. 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1, Decision 1/CP.3, Annex 7. UN. National Forest Inventory: NFI Methodology. (2007). Forest Service, The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Wexford, Ireland. Pilcher, J.R. & Mac an tSaoir, S. (1995). Wood, Trees and Forests in Ireland. (Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Renou, F. & Farrell, E.P. (2005). Reclaiming peatlands for forestry: the Irish experience. In: Stanturf, J.A. and Madsen, P.A. (eds.). Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton. p.541-557. UNFCCC. 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Palais des Nations, Geneva. http://www.unfccc.de/index.html

  13. Books Noted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Edward J.

    1999-10-01

    The Colloidal Domain: Where Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Technology Meet, 2nd edition

    D. Fennell Evans and Hakan Wennerstroem. Advances in Interfacial Engineering Series. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xl + 632 pp. ISBN 0-471-24247-0. 89.95.

    Commercial Nuclear Power: Assuring Safety for the Future

    Charles B. Ramsey and Mohammed Modarres. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1998. xxviii + 508 pp. ISBN 0-471-29186-2. 79.95.

    Advances in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 4

    Bruce E. Maryanoff and Allen B. Reitz, Eds. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. ISBN 1-7623-0064-7. 109.50.

    Advances in Strained and Interesting Organic Molecules, Vol. 7

    Brian Halton, Ed. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. xii + 259 pp. ISBN 0-7623-0530-4. 109.50.

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Vol. 6

    Patrick S. Mariano, Ed. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. x + 171 pp. ISBN 0-7623-0213-5. 109.50.

    Automating Science and Engineering Laboratories with Visual Basic

    Mark F. Russo and Martin M. Echols. Wiley-Interscience Series on Laboratory Automation. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xx + 355 pp. ISBN 0-471-25493-2. 49.95.

    Plantwide Process Control

    Kelvin T. Erickson and John L. Hedrick. Wiley Series in Chemical Engineering. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xii + 547 pp. ISBN 0-471-17835-7. 89.95.

    Heme Peroxidases

    H. Brian Dunford. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xiii + 507 pp. ISBN 0-471-24244-6. 195.00.

    Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Wastes

    Stanley E. Manahan. Lewis: Boca Raton, FL, 1999. 318 pp. ISBN 1-56670-381-6. 69.95.

    Reviews in Computational Chemistry, Vol. 13

    Kenny B. Lipkowitz and Donald B. Boyd. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999

  14. PREFACE: Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut

    2010-08-01

    functional theory versus kinetic theory of simple fluids J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364110 [28] Majaniemi S, Provatas N and Nonomura M 2010 Effective model hierarchies for dynamic and static classical density functional theories J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364111 [29] Warshavsky V B and Song X 2010 Perturbation theory for solid-liquid interfacial free energies J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364112 [30] Rosenfeld Y, Schmidt M, Löwen H and Tarazona P 1997 Phys. Rev. E 55 4245 [31] Roth R, Evans R, Lang A and Kahl G 2002 J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14 12063 [32] Tarazona P, Cuesta J A and Martinez-Raton Y 2008 Density Functional Theories of Hard Particle Systems (Springer Lecture Notes in Physics vol 753) (Berlin: Springer) p 247 [33] Roth R 2010 J. Phys: Condens. Matter 22 063102 [34] Schmidt M, Löwen H, Brader J M and Evans R 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1934 [35] Schmidt M, Löwen H, Brader J M and Evans R 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 9353 [36] Hansen-Goos H and Mecke K 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 018302 [37] Esztermann A, Reich H and Schmidt M 2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 011409 [38] Ramakrishnan T V and Yussouff M 1979 Phys. Rev. B 19 2775 [39] Denton A R and Ashcroft N W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 4701 [40] Hasegawa M 1994 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 63 2215 [41] Kol A and Laird B B 1997 Mol. Phys. 90 951 [42] van Teeffelen S, Löwen H and Likos C N 2008 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 404217 [43] van Teeffelen S, Hoffmann N, Likos C N and Löwen H 2006 Europhys. Lett. 75 583 [44] Likos C N, Hoffmann N, Löwen H and Louis A A 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 7681 [45] Curtin W A and Ashcroft N W 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 2775 [46] Likos C N, Németh Z T and Löwen H 1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 10965 [47] Poniewierski A and Holyst R 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 2461 [48] Graf H and Löwen H 1999 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11 1435 [49] Bolhuis P and Frenkel D 1997 J. Chem. Phys. 106 666 [50] Frenkel D, Mulder B M and McTague J P 1984 Phys. Rev. Lett. 52 287 [51] Härtel A and Löwen H 2010 J. Phys

  15. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and their effects, resource sustainability and environmental quality. A general definition of soil quality is the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use. The existence of multiple definitions suggests that the soil quality concept continues to evolve (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Recent attention has focused on the sustainability of human uses of soil, based on concerns that soil quality may be declining (Boehn and Anderson, 1997). We use sustainable to mean that a use or management of soil will sustain human well-being over time. Lal (1995) described the land resources of the world (of which soil is one component) as "finite, fragile, and nonrenewable," and reported that only about 22% (3.26 billion ha) of the total land area on the globe is suitable for cultivation and at present, only about 3% (450 million ha) has a high agricultural production capacity. Because soil is in large but finite supply, and some soil components cannot be renewed within a human time frame, the condition of soils in agriculture and the environment is an issue of global concern (Howard, 1993; FAO, 1997). Concerns include soil losses from erosion, maintaining agricultural productivity and system sustainability, protecting natural areas, and adverse effects of soil contamination on human health (Haberern, 1992; Howard, 1993; Sims et al., 1997). Parr et al. (1992) state, "...soil degradation is the single most destructive force diminishing the world's soil resource base." Soil quality guidelines are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions, relative to a specific use." Increasingly, contemporary discussion of soil quality includes the environmental cost of production and the potential for reclamation of degraded soils (Várallyay, 2005). Reasons for assessing soil quality in an agricultural or managed system may be somewhat different than reasons for assessing soil quality in a natural ecosystem. In an agricultural context, soil quality may be managed, to maximize production without adverse environmental effect, while in a natural ecosystem, soil quality may be observed, as a baseline value or set of values against which future changes in the system may be compared (Várallyay, 1994; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Soil quality has historically been equated with agricultural productivity, and thus is not a new idea. Soil conservation practices to maintain soil productivity are as old as agriculture itself, with documentation dating to the Roman Empire (Jenny, 1961). The Storie Index (Storie, 1932) and USDA Land Capability Classification (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973) were developed to separate soils into different quality classes. Soil quality is implied in many decisions farmers make about land purchases and management, and in the economic value rural assessors place on agricultural land for purposes of taxation. Beginning in the 1930s, soil productivity ratings were developed in the United States and elsewhere to help farmers select crops and management practices that would maximize production and minimize erosion or other adverse environmental effects (Huddleston, 1984). These rating systems are important predecessors of recent attempts to quantitatively assess soil quality. In the 1970s, attempts were made to identify and protect soils of the highest productive capacity by defining "prime agricultural lands" (Miller, 1979). An idea related to soil quality is "carrying capacity". Carrying capacity is the number of individuals that can be supported in a given area (Budd, 1992). Soils with high productivity have high carrying capacity, and are considered to be high quality. Sustainability implies that a system does not exceed its carrying capacity over time. Recent attempts to define soil quality and develop indices to measure it have many of the properties of the earlier soil productivity ratings (Doran and Jones, 1996; Snakin et al., 1996; Seybold et al., 1997). Cox (1995) calls for national goals for soil quality that "... recognize the inherent links between soil, water and air quality." Haberern (1992) suggests that the decade of the 1990s is the time to study the soil as we have recognized and studied air quality and water quality in the preceding two decades. Air and water quality standards are generally based on maximum allowable concentrations of materials hazardous to human health. They are specified and enforced by regulators according to public uses of these resources. The result is that changes in air and water quality are now monitored to protect human health. With few exceptions, soil quality standards have not been set, nor have regulations been created regarding maintenance of soil quality (Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). To the extent that soil has been the disposal site of hazardous wastes, as well as a pathway by which contamination or other applied chemicals may present a human health risk, sporadic 40 regulations of soil quality (in terms of contamination) does exist in the 27 European Union (EU) countries for not just new ones but an estimated 30 000 existing chemicals, today. These regulations are in the form of laws regulating hazardous waste, toxic substances, and pesticides. However, these standards are often contradictory, inconsistent with each other and with current methods of assessing risk. For example, in the United States, federal regulations supporting CERCLA (40 CFR) is a list of "hazardous substances" and the levels in various media (e.g., soil, water) to which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must respond with a cleanup effort. However, EPA has fielded considerable controversy about contaminant levels and chemical forms that legitimately constitute a human health risk. Target cleanup levels have also been subject to debate and legislation. Soil quality assessment requires definition of a "clean" soil (Sims et al., 1997). From this point of view, good quality soil has been defined as posing "...no harm to any normal use by humans, plants or animals; not adversely affecting natural cycles or functions; and not contaminating other components of the environment" (Moen, 1988). The parallel to air and water quality is easy to draw on a conceptual level, but designation of soil quality standards is significantly complicated by soil variability and heterogeneity (Smith et al., 1993). Among the authors (Merker, 1956; Odell et al. 1984; Johnston et al., 1986; Reganold et al., 1990; Granatstein and Bezdicek, 1992; Kádár, 1992; Beke et al., 1994; Jenkinson et al., 1994; Schjenning et al., 1994; Murata et al., 1995; Biederbeck et al., 1996; Lindert et al., 1996; Romig et al., 1995; Warkentin, 1995; Carter et al., 1997; Gerzabeck et al., 1997; Seybold et al., 1997; Malcolm, 2000; Várallyay, 2005) and organizations defining soil quality are Larson and Pierce (1991), Karlen et al. (1997). The next section reviews some of the definitions and soil characteristics used to define soil quality. The reader should understand that the definition of soil quality and selection of soil characteristics needed to quantify soil quality are continuing to evolve. For example, Bouma (1989) recognized that an essential problem with definitions that produce carefully limited suitability classes is that empirical decisions must be made to separate the classes along what is essentially a continuum. That is, if soil organic matter is part of a soil quality definition, where on the continuum of soil organic matter content does one draw the line between a high quality and low quality soil? Does high organic matter content always indicate high soil quality? These are non-trivial questions under discussion by the soil science community. Carter et al. (1997) suggest a framework for evaluating soil quality that includes: 1. describing each soil function on which quality is to be based, 2. selecting soil characteristics or properties that influence the capacity of the soil to provide each function, 3. choosing indicators of characteristics that can be measured, and 4. using methods that provide accurate measurement of those indicators. The following soil functions appear frequently in the soil science literature: 1. soil maintains biological activity/productivity (Karlen et al., 1997), serves as medium for plant/crop growth (Arshad and Coen, 1992), supports plant productivity/yield (Arshad and Coen, 1992), supports human/animal health (Karlen et al., 1997); 2. partitions and regulates water/ solute flow through environment (Larson and Pierce, 1991; Arshad and Coen, 1992); 3. serves as an environmental buffer/filter (Larson and Pierce, 1991), maintains environmental quality (Arshad and Ccen, 1992); 4. cycles nutrients, water, energy and other elements through the biosphere (Anderson and Gregorich, 1984). Clearly, these functions are interrelated. Later in this chapter, discussion focuses on the first and third functions (productivity and environmental buffering) as encompassing those aspects of soil quality most debated in the literature. Larson and Pierce (1991) defined soil quality as "the capacity of a soil to function within the ecosystem boundaries and interact positively with the environment external to that ecosystem." Three soil functions are considered essential: provide a medium for plant growth, regulate and partition waterllow through the environment, and serve as an effective environmental filter. Arshad and Coen (1992) define soil quality as "the sustaining capability of a soil to accept, store and recycle water, minerals and energy for production of crops at optimum levels while preserving a healthy environment." They discuss terrain, climate and hydrology as site factors that contribute to soil quality and suggest that socioeconomic factors such as land use, operator and management should be included in a soil quality analysis. This approach is consistent with the FAO approach to land quality analysis (FAO, 1997). Karlen et al. (1992) define soil quality as "the ability of the soil to serve as a natural medium for the growth of plants that sustain human and animal life." Their definition is based on the role of soil quality in the long-term productivity of soil and maintenance of environmental quality. Doran and Parkin (1994) defined soil quality as "the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health." Gregorich et al. (1994) define soil quality as "a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions relative to a specific use" or "the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use." The Soil Science Society of America Ad Hoc Committee on Soil Health proposed that soil quality is "the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation" (Karlen et al., 1997). This definition requires that five functions must be evaluated to describe soil quality: 1. sustaining biological activity, diversity, and productivity; 2. regulating and partitioning water and solute flow; 3. filtering, buffering, degrading, immobilizing and detoxifying organic and inorganic materials, including industrial and municipal byproducts and atmospheric deposition; 4. storing and cycling nutrients and other elements within the earth's biosphere; and 5. providing support of socioeconomic structures and protection for archeological treasures associated with human habitation. No soil is likely to successfully provide all of these functions, some of which occur in natural ecosystems and some of which are the result of human modification. We can summarize by saying that soil quality depends on the extent to which soil functions to benefit humans. Thus, for food production or mediation of contamination, soil quality means the extent to which a soil fulfills the role we have defined for it. Within agriculture, high quality equates to maintenance of high productivity without significant soil or environmental degradation. The Glossary of Soil Science terms produced by the Soil Science Society of America (1996) states that soil quality is an inherent attribute of a soil that is inferred from soil characteristics or indirect observations. To proceed from a dictionary definition to a measure of soil quality, a minimum dataset (MDS) of soil characteristics that represents soil quality must be selected and quantified (Papendick et al., 1995). The MDS may include biological, chemical or physical soil characteristics [Organic matter (OM), Aggregation (A), Bulk density (BD), Depth to hardpan (DH), Electrical conductivity (EC), Fertility (F), Respiration (R), pH, Soil test (ST), Yield (Y), Infiltration (I), Mineralizable nitrogen potential (MNP), Water holding capacity (WHC)]. For agriculture, the measurement of properties should lead to a relatively simple and accurate way to rank soils based on potential plant production without soil degradation. Unfortunately, commonly identified soil quality parameters may not correlate well with yield (Reganold, 1988). In the next section, we consider these four points concerning the selection and quantification of soil characteristics: 1. soil characteristics may be desirable or undesirable, 2. soil renewability involves judgment of the extent to which soil characteristics can be controlled or managed, 3. rates of change in soil characteristics vary, and 4. there may be significant temporal or spatial variation in soil characteristics. Components of soil quality definitions may include desirable and undesirable characteristics. Desirable soil characteristics may either be the presence of a property that benefits soil productivity and/or other important soil functions, or the absence of a property that is detrimental to these functions. A soil characteristic may include a range of values that contributes positively to quality and a range that contributes negatively. Soil pH, for example, may be a positive or negative characteristic depending on its value. Larson and Pierce (1991) suggest that ranges of property values can be defined as optimal, suboptimal or superoptimal. A pH range of 6 to 7.5 is optimal for production of most crops. Outside of this range, pH is suboptimal and soil quality is lower than at the optimal pH range. The complexity of the soil quality concept is illustrated by the fact that the choice of optimal pH range is crop or use dependent. Letey (1985) suggested that identification of a range of water content that is nonlimiting to plant productivity might be a good way of assessing the collective effect of soil physical characteristics that contribute to crop productivity. For soils of decreasing quality, the width of the nonlimiting water range decreases. Undesirable soil characteristics may be either the presence of contaminants or a range of values of soil characteristics that contribute negatively to soil quality. The presence of chemicals that inhibit plant root growth or the absence of nutrients that result in low yields or poor crop quality are examples of undesirable soil characteristics that lower soil quality. The extent to which soil is viewed as a renewable resource shapes our approach to soil quality. "Soil" in this context is the natural, three-dimensional, horizonated individual, not something created by earth moving machinery. For the purpose of assessing human impact on sustainability of soil quality, it may be appropriate to use only those soil properties that are slowly or nonrenewable. Shorter term assessments may be based on those properties that change rapidly and are subject to easy management. Willis and Evans (1977) argued that soil is not renewable over the short term based on studies that suggest that 30 to more than 1,000 years are required to develop 25 mm of surface soil from parent material by natural processes. Jenny (1980) also argued that soil is not renewable over the time scale to which humans relate. Howard (1993) suggests defining soil quality based on undisturbed natural soils and to set quality standards based on changes in soils which cannot be reversed naturally or by ecological approaches. The renewability of soil depends on the soil property considered. For example, once soil depth is reduced by wind or water erosion so that it is too shallow to support crops, it is not renewable within a human or management time frame. Some important soil characteristics are slowly renewable. Organic matter, most nutrients and some physical properties may be renewed through careful long-term management. Certain chemical properties (pH, salinity, N, P, K content) may be altered to a more satisfactory range for agriculture within a growing season or two, while removal of unwanted chemicals may take much longer. No soil property is permanent, but rates and frequency of change vary widely among properties. Soil properties also vary with ecosystem, arguably depending most on climate. In rangelands, for example, temporal variability is high and relatively unpredictable due to the strong dependence of soil properties on soil wetness (Herrick and Whitford, 1995). Variability in soil wetness is not restricted to rangelands and may be an especially important determinant of microbial community structure and function in both irrigated and rainfed agricultural systems. Arnold et al. (1990) suggest that changes in soil properties can be nonsystematic, periodic, or trend. Nonsystematic changes are short term and unpredictable. Periodic are predictable and trend changes tend to be in one direction over time. Carter et al. (1997) distinguish between dynamic soil properties that are most subject to change through human use and are strongly influenced by agronomic practices, and intrinsic or static properties that are not subject to rapid change or management. Examples of dynamic soil characteristics are the size, membership, distribution, and activity of a soil's microbiological community; the soil solution composition, pH, and nutrient ion concentrations, and the exchangeable cation population. Soils respond quickly to changes in conditions such as water content. As a result, the optimal frequency and distribution of soil measurements vary with the property being measured. Soil mineralogy, particle size distribution and soil depth are static soil quality indicators. Although changes occur continuously, they are slow under natural conditions. Organic matter content may be a dynamic variable, but the chemical properties of organic matter may change only over periods on the order of 100 to 1,500 years depending on texture. Soil properties that change quickly present a problem because many measurements are needed to know the average value and to determine if changes in the average indicate improvement or degradation of soil quality. Conversely, properties that change very slowly are insensitive measures of short-term changes in soil quality. Papendick et al. (1995) argue that the MDS required for soil quality analysis includes a mix of "dynamic" and relatively "static" properties. A soil quality assessment must specify area. One could use the pedon (the three-dimensional soil individual) as the unit of measure, or a soil map unit, a landscape, a field or an entire watershed. The choice will depend to some degree on what property is of interest and the spatial variability of the property. Karlen et al. (1997) propose that soil quality can be evaluated at scales ranging from points to regional, national and international. They suggest that the more detailed scales provide an opportunity to "understand" soil quality while larger scale approaches provide interdisciplinary monitoring of soil quality and changes in soil quality. Pennock et al. (1994) discuss scaling up data from discrete sampling points to landscape and regional scales. Soil physical characteristics [Aeration (A), Aggregate stability (AS), Bulk density (BD), Clay mineralogy (CM), Color (C), Consistence (dry (CD), moist (CM), wet (CW)), Depth to root limiting layer (DRLL), Hydraulic conductivity (HC), Oxygen diffusion rate (ODR), Particle size distribution (PSD), Penetration resistence (PR), Pore connectivity (PC), Pore size distribution (PSD), Soil strength (SS), Soil tilth (ST), Structure type (STY), Temperature (T), Total porosity (TP), Water-holding capacity (WHC)] are a necessary part of soil quality assessment because they often cannot be easily improved (Wagenet and Hutson, 1997). Larson and Pierce (1991) summarize the physical indicators of soil quality as those properties that influence crop production by determining: 1. whether a soil can accommodate unobstructed root growth and provide pore space of sufficient size and continuity for root penetration and expansion, 2. the extent to which the soil matrix will resist deformation, and 3. the capacity of soil for water supply and aeration. Factors such as effective rooting depth, porosity or pore size distribution, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, soil strength and particle size distribution capture these soil functions (Malcolm, 2000; Várallyay, 2005). Reganold and Palmer (1995) use texture, color, dry and moist consistence, structure type, a structure index, bulk density of the 0-5 cm zone, penetration resistance of 0 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm zones and topsoil thickness as physical determinants of soil quality. Letey (1994) suggests that structure, texture, bulk density, and profile characteristics affect management practices in agriculture but are not directly related to plant productivity. He proposes that water potential, oxygen diffusion rate, temperature, and mechanical resistance directly affect plant growth, and thus are the best indicators of the physical quality of a soil for production. Soil tilth, a poorly defined term that describes the physical condition of soil, also may be an indicator of a soil's ability to support crops. Farmers may assess soil tilth by kicking a soil clod. More formal measurements to describe soil ti]th include bulk density, porosity, structure, roughness and aggregate characteristics (Karlen et al., 1992). Many of the processes that contribute to soil structure, aggregate stability, bulk density and porosity are not well understood, making soil tilth a difficult parameter to quantify. Soil depth is an easily measured and independent property that provides direct information about a soil's ability to support plants. Effective soil depth is the depth available for roots to explore for water and nutrients. Layers that restrict root growth or water movement include hard rock, naturally dense soil layers such as fragipans, petrocalcic and, petroferric horizons, duripans, and human-induced layers of high bulk density such as plow pans and traffic pans. Effective soil depth is a problem for agricultural use of over 50% of soils in Africa (Eswaran et al., 1997). Soil depth requirements vary with crop or species. Many vegetable crops, for example, are notably shallow rooted while grain crops and some legumes like alfalfa are deep rooted. Variation will be even greater in unmanaged, natural systems. Wheat yield in Colorado was shown to decrease from 2,700 to 1,150 kg ha' over a 60-yr period of cultivation primarily due to decrease in soil depth (Bowman et al., 1990). Assessment of soil quality based on soil chemistry, whether the property is a contaminant or part of a healthy system, requires a sampling protocol, a method of chemical analysis, an understanding of how its chemistry affects biological systems and interacts with mineral forms, methods for location of possible contamination, and standards for soil characterization (Várallyay, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Some soil chemical properties suggested as soil quality indicators are: Base saturation percentage (BSP), Cation exchange capacity (CEC), Contaminant availability (CA), Contaminant concentration (CC), Contaminant mobility (CM), Contaminant presence (CP), Electrical conductivity (EC), ESP, Nutrient cycling rates (NCR), Ph, Plant nutrient availability (PNA), Plant nutrient content (PNC) and SAR. Nutrient availability depends on soil physical and chemical processes, such as weathering and buffering, and properties such as organic matter content, CEC and pH (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). At low and high pH, for example, some nutrients become unavailable to plants and some toxic elements become more available. Larson and Pierce (1991) chose those chemical properties that either inhibit root growth or that affect nutrient supply due to the quantity present or the availability. Reganold and Palmer (1995) used chemical parameters related to nutrient availability as measures of soil quality, including CEC, total N and P, pH and extractable P, S, Ca, Mg and K. Karlen et al. (1992) suggest that total and available plant nutrients, and nutrient cycling rates, should be included in soil quality assessments. Soil properties may be severely compromised by intended or unintended human additions of chemical compounds and soil productivity reduced if unwanted chemicals exceed safe thresholds. Data are required to determine whether or not a site is significantly polluted and if it requires clean-up (Sims et al., 1997). International standard methods have been created to maintain the quality of measurements (Hortensius and Welling, 1996). A difficult determination is the level of each chemical that is considered an ecological risk. Beck et al. (1995) provide a list of levels for organic chemicals adopted by The Netherlands and Canada. EPA uses similar lists for compounds considered hazardous (e.g., 40 CFR). Sims et al. (1997) argue that clean and unclean are two extremes of a continuum and that it is more appropriate to define the physical, chemical and biological state of the soil as acceptable or unacceptable. In The Netherlands, soil quality reference values have been created for heavy metals and organic chemicals based on a linear relationship with soil clay and organic matter content. The Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment has used the maximum of a range of reference values for a given substance as a provisional reference value for good soil quality (Howard, 1993). The focus of many soil quality definitions is soil biology [Organic carbon (OC), Microbial biomass (MB), C and N, Total bacterial biomass (TBB), Total fungal biomass (TFB), Potentially mineralizable N (PMN), Soil respiration (SR), Enzymes (Dehydrogenase, Phosphatase, Arlysulfatase), Biomass C/total organic carbon, Respiration/biomass, Microbial community fingerprinting (MCF), Substrate utilization (SU), Fatty acid analysis (FAA), Nucleic acid analysis (NAA)]. Soil supports a diverse population of organisms, ranging in size from viruses to large mammals, that usually interacts positively with plants and other system components (Paul and Clark, 1996). However, some soil organisms such as nematodes, bacterial and fungal pathogens reduce plant productivity. Many proposed soil quality definitions focus on the presence of beneficial rather than absence of detrimental organisms, although both are critically important. Various measures of microbial community viability have been suggested as measures or indices of soil quality. Community level studies consider species diversity and frequency of occurrence of species. Visser and Parkinson (1992) found that diverse soil microbiological criteria may be used to indicate deteriorating or improving soil quality. They suggested testing the biological criteria for soil quality at three levels: population, community and ecosystem. Microorganisms and microbial communities are dynamic and diverse, making them sensitive to changes in soil conditions (Kennedy and Papendick, 1995). Their populations include fungi, bacteria including actinomycetes, protozoa, and algae. Soil microorganisms form crucial symbiotic relationships with plants, including mycorrhizal infection for P and N acquisition and bacterial infection for fixation of atmospheric N. Authors emphasizing use of biological factors as indicators of soil quality often equate soil quality with relatively dynamic properties such as microbial biomass, microbial respiration, organic matter mineralization and denitrification, and organic matter content (Yakovchenko et al., 1996; Franzluebbers and Arshad, 1997), or soil microbial C, phospholipid analyses and soil enzymes (Gregorich et al., 1997), or total organic C and N (Franco-Vizcaino, 1997). Visser and Parkinson (1992) question the suitability of enzyme assays for microbial activity and soil quality assessments. Waksman (1927), who studied measurements of soil microorganisms that could indicate soil fertility, found that physical and chemical factors as well as soil biology were needed to predict soil fertility. Meso- and macrofauna populations have also been considered as part of soil quality definitions (Berry, 1994). One could choose to use presence or absence of a particular species or population of a particular species as a measure of soil quality. Stork and Eggleton (1992) discuss species richness as a powerful indicator of invertebrate community and soil quality, although determining the number of species is a problem. They suggest that keystone species, taxonomic diversity at the group level, and species richness of several dominant groups of invertebrates can be used as part of a soil quality definition. Measuring soil fauna populations involves decisions about which organisms to measure and how to measure them. An example is the earthworm population, the size of which is frequently mentioned as an important measure of soil quality. Measurement choices include numbers of organisms per volume or weight of soil, number of species, or a combination of numbers of organisms and species. Reganold and Palmer (1995) use total earthworms per square meter, total earthworm weight (g m-') and average individual earthworm weight as biological indicators of soil quality. Measurement of one or more components of the N cycle including ammonification, nitrification and nitrogen fixation, may be used to assess soil fertility and soil quality (Visser and Parkinson, 1992). Presumably, high rates of N turnover may infer a dynamic and healthy soil biological community. In contrast, low soil quality or poor soil health may be inferred from lack of N turnover. The interpretation of N turnover rates is highly dependent on the kinds of substrates added to soils and climate variables such as soil temperature and moisture. One needs to be careful when comparing N turnover rates within soils and among different soils to be sure that the cause of differences is a soil quality parameter and not natural variability. Presence of pesticide residues, for example, may reduce N turnover rate. In such an instance, both the presence of the pesticide and the N turnover rate would be needed to determine that the soil quality had been impaired. Production incorporates use of and need for functioning soil resources in agriculture, and environmental buffering incorporates the direct and indirect effects of human use on ecosystem function and human health (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Worldwide agriculture is the most extensive human land use, and soil characteristics are a critical determinant of agricultural productivity. Agriculture includes irrigated and rainfed cultivated cropland, permanent crops such as orchards and vineyards, irrigated pasture, range, and forestry. Each cropping system has distinct soil and soil management conditions for optimal production. It has been suggested that soil productivity is the net resultant of soil degradation processes and soil conservation practices (Parr et al., 1990). An appropriate definition of soil quality and the criteria necessary to evaluate and monitor soil quality is a step toward "the development of systematic criteria of sustainability". Issues to be considered when discussing soil quality for agriculture include: 1. How are productivity and sustainability related? 2. Is the cropping system in question cultivated or non-cultivated? 3. Is the cropping system in question an irrigated or dryland system? Sustainability of agricultural systems is critical to human welfare and is an a subject of research and debate (Letey, 1994). High productivity and sustainability must be converging goals if the growing human population is to be fed without destroying the resources necessary to produce food. Sustainability implies that a system is at a desirable steady state. Thermodynamically, soil is an open system through which matter and energy flow and a steady state is characterized by a minimum production of entropy (Andiscott, 1995). Ellert et al. (1997) review related literature on ways of assessing soil function on an ecosystem scale, commenting that the complexity and organization of living systems, which seem to defy the second law of thermodynamics (increasing disorder/entropy), may provide a means to broadly assess ecosystem function. The purpose of agriculture is to provide products for human sustenance and by definition is not sustainable unless the nutrients removed in the products are returned to the soil. Many of the arguments about the sustainability of agricultural systems relate to the form in which nutrients are most sustainably returned. No agricultural system will be sustainable in the long run without management that considers nutrient cycling and energy budgets. The more intense the agricultural system, the more energy and resources must be expended to maintain the system. The relative quality of a soil for agriculture can depend on the resources available to farmers. In the United States, resources may be readily available for management of dynamic soil properties such as nutrient or water status. In other countries, farmers may be resource poor, and agricultural systems are generally low input, meaning that large-scale irrigation is absent, use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides is minimal, and high energy, mechanized equipment is not available (Eswaran et a1.,1997). This means, for example, that soil quality for agriculture will be more dependent on climate than if the same soils were part of a highly managed, irrigated system. Similarly, sustainability is more dependent on maintenance of dynamic soil properties because resources may not exist to remedy losses (Várallyay, 2005; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). It is difficult to overstate the importance of irrigation to food production. One-third of the total global harvest of food comes from the 17% (250 million ha) of the world's cropland that is irrigated (Hoffman et al., 1990); three-quarters of which are in developing countries (Tribe, 1994). India, China, the former Soviet Union, the United States and Pakistan have the greatest area of irrigated land. Should soil quality criteria be the same for irrigated and dryland agriculture? Sojka (1996) suggests that the arid and semi-arid soils that support most irrigated agriculture have thin erodible surfaces, characteristics that would classify such soils as having poor quality. Yet under irrigation, they feed much of the world. Without irrigation, for example, in many African soils, moisture stress becomes a significant factor limiting production, and the water-holding capacity of a soil becomes crucial (Eswaran et al., 1997). This suggests that a standard set of criteria based on potential productivity is not a sufficient definition of soil quality. Soils that are not cultivated are a much larger component of agriculture, broadly defined, than those that are cultivated. About 65% of the land in the United States is forest (284 million ha) or range land (312 million ha), with only about 284 million hacultivated (NRC,1994). Herrick and Whitford (1995) suggest that range land soils, which often serve multiple uses, present unique challenges and opportunities for assessing soil quality because spatial and temporal variability are higher than in cropped systems. On range lands and forest lands, food, fiber, timber production, biomass for fuel, wildlife, biodiversity, recreation, and water supply are all potential uses that may have diverse criteria for quality soils. Herrick and Whitford (1995) give the example of a thick O horizon that may be an indicator of good timber production but has no predictive value of soil quality for the rancher. The National Research Council (NRC, 1994) recommends that range land health be determined using three criteria: degree of soil stability and watershed function, integrity of nutrient cycles and energy flows, and presence of functioning recovery mechanisms. Soil erosion by wind and water and infiltration or capture of precipitation were selected as processes that could be used as indicators of soil stability and watershed function. Specific indicators or properties need to be related to these two broad processes. The amount of nutrients available, the speed with which nutrients cycle, and measures of the integrity of energy flow through the system were considered fundamental components of range land health. Finally, the capacity of range land ecosystems to react to change depends on recovery mechanisms that result in capture and cycling of nutrients, capture of energy, conservation of nutrients, energy and water, and resilience to change. Specific indicators include status of vegetation, age class and distribution (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). The evaluation of land quality for forestry is a well-known practice. Indices range from quantitative through semi-quantitative to qualitative. Quantitative evaluations, such as site index, use regression equations to predict tree height at a predetermined tree age based on soil and climate data. Qualitative evaluations assign land to classes based on soil and climate properties. In soil science, the term "buffer" refers collectively to processes that constrain shifts in the dissolved concentration of any ion when it is added to or removed from the soil system (Singer and Munns, 1996). Soils "buffer" nutrients as well as contaminants and other solutes, via sorption to or incorporation into clay and organic materials. The extent to which a soil immobilizes or chemically alters substances that are toxic, thus effectively detoxifying them, reflects "quality" in the sense that humans or other biological components of the system are protected from harm. This is the basis for the European concept of soil quality (Moen, 1988; Siegrist, 1989; Denneman and Robberse, 1990). Lack of soil function in this category is reflected as direct toxicity or as contamination of air or water. Identifying substances that qualify as "contaminants" can be challenging because some, such as nitrates and phosphates, are important plant nutrients as well as potential water pollutants. An example is agricultural runoff containing N03 or soluble P (Yli-Halla et al., 1995). This chapter does not attempt a comprehensive review of research in this area, which is covered in an earlier chapter, but instead presents a few sample articles pertinent to this aspect of soil quality. Holden and Firestone (1997) define soil quality in this context as "the degree to which the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the soil serve to attenuate environmental pollution." Howard (1993) defines the ecological risk of a chemical in the environment as "the probability that a random species in a large community is exposed to a concentration of the chemical greater than its no-effect level." The extent to which a soil is capable of reducing the probability of exposure is a measure of its quality. A well-studied example of a common soil contaminant is Pb (McBride et al., 1997). Although legislated limits may be on a concentration basis in soil (e.g., 500 ftg kg-'), risk assessment techniques have attempted to account for the chemical form of Pb present, as well as the observed relative relationship between the amount of Pb present in soil and blood levels in local residents (Bowers and Gauthier, 1994). Critics have questioned analytical techniques used to determine bioavailable levels of Pb in soil, as well as the degree to which toxicity data account for its chemical fate and ecologically damaging properties (Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Natural variability of soils and variation within a soil series make average values or average background values inadequate for soil quality assessments. In addition, bioaccumulation and toxicity need to be considered when establishing levels of toxicants that may not be exceeded in a "high quality" soil for a given use (Traas et al. 1996). Another example is the effect of heavy metals such as Cr(VI) on soil biological properties. Based on a study of three New Zealand soils of contrasting texture, organic matter content, and CEC, Speir et al. (1995) propose an "ecological dose value" that represents the inhibitory effects of a heavy metal (in this case, Cr(VI)) on the kinetics of soil biological properties, and serves as a generic index for determination of permissible concentration levels for heavy metals in soils. A single soil characteristic is of limited use in evaluating differences in soil quality (Reganold and Palmer, 1995). Using more than one quantitative variable requires some system for combining the measurements into a useful index (Halvorson et al., 1996). The region, crop, or general soil use for which an index was created will likely limit its effectiveness outside the scope of its intended application. Even an index designed only to rate productivity is not likely to be useful for all crops and soils, leading Gersmehl and Brown (1990) to advocate regionally targeted systems. Rice is a good example of a crop requiring significantly different soil properties than other crops. It is a food staple for a large proportion of the world population. Approximately 146 million ha were in rice production in 1989 (FAO, 1989) mainly (90%) in Asia. High quality soils for paddy rice may be poor quality for most other irrigated and dryland crops because they may be saline or sodic, and high in clay with slow infiltration and permeability. These physical and chemical properties often constrain production of other crops. Although they are not reviewed here, various land suitability classifications specifically for rice have been developed since the turn of the century (Dent, 1978). Examples of several soil quality indexing systems are presented in the following sections. To some extent, recent attempts to enumerate the factors of soil quality resemble Jenny's (1941) introduction of the interrelated factors of soil formation. An index is categorized here as nonquantitative if it does not combine evaluated parameters into a numerical index that rates soils along a continuous scale. Examples are the USDA Land Capability Classification and the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Irrigation Suitability. The purpose of the Land Capability Classification (LCC) was to place arable soils into groups based on their ability to sustain common cultivated crops that do not require specialized site conditioning or treatment (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973). Nonarable soils, unsuitable for long-term, sustained cultivation, are grouped according to their ability to support permanent vegetation, and according to the risk of soil damage if mismanaged. The LCC combines three rating values at different levels of abstraction: capability class, subclass, and unit. At the most general level, soils are placed in eight classes according to whether they (a) are capable of producing adapted plants under good management (classes I to N), (b) are capable of producing specialized crops under highly intensive management involving "elaborate practices for soil and water conservation" (classes V to VII), or (c) do not return on-site benefits as a result of management inputs for crops, grasses or trees without major reclamation (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973). The four possible limitations/hazards under the subclass rating are erosion hazard, wetness, rooting zone limitations and climate. The capability unit groups soils that have about the same responses to systems of management and have longtime estimated yields that do not vary by more than 25% under comparable management. The issue of critical limits is a difficult one in soils because of the range of potential uses and the interactions among variables (Arshad and Ccen, 1992). Several studies have shown that lands of higher LCC have higher productivity than lands of lower LCC (Patterson and Mackintosh, 1976; van Vliet et al., 1979; Reganold and Singer, 1984). In a study of 744 alfalfa, corn, cotton, sugar beet and wheat growing fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California, those with LCC ratings between 1 and 3 had significantly lower input/output ratios than fields with ratings between 3.01 and 6 (Reganold and Singer, 1984). This suggests that use of the LCC system provides an economically meaningful assessment of soil quality for agriculture. This was a frequently used system of land evaluation for irrigation in the Western US during the period of rapid expansion of water delivery systems (McRae and Burnham, 1981). It combines social and economic evaluations of the land with soil and other ecological variables to determine if the land has the productive capacity, once irrigated, to repay the investment necessary to bring water to an area. It recognizes the unique importance of irrigation to agriculture and the special qualities of soils that make them irrigable. Quantitative systems result in a numerical index, typically with the highest number being assigned to the best quality soils. Systems may be additive, multiplicative or more complex functions. They have two important advantages over nonquantitative systems: 1. they are easier to use with GIS and other automated data retrieval and display systems, and 2. they typically provide a continuous scale of assessment. No single national system is presently in use but several state or regional systems exist. Although he considered the productivity of the land to be dependent on 32 soil, climate and vegetative properties [Surface conditions: Physiographic position, Slope, Microrelief, Erosion deposition, External drainage, runoff. Soil physical conditions: Soil color, Soil depth, Soil density and porosity, Soil permeability, Soil texture, Stoniness, Soil structure, Soil workability-consistence, Internal drainage, Water-holding capacity, Plant-available water. Soil chemical conditions: Organic matter, Nitrogen, Reaction, Calcium carbonate, bases, Exchange capacity, Salts: Cl, SO Na, Toxicities, e.g., B, Available P, Available K, Minor elements, e.g., Zn, Fe, Fertility. Mineralogical conditions: Mineralogy. Climate: Precipitation Temperature Growing season Winds. Vegetativé cover: Natural vegetation], only nine properties were used in the SIR, because incorporating a greater number of factors made the system unwieldy. The nine factors are soil morphology (A), surface texture (B), slope (C), and six variables (X.) that rate drainage class, sodicity, acidity, erosion, microrelief and fertility; rated from 1% to 100%. These are converted to their decimal value and multiplied together (Storie, 1964). Values for each factor were derived from Storie's experience mapping and evaluating soils in California, and in soil productivity studies in cooperation with the California Agricultural Experiment Station cost-efficiency projects relating to orchard crops, grapes and cotton. In describing the SIR (SIR= [AxBxCxIIXi]x100), Storie (1932, 1964) explicitly mentioned "soil quality". Soils that were deep, had no restricting subsoil horizons, and held water well had the greatest potential for the widest range of crops. The usefulness of the SIR as a soil quality index would be greatest if there was a statistically significant relationship between SIR values and an economic indicator of land value. Reganold and Singer (1984) found that area-weighted average SIR values between 60 and 100 for 744 fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California had lower but statistically insignificant input/output ratios than fields with indices < 60. The lack of statistical significance does not mean that better quality lands could not be farmed at economically lower cost or at higher cost and higher output than the lower quality lands. We productivity index model (PI) was developed to evaluate soil productivity in the top 100 cm, especially with reference to potential productivity loss due to soil erosion (Neill, 1979; Kiniry et al., 1983). The PI model rates soils on the sufficiency for root growth based on potential available water storage capacity, bulk density, aeration, pH, and electrical conductivity. A value from zero to one is assigned to each property describing the importance of that parameter for root development. The product of these five index values is used to describe the fractional sufficiency of any soil layer for root development. Pierce et al. (1983) modified the PI to include the assumption that nutrients were not limiting and that climate, management and plant differences are constant. A number of authors found that it is useful to various degrees (Gantzer and McCarty, 1987; Lindstrom et al., 1992). Parr et al. (1992) suggest that a SQI could take the form of Equation: SQI = f (SP, P, E, H, ER, BD, FQ, MI) where SQI is a function of soil properties (SP), potential productivity (P), environmental factors (E), human and animal health (H), erodibility (ER), biological diversity (BD), food quality and safety (FQ) and management inputs (MI). Determination of the specific measurable indicators of each variable and the interactions among these diverse variables is a daunting task. Moreover, the mathematical method of combining these factors, as well as the resulting value that would indicate a high quality soil, is not specified. The inclusion of variables BD, FQ and MI make this a land quality index as suggested by FAO (1997). Larson and Pierce (1991) defined soil quality (Q) as the state of existence of soil relative to a standard or in terms of a degree of excellence. They argue that defining Q in terms of productivity is too limiting and does not serve us well. Rather, Q is defined as the sum of individual soil qualities q. and expressed as Equation: Q=f(qi ...qn). These authors do not identify the best subset of properties or their functional and quantitative relationship, but do suggest that a MDS should be selected from those soil characteristics in which changes are measurable and relatively rapid (i.e., "dynamic" properties), arguing that it is more important to know about changes in soil quality (dQ) than the magnitude of Q (Larson and Pierce, 1991). Changes in soil quality are a function of changes in soil characteristics (q) over time (t): dQ = f[(qi.t - qit0 )... (qn.t-qnt0)]. If dQ/dt is ≥0, the soil or ecosystem is improving relative to the standard at time to. If dQ/dt <0, soil degradation is occurring. Time zero can be selected to meet management needs or goals. If there is a drastic change in management, time zero can be defined as prior to the change. If a longer time period of comparison is considered more appropriate, properties of an uncultivated or pristine soil could be used. The MDS recommended by Larson and Pierce (1991) includes N mineralization potential or P buffering capacity, total organic C, labile organic C, texture, plant-available water capacity, structure (bulk density is recommended as a surrogate variable), strength, maximum rooting depth, pH and EC. In instances when data are unavailable, pedotransfer functions (Bouma, 1989) can be used to estimate values of soil characteristics. These estimates can then be used as part of the minimum dataset to estimate soil quality or changes in soil quality brought about by management. Although this is a quantitative system, some qualitative judgments are needed to make decisions about changes in soil quality. In particular, interpretation of the meaning of magnitude of changes in a characteristic or the number of characteristics to change from time zero to the time of the measurement is qualitative. The authors do not address how large a change in pH, soil depth, bulk density or organic C represents serious soil degradation, or the values that define soil as high or low quality. Karlen et al. (1994) developed QI based on a 10-year crop residue management study. QI is based on four soil functions: (1) accommodating water entry, (2) retaining and supplying water to plants, (3) resisting degradation, and (4) supporting plant growth. Numerous properties were measured and values normalized based on standard scoring functions. One function is based on the concept that more of a property is better, one that less is better and the third that an optimum is better. Lower threshold values receive a score of zero, upper threshold values receive a score of one, and baseline values receive a score of one-half. Priorities are then assigned to each value. For example, aggregate stability was given the highest weight among factors important in water entry. After normalizing, each value is then multiplied by its weighting factor (wt) and products are summed Equation: QI=qwe (wt) + qwt (wt)+qrd (wt) + qspg (wt). Subscripts refer to the four main functions described earlier. It should also be noted that resisting degradation (rd) and sustaining plant growth (spg) are assigned secondary and tertiary levels of properties that themselves are normalized and weighted before a final value is calculated and incorporated into Equation. The resulting index resulted in values between zero and one. Of the three systems in the study, the one with the highest rate of organic matter return to the soil had the highest index value, and the soil with the lowest had the lowest value. The authors suggest that this demonstrates the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status and change in status of a soil as a function of management. They also suggest that the index and the soil characteristics that go into the index may change as the index is refined (Karlen et al. 1994). Snakin et al. (1996) developed an index of soil degradation that assigns three separate values from one to five reflecting the degree to which a soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are degraded, as well as the rate of degradation. The Canadian soil capability classification system is similar to the older US systems and is quantitative. In a study in southwestern Ontario, Patterson and Mackintosh (1976) found that high gross returns per ha were three times as likely if the productivity index of land, based on the soil capability classification, was between 90 and 100 than if it fell between 80 and 89. Smith et al. (1993) and Halvorson et al. (1996) propose a multiple-variable indicator transform procedure to combine values or ranges of values that represent the best estimate of soil quality. Their system converts measured data values into a single value according to specified criteria. They do not attempt to define soil quality or specify what soil characteristics are to be used. They combine this procedure with kriging to develop maps that indicate the probabilities of meeting a soil quality criterion on a landscape level. Critical threshold values must be known, assumed, or determined in order to separate different soil qualities. Numerous additive productivity rating systems have been developed for specific states, as reviewed by Huddleston (1984). In these systems, soil properties are assigned numerical values according to their expected impact on plant growth. The index is usually calculated as the sum of the values assigned to each property with 100 the maximum value. Huddleston (1984) notes advantages and disadvantages to such a system which are similar to those for many of the soil quality indices previously discussed. Additive systems become complex as the number of factors, cropping systems, and soil and climatic conditions increases. A unique problem of subtractive systems (one in which 100 is the starting point and values are deducted for problem conditions) is that negative values result when multiple factors are less than satisfactory. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils, because soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. It is a compound characteristic that cannot be directly measured. Many definitions of soil quality can be found in the literature and no set of soil characteristics has been universally adopted to quantify definitions. Soil quality is often equated with agricultural productivity and sustainability. An approach toward developing soil quality definitions is one that assesses soil quality in the context of a soil's potential to perform given functions in a system; e.g., maintains productivity, partitions and regulates water and solute flow through an ecosystem, serves as an environmental buffer, and cycles nutrients, water, and energy through the biosphere. Air and water quality standards are usually based on maximum allowable concentrations of materials hazardous to human health. A definition of soil quality based on this concept would encompass only a fraction of the important roles soils play in agriculture and the environment but could be essential to soil remediation. To proceed from a definition to a measure of soil quality, a minimum dataset of soil characteristics that represent soil quality must be selected and quantified. Many soil physical, chemical and biological properties have been suggested to separate soils of different quality. These include desirable and undesirable properties. Desirable soil characteristics may either be the presence of a property that benefits crop productivity and environmental buffering and/or other important soil functions, or the absence of a property that is detrimental to these functions. In particular, absence of contaminants is an important soil quality characteristic. 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