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Sample records for rattlesnakes crotalus durissus

  1. Tracing an invasion: landbridges, refugia, and the phylogeography of the Neotropical rattlesnake (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Julia E; Quijada-Mascareñas, J Adrian; Pook, Catharine E; Salomão, Maria da Graça; Thorpe, Roger S

    2005-04-01

    Abstract Pleistocene fragmentation of the Amazonian rainforest has been hypothesized to be a major cause of Neotropical speciation and diversity. However, the role and even the reality of Pleistocene forest refugia have attracted much scepticism. In Amazonia, previous phylogeographical studies have focused mostly on organisms found in the forests themselves, and generally found speciation events to have predated the Pleistocene. However, molecular studies of open-formation taxa found both north and south of the Amazonian forests, probably because of vicariance resulting from expansion of the rainforests, may provide novel insights into the age of continuous forest cover across the Amazon basin. Here, we analyse three mitochondrial genes to infer the phylogeography of one such trans-Amazonian vicariant, the Neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), which occupies primarily seasonal formations from Mexico to Argentina, but avoids the rainforests of Central and tropical South America. The phylogeographical pattern is consistent with gradual dispersal along the Central American Isthmus, followed by more rapid dispersal into and across South America after the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama. Low sequence divergence between populations from north and south of the Amazon rainforest is consistent with mid-Pleistocene divergence, approximately 1.1 million years ago (Ma). This suggests that the Amazonian rainforests must have become fragmented or at least shrunk considerably during that period, lending support to the Pleistocene refugia theory as an important cause of distribution patterns, if not necessarily speciation, in Amazonian forest organisms. These results highlight the potential of nonforest species to contribute to an understanding of the history of the Amazonian rainforests themselves.

  2. Intraspecies differences in hemostatic venom activities of the South American rattlesnakes, Crotalus durissus cumanensis, as revealed by a range of protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ana M; Aguilar, Irma; Guerrero, Belsy; Girón, María E; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2008-09-01

    Crotalus durissus cumanensis is an endemic rattlesnake found in Venezuela and Colombia. In this study, a comparative analysis of hemorrhagic, coagulation and fibrino(geno)lytic activities in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors was performed with venoms of the same species Crotalus durissus cumanensis, from seven geographical regions of Venezuela (Lagunetica, Santa Teresa, Carrizales, Guarenas, Anzoátegui, Margarita and Maracay). Lagunetica, Carrizales and Anzoátegui venoms induced hemorrhagic activity. All venoms, except that of snakes from the Carrizales region presented thrombin-like activity, which was inhibited completely by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylene glycol-bis-N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. This effect of the latter could be explained by the high chelant calcium effect, which is a cofactor for the fibrin polymerization process. Soybean trypsin inhibitor was effective on Santa Teresa venom. Antithrombin III/Hep complex and phenantroline partially inhibited this activity in all venoms except Margarita and Anzoátegui, respectively, which were not inhibited. Serine protease inhibitors were more effective against thrombin, kallikrein and plasmin-like amidolytic activities. Additionally, metalloprotease inhibitors significantly inhibited the t-PA-like amidolytic activity and completely the hemorrhagic and fibrino(geno)lytic activities. In conclusion, the thrombin-like activity observed in these venoms was partially reduced by serine protease inhibitors, indicating the possible presence of catalytic domains in those enzymes that do not interact with these inhibitors. Using protease inhibitors on venom hemostatic activities could contribute to our understanding of the active components of snake venom on the hemostatic system, and further reveal the intraspecies variation of venoms, which is important in the treatment of envenomation, and in addition represents an interesting model for the study of venom in hemostasis.

  3. Evidence for a respiratory component, similar to mammalian respiratory sinus arrhythmia, in the heart rate variability signal from the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Hamish A; Leite, Cleo A C; Wang, Tobias; Skals, Marianne; Abe, Augusto S; Egginton, Stuart; Rantin, F Tadeu; Bishop, Charles M; Taylor, Edwin W

    2006-07-01

    Autonomic control of heart rate variability and the central location of vagal preganglionic neurones (VPN) were examined in the rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), in order to determine whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) occurred in a similar manner to that described for mammals. Resting ECG signals were recorded in undisturbed snakes using miniature datalogging devices, and the presence of oscillations in heart rate (fh) was assessed by power spectral analysis (PSA). This mathematical technique provides a graphical output that enables the estimation of cardiac autonomic control by measuring periodic changes in the heart beat interval. At fh above 19 min(-1) spectra were mainly characterised by low frequency components, reflecting mainly adrenergic tonus on the heart. By contrast, at fh below 19 min(-1) spectra typically contained high frequency components, demonstrated to be cholinergic in origin. Snakes with a fh >19 min(-1) may therefore have insufficient cholinergic tonus and/or too high an adrenergic tonus acting upon the heart for respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) to develop. A parallel study monitored fh simultaneously with the intraperitoneal pressures associated with lung inflation. Snakes with a fh<19 min(-1) exhibited a high frequency (HF) peak in the power spectrum, which correlated with ventilation rate (fv). Adrenergic blockade by propranolol infusion increased the variability of the ventilation cycle, and the oscillatory component of the fh spectrum broadened accordingly. Infusion of atropine to effect cholinergic blockade abolished this HF component, confirming a role for vagal control of the heart in matching fh and fv in the rattlesnake. A neuroanatomical study of the brainstem revealed two locations for vagal preganglionic neurones (VPN). This is consistent with the suggestion that generation of ventilatory components in the heart rate variability (HRV) signal are dependent on spatially distinct loci for cardiac VPN. Therefore

  4. Enzyme specificity and effects of gyroxin, a serine protease from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on protease-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yonamine, Camila M; Kondo, Marcia Y; Nering, Marcela B; Gouvêa, Iuri E; Okamoto, Débora; Andrade, Douglas; da Silva, José Alberto A; Prieto da Silva, Alvaro R B; Yamane, Tetsuo; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Lapa, Antônio J; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa R

    2014-03-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease displaying a thrombin-like activity found in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Typically, intravenous injection of purified gyroxin induces a barrel rotation syndrome in mice. The serine protease thrombin activates platelets aggregation by cleaving and releasing a tethered N-terminus peptide from the G-protein-coupled receptors, known as protease-activated receptors (PARs). Gyroxin also presents pro-coagulant activity suggested to be dependent of PARs activation. In the present work, the effects of these serine proteases, namely gyroxin and thrombin, on PARs were comparatively studied by characterizing the hydrolytic specificity and kinetics using PARs-mimetic FRET peptides. We show for the first time that the short (sh) and long (lg) peptides mimetizing the PAR-1, -2, -3, and -4 activation sites are all hydrolyzed by gyroxin exclusively after the Arg residues. Thrombin also hydrolyzes PAR-1 and -4 after the Arg residue, but hydrolyzes sh and lg PAR-3 after the Lys residue. The kcat/KM values determined for gyroxin using sh and lg PAR-4 mimetic peptides were at least 2150 and 400 times smaller than those determined for thrombin, respectively. For the sh and lg PAR-2 mimetic peptides the kcat/KM values determined for gyroxin were at least 6500 and 2919 times smaller than those determined for trypsin, respectively. The kcat/KM values for gyroxin using the PAR-1 and -3 mimetic peptides could not be determined due to the extreme low hydrolysis velocity. Moreover, the functional studies of the effects of gyroxin on PARs were conducted in living cells using cultured astrocytes, which express all PARs. Despite the ability to cleavage the PAR-1, -2, -3, and -4 peptides, gyroxin was unable to activate the PARs expressed in astrocytes as determined by evaluating the cytosolic calcium mobilization. On the other hand, we also showed that gyroxin is able to interfere with the activation of PAR-1 by thrombin or

  5. Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) infection and selected hematological values of the neotropical rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Serpentes: Viperidae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Motta, Rafael Otávio Cançado; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; da Silva, Israel José; Pinto, Ana Cristina Araújo; Braga, Erika Martins; da Cunha, Arildo Pinto; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to establish the hematological values of Crotalus durissus collilineatus snakes captured in Brazil as well as to verify the effects of hematozoan infection on these snakes. Eighty-three blood samples were drawn from C. d. collilineatus specimens for analysis. The sample set was composed of 30 males and 30 females, recently caught from the wild, and 11 males and 12 females bred in captivity. Blood samples were used to determine red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, thrombocyte counts, hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentration, and total plasma protein. Blood smears were used to diagnose Hepatozoon spp. infection and to calculate the parasitic load in the sample as well as the percentage of immature red cells. Results obtained for the wild-caught animals, with and without parasites, were compared among themselves and with the values obtained for the captive-bred animals. Hematological values for C. durissus were established. Wild-caught snakes had an infection rate of 38.3%, while no Hepatozoon sp. infection was detected in the captive-bred animals. The snakes which were not infected by the Hepatozoon sp. exhibited average weight, length, and weight-length ratios higher than those of the infected animals. An increase in immature red cells was noted in the Hepatozoon-infected snakes. PMID:22950311

  6. Is the population of Crotalus durissus (Serpentes, Viperidae) expanding in Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise a plausible method of dispersal as inferred for some North American rattlesnakes. Based on the literature, it seems plausible that Crotalus durissus expanded their natural distribution in Brazil due to floods, but only in a few municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. Data entries of Butantan Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2012 show a declining tendency of snakes brought by donors. In addition, research shows no evidence of Crotalus durissus being an expanding species in the Brazilian territory. PMID:24314146

  7. Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis cerberus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    The Arizona black rattlesnake makes its home at higher elevations in Arizona and far western New Mexico. The snake's use of high-altitude habitat and its black coloration as an adult distinguishes it from other subspecies of the western rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis), which prefer lower elevations and range from tan to reddish in color as adults. These physical and habitat differences are also reflected in genetic differences that suggest that the Arizona black rattlesnake may be a new species of rattlesnake. Despite the species's limited range, basic biological information needed to make management decisions is lacking for most Arizona black rattlesnake populations. To address this need, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists conducted research on the species in Arizona national park units from 2003 to 2005. The research examined relative population abundance, movement patterns, range requirements, dietary habits, and winter and summer habitat. Research in Arizona national parks was made possible through the support of the Western National Parks Association, Tonto National Monument, and the USGS Science Internships for Workforce Diversity Program. Importantly, the park-based research was used to augment a long-term mark-recapture study of the species that has been conducted by USGS biologists at sites near Flagstaff, Arizona, since 1999. USGS researchers were the first to conduct extensive studies of this species in the wild.

  8. Identification of crotamine in the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus by three different methods.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sayonara Ay More; Magalhães, Marta Regina; Salazar, Vania Cristina Rodríguez; Valadares, Marize Campos; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2015-03-01

    The use of mice for the identification of crotamine has been the motive of discussions of bioethical character and technical (efficiency), so that a reassessment of the use of animals in experiments is global trend the search for alternative tests. The objective of this study was to standardize a method for HPLC-PDA to identify the presence of crotamine in the venom of rattlesnakes, aiming to propose an alternative methodology to reduce or replace the use of animals. The Cdc was evaluated as to the presence of crotamine by 3 methods: traditional test lethality in mice (Mus musculus) swiss albino male, 18-22 g (i.p.), polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC-PDA. The venoms of 50 specimens of Crotalus durissus collilineatus, held in the serpentarium CEPB/PUC Goiás, were obtained by manual massage of the gland, making the collection individually. To identify the band corresponding to crotamine, the venoms of specimens, analysis was performed on SDS-PAGE and references. Procedure in mice with 20% of the samples tested positive for crotamine, 24% negative and 56% uncertain outcome. With the SDS-PAGE was identified crotamine in 26% of samples, 26% negative and 48% continued with uncertain outcome. By HPLC method showed the presence myotoxin in 86% of samples, with 14% negative. The tests conducted in this study indicated that methodology which utilizes animals for identifying the presence of crotamine the venom of C. durissus can safely be replaced by the test SDS-PAGE and HPLC, since the methods are reproducible, and do not undergo any interference biological animal and mainly contribute to reducing the number of animals used for laboratory tests.

  9. Antiplasmodial effect of the venom of Crotalus durissus cumanensis, crotoxin complex and Crotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Quintana, J C; Chacón, A M; Vargas, L; Segura, C; Gutiérrez, J M; Alarcón, J C

    2012-11-01

    The antiplasmodial activity of phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) isolated from different animals has been studied. We explored the in vitro anti Plasmodium falciparum effect of a fraction containing crotoxin, Crotoxin B and whole venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis. Fraction II (crotoxin complex) was obtained by size exclusion chromatography, whereas Crotoxin B was purified by RP-HPLC. The whole venom is active against the parasite at concentrations of 0.17±0.03 μg/ml, fraction II at 0.76±0.17 μg/ml and Crotoxin B at 0.6±0.04 μg/ml. Differences were observed in the cytotoxic activity against peripheral mononuclear cells, with Crotoxin B exhibiting the highest cytotoxicity. The concentration of Crotoxin B required to exert cytotoxic activity was higher than that required to exert antiplasmodial activity. Lethality in mice confirmed the higher toxicity and neurotoxicity of whole venom and fraction II, whereas Crotoxin B was not lethal at the doses tested. These results suggest the potential of Crotoxin B as a lead compound for antimalarial activity. PMID:22884508

  10. Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters †

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S.; Lara, Marcus V. S.; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2014-01-01

    Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

  11. Cryptic sociality in rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) detected by kinship analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rulon W.; Brown, William S.; Stechert, Randy; Greene, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    Research on social behaviour has largely concentrated on birds and mammals in visually active, cooperatively breeding groups (although such systems are relatively rare) and focused much less on species that rarely interact other than for mating and parental care. We used microsatellite markers to characterize relatedness among aggregations of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus), a putatively solitary reptile that relies heavily on chemical cues, and found that juveniles and pregnant females preferentially aggregate with kin under certain conditions. The ability to recognize kin and enhance indirect fitness thus might be far more widespread than implied by studies of animals whose behaviour is primarily visually and/or acoustically mediated, and we predict that molecular markers will reveal many additional examples of ‘cryptic’ sociality. PMID:22357940

  12. Diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holycross, A.T.; Painter, C.W.; Prival, D.B.; Swann, D.E.; Schroff, M.J.; Edwards, T.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake) using samples collected in the field and from museum specimens, as well as several records from unpublished reports. Most records (approximately 91%) were from the northern Sierra Madrean Archipelago. Diet consisted of 55.4% lizards, 28.3% scolopendromorph centipedes, 13.8% mammals, 1.9% birds, and 0.6% snakes. Sceloporus spp. comprised 92.4% of lizards. Extrapolation suggests that Sceloporus jarrovii represents 82.3% of lizard records. Diet was independent of geographic distribution (mountain range), sex, source of sample (stomach vs. intestine/feces), and age class. However, predator snout-vent length differed significantly among prey types; snakes that ate birds were longest, followed in turn by those that ate mammals, lizards, and centipedes. Collection date also differed significantly among prey classes; the mean date for centipede records was later than the mean date for squamate, bird, or mammal records. We found no difference in the elevation of collection sites among prey classes.

  13. The genesis of an exceptionally lethal venom in the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) revealed through comparative venom-gland transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Snake venoms generally show sequence and quantitative variation within and between species, but some rattlesnakes have undergone exceptionally rapid, dramatic shifts in the composition, lethality, and pharmacological effects of their venoms. Such shifts have occurred within species, most notably in Mojave (Crotalus scutulatus), South American (C. durissus), and timber (C. horridus) rattlesnakes, resulting in some populations with extremely potent, neurotoxic venoms without the hemorrhagic effects typical of rattlesnake bites. Results To better understand the evolutionary changes that resulted in the potent venom of a population of C. horridus from northern Florida, we sequenced the venom-gland transcriptome of an animal from this population for comparison with the previously described transcriptome of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (C. adamanteus), a congener with a more typical rattlesnake venom. Relative to the toxin transcription of C. adamanteus, which consisted primarily of snake-venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, snake-venom serine proteinases, and myotoxin-A, the toxin transcription of C. horridus was far simpler in composition and consisted almost entirely of snake-venom serine proteinases, phospholipases A2, and bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptides. Crotalus horridus lacked significant expression of the hemorrhagic snake-venom metalloproteinases and C-type lectins. Evolution of shared toxin families involved differential expansion and loss of toxin clades within each species and pronounced differences in the highly expressed toxin paralogs. Toxin genes showed significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution than nontoxin genes. The expression patterns of nontoxin genes were conserved between species, despite the vast differences in toxin expression. Conclusions Our results represent the first complete, sequence-based comparison between the venoms of closely related snake species and reveal in unprecedented

  14. Anti-platelet effect of cumanastatin 1, a disintegrin isolated from venom of South American Crotalus rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Manuel; Lucena, Sara; Aguilar, Irma; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Salazar, Ana M; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, Maria E; Carvajal, Zoila; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-03-01

    Disintegrins have been previously described in the venom of several snake families inhibiting signal transduction, cell-cell interactions, and cell-matrix interactions and may have therapeutic potential in heart attacks, thrombotic diseases, and cancers. This investigation describes the first disintegrin isolated from South American Crotalus venom (Venezuelan rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis), which inhibits platelet adhesion to matrix proteins. C. d. cumanensis crude venom was first separated on a Sephadex G-100 column into 4 fractions (SI to SIV). Crude venom and SIII fraction significantly diminished platelet adhesion to fibrinogen (Fg) and to fibronectin (Fn). Anti-adhesive SIII fraction was further separated by DEAE-Sephacel followed by C-18 reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The platelet anti-adhesive fraction obtained was designated as cumanastatin-1. This disintegrin has a mass of 7.442 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and pI of 8.5. Cumanastatin-1 also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 158 nM. However, it did not significantly inhibit collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Cumanastatin-1 considerably inhibited anti-alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin binding to platelets in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not present any effect on the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin or on P-selectin.

  15. Sensitivity to thermal stimulation in prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) after bilateral anesthetization of the facial pits

    SciTech Connect

    Chiszar, D.; Dickman, D.; Colton, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six yearling prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) were exposed to thermal stimuli prior to and after bilateral anesthetization of their facial pits with 2% xylocaine solution. This treatment eliminates trigeminally mediated electrophysiological responses of the pits to thermal stimulation. Nevertheless, the rattlesnakes continued to exhibit behavioral responses to thermal cues after anesthetization of the pits. An auxiliary infrared-sensitive system, nociceptors, or the common temperature sense could be responsible for these findings.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic longtailed rattlesnakes (Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Meik, Jesse M; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    The longtailed rattlesnakes of western Mexico represent an enigmatic group of poorly known venomous snake species: Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri. In the 120 years since their discovery, fewer than twenty individuals have been deposited in natural history collections worldwide. These three species share similar morphological traits, including a particularly long tail that has been interpreted as either an ancestral condition among rattlesnakes or as derived within the longtailed group. An understanding of the phylogenetic distinctiveness and relationships among the longtailed rattlesnakes, and their relationships to other rattlesnake groups, has previously been hampered by a dearth of comparative material and tissues for collection of DNA sequence data. Facilitated by the recent availability of tissue samples from multiple individuals of each species, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships among the longtailed rattlesnakes and their placement among other rattlesnake groups, using DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial and three nuclear gene fragments. We explore phylogenetic signal in our data using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, species tree analyses and hypothesis testing. Our results strongly support the monophyly of longtailed rattlesnakes and suggest the three species diverged from each other during the mid to late Pliocene or early Pleistocene (~1.5-5.6 mya). Contrary to prevailing hypotheses, we find no evidence for an early or basal divergence of the longtailed clade within the rattlesnake tree, and instead estimate that it diverged relatively recently (~6.8 mya) from its sister lineage, composed of the diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox group) and the prairie rattlesnakes (C. viridis group). With our added sampling of lineages and identification of previously used problematic sequences, we provide a revised hypothesis for relationships among Crotalus species, yet underscore the need for future studies and new data to

  17. Characterization of ten microsatellite loci in midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Parker, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    Primers for 10 microsatellite loci were developed for midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor), a small bodied subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake, which is found in the Colorado Plateau of eastern Utah, western Colorado and southwestern Wyoming. In a screen of 23 individuals from the most northern portion of the subspecies range in southwestern Wyoming, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from 4 to 11 alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses, which will ultimately aid in management efforts for this rare subspecies of rattlesnake.

  18. Seasonal variation in hematology and blood plasma chemistry values of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus).

    PubMed

    LaGrange, Seth M; Kimble, Steven J A; MacGowan, Brian J; Williams, Rod N

    2014-10-01

    Hematology, biochemical analyses, and body condition indices are useful tools for describing animal health, especially when making management decisions for species of conservation concern. We report hematologic, biochemical, and body condition index data for 13 free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) sampled repeatedly over an active season in Indiana, USA.

  19. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums. PMID:26875762

  20. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums.

  1. The inhibitory effect of Camellia sinensis extracts against the neuromuscular blockade of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Reis Rosa, Luana; Silva, Gleidy Ana Araujo; Filho, Jorge Amaral; Silva, Magali Glauzer; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    In geographically isolated populations where intensive medical care or serum therapy is not easily accessible snake envenomation is a major cause for concern. The aim of the present study was to test Camellia sinensis extracts, theaflavin and epigallocatechin (two of the main C. sinensis components) against the irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom in mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations. A quantitative histological study was also performed. The venom (20µg/ml) completely decreased twitch tension after 70min and 5µg/ml venom abolished 50% of twitch amplitude after 60min. C. sinensis extract induced intense facilitatory effect in the preparation activity at 0.2mg/ml and slightly facilitatory effect at 0.05mg/ml. Both 0.05mg/ml C. sinensis extract and 0.05mg/ml commercial theaflavin maintained partial muscular activity in presence of 5µg/ml venom. The histological data confirms that Cs is able to protect the muscle from the myotoxic activity of the venom. Commercial epigallocatechin gallate did not show pre-synaptic nor post-synaptic activities. C. sinensis extract was able to protect the mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm against the irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by C. durissus terrificus venom. PMID:21544176

  2. Characterization of ribonucleic acids from the venom glands of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Ophidia, Reptilia) after manual extraction of the venom. Studies on template activity and base composition

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, F. L.; Imaizumi, M. T.; Haddad, A.

    1974-01-01

    RNA synthesis in the venom glands of Crotalus durissus terrificus was stimulated by the manual extraction of the venom (milking). RNA was extracted from venom glands activated by milking and fractionated by centrifugation through sucrose density gradients. Template activity for protein synthesis and base composition of the RNA fractions were studied. RNA fractions that sediment between 18S and 4S had the highest template activity. The base composition analysis indicated that the 28S and 18S rRNA have a C+G content of 65.4 and 58% respectively. The `melting' temperature (Tm) of DNA in 0.15m-NaCl–0.015m-trisodium citrate, pH7.0, was 85°C, corresponding to a C+G content of 38%. The base ratio of the RNA fractions that showed a high template activity was intermediate between that of rRNA and homologous DNA. The possible role of these fractions in the synthesis of the two main toxins (crotoxin and crotamine) of the South American rattlesnake's venom is discussed. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4463939

  3. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola dermatitis in eight free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    McBride, Michael P; Wojick, Kimberlee B; Georoff, Timothy A; Kimbro, Jason; Garner, Michael M; Wang, Xiaoling; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-03-01

    Eight free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from two geographically isolated Massachusetts populations were observed with skin lesions located primarily on the head but occasionally also on the lateral and ventral surfaces of the body. The snakes underwent health assessments that included physical examination, clinical pathology, full body radiographs, and full thickness biopsies of skin lesions. Each snake had fungal elements present histologically in tissue sections from skin lesions. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola was identified from skin lesions using polymerase chain reaction in all eight snakes.

  4. Crotalus durissus collilineatus Venom Induces TNF-α and IL-10 Production in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; dos Santos, Jéssica Cristina; Silva, Jacyelle Medeiros; de Godoi, Pedro Henrique Silva; Magalhães, Marta Regina; Spadafora-Ferreira, Mônica; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves; Pfrimer, Irmtraut Araci Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Snake venom has been the subject of numerous studies in an attempt to find properties and biological effects that may be beneficial to man. In this study we evaluated in vitro the effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) and Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc) venom in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). At 24 h, a significant decrease of viable cells was observed in cells stimulated with the Cdc venom at 0.0005 mg/mL and 0.005 mg/mL compared to the negative control. At 48 h, a significant decrease of viable cells was observed only in cells stimulated with Cdc venom at 0.005 mg/mL. A significant increase of TNF-α and IL-10 was detected 48 hours after culture of PBMC with Cdc, but not with Cdt venom. The expression of CD69 and PD1 (programmed death-1), activation and regulatory cell markers, on CD8+ and CD8− T cells did not change in the presence of Cdt and Cdc venom. Our results suggest the presence of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory components in the Cdc venom. Further analysis should be done to identify those Cdc venom components as it has been done for the Cdt venom by other authors, indicating that modulatory components are found in the venom of different species of Crotalus snakes. PMID:24563803

  5. Response of Western Diamondback Rattlesnakes ("Crotalus atrox") to Chemical Cues of Mice ("Mus musculus") of Different Genders and Reproductive Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saviola, Anthony J.; Chiszar, David; Bealor, Matthew T.; Smith, Hobart M.

    2010-01-01

    Eight western diamondback rattlesnakes ("Crotalus atrox") were exposed to 6 stimuli: (1) clean, unused bedding; (2) an adult male mouse; (3) an adult lactating female mouse; (4) an adult lactating female mouse with a litter; (5) 2 adult nonlactating female mice, to control for the extra surface area in Condition 4; and (6) a litter of newborn…

  6. Ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor) in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.M.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a three-year study to describe the ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake, Crotalus organus concolor. We encountered 426 and telemetered 50 C. o. concolor between 2000 and 2002. We found that their primary diet was lizards (associated with rock outcrops), though they will consume small mammals and birds. They den in aggregations, although in low numbers when compared to other subspecies. Movements and activity ranges were among the largest reported for rattlesnakes. Minimum convex polygon area was 117.8 ha for males, 63.9 ha for nongravid females, and 4.8 ha for gravid females. Mean distances traveled per year were 2122.0 m for males, 1956.0 m for nongravid females, and 296.7 m for gravid and postpartum females. Following emergence from hibernation, they spent several weeks shedding, often in aggregations before migration, and migrations occurred in early summer. Most snakes made straight-line movements to and from discrete summer activity ranges where short, multidirectional movements ensued, although others made multidirectional movements throughout the active season. We observed mating behavior between 21 July and 12 August. Gravid females gave birth during the third week of August. Mean clutch size was 4.17 (range 2-7). We found that the sex ratio was skewed favoring females 1:1.24, and they were sexually dimorphic in size (males SVL = 44.1 cm; females SVL = 40.8 cm). Our data further illustrate the diversity within the large group of Western Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  7. Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Interferes With Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes in Murine Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Cruz, Anselmo; Z. Mendonça, Ronaldo; L. Petricevich, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt) is toxic for a variety of eukaryotic cells, especially at high concentrations. However its effects on host immune cells are not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Cdt on functional status and the mediators production in peritoneal macrophages. The effects of Cdt were analyzed in vitro and were detected using functional status of macrophages as determined by the H2O2 release, spreading percentage, phagocytic index, vacuole formation, and mediators production. Several functional bioassays were employed: cytotoxicity was determined by taking the lyses percentage and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in macrophages, using the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatants of macrophages by the Griess reaction. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity was detected by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L929 cells, and the production the level of other cytokines was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro studies revealed that Cdt produced (a) a discrete increase in the release of H2O2 and vacuole formation; (b) a decrease in spreading percentage and in the phagocytic index; and (c) an increment in the mediators production. More pronounced increments of IL-6 and TNF were observed after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Maximum levels of IFN-γ and NO were observed after 96 hours. Interestingly, levels of all mediators presented a discreet decrease, as the amount of Cdt was increased. In contrast, the IL-10 levels observed for all doses studied here did not alter. The IL-6/IL-10 ratio may possibly reflect the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be manifested in the inflammatory status during the envenoming processes. Taken together, these data indicate that Cdt have a differential effect on macrophage activation and that this venom is a potent inhibitor of anti-inflammatory response. PMID

  8. Clinical presentation and management of an Aruban rattlesnake bite in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, Marieke A; Damhuis, Dorien E M; Meulenbelt, Jan; de Vries, Irma

    2016-06-01

    Bites by Aruban Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor) are rare and not known to induce severe envenomations. Here, we present a case of a 57 year-old man bitten by his pet Aruban Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor). He was admitted to hospital within 15 min. Three and a half hours later his fibrinogen concentration decreased to 0.6 g/L (normal: 2.0-4.0). Nine hours post-bite, he was treated with polyvalent snake antivenom covering Crotalus durissus. Three hours later his fibrinogen became undetectable while at that time clotting times were prolonged (PT 38.7 s (normal: 12.5-14.5) and aPTT 40 s (normal: 25-35)). His platelet count remained within normal limits. Creatine kinase (CK) concentrations reached a maximum of 1868 U/L (normal: <200) 16 h post-bite. After a second antivenom dose, 10.5 h after the first antivenom administration, clotting times returned to normal. Fibrinogen was restored to normal within three days. He was discharged from hospital on day five. In conclusion, administration of polyvalent snake antivenom covering Crotalus durissus snakebites shows cross-neutralization and is effective in the treatment of patients bitten by Crotalus durissus unicolor. PMID:27023827

  9. Biochemical and biological characterization of two serine proteinases from Colombian Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Arley Camilo; Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    Two clotting serine proteinases, named Cdc SI and Cdc SII, were isolated and characterized for the first time from Colombian Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom. The enzymes were purified using two chromatographic steps: molecular exclusion on Sephacryl S-200 and RP-HPLC on C8 Column. The molecular masses of the proteins, determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, were 28,561.4 and 28,799.2 Da for Cdc SI and Cdc SII, respectively. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic, coagulant and toxic properties of the two enzymes. The serine proteinases hydrolyzed specific chromogenic substrate (BaPNA) and exhibited a Michaelis-Menten behavior. Cdc SI had V(max) of 0.038 ± 0.003 nmol/min and K(M) of 0.034 ± 0.017 mM, while Cdc SII displayed values of V(max) of 0.267 ± 0.011 nmol/min and K(M) of 0.145 ± 0.023 mM. N-terminal sequences were VIGGDEXNIN and VIGGDICNINEHNFLVALYE for Cdc SI and Cdc SII, respectively. Molecular masses, N-terminal sequences, inhibition assays, and enzymatic profile suggest that Cdc SI and Cdc SII belong to the family of snake venom thrombin-like enzymes. These serine proteinases differed in their clotting activity on human plasma, showing a minimum coagulant dose of 25 μg and 0.571 μg for Cdc SI and Cdc SII, respectively. Enzymes also showed coagulant activity on bovine fibrinogen and degraded chain α of this protein. Toxins lack hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities, but are capable to induce defibrin(ogen)ation, moderate edema, and an increase in vascular permeability. These serine proteinases may contribute indirectly to the local hemorrhage induced by metalloproteinases, by causing blood clotting disturbances, and might also contribute to cardiovascular alterations characteristic of patients envenomed by C. d. cumanensis in Colombia.

  10. Mechanisms controlling venom expulsion in the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have documented variation in the amount of venom expended during bites of venomous snakes, the mechanistic source of this variation remains uncertain. This study used experimental techniques to examine how two different features of the venom delivery system, the muscle surrounding the venom gland (the Compressor Glandulae in the rattlesnake) and the fang sheath, could influence venom flow in the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. Differential contraction of the Compressor Glandulae explained only approximately 30% of the variation in venom flow. Lifting (compression) of the fang sheath as occurs during a normal strike produced marked increases in venom flow; these changes were closely correlated and exceed in magnitude by almost 10 x those recorded from the Compressor Glandulae alone. These results suggest that variation in these two aspects of the venom delivery system--both in terms of magnitude and temporal patterning--explain most of the observed variation in venom injection. The lack of functional or mechanical links between the Compressor Glandulae and the fang sheath, and the lack of skeletal or smooth muscle within the fang sheath, make it unlikely that variation in venom flow is under direct neural control. Instead, differential venom injection results from differences in the pressurization by the Compressor Glandulae, the gate keeping effects of the fang sheath and enclosed soft-tissue chambers, and by differences in the pressure returned by peripheral resistance of the target tissue.

  11. Zebrin II / Aldolase C Expression in the Cerebellum of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)

    PubMed Central

    Aspden, Joel W.; Armstrong, Carol L.; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian I.; Hawkes, Richard; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Kohl, Tobias; Graham, David J.; Wylie, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Aldolase C, also known as Zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+), alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). The patterns of ZII+ and ZII- stripes in the cerebellum of birds and mammals are strikingly similar, suggesting that it may have first evolved in the stem reptiles. In this study, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). In contrast to birds and mammals, the cerebellum of the rattlesnake is much smaller and simpler, consisting of a small, unfoliated dome of cells. A pattern of alternating ZII+ and ZII- sagittal stripes cells was not observed: rather all Purkinje cells were ZII+. This suggests that ZII stripes have either been lost in snakes or that they evolved convergently in birds and mammals. PMID:25692946

  12. Diversity-dependent cladogenesis throughout western Mexico: Evolutionary biogeography of rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Crotalus and Sistrurus).

    PubMed

    Blair, Christopher; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    Rattlesnakes (Crotalus and Sistrurus) represent a radiation of approximately 42 species distributed throughout the New World from southern Canada to Argentina. Interest in this enigmatic group of snakes continues to accrue due, in part, to their ecomorphological diversity, contributions to global envenomations, and potential medicinal importance. Although the group has garnered substantial attention from systematists and evolutionary biologists for decades, little is still known regarding patterns of lineage diversification. In addition, few studies have statistically quantified broad-scale biogeographic patterns in rattlesnakes to ascertain how dispersal occurred throughout the New World, particularly among the different major biomes of the Americas. To examine diversification and biogeographic patterns in this group of snakes we assemble a multilocus data set consisting of over 6700bp encompassing three nuclear loci (NT-3, RAG-1, C-mos) and seven mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ATPase6, ATPase8, ND4, ND5, cytb). Fossil-calibrated phylogenetic and subsequent diversification rate analyses are implemented using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, to examine their evolutionary history and temporal dynamics of diversity. Based on ancestral area reconstructions we explore dispersal patterns throughout the New World. Cladogenesis occurred predominantly during the Miocene and Pliocene with only two divergences during the Pleistocene. Two different diversification rate models, advocating diversity-dependence, are strongly supported. These models indicate an early rapid radiation followed by a recent speciation rate decline. Biogeographic analyses suggest that the high elevation pine-oak forests of western Mexico served as a major speciation pump for the majority of lineages, with the desert biome of western North America colonized independently at least twice. All together, these results provide evidence for rapid diversification of rattlesnakes throughout the

  13. Additional observations and notes on the natural history of the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Shipley, Bryon K; Newquist, Kristin L; Vera, Rebecca; Flood, Aryn A

    2013-11-01

    On account of their unique anatomy, physiology, natural history, ecology, and behavior, rattlesnakes make ideal subjects for a variety of different scientific disciplines. The prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado was selected for investigation of its relationship to colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with regard to spatial ecology. A total of 31 snakes were anesthetized and had radiotransmitters surgically implanted. In addition, at the time of their capture, all snakes underwent the following: (1) they had bacterial culture taken from their mouths for potential isolation of pathogenic bacteria; (2) similarly, they had cloacal bacterial cultures taken to assess potentially harmful bacteria passed in the feces; and (3) they had blood samples drawn to investigate the presence of any zoonotic agents in the serum of the snakes. The results of the study and their implications are discussed here. Traditionally, a low incidence of bacterial wound infection has been reported following snakebite. Nevertheless, the oral cavity of snakes has long been known to house a wide variety of bacterial flora. In our study, 10 different bacterial species were isolated from the mouths of the rattlesnakes, 6 of which are capable of being zoonotic pathogens and inducing human disease. More studies are necessary to see why more rattlesnake bites do not become infected despite the presence of such pathogenic bacteria. The results of fecal bacteria isolated revealed 13 bacterial species, 12 of which can cause disease in humans. Of the snakes whose samples were cultured, 26% were positive for the presence of the pathogen Salmonella arizonae, one of the causative agents of reptile-related salmonellosis in humans. It has long been reported that captive reptiles have a much higher incidence than wild, free-ranging species. This study shows the incidence of Salmonella in a wild, free-ranging population of rattlesnakes. In addition, Stenotrophomonas

  14. Natural history of a northern population of twin-spotted rattlesnakes, Crotalus pricei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prival, D.B.; Goode, M.J.; Swann, D.E.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Schroff, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The twin-spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pricei) is a small-bodied pitviper that has received little attention in the literature to date. The species reaches the northern limit of its range in southeastern Arizona, where it inhabits higher elevations than any of the state's 10 other rattlesnake species. During 1997-2000, we captured, measured, and marked 127 C. pricei in Arizona's Chiricahua Mountains between 2530 and 2900 m elevation. We also used radiotelemetry to track the movements of 16 C. pricei in the study area during 1997-1998. Mean (?? SE) snout-vent length of C. pricei was 387.8 ?? 8.3 mm (range = 168-572), and mean mass was 53.5 ?? 3.3 g (range = 3.6-188.5). Based on fecal analyses, lizards constituted the bulk of prey (74%), but the diet of C. pricei also included mammals, birds, and a conspecific. Mating was concentrated in August and early September and parturition took place during late July and August. Mean number of embryos was 3.94 ?? 0.34 (range = 1-6) and female reproduction appeared biennial or less frequent. Based on shed and growth rates, female C. pricei develop embryos at 4-5 years of age. Gravid females maintained warmer body temperatures relative to substrate temperature than nongravid females or males, presumably by spending more time basking than other snakes. Radiotelemetry revealed that movement patterns varied from year to year, as males moved over six times farther per week during the 1998 monsoon season (July to September) than during the 1997 monsoon season. Additionally, use of talus slopes by males decreased during 1998. During dry years, such as 1998, males may be forced off talus into cooler microclimates where resources are less concentrated than on talus.

  15. Observations on white and yellow venoms from an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri).

    PubMed

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Ownby, C L

    1987-01-01

    Biochemical differences in white and yellow venoms produced in the separate venom glands of an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri) were investigated. Compared to the yellow venom, the white venom contained fewer low molecular weight components and was considerably less toxic. Although the exact LD50 was not determined, the white venom did not produce toxic effects in mice when injected i.v. at concentrations up to 10 mg/kg. The i.v. LD50 of the yellow venom was approximately 1.6 mg/kg. Both white and yellow venoms had hemorrhagic activity, but the white venom caused less intradermal hemorrhage in mice. No L-amino acid oxidase activity was measured in the white venom and protease and phospholipase A2 activities of the white venom were much less than in the yellow venom. The white and yellow venoms both produced myonecrosis at 1, 3 and 24 hr after i.m. injection into mice, however, there were some qualitative differences in the myonecrosis produced. When the venom samples were reacted against Wyeth's polyvalent (Crotalidae) antivenom using immunodiffusion, three precipitin bands formed against the yellow venom, whereas only one formed against the white venom. When reacted against an antiserum to myotoxin alpha from C. viridis viridis venom, both the white and yellow venoms produced one precipitin band each.

  16. Natural variation in steroid hormone profiles of male Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus, in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2014-09-15

    We describe the seasonal profile of circulating steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) in relation to the breeding season in free ranging male Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus, over the course of three active seasons. In addition, we examine variation in steroid concentrations across years and in relation to body condition. We found that seasonal profiles of plasma testosterone were different compared to other crotalines with similar mating patterns. Concentrations of testosterone were elevated above baseline in the three months leading up to the single late summer breeding season. Testosterone peaked in July at the onset of the breeding season and dropped to baseline during the peak months of breeding (August and September). Testosterone concentrations also varied annually. Although the exact cause of annual variation could not be established, our results indicate that weather patterns may have driven observed differences. Testosterone concentrations were positively related to body condition, indicating that testosterone production is modulated according to energetic status (particularly in the two months prior to the breeding season). Corticosterone did not vary seasonally or with any measured variable, a result similar to other studied crotalines. Our results highlight the importance of long-term descriptive studies of the regulatory mechanisms that underlie behavior and physiology in diverse taxa, as these mechanisms can vary greatly within and among populations and are valuable in elucidating the intrinsic and extrinsic sources of such variation.

  17. Comparative skin permeability of neonatal and adult timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus).

    PubMed

    Agugliaro, Joseph; Reinert, Howard K

    2005-05-01

    Skin permeability and lipid content were determined using shed epidermis of neonatal and adult timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from the Coastal Plain Pine Barrens of New Jersey and from the Appalachian Mountains of northern Pennsylvania. Differences between populations due to habitat and within populations due to age were tested. Skin permeability was not found to differ according to locality (P>0.05), but rates were significantly different for age. Permeability of adult epidermis was greater than that of neonates (P<0.01). Lipid content did not differ by locality (P>0.05), but differed between ages, paralleling the results found for permeation rates. Neonate sheds had a greater amount of extractable lipids than adult sheds (P<0.01). Despite the lower skin permeability of neonates, our estimates indicate that the percentage of their total body water content lost per hour may still be 2.2 times that of adults. Resistance to cutaneous water loss may be advantageous to neonates given their relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio. PMID:15893947

  18. Venom variation in hemostasis of the southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri): isolation of hellerase.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ana Maria; Guerrero, Belsy; Cantu, Bruno; Cantu, Esteban; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Pérez, John C; Galán, Jacob A; Tao, Andy; Sánchez, Elda E

    2009-04-01

    Envenomations by the southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri) are the most common snakebite accidents in southern California. Intraspecies venom variation may lead to unresponsiveness to antivenom therapy. Even in a known species, venom toxins are recognized as diverse in conformity with interpopulational, seasonal, ontogenetic and individual factors. Five venoms of individual C. oreganus helleri located in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of southern California were studied for their variation in their hemostatic activity. The results demonstrated that Riverside 2 and San Bernardino 1 venoms presented the highest lethal activity without hemorrhagic activity. In contrast, San Bernardino 2 and 3 venoms had the highest hemorrhagic and fibrinolytic activities with low lethal and coagulant activities. Riverside 1, Riverside 2 and San Bernardino 1 venoms presented a significant thrombin-like activity. San Bernardino 2 and 3 venoms presented an insignificant thrombin-like activity. In relation to the fibrinolytic activity, San Bernardino 3 venom was the most active on fibrin plates, which was in turn neutralized by metal chelating inhibitors. These results demonstrate the differences amongst C. oreganus helleri venoms from close localities. A metalloproteinase, hellerase, was purified by anionic and cationic exchange chromatographies from San Bernardino 3 venom. Hellerase exhibited the ability to break fibrin clots in vitro, which can be of biomedically importance in the treatment of heart attacks and strokes.

  19. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard William; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E

    2015-07-01

    Snakes are capable of surviving long periods without food. In this study we characterized the microbiota of a Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), devoid of digesta, living in the wild. Pyrosequencing-based metagenomics were used to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles with the aid of the MG-RAST server. Pyrosequencing of samples taken from the stomach, small intestine and colon yielded 691696, 957756 and 700419 high quality sequence reads. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Eukarya was the most predominant domain, followed by bacteria and then viruses, for all three tissues. The most predominant phylum in the domain Bacteria was Proteobacteria for the tissues examined. Functional classifications by the subsystem database showed cluster-based subsystems were most predominant (10-15 %). Almost equally predominant (10-13 %) was carbohydrate metabolism. To identify bacteria in the colon at a finer taxonomic resolution, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was created. Proteobacteria was again found to be the most predominant phylum. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the microbial ecology of snakes living in the wild. PMID:25663091

  20. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard William; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E

    2015-07-01

    Snakes are capable of surviving long periods without food. In this study we characterized the microbiota of a Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), devoid of digesta, living in the wild. Pyrosequencing-based metagenomics were used to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles with the aid of the MG-RAST server. Pyrosequencing of samples taken from the stomach, small intestine and colon yielded 691696, 957756 and 700419 high quality sequence reads. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Eukarya was the most predominant domain, followed by bacteria and then viruses, for all three tissues. The most predominant phylum in the domain Bacteria was Proteobacteria for the tissues examined. Functional classifications by the subsystem database showed cluster-based subsystems were most predominant (10-15 %). Almost equally predominant (10-13 %) was carbohydrate metabolism. To identify bacteria in the colon at a finer taxonomic resolution, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was created. Proteobacteria was again found to be the most predominant phylum. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the microbial ecology of snakes living in the wild.

  1. Comparative skin permeability of neonatal and adult timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus).

    PubMed

    Agugliaro, Joseph; Reinert, Howard K

    2005-05-01

    Skin permeability and lipid content were determined using shed epidermis of neonatal and adult timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from the Coastal Plain Pine Barrens of New Jersey and from the Appalachian Mountains of northern Pennsylvania. Differences between populations due to habitat and within populations due to age were tested. Skin permeability was not found to differ according to locality (P>0.05), but rates were significantly different for age. Permeability of adult epidermis was greater than that of neonates (P<0.01). Lipid content did not differ by locality (P>0.05), but differed between ages, paralleling the results found for permeation rates. Neonate sheds had a greater amount of extractable lipids than adult sheds (P<0.01). Despite the lower skin permeability of neonates, our estimates indicate that the percentage of their total body water content lost per hour may still be 2.2 times that of adults. Resistance to cutaneous water loss may be advantageous to neonates given their relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio.

  2. Organotopic organization of the primary Infrared Sensitive Nucleus (LTTD) in the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

    PubMed

    Kohl, Tobias; Bothe, Maximilian S; Luksch, Harald; Straka, Hans; Westhoff, Guido

    2014-12-15

    Pit vipers (Crotalinae) have a specific sensory system that detects infrared radiation with bilateral pit organs in the upper jaw. Each pit organ consists of a thin membrane, innervated by three trigeminal nerve branches that project to a specific nucleus in the dorsal hindbrain. The known topographic organization of infrared signals in the optic tectum prompted us to test the implementation of spatiotopically aligned sensory maps through hierarchical neuronal levels from the peripheral epithelium to the first central site in the hindbrain, the nucleus of the lateral descending trigeminal tract (LTTD). The spatial organization of the anatomical connections was revealed in a novel in vitro whole-brain preparation of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) that allowed specific application of multiple neuronal tracers to identified pit-organ-supplying trigeminal nerve branches. After adequate survival times, the entire peripheral and central projections of fibers within the pit membrane and the LTTD became visible. This approach revealed a morphological partition of the pit membrane into three well-defined sensory areas with largely separated innervations by the three main branches. The peripheral segregation of infrared afferents in the sensory epithelium was matched by a differential termination of the afferents within different areas of the LTTD, with little overlap. This result demonstrates a topographic organizational principle of the snake infrared system that is implemented by maintaining spatially aligned representations of environmental infrared cues on the sensory epithelium through specific neuronal projections at the level of the first central processing stage, comparable to the visual system.

  3. The venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Snake venoms have significant impacts on human populations through the morbidity and mortality associated with snakebites and as sources of drugs, drug leads, and physiological research tools. Genes expressed by venom-gland tissue, including those encoding toxic proteins, have therefore been sequenced but only with relatively sparse coverage resulting from the low-throughput sequencing approaches available. High-throughput approaches based on 454 pyrosequencing have recently been applied to the study of snake venoms to give the most complete characterizations to date of the genes expressed in active venom glands, but such approaches are costly and still provide a far-from-complete characterization of the genes expressed during venom production. Results We describe the de novo assembly and analysis of the venom-gland transcriptome of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) based on 95,643,958 pairs of quality-filtered, 100-base-pair Illumina reads. We identified 123 unique, full-length toxin-coding sequences, which cluster into 78 groups with less than 1% nucleotide divergence, and 2,879 unique, full-length nontoxin coding sequences. The toxin sequences accounted for 35.4% of the total reads, and the nontoxin sequences for an additional 27.5%. The most highly expressed toxin was a small myotoxin related to crotamine, which accounted for 5.9% of the total reads. Snake-venom metalloproteinases accounted for the highest percentage of reads mapping to a toxin class (24.4%), followed by C-type lectins (22.2%) and serine proteinases (20.0%). The most diverse toxin classes were the C-type lectins (21 clusters), the snake-venom metalloproteinases (16 clusters), and the serine proteinases (14 clusters). The high-abundance nontoxin transcripts were predominantly those involved in protein folding and translation, consistent with the protein-secretory function of the tissue. Conclusions We have provided the most complete characterization of the genes

  4. Phenotypic integration in the feeding system of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus).

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; Wray, Kenneth P; Seavy, Margaret; McGivern, James J; Sanader, Dragana; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-07-01

    Selection can vary geographically across environments and temporally over the lifetime of an individual. Unlike geographic contexts, where different selective regimes can act on different alleles, age-specific selection is constrained to act on the same genome by altering age-specific expression. Snake venoms are exceptional traits for studying ontogeny because toxin expression variation directly changes the phenotype; relative amounts of venom components determine, in part, venom efficacy. Phenotypic integration is the dependent relationship between different traits that collectively produce a complex phenotype and, in venomous snakes, may include traits as diverse as venom, head shape and fang length. We examined the feeding system of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) across environments and over the lifetime of individuals and used a genotype-phenotype map approach, protein expression data and morphological data to demonstrate that: (i) ontogenetic effects explained more of the variation in toxin expression variation than geographic effects, (ii) both juveniles and adults varied geographically, (iii) toxin expression variation was a result of directional selection and (iv) different venom phenotypes covaried with morphological traits also associated with feeding in temporal (ontogenetic) and geographic (functional) contexts. These data are the first to demonstrate, to our knowledge, phenotypic integration between multiple morphological characters and a biochemical phenotype across populations and age classes. We identified copy number variation as the mechanism driving the difference in the venom phenotype associated with these morphological differences, and the parallel mitochondrial, venom and morphological divergence between northern and southern clades suggests that each clade may warrant classification as a separate evolutionarily significant unit.

  5. Cloning of subunits of convulxin, a collagen-like platelet-aggregating protein from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, M; Bon, C

    1998-01-01

    Convulxin (CVX) is a potent platelet-aggregating glycoprotein from the venom of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, joined by disulphide bridges in a hexameric structure. A cDNA library from venom gland was constructed in the vector pT3T7. The cloned cDNAs encoding the two chains of CVX were sequenced. Both are preceded by an identical 23-amino acid peptide signal sequence and encode sequences of 135 amino acids for the alpha chain and 125 amino acids for the beta chain. These polypeptides include a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) in which some of the specific amino acids required for binding Ca2+ and galactose or mannose are absent. The presence of such a domain means that CVX can be included in the family of C-type lectins along with other snake venom proteins, although it is not a true lectin. Assuming that the localization of intracatenary disulphide bridges of each CVX chain is similar to that of the CRD and that an intercatenary bridge between the alpha and beta chains is similar to that of the C-type lectin botrocetin, we postulate the existence of an additional intercatenary bridge, which explains the tridimeric structure (alphabeta)3 of CVX. PMID:9657980

  6. Activation of peripheral ATP-sensitive K+ channels mediates the antinociceptive effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom.

    PubMed

    Picolo, Gisele; Cassola, Antônio Carlos; Cury, Yara

    2003-05-23

    The role of peripheral potassium channels on the antinociceptive effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, a mixed delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonist, was investigated in hyperalgesia induced by carrageenin or prostaglandin E(2). Rat paw pressure test was applied before and 3 h after the intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of the nociceptive stimuli. Oral administration of venom 2 h after carrageenin or prostaglandin E(2) induces antinociception. Local pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium (blockers of voltage-dependent K(+) channel) or charybdotoxin and apamin (inhibitors of large- and small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, respectively) did not modify venom effect. On the other hand, glybenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel abolished antinociception induced by the venom. Glybenclamide also inhibited the antinociceptive effect of [D-Pen(2.5)] enkephalin (DPDPE), a delta opioid receptor agonist, but did not modify the effect of (+)-trans-(1R,2R)-U-50488 (U50488), a kappa opioid receptor agonist. Diazoxide and pinacidil, two ATP-sensitive K(+) channel openers, injected by intraplantar route, induced a long-lasting increment of pain threshold of the animals and produced antinociception in both models of hyperalgesia. These results suggest that the antinociceptive effect of crotalid venom is mediated by activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels at peripheral afferent neurons.

  7. Allopurinol Reduces the Lethality Associated with Acute Renal Failure Induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus Snake Venom: Comparison with Probenecid

    PubMed Central

    Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute renal failure is one of the most serious complications of envenoming resulting from Crotalus durissus terrificus bites. This study evaluated the relevance of hyperuricemia and oxidative stress and the effects of allopurinol and probenecid in renal dysfunction caused by direct nephrotoxicity of C. d. terrificus venom. Methodology/Principal Findings Hematocrit, protein, renal function and redox status were assessed in mice. High ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione and hyperuricemia induced by C. d. terrificus venom were ameliorated by both, allopurinol or probenecid, but only allopurinol significantly reduced the lethality caused by C. d. terrificus venom. The effectiveness of probenecid is compromised probably because it promoted hypercreatinemia and hypocreatinuria and worsed the urinary hypo-osmolality in envenomed mice. In turn, the highest effectiveness of allopurinol might be due to its ability to diminish the intracellular formation of uric acid. Conclusions/Significance Data provide consistent evidences linking uric acid with the acute renal failure induced by C. d. terrificus venom, as well as that this envenoming in mice constitutes an attractive animal model suitable for studying the hyperuricemia and that the allopurinol deserves to be clinically evaluated as an approach complementary to anti-snake venom serotherapy. PMID:21909449

  8. Synthesis of ribonucleic acid in the venom gland of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Ophidia, Reptilia) after manual extraction of the venom

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, F. L.; Imaizumi, M. T.

    1972-01-01

    1. The incorporation of [5-3H]uridine into RNA of the venom gland of Crotalus durissus terrificus was studied after manual extraction (`milking') of the venom. The labelled precursor was injected immediately after milking. 2. The RNA was extracted 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h after injection of the label and analysed by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. 3. The sedimentation analysis showed that 18S rRNA synthesis is higher than 28S rRNA at all time-intervals. The specific radioactivities of both ribosomal components did not reach a plateau even at 8h after injection. 4. An RNA fraction was detected sedimenting between 18S rRNA and 4S tRNA and was called the 10–14S fraction. The specific radioactivity was always higher than that of both classes of rRNA and reached the maximum value at 6h of labelling. 5. The incorporation of the precursor was also studied by radioautography, which helped to elucidate the intracellular origin of the RNA analysed by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4664568

  9. Inflammatory oedema induced by phospholipases A2 isolated from Crotalus durissus sp. in the rat dorsal skin: a role for mast cells and sensory C-fibers.

    PubMed

    Câmara, Paula R S; Esquisatto, Laura C M; Camargo, Enilton A; Ribela, Maria Teresa C P; Toyama, Marcos H; Marangoni, Sergio; De Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2003-06-01

    The ability of the phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) from Crotalus durissus cascavella, Crotalus durissus collilineatus and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms and crotapotin to increase the vascular permeability in the rat skin as well as the contribution of both mast cells and sensory C-fibers have been investigated in this study. Vascular permeability was measured as the plasma extravascular accumulation at skin sites of intravenously injected 125I-human serum albumin. Intradermal injection of crotalic PLA(2)s (0.05-0.5 microg/site) in the rat skin resulted in dose-dependent increase in plasma extravascular whereas crotapotin (1 microg/site) failed to affect this response. Co-injection of crotapotin (1 microg/site) did not modify the increased vascular permeability induced by the PLA(2)s (0.05-0.5 microg/site). Previous treatment (30 min) of the animals with cyproheptadine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) markedly reduced PLA(2) (0.5 microg/site)-induced oedema. In rats treated neonatally with capsaicin to deplete neuropeptides, the plasma extravasation induced by all PLA(2)s (0.5 microg/site) was also significantly reduced. Similarly, the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist SR140333 (1nmol/site) significantly reduced the PLA(2)-induced oedema. In addition, the combination of SR140333 with cyproheptadine further reduced the increased plasma extravasation by PLA(2) from C. d. cascavella venom, but not by PLA(2) from C. d. terrificus and C. d. collilineatus venoms. Our results suggest that increase in skin vascular permeability by crotalic PLA(2)s is mediated by activation of sensory C-fibers culminating in the release of substance P, as well as by activation of mast cells which in turn release amines such as histamine and serotonin.

  10. Phylogeographic structure and historical demography of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox): A perspective on North American desert biogeography.

    PubMed

    Castoe, Todd A; Spencer, Carol L; Parkinson, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    The western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) is a prominent member of North American desert and semi-arid ecosystems, and its importance extends from its impact on the region's ecology and imagery, to its medical relevance as a large deadly venomous snake. We used mtDNA sequences to identify population genetic structure and historical demographic patterns across the range of this species, and relate these to broader patterns of historical biogeography of desert and semi-arid regions of the southwestern USA and adjacent Mexico. We inferred a Late Pliocene divergence between peninsular and continental lineages of Crotalus, followed by an Early Mid Pleistocene divergence across the continental divide within C. atrox. Within desert regions (Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, Southern Plains, and Tamaulipan Plain) we observed population structure indicating isolation of populations in multiple Pleistocene refugia on either side of the continental divide, which we attempt to identify. Evidence of post-glacial population growth and range expansion was inferred, particularly in populations east of the continental divide. We observed clear evidence of (probably recent) gene flow across the continental divide and secondary contact of haplotype lineages. This recent gene flow appears to be particularly strong in the West-to-East direction. Our results also suggest that Crotalus tortugensis (Tortuga Island rattlesnake) and a population of 'C. atrox' inhabiting Santa Cruz Island (in the Gulf of California) previously suggested to be an unnamed species, are in fact deeply phylogenetically nested within continental lineages of C. atrox. Accordingly, we suggest C. tortugensis and 'C. atrox' from Santa Cruz Island be placed in the synonymy of C. atrox. PMID:16934495

  11. The rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) as a communicative resource for ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia).

    PubMed

    Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P; Rundus, Aaron S

    2002-06-01

    Animal communication involves very dynamic processes that can generate new uses and functions for established communicative activities. In this article, the authors describe how an aposematic signal, the rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), has been exploited by 2 ecological associates of rattlesnakes: (a) California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) use incidental acoustic cues in rattling sounds to assess the danger posed by the rattling snake, and (b) burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) defend themselves against mammalian predators by mimicking the sound of rattling. The remarkable similarity between the burrowing owl's defensive hiss and the rattlesnake's rattling reflects both exaptation and adaptation. Such exploitation of the rattling sound has favored alternations in both the structure and the deployment of rattling by rattlesnakes. PMID:12083617

  12. The rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) as a communicative resource for ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia).

    PubMed

    Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P; Rundus, Aaron S

    2002-06-01

    Animal communication involves very dynamic processes that can generate new uses and functions for established communicative activities. In this article, the authors describe how an aposematic signal, the rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), has been exploited by 2 ecological associates of rattlesnakes: (a) California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) use incidental acoustic cues in rattling sounds to assess the danger posed by the rattling snake, and (b) burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) defend themselves against mammalian predators by mimicking the sound of rattling. The remarkable similarity between the burrowing owl's defensive hiss and the rattlesnake's rattling reflects both exaptation and adaptation. Such exploitation of the rattling sound has favored alternations in both the structure and the deployment of rattling by rattlesnakes.

  13. The role of the vomeronasal organ in rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus) predatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Alving, W R; Kardong, K V

    1996-01-01

    During predatory behavior, rattlesnakes depend primarily upon thermal and visual cues to initially aim a strike. However, it has been hypothesized that prey-related odors sensed by the vomeronasal system act as releasing stimuli of the strike and that such vomodors are primary stimuli during poststrike trailing and swallowing of the envenomated rodent. To test this, northern Pacific rattlesnakes were rendered avomic by bilateral lesions of the vomeronasal nerves, and their vomic and avomic predatory behaviors were compared. Avomic rattlesnakes exhibited fewer strikes and complete elimination of trailing and swallowing behavior. These results support the hypothesis that vomodors sensed via the vomeronasal organ are capable of acting as releasing stimuli of selected rattlesnake predatory behaviors. Sensory input via the vomeronasal organ is important during prestrike/strike behavior, and it is a major route of sensory input during poststrike trailing and ingestion of envenomated prey.

  14. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus Is Able to Down-Modulate the Acute Intestinal Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Caroline de Souza; Andrade-Oliveira, Vinicius; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F.; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the induction of a

  15. Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise) and Crotalus ruber (red diamond rattlesnake). Burrow co-occupancy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    I observed an adult Desert Tortoise and an adult Red Diamond Rattlesnake (sexes unknown) in a shallow tortoise burrow on 6 January 1997 at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, USA (33.9599°N, 116.6613°W).

  16. Effects of body mass, meal size, fast length, and temperature on specific dynamic action in the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus).

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Frederic; Beaupre, Steven J

    2003-01-01

    Detailed analysis of animal energy budgets requires information on the cost of digestion (specific dynamic action [SDA]), which can represent a significant proportion of ingested energy (up to 30% in infrequent feeders). We studied the effects of snake mass, temperature (25 degrees and 30 degrees C), fasting time (1 and 5 mo), and prey size (10%-50% of snake mass) on SDA in 26 timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus). We used flow-through respirometry to measure hourly CO(2) production rates (VCO2) for 1 d before and up to 17 d after feeding. Crotalus horridus, like previously studied viperids and boids, show large and ecologically relevant increases in metabolism due to feeding. Depending on treatment and individual, VCO2 increased to 2.8-11.8 times the resting metabolic rate within 12-45 h postfeeding and decreased to baseline within 4.3-15.4 d. Significant effects of snake mass, meal mass, and fast length were detected. Increased temperature decreased the time required to complete the process but had little effect on total energy expended on SDA. Energy expended on SDA increased with increasing fast length, snake mass, and prey mass. Considering all of our data, we found that a simple allometric relationship explained 96.7% of the variation in total CO(2) production during SDA. Calculations suggest that energy devoted to SDA may approach 20% of the total annual energy budget of snakes in nature. Discrepancies between our data and some previous studies draw attention to the fact that the measurement, expression, and analysis of SDA may be sensitive to several methodological and statistical assumptions.

  17. An application of randomization for detecting evidence of thermoregulation in timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Wills, C A; Beaupre, S J

    2000-01-01

    Most reptiles maintain their body temperatures within normal functional ranges through behavioral thermoregulation. Under some circumstances, thermoregulation may be a time-consuming activity, and thermoregulatory needs may impose significant constraints on the activities of ectotherms. A necessary (but not sufficient) condition for demonstrating thermoregulation is a difference between observed body temperature distributions and available operative temperature distributions. We examined operative and body temperature distributions of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) for evidence of thermoregulation. Specifically, we compared the distribution of available operative temperatures in the environment to snake body temperatures during August and September. Operative temperatures were measured using 48 physical models that were randomly deployed in the environment and connected to a Campbell CR-21X data logger. Body temperatures (n=1,803) were recorded from 12 radiotagged snakes using temperature-sensitive telemetry. Separate randomization tests were conducted for each hour of day within each month. Actual body temperature distributions differed significantly from operative temperature distributions at most time points considered. Thus, C. horridus exhibits a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for demonstrating thermoregulation. However, unlike some desert ectotherms, we found no compelling evidence for thermal constraints on surface activity. Randomization may prove to be a powerful technique for drawing inferences about thermoregulation without reliance on studies of laboratory thermal preference. PMID:10893172

  18. Capillary damage in the area postrema by venom of the northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus)

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez-Martínez, David; Macias-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro; Gatica-Colima, Ana; Plenge-Tellechea, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus) venom is mainly hemotoxic, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic. Its effects in the central nervous system are unknown and only poorly described for all Viperidae species in general. This is why we are interested in describe the damage induced by C. m. molossus venom in rat brain, particularly in the area postrema capillaries. Four C. m. molossus venom doses were tested (0.02, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20mg/kg) injected intramuscularly at the lower limb, incubated by 24 hours and the brains were harvested. Area postrema coronal sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin, and examined to observe the venom effect in quantity of capillaries and porphology. Starting from the 0.10mg/kg treatment we observed lysed extravasated erythrocytes and also capillary breakdown, as a consequence of hemorrhages appearance. The number of capillaries decreased significantly in response to the venom dose increment. Hemorrhages could be caused by the metalloproteinase activity on the basal membrane and the apoptosis generated by L-amino acid oxidases. Hemolysis could be caused by phospholipase A2 hemotoxic effect. We conclude that C. m. molossus crude venom produces hemolysis, capillary breakdown, hemorrhages, and the reduction in number of capillaries in the area postrema. PMID:25035793

  19. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G.; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K.; Calvete, Juan J.; Carter, Kimberley C.; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E.; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species. PMID:27322321

  20. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K; Calvete, Juan J; Carter, Kimberley C; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-06-16

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A₂ such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

  1. A novel phospholipase A2 (D49) from the venom of the Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand canyon rattlesnake).

    PubMed

    Martins, W; Baldasso, P A; Honório, K M; Maltarollo, V G; Ribeiro, R I M A; Carvalho, B M A; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Stábeli, R G; Caballol, M A O; Acosta, G; Oliveira, E; Marangoni, S; Albericio, F; Da Silva, S L

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Crotalus viridis was divided into two species: Crotalus viridis and Crotalus oreganus. The current classification divides "the old" Crotalus viridis into two new and independent species: Crotalus viridis (subspecies: viridis and nuntius) and Crotalus oreganus (subspecies: abyssus, lutosus, concolor, oreganus, helleri, cerberus, and caliginis). The analysis of a product from cDNA (E6d), derived from the gland of a specie Crotalus viridis viridis, was found to produce an acid phospholipase A2. In this study we isolated and characterized a PLA2 (D49) from Crotalus oreganus abyssus venom. Our studies show that the PLA2 produced from the cDNA of Crotalus viridis viridis (named E6d) is exactly the same PLA2 primary sequence of amino acids isolated from the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus. Thus, the PLA2 from E6d cDNA is actually the same PLA2 presented in the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus and does not correspond to the venom from Crotalus viridis viridis. These facts highlight the importance of performing more studies on subspecies of Crotalus oreganus and Crotalus viridis, since the old classification may have led to mixed results or mistaken data.

  2. A Novel Phospholipase A2 (D49) from the Venom of the Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon Rattlesnake)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, W.; Baldasso, P. A.; Honório, K. M.; Maltarollo, V. G.; Ribeiro, R. I. M. A.; Carvalho, B. M. A.; Soares, A. M.; Calderon, L. A.; Stábeli, R. G.; Caballol, M. A. O.; Acosta, G.; Oliveira, E.; Marangoni, S.; Albericio, F.; Da Silva, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Crotalus viridis was divided into two species: Crotalus viridis and Crotalus oreganus. The current classification divides “the old” Crotalus viridis into two new and independent species: Crotalus viridis (subspecies: viridis and nuntius) and Crotalus oreganus (subspecies: abyssus, lutosus, concolor, oreganus, helleri, cerberus, and caliginis). The analysis of a product from cDNA (E6d), derived from the gland of a specie Crotalus viridis viridis, was found to produce an acid phospholipase A2. In this study we isolated and characterized a PLA2 (D49) from Crotalus oreganus abyssus venom. Our studies show that the PLA2 produced from the cDNA of Crotalus viridis viridis (named E6d) is exactly the same PLA2 primary sequence of amino acids isolated from the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus. Thus, the PLA2 from E6d cDNA is actually the same PLA2 presented in the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus and does not correspond to the venom from Crotalus viridis viridis. These facts highlight the importance of performing more studies on subspecies of Crotalus oreganus and Crotalus viridis, since the old classification may have led to mixed results or mistaken data. PMID:24707493

  3. A novel phospholipase A2 (D49) from the venom of the Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand canyon rattlesnake).

    PubMed

    Martins, W; Baldasso, P A; Honório, K M; Maltarollo, V G; Ribeiro, R I M A; Carvalho, B M A; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Stábeli, R G; Caballol, M A O; Acosta, G; Oliveira, E; Marangoni, S; Albericio, F; Da Silva, S L

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Crotalus viridis was divided into two species: Crotalus viridis and Crotalus oreganus. The current classification divides "the old" Crotalus viridis into two new and independent species: Crotalus viridis (subspecies: viridis and nuntius) and Crotalus oreganus (subspecies: abyssus, lutosus, concolor, oreganus, helleri, cerberus, and caliginis). The analysis of a product from cDNA (E6d), derived from the gland of a specie Crotalus viridis viridis, was found to produce an acid phospholipase A2. In this study we isolated and characterized a PLA2 (D49) from Crotalus oreganus abyssus venom. Our studies show that the PLA2 produced from the cDNA of Crotalus viridis viridis (named E6d) is exactly the same PLA2 primary sequence of amino acids isolated from the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus. Thus, the PLA2 from E6d cDNA is actually the same PLA2 presented in the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus and does not correspond to the venom from Crotalus viridis viridis. These facts highlight the importance of performing more studies on subspecies of Crotalus oreganus and Crotalus viridis, since the old classification may have led to mixed results or mistaken data. PMID:24707493

  4. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis).

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Collyer, Michael L; Douglas, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respectively). The GM data (i.e., 33 dorsal and 50 lateral head landmarks) were gleaned from 2,824 individuals located in 10 museum collections. We also downloaded and concatenated sequences for six mtDNA genes from the NCBI GenBank database. GM analyses revealed significant head shape differences attributable to size and subspecies-designation (but not their interactions). Pairwise shape distances among subspecies were significantly greater than those derived from ancestral character states via squared-change parsimony, with the greatest differences separating those most closely related. This, in turn, suggests the potential for historic character displacement as a diversifying force in the complex. All subspecies, save one, were significantly differentiated in a Bayesian discriminant function analysis (DFA), regardless of whether our priors were uniform or informative (i.e., mtDNA data). Finally, shape differences among sister-clades were significantly greater than expected by chance alone under a Brownian model of evolution, promoting the hypothesis that selection rather than drift was the driving force in the evolution of the complex. Lastly, we combine head shape and mtDNA data so as to derived an integrative taxonomy that produced robust boundaries for six OTUs (operational taxonomic units) of the C. viridis complex. We suggest these boundaries are concomitant with species-status and subsequently provide a relevant nomenclature for its recognition and representation.

  5. Vascular effects and electrolyte homeostasis of the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon rattlesnake) venom.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, S L; Dias-Junior, C A; Baldasso, P A; Damico, D C S; Carvalho, B M A; Garanto, A; Acosta, G; Oliveira, E; Albericio, F; Soares, A M; Marangoni, S; Resende, R R

    2012-08-01

    Crotalus oreganus abyssus is a rattlesnake that is usually found in the Grand Canyon, United States of America. Knowledge regarding the composition of C. o. abyssus venom is scarce. New natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of members of the Crotalinae family. The NP family comprises three members, ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), BNP (b-type natriuretic peptide) and CNP (c-type natriuretic peptide), and has an important role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to characterize a novel natriuretic-like peptide (Coa_NP2), isolated from C. o. abyssus venom. The Coa_NP2 presents an average molecular mass of 3419.88Da (theoretical average molecular mass 3418.94Da, monoisotopic molecular mass 3416.66Da and theoretical PI 7.78) and its amino acid sequence presents the loop region that is characteristic of natriuretic peptides. The peptide has 32 amino acids and its complete sequence is SYGISSGCFGLKLDRIGTMSGLGCWRLLQDSP. Coa_NP2 is a natriuretic peptide of the ANP/BNP-like family, since the carboxyterminal region of CNP has its own NP domain. We demonstrate, herein, that Coa_NP2 produces a dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial pressure in rats, followed by significant increases in concentrations of markers of nitric oxide formation measured in the plasma and vasorelaxation in a thoracic aortic ring bath. The structural and biological aspects confirm Coa_NP2 as a new natriuretic peptide, isolated from snake venom.

  6. Vascular effects and electrolyte homeostasis of the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon rattlesnake) venom.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, S L; Dias-Junior, C A; Baldasso, P A; Damico, D C S; Carvalho, B M A; Garanto, A; Acosta, G; Oliveira, E; Albericio, F; Soares, A M; Marangoni, S; Resende, R R

    2012-08-01

    Crotalus oreganus abyssus is a rattlesnake that is usually found in the Grand Canyon, United States of America. Knowledge regarding the composition of C. o. abyssus venom is scarce. New natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of members of the Crotalinae family. The NP family comprises three members, ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), BNP (b-type natriuretic peptide) and CNP (c-type natriuretic peptide), and has an important role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to characterize a novel natriuretic-like peptide (Coa_NP2), isolated from C. o. abyssus venom. The Coa_NP2 presents an average molecular mass of 3419.88Da (theoretical average molecular mass 3418.94Da, monoisotopic molecular mass 3416.66Da and theoretical PI 7.78) and its amino acid sequence presents the loop region that is characteristic of natriuretic peptides. The peptide has 32 amino acids and its complete sequence is SYGISSGCFGLKLDRIGTMSGLGCWRLLQDSP. Coa_NP2 is a natriuretic peptide of the ANP/BNP-like family, since the carboxyterminal region of CNP has its own NP domain. We demonstrate, herein, that Coa_NP2 produces a dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial pressure in rats, followed by significant increases in concentrations of markers of nitric oxide formation measured in the plasma and vasorelaxation in a thoracic aortic ring bath. The structural and biological aspects confirm Coa_NP2 as a new natriuretic peptide, isolated from snake venom. PMID:22617223

  7. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mark A.; Douglas, Marlis R.; Collyer, Michael L.; Douglas, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory ‘big data’ analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respectively). The GM data (i.e., 33 dorsal and 50 lateral head landmarks) were gleaned from 2,824 individuals located in 10 museum collections. We also downloaded and concatenated sequences for six mtDNA genes from the NCBI GenBank database. GM analyses revealed significant head shape differences attributable to size and subspecies-designation (but not their interactions). Pairwise shape distances among subspecies were significantly greater than those derived from ancestral character states via squared-change parsimony, with the greatest differences separating those most closely related. This, in turn, suggests the potential for historic character displacement as a diversifying force in the complex. All subspecies, save one, were significantly differentiated in a Bayesian discriminant function analysis (DFA), regardless of whether our priors were uniform or informative (i.e., mtDNA data). Finally, shape differences among sister-clades were significantly greater than expected by chance alone under a Brownian model of evolution, promoting the hypothesis that selection rather than drift was the driving force in the evolution of the complex. Lastly, we combine head shape and mtDNA data so as to derived an integrative taxonomy that produced robust boundaries for six OTUs (operational taxonomic units) of the C. viridis complex. We suggest these boundaries are concomitant with species-status and subsequently provide a relevant nomenclature for its recognition and representation. PMID

  8. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Elda E.; Galan, Jacob A.; Russell, William K.; Soto, Julio G.; Russell, David H.; Perez, John C. . E-mail: kfjcp00@tamuk.edu

    2006-04-01

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC{sub 5}s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin.

  9. Effect of chlorogenic acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the structure and pharmacological activities of secretory phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Daniela O; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Romoff, Paulete; Fávero, Oriana A; Gaeta, Henrique H; Toyama, Marcos H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2 : 5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the α-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2.

  10. Biological and biochemical characterization of two new PLA2 isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 from Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Romero-Vargas, Frey Francisco; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Marangoni, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the purification, biological characterization and amino acid sequence of two new basic PLA(2) isoforms, Cdc-9 and Cdc-10, purified from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by one step analytical chromatography reverse phase HPLC. The molecular masses of the PLA(2) were 14,175+/-2.7 Da for Cdc-9 and 14,228+/-3.5 Da for Cdc-10 both deduced by primary structure and confirmed by MALDI-TOF. The isoforms presented an amino acid sequence of 122 amino acid residues, being Cdc-9: SLVQFNKMIK FETRKSGLPF YAAYGCYCGW GGQRPKDATD RCCFVHDCCY GKVAKCNTKW DIYSYSLKSG YITCGKGTWC KEQICECDRV AAECLRRSLS TYKNEYMFYP DSRCREPPEY TC with pI value of 8.25 and Cdc-10: SLLQFNKMIK FETRKSGVPF YAAYGCYCGW GGRRPKDPTD RCCFVHDCCY GKLTKCNTKW DIYSYSLKSG YITCGKGTWC KEQICECDRV AAECLRRSLN TYKNEYMFYP DSRCRGPPEY TC with a pI value of 8.46, showing highly conserved Ca(2+)-binding and catalytic sites. The PLA(2) activity decreased when the isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 were incubated with 4-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB), anhydrous acetic acid and p-nitrobenzene sulfonyl fluoride (NBSF) when compared with the activity of both native isoforms. In mice, the PLA(2) isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 induced myonecrosis and edema. Myotoxic and edema activities were reduced after treatment of the isoforms with p-BPB; acetylation of the lysine residues and the treatment of PLA(2) with NBSF have also induced edema reduction. However, p-BPB strongly diminishes the local and systemic myotoxic effects.

  11. Phospholipase A2 Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus Inactivates Dengue virus and Other Enveloped Viruses by Disrupting the Viral Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Vanessa Danielle; Soares, Ricardo Oliveira; dos Santos-Junior, Nilton Nascimento; Trabuco, Amanda Cristina; Cintra, Adelia Cristina; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu; Caliri, Antonio; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Aquino, Victor Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. PMID:25383618

  12. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae) leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae) envenomation in rats.

    PubMed

    Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Nogueira, Rosa Maria Barilli; Sakate, Michiko; Laposy, Cecília Braga; da Motta, Yudney Pereira; Sangiorgio, Fabíola; David, Heloísa Costa; Nabas, João Marcelo

    2009-12-01

    Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into three groups: Group C (control); Group VS-venom and antivenom; Group VSM-venom, antivenom and aqueous extract of M. glomerata. Crotalic poison caused clinical and laboratory alterations in Wistar mice. Significant clinical alterations were: temperature decrease, edema in the venom inoculated member, sedation and a locomotion decrease in groups VS and VSM when compared with group C. A faster recovery from sedation was observed only for animals of group VSM when compared to VS. There was an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils and creatine kinase in the VS and VSM groups, compared to group C. Wistar rats showed a high resistance to crotalic venom. Additional studies with different doses, time of treatment, different administration methods and histopathological and immunological studies are necessary to understand the action of M. glomerata in crotalic accidents.

  13. An Evaluation of 3-Rhamnosylquercetin, a Glycosylated Form of Quercetin, against the Myotoxic and Edematogenic Effects of sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; de Pinho, Marcus Vinícius Terashima; Ferreira, Marcelo José Pena; Romoff, Paulete; Matioli, Fábio Filippi; Magro, Angelo José; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the results of quercitrin effects on the structure and biological activity of secretory phospholipase (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus, which is the main toxin involved in the pharmacological effects of this snake venom. According to our mass spectrometry and circular dichroism results, quercetin was able to promote a chemical modification of some amino acid residues and modify the secondary structure of C. d. terrificus sPLA2. Moreover, molecular docking studies showed that quercitrin can establish chemical interactions with some of the crucial amino acid residues involved in the enzymatic activity of the sPLA2, indicating that this flavonoid could also physically impair substrate molecule access to the catalytic site of the toxin. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo assays showed that the quercitrin strongly diminished the catalytic activity of the protein, altered its Vmax and Km values, and presented a more potent inhibition of essential pharmacological activities in the C. d. terrificus sPLA2, such as its myotoxicity and edematogenic effect, in comparison to quercetin. Thus, we concluded that the rhamnose group found in quercitrin is most likely essential to the antivenom activities of this flavonoid against C. d. terrificus sPLA2. PMID:24696848

  14. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) Isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the Structure and Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Daniela O.; Ferreira, Marcelo J. P.; Romoff, Paulete; Fávero, Oriana A.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2 : 5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the α-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2. PMID:25258715

  15. Exploring the venom proteome of the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox, via snake venomics and combinatorial peptide ligand library approaches.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Fasoli, Elisa; Sanz, Libia; Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2009-06-01

    We report the proteomic characterization of the venom of the medically important North American western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox, using two complementary approaches: snake venomics (to gain an insight of the overall venom proteome), and two solid-phase combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL), followed by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometric characterization of in-gel digested protein bands (to capture and "amplify" low-abundance proteins). The venomics approach revealed approximately 24 distinct proteins belonging to 2 major protein families (snake venom metalloproteinases, SVMP, and serine proteinases), which represent 69.5% of the total venom proteins, 4 medium abundance families (medium-size disintegrin, PLA(2), cysteine-rich secretory protein, and l-amino acid oxidase) amounting to 25.8% of the venom proteins, and 3 minor protein families (vasoactive peptides, endogenous inhibitor of SVMP, and C-type lectin-like). This toxin profile potentially explains the cytotoxic, myotoxic, hemotoxic, and hemorrhagic effects evoked by C. atrox envenomation. Further, our results showing that C. atrox exhibits a similar level of venom variation as Sistrurus miliarius points to a "diversity gain" scenario in the lineage leading to the Sistrurus catenatus taxa. On the other hand, the two combinatorial hexapeptide libraries captured distinct sets of proteins. Although the CPLL-treated samples did not retain a representative venom proteome, protein spots barely, or not at all, detectable in the whole venom were enriched in the two CPLL-treated samples. The amplified low copy number C. atrox venom proteins comprised a C-type lectin-like protein, several PLA(2) molecules, PIII-SVMP isoforms, glutaminyl cyclase isoforms, and a 2-cys peroxiredoxin highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Peroxiredoxin and glutaminyl cyclase may participate, respectively, in redox processes leading to the structural/functional diversification of toxins, and in the N

  16. Expression of a new serine protease from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom in Pichia pastoris and functional comparison with the native enzyme.

    PubMed

    Boldrini-França, Johara; Santos Rodrigues, Renata; Santos-Silva, Ludier Kesser; de Souza, Dayane Lorena Naves; Gomes, Mário Sérgio Rocha; Cologna, Camila Takeno; de Pauw, Edwin; Quinton, Loïc; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; de Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-01

    Snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) act primarily on plasma proteins related to blood clotting and are considered promising for the treatment of several hemostatic disorders. We report the heterologous expression of a serine protease from Crotalus durissus collilineatus, named collinein-1, in Pichia pastoris, as well as the enzymatic comparative characterization of the toxin in native and recombinant forms. The complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding collinein-1 was amplified from cDNA library of C. d. collilineatus venom gland and cloned into the pPICZαA vector. The recombinant plasmid was used to transform cells of KM71H P. pastoris. Heterologous expression was induced by methanol and yielded 56 mg of recombinant collinein-1 (rCollinein-1) per liter of culture. The native collinein-1 was purified from C. d. collilineatus venom, and its identity was confirmed by amino acid sequencing. The native and recombinant enzymes showed similar effects upon bovine fibrinogen by releasing preferentially fibrinopeptide A. Although both enzymes have induced plasma coagulation, native Colinein-1 has shown higher coagulant activity. The serine proteases were able to hydrolyze the chromogenic substrates S-2222, S-2238, and S2302. Both enzymes showed high stability on different pH and temperature, and their esterase activities were inhibited in the presence of Zn2+ and Cu2+. The serine proteases showed similar k cat/K m values in enzyme kinetics assays, suggesting no significant differences in efficiency of these proteins to hydrolyze the substrate. These results demonstrated that rCollinein-1 was expressed with functional integrity on the evaluated parameters. The success in producing a functionally active recombinant SVSP may generate perspectives to their future therapeutic applications.

  17. Expression of a new serine protease from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom in Pichia pastoris and functional comparison with the native enzyme.

    PubMed

    Boldrini-França, Johara; Santos Rodrigues, Renata; Santos-Silva, Ludier Kesser; de Souza, Dayane Lorena Naves; Gomes, Mário Sérgio Rocha; Cologna, Camila Takeno; de Pauw, Edwin; Quinton, Loïc; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; de Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-01

    Snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) act primarily on plasma proteins related to blood clotting and are considered promising for the treatment of several hemostatic disorders. We report the heterologous expression of a serine protease from Crotalus durissus collilineatus, named collinein-1, in Pichia pastoris, as well as the enzymatic comparative characterization of the toxin in native and recombinant forms. The complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding collinein-1 was amplified from cDNA library of C. d. collilineatus venom gland and cloned into the pPICZαA vector. The recombinant plasmid was used to transform cells of KM71H P. pastoris. Heterologous expression was induced by methanol and yielded 56 mg of recombinant collinein-1 (rCollinein-1) per liter of culture. The native collinein-1 was purified from C. d. collilineatus venom, and its identity was confirmed by amino acid sequencing. The native and recombinant enzymes showed similar effects upon bovine fibrinogen by releasing preferentially fibrinopeptide A. Although both enzymes have induced plasma coagulation, native Colinein-1 has shown higher coagulant activity. The serine proteases were able to hydrolyze the chromogenic substrates S-2222, S-2238, and S2302. Both enzymes showed high stability on different pH and temperature, and their esterase activities were inhibited in the presence of Zn2+ and Cu2+. The serine proteases showed similar k cat/K m values in enzyme kinetics assays, suggesting no significant differences in efficiency of these proteins to hydrolyze the substrate. These results demonstrated that rCollinein-1 was expressed with functional integrity on the evaluated parameters. The success in producing a functionally active recombinant SVSP may generate perspectives to their future therapeutic applications. PMID:26227411

  18. Individual venom profiling of Crotalus durissus terrificus specimens from a geographically limited region: crotamine assessment and captivity evaluation on the biological activities.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Airton; Zorzella Creste, Camila Fernanda; de Barros, Luciana Curtolo; Delazari dos Santos, Lucilene; Pimenta, Daniel C; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui Seabra

    2013-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom major components comprise crotoxin, crotamine, gyroxin and convulxin. Crotamine exerts a myotoxic action, among others, but its expression varies even amid snakes from the same region. Biochemical, enzymatic and pharmacological variations of venoms may be associated with the geography, climate, gender, age, and diet, as well as captivity time and venom extraction intervals. The present study aimed to characterize the Cdt venom from the Botucatu region, (SP, Brazil), by assessing its biochemical, pharmacological and enzymatic properties. Venoms from newly captured snakes and already-captured animals were characterized comparatively to verify the sexual, environmental (length of captivity) and ontogenetic variations that could influence the venom composition. Protein concentration, SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC were performed and the coagulant, toxic (LD50) and crotamine activities were assayed. Individual SDS-PAGE analyses (315 samples) were performed and the biological activities of the venom of 60 adults (captive and newly captured males and females) and 18 newborns were compared with the Brazilian Reference Venom. Crotamine was found in 39.7% (125/315) of the samples, as determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Protein concentration differed significantly between adults (75%) and newborns (60%). RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE analyses showed highly variable protein concentration and copious crotoxin isoforms; however, the LD50 values decreased during the captivity time. Cdt venom biological activities were similar among adult groups, but diminished during the captivity period. The current findings demonstrate that venoms vary significantly in terms activity and protein concentration, despite originating from the same specie and region.

  19. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices. PMID:26497875

  20. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices.

  1. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rulon W.; Schuett, Gordon W.; Repp, Roger A.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F.; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  2. Functional characterizations of venom phenotypes in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for expression-driven divergence in toxic activities among populations.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; Walls, Robert; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E; Rokyta, Darin R

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypes frequently vary across and within species. The connection between specific phenotypic effects and function, however, is less understood despite being essential to our understanding of the adaptive process. Snake venoms are ideal for identifying functionally important phenotypic variation because venom variation is common, and venoms can be functionally characterized through simple assays and toxicity measurements. Previous work with the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) used multivariate statistical approaches to identify six unique venom phenotypes. We functionally characterized hemolytic, gelatinase, fibrinogenolytic, and coagulant activity for all six phenotypes, as well as one additional venom, to determine if the statistically significant differences in toxin expression levels previously documented corresponded to differences in venom activity. In general, statistical differences in toxin expression predicted the identified functional differences, or lack thereof, in toxic activity, demonstrating that the statistical approach used to characterize C. adamanteus venoms was a fair representation of biologically meaningful differences. Minor differences in activity not accounted for by the statistical model may be the result of amino-acid differences and/or post-translational modifications, but overall we were able to link variation in protein expression levels to variation in function as predicted by multivariate statistical approaches. PMID:27179420

  3. Potential environmental influences on variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism among Arizona populations of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amarello, M.; Nowak, E.M.; Taylor, E.N.; Schuett, G.W.; Repp, R.A.; Rosen, P.C.; Hardy, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in resource availability and quality along environmental gradients are important influences contributing to intraspecific variation in body size, which influences numerous life-history traits. Here, we examined variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in relation to temperature, seasonality, and precipitation among 10 populations located throughout Arizona of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Specifically, in our analyses we addressed the following questions: (i) Are adult males larger in cooler, wetter areas? (ii) Does female body size respond differently to environmental variation? (iii) Is seasonality a better predictor of body size variation? (iv) Is SSD positively correlated with increased resources? We demonstrate that male and female C. atrox are larger in body size in cooler (i.e., lower average annual maximum, minimum, and mean temperature) and wetter areas (i.e., higher average annual precipitation, more variable precipitation, and available surface water). Although SSD in C. atrox appeared to be more pronounced in cooler, wetter areas, this relationship did not achieve statistical significance. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  5. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for use in population genetic analysis in the timber rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, X; Bricker, J; Reinert, H K; Gelbert, L; Bushar, L M

    1996-01-01

    A Crotalus horridus genomic library was screened for clones containing microsatellite loci by hybridization with oligonucleotides consisting of a (dC x dA)n dinucleotide repeat. Primers designed to amplify six of the microsatellite loci were used to screen 32 unrelated individuals representing populations in eastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Alabama. The six microsatellite loci were all polymorphic, with two to nine alleles, and heterozygote frequencies at each locus from 0.1 to 0.69. Allelic frequencies varied among geographically separated populations. Screening of two families produced no evidence of multiple paternity. These microsatellite markers should be useful for the assessment of kinship relationships and genetic diversity within and between populations of C. horridus. The application of this technology could provide a valuable tool for the development of effective conservation and management programs for threatened and endangered populations.

  7. Wound healing activity and mechanisms of action of an antibacterial protein from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus).

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Stiles, Bradley G; Rowan, Edward G; Becker, David; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Sethi, Gautam; Chow, Vincent T K

    2014-01-01

    Basic phospholipase A2 was identified from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. The Crotalus adamanteus toxin-II (CaTx-II) induced bactericidal effects (7.8 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus, while on Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW), and Enterobacter aerogenes were killed at 15.6 µg/ml. CaTx-II caused pore formation and membrane damaging effects on the bacterial cell wall. CaTx-II was not cytotoxic on lung (MRC-5), skin fibroblast (HEPK) cells and in mice. CaTx-II-treated mice showed significant wound closure and complete healing by 16 days as compared to untreated controls (**P<0.01). Histological examination revealed enhanced collagen synthesis and neovascularization after treatment with CaTx-II versus 2% Fusidic Acid ointment (FAO) treated controls. Measurement of tissue cytokines revealed that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) expression in CaTx-II treated mice was significantly suppressed versus untreated controls. In contrast, cytokines involved in wound healing and cell migration i.e., monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-b), chemokine (KC), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly enhanced in CaTx-II treated mice, but not in the controls. CaTx-II also modulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation during skin wound healing. The CaTx-II protein highlights distinct snake proteins as a potential source of novel antimicrobial agents with significant therapeutic application for bacterial skin infections.

  8. Wound Healing Activity and Mechanisms of Action of an Antibacterial Protein from the Venom of the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus)

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Stiles, Bradley G.; Rowan, Edward G.; Becker, David; Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Sethi, Gautam; Chow, Vincent T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Basic phospholipase A2 was identified from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. The Crotalus adamanteus toxin-II (CaTx-II) induced bactericidal effects (7.8 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus, while on Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW), and Enterobacter aerogenes were killed at 15.6 µg/ml. CaTx-II caused pore formation and membrane damaging effects on the bacterial cell wall. CaTx-II was not cytotoxic on lung (MRC-5), skin fibroblast (HEPK) cells and in mice. CaTx-II-treated mice showed significant wound closure and complete healing by 16 days as compared to untreated controls (**P<0.01). Histological examination revealed enhanced collagen synthesis and neovascularization after treatment with CaTx-II versus 2% Fusidic Acid ointment (FAO) treated controls. Measurement of tissue cytokines revealed that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) expression in CaTx-II treated mice was significantly suppressed versus untreated controls. In contrast, cytokines involved in wound healing and cell migration i.e., monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-b), chemokine (KC), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly enhanced in CaTx-II treated mice, but not in the controls. CaTx-II also modulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation during skin wound healing. The CaTx-II protein highlights distinct snake proteins as a potential source of novel antimicrobial agents with significant therapeutic application for bacterial skin infections. PMID:24551028

  9. Integrated “omics” profiling indicates that miRNAs are modulators of the ontogenetic venom composition shift in the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus simus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the processes that drive the evolution of snake venom is a topic of great research interest in molecular and evolutionary toxinology. Recent studies suggest that ontogenetic changes in venom composition are genetically controlled rather than environmentally induced. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain elusive. Here we have explored the basis and level of regulation of the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus s. simus using a combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach. Results Proteomic analysis showed that the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of C. s. simus is essentially characterized by a gradual reduction in the expression of serine proteinases and PLA2 molecules, particularly crotoxin, a β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA2, concominantly with an increment of PI and PIII metalloproteinases at age 9–18 months. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the venom glands of neonate and adult C. s. simus specimens indicated that their transcriptomes exhibit indistinguisable toxin family profiles, suggesting that the elusive mechanism by which shared transcriptomes generate divergent venom phenotypes may operate post-transcriptionally. Specifically, miRNAs with frequency count of 1000 or greater exhibited an uneven distribution between the newborn and adult datasets. Of note, 590 copies of a miRNA targeting crotoxin B-subunit was exclusively found in the transcriptome of the adult snake, whereas 1185 copies of a miRNA complementary to a PIII-SVMP mRNA was uniquely present in the newborn dataset. These results support the view that age-dependent changes in the concentration of miRNA modulating the transition from a crotoxin-rich to a SVMP-rich venom from birth through adulhood can potentially explain what is observed in the proteomic analysis of the ontogenetic changes in the venom composition of C. s. simus. Conclusions Existing snake venom

  10. Survival of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) estimated by capture-recapture models in relation to age, sex, color morph, time, and birthplace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W.S.; Kery, M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile survival is one of the least known elements of the life history of many species, in particular snakes. We conducted a mark-recapture study of Crotalus horridus from 1978-2002 in northeastern New York near the northern limits of the species' range. We marked 588 neonates and estimated annual age-, sex-, and morph-specific recapture and survival rates using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model. Wild-caught neonates (field-born, n = 407) and neonates produced by captive-held gravid females (lab-born, n = 181) allowed comparison of the birthplace, or lab treatment effect, in estimated survival. Recapture rates declined from about 10-20% over time while increasing from young to older age classes. Estimated survival rates (S ' 1 SE) in the first year were significantly higher among field-born (black morph: S = 0.773 ' 0.203; yellow morph: S = 0.531 ' 0.104) than among lab-born snakes (black morph: S = 0.411 ' 0.131; yellow morph: S = 0.301 ' 0.081). Lower birth weights combined with a lack of field exposure until release apparently contributed to the lower survival rate of lab-born snakes. Subsequent survival estimates for 2-4-yr-old snakes were S = 0.845 ' 0.084 for the black morph and S = 0.999 (SE not available) for the yellow morph, and for >= 5-yr-old snakes S = 0.958 ' 0.039 (black morph) and S = 0.822 ' 0.034 (yellow morph). The most parsimonious model overall contained an independent time trend for survival of each age, morph, and lab-treatment group. For snakes of the first two age groups (ages 1 yr and 2-4 yr), survival tended to decline over the years for both morphs, while for adult snakes (5 yr and older), survival was constant or even slightly increased. Our data on survival and recapture are among the first rigorous estimates of these parameters in a rattlesnake and among the few yet available for any viperid snake. These data are useful for analyses of the life-history strategy, population dynamics, and conservation of this long-lived snake.

  11. Survival of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) estimated by capture-recapture models in relation to age, sex, color morph, time, and birthplace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W.S.; Kery, M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile survival is one of the least known elements of the life history of many species, in particular snakes. We conducted a mark-recapture study of Crotalus horridus from 1978-2002 in northeastern New York near the northern limits of the species' range. We marked 588 neonates and estimated annual age-, sex-, and morph-specific recapture and survival rates using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model. Wild-caught neonates (field-born, n = 407) and neonates produced by captive-held gravid females (lab-born, n = 181) allowed comparison of the birthplace, or lab treatment effect, in estimated survival. Recapture rates declined from about 10-20% over time while increasing from young to older age classes. Estimated survival rates (S ?? 1 SE) in the first year were significantly higher among field-born (black morph: S = 0.773 ?? 0.203; yellow morph: S = 0.531 ?? 0.104) than among lab-born snakes (black morph: S = 0.411 ?? 0.131; yellow morph: S = 0.301 ?? 0.081). Lower birth weights combined with a lack of field exposure until release apparently contributed to the lower survival rate of labborn snakes. Subsequent survival estimates for 2-4-yr-old snakes were S = 0.845 ?? 0.084 for the black morph and S = 0.999 (SE not available) for the yellow morph, and for ???5-yr-old snakes S = 0.958 ?? 0.039 (black morph) and S = 0.822 ?? 0.034 (yellow morph). The most parsimonious model overall contained an independent time trend for survival of each age, morph, and lab-treatment group. For snakes of the first two age groups (ages 1 yr and 2-4 yr), survival tended to decline over the years for both morphs, while for adult snakes (5 yr and older), survival was constant or even slightly increased. Our data on survival and recapture are among the first rigorous estimates of these parameters in a rattlesnake and among the few yet available for any viperid snake. These data are useful for analyses of the life-history strategy, population dynamics, and conservation of this long-lived snake

  12. Isolation, characterization and screening of the in vitro cytotoxic activity of a novel L-amino acid oxidase (LAAOcdt) from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tuila Leveghim; Oliveira Silva, Viviane Aline; da Cunha, Daniel Batista; Polettini, Flávia Lino; Thomaz, Camila Daniele; Pianca, Ariana Aparecida; Zambom, Fabiana Letícia; da Silva Leitão Mazzi, Denise Pimenta; Reis, Rui Manuel; Mazzi, Maurício Ventura

    2016-09-01

    An L-amino acid oxidase (LAAOcdt) from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure using molecular exclusion on Sephadex G-75, followed by Phenyl Sepharose FF chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 113 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. LAAOcdt showed amino acid homology to other L-amino acid oxidases isolated from different snake venoms. The comparative analysis of the internal peptide sequences of the NNPGILEYPVKPSEEGK fragments by LC-MS/MS spectrometry revealed 100% identity with C. durissus cumanensis LAAO. The purified protein catalyzed the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids, and the most specific substrates were L-Tyr and L-Phe. The enzyme presented optimum activity at pH 7.4 and at 44 °C. LAAOcdt also showed hemolytic activity (0.6-20 μg/μL) and induced both the formation plasma clots (5-100 μg/μL) and platelet aggregation (2.5 × 10(-3), 5.0 × 10(-3) and 10 × 10(-3) μg/mL), as well as bactericidal activity (2.5-10 μg/μL) against Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, LAAOcdt exhibited cytotoxicity in distinct cancer cell lines, which presented a heterogeneous response profile. The mean IC50 value was 10.5 μg/mL. Glioma and pancreatic carcinoma cells were the most sensitive cell lines; they showed mean IC50 values of 7.2 μg/mL and 7.4 μg/mL, respectively. The exposure of the drug-sensitive cells to LAAOcdt for 24 h upregulated activated p-H2AX and efficiently decreased P42/P44 (ERK) activation in glioma cells (HCB151), which suggested an anti-proliferative effect. In addition, increased p21 expression was observed in SiHa cells, which showed a resistant phenotype. On the other hand, the flow cytometry and immunoblotting analyses showed that the enzyme did not induce cancer cell apoptosis. These results suggest that another cell death mechanism might contribute to the LAAOcdt-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, this work may help to elucidate

  13. First crotoxin-like phospholipase A(2) complex from a New World non-rattlesnake species: nigroviriditoxin, from the arboreal Neotropical snake Bothriechis nigroviridis.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno; Mora-Obando, Diana; Fernández, Julián; Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Bothriechis nigroviridis is an arboreal Neotropical pitviper found in Costa Rica and Panamá. A previous proteomic profiling of its venom revealed the presence of proteins with homology to the A and B subunits of crotoxin/Mojave toxin, a heterodimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) complex only described in rattlesnake venoms (genera Crotalus and Sistrurus). The native crotoxin-like heterodimer, named nigroviriditoxin, and its A and B subunits were isolated in the present work, and the complete amino acid sequence of the B subunit was determined. The purified A and B components were demonstrated to form a complex when reconstituted under native conditions. Nigroviriditoxin presents features similar to crotoxin, albeit displaying lower toxicity: the A component decreases the PLA2 activity of the B component, and increases its lethal potency in mice. Also in similarity to crotoxin B, nigroviriditoxin B induces myonecrosis. Its 122 amino acid sequence presents 81% identity with crotoxin B. Accordingly, nigroviriditoxin B was cross-recognized by equine antibodies from a Crotalus durissus terrificus antivenom. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the novel PLA2 from B. nigroviridis venom is basal to the branch including all the homologous PLA2 enzymes described in rattlesnakes, and more distant from PLA2s from Bothriechis species. Nigroviriditoxin is the first heterodimeric PLA2 complex found in a non-rattlesnake, Neotropical viperid venom, which displays structural, functional, and immunochemical similarities to crotoxin. The present findings are compatible with the existence of the particular structural trait of crotoxin-like molecules in New World pitvipers before the split of the Meso-South American and the Nearctic clades. PMID:25434534

  14. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  15. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value. PMID:26658410

  16. Crotamine, a small basic polypeptide myotoxin from rattlesnake venom with cell-penetrating properties.

    PubMed

    Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Kerkis, Irina

    2011-12-01

    Crotamine, a low molecular weight cationic polypeptide from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus is a natural cell-penetrating peptide with functional versatility. The presence of nine lysine residues and three disulfide bonds renders crotamine highly compact, stable and positively charged. Topologically, crotamine adopts an ancient β-defensin fold that is found in diverse families of endogenous and venom polypeptides dedicated to host defense. Crotamine is unique among several classes of bioactive peptides because it possesses both cell penetrating and antimicrobial activities and selective biological action toward some cell types at a given cell cycle phase. Because it can rapidly and efficiently translocate into actively proliferating cells, crotamine is being investigated for labeling highly replicating cells and for use as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant. Peptides derived from crotamine, nucleolar targeting peptides (NrTPs), have been designed and are being studied. NrTPs retain some crotamine properties, such as efficient cellular uptake and preferential nuclear localization whereas they improve upon other properties. For example, NrTPs are smaller than crotamine, show higher preferential nucleolar localization, and better facilitate ZIP-code localization of therapeutic proteins. PMID:22204433

  17. Relationships between insolation and rattlesnake hibernacula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, B.T.; Nowak, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between insolation, climate, and hibernacula of black-tailed (Crotalus molossus), Great Basin (Crotalus lutosus), and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox) rattlesnakes at 4 sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, Hibernacula were located through a combination of visual searches and radio telemetry from 1995 to 2003. We used global information systems to calculate insolation and compared hibernaculum insolation values with random points representing available insolation of the surrounding habitat. Insolation reflects soil temperatures, and we predicted that hibernacula in cool climates, at high elevations, and at high latitudes would have higher insolation relative to their surroundings, while hibernacula in warmer climates would not differ from their surroundings in insolation. Coolest temperatures, highest elevations, and highest latitudes occurred on the C. lutosus and C. molossus sites, where hibernaculum insolation was higher than surrounding insolation. Temperatures were intermediate on the high-elevation C. atrox site, where hibernaculum insolation did not differ from random-point insolation, Temperatures were highest on the low-elevation C. atrox site, where hibernaculum insolation was unexpectedly lower than random-point insolation, Our observations suggest that rattlesnakes in cool climates utilize hibernacula with insolation values higher than those of their surroundings, Rattlesnakes in warm climates utilize hibernacula with insolation values lower than or similar to those of their surroundings.

  18. Donning your enemy's cloak: ground squirrels exploit rattlesnake scent to reduce predation risk.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Barbara; Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-04-01

    Ground squirrels (Spermophilus spp.) have evolved a battery of defences against the rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.) that have preyed on them for millions of years. The distinctive behavioural reactions by these squirrels to rattlesnakes have recently been shown to include self-application of rattlesnake scent-squirrels apply scent by vigorously licking their fur after chewing on shed rattlesnake skins. Here, we present evidence that this behaviour is a novel antipredator defence founded on exploitation of a foreign scent. We tested three functional hypotheses for snake scent application--antipredator, conspecific deterrence and ectoparasite defence--by examining reactions to rattlesnake scent by rattlesnakes, ground squirrels and ectoparasites (fleas). Rattlesnakes were more attracted to ground squirrel scent than to ground squirrel scent mixed with rattlesnake scent or rattlesnake scent alone. However, ground squirrel behaviour and flea host choice were not affected by rattlesnake scent. Thus, ground squirrels can reduce the risk of rattlesnake predation by applying rattlesnake scent to their bodies, potentially as a form of olfactory camouflage. Opportunistic exploitation of heterospecific scents may be widespread; many species self-apply foreign odours, but few such cases have been demonstrated to serve in antipredator defence.

  19. Donning your enemy's cloak: ground squirrels exploit rattlesnake scent to reduce predation risk

    PubMed Central

    Clucas, Barbara; Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Ground squirrels (Spermophilus spp.) have evolved a battery of defences against the rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.) that have preyed on them for millions of years. The distinctive behavioural reactions by these squirrels to rattlesnakes have recently been shown to include self-application of rattlesnake scent—squirrels apply scent by vigorously licking their fur after chewing on shed rattlesnake skins. Here, we present evidence that this behaviour is a novel antipredator defence founded on exploitation of a foreign scent. We tested three functional hypotheses for snake scent application—antipredator, conspecific deterrence and ectoparasite defence—by examining reactions to rattlesnake scent by rattlesnakes, ground squirrels and ectoparasites (fleas). Rattlesnakes were more attracted to ground squirrel scent than to ground squirrel scent mixed with rattlesnake scent or rattlesnake scent alone. However, ground squirrel behaviour and flea host choice were not affected by rattlesnake scent. Thus, ground squirrels can reduce the risk of rattlesnake predation by applying rattlesnake scent to their bodies, potentially as a form of olfactory camouflage. Opportunistic exploitation of heterospecific scents may be widespread; many species self-apply foreign odours, but few such cases have been demonstrated to serve in antipredator defence. PMID:18198147

  20. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style

    PubMed Central

    Meik, Jesse M; Pires-daSilva, André

    2009-01-01

    Background The rattlesnake rattling system is an evolutionary novelty that includes anatomical, behavioral, and physiological modifications of the generalized pitviper tail. One such modification, the formation of a bony clublike style at the terminal region of the caudal vertebrae, has not previously been examined in a phylogenetic context. Here we used skeletal material, cleared and stained preparations, and radiographs of whole preserved specimens to examine interspecific variation in style morphology among 34 rattlesnake species. Results Evolutionary Principal Components Analysis revealed an inverse relationship between caudal segmental counts and style size, supporting the hypothesis that bone from caudal vertebral elements was reallocated to style formation during the evolution of this structure. Most of the basal rattlesnake species have small styles consisting of few compacted vertebral elements; however, early in the rattlesnake radiation there appears to have been two independent transitions to relatively large, pronged styles consisting of multiple coalesced vertebrae (once in Sistrurus catenatus, and once in Crotalus following the divergence of the Mexican long-tailed rattlesnakes). In terms of style shape, the two most divergent species, C. catalinensis and C. ericsmithi, provide insight into the possible relationship between style and rattle matrix morphology and lineage-specific evolutionary strategies for retaining rattle segments. Conclusion The considerable interspecific variation in rattle morphology appears to correspond to variation in the bony style. We hypothesize that style morphology evolves indirectly as an integrated module responding to adaptive evolution on matrix morphology. PMID:19208237

  1. Crotalus aquilus in the Mexican state of Mexico consumes a diverse summer diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mociño-deloya, E.; Setser, K.; Peurach, S.C.; Meik, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We report observations of the summer diet of Crotalus aquilus (Queretaro dusky rattlesnake) from an agricultural region near San Pedro de los Metates, municipality of Acambay, state of Mexico, Mexico. We recovered the remains of 12 individual prey items from 11 different snakes. Eleven of 38 (29%) snakes observed contained prey remains, including 6 mammals, 3 lizards, and 3 snakes. These observations suggest that C. aquilus consumes a diverse diet and that they may be more ophiophagous than many other rattlesnakes.

  2. A rare case of multiple rattlesnake bites.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Yanko T; Kristeva, Sasha A; Prancheva, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    The rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) is a venomous viper inhabiting the southeastern parts of the United States. It is not found in the Balkans and Europe habitats. Subjects of the species are grown and seen in museums, exhibitions and terrariums, and sometimes in private collections. This may generate potentially toxic exposures to the venom in accidental contact. Acute poisoning with rattlesnake poison in Bulgaria is exotic, rare and even casuistic. The venom of the rattlesnake exhibits neuropathic, proteolytic and hemolytic activities. Antivenom is not currently easily available in Bulgaria--it is not usually stored in hospitals because it is very rarely used and therefore rather expensive. We present a case of multiple envenomation (two different occasions) of one and the same person who kept rattlesnakes in a private terrarium. Local toxic syndrome was observed with burning and stinging pain at bite site combined with limited hemorrhage and necrosis. The hemolytic reaction and the local toxic results were successfully managed without resorting to any specific antidotal therapy.

  3. California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) defenses against rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic toxins.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Chien, David C; Coss, Richard G

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that some mammals are able to neutralize venom from snake predators. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) show variation among populations in their ability to bind venom and minimize damage from northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but the venom toxins targeted by resistance have not been investigated. Four California ground squirrel populations, selected for differences in local density or type of rattlesnake predators, were assayed for their ability to neutralize digestive and hemostatic effects of venom from three rattlesnake species. In Douglas ground squirrels (S. b. douglasii), we found that animals from a location where snakes are common showed greater inhibition of venom metalloprotease and hemolytic activity than animals from a location where snakes are rare. Effects on general proteolysis were not different. Douglas ground squirrels also reduced the metalloprotease activity of venom from sympatric northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus oreganus) more than the activity of venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox), but enhanced fibrinolysis of sympatric venom almost 1.8 times above baseline levels. Two Beechey ground squirrel (S. b. beecheyi) populations had similar inhibition of venoms from northern and southern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. helleri), despite differences between the populations in the locally prevalent predator. However, the venom toxins inhibited by Beechey squirrels did vary among venom from Pacific rattlesnake subspecies, and between these venoms and venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes. Blood plasma from Beechey squirrels showed highest inhibition of metalloprotease activity of northern Pacific rattlesnake venom, general proteolytic activity and hemolysis of southern Pacific rattlesnake venom, and hemolysis by allopatric western diamondback venom. These results reveal previously cryptic variation in venom activity against

  4. No safety in the trees: Local and species-level adaptation of an arboreal squirrel to the venom of sympatric rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Pomento, Abby M; Perry, Blair W; Denton, Robert D; Gibbs, H Lisle; Holding, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Within some species, squirrels respond to variable selection from venomous snake predators by showing population-level variation in resistance, while between species, some rattlesnakes possess venom that is more effective at overcoming venom resistance in different species of squirrels. A functional evaluation of resistance variation to venom within and between species of squirrels and snakes can link resistance variation to its evolutionary causes across these different evolutionary scales. To do this, we compared the effectiveness of squirrel sera in inhibiting rattlesnake (Crotalus spp.) venom metalloproteinase activity between populations and between species to test for a response to local variation in selection from a single rattlesnake predator and for specialization of two resistant squirrel species to each of their distinct sympatric snake predators. We found that Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) venom inhibition by Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) is higher at a site where the rattlesnakes are present, which suggests selection may maintain venom resistance in populations separated by short distances. Next, we performed a reciprocal cross of venoms and sera from two rattlesnake and two squirrel species. This showed that squirrel resistance is lower when tested against venom from allopatric compared to sympatric rattlesnake species, demonstrating that squirrel inhibitors are specialized to sympatric venom and suggesting a tradeoff in terms of specialization to the venom of a specific species of rattlesnake predator. This pattern can be explained if inhibitors must recognize venom proteins and resistance evolution tracks venom evolution. PMID:27158112

  5. California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) defenses against rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic toxins.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Chien, David C; Coss, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that some mammals are able to neutralize venom from snake predators. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) show variation among populations in their ability to bind venom and minimize damage from northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but the venom toxins targeted by resistance have not been investigated. Four California ground squirrel populations, selected for differences in local density or type of rattlesnake predators, were assayed for their ability to neutralize digestive and hemostatic effects of venom from three rattlesnake species. In Douglas ground squirrels (S. b. douglasii), we found that animals from a location where snakes are common showed greater inhibition of venom metalloprotease and hemolytic activity than animals from a location where snakes are rare. Effects on general proteolysis were not different. Douglas ground squirrels also reduced the metalloprotease activity of venom from sympatric northern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. oreganus) more than the activity of venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox), but enhanced the fibrinolysis of sympatric venom almost 1.8 times above baseline levels. Two Beechey ground squirrel (S. b. beecheyi) populations had similar inhibition of venoms from northern and southern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. helleri), despite differences between the populations in the locally prevalent predator. However, the venom toxins inhibited by Beechey squirrels varied among venom from Pacific rattlesnake subspecies, and between these venoms and venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes. Blood plasma from Beechey squirrels showed highest inhibition of metalloprotease activity of northern Pacific rattlesnake venom, general proteolytic activity and hemolysis of southern Pacific rattlesnake venom, and hemolysis by allopatric western diamondback venom. These results reveal previously cryptic variation in venom activity against resistant prey

  6. Facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia after a timber rattlesnake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Madey, Jason J; Price, Amanda B; Dobson, Joseph V; Stickler, David E; McSwain, S David

    2013-11-01

    The timber rattlesnake, also known as Crotalus horridus, is well known to cause significant injury from toxins stored within its venom. During envenomation, toxic systemic effects immediately begin to cause damage to many organ systems including cardiovascular, hematologic, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurologic. One defining characteristic of the timber rattlesnake is a specific neurotoxin called crotoxin, or the "canebrake toxin," which is a potent β-neurotoxin affecting presynaptic nerves that can cause paralysis by inhibiting appropriate neuromuscular transmission. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old boy bitten twice on his calf by a timber rattlesnake, who presented with a life-threatening envenomation and suffered multisystem organ failure as well as a prominent presynaptic neurotoxicity resulting in facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia.

  7. Reducing rattlesnake-human conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    Arizona is home to 11 species of rattlesnakes. As rapidly growing Arizona communities move into formerly undeveloped landscapes, encounters between people and rattlesnakes increase. As a result, the management of nuisance snakes, or snakes found in areas where people do not want them, is increasingly important. Since 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted research on the behavior and ecology of nuisance rattlesnake in Arizona national park units. A decade of research provides important insights into rattlesnake behavior that can be used by national parks and communities to reduce rattlesnake-human conflicts.

  8. Microscopic agglutination test on captive rattlesnakes : Data on serovars and titers

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, T.C.S.; Santos, A.L.Q.; Lima, A.M.C.; Gomes, D.O.; Cardoso, G.F.; Brites, V.L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is considered the “golden standard” leptospirosis serodiagnostic test, but there is little information about it as it pertains to snakes. To fill this information gap, we provide data on serovars and titers of fifty-six Crotalus durissus collilineatus sera samples that tested positive by MAT (10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.02.006 (Rodrigues et al., 2016) [5]). These data are presented in a table, along with a description of the methodology used for sample collection and serologic testing. PMID:27077089

  9. The Deep Origin and Recent Loss of Venom Toxin Genes in Rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Noah L; Giorgianni, Matt W; Kassner, Victoria A; Selegue, Jane E; Sanchez, Elda E; Carroll, Sean B

    2016-09-26

    The genetic origin of novel traits is a central but challenging puzzle in evolutionary biology. Among snakes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-related toxins have evolved in different lineages to function as potent neurotoxins, myotoxins, or hemotoxins. Here, we traced the genomic origin and evolution of PLA2 toxins by examining PLA2 gene number, organization, and expression in both neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic rattlesnakes. We found that even though most North American rattlesnakes do not produce neurotoxins, the genes of a specialized heterodimeric neurotoxin predate the origin of rattlesnakes and were present in their last common ancestor (∼22 mya). The neurotoxin genes were then deleted independently in the lineages leading to the Western Diamondback (Crotalus atrox) and Eastern Diamondback (C. adamanteus) rattlesnakes (∼6 mya), while a PLA2 myotoxin gene retained in C. atrox was deleted from the neurotoxic Mojave rattlesnake (C. scutulatus; ∼4 mya). The rapid evolution of PLA2 gene number appears to be due to transposon invasion that provided a template for non-allelic homologous recombination. PMID:27641771

  10. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-09-15

    Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. The current study investigates both phenomena resulting from the hybridization of a male snake with type I degradative venom, Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), and a female snake with type II highly toxic venom, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake). SDS-PAGE, enzymology, Western blot and reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) were used to characterize the venom of the C. o. helleri male, the C. s. scutulatus female and their two hybrid offspring as they aged. In general, Crotalus o. helleri × C. s. scutulatus hybrid venoms appeared to exhibit overlapping parental venom profiles, and several different enzyme activity patterns. Both hybrids expressed C. o. helleri father-specific myotoxins as well as C. s. scutulatus mother-specific Mojave toxin. Snake venom metalloprotease activity displayed apparent sex-influenced expression patterns, while hybrid serine protease activities were intermediate to parental activities. The C. s. scutulatus × C. o. helleri hybrid male's venom profile provided the strongest evidence that type I and type II venom characteristics are expressed simultaneously in hybrid venoms, as this snake contained distinctive characteristics of both parental species. However, the possibility of

  11. Comparison of venom composition and biological activities of the subspecies Crotalus lepidus lepidus, Crotalus lepidus klauberi and Crotalus lepidus morulus from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Gerardo; Rucavado, Alexandra; Lazcano, David; Gutiérrez, José María; Borja, Miguel; Lomonte, Bruno; Garza-García, Yolanda; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    The rock rattlesnakes Crotalus lepidus comprise a group (lepidus, klauberi, morulus and maculosus) of poorly known mountain cold-tolerant snakes in Mexico. In particular, Crotalus lepidus morulus is a snake endemic of the northeast of Mexico, whereas Crotalus lepidus klauberi and C. l. lepidus are distributed in some regions of the north and central Mexico and southern U. S. Until now very little data are available from C. lepidus subspecies from Mexico, as the terrain inhabited by these snakes is generally steep and rugged. In this work, we have determined some biochemical and biological properties of C. l. morulus, C. l. klauberi and C. l. lepidus crude venoms. Some minor differences in venoms were noted in SDS-PAGE, HPLC profile and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Partial sequences of metalloproteinases, phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂) and galactose-specific lectins were identified in the venoms. Venoms of C. l. klauberi and C. l. lepidus had significantly higher hemorrhagic and lethal activities than C. l. morulus venom. Proteolytic activity in azocasein was higher in C. l. morulus venom, whereas gelatin hydrolysis was higher in C. l. klauberi. Fibrinogenolytic and PLA₂ activities were very similar in all venoms tested. The histological observations in the gastrocnemius muscle damaged by venoms from all the subspecies confirmed myonecrotic and hemorrhagic activities (at 3 and 24 h), which resulted in a poor regenerative response after 14 days. However, C. l. lepidus and C. l. klauberi venom induced a higher increase in the plasma activity of creatine kinase (CK), evidencing higher myotoxicity, whereas paw edema-inducing activity was higher in C. l. lepidus venom. The results indicate that the venoms from the three subspecies have similar protein profiles in electrophoresis, HPLC and molecular weight determinations. However, differences were found in the biological activities in mice. Notably, the venoms of C. l. lepidus and C. l. klauberi present higher

  12. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlstrom, Thor N.V.; McColly, Robert

    1984-01-01

    There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Arizona, as judged from field studies. Significant concentrations of minerals within the roadless area are not indicated by geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, or aeromagnetic studies. Basalt, volcanic cinders, sand and gravel, and sandstone that may be suitable for construction materials occur in the area, but are more readily accessible outside the roadless area boundary.

  13. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    PubMed

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements.

  14. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    PubMed

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements. PMID:26906281

  15. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    PubMed

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  16. Ground squirrels use an infrared signal to deter rattlesnake predation

    PubMed Central

    Rundus, Aaron S.; Owings, Donald H.; Joshi, Sanjay S.; Chinn, Erin; Giannini, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of communicative signals involves a major hurdle; signals need to effectively stimulate the sensory systems of their targets. Therefore, sensory specializations of target animals are important sources of selection on signal structure. Here we report the discovery of an animal signal that uses a previously unknown communicative modality, infrared radiation or “radiant heat,” which capitalizes on the infrared sensory capabilities of the signal's target. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) add an infrared component to their snake-directed tail-flagging signals when confronting infrared-sensitive rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but tail flag without augmenting infrared emission when confronting infrared-insensitive gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus). Experimental playbacks with a biorobotic squirrel model reveal this signal's communicative function. When the infrared component was added to the tail flagging display of the robotic models, rattlesnakes exhibited a greater shift from predatory to defensive behavior than during control trials in which tail flagging included no infrared component. These findings provide exceptionally strong support for the hypothesis that the sensory systems of signal targets should, in general, channel the evolution of signal structure. Furthermore, the discovery of previously undescribed signaling modalities such as infrared radiation should encourage us to overcome our own human-centered sensory biases and more fully examine the form and diversity of signals in the repertoires of many animal species. PMID:17704254

  17. New immunization protocol to produce crotalic antivenom combining Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and its PLA2.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Luciano Sebastián; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Teibler, Pamela; Maruñak, Silvana; Acosta, Ofelia; Leiva, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Antivenoms are usually obtained by animal immunization with successive inoculations of increasing sublethal amounts of venom, which may impair the animal health. The high lethality of venom requires prolonged immunization plans with small amounts of venom. Thus, we propose an alternative plan that includes a pre-immunization of the animal with phospholipase A2, the main crotoxin component, which is responsible for the whole venom lethality. For comparison, three different immunization schemes were designed: high dose protocol (HDP; 0.5-27 mg of venom), low dose protocol (LDP; 0.1-7 mg of venom) and Mix protocol (MP; preimmunization 0.1-1.2 mg of crotalic PLA2, and then 4.5-8 mg of venom). Antibody titers were determined by ELISA, in blood plasma obtained from the marginal vein of the ear. The neutralizing ability of the different sera obtained by all protocols (HDS, LDS and MS) was tested against the most important pharmacological activities of whole venom: PLA2 activity, myotoxicity, thrombin like activity and lethality. MS showed the best neutralizing efficacy and at the same time, it was obtained by an immunization protocol that takes account of animal health care, since it requires low quantities of venoms in comparison to traditional protocols.

  18. Year End Progress Report on Rattlesnake Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark David; Gleicher, Frederick Nathan; Ortensi, Javier; Schunert, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Rattlesnake is a MOOSE-based radiation transport application developed at INL to support modern multi-physics simulations. At the beginning of the last year, Rattlesnake was able to perform steady-state, transient and eigenvalue calculations for the multigroup radiation transport equations. Various discretization schemes, including continuous finite element method (FEM) with discrete ordinates method (SN) and spherical harmonics expansion method (PN) for the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation, continuous FEM (CFEM) with SN for the least square (LS) formulation, diffusion approximation with CFEM and discontinuous FEM (DFEM), have been implemented. A separate toolkit, YAKXS, for multigroup cross section management was developed to support Rattlesnake calculations with feedback both from changes in the field variables, such as fuel temperature, coolant density, and etc., and in isotope inventory. The framework for doing nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) within Rattlesnake has been set up, and both NDA calculations with SAAF-SN-CFEM scheme and Monte Carlo with OpenMC have been performed. It was also used for coupling BISON and RELAP-7 for the full-core multiphysics simulations. Within the last fiscal year, significant improvements have been made in Rattlesnake. Rattlesnake development was migrated into our internal GITLAB development environment at the end of year 2014. Since then total 369 merge requests has been accepted into Rattlesnake. It is noted that the MOOSE framework that Rattlesnake is based on is under continuous developments. Improvements made in MOOSE can improve the Rattlesnake. It is acknowledged that MOOSE developers spent efforts on patching Rattlesnake for the improvements made on the framework side. This report will not cover the code restructuring for better readability and modularity and documentation improvements, which we have spent tremendous effort on. It only details some of improvements in the following sections.

  19. A Noninvasive Technique for Blocking Vomeronasal Chemoreception in Rattlesnakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, C. Patrick; Chiszar, David; Smith, Hobart M.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the effects of vomeronasal deprivation on strike-induced chemosensory searching (SICS) in rattlesnakes we used a newly developed technique to anesthetize the vomeronasal organs. We compared rate of tongue flicking after striking prey in avomic rattlesnakes to vomic controls. Avomic rattlesnakes exhibited significantly fewer tongue…

  20. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  1. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  2. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  3. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  4. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  5. Summary of geotechnical information in the Rattlesnake Mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K.R.; Gephart, R.E.; Graham, D.L.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes the available geotechnical information from the Rattlesnake Mountain area, located along the southwestern boundary of the Hanford Site. The discussion emphasizes the geohydrologic environment of the anticlinal ridges in the vicinity of Rattlesnake Mountain. Included in the document is information concerning the stratigraphy, structure, geomorphology, seismology, climatology, and hydrology, as well as the resource potential of the Rattlesnake Mountain area. 77 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Living with rattlesnakes: Chernobyl and Dounreay.

    PubMed

    Roff, S R

    2000-01-01

    After the Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident in 1979, a local Pennsylvania resident told The New York Times 'You live with that plant over there for years and years and don't think much about it. But it's like living with a rattlesnake. Sooner or later it's going to bite you. You just don't know when.' As we enter the twenty-first century, many communities find themselves living with rattlesnakes--one at least of which has already bitten. This article considers the official responses to Chernobyl in the first decade after the accident and compares them to the statements surrounding the sudden 1998 decision to decommission the nuclear reprocessing plant at Dounreay in Scotland. PMID:10893942

  7. Limitations of Climatic Data for Inferring Species Boundaries: Insights from Speckled Rattlesnakes

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Fujita, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypes, DNA, and measures of ecological differences are widely used in species delimitation. Although rarely defined in such studies, ecological divergence is almost always approximated using multivariate climatic data associated with sets of specimens (i.e., the “climatic niche”); the justification for this approach is that species-specific climatic envelopes act as surrogates for physiological tolerances. Using identical statistical procedures, we evaluated the usefulness and validity of the climate-as-proxy assumption by comparing performance of genetic (nDNA SNPs and mitochondrial DNA), phenotypic, and climatic data for objective species delimitation in the speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii) complex. Ordination and clustering patterns were largely congruent among intrinsic (heritable) traits (nDNA, mtDNA, phenotype), and discordance is explained by biological processes (e.g., ontogeny, hybridization). In contrast, climatic data did not produce biologically meaningful clusters that were congruent with any intrinsic dataset, but rather corresponded to regional differences in atmospheric circulation and climate, indicating an absence of inherent taxonomic signal in these data. Surrogating climate for physiological tolerances adds artificial weight to evidence of species boundaries, as these data are irrelevant for that purpose. Based on the evidence from congruent clustering of intrinsic datasets, we recommend that three subspecies of C. mitchellii be recognized as species: C. angelensis, C. mitchellii, and C. Pyrrhus. PMID:26107178

  8. Multilocus species delimitation in the Crotalus triseriatus species group (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Robert W; Linkem, Charles W; Dorcas, Michael E; Lathrop, Amy; Jones, Jason M; Alvarado-Díaz, Javier; Grünwald, Christoph I; Murphy, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    Members of the Crotalus triseriatus species group of montane rattlesnakes are widely distributed across the highlands of Mexico and southwestern USA. Although five species are currently recognized within the group, species limits remain to be tested. Genetic studies suggest that species may be paraphyletic and that at least one cryptic species may be present. We generate 3,346 base pairs of DNA sequence data from seven nuclear loci to test competing models of species delimitation in the C. triseriatus group using Bayes factor delimitation. We also examine museum specimens from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt for evidence of cryptic species. We find strong support for a nine-species model and genetic and morphological evidence for recognizing two new species within the group, which we formally describe here. Our results suggest that the current taxonomy of the C. triseriatus species group does not reflect evolutionary history. We suggest several conservative taxonomic changes to the group, but future studies are needed to better clarify relationships among species and examine genetic patterns and structure within wide-ranging lineages.

  9. Cloning, expression, and hemostatic activities of a disintegrin, r-mojastin 1, from the mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elda E; Lucena, Sara E; Reyes, Steven; Soto, Julio G; Cantu, Esteban; Lopez-Johnston, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Belsy; Salazar, Ana Maria; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Galán, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-01

    Interactions with exposed subendothelial extracellular proteins and cellular integrins (endothelial cells, platelets and lymphocytes) can cause alterations in the hemostatic system associated with atherothrombotic processes. Many molecules found in snake venoms induce pathophysiological changes in humans, cause edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Disintegrins are low molecular weight, non-enzymatic proteins found in snake venom that mediate changes by binding to integrins of platelets or other cells and prevent binding of the natural ligands such as fibrinogen, fibronectin or vitronectin. Disintegrins are of great biomedical importance due to their binding affinities resulting in the inhibition of platelet aggregation, adhesion of cancer cells, and induction of signal transduction pathways. RT-PCR was used to obtain a 216 bp disintegrin cDNA from a C. s. scutulatus snake venom gland. The cloned recombinant disintegrin called r-mojastin 1 codes for 71 amino acids, including 12 cysteines, and an RGD binding motif. r-Mojastin 1 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibronectin with an IC50 of 58.3 nM and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood with an IC50 of 46 nM. r-Mojastin 1 was also tested for its ability to inhibit platelet ATP release using PRP resulting with an IC50 of 95.6 nM. MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis showed that r-mojastin has a mass of 7.95676 kDa.

  10. Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis following a rattlesnake bite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lydia; Yao, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    Snakebite victims have been described previously in orthopedic literature in regard to complications such as compartment syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome. We introduce a previously unreported complication of stenosing flexor tenosynovitis in a patient bitten by a rattlesnake. After being bitten in her right forearm, the patient experienced mild systemic symptoms of fever and nausea and was assessed at an outside hospital, where it was determined that she did not suffer from envenomation and therefore did not require antivenin therapy. She presented to our institution 1 week later with signs and symptoms of acute, new-onset right thumb flexor tenosynovitis, with pain and tenderness at the level of the A1 pulley of the thumb, with intermittent triggering. She also presented the following week with ipsilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The patient reported no such symptoms prior to the snakebite. Given the recent development of these conditions after her snakebite, in addition to her history of endocrine disorders, we believe that our patient suffered from envenomation that led to these complications. Nonoperative measures including splinting and steroid injections were taken, with mixed results, and surgical intervention was necessary. While the proper management of snakebites is controversial, especially in regard to the administration of antivenin, we believe our patient would have benefitted from immediate evaluation and consideration for antivenin. PMID:20608624

  11. Evaporative respiratory cooling augments pit organ thermal detection in rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Bovo, Rafael P; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2013-12-01

    Rattlesnakes use their facial pit organs to sense external thermal fluctuations. A temperature decrease in the heat-sensing membrane of the pit organ has the potential to enhance heat flux between their endothermic prey and the thermal sensors, affect the optimal functioning of thermal sensors in the pit membrane and reduce the formation of thermal "afterimages", improving thermal detection. We examined the potential for respiratory cooling to improve strike behaviour, capture, and consumption of endothermic prey in the South American rattlesnake, as behavioural indicators of thermal detection. Snakes with a higher degree of rostral cooling were more accurate during the strike, attacking warmer regions of their prey, and relocated and consumed their prey faster. These findings reveal that by cooling their pit organs, rattlesnakes increase their ability to detect endothermic prey; disabling the pit organs caused these differences to disappear. Rattlesnakes also modify the degree of rostral cooling by altering their breathing pattern in response to biologically relevant stimuli, such as a mouse odour. Our findings reveal that low humidity increases their ability to detect endothermic prey, suggesting that habitat and ambush site selection in the wild may be influenced by external humidity levels as well as temperature.

  12. "Salmonella arizona" Infections in Latinos Associated with Rattlesnake Folk Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Stephen H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted a case-control study to determine the magnitude of the problem of Latino patients who ingested rattlesnake capsules and then developed serious "Salmonella arizona" infections. Eighty-two percent of infected Latinos in 1986-87 who were questioned reported ingesting snake capsules. Discusses the association of ingesting snake capsules with…

  13. A localizing circumferential compression device delayed death after artificial eastern diamondback rattlesnake envenomation to the torso of an animal model in a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hack, Jason B; Orogbemi, Babatunde; Deguzman, Jocelyn M; Brewer, Kori L; Meggs, William J; O'Rourke, Dorcas

    2010-06-01

    Nearly all prior studies to delay onset of systemic toxicity and death after snake bite use a model of distal extremity envenomation. In the first of a series of planned studies using snake venoms with different toxicity profiles, the application of a novel device in a new model of torso envenomation in the setting of Eastern Coral Snake (Micrurus fulvius) venom (a potent neurotoxin) envenomation showed promise by delaying systemic intoxication. In this pilot study, we investigated this novel localizing circumferential compression (LoCC) device's ability to delay onset of life threatening systemic toxicity after Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) envenomation, a potent hemotoxic and myotoxic venom. With university approval, four juvenile female pigs (22-25 kg) were anesthetized, sedated, and intubated but not paralyzed to allow for spontaneous respirations. Each animal was injected subcutaneously with 50 mg of C. adamanteus venom in identical preselected areas of the trunk. After 1 min, two treatment animals had the LoCC device applied; two control animals had no intervention. Vital signs were recorded every 10 min for the first 2 h and every 30 min thereafter. Endpoints included cardiovascular collapse (fatal arrhythmia, loss of mean arterial pressure, or pulse) or respiratory arrest (<3 breaths/min, saturation < 80%) or survival to 7 h. The pigs in the treatment group reached an endpoint at an average time of 355 (+/-65) min compared with control 32 (+/-3.5) min (p < 0.04). In this pilot study, the LoCC device significantly delayed onset of systemic symptoms and death after torso envenomation with Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake venom in this model.

  14. Anthropogenic impacts drive niche and conservation metrics of a cryptic rattlesnake on the Colorado Plateau of western North America.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M R; Davis, M A; Amarello, M; Smith, J J; Schuett, G W; Herrmann, H-W; Holycross, A T; Douglas, M E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems transition quickly in the Anthropocene, whereas biodiversity adapts more slowly. Here we simulated a shifting woodland ecosystem on the Colorado Plateau of western North America by using as its proxy over space and time the fundamental niche of the Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus cerberus). We found an expansive (= end-of-Pleistocene) range that contracted sharply (= present), but is blocked topographically by Grand Canyon/Colorado River as it shifts predictably northwestward under moderate climate change (= 2080). Vulnerability to contemporary wildfire was quantified from available records, with forested area reduced more than 27% over 13 years. Both 'ecosystem metrics' underscore how climate and wildfire are rapidly converting the Plateau ecosystem into novel habitat. To gauge potential effects on C. cerberus, we derived a series of relevant 'conservation metrics' (i.e. genetic variability, dispersal capacity, effective population size) by sequencing 118 individuals across 846 bp of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-ATPase8/6. We identified five significantly different clades (net sequence divergence = 2.2%) isolated by drainage/topography, with low dispersal (F ST = 0.82) and small sizes (2N ef = 5.2). Our compiled metrics (i.e. small-populations, topographic-isolation, low-dispersal versus conserved-niche, vulnerable-ecosystem, dispersal barriers) underscore the susceptibility of this woodland specialist to a climate and wildfire tandem. We offer adaptive management scenarios that may counterbalance these metrics and avoid the extirpation of this and other highly specialized, relictual woodland clades.

  15. Anthropogenic impacts drive niche and conservation metrics of a cryptic rattlesnake on the Colorado Plateau of western North America

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, M. R.; Davis, M. A.; Amarello, M.; Smith, J. J.; Schuett, G. W.; Herrmann, H.-W.; Holycross, A. T.; Douglas, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems transition quickly in the Anthropocene, whereas biodiversity adapts more slowly. Here we simulated a shifting woodland ecosystem on the Colorado Plateau of western North America by using as its proxy over space and time the fundamental niche of the Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus cerberus). We found an expansive (= end-of-Pleistocene) range that contracted sharply (= present), but is blocked topographically by Grand Canyon/Colorado River as it shifts predictably northwestward under moderate climate change (= 2080). Vulnerability to contemporary wildfire was quantified from available records, with forested area reduced more than 27% over 13 years. Both ‘ecosystem metrics' underscore how climate and wildfire are rapidly converting the Plateau ecosystem into novel habitat. To gauge potential effects on C. cerberus, we derived a series of relevant ‘conservation metrics' (i.e. genetic variability, dispersal capacity, effective population size) by sequencing 118 individuals across 846 bp of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-ATPase8/6. We identified five significantly different clades (net sequence divergence = 2.2%) isolated by drainage/topography, with low dispersal (FST = 0.82) and small sizes (2Nef = 5.2). Our compiled metrics (i.e. small-populations, topographic-isolation, low-dispersal versus conserved-niche, vulnerable-ecosystem, dispersal barriers) underscore the susceptibility of this woodland specialist to a climate and wildfire tandem. We offer adaptive management scenarios that may counterbalance these metrics and avoid the extirpation of this and other highly specialized, relictual woodland clades. PMID:27152218

  16. Anthropogenic impacts drive niche and conservation metrics of a cryptic rattlesnake on the Colorado Plateau of western North America.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M R; Davis, M A; Amarello, M; Smith, J J; Schuett, G W; Herrmann, H-W; Holycross, A T; Douglas, M E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems transition quickly in the Anthropocene, whereas biodiversity adapts more slowly. Here we simulated a shifting woodland ecosystem on the Colorado Plateau of western North America by using as its proxy over space and time the fundamental niche of the Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus cerberus). We found an expansive (= end-of-Pleistocene) range that contracted sharply (= present), but is blocked topographically by Grand Canyon/Colorado River as it shifts predictably northwestward under moderate climate change (= 2080). Vulnerability to contemporary wildfire was quantified from available records, with forested area reduced more than 27% over 13 years. Both 'ecosystem metrics' underscore how climate and wildfire are rapidly converting the Plateau ecosystem into novel habitat. To gauge potential effects on C. cerberus, we derived a series of relevant 'conservation metrics' (i.e. genetic variability, dispersal capacity, effective population size) by sequencing 118 individuals across 846 bp of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-ATPase8/6. We identified five significantly different clades (net sequence divergence = 2.2%) isolated by drainage/topography, with low dispersal (F ST = 0.82) and small sizes (2N ef = 5.2). Our compiled metrics (i.e. small-populations, topographic-isolation, low-dispersal versus conserved-niche, vulnerable-ecosystem, dispersal barriers) underscore the susceptibility of this woodland specialist to a climate and wildfire tandem. We offer adaptive management scenarios that may counterbalance these metrics and avoid the extirpation of this and other highly specialized, relictual woodland clades. PMID:27152218

  17. Specificity analysis of the C-type lectin from rattlesnake venom, and its selectivity towards Gal- or GalNAc-terminated glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Young, N Martin; van Faassen, Henk; Watson, David C; Mackenzie, C Roger

    2011-08-01

    The rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom lectin is a readily-prepared decameric C-type lectin, specific for Gal and GalNAc. Glycan microarray analysis showed it reacted with a wide range of glycans, chiefly recognizing sets of compounds with Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc), α-Gal or α-GalNAc non-reducing termini. Its array profile was therefore distinctly different from those of four previously studied mammalian C-type lectins with the same Gal/GalNAc monosaccharide specificity, and it was more broadly reactive than several Gal- or GalNAc-specific plant lectins commonly used for glycan blotting. Though a general reactivity towards glycoproteins might be expected from the avidity conferred by its high valence, it showed a marked preference for glycoproteins with multiple glycans, terminated by Gal or GalNAc. Thus its ten closely-spaced sites each with a K(D) for GalNAc of ~2 mM appeared to make RSVL more selective than the four more widely-spaced sites of soybean agglutinin, with a ten-fold better K(D) for GalNAc.

  18. Rattlesnake bite in a patient with horse allergy and von Willebrand's disease: case report.

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, I.

    1996-01-01

    Massasauga rattlesnakes are the only poisonous snakes in Ontario. While death from bites of this species is rare, the bite could cause a coagulopathy. I report a case of rattlesnake bite in a patient with asthma, horse allergy, and a documented congenital clotting abnormality. Images p2208-a PMID:8939322

  19. Rattlesnake Phospholipase A2 Increases CFTR-Chloride Channel Current and Corrects ∆F508CFTR Dysfunction: Impact in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Faure, Grazyna; Bakouh, Naziha; Lourdel, Stéphane; Odolczyk, Norbert; Premchandar, Aiswarya; Servel, Nathalie; Hatton, Aurélie; Ostrowski, Maciej K; Xu, Haijin; Saul, Frederick A; Moquereau, Christelle; Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Planelles, Gabrielle; Teulon, Jacques; Herrmann, Harald; Roldan, Ariel; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Dadlez, Michal; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ollero, Mario; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Edelman, Aleksander

    2016-07-17

    Deletion of Phe508 in the nucleotide binding domain (∆F508-NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR; a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel) is the most frequent mutation associated with cystic fibrosis. This mutation affects the maturation and gating of CFTR protein. The search for new high-affinity ligands of CFTR acting as dual modulators (correctors/activators) presents a major challenge in the pharmacology of cystic fibrosis. Snake venoms are a rich source of natural multifunctional proteins, potential binders of ion channels. In this study, we identified the CB subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus as a new ligand and allosteric modulator of CFTR. We showed that CB interacts with NBD1 of both wild type and ∆F508CFTR and increases their chloride channel currents. The potentiating effect of CB on CFTR activity was demonstrated using electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in CFTR-HeLa cells, and ex vivo in mouse colon tissue. The correcting effect of CB was shown by functional rescue of CFTR activity after 24-h ΔF508CFTR treatments with CB. Moreover, the presence of fully glycosylated CFTR was observed. Molecular docking allowed us to propose a model of the complex involving of the ABCβ and F1-like ATP-binding subdomains of ΔF508-NBD1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis confirmed stabilization in these regions, also showing allosteric stabilization in two other distal regions. Surface plasmon resonance competition studies showed that CB disrupts the ∆F508CFTR-cytokeratin 8 complex, allowing for the escape of ∆F508CFTR from degradation. Therefore CB, as a dual modulator of ΔF508CFTR, constitutes a template for the development of new anti-CF agents. PMID:27241308

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) of size-selected crotalid venom antigens by Wyeth's polyvalent antivenom.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, R C; Randall, H; Resk, J; Carlson, R W

    1988-01-01

    The binding of Antivenom (Crotalidae) Polyvalent to fractions from crude venoms of eight crotalid and one viperid snake, obtained by high performance size-exclusion chromatography, was determined with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most of the large (greater than 30,000 mol. wt) molecular mass crotalid venom fractions were associated with high (greater than 0.7 absorbance units) ELISA values. Similarly, the medium (13,000-30,000 mol. wt) and small (less than 14,000 mol. wt) molecular mass crotalid venom fractions were coincident with moderate (0.3-0.7 absorbance units) and low (less than 0.3 absorbance units) ELISA levels. Some variability in this pattern was seen with individual venom fractions. A distinctly different pattern of ELISA values were observed with two rattlesnake venoms: the South American (Crotalus durissus terrificus) and Mojave desert (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) rattlesnakes. The elution profile from these venoms showed a progression of low to moderate ELISA values within the large molecular mass fractions. This pattern was followed by a decline to low ELISA values throughout the remainder of the elution profile. When saw scaled viper (Echis carinatus leucogaster) venom fractions were tested, only background ELISA values were detected with antivenom. Similarly, background ELISA values were associated with the small molecular mass fractions of all venoms tested. In addition, the elution position for the basic peptides of southern Pacific (Crotalus viridis helleri) and timber (Crotalus h. horridus) rattlesnake venoms showed minimal ELISA values. These data support the view that except for the venom of C. durissus terrificus and C. s. scutulatus, most antivenom antibodies bind large (greater than 30,000 mol. wt) venom fractions. Thus, antivenom contains minimal levels of antibodies to the basic peptides in these venoms. PMID:3347932

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard W; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, Deanna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; Tencate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De'andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  3. Behavioral Plasticity and the Origins of Novelty: The Evolution of the Rattlesnake Rattle.

    PubMed

    Allf, Bradley C; Durst, Paul A P; Pfennig, David W

    2016-10-01

    Environmentally induced behavior (behavioral plasticity) has long been hypothesized to promote the origins of novel morphological traits, but this idea remains controversial. One context in which this hypothesis can be evaluated is animal communication, where behavior and morphology are often linked. Here, we examined the evolution of one of nature's most spectacular communication signals: the rattlesnake rattle. We specifically evaluated whether rattlesnake rattling behavior-and, hence, the rattle-originated from a simple behavior: vibrating the tail when threatened. By reconstructing the ancestral state of defensive tail vibration, we show that this behavior is nearly ubiquitous in the Viperidae (the family that includes rattlesnakes) and widespread in the Colubridae (the largest snake family, nearly all of which are nonvenomous), suggesting a shared origin for the behavior between these families. After measuring tail vibration in 56 species of Viperidae and Colubridae, we show that the more closely related a species was to rattlesnakes, the more similar it was to rattlesnakes in duration and rate of tail vibration. Thus, the rattlesnake rattle might have evolved via elaboration of a simple behavior. These data thereby support the long-standing hypothesis that behavioral plasticity often precedes-and possibly instigates-the evolution of morphological novelty. PMID:27622880

  4. Rattlesnake Bites in Southern California and Rationale for Recommended Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wingert, Willis A.; Chan, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Rattlesnake bite is most common in young men who often are intoxicated and have purposely handled a venomous snake. The incidence of bites is highest in the spring and early summer months, and they most often occur in the afternoon. The hands and feet only are involved in 95% of all bites. First-aid therapy should be limited to splinting the extremity and transporting the victim to a medical facility. Definitive therapy is administering antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent intravenously in adequate initial doses and repeating every two hours until the venom is completely neutralized. Serum sickness usually follows all doses of more than five vials but is readily controlled by giving corticosteroids. Bites are avoided by protecting the hands and feet, not handling venomous snakes, and using utmost caution while in the snakes' habitat. PMID:3277335

  5. Isolation of reptilian calicivirus Crotalus type 1 from feral pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Barlough, J E; Matson, D O; Skilling, D E; Berke, T; Berry, E S; Brown, R F; Smith, A W

    1998-07-01

    Ten virus isolates were obtained from three species of marine mammals sampled on San Miguel Island (California, USA) and 1,200 km north on Rogue Reef (Oregon, USA) during tagging operations in 1986-87. Seven of these 10 were derived from 30 sampled Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus pups, while two of 10 were isolated from one of 19 sampled California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus pups, and the remaining isolate was derived from 30 sampled northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. All 10 isolates were identified as belonging to a single serotype, reptilian calicivirus Crotalus type 1 (RCV Cro-1), previously isolated from both healthy and diseased snakes and frogs in a California zoologic collection. The marine samples also showed that nine of 30 Steller sea lion pups, one of 19 California sea lion pups and zero of 30 fur seal pups were producing type specific neutralizing antibodies to RCV Cro-1. This represents the first reported instance of the isolation from marine sources of calicivirus originally isolated from a terrestrial species. PMID:9706554

  6. Water-quality assessment of Rattlesnake Creek watershed, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Kenneth F.; Tobin, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical and biological water quality in Rattlesnake Creek basin, Ohio, are evaluated. The data include field and laboratory data for eight sites during August 1976- August 1977 and summaries of earlier (1972-76) data. Streamflow was below normal during the study period. Basin waters types were calcium bicarbonate or calcium magnesium bicarbonate. Specific conductance ranged from 405 to 1,300 micromhos per centimeter. High concentrations of sodium (110-140 milligrams per liter) , nitrogen (24 milligrams per liter as N), and phosphorus (7.8 milligrams per liter as P) were observed during low flows downstream from domestic sewage facilities. Nonpoint sources contributed high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen to all streams during the high flows of winter and spring. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the upper basin ranged from 3.2 to 18.4 milligrams per liter. Mean saturation values of dissolved oxygen were at or near 100 percent in the lower basin. Stream pH exceeded 8.4 when dissolved-oxygen saturation was above 120 percent. Bacteria and invertebrate data suggest that moderate pollution from cultural sources may exist in the upper basin. Water quality was poorest in the sluggish flows of the upper basin but improved downstream. Increases in flow velocity and stream aeration rates, dilution, and biological activity contributed to the downstream recovery. Except for' high nitrogen concentrations, water quality was best in the lower basin.

  7. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Webb, Colleen T; Collyer, Michael L; Holycross, Andrew T; Painter, Charles W; Kamees, Larry K; Douglas, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  8. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Webb, Colleen T; Collyer, Michael L; Holycross, Andrew T; Painter, Charles W; Kamees, Larry K; Douglas, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  9. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mark A.; Douglas, Marlis R.; Webb, Colleen T.; Collyer, Michael L.; Holycross, Andrew T.; Painter, Charles W.; Kamees, Larry K.; Douglas, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., ‘short range endemics,’ SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  10. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.J.

    1987-10-01

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides.

  11. Effects of Deprivation of Vomeronasal Chemoreception on Prey Discrimination in Rattlesnakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, C. Patrick; Tiernan, Chelsea; Chiszar, David

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that rattlesnakes can discriminate between envenomed and nonenvenomed rodent prey based on venom-related cues deposited during the strike. This behavior is crucial to the snake's ability to choose the chemical trail left by an envenomed rodent fleeing the strike area and aids in the snake's ability to relocate the rodent.…

  12. Electric shocks are ineffective in treatment of lethal effects of rattlesnake envenomation in mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Mackessy, S P

    1987-01-01

    Electrical shocks, even crudely delivered from 'stun guns' and gasoline engine spark plugs, have been reported to be effective in the treatment of snake bite. We thus applied similar electric shocks to mice artificially injected with reconstituted rattlesnake venom at various LD50 multiples. Those envenomated mice treated with electric shock survived no better than the controls. We thus found no evidence that electric shocks crudely administered had any life saving effect in mice.

  13. Complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Missoula County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulik, Dolores M.

    1986-01-01

    The rocks in the study area consist mainly of the Helena Formation and the Missoula Group of the Belt Supergroup (Proterozoic Y).  Rock units of less importance are diabase sills and dikes of probable Proterozoic Z age, Middle Cambrian rocks, and glacial deposits.  Structurally, the study area consists of the Rattlesnake thrust system in the south part and a parautochthonous area broken by vertical faults in the north part.

  14. Integration of visual and infrared information in bimodal neurons in the rattlesnake optic tectum

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, E.A.; Hartline, P.H.

    1981-08-14

    Bimodal neurons in the rattlesnake tectum, which receive sensory input from the retina and from the infrared-sensing pit organ, exhibit novel, highly nonlinear cross-modality interactions. Some units respond only to simultaneous bimodal stimulation. Others respond to only one of the two modalities, but show greatly enhanced or depressed responses when stimulated simultaneously in the second modality. These cross-modality interactions may play an important role in recognizing and orienting toward biologically important objects.

  15. Exceptionally high thermal sensitivity of rattlesnake TRPA1 correlates with peak current amplitude.

    PubMed

    Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-02-01

    Extraordinary infrared-sensing ability of snake pit organs closely correlates with rich expression of TRPA1 transcripts in pit-innervating sensory neurons, strongly suggesting that TRPA1 is the molecular basis of the infrared detection. Here, it is shown that temperature coefficient Q10 (the fold current increase over 10°C increase) of rattlesnake TRPA1 heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes increases proportionally to current amplitudes when appraised with two independent methods, the canonical Arrhenius plot analysis and newly devised Q10 scanning that assigns Q10 to each recorded temperature point. Moreover, for larger TRPA1 currents, the rise of Q10 from elevation of current sizes was steeper, yielding maximal Q10s up to ~100,000. TRPA1 from boas with less sensitive infrared-sensing ability was also sharply activated by temperature increase in oocytes, while Q10 rise from escalating current amplitudes was moderate compared to rattlesnake TRPA1. In contrast, thermal sensitivity of Drosophila TRPA1 was little dependent on current sizes, indicating that the steeply proportional current amplitude/thermosensitivity relationship is unique to the snake TRPA1s. Taken together, rattlesnake and boa TRPA1s are regulated to generate sufficient thermal sensitivity for infrared detection, providing an interesting context to further study the temperature-dependent activation mechanism of thermo-TRPs.

  16. Initial RattleSnake Calculations of the Hot Zero Power BEAVRS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ellis; J. Ortensi; Y. Wang; K. Smith; R.C. Martineau

    2014-01-01

    The validation of the Idaho National Laboratory's next generation of reactor physics analysis codes is an essential and ongoing task. The validation process requires a large undertaking and includes detailed, realistic models that can accurately predict the behavior of an operational nuclear reactor. Over the past few years the INL has developed the RattleSnake application and supporting tools on the MOOSE framework to perform these reactor physics calculations. RattleSnake solves the linearized Boltzmann transport equation with a variety of solution meth­ ods. Various traditional reactor physics benchmarks have already been performed, but a more realistic light water reactor comparison was needed to solidify the status of the code and deter­ mine its fidelity. The INL team decided to use the Benchmark for Evaluation and Validation of Reactor Simulations, which was made available in early 2013. This benchmark is a one­ of-a-kind document assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which includes two cycles of detailed, measured PWR operational data. The results from this initial study of the hot zero power conditions show the current INL analysis procedure with DRAGON4 cross section preparation and using the low order diffusion solver in RattleSnake for the whole core calculations yield very encouraging results for PWR analysis. The radial assembly power distributions, radial detector measurements and control rod worths were computed with good accuracy. The computation of the isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity require further study.

  17. Coevolution of venom function and venom resistance in a rattlesnake predator and its squirrel prey.

    PubMed

    Holding, Matthew L; Biardi, James E; Gibbs, H Lisle

    2016-04-27

    Measuring local adaptation can provide insights into how coevolution occurs between predators and prey. Specifically, theory predicts that local adaptation in functionally matched traits of predators and prey will not be detected when coevolution is governed by escalating arms races, whereas it will be present when coevolution occurs through an alternate mechanism of phenotype matching. Here, we analyse local adaptation in venom activity and prey resistance across 12 populations of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes and California ground squirrels, an interaction that has often been described as an arms race. Assays of venom function and squirrel resistance show substantial geographical variation (influenced by site elevation) in both venom metalloproteinase activity and resistance factor effectiveness. We demonstrate local adaptation in the effectiveness of rattlesnake venom to overcoming present squirrel resistance, suggesting that phenotype matching plays a role in the coevolution of these molecular traits. Further, the predator was the locally adapted antagonist in this interaction, arguing that rattlesnakes are evolutionarily ahead of their squirrel prey. Phenotype matching needs to be considered as an important mechanism influencing coevolution between venomous animals and resistant prey.

  18. Geochemical map of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Coconino and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerstel, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The geochemical survey of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area was conducted in May 1982 by the U.S. Geological Survey to aid in a mineral resource appraisal of the area. A total of 114 stream-sediment samples, 68 heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment, 20 rock samples, and 4 water samples was collected by S.C. Rose, D.E. Hendzel, and W.J. Gerstel, with helicopter support from Jack Ruby, pilot for Helicopters Unlimited. All sample localities are plotted on the map; sample localities showing anomalous barium and lead are also indicated on the map.

  19. Identification and functional analysis of a novel bradykinin inhibitory peptide in the venoms of New World Crotalinae pit vipers

    SciTech Connect

    James Graham, Robert Leslie . E-mail: rl.graham@ulster.ac.uk; Graham, Ciaren; McClean, Stephen; Chen, Tianbao; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David; Theakston, David; Shaw, Chris

    2005-12-23

    A novel undecapeptide has been isolated and structurally characterized from the venoms of three species of New World pit vipers from the subfamily, Crotalinae. These include the Mexican moccasin (Agkistrodon bilineatus), the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis), and the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta). The peptide was purified from all three venoms using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Automated Edman degradation sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established its peptide primary structure as: Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, with a non-protonated molecular mass of 1063.18 Da. A synthetic replicate of the peptide was found to be an antagonist of bradykinin action at the rat vascular B2 receptor. This is the first bradykinin inhibitory peptide isolated from snake venom. Database searching revealed the peptide to be highly structurally related (10/11 residues) with a domain residing between the bradykinin-potentiating peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide domains of a recently cloned precursor from tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom gland. BIP thus represents a novel biological entity from snake venom.

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Gregory

    2003-05-01

    This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

  1. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  2. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  3. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  4. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  5. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  6. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  7. Phenocryst-poor rhyolites of bimodal, tholeiitic provinces: the Rattlesnake Tuff and implications for mush extraction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, Martin J.; Grunder, Anita L.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the origin of rhyolites associated with tholeiitic basalt in bimodal provinces, as exemplified by the Rattlesnake Tuff of the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, in comparison to rhyolites associated with calcalkaline suites in light of recent models of extraction of rhyolite from crystal mush (Hildreth, J Volcanol Geotherm Res, 136:169 198, 2004; Bachmann and Bergantz, J Petrol, 45:1565 1582, 2004). The High Lava Plains encompass a strongly bimodal, tholeiite-rhyolite suite, spatially and compositionally related to the Snake River Plain and Yellowstone Plateau. In our assessment we draw the distinction between fractionation dominated processes to make rhyolites from rhyolites and processes required to make the parental rhyolite melt. New isotopic data and compositional zoning profiles in phenocrysts confirm that crystal fractionation dominated the generation of progressively more evolved, discrete rhyolites in the zoned Rattlesnake Tuff and are consistent with an origin of the least evolved high-silica rhyolites by partial melting of a mafic crust. While the most evolved rhyolites are compositionally virtually indistinguishable from those of calcalkaline suites, the parental rhyolites from bimodal suites are more Fe-rich than their calcalkaline counterparts. Oxygen isotope thermometry yields pre-eruptive temperatures of 860°C, in keeping with 800 880°C zircon saturation temperatures. High magmatic temperatures are common among rhyolites of bimodal suites, distinguishing them from cooler rhyolites of calcalkaline suites. Extraction of interstitial melt from a granodioritic mush cannot produce compositions of the Rattlesnake Tuff on the basis of major and trace element arguments (especially Fe, Ba, Sr, and Eu) and on the basis of temperature considerations. Chemically viable parental crystal mushes are syenite and alkali (A-type) granites for the production of all more evolved Rattlesnake Tuff rhyolites; ferro-dacitic mush is required for production of

  8. Full Core TREAT Kinetics Demonstration Using Rattlesnake/BISON Coupling Within MAMMOTH

    SciTech Connect

    Ortensi, Javier; DeHart, Mark D.; Gleicher, Frederick N.; Wang, Yaqi; Alberti, Anthony L.; Palmer, Todd S.

    2015-08-01

    This report summarizes key aspects of research in evaluation of modeling needs for TREAT transient simulation. Using a measured TREAT critical measurement and a transient for a small, experimentally simplified core, Rattlesnake and MAMMOTH simulations are performed building from simple infinite media to a full core model. Cross sections processing methods are evaluated, various homogenization approaches are assessed and the neutronic behavior of the core studied to determine key modeling aspects. The simulation of the minimum critical core with the diffusion solver shows very good agreement with the reference Monte Carlo simulation and the experiment. The full core transient simulation with thermal feedback shows a significantly lower power peak compared to the documented experimental measurement, which is not unexpected in the early stages of model development.

  9. Rattlesnake hunting behavior: correlations between plasticity of predatory performance and neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Kardong, K V; Berkhoudt, H

    1999-01-01

    Rattlesnakes may shift between visual (eyes) and infrared (facial pits) stimuli without significant loss of predatory performance during an envenomating strike. The relative equivalency of these proximate stimuli is correlated with the organization of the associated neural pathways in the central nervous system. Visual and infrared information, although gathered by different sensory organs, converges within the optic tectum in an orderly spatiotopical representation where bimodal neurons respond to both stimuli. In turn, the tectum sends efferent pathways directly to premotor areas (brainstem) and indirectly to motor areas (spinal cord) where axial muscles involved in the strike might be activated. On the other hand, rattlesnakes do not maintain a high level of equivalent predatory performance when switching between chemosensory stimuli i.e., olfactory, and vomeronasal information. Deprived of vomeronasal input, strikes drop by about half, and poststrike trailing is lost entirely. Surprisingly, compensation by switching to information delivered via an intact olfactory input does not occur, despite the convergence of chemosensory information within the central nervous system. Finally, the launch of a targeted, envenomating strike involves both these modalities: radiation reception (visual, infrared) and chemoreception (olfactory, vomeronasal). However, in the absence of chemosensory information, the radiation modalities do not completely compensate, nor does the animal maintain a high level of predatory performance. Similarly, in the absence of radiation information, the chemosensory modalities do not completely compensate, nor does the animal maintain a high level of predatory performance. The absence of compensation in this multimodal system is also correlated with an absence of convergence of radiation and chemical information, at least at the level of first and second-order neurons, in the central nervous system.

  10. Retinal afferents and efferents of an infrared sensitive snake, Crotalus viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The retinal afferents and efferents were examined in Crotalus viridis. Retinofugal fibers were traced by injecting horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or tritiated leucine into the eye, or by removing the eye and staining degenerating axons with silver methods. Terminations were seen contralaterally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei (extensive), the pretectal nuclei, including the nucleus posterodorsalis (a very heavy input), the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, nucleus geniculatus pretectalis, and nucleus pretectalis, the superficial layers of the optic tectum, including the stratum zonale, the stratum opticum, the stratum griseum et fibrosum centrale and the upper portion of stratum griseum centrale, and the basal optic nucleus. Ipsilateral input reaches the intermediate portion of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, a small portion of the pretectal nucleus and nucleus posterodorsalis, and the basal optic nucleus (very minimally). Retinopedal fibers were traced with the HRP method. The cell bodies lie in the ventral thalamus within the nucleus of the ventral supraoptic decussation. These neurons project primarily to the contralateral retina, but some more rostrally located neurons project to the ipsilateral retina.

  11. The forked tongue and edge detection in snakes (Crotalus oreganus): an experimental test.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2008-02-01

    Many stimulus-detection systems are lateralized to allow for simultaneous comparison of paired stimuli. It has been hypothesized that the deeply forked tongue of snakes and some derived lizards functions as a chemical edge detector where cues gathered by each tine are kept separate to provide two points of lateral odor assessment by the central nervous system via vomeronasal input. While following a chemical trail, one time can be on the trail, the other off, and such differential information prompts the snake to turn back to the trail. The authors tested this hypothesis in rattlesnakes within a predatory context by unilaterally severing the vomeronasal nerves. If edge detection is used by snakes during prey trailing, then unilateral denervation should disrupt trailing ability. The authors found no change in the seven separate trailing parameters measured. Therefore, they found no support for the edge detection hypothesis as it applies to prey trailing behavior. Instead, the deeply forked tongue may represent a chemosensory specialization to increase odor-sampling area, with snakes and derived lizards detecting only the concentration of chemical trails.

  12. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  13. Population Characteristics and Seasonal Movement Patterns of the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd - Status Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, B.L.; Zufelt, R.K.; Turner, S.; Cadwell, L.L.; Bender, L.; Turner, G.K.

    2000-10-10

    Population characteristics of the Rattlesnake Hills elk herd indicate reduced herd growth rates from the 1980s compared to the 1990s (McCorquodale 1988; Eberhardt 1996). However, the population continued to grow approximately 25% annually through the 1990s, reaching a high of 838 animals in summer 1999. Calf recruitment rates appear to be cyclic and are likely related to reduced calf survival during the first weeks of life; however, late-term abortions may also have occurred. The cause(s) could be predator-related and/or a function of shifts in nutritional condition (age-class distributions, assuming older-age cows are less likely to recruit calves, major climate shifts) or changes in the human-related disturbances during gestation, and/or calf rearing periods. In fall 1999 and spring 2000, the population was reduced from 838 individuals to 660 individuals. The primary controlling factors were modified hunting seasons on private and state lands and the large-scale roundup conducted in spring 2000. Continued removal of animals (particularly females) within the population will be pivotal to maintain the population at a level that minimizes land damage complaints, animal-vehicle collisions, use of central Hanford areas, and deterioration of natural resources.

  14. Geologic Controls on Channel Morphology and Low-Flow Habitat; Rattlesnake Creek, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, G.; Keller, E.

    2006-12-01

    Channel morphology and baseflow are limiting factors in sustaining low-flow habitat for the spawning and rearing of endangered southern steelhead trout in southern California. To aid the recovery of steelhead trout, it is imperative to determine how pools are formed and maintained in steep mountain streams, and what hydrogeologic factors control baseflow. Rattlesnake Creek, a steep (6 to 31%) boulder-bedrock channel in Santa Barbara, California, was investigated to determine if geologic and hydrogeologic properties, specifically rock strength and fracture density, control channel morphology and low-flow habitat. Analysis of rock strength, fracture density, and channel morphology using a single-factor analysis of variance, Kolmorgorov-Smirnov test and t-test suggest that rock strength and fracture density of the underlying lithology (bed and banks) does not significantly affect the channel morphology at the 0.05 level of significance. However, this study does show that boulder large roughness elements (LREs) armor the channel, controlling channel gradient and the location, abundance and type of pools. Step pools are the dominant pool type, found in reaches up to 18% where cascades might be expected, and steps are composed of resistant sandstone boulder LREs. Although fracture density does not influence the morphology of the channel, baseflow for low-flow habitat is predominantly supplied through fractures in the coldwater sandstone.

  15. ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents. PMID:24037282

  16. Dendrogeomorphic Assessment of the Rattlesnake Gulf Landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tamulonis, Kathryn L.; Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Dendrogeomorphic techniques were used to assess soil movement within the Rattlesnake Gulf landslide in the Tully Valley of central New York during the last century. This landslide is a postglacial, slow-moving earth slide that covers 23 acres and consists primarily of rotated, laminated, glaciolacustrine silt and clay. Sixty-two increment cores were obtained from 30 hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees across the active part of the landslide and from 3 control sites to interpret the soil-displacement history. Annual growth rings were measured and reaction wood was identified to indicate years in which ring growth changed from concentric to eccentric, on the premise that soil movement triggered compensatory growth in displaced trees. These data provided a basis for an 'event index' to identify years of landslide activity over the 108 years of record represented by the oldest trees. Event-index values and total annual precipitation increased during this time, but years with sudden event-index increases did not necessarily correspond to years with above-average precipitation. Multiple-regression and residual-values analyses indicated a possible correlation between precipitation and movement within the landslide and a possible cyclic (decades-long) tree-ring response to displacement within the landslide area from the toe upward to, and possibly beyond, previously formed landslide features. The soil movement is triggered by a sequence of factors that include (1) periods of several months with below-average precipitation followed by persistent above-average precipitation, (2) the attendant increase in streamflow, which erodes the landslide toe and results in an upslope propagation of slumping, and (3) the harvesting of mature trees within this landslide during the last century and continuing to the present.

  17. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  18. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S.

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  19. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  1. Ground squirrel tail-flag displays alter both predatory strike and ambush site selection behaviours of rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Matthew A; Clark, Rulon W

    2012-09-22

    Many species approach, inspect and signal towards their predators. These behaviours are often interpreted as predator-deterrent signals--honest signals that indicate to a predator that continued hunting is likely to be futile. However, many of these putative predator-deterrent signals are given when no predator is present, and it remains unclear if and why such signals deter predators. We examined the effects of one such signal, the tail-flag display of California ground squirrels, which is frequently given both during and outside direct encounters with northern Pacific rattlesnakes. We video-recorded and quantified the ambush foraging responses of rattlesnakes to tail-flagging displays from ground squirrels. We found that tail-flagging deterred snakes from striking squirrels, most likely by advertising squirrel vigilance (i.e. readiness to dodge a snake strike). We also found that tail-flagging by adult squirrels increased the likelihood that snakes would leave their ambush site, apparently by elevating the vigilance of nearby squirrels which reduces the profitability of the ambush site. Our results provide some of the first empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which a prey display, although frequently given in the absence of a predator, may still deter predators during encounters. PMID:22787023

  2. Ground squirrel tail-flag displays alter both predatory strike and ambush site selection behaviours of rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Matthew A; Clark, Rulon W

    2012-09-22

    Many species approach, inspect and signal towards their predators. These behaviours are often interpreted as predator-deterrent signals--honest signals that indicate to a predator that continued hunting is likely to be futile. However, many of these putative predator-deterrent signals are given when no predator is present, and it remains unclear if and why such signals deter predators. We examined the effects of one such signal, the tail-flag display of California ground squirrels, which is frequently given both during and outside direct encounters with northern Pacific rattlesnakes. We video-recorded and quantified the ambush foraging responses of rattlesnakes to tail-flagging displays from ground squirrels. We found that tail-flagging deterred snakes from striking squirrels, most likely by advertising squirrel vigilance (i.e. readiness to dodge a snake strike). We also found that tail-flagging by adult squirrels increased the likelihood that snakes would leave their ambush site, apparently by elevating the vigilance of nearby squirrels which reduces the profitability of the ambush site. Our results provide some of the first empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which a prey display, although frequently given in the absence of a predator, may still deter predators during encounters.

  3. A retrospective study of 40 victims of crotalus snake bites. Analysis of the hepatic necrosis observed in one patient.

    PubMed

    Barraviera, B; Bonjorno Júnior, J C; Arkaki, D; Domingues, M A; Pereira, P C; Mendes, R P; Machado, J M; Meira, D A

    1989-01-01

    Forty patients with a diagnosis of snake bite were studied at the Infectious and Parasitic Disease Service of the Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu. Thirty were males and 10 females, ranging in age from 16 to 70 years. All were farm laborers and 35 of them were bitten in the lower limbs. Two of the 9 patients seen more than 6 hours after the bite died. The low mortality rate (5%) observed could be explained by the early care provided, by the use of appropriate doses of anti-crotalus serum, parenteral hydration, urine alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate and induction of osmotic diuresis with a mannitol solution. Anatomopathological examination of one of the patients who died revealed extensive hepatic necrosis. The authors discuss the possibility of the effect of a factor of snake venom in the genesis of hepatic necrosis and in the increased transaminase levels. PMID:2638023

  4. Type specimens of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) re-examined, with new evidence after more than a century of confusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardwell, Michael D.; Gotte, Steve W.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gilmore, Ned; Poindexter, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The original description of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) was published in 1861 by Robert Kennicott, who did not identify a type specimen or a type locality. We review the history of specimens purported to be the type(s) and various designations of type locality. We provide evidence that ANSP 7069 (formerly one of two specimens of USNM 5027) is the holotype and that the appropriate type locality is Fort Buchanan, near present-day Sonoita, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

  5. Hydrogeologic properties and ground-water chemistry of the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed at well 699-25-80 (DB-14) Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Howland, M.D.; Strait, S.R.

    1980-11-01

    Offsite migration studies were conducted to characterize the hydraulic properties and groundwater chemistry of confined aquifer systems within the Hanford Site. These studies support the recommendations in ERDA-1538 to provide input for hydrologic modeling of groundwater flow within the Hanford Site, to afford information concerning possible contamination of underlying confined aquifer systems and to make the results available to the public. This report presents analytical results and aquifer test procedures used in characterizing the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed at well 699-25-80. The overall close association in groundwater chemistries and presence of elevated nitrate levels suggest that the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed may be locally in communication with the overlying unconfined aquifer system. Other physical evidence which indicates a potential local communication with the unconfined aquifer system includes: favorable stratigraphic position; absence of the confining Elephant Mountain basalt in surrounding areas; and intersection of a recharge boundary during aquifer tests of well 699-25-80.

  6. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  7. Identification of Lys49-PLA2 from crude venom of Crotalus atrox as a human neutrophil-calcium modulating protein.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Md Tipu; Li, Hong-Mei; Lee, Yong Zu; Lim, Soon Sung; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-03-01

    We fortuitously observed a human neutrophil intracellular free-calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) increasing activity in the commercially available phosphodiesterase I (PDE I), which is actually dried crude venom of Crotalus atrox. As this activity was not observed with another commercially available pure PDE I, we tried to find out the causative molecule(s) present in 'crude' PDE, and identified Lys49-phospholipase A2 (Lys49-PLA2 or K49-PLA2), a catalytically inactive protein which belongs to the phospholipase A2 family, by activity-driven three HPLC (reverse phase, size exclusion, reverse phase) steps followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. K49-PLA2 induced Ca(2+) infl ux in human neutrophils without any cytotoxic eff ect. Two calcium channel inhibitors, 2-aminoetoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (30 µM) and SKF-96365 (20 µM) signifi cantly inhibited K49-PLA2-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. These results suggest that K49-PLA2 modulates [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils via 2-APB- and SKF-96365-sensitive calcium channels without causing membrane disruption.

  8. Identification of Lys49-PLA2 from crude venom of Crotalus atrox as a human neutrophil-calcium modulating protein

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Md. Tipu; Li, Hong-Mei; Lee, Yong Zu

    2016-01-01

    We fortuitously observed a human neutrophil intracellular free-calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) increasing activity in the commercially available phosphodiesterase I (PDE I), which is actually dried crude venom of Crotalus atrox. As this activity was not observed with another commercially available pure PDE I, we tried to find out the causative molecule(s) present in 'crude' PDE, and identified Lys49-phospholipase A2 (Lys49-PLA2 or K49-PLA2), a catalytically inactive protein which belongs to the phospholipase A2 family, by activity-driven three HPLC (reverse phase, size exclusion, reverse phase) steps followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. K49-PLA2 induced Ca2+ infl ux in human neutrophils without any cytotoxic eff ect. Two calcium channel inhibitors, 2-aminoetoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (30 µM) and SKF-96365 (20 µM) signifi cantly inhibited K49-PLA2-induced [Ca2+]i increase. These results suggest that K49-PLA2 modulates [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils via 2-APB- and SKF-96365-sensitive calcium channels without causing membrane disruption. PMID:26937214

  9. Lung surface-active fraction as a model system for macromolecular ultrastructural studies with Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Frosolono, M F; Pawlowski, R; Charms, B L; Corbusier, C; Abrams, M; Jones, J

    1973-01-01

    The dog lung surface-active fraction and phosphatidylcholine constituents were subjected to hydrolysis by Crotalus atrox phospholipase A(2). Relative rates of hydrolysis were: dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine > phosphatidylcholine isolated from the surface-active fraction > phosphatidylcholine as an integral component of the intact surface-active macromolecular structure. Cholesterol markedly inhibited, whereas tripalmitin increased, the rate of hydrolysis with both pure phosphatidylcholine substrates. The effect of temperature on the velocity indicated the enzyme was most active when the substrates were in the gel state. These kinetic results, in conjunction with surface chemistry studies, can be interpreted to indicate that the phosphatidylcholine in the intact surface-active macromolecular particle is liquid crystalline due to molecular interactions with other constituents. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of the 2-lysophosphatidylcholines and fatty acids produced from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the intact surface-active fraction indicated that palmitoyl residues were more accessible to the enzyme, perhaps because they occupied positions near the surface of the particle.

  10. Experimental and textural investigation of welding: effects of compaction, sintering, and vapor-phase crystallization in the rhyolitic Rattlesnake Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, Anita L.; Laporte, Didier; Druitt, Tim H.

    2005-04-01

    The abrupt changes in character of variably welded pyroclastic deposits have invited decades of investigation and classification. We conducted two series of experiments using ash from the nonwelded base of the rhyolitic Rattlesnake Tuff of Oregon, USA, to examine conditions of welding. One series of experiments was conducted at atmospheric pressure (1 At) in a muffle furnace with variable run times and temperature and another series was conducted at 5 MPa and 600 °C in a cold seal apparatus with variable run times and water contents. We compared the results to a suite of incipiently to densely welded, natural samples of the Rattlesnake Tuff. Experiments at 1 At required a temperature above 900 °C to produce welding, which is in excess of the estimated pre-eruptive magmatic temperature of the tuff. The experiments also yielded globular clast textures unlike the natural tuff. During the cold-seal experiments, the gold sample capsules collapsed in response to sample densification. Textures and densities that closely mimic the natural suite were produced at 5 MPa, 600 °C and 0.4 wt.% H 2O, over run durations of hours to 2 days. Clast deformation and development of foliation in 2-week runs were greater than in natural samples. Both more and less water reduced the degree of welding at otherwise constant run conditions. For 5 MPa experiments, changes in the degree of foliation of shards and of axial ratios of bubble shards and non-bubble (mainly platy) shards, are consistent with early densification related to compaction and partial rotation of shards into a foliation. Subsequent densification was associated with viscous deformation as indicated by more sintered contacts and deformation of shards. Sintering (local fusion of shard-shard contacts) was increasingly important with longer run times, higher temperatures, and greater pressures. During runs with high water concentrations, sintering was rare and adhesion between clasts was dominated by precipitation of

  11. State of the Art in the Studies on Crotamine, a Cell Penetrating Peptide from South American Rattlesnake

    PubMed Central

    Kerkis, Irina; Hayashi, Mirian A. F.; Prieto da Silva, Alvaro R. B.; Pereira, Alexandre; De Sá Júnior, Paulo Luiz; Zaharenko, Andre J.; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Kerkis, Alexandre; Yamane, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms comprise a naturally selected cocktail of bioactive peptides/proteins and other molecules, each of which playing a defined role thanks to the highly specific interactions with diverse molecular targets found in the prey. Research focused on isolation, structural, and functional characterizations of novel natural biologics (bioactive peptides/proteins from natural sources) has a long way to go through from the basic science to clinical applications. Herein, we overview the structural and functional characteristics of the myoneurotoxin crotamine, firstly isolated from the South American rattlesnake venom. Crotamine is the first venom peptide classified as a natural cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptide (CPP and AMP) with a more pronounced antifungal activity. In contrast to other known natural CPPs and AMPs, crotamine demonstrates a wide spectrum of biological activities with potential biotechnological and therapeutic values. More recent studies have demonstrated the selective in vitro anticancer activity of crotamine. In vivo, using a murine melanoma model, it was shown that crotamine delays tumor implantation, inhibits tumor cells proliferation, and also increases the survival of mice engrafted with subcutaneous melanoma. The structural and functional properties and also the possible biotechnological applications of minimized molecules derived from crotamine are also discussed. PMID:24551848

  12. Core body temperature as adjunct to endpoint determination in murine median lethal dose testing of rattlesnake venom.

    PubMed

    Cates, Charles C; McCabe, James G; Lawson, Gregory W; Couto, Marcelo A

    2014-12-01

    Median lethal dose (LD50) testing in mice is the 'gold standard' for evaluating the lethality of snake venoms and the effectiveness of interventions. As part of a study to determine the murine LD50 of the venom of 3 species of rattlesnake, temperature data were collected in an attempt to more precisely define humane endpoints. We used an 'up-and-down' methodology of estimating the LD50 that involved serial intraperitoneal injection of predetermined concentrations of venom. By using a rectal thermistor probe, body temperature was taken once before administration and at various times after venom exposure. All but one mouse showed a marked, immediate, dose-dependent drop in temperature of approximately 2 to 6°C at 15 to 45 min after administration. The lowest temperature sustained by any surviving mouse was 33.2°C. Surviving mice generally returned to near-baseline temperatures within 2 h after venom administration, whereas mice that did not survive continued to show a gradual decline in temperature until death or euthanasia. Logistic regression modeling controlling for the effects of baseline core body temperature and venom type showed that core body temperature was a significant predictor of survival. Linear regression of the interaction of time and survival was used to estimate temperatures predictive of death at the earliest time point and demonstrated that venom type had a significant influence on temperature values. Overall, our data suggest that core body temperature is a useful adjunct to monitoring for endpoints in LD50 studies and may be a valuable predictor of survival in venom studies.

  13. Core Body Temperature as Adjunct to Endpoint Determination in Murine Median Lethal Dose Testing of Rattlesnake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Charles C; McCabe, James G; Lawson, Gregory W; Couto, Marcelo A

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal dose (LD50) testing in mice is the ‘gold standard’ for evaluating the lethality of snake venoms and the effectiveness of interventions. As part of a study to determine the murine LD50 of the venom of 3 species of rattlesnake, temperature data were collected in an attempt to more precisely define humane endpoints. We used an ‘up-and-down’ methodology of estimating the LD50 that involved serial intraperitoneal injection of predetermined concentrations of venom. By using a rectal thermistor probe, body temperature was taken once before administration and at various times after venom exposure. All but one mouse showed a marked, immediate, dose-dependent drop in temperature of approximately 2 to 6 °C at 15 to 45 min after administration. The lowest temperature sustained by any surviving mouse was 33.2 °C. Surviving mice generally returned to near-baseline temperatures within 2 h after venom administration, whereas mice that did not survive continued to show a gradual decline in temperature until death or euthanasia. Logistic regression modeling controlling for the effects of baseline core body temperature and venom type showed that core body temperature was a significant predictor of survival. Linear regression of the interaction of time and survival was used to estimate temperatures predictive of death at the earliest time point and demonstrated that venom type had a significant influence on temperature values. Overall, our data suggest that core body temperature is a useful adjunct to monitoring for endpoints in LD50 studies and may be a valuable predictor of survival in venom studies. PMID:25527024

  14. Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

  15. Crotamine stimulates phagocytic activity by inducing nitric oxide and TNF-α via p38 and NFκ-B signaling in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Yun Kyu; Krupa, Martin; Nguyen, Anh Ngoc; Do, Bich Hang; Chung, Boram; Vu, Thi Thu Trang; Kim, Song Cheol; Choe, Han

    2016-01-01

    Crotamine is a peptide toxin found in the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus and has antiproliferative, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. Herein, we show that crotamine dose-dependently induced macrophage phagocytic and cytostatic activity by the induction of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, the crotamineinduced expression of iNOS and TNF-α is mediated through the phosphorylation of p38 and the NF-κB signaling cascade in macrophages. Notably, pretreatment with SB203580 (a p38-specific inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (an NF-κB inhibitor) inhibited crotamine-induced NO production and macrophage phagocytic and cytotoxic activity. Our results show for the first time that crotamine stimulates macrophage phagocytic and cytostatic activity by induction of NO and TNF-α via the p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways and suggest that crotamine may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory disease. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 185-190] PMID:26818089

  16. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Neta, Rita Oliveira de Sousa; Trovão, Dilma Maria de Brito Melo; Barbosa, Jose Etham de Lucena; Barros, Adrianne Teixeira; Dias, Thelma Lucia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae "teju" lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was "problems affecting the respiratory system". Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna.

  17. Walker 256 Tumor Growth Suppression by Crotoxin Involves Formyl Peptide Receptors and Lipoxin A4

    PubMed Central

    Brigatte, Patrícia; Faiad, Odair Jorge; Ferreira Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio; Landgraf, Richardt G.; Palma, Mario Sergio; Cury, Yara; Curi, Rui; Sampaio, Sandra Coccuzzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Crotoxin (CTX), the main toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, on Walker 256 tumor growth, the pain symptoms associated (hyperalgesia and allodynia), and participation of endogenous lipoxin A4. Treatment with CTX (s.c.), daily, for 5 days reduced tumor growth at the 5th day after injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the plantar surface of adult rat hind paw. This observation was associated with inhibition of new blood vessel formation and decrease in blood vessel diameter. The treatment with CTX raised plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and its natural analogue 15-epi-LXA4, an effect mediated by formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). In fact, the treatment with Boc-2, an inhibitor of FPRs, abolished the increase in plasma levels of these mediators triggered by CTX. The blockage of these receptors also abolished the inhibitory action of CTX on tumor growth and blood vessel formation and the decrease in blood vessel diameter. Together, the results herein presented demonstrate that CTX increases plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and 15-epi-LXA4, which might inhibit both tumor growth and formation of new vessels via FPRs. PMID:27190493

  18. Peripheral kappa and delta opioid receptors are involved in the antinociceptive effect of crotalphine in a rat model of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Brigatte, Patricia; Konno, Katsuhiro; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Sampaio, Sandra Coccuzzo; Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Picolo, Gisele; Curi, Rui; Cury, Yara

    2013-08-01

    Cancer pain is an important clinical problem and may not respond satisfactorily to the current analgesic therapy. We have characterized a novel and potent analgesic peptide, crotalphine, from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. In the present work, the antinociceptive effect of crotalphine was evaluated in a rat model of cancer pain induced by intraplantar injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Intraplantar injection of tumor cells caused the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia, detected on day 5 after tumor cell inoculation. Crotalphine (6 μg/kg), administered p.o., blocked both phenomena. The antinociceptive effect was detected 1 h after treatment and lasted for up to 48 h. Intraplantar injection of nor-binaltorphimine (50 g/paw), a selective antagonist of κ-opioid receptors, antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the peptide, whereas N,N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Phe-Leu (ICI 174,864, 10 μg/paw), a selective antagonist of δ-opioid receptors, partially reversed this effect. On the other hand, D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr amide (CTOP, 20 g/paw), an antagonist of μ-opioid receptors, did not modify crotalphine-induced antinociception. These data indicate that crotalphine induces a potent and long lasting opioid-mediated antinociception in cancer pain.

  19. Crotamine stimulates phagocytic activity by inducing nitric oxide and TNF-α via p38 and NFκ-B signaling in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Yun Kyu; Krupa, Martin; Nguyen, Anh Ngoc; Do, Bich Hang; Chung, Boram; Vu, Thi Thu Trang; Kim, Song Cheol; Choe, Han

    2016-03-01

    Crotamine is a peptide toxin found in the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus and has antiproliferative, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. Herein, we show that crotamine dose-dependently induced macrophage phagocytic and cytostatic activity by the induction of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, the crotamineinduced expression of iNOS and TNF-α is mediated through the phosphorylation of p38 and the NF-κB signaling cascade in macrophages. Notably, pretreatment with SB203580 (a p38-specific inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (an NF-κB inhibitor) inhibited crotamine-induced NO production and macrophage phagocytic and cytotoxic activity. Our results show for the first time that crotamine stimulates macrophage phagocytic and cytostatic activity by induction of NO and TNF-α via the p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways and suggest that crotamine may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory disease. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 185-190]. PMID:26818089

  20. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae “teju” lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was “problems affecting the respiratory system”. Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna. PMID:23050756

  1. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. PMID:26354849

  2. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    PubMed

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage.

  3. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform.

  4. Validation of a shed skin corticosterone enzyme immunoassay in the African House Snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) and its evaluation in the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Hyatt, Crystal; Gilman, Christine; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the use of an enzyme immunoassay to measure keratin glucocorticoid concentrations in reptilian shed skins. Keratin glucocorticoid concentrations were compared to fecal glucocorticoid concentrations during the period of keratin growth in the African House Snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) and the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus). Biochemical validation was performed for the shed skin and fecal corticosterone enzyme immunoassays in the African House Snake. Biological and physiological validations were attempted in the African House Snake. A statistically significant positive association was detected between shed skin corticosterone and the mean fecal corticosterone metabolites from 3 weeks before to 1 week after the previous ecdysis in the African House Snake. A statistically significant difference was not detected between the shed skin corticosterone concentrations of the minimally handled control and the weekly handled (or experimentally stressed) African House Snakes. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation did not result in the physiological validation anticipated for shed skin corticosterone concentrations in the African House Snake.

  5. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the

  6. CoaTx-II, a new dimeric Lys49 phospholipase A2 from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom with bactericidal potential: Insights into its structure and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J R; Lancellotti, M; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Ramírez, D; González, W; Marangoni, S; Da Silva, S L

    2016-09-15

    Snake venoms are rich and intriguing sources of biologically-active molecules that act on target cells, modulating a diversity of physiological functions and presenting promising pharmacological applications. Lys49 phospholipase A2 is one of the multifunctional proteins present in these complex secretions and, although catalytically inactive, has a variety of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, inflammatory, antifungal activities. Herein, a Lys49 phospholipase A2, denominated CoaTx-II from Crotalus oreganus abyssus, was purified and structurally and pharmacologically characterized. CoaTx-II was isolated with a high degree of purity by a combination of two chromatographic steps; molecular exclusion and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This toxin is dimeric with a mass of 13868.2 Da (monomeric form), as determined by mass spectrometry. CoaTx-II is rich in Arg and Lys residues and displays high identity with other Lys49 PLA2 homologues, which have high isoelectric points. The structural model of dimeric CoaTx-II shows that the toxin is non-covalently stabilized. Despite its enzymatic inactivity, in vivo CoaTx-II caused local muscular damage, characterized by increased plasma creatine kinase and confirmed by histological alterations, in addition to an inflammatory activity, as demonstrated by mice paw edema induction and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 elevation. CoaTx-II also presents antibacterial activity against gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 31NM, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and positive (Staphyloccocus aureus BEC9393 and Rib1) bacteria. Therefore, data show that this newly purified toxin plays a central role in mediating the degenerative events associated with envenomation, in addition to demonstrating antibacterial properties, with potential for use in the development of strategies for antivenom therapy and combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:27530662

  7. CoaTx-II, a new dimeric Lys49 phospholipase A2 from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom with bactericidal potential: Insights into its structure and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J R; Lancellotti, M; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Ramírez, D; González, W; Marangoni, S; Da Silva, S L

    2016-09-15

    Snake venoms are rich and intriguing sources of biologically-active molecules that act on target cells, modulating a diversity of physiological functions and presenting promising pharmacological applications. Lys49 phospholipase A2 is one of the multifunctional proteins present in these complex secretions and, although catalytically inactive, has a variety of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, inflammatory, antifungal activities. Herein, a Lys49 phospholipase A2, denominated CoaTx-II from Crotalus oreganus abyssus, was purified and structurally and pharmacologically characterized. CoaTx-II was isolated with a high degree of purity by a combination of two chromatographic steps; molecular exclusion and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This toxin is dimeric with a mass of 13868.2 Da (monomeric form), as determined by mass spectrometry. CoaTx-II is rich in Arg and Lys residues and displays high identity with other Lys49 PLA2 homologues, which have high isoelectric points. The structural model of dimeric CoaTx-II shows that the toxin is non-covalently stabilized. Despite its enzymatic inactivity, in vivo CoaTx-II caused local muscular damage, characterized by increased plasma creatine kinase and confirmed by histological alterations, in addition to an inflammatory activity, as demonstrated by mice paw edema induction and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 elevation. CoaTx-II also presents antibacterial activity against gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 31NM, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and positive (Staphyloccocus aureus BEC9393 and Rib1) bacteria. Therefore, data show that this newly purified toxin plays a central role in mediating the degenerative events associated with envenomation, in addition to demonstrating antibacterial properties, with potential for use in the development of strategies for antivenom therapy and combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  8. Rattlesnake Mountain Observator (46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W) multispectral optical depth measurements, 1979--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, R.C.

    1995-09-22

    Surface measurements of solar irradiance of the atmosphere were made by a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory. The observatory is located at 46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W at an elevation of 1088 m above mean sea level. The photometer measures the attenuation of direct solar radiation for different wavelengths using 12 filters. Five of these filters (ie., at 428 nm, 486 nm, 535 nm, 785 nm, and 1010 nm, with respective half-power widths of 2, 2, 3, 18, and 28 nm) are suitable for monitoring variations in the total optical depth of the atmosphere. Total optical depths for the five wavelength bands were derived from solar irradiance measurements taken at the observatory from August 5, 1979, to September 2, 1994; these total optical depth data are distributed with this numeric data package (NDP). To determine the contribution of atmospheric aerosols to the total optical depths, the effects of Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption were subtracted (other molecular scattering was minimal for the five filters) to obtain total column aerosol optical depths. The total aerosol optical depths were further decomposed into tropospheric and stratospheric components by calculating a robustly smoothed mean background optical depth (tropospheric component) for each wavelength using data obtained during periods of low stratospheric aerosol loading. By subtracting the smoothed background tropospheric aerosol optical depths from the total aerosol optical depths, residual aerosol optical depths were obtained. These residuals are good estimates of the stratospheric aerosol optical depth at each wavelength and may be used to monitor the long-term effects of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere. These data are available as an NDP from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), and the NDP consists of this document and a set of computerized data files.

  9. Integrated numerical modeling for basin-wide water management: The case of the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, M. A.; Koelliker, J. K.; Govindaraju, R. S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S. R.; Perkins, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water rights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.

  10. Integrated numerical modeling for basin-wide water management: The case of the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.A.; Koelliker, J.K.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S.R.; Perkins, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water fights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.

  11. Crotoxin induces apoptosis and autophagy in human lung carcinoma cells in vitro via activation of the p38MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Liang, Hui; Qin, Zheng-hong; Liu, Chun-yu

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Crotoxin (CrTX) is the primary toxin in South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, and exhibits antitumor and other pharmacological actions in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of the antitumor action of CrTX in human lung carcinoma cells in vitro. Methods: Human lung squamous carcinoma SK-MES-1 cells were tested. The cytotoxicity of CrTX was evaluated in both MTT and colony formation assays. Cell cycle was investigated with flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis was studied with Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-FITC staining. The levels of relevant proteins were analyzed using Western blot assays. Results: CrTX (25, 50, 100 μmol/L) inhibited the growth and colony formation of SK-MES-1 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. CrTX increased the proportion of S phase cells and dose-dependently induced cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulating the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and increasing the level of cleaved caspase-3. Furthermore, CrTX dose-dependently increased the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3-II and beclin 1, and decreased the level of p62 in the cells. Moreover, CrTX (50 μmol/L) significantly increased p38MAPK phosphorylation in the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, blocked the inhibition of CrTX on cell proliferation, as well as CrTX-induced apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Conclusion: The p38MAPK signaling pathway mediates CrTX-induced apoptosis and autophagy of human lung carcinoma SK-MES-1 cells in vitro. PMID:25132339

  12. Modulation of the pharmacological effects of enzymatically-active PLA2 by BTL-2, an isolectin isolated from the Bryothamnion triquetrum red alga

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Simone CB; Fonseca, Fabiana V; Antunes, Edson; Camargo, Enilton A; Morganti, Rafael P; Aparício, Ricardo; Toyama, Daniela O; Beriam, Luís OS; Nunes, Eudismar V; Cavada, Benildo S; Nagano, Celso S; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Nascimento, Kyria S; Toyama, Marcos H

    2008-01-01

    Background An interaction between lectins from marine algae and PLA2 from rattlesnake was suggested some years ago. We, herein, studied the effects elicited by a small isolectin (BTL-2), isolated from Bryothamnion triquetrum, on the pharmacological and biological activities of a PLA2 isolated from rattlesnake venom (Crotalus durissus cascavella), to better understand the enzymatic and pharmacological mechanisms of the PLA2 and its complex. Results This PLA2 consisted of 122 amino acids (approximate molecular mass of 14 kDa), its pI was estimated to be 8.3, and its amino acid sequence shared a high degree of similarity with that of other neurotoxic and enzymatically-active PLA2s. BTL-2 had a molecular mass estimated in approximately 9 kDa and was characterized as a basic protein. In addition, BTL-2 did not exhibit any enzymatic activity. The PLA2 and BTL-2 formed a stable heterodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 24–26 kDa, estimated by molecular exclusion HPLC. In the presence of BTL-2, we observed a significant increase in PLA2 activity, 23% higher than that of PLA2 alone. BTL-2 demonstrated an inhibition of 98% in the growth of the Gram-positive bacterial strain, Clavibacter michiganensis michiganensis (Cmm), but only 9.8% inhibition of the Gram-negative bacterial strain, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae (Xap). PLA2 decreased bacterial growth by 27.3% and 98.5% for Xap and Cmm, respectively, while incubating these two proteins with PLA2-BTL-2 inhibited their growths by 36.2% for Xap and 98.5% for Cmm. PLA2 significantly induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets, whereas BTL-2 did not induce significant platelet aggregation in any assay. However, BTL-2 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by PLA2. In addition, PLA2 exhibited strong oedematogenic activity, which was decreased in the presence of BTL-2. BTL-2 alone did not induce oedema and did not decrease or abolish the oedema induced by the 48/80 compound. Conclusion The

  13. Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2013-03-14

    06/12/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. [Toxicity of venoms from snakes of medical importance in México].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Estévez-Ramírez, Judith; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge F; Litwin, Silvana; Carvajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; Dolab, Jorge A; Robles-Ortiz, Luis E; Alagón, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the toxic activities of snake venoms is necessary to understand the physiopathology of the envenomation and to test the potency of the antivenoms used to treat this pathology. Because of the lack of data on the toxic activities of venoms from Mexican snakes of medical importance, we studied the venoms from Bothrops asper, Athropoides nummifrr, Agkistrodon billineatus, Crotalus durissus durissus, Crotalus basiliscus, Crotalus scutulatus, Crotalus atrox and Micrurus nigrocinctus. The studies performed were: SDS-PAOE, determination of lethal potency, hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulation on plasma and fibrinogen, phospholipasic and fibri(noge)nolytic activities. In addition we studied the neutralizing capacity of the toxic activities of an antivenom currently used for the treatment of snakebites in Mexico. The venom from viperids showed important hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulative on plasma, prothrombinic, fibrinogenolytic and phospholipase activities. The venoms with the highest lethal potency were those of Micrurus nigrocinctus and Crotalus scutulatus; however, the viperine venom that globally displayed the most potent toxic activities was from Bothrops asper. All the venoms showed toxic activities of similar range to those described for other American venomous snakes. The activity on plasma or fibrinogen varied widely among the different venoms but all displayed capacity to act on the coagulation system. The antivenom tested not only neutralized the lethality B. asper venom but also its other toxic activities. PMID:15754746

  15. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Raynner RD; de MS Souto, Wedson; da S Mourão, José

    2007-01-01

    Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary) by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings) as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years) although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus), and foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even mentioned. Fat from

  16. Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2011-08-01

    12/15/2011 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Cross reactivity of three antivenoms against North American snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elda E; Ramírez, María Susana; Galán, Jacob A; López, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Pérez, John C

    2003-03-01

    The antivenom in the United States today is in short supply, expensive and may not even be the most effective in neutralizing venoms from snakes in certain geographical locations. The ED(50) is considered to be the best indicator of antivenom efficacy, however, other tests are needed. In this study, three antivenoms (Antivipmyn (Fab(2)H), Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) (FabO) and UCV (FabV) were used to test the effectiveness of neutralization of eight venoms (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus, Bothrops asper, Crotalus adamanteus, C. durissus durissus, C. horridus atricaudatus, C. h. horridus, C. atrox, and C. molossus molossus). Four different assays were used to study the efficacy of the antivenoms: the antihemorrhagic, antigelatinase, antifibrinolytic and antihide powder azure. Fab(2)H antivenom was more effective in neutralizing the enzymatic activities of these eight venoms than FabO and FabV antivenoms. PMID:12565754

  18. Sidewinding with minimal slip: snake and robot ascent of sandy slopes.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Gong, Chaohui; Gravish, Nick; Astley, Henry; Travers, Matthew; Hatton, Ross L; Mendelson, Joseph R; Choset, Howie; Hu, David L; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-10-10

    Limbless organisms such as snakes can navigate nearly all terrain. In particular, desert-dwelling sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes) operate effectively on inclined granular media (such as sand dunes) that induce failure in field-tested limbless robots through slipping and pitching. Our laboratory experiments reveal that as granular incline angle increases, sidewinder rattlesnakes increase the length of their body in contact with the sand. Implementing this strategy in a physical robot model of the snake enables the device to ascend sandy slopes close to the angle of maximum slope stability. Plate drag experiments demonstrate that granular yield stresses decrease with increasing incline angle. Together, these three approaches demonstrate how sidewinding with contact-length control mitigates failure on granular media. PMID:25301625

  19. Sidewinding with minimal slip: snake and robot ascent of sandy slopes.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Gong, Chaohui; Gravish, Nick; Astley, Henry; Travers, Matthew; Hatton, Ross L; Mendelson, Joseph R; Choset, Howie; Hu, David L; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-10-10

    Limbless organisms such as snakes can navigate nearly all terrain. In particular, desert-dwelling sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes) operate effectively on inclined granular media (such as sand dunes) that induce failure in field-tested limbless robots through slipping and pitching. Our laboratory experiments reveal that as granular incline angle increases, sidewinder rattlesnakes increase the length of their body in contact with the sand. Implementing this strategy in a physical robot model of the snake enables the device to ascend sandy slopes close to the angle of maximum slope stability. Plate drag experiments demonstrate that granular yield stresses decrease with increasing incline angle. Together, these three approaches demonstrate how sidewinding with contact-length control mitigates failure on granular media.

  20. Sidewinding snakes on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Dimenichi, Dante; Chrystal, Robert; Mendelson, Joseph; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David; Georgia Tech and Zoo Atlanta Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Desert snakes such as the rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes propel themselves over sand using sidewinding, a mode of locomotion relying upon helical traveling waves. While sidewinding on hard ground has been described, the mechanics of movement on more natural substrates such as granular media remain poorly understood. In this experimental study, we use 3-D high speed video to characterize the motion of a sidewinder rattlesnake as it moves on a granular bed. We study the movement both on natural desert sand and in an air-fluidized bed trackway which we use to challenge the animal on different compactions of granular media. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the snake's thrust on this media using friction and normal forces on the piles of sand created by the snake's body. The authors thank the NSF (PHY-0848894), Georgia Tech, and the Elizabeth Smithgall Watts endowment for support. We would also like to thank Zoo Atlanta staff for their generous help with this project.

  1. Isolation and identification of a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor from California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) blood sera.

    PubMed

    Biardi, J E; Ho, C Y L; Marcinczyk, J; Nambiar, K P

    2011-11-01

    California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) show blood-based defenses to a variety of toxins in the venom of the Northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus). In this study we demonstrate the presence of an effective snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor (SVMPI) in S. beecheyi. The blood sera of California ground squirrels were effective at reducing the metalloproteinase activity of Northern Pacific (C. o. oreganus) and prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms by over 75%, significantly more than its ability to reduce the activity of western diamondback rattlesnake venom. We used anion exchange and affinity chromatography to isolate this protein from the blood sera of S. beecheyi. This SVMPI had a molecular mass of 108.3 kDa and a pI of 5.1. The IC(50) of this inhibitor against whole venom from C. o. oreganus was determined to be 3.14 × 10(-8) M. Subsequent LC MS/MS analysis of a CNBr/tryptic digest of the inhibitor yielded multiple internal peptide sequences. These sequences showed homology to three other known mammalian plasma proteins: inter-α trypsin inhibitor, and two hibernation-associated proteins, HP25 and HP27. The presence of SVMPI in S. beecheyi blood sera is consistent with the resistance of these animals to venom-induced hemorrhage and tissue damage, and consistent with the protective factors conferring venom resistance in other mammals. However, the variety of SVMPI identified to date from mammalian taxa suggests that different species have converged on neutralization of venom metalloproteinase activity as a key step in venom neutralization.

  2. A new heterologous fibrin sealant as a scaffold to cartilage repair-Experimental study and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Caio Nunes; Miluzzi Yamada, Ana Lúcia; Junior, Rui Seabra F; Barraviera, Benedito; Hussni, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Jaqueline Brandão; Watanabe, Marcos Jun; Rodrigues, Celso Antônio; Garcia Alves, Ana Liz

    2016-07-01

    Autologous fibrin gel is commonly used as a scaffold for filling defects in articular cartilage. This biomaterial can also be used as a sealant to control small hemorrhages and is especially helpful in situations where tissue reparation capacity is limited. In particular, fibrin can act as a scaffold for various cell types because it can accommodate cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. Despite knowledge of the advantages of this biomaterial and mastery of the techniques required for its application, the durability of several types of sealant at the site of injury remains questionable. Due to the importance of such data for evaluating the quality and efficiency of fibrin gel formulations on its use as a scaffold, this study sought to analyze the heterologous fibrin sealant developed from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus using studies in ovine experimental models. The fibrin gel developed from the venom of this snake was shown to act as a safe, stable, and durable scaffold for up to seven days, without causing adverse side effects. Fibrin gel produced from the venom of the Crotalus durissus terrificus snake possesses many clinical and surgical uses. It presents the potential to be used as a biomaterial to help repair skin lesions or control bleeding, and it may also be used as a scaffold when applied together with various cell types. The intralesional use of the fibrin gel from the venom of this snake may improve surgical and clinical treatments in addition to being inexpensive and adequately consistent, durable, and stable. The new heterologous fibrin sealant is a scaffold candidate to cartilage repair in this study.

  3. Expression of mRNAs coding for VAP1/crotastatin-like metalloproteases in the venom glands of three South American pit vipers assessed by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Tavares, N A C; Correia, J M; Guarnieri, M C; Lima-Filho, J L; Prieto-da-Silva, A R B; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2008-12-15

    Snake venom metalloproteases encompass a large family of toxins, with approximately 200 members already catalogued, which exhibit a diversity of structures and biological functions. From this relatively large number, only a dozen examples of apoptosis-inducing metalloproteases, like VAP1 and 2 from the venom of Crotalus atrox, are known. Since most VAP1-like toxins ever characterized were purified from the venom of Viperidae species inhabiting diverse places on earth, we investigate the expression of VAP-like metalloproteases in the venom gland of three representative pit vipers of the Brazilian territory. By molecular cloning and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, using as calibrator gene the Crotalus durissus terrificus homolog of VAP1, named crotastatin, it is reported here that VAP1/crotastatin-like homologues in the venom gland of Bothrops atrox, C. d. cascavella and Lachesis m. rhombeata are expressed at different levels. Hence, batroxstatins, the crotastatin-like precursors from B. atrox, are expressed 87 times more than crotastatin-1, from C. d. cascavella, and 7.5-fold that lachestatins, from L. m. rhombeata. Moreover, in silico structural analysis of amino acid sequences indicates that batroxstatin-2, crotastatins and lachestatin-1 and -2 which share the archetypal motifs and metal- binding sites of VAP1, are subgrouped in a branch that comprises some apoptosis-inducing toxins. PMID:18926840

  4. Specific identification of Lachesis muta muta snake venom using antibodies against the plasminogen activator enzyme, LV-PA.

    PubMed

    Felicori, Liza F; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Sánchez, Eladio F

    2005-05-01

    Sandwich-type enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to detect Lachesis muta muta (bushmaster) snake venom using antibodies against the plasminogen activator enzyme (LV-PA). Antibodies to LV-PA were obtained by immunization of one rabbit with the purified enzyme. The IgG fraction was purified from rabbit blood in a single step on a column of Sepharose-L. m. muta venom and used to coat the microtiter plates. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by its capacity to correctly discriminate between the circulating antigens in mice that were experimentally inoculated with L. m. muta venom from those in mice inoculated with venoms from Bothrops atrox, B. brazili, B. castelnaudi, Bothriopsis taeniata, B. bilineata, Crotalus durissus ruruima and the antigenic Bothrops (AgB) and Crotalus (AgC) pools venoms used to produce Bothropic and Crotalic antivenoms at Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED). Measurable absorbance signals were obtained with 1.5 ng of venom per assay. The ELISA was used to follow the kinetic distribution of antigens in experimentally envenomed mice. PMID:15804530

  5. Wide distribution of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in snake venoms: isolation and cloning of novel snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuo; Hyodo, Fumiko; Morita, Takashi

    2003-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are found in epididymis and granules of mammals, and they are thought to function in sperm maturation and in the immune system. Recently, we isolated and obtained clones for novel snake venom proteins that are classified as CRISP family proteins. To elucidate the distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins, we evaluated a wide range of venoms for immuno-cross-reactivity. Then we isolated, characterized, and cloned genes for three novel CRISP family proteins (piscivorin, ophanin, and catrin) from the venom of eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Our results show the wide distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins among Viperidae and Elapidae from different continents, indicating that CRISP family proteins compose a new group of snake venom proteins. PMID:12646276

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Brazilian snake Bothrops moojeni.

    PubMed

    Nonato, M C; Garratt, R C; Mascarenhas, Y P; Jesus, W D; Assakura, M T; Serrano, S M; Oliva, G

    2001-04-01

    A phospholipase A(2) purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops moojeni has been crystallized by vapour-diffusion techniques in hanging drops at 291 K. The crystals, which were grown in the absence of Ca(2+), belong to the cubic system, space group P432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 91.86 A, and contain one molecule in the asymmetric unit (V(M) = 2.71 A(3) Da(-1)). X-ray diffraction experiments provide data to 2.35 A resolution collected on a rotating-anode home source at cryogenic temperatures. The structure has been solved via molecular-replacement techniques using a single monomer of the crystallographic structure of the phospholipase from the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) as a search model. PMID:11264594

  7. Isolation and characterization of three Ca2+-dependent beta-galactoside-specific lectins from snake venoms.

    PubMed Central

    Gartner, T K; Ogilvie, M L

    1984-01-01

    Three lactose-inhibited lectins from the venoms of the snakes Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (southern copperhead), Ancistrodon piscivorous leukostoma (western cottonmouth moccasin) and Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) have been isolated and newly characterized. The three lectins are similar to thrombolectin, a lectin isolated from the venom of Bothrops atrox (fer-de-lance) (Gartner, Stocker & Williams, 1980), with regard to sugar specificity, Mr, Ca2+ requirements and sensitivity to reducing agents. Each lectin is a dimer (Mr 28 000) consisting of monomers (Mr 14 000) indistinguishable on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Haemagglutination activity is dependent on the presence of Ca2+ and is inhibited by reducing agents. The lectins are not identical and can be distinguished on the basis of relative affinities for inhibiting sugars, isoelectric points and immunoprecipitation assays using anti-(cottonmouth lectin) serum. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6391472

  8. Snake co-occurrence patterns are best explained by habitat and hypothesized effects of interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Craig Rudolph, D; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Jeffrey Humphries, W; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Snakes often occur in species-rich assemblages, and sympatry is thought to be facilitated primarily by low diet overlap, not interspecific interactions. We selected, a priori, three species pairs consisting of species that are morphologically and taxonomically similar and may therefore be likely to engage in interspecific, consumptive competition. We then examined a large-scale database of snake detection/nondetection data and used occupancy modelling to determine whether these species occur together more or less frequently than expected by chance while accounting for variation in detection probability among species and incorporating important habitat categories in the models. For some snakes, we obtained evidence that the probabilities that habitat patches are used are influenced by the presence of potentially competing congeneric species. Specifically, timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) were less likely than expected by chance to use areas that also contained eastern diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus) when the proportion of evergreen forest was relatively high. Otherwise, they occurred together more often than expected by chance. Complex relationships were revealed between habitat use, detection probabilities and occupancy probabilities of North American racers (Coluber constrictor) and coachwhips (Coluber flagellum) that indicated the probability of competitive exclusion increased with increasing area of grassland habitat, although there was some model uncertainty. Cornsnakes (Pantherophis guttatus or Pantherophis slowinskii) and ratsnakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis, Pantherophis spiloides, or Pantherophis obsoletus) exhibited differences in habitat selection, but we obtained no evidence that patterns of use for this species pair were influenced by current interspecific interactions. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that competitive interactions influence snake assemblage composition; the strength of these effects was

  9. Soluble P-selectin rescues viper venom–induced mortality through anti-inflammatory properties and PSGL-1 pathway-mediated correction of hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Der-Shan; Ho, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are lethal and occur frequently worldwide each year, and receiving the antivenom antibody is currently the most effective treatment. However, the specific antivenom might be unavailable in remote areas. Snakebites by Viperidae usually lead to hemorrhage and mortality if untreated. In the present study, challenges of rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom markedly increased the circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) level, but not P-selectin (P-sel, Selp−/−) mutants, in wild-type mice. Because sP-sel enhances coagulation through the P-selectin ligand 1 (PSGL-1, Selplg) pathway to produce tissue factor–positive microparticles, we hypothesized that increasing the plasma sP-sel level can be a self-rescue response in hosts against snake venom–mediated suppression of the coagulation system. Confirming our hypothesis, our results indicated that compared with wild-type mice, Selp−/− and Selplg−/− mice were more sensitive to rattlesnake venom. Additionally, administration of recombinant sP-sel could effectively reduce the mortality rate of mice challenged with venoms from three other Viperidae snakes. The antivenom property of sP-sel is associated with improved coagulation activity in vivo. Our data suggest that the elevation of endogenous sP-sel level is a self-protective response against venom-suppressed coagulation. The administration of recombinant sP-sel may be developed as a new strategy to treat Viperidae snakebites. PMID:27779216

  10. Molecular identification of Spirometra spp. (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in some wild animals from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Coscarelli, Daniel; Melo, Maria Norma; Melo, Alan Lane; Pinto, Hudson Alves

    2016-10-01

    Species of the genus Spirometra are diphyllobothriid tapeworms with complex life cycles and are involved in human sparganosis, a neglected disease that affects individuals worldwide. Although some species were reported in wild felids and human cases of sparganosis were described in Brazil, the biology and taxonomy of these parasites are poorly understood. In the present study, samples of diphyllobothriids (eggs and/or proglottids) obtained from the stools of wild carnivores (Leopardus pardalis and Lycalopex vetulus) and plerocercoid larvae found in a snake (Crotalus durissus) from Brazil were analysed by amplifying a fragment of the gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1). The DNA sequences obtained here for the first time from the Spirometra spp. from Brazil were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships with other species. Molecular data identified two species in the Brazilian samples (evolutionary divergence of 17.8-19.2%). The species were identified as Spirometra sp. 1, found in Le. pardalis, and Spirometra sp. 2 found in Ly. vetulus and C. durissus, and they differed from Asian isolates of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (17.5-20.2% and 12.2-15.6%, respectively), a species previously considered to be distributed worldwide. Moreover, Spirometra sp. 1 is genetically distinct from Sparganum proliferum from Venezuela (19.6-20.4%), while Spirometra sp. 2 is more closely related with the Venezuelan species (6.1-7.0%). Sequences of Spirometra sp. 2 revealed that it is conspecific with the Argentinean isolate of Spirometra found in Lycalopex gymnocercus (1.9-2.2%). Taxonomic and phylogenetic aspects related to New World species of Spirometra are briefly discussed.

  11. Molecular identification of Spirometra spp. (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in some wild animals from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Coscarelli, Daniel; Melo, Maria Norma; Melo, Alan Lane; Pinto, Hudson Alves

    2016-10-01

    Species of the genus Spirometra are diphyllobothriid tapeworms with complex life cycles and are involved in human sparganosis, a neglected disease that affects individuals worldwide. Although some species were reported in wild felids and human cases of sparganosis were described in Brazil, the biology and taxonomy of these parasites are poorly understood. In the present study, samples of diphyllobothriids (eggs and/or proglottids) obtained from the stools of wild carnivores (Leopardus pardalis and Lycalopex vetulus) and plerocercoid larvae found in a snake (Crotalus durissus) from Brazil were analysed by amplifying a fragment of the gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1). The DNA sequences obtained here for the first time from the Spirometra spp. from Brazil were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships with other species. Molecular data identified two species in the Brazilian samples (evolutionary divergence of 17.8-19.2%). The species were identified as Spirometra sp. 1, found in Le. pardalis, and Spirometra sp. 2 found in Ly. vetulus and C. durissus, and they differed from Asian isolates of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (17.5-20.2% and 12.2-15.6%, respectively), a species previously considered to be distributed worldwide. Moreover, Spirometra sp. 1 is genetically distinct from Sparganum proliferum from Venezuela (19.6-20.4%), while Spirometra sp. 2 is more closely related with the Venezuelan species (6.1-7.0%). Sequences of Spirometra sp. 2 revealed that it is conspecific with the Argentinean isolate of Spirometra found in Lycalopex gymnocercus (1.9-2.2%). Taxonomic and phylogenetic aspects related to New World species of Spirometra are briefly discussed. PMID:27235572

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of β-defensin-like genes of Bothrops, Crotalus and Lachesis snakes.

    PubMed

    Correa, Poliana G; Oguiura, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Defensins are components of the vertebrate innate immune system; they comprise a diverse group of small cationic antimicrobial peptides. Among them, β-defensins have a characteristic β-sheet-rich fold plus six conserved cysteines with particular spacing and intramolecular bonds. They have been fully studied in mammals, but there is little information about them in snakes. Using a PCR approach, we described 13 β-defensin-like sequences in Bothrops and Lachesis snakes. The genes are organized in three exons and two introns, with exception of B.atrox_defensinB_01 which has only two exons. They show high similarities in exon 1, intron 1 and intron 2, but exons 2 and 3 have undergone accelerated evolution. The theoretical translated sequences encode a pre-β-defensin-like molecule with a conserved signal peptide and a mature peptide. The signal peptides are leucine-rich and the mature β-defensin-like molecules have a size around 4.5 kDa, a net charge from +2 to +11, and the conserved cysteine motif. Phylogenetic analysis was done using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, and all resulted in similar topologies with slight differences. The genus Bothrops displayed two separate lineages. The reconciliation of gene trees and species tree indicated eight to nine duplications and 23 to 29 extinctions depending on the gene tree used. Our results together with previously published data indicate that the ancestral β-defensin-like gene may have three exons in vertebrates and that their evolution occurred according to a birth-and-death model. PMID:23500066

  13. Distribution of Balsamorhiza rosea in Rattlesnake Hills with respect to various environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Balsamorhiza rosea (Compositae), a suffrutescent perennial, is found on several rocky hilltops with sparse canopy cover in Eastern Washington. This study investigated B. rosea's abundance and its associated species along several physical gradients. Important elements of microclimate selected for this analysis were elevation, slope aspect, slope angle, and soil depth. Results show that the occurrence of B. rosea is associated more strongly with soil depth than with other factors examined. The distribution of B. rosea was not fully explained by the factors in this study. Other potential factors determining its distribution are discussed.

  14. Population Characteristics and Seasonal Movement Patterns of the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd - Status Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, Brett L; Cadwell, Larry L; Zufelt, Rhett K; Turner, Scott D; Turner, Gerald K

    2000-10-10

    Wildlife biologists documented an isolated elk population in 1972 on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Since then the herd has grown, exceeding 800 animals in 1999. Limited harvests on adjacent private lands have occurred since 1986. The large herd size coupled with limited annual harvest have increased concerns about private land crop damages, vehicle collisions, degradation of the native environment, and the herd's use of radiologically controlled areas on the Hanford Site. As a result, in 1999, a decision was made by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) (animal management), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) (land management), and DOE (landowner) to conduct a large-scale animal roundup to remove elk from the DOE-owned lands and relocate them to distant areas within Washington State. The interagency roundup and relocation occurred in spring 2000. This report presents the current status of the herd size and composition, annual removal estimates, and some limited seasonal area-use patterns by several radio-collared elk subsequent to the large-scale elk roundup. The elk herd maintained an approximate 25% annual increase until 2000. A large harvest offsite in 1999 coupled with the large-scale roundup in spring 2000 reduced herd size to the current estimate of 660 animals. As of August 2000, the herd consisted of 287 (43%) males, 282 (42%) females, and 91 (13%) calves. There has been a notable cycling of calf recruitment rates throughout the 1990s and in 2000. Elk home-range estimates revealed a substantial decrease in summer home ranges in 2000, presumably, in part, as a result of the summer 2000 Hanford Site wildfire. Movement analysis also determined that, as population size increased, so has the frequency and extent of the animals' offsite movements, particularly on private lands adjacent to the Hanford Site in both spring and summer seasons. The frequency and duration of movements by male elk onto the central portions of the Hanford Site has increased substantially as the population increased.

  15. Aeromagnetic map of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Coconino and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Canyon rims in the roadless area are accessible by several four-wheel-drive trails across the plateau surface from points along Schnebly Hill Road and Highway I-17. Access to Jacks Canyon is by road and four-wheel-drive trail to Jacks Canyon Tank, about 4 mi up the canyon from Highway 179. Access to the head of Jacks Canyon is by foot or horse along a well-maintained trail. Access to the bottom of Woods Canyon is by four-wheel-drive vehicle for about 2 mi from Highway 179 and then by pack trail for about 5 mi more.

  16. Simple nocturnal slope-flow data from the Rattlesnake Mountain site

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.

    1982-10-01

    Detailed vertical profiles of the wind and temperture structure of nocturnal slope flows were measured at a site that is uniform in the cross-slope direction. The upper part of the slope closely approximates a simple, tilted plane. These measurements were made from three towers at different distances from the ridge crest, each of which extended through the local depth of the katabatic flow. The tower wind and temperature data from the four best cases of slope flow observed in 1980 and 1981 are listed, as well as ambient wind and temperature profiles to a height of 300m from a Tethersonde flown at the experimental site and surface winds from a network of stations surrounding the site.

  17. Microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex variation in an endangered rattlesnake, the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus).

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Collin P; Duvall, Melvin R; Swanson, Bradley J; Phillips, Christopher A; Dreslik, Michael J; Baker, Sarah J; King, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    Genetic diversity is fundamental to maintaining the long-term viability of populations, yet reduced genetic variation is often associated with small, isolated populations. To examine the relationship between demography and genetic variation, variation at hypervariable loci (e.g., microsatellite DNA loci) is often measured. However, these loci are selectively neutral (or near neutral) and may not accurately reflect genomewide variation. Variation at functional trait loci, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), can provide a better assessment of adaptive genetic variation in fragmented populations. We compared patterns of microsatellite and MHC variation across three Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) populations representing a gradient of demographic histories to assess the relative roles of natural selection and genetic drift. Using 454 deep amplicon sequencing, we identified 24 putatively functional MHC IIB exon 2 alleles belonging to a minimum of six loci. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates provided evidence of historical positive selection at the nucleotide level, and Tajima's D provided support for balancing selection in each population. As predicted, estimates of microsatellite allelic richness, observed, heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity varied among populations in a pattern qualitatively consistent with demographic history and abundance. While MHC allelic richness at the population and individual levels revealed similar trends, MHC nucleotide diversity was unexpectedly high in the smallest population. Overall, these results suggest that genetic variation in the Eastern Massasauga populations in Illinois has been shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms. Thus, conservation efforts should consider both neutral and functional genetic variation when managing captive and wild Eastern Massasauga populations. PMID:27516858

  18. Direct Spinal Ventral Root Repair following Avulsion: Effectiveness of a New Heterologous Fibrin Sealant on Motoneuron Survival and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barbizan, Roberta; Seabra Ferreira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4–L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant. The spinal cords were processed to evaluate neuronal survival, synaptic stability, and glial reactivity, 4 and 12 weeks after lesion. Sciatic nerves were processed to investigate Schwann cell activity by p75NTR expression (4 weeks after surgery) and to count myelinated axons and morphometric evaluation (12 weeks after surgery). Walking track test was used to evaluate gait recovery, up to 12 weeks. The results indicate that both fibrin sealants are similarly efficient. However, the snake-derived fibrin glue is a potentially safer alternative for being a biological and biodegradable product which does not contain human blood derivatives. Therefore, the venom glue can be a useful tool for the scientific community due to its advantages and variety of applications.

  19. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) of snakes.

    PubMed

    Moço, Tatiana Cristina; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Vilela, Fabiana Custódio; Barrella, Thomaz Henrique; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2002-12-01

    Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of S o Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology and morphometry of the gamonts for the characterization of Hepatozoon species and to analyze the morphologic changes induced in the erythrocytes by the parasite. The studied species were H. terzii of Boa constrictor amarali, Hepatozoon sp. of Crotalus durissusterrificus, H. philodryasi of Philodryas patagoniensis, and H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi of Hydrodynastes gigas. We observed three different groups, one of them including the species H. terzii, H. philodryasi and Hepatozoon sp. of C. durissus terrificus; and the other two consisting of H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi. Degree of alterations in the erythrocytes was variable and it may be useful for characterization of Hepatozoon species.

  20. In vitro antiophidian properties of Dipteryx alata Vogel bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Nazato, Virgínia Sbrugnera; Rubem-Mauro, Leandro; Vieira, Nathalia Aparecida Gatto; Rocha-Junior, Dimas dos Santos; Silva, Magali Glauzer; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Dal-Belo, Cháriston André; Cogo, Jose Carlos; dos Santos, Marcio Galdino; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2010-08-30

    Extracts from Dipteryx alata bark obtained with different solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were mixed in vitro with Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu, 40 μg/mL) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt, 15 μg/mL) snake venoms, and applied to a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation to evaluate the possible neutralization of venom effects. Cdt venom neurotoxic effect was not inhibited by any of the extracts, while the neurotoxic and myotoxic actions of Bjssu venom were decreased by the methanolic extract. This inhibition appears to be augmented by tannins. Dichloromethane bark extract inhibited ~40% of Bjssu venom effects and delayed blockade induced by Cdt. The methodology used to determine which extract was active allows inferring that: (i) phenolic acids and flavonoids contained in the methanolic extract plus tannins were responsible mostly for neutralization of Bjssu effects; (ii) terpenoids from the dichloromethane extract may participate in the anti-Cdt and anti-Bjssu venom effects; (iii) a given extract could not inhibit venoms from different species even if those belong to the same family, so it is improper to generalize a certain plant as antiophidian; (iv) different polarity extracts do not present the same inhibitory capability, thus demonstrating the need for characterizing both venom pharmacology and the phytochemistry of medicinal plant compounds.

  1. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    PubMed

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  2. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A2 Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth

    PubMed Central

    Ximenes, Rafael M.; Rabello, Marcelo M.; Araújo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Fagundes, Fábio H. R.; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B. S.; Buzzo, Simone C.; Soares, Veronica C. G.; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Hernandes, Marcelo Z.; Monteiro, Helena S. A.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2012-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2), an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA2 from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA2 tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom) was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom) at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom) at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom) at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA2 administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA2s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA2 inhibition. PMID:22899963

  3. Direct Spinal Ventral Root Repair following Avulsion: Effectiveness of a New Heterologous Fibrin Sealant on Motoneuron Survival and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barbizan, Roberta; Seabra Ferreira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4–L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant. The spinal cords were processed to evaluate neuronal survival, synaptic stability, and glial reactivity, 4 and 12 weeks after lesion. Sciatic nerves were processed to investigate Schwann cell activity by p75NTR expression (4 weeks after surgery) and to count myelinated axons and morphometric evaluation (12 weeks after surgery). Walking track test was used to evaluate gait recovery, up to 12 weeks. The results indicate that both fibrin sealants are similarly efficient. However, the snake-derived fibrin glue is a potentially safer alternative for being a biological and biodegradable product which does not contain human blood derivatives. Therefore, the venom glue can be a useful tool for the scientific community due to its advantages and variety of applications. PMID:27642524

  4. Direct Spinal Ventral Root Repair following Avulsion: Effectiveness of a New Heterologous Fibrin Sealant on Motoneuron Survival and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vidigal de Castro, Mateus; Barbizan, Roberta; Seabra Ferreira, Rui; Barraviera, Benedito; Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4-L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant. The spinal cords were processed to evaluate neuronal survival, synaptic stability, and glial reactivity, 4 and 12 weeks after lesion. Sciatic nerves were processed to investigate Schwann cell activity by p75(NTR) expression (4 weeks after surgery) and to count myelinated axons and morphometric evaluation (12 weeks after surgery). Walking track test was used to evaluate gait recovery, up to 12 weeks. The results indicate that both fibrin sealants are similarly efficient. However, the snake-derived fibrin glue is a potentially safer alternative for being a biological and biodegradable product which does not contain human blood derivatives. Therefore, the venom glue can be a useful tool for the scientific community due to its advantages and variety of applications. PMID:27642524

  5. Inhibitory effect of pinostrobin from Renealmia alpinia, on the enzymatic and biological activities of a PLA2.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Patiño, Arley Camilo; Benjumea, Dora

    2016-08-01

    Pinostrobin is a flavanone isolated from Renealmia alpinia, a plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. We tested the inhibitory ability of pinostrobin on the enzymatic, anticoagulant, myotoxic and edema-inducing activities of a PLA2 isolated from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom. The compound displayed IC50 values of 1.76mM and 1.85mM (95% Confidence intervals: 1.34-2.18 and 1.21-2.45) on the PLA2 enzymatic activity, when either aggregated or monodispersed substrates were used, respectively. When mice were injected with PLA2 preincubated with 0.4, 2.0 and 4.0mM of pinostrobin, myotoxic activity induced by the PLA2 was inhibited up to 87%. Nevertheless, these values decreased up to 56% when the pinostrobin was injected into muscle after PLA2. Pinostrobin inhibited edema-forming and anticoagulant activities of the PLA2. In order to have insights on the mode of action of pinostrobin, intrinsic fluorescence and ultraviolet studies were performed. Results suggest that pinostrobin interacts directly with the PLA2. These findings were supported by molecular docking results, which suggested that pinostrobin forms hydrogen bonds with residues His48 and Asp49 of PLA2, besides, a π-π stacking interactions with those of residues Phe5 and Trp31, and rings C of flavanone and Tyr52 of the toxin. PMID:27109758

  6. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    PubMed

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes. PMID:25054488

  7. Management of Tissue Loss After Agkistrodon Snakebite: Appropriate Use of Crotalidae-Fab Antivenin.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kenneth W; Schaefer, Keith R; Austin, Cindy; Norton, Rhy; Finley, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Although initially created for the treatment of rattlesnake (genus: Crotalus) bites, Crotalidae-Fab antivenin is used to treat many different pit viper envenomations. However, the efficacy of Crotalidae-Fab in preventing tissue loss from copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) or cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakebites remains unclear. Recent reports show that Agkistrodon-related bites rarely require treatment beyond simple observation and pain control. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of tissue loss in patients who received Crotalidae-Fab compared with those who did not after an Agkistrodon bite. After institutional review board approval, a retrospective study was completed at a Level 1 trauma center. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 57 snakebites were identified. Of the 57 bites, the snake species was documented in 36 cases including 31 copperheads, 1 cottonmouth, and 4 rattlesnakes. The other 21 bites were from unknown or nonvenomous species. Of the 32 Agkistrodon-related bites, 15 patients received Crotalidae-Fab (average of 3 vials administered) and 17 did not receive Crotalidae-Fab. None of the 32 patients, regardless of treatment option, had tissue loss or required surgical interventions. Only 1 patient received Crotalidae-Fab and debridement of a vesicle associated with the bite. No clinically significant differences were observed between the groups. These findings support previous literature that failed to show added benefit of Crotalidae-Fab treatment for Agkistrodon bites beyond patient comfort and pain control. Evaluation of current protocols for Agkistrodon envenomations is warranted. Snakebite wound education in trauma physicians and nurses may decrease unnecessary use of antivenom medication.

  8. Full-Length Venom Protein cDNA Sequences from Venom-Derived mRNA: Exploring Compositional Variation and Adaptive Multigene Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Modahl, Cassandra M.; Mackessy, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Envenomation of humans by snakes is a complex and continuously evolving medical emergency, and treatment is made that much more difficult by the diverse biochemical composition of many venoms. Venomous snakes and their venoms also provide models for the study of molecular evolutionary processes leading to adaptation and genotype-phenotype relationships. To compare venom complexity and protein sequences, venom gland transcriptomes are assembled, which usually requires the sacrifice of snakes for tissue. However, toxin transcripts are also present in venoms, offering the possibility of obtaining cDNA sequences directly from venom. This study provides evidence that unknown full-length venom protein transcripts can be obtained from the venoms of multiple species from all major venomous snake families. These unknown venom protein cDNAs are obtained by the use of primers designed from conserved signal peptide sequences within each venom protein superfamily. This technique was used to assemble a partial venom gland transcriptome for the Middle American Rattlesnake (Crotalus simus tzabcan) by amplifying sequences for phospholipases A2, serine proteases, C-lectins, and metalloproteinases from within venom. Phospholipase A2 sequences were also recovered from the venoms of several rattlesnakes and an elapid snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), and three-finger toxin sequences were recovered from multiple rear-fanged snake species, demonstrating that the three major clades of advanced snakes (Elapidae, Viperidae, Colubridae) have stable mRNA present in their venoms. These cDNA sequences from venom were then used to explore potential activities derived from protein sequence similarities and evolutionary histories within these large multigene superfamilies. Venom-derived sequences can also be used to aid in characterizing venoms that lack proteomic profiles and identify sequence characteristics indicating specific envenomation profiles. This approach, requiring only venom, provides

  9. Modulation of orthogonal body waves enables high maneuverability in sidewinding locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Astley, Henry C.; Gong, Chaohui; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Serrano, Miguel M.; Vela, Patricio A.; Choset, Howie; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Hu, David L.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Many organisms move using traveling waves of body undulation, and most work has focused on single-plane undulations in fluids. Less attention has been paid to multiplane undulations, which are particularly important in terrestrial environments where vertical undulations can regulate substrate contact. A seemingly complex mode of snake locomotion, sidewinding, can be described by the superposition of two waves: horizontal and vertical body waves with a phase difference of ±90°. We demonstrate that the high maneuverability displayed by sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes) emerges from the animal’s ability to independently modulate these waves. Sidewinder rattlesnakes used two distinct turning methods, which we term differential turning (26° change in orientation per wave cycle) and reversal turning (89°). Observations of the snakes suggested that during differential turning the animals imposed an amplitude modulation in the horizontal wave whereas in reversal turning they shifted the phase of the vertical wave by 180°. We tested these mechanisms using a multimodule snake robot as a physical model, successfully generating differential and reversal turning with performance comparable to that of the organisms. Further manipulations of the two-wave system revealed a third turning mode, frequency turning, not observed in biological snakes, which produced large (127°) in-place turns. The two-wave system thus functions as a template (a targeted motor pattern) that enables complex behaviors in a high-degree-of-freedom system to emerge from relatively simple modulations to a basic pattern. Our study reveals the utility of templates in understanding the control of biological movement as well as in developing control schemes for limbless robots. PMID:25831489

  10. Management of Tissue Loss After Agkistrodon Snakebite: Appropriate Use of Crotalidae-Fab Antivenin.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kenneth W; Schaefer, Keith R; Austin, Cindy; Norton, Rhy; Finley, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Although initially created for the treatment of rattlesnake (genus: Crotalus) bites, Crotalidae-Fab antivenin is used to treat many different pit viper envenomations. However, the efficacy of Crotalidae-Fab in preventing tissue loss from copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) or cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakebites remains unclear. Recent reports show that Agkistrodon-related bites rarely require treatment beyond simple observation and pain control. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of tissue loss in patients who received Crotalidae-Fab compared with those who did not after an Agkistrodon bite. After institutional review board approval, a retrospective study was completed at a Level 1 trauma center. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 57 snakebites were identified. Of the 57 bites, the snake species was documented in 36 cases including 31 copperheads, 1 cottonmouth, and 4 rattlesnakes. The other 21 bites were from unknown or nonvenomous species. Of the 32 Agkistrodon-related bites, 15 patients received Crotalidae-Fab (average of 3 vials administered) and 17 did not receive Crotalidae-Fab. None of the 32 patients, regardless of treatment option, had tissue loss or required surgical interventions. Only 1 patient received Crotalidae-Fab and debridement of a vesicle associated with the bite. No clinically significant differences were observed between the groups. These findings support previous literature that failed to show added benefit of Crotalidae-Fab treatment for Agkistrodon bites beyond patient comfort and pain control. Evaluation of current protocols for Agkistrodon envenomations is warranted. Snakebite wound education in trauma physicians and nurses may decrease unnecessary use of antivenom medication. PMID:27163225

  11. The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin C, a disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich protein isolated from Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, J. J.; Moreno-Murciano, M. P.; Sanz, L.; Jürgens, M.; Schrader, M.; Raida, M.; Benjamin, D. C.; Fox, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin-C was determined by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The N-terminal disintegrin-like domain is a compact structure including eight disulfide bonds, seven of them in the same pattern as the disintegrin bitistatin. The protein has two extra cysteine residues (XIII and XVI) that form an additional disulfide bond that is characteristically found in the disintegrin-like domains of cellular metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and PIII snake venom Zn-metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of catrocollastatin-C contains five disulfide bonds between nearest-neighbor cysteines and a long range disulfide bridge between CysV and CysX. These results provide structural evidence for a redefinition of the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain boundaries. An evolutionary pathway for ADAMs, PIII, and PII SVMPs based on disulfide bond engineering is also proposed. PMID:10933502

  12. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD+ to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP—the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  13. Stable isotopes may provide evidence for starvation in reptiles.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Pollock, Erik D

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have attempted to correlate stable isotope signatures of tissues with the nutritional condition of birds, mammals, fishes, and invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between food limitation and the isotopic composition of reptiles. We examined the effects that starvation has on delta13C and delta15N signatures in the tissues (excreta, carcass, scales, and claws) of six, distantly related squamate reptiles (gaboon vipers, Bitis gabonica; ball pythons, Python regius; ratsnakes, Elaphe obsoleta; boa constrictors, Boa constrictor; western diamondback rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox, and savannah monitor lizards, Varanus exanthematicus). Analyses revealed that the isotopic composition of reptile carcasses did not change significantly in response to bouts of starvation lasting up to 168 days. In contrast, the isotopic signatures of reptile excreta became significantly enriched in 15N and depleted in 13C during starvation. The isotopic signatures of reptile scales and lizard claws were less indicative of starvation time than those of excreta. We discuss the physiological mechanisms that might be responsible for the starvation-induced changes in 13C and 15N signatures in the excreta, and present a mixing model to describe the shift in excreted nitrogen source pools (i.e. from a labile source pool to a nonlabile source pool) that apparently occurs during starvation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that naturally occurring stable isotopes might ultimately have some utility for characterizing nitrogen and carbon stress among free-living reptiles.

  14. Fatty acid analyses may provide insight into the progression of starvation among squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-10-01

    Fasting-induced changes in fatty acid composition have been reported to occur within the body lipids of several types of animals; however, little is known about the changes in fatty acid profiles exhibited by reptiles subjected to prolonged fasting. This study characterizes the fatty acid profiles of six reptile species subjected to sublethal periods of fasting lasting 0, 56, 112, and 168 days. Analyses of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) conducted on the total body lipids of rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta), pythons (Python regius), boas (Boa constrictor), true vipers (Bitis gabonica), and monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus) revealed that all of the species exhibited similar characteristic changes in their fatty acid profiles during starvation stress. According to ANOVAs, the four most effective indicators of the onset of starvation were significant increases in the [1] fatty acid unsaturation index as well as ratios of [2] linoleic to palmitoleic acid, [3] oleic to palmitic, and [4] arachidonic to total fatty acid concentrations. The results of this study suggest that FAME analyses might be useful for identifying nutritional stress and/or starvation among squamate reptiles; however, forthcoming studies will be required to validate the generality of these responses. I also review the potential limitations of this approach, and suggest experiments that will be important for future applications of FAME analyses. Ultimately, it is hoped that FAME analyses can be used in conjunction with current practices as an additional tool to characterize the prevalence of starvation experienced by free-living reptiles.

  15. Disease patterns in the Detroit Zoo: a study of reptilian and amphibian populations from 1973 through 1983.

    PubMed

    Kaneene, J B; Taylor, R F; Sikarskie, J G; Meyer, T J; Richter, N A

    1985-12-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine disease patterns in reptilian and amphibian populations at the Detroit Zoo from 1973 through 1983. In the reptilian population (mean +/- SD = 285.2 +/- 28), overall annual mortality rates were 1% to 40%. Mortality rates were highest in the fall months (20%) and lowest in the winter months (6%). The most frequently affected reptiles were iguana (Iguana iguana), reticulated python (Python reticulatus), rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp), common boa (Constrictor constrictor), and lizards (various genera of suborder Lacertilia). Of the 1,300 reptilian deaths from 1973 through 1983, 36.6% were caused by microbial agents, 12% by parasites, 11.6% by trauma, and 9.3% by nutritional deficiencies. The main microbial organisms that caused death were Aeromonas spp, Salmonella spp, Pseudomonas spp, Proteus spp, and Edwardsiella spp. The main parasites that caused death were Entamoeba spp and lungworms. Among amphibians, frogs and toads were the most frequently affected, and starvation and trauma were the most frequent causes of death.

  16. Inhibitory effects on phospholipase A2 and antivenin activity of melanin extracted from Thea sinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Sava, Vasyl; Hong, Meng-Yen; Huang, G Steven

    2004-03-01

    Antivenin activity of melanin extracted from black tea (MEBT) was reported for the first time. The antagonistic effect of MEBT was evaluated for Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broadbanded copperhead), Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi), and Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) snake venoms administered i.p. to ICR mice. MEBT was injected i.p. immediately after the venom administration in dose of 3 mg per mouse in the same place of venom injection. MEBT demonstrated neutralization effect against all venoms tested. The greatest antivenin effect of MEBT was found against Japanese mamushi snake venom. In this case, half the mice died within 2.5 +/- 0.7 h after injection of 0.9 mg/kg of venom. An immediate injection of MEBT substantially reduced the toxic effect of venom and extended time at the 50% level of survival up to 52.3 +/- 2.3 h. The antivenin activity of MEBT is due to chelating of Ca++ and non-specific binding of phospholipase A2. The inhibitory effect of MEBT on phospholipase A2 assessed for different venoms was similar to that obtained with pure enzyme. Low toxicity of MEBT in combination with its antagonistic activity against different venoms may allow effective life-saving treatment against snakebites. Such application of MEBT is important when identification of the snake is impossible or if specific treatment is unavailable.

  17. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C.; Meik, J. M.; Dashevsky, D.; Card, D. C.; Castoe, T. A.; Schaack, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  18. Predation and the Maintenance of Color Polymorphism in a Habitat Specialist Squamate

    PubMed Central

    Farallo, Vincent R.; Forstner, Michael R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have addressed the mechanisms maintaining polymorphism within a population. However, several examples exist where species inhabiting diverse habitats exhibit local population-specific polymorphism. Numerous explanations have been proposed for the maintenance of geographic variation in color patterns. For example, spatial variation in patterns of selection or limited gene flow can cause entire populations to become fixed for a single morph, resulting in separate populations of the same species exhibiting separate and distinct color morphs. The mottled rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus lepidus) is a montane species that exhibits among-population color polymorphism that correlates with substrate color. Habitat substrate in the eastern part of its range is composed primarily of light colored limestone and snakes have light dorsal coloration, whereas in the western region the substrate is primarily dark and snakes exhibit dark dorsal coloration. We hypothesized that predation on high contrast color and blotched patterns maintain these distinct color morphs. To test this we performed a predation experiment in the wild by deploying model snakes at 12 sites evenly distributed within each of the two regions where the different morphs are found. We employed a 2×2 factorial design that included two color and two blotched treatments. Our results showed that models contrasting with substrate coloration suffered significantly more avian attacks relative to models mimicking substrates. Predation attempts on blotched models were similar in each substrate type. These results support the hypothesis that color pattern is maintained by selective predation. PMID:22295080

  19. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  20. On the quaternary structure of a C-type lectin from Bothrops jararacussu venom--BJ-32 (BjcuL).

    PubMed

    Silva, F P; Alexandre, G M C; Ramos, C H I; De-Simone, S G

    2008-12-15

    BJ-32 (also known as BjcuL) is a C-type lectin from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu with specificity for beta-galactosides and a remarkable ability to agglutinate several species of trypanosomatids. Our objective was to study the oligomerization state of native BJ-32 by using different biophysical and computational methods. Small-angle X-ray light scattering (SAXS) experiments disclosed a compact, globular protein with a radius of gyration of 36.72+/-0.04A and molecular weight calculated as 147.5+/-2.0kDa. From analytical ultracentrifugation analysis, it was determined that the BJ-32 sedimentation profile fits nicely to a decamer model. The analysis of the intrinsic emitted fluorescence spectra for BJ-32 solutions indicated that association of subunits in the decamer is accompanied by changes in the environment of Tryptophan residues. Both ab initio and comparative models of BJ-32 supported the resemblance of the decamer in the crystallographic structure from a close homologue, the rattlesnake venom lectin (RSL) from Crotalus atrox. PMID:18948130

  1. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development.

  2. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development. PMID:25040040

  3. Contrasting modes and tempos of venom expression evolution in two snake species.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; McGivern, James J; Seavy, Margaret; Wray, Kenneth P; Facente, Jack; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-01-01

    Selection is predicted to drive diversification within species and lead to local adaptation, but understanding the mechanistic details underlying this process and thus the genetic basis of adaptive evolution requires the mapping of genotype to phenotype. Venom is complex and involves many genes, but the specialization of the venom gland toward toxin production allows specific transcripts to be correlated with specific toxic proteins, establishing a direct link from genotype to phenotype. To determine the extent of expression variation and identify the processes driving patterns of phenotypic diversity, we constructed genotype-phenotype maps and compared range-wide toxin-protein expression variation for two species of snake with nearly identical ranges: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We detected significant expression variation in C. adamanteus, identified the specific loci associated with population differentiation, and found that loci expressed at all levels contributed to this divergence. Contrary to expectations, we found no expression variation in M. fulvius, suggesting that M. fulvius populations are not locally adapted. Our results not only linked expression variation at specific loci to divergence in a polygenic, complex trait but also have extensive conservation and biomedical implications. C. adamanteus is currently a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the loss of any major population would result in the irrevocable loss of a unique venom phenotype. The lack of variation in M. fulvius has significant biomedical application because our data will assist in the development of effective antivenom for this species.

  4. Sidewinding as a control template for climbing on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Gong, Chaohui; Gravish, Nick; Mendeslon, Joseph; Hatton, Ross; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Sidewinding, translation of a limbless system through lifting of body segments while others remain in static contact with the ground, is used by desert-dwelling snakes like sidewinder rattlesnakes Crotalus cerastes to locomote effectively on hard ground, rocky terrain, and loose sand. Biologically inspired snake robots using a sidewinding gait perform well on hard ground but suffer significant slip when ascending granular inclines. To understand the biological organisms and give robots new capabilities, we perform the first study of sidewinding on granular media. We vary the incline angle (0 < θ <20°) of a trackway composed of desert sand. Surface plate drag measurements reveal that as incline angle increases, downhill yield stresses decrease by 50%. Our biological measurements reveal that the animals double the length of the contact region as θ increases; we hypothesize that the snakes control this contact to reduce ground shear stress and avoid slipping. Implementing the anti-slip motion in a snake robot using contact patch modulation enables the robot to ascend granular inclines.

  5. Sidewinding as a control template for climbing on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Gong, Chaohui; Travers, Matthew; Gravish, Nick; Mendelson, Joseph; Hatton, Ross; Choset, Howie; Hu, David; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Sidewinding, translation of a limbless system through lifting of body segments while others remain in static contact with the ground, is used by desert-dwelling snakes like sidewinder rattlesnakes Crotalus cerastes to locomote effectively on hard ground, rocky terrain, and loose sand. Biologically inspired snake robots using a sidewinding gait perform well on hard ground but suffer significant slip when trying to ascend granular inclines. To understand the biological organisms and give robots new capabilities, we perform the first study of mechanics of sidewinding on granular media. We vary the incline angle (0 < θ <20°) of a trackway composed of desert sand. Surface plate drag measurements reveal that as incline angle increases, downhill yield stresses decrease by 50%. Our biological measurements reveal that the animals double the length of the contact region as θ increases; we hypothesize that snakes control this contact to reduce ground shear stress and so avoid slipping. Implementing this anti-slip strategy in a snake robot using contact patch modulation enables the robot to successfully ascend granular inclines.

  6. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date. PMID:25635152

  7. Turning and maneuverability during sidewinding locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, Henry; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David

    2014-03-01

    Sidewinding is an unusual form of snake locomotion used to move rapidly on yielding substrates such as desert sands. Posteriorly propagating waves alternate between static contact with the substrate and elevated motion, resulting in a ``stepping'' motion of body segments. Unlike lateral undulation, the direction of travel is not collinear with the axis of the body wave, and posterior body segments do not follow the path of anterior segments. Field observations indicate that sidewinding snakes are highly maneuverable, but the mechanisms by which these snakes change direction during this complex movement are unknown. Motion capture data from three Colorado Desert sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes laterorepens) shows a variety of turn magnitudes and behaviors. Additionally, sidewinders are capable of ``reversals'' in which the snakes halts forward progress and begins locomotion in the opposite direction without rotation of the body. Because the head is re-oriented with respect to the body during these reversals, the snake is able to reverse direction without rotation yet continue moving in the new direction without impediment to perception or mechanics, a rare level of maneuverability in animals.

  8. Genetic characterization of a reptilian calicivirus (Cro1)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vesiviruses in the family Caliciviridae infect a broad range of animal hosts including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. The vesivirus Cro1 strains were isolated from diseased snakes in the San Diego zoo in 1978 and reported as the first caliciviruses found in reptiles. The goal of this study was to characterize the Cro1 strain 780032I that was isolated in cell culture from a rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus) in the original outbreak. Results We re-amplified the original virus stock in Vero cells, and determined its full-length genome sequence. The Cro1 genome is 8296 nucleotides (nt) in length and has a typical vesivirus organization, with three open reading frames (ORF), ORF1 (5643 nt), ORF2 (2121 nt), and ORF3 (348 nt) encoding a nonstructural polyprotein, the major capsid protein precursor, and a minor structural protein, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence revealed that the Cro1 virus clustered most closely with the VESV species of the genus Vesivirus, but was genetically distinct (82-83% identities with closest strains). Conclusions This is the first description of a full-length genome sequence from a reptile calicivirus (Cro1). The availability of the Cro1 genome sequence should facilitate investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in Cro1 virus evolution and host range. PMID:23190937

  9. The Method of Manufactured Solutions for RattleSnake A SN Radiation Transport Solver Inside the MOOSE Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Yaqi Wang

    2012-06-01

    The Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) is an accepted technique to verify that a numerical discretization for the radiation transport equation has been implemented correctly. This technique offers a few advantages over other methods such as benchmark problems or analytical solutions. The solution can be manufactured such that properties for the angular flux are either stressed or preserved. For radiation transport, these properties can include desired smoothness, positiveness and arbitrary order of anisotropy in angle. Another advantage is that the angular flux solution can be manufactured for multidimensional problems where analytical solutions are difficult to obtain in general.

  10. Nonlinear diffusion acceleration for the multigroup transport equation discretized with S{sub N} and continuous FEM with rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) can improve the performance of a neutron transport solver significantly especially for the multigroup eigenvalue problems. The high-order transport equation and the transport-corrected low-order diffusion equation form a nonlinear system in NDA, which can be solved via a Picard iteration. The consistency of the correction of the low-order equation is important to ensure the stabilization and effectiveness of the iteration. It also makes the low-order equation preserve the scalar flux of the high-order equation. In this paper, the consistent correction for a particular discretization scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with discrete ordinates method (S{sub N}) and continuous finite element method (CFEM) is proposed for the multigroup neutron transport equation. Equations with the anisotropic scatterings and a void treatment are included. The Picard iteration with this scheme has been implemented and tested with RattleS{sub N}ake, a MOOSE-based application at INL. Convergence results are presented. (authors)

  11. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops colombiensis, a medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela: Contributing to its taxonomy and snakebite management.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Borges, Adolfo; Segura, Alvaro; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María; Diez, Nardy; De Sousa, Leonardo; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Sánchez, Eladio; Faks, José G; Escolano, José; Sanz, Libia

    2009-03-01

    The taxonomic status of the medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela, which has been classified as Bothrops colombiensis, remains incertae cedis. To help resolving this question, the venom proteome of B. colombiensis was characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venom contained proteins belonging to 8 types of families. PI Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases and K49 PLA(2) molecules comprise over 65% of the venom proteins. Other venom protein families comprised PIII Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (11.3%), D49 PLA(2)s (10.2%), l-amino acid oxidase (5.7%), the medium-sized disintegrin colombistatin (5.6%), serine proteinases (1%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (0.8%), a DC-fragment (0.5%), and a CRISP protein (0.1%). A comparison of the venom proteomes of B. colombiensis and B. atrox did not support the suggested synonymy between these two species. The closest homologues to B. colombiensis venom proteins appeared to be toxins from B. asper. A rough estimation of the similarity between the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper indicated that these species share approximately 65-70% of their venom proteomes. The close kinship of B. colombiensis and B. asper points at the ancestor of B. colombiensis as the founding Central American B. asper ancestor. This finding may be relevant for reconstructing the natural history and cladogenesis of Bothrops. Further, the virtually indistinguishable immunological crossreactivity of a Venezuelan ABC antiserum (raised against a mixture of B. colombiensis and Crotalus durissus cumanensis venoms) and the Costa Rican ICP polyvalent antivenom (generated against a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) towards the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper, supports this

  12. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics.

  13. Anti-snake venom properties of Schizolobium parahyba (Caesalpinoideae) aqueous leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mirian M; Oliveira, Carolina F; Lopes, Daiana S; Vale, Luís Henrique F; Alcântara, Tânia M; Izidoro, Luiz Fernando M; Hamaguchi, Amélia; Homsi-Brandeburgo, Maria Inês; Soares, Andreimar M; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2008-07-01

    Many medicinal plants have been recommended for the treatment of snakebites. The aqueous extracts prepared from the leaves of Schizolobium parahyba (a plant found in Mata Atlantica in Southeastern Brazil) were assayed for their ability to inhibit some enzymatic and biological activities induced by Bothrops pauloensis and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms as well as by their isolated toxins neuwiedase (metalloproteinase), BnSP-7 (basic Lys49 PLA(2)) and CB (PLA(2) from crotoxin complex). Phospholipase A(2), coagulant, fibrinogenolytic, hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities induced by B. pauloensis and C. d. terrificus venoms, as well as by their isolated toxins were significantly inhibited when different amounts of S. parahyba were incubated previously with these venoms and toxins before assays. However, when S. parahyba was administered at the same route as the venoms or toxins injections, the tissue local damage, such as hemorrhage and myotoxicity was only partially inhibited. The study also evaluated the inhibitory effect of S. parahyba upon the spreading of venom proteins from the injected area into the systemic circulation. The neutralization of systemic alterations induced by i.m. injection of B. pauloensis venom was evaluated by measuring platelet and plasma fibrinogen levels which were significantly maintained when S. parahyba extract inoculation occurred at the same route after B. pauloensis venom injection. In conclusion, the observations confirmed that the aqueous extract of S. parahyba possesses potent snake venom neutralizing properties. It may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and as a rich source of potential inhibitors of toxins involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases.

  14. In Vitro Antiophidian Mechanisms of Hypericum brasiliense Choisy Standardized Extract: Quercetin-Dependent Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Lucho, Ana Paula de Bairros; Vinadé, Lúcia; Seibert França, Hildegardo; Marangoni, Sérgio; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2013-01-01

    The neuroprotection induced by Hypericum brasiliense Choisy extract (HBE) and its main active polyphenol compound quercetin, against Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom and crotoxin and crotamine, was enquired at both central and peripheral mammal nervous system. Cdt venom (10 μg/mL) or crotoxin (1 μg/mL) incubated at mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation (PND) induced an irreversible and complete neuromuscular blockade, respectively. Crotamine (1 μg/mL) only induced an increase of muscle strength at PND preparations. At mouse brain slices, Cdt venom (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL) decreased cell viability. HBE (100 μg/mL) inhibited significantly the facilitatory action of crotamine (1 μg/mL) and was partially active against the neuromuscular blockade of crotoxin (1 μg/mL) (data not shown). Quercetin (10 μg/mL) mimicked the neuromuscular protection of HBE (100 μg/mL), by inhibiting almost completely the neurotoxic effect induced by crotoxin (1 μg/mL) and crotamine (1 μg/mL). HBE (100 μg/mL) and quercetin (10 μg/mL) also increased cell viability in mice brain slices. Quercetin (10 μg/mL) was more effective than HBE (100 μg/mL) in counteracting the cell lysis induced by Cdt venom (1 and 10 μg/mL, resp.). These results and a further phytochemical and toxicological investigations could open new perspectives towards therapeutic use of Hypericum brasiliense standardized extract and quercetin, especially to counteract the neurotoxic effect induced by snake neurotoxic venoms. PMID:24490174

  15. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics. PMID:25100358

  16. Fluorometric assay using naphthylamide substrates for assessing novel venom peptidase activities.

    PubMed

    Gasparello-Clemente, Elaine; Silveira, Paulo Flávio

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we examined the feasibility of using the fluorometry of naphthylamine derivatives for revealing peptidase activities in venoms of the snakes Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops insularis, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bitis arietans, of the scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Tityus bahiensis, and of the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Loxosceles intermedia. Neutral aminopeptidase (APN) and prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP IV) activities were presented in all snake venoms, with the highest levels in B. alternatus. Although all examined peptidase activities showed relatively low levels in arthropod venoms, basic aminopeptidase (APB) activity from P. nigriventer venom was the exception. Compared to the other peptidase activities, relatively high levels of acid aminopeptidase (APA) activity were restricted to B. arietans venom. B. arietans also exhibited a prominent content of APB activity which was lower in other venoms. Relatively low prolyl endopeptidase and proline iminopeptidase activities were, respectively, detectable only in T. bahiensis and B. insularis. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase activity was undetectable in all venoms. All examined peptidase activities were undetectable in T. serrulatus venom. In this study, the specificities of a diverse array of peptidase activities from representative venoms were demonstrated for the first time, with a description of their distribution which may contribute to guiding further investigations. The expressive difference between snake and arthropod venoms was indicated by APN and DPP IV activities while APA and APB activities distinguished the venom of B. arietans from those of Brazilian snakes. The data reflected the relatively uniform qualitative distribution of the peptidase activities investigated, together with their unequal quantitative distribution, indicating the evolutionary divergence in the processing of peptides in these different

  17. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    PubMed

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  18. Crystallographic characterization of functional sites of crotoxin and ammodytoxin, potent β-neurotoxins from Viperidae venom.

    PubMed

    Faure, Grazyna; Saul, Frederick

    2012-09-15

    This review will focus on a description of the three-dimensional structures of two β-neurotoxins, the monomeric PLA(2) ammodytoxin from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes, and heterodimeric crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus, and a detailed structural analysis of their multiple functional sites. We have recently determined at high resolution the crystal structures of two natural isoforms of ammodytoxin (AtxA and AtxC) (Saul et al., 2010) which exhibit different toxicity profiles and different anticoagulant properties. Comparative structural analysis of these two PLA(2) isoforms, which differ only by two amino acid residues, allowed us to detect local conformational changes and delineate the role of critical residues in the anticoagulant and neurotoxic functions of these PLA(2) (Saul et al., 2010). We have also determined, at 1.35Å resolution, the crystal structure of heterodimeric crotoxin (Faure et al., 2011). The three-dimensional structure of crotoxin revealed details of the binding interface between its acidic (CA) and basic (CB) subunits and allowed us to identify key residues involved in the stability and toxicity of this potent heterodimeric β-neurotoxin (Faure et al., 2011). The precise spatial orientation of the three covalently linked polypeptide chains in the mature CA subunit complexed with CB helps us to understand the role played by critical residues of the CA subunit in the increased toxicity of the crotoxin complex. Since the CA subunit is a natural inhibitor of the catalytic and anticoagulant activities of CB, identification of the CA-CB binding interface describes residues involved in this inhibition. We propose future research directions based on knowledge of the recently reported 3D structures of crotoxin and ammodytoxin.

  19. Using Multiscale Spatial Models to Assess Potential Surrogate Habitat for an Imperiled Reptile

    PubMed Central

    Fill, Jennifer M.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Bennett, Stephen H.; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    In evaluating conservation and management options for species, practitioners might consider surrogate habitats at multiple scales when estimating available habitat or modeling species’ potential distributions based on suitable habitats, especially when native environments are rare. Species’ dependence on surrogates likely increases as optimal habitat is degraded and lost due to anthropogenic landscape change, and thus surrogate habitats may be vital for an imperiled species’ survival in highly modified landscapes. We used spatial habitat models to examine a potential surrogate habitat for an imperiled ambush predator (eastern diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus adamanteus; EDB) at two scales. The EDB is an apex predator indigenous to imperiled longleaf pine ecosystems (Pinus palustris) of the southeastern United States. Loss of native open-canopy pine savannas and woodlands has been suggested as the principal cause of the species’ extensive decline. We examined EDB habitat selection in the Coastal Plain tidewater region to evaluate the role of marsh as a potential surrogate habitat and to further quantify the species’ habitat requirements at two scales: home range (HR) and within the home range (WHR). We studied EDBs using radiotelemetry and employed an information-theoretic approach and logistic regression to model habitat selection as use vs. availability. We failed to detect a positive association with marsh as a surrogate habitat at the HR scale; rather, EDBs exhibited significantly negative associations with all landscape patches except pine savanna. Within home range selection was characterized by a negative association with forest and a positive association with ground cover, which suggests that EDBs may use surrogate habitats of similar structure, including marsh, within their home ranges. While our HR analysis did not support tidal marsh as a surrogate habitat, marsh may still provide resources for EDBs at smaller scales. PMID:25915926

  20. Contrasting Modes and Tempos of Venom Expression Evolution in Two Snake Species

    PubMed Central

    Margres, Mark J.; McGivern, James J.; Seavy, Margaret; Wray, Kenneth P.; Facente, Jack; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2015-01-01

    Selection is predicted to drive diversification within species and lead to local adaptation, but understanding the mechanistic details underlying this process and thus the genetic basis of adaptive evolution requires the mapping of genotype to phenotype. Venom is complex and involves many genes, but the specialization of the venom gland toward toxin production allows specific transcripts to be correlated with specific toxic proteins, establishing a direct link from genotype to phenotype. To determine the extent of expression variation and identify the processes driving patterns of phenotypic diversity, we constructed genotype-phenotype maps and compared range-wide toxin-protein expression variation for two species of snake with nearly identical ranges: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We detected significant expression variation in C. adamanteus, identified the specific loci associated with population differentiation, and found that loci expressed at all levels contributed to this divergence. Contrary to expectations, we found no expression variation in M. fulvius, suggesting that M. fulvius populations are not locally adapted. Our results not only linked expression variation at specific loci to divergence in a polygenic, complex trait but also have extensive conservation and biomedical implications. C. adamanteus is currently a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the loss of any major population would result in the irrevocable loss of a unique venom phenotype. The lack of variation in M. fulvius has significant biomedical application because our data will assist in the development of effective antivenom for this species. PMID:25387465

  1. Landscape-level influences of terrestrial snake occupancy within the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Rudolph, D Craig; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Humphries, W Jeffrey; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig

    2012-06-01

    Habitat loss and degradation are thought to be the primary drivers of species extirpations, but for many species we have little information regarding specific habitats that influence occupancy. Snakes are of conservation concern throughout North America, but effective management and conservation are hindered by a lack of basic natural history information and the small number of large-scale studies designed to assess general population trends. To address this information gap, we compiled detection/nondetection data for 13 large terrestrial species from 449 traps located across the southeastern United States, and we characterized the land cover surrounding each trap at multiple spatial scales (250-, 500-, and 1000-m buffers). We used occupancy modeling, while accounting for heterogeneity in detection probability, to identify habitat variables that were influential in determining the presence of a particular species. We evaluated 12 competing models for each species, representing various hypotheses pertaining to important habitat features for terrestrial snakes. Overall, considerable interspecific variation existed in important habitat variables and relevant spatial scales. For example, kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula) were negatively associated with evergreen forests, whereas Louisiana pinesnake (Pituophis ruthveni) occupancy increased with increasing coverage of this forest type. Some species were positively associated with grassland and scrub/shrub (e.g., Slowinski's cornsnake, Elaphe slowinskii) whereas others, (e.g., copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix, and eastern diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus adamanteus) were positively associated with forested habitats. Although the species that we studied may persist in varied landscapes other than those we identified as important, our data were collected in relatively undeveloped areas. Thus, our findings may be relevant when generating conservation plans or restoration goals. Maintaining or restoring landscapes that

  2. Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) chemical signals. II. A replication with naturally breeding adults and a test of the Cowles and Phelan hypothesis of rattlesnake olfaction.

    PubMed

    Duvall, D

    1981-12-01

    The capacity of naturally breeding western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus) to discriminate and respond to conspecific and control chemical cues was examined. Lizards were presented with markings and exudates of male and female donors, as well as cologne (a pungency control) and water, in a successive discrimination procedure. Behavioral actions quantified after exposure to the different chemical cue types included lingual extrusions (tongue flicks and substrate licks), rapid nasal inhalations, and the performance of push-up visual displays. Initial latencies to lingual investigation of the different extracts and markings also were recorded as a measure of the extent to which nasal olfaction would switch on the tongue-Jacobson's organ (vomeronasal olfactory) system. Although no sex differences in total levels of response were noted, males and females exhibited significant lingual discriminations equally to exudates collected from male or female conspecifics. Push-up visual displays also were noted in response to conspecific markings. Cologne-marked surfaced, however, elicited nonsignificant levels of lingual investigation and push-up displaying. Latencies to initial tongue flicks, but not substrate licks, were significantly shorter when any material other than water was present. Therefore, as suggested by Cowles and Phelan ('58), nasal olfaction may indeed be more of a "quantitative," distance sensing system that responds to the presence of any pungent substance by initiating further investigation via the tongue-Jacobson's organ system. The latter appears to be more "qualitative," or discriminating, as indexed by relatively greater levels of lingual investigation of conspecific markings than cologne. No differences were noted in rapid nasal inhalation activity. The results suggest that pheromone markings, along the ground or other surfaces, may be important to spacing and territorial maintenance in nature. This could occur through direct pheromone effects on signal recipients, or indirectly, through the stimulation of increased push-up activity, which could make lizards more visible to one another. PMID:7338721

  3. Use of microarrays for investigating the subtoxic effects of snake venoms: insights into venom-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Paul G; Bao, Yongde; Serrano, Solange M T; Kamiguti, Aura S; Theakston, R David G; Fox, Jay W

    2003-03-01

    The pathological effects of only a small percentage of the total number of protein components of snake venoms are well documented, yet this knowledge has led to a general understanding of the physiological consequences of snake venom poisoning. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of subpathological levels of Crotalus atrox (Western diamondback rattlesnake) and Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) snake venoms on the gene expression profile of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in culture. Analysis of the data demonstrated that HUVECs treated with C. atrox venom had 33 genes up-regulated with significant fold changes of 1.5 or greater compared to untreated control cells. Ten genes were down-regulated with 1.5 or greater fold changes. In cells treated with B. jararaca venom, 33 genes were observed to be up-regulated and 11 genes were down-regulated with a fold change of 1.5 or more. More than half of the up-regulated genes and approximately half of the down-regulated genes detected in cells treated with the venoms were found in both data sets underscoring both the similarities and differences between the two venoms. Ontological categorization of the up-regulated genes from endothelial cells treated with either C. atrox or B. jararaca venom gave the cell growth/maintenance and signal transducer groups as having the most members. The ontology of the down-regulated genes from both venom-treated cell samples was more varied but interestingly, the predominant ontology class was also cell growth/maintenance. Many of the up-regulated genes are involved in the Fas ligand/TNF-alpha receptor apoptotic pathway. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the power of gene expression profiling to explore the subtoxic effects of venoms on gene expression and highlight its potential for the discovery of novel insights into a variety of biological processes and signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, these studies illustrate the subtle functional differences between

  4. Physiology on a landscape scale: plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Porter, Warren P; Sabo, John L; Tracy, Christopher R; Reichman, O J; Ramankutty, Navin

    2002-07-01

    We explore in this paper how animals can be affected by variation in climate, topography, vegetation characteristics, and body size. We utilize new spatially explicit state-of-the-art models that incorporate principles from heat and mass transfer engineering, physiology, morphology, and behavior that have been modified to provide spatially explicit hypotheses using GIS. We demonstrate how temporal and spatial changes in microclimate resulting from differences in topography and vegetation cover alter animal energetics, and behavior. We explore the impacts of these energetic predictions on elk energetics in burned and unburned stands of conifer in winter in Yellowstone National Park, chuckwalla lizard distribution limits in North America, California Beechey Ground squirrel and Dusky Footed woodrat mass and energy requirements and activity patterns on the landscape, their predator prey interactions with a rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis, and shifts in that food web structure due to topographic and vegetative variation. We illustrate how different scales of data/observation provide different pieces of information that may collectively define the real distributions of a species. We then use sensitivity analyses of energetic models to evaluate hypotheses about the effects of changes in core temperature (fever) global climate (increased air temperature under a global warming scenario) and vegetation cover (deforestation) on winter survival of elk, the geographic distribution of chuckwallas and the activity overlap of predator and prey species within a subset of commonly observed species in a terrestrial food web. Variation in slope and aspect affect the spatial variance in solar radiation incident on the ground, hence ground surface temperature, at the same elevation, same hourly 2 m air temperatures, and wind speeds. We illustrate visually how spatial effects and landscape heterogeneity make statistical descriptions of animal responses problematic, since multiple

  5. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2014 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Derek B.; Anderson, David C.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2015-05-12

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2014. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2014, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives. Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NNSS include 42 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, 236 birds, and 27 mammals. These species are protected, regulated, or considered sensitive according to state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) are the only species on the NNSS protected under the Endangered Species Act, both listed as threatened. However, only one record of the cuckoo has ever been documented on the NNSS, and there is no good habitat for this species on the NNSS. It is considered a rare migrant. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 18 projects. A total of 199.18 hectares (ha) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found during these surveys included a predator burrow, one sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), two mating speckled rattlesnakes

  6. Snake bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... bites by any of the following: Cobra Copperhead Coral snake Cottonmouth (water moccasin) Rattlesnake Various snakes found ... Swelling Thirst Tiredness Tissue damage Weakness Weak pulse Coral snake bites may be painless at first. Major ...

  7. Thermal sensitivity analysis data utilizing Q10 scanning, Boltzmann slope factor and the change of molar heat capacity.

    PubMed

    Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-03-01

    As a further elaboration of the recently devised Q10 scanning analysis ("Exceptionally high thermal sensitivity of rattlesnake TRPA1 correlates with peak current amplitude" [1]), the interval between current data points at two temperatures was shortened and the resulting parameters representing thermal sensitivities such as peak Q10s and temperature points of major thermosensitivity events are presented for two TRPA1 orthologues from rattlesnakes and boas. In addition, the slope factors from Boltzmann fitting and the change of molar heat capacity of temperature-evoked currents were evaluated and compared as alternative ways of thermal sensitivity appraisal of TRPA1 orthologues.

  8. Thermal sensitivity analysis data utilizing Q10 scanning, Boltzmann slope factor and the change of molar heat capacity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-01-01

    As a further elaboration of the recently devised Q10 scanning analysis (“Exceptionally high thermal sensitivity of rattlesnake TRPA1 correlates with peak current amplitude” [1]), the interval between current data points at two temperatures was shortened and the resulting parameters representing thermal sensitivities such as peak Q10s and temperature points of major thermosensitivity events are presented for two TRPA1 orthologues from rattlesnakes and boas. In addition, the slope factors from Boltzmann fitting and the change of molar heat capacity of temperature-evoked currents were evaluated and compared as alternative ways of thermal sensitivity appraisal of TRPA1 orthologues. PMID:26870758

  9. 78 FR 49422 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... warranted (74 FR 419). On March 13, 2009, the Service and WildEarth Guardians filed a stipulated settlement... that listing may be warranted for 67 species, including the rattlesnake- master borer moth (74 FR 66866... detected cannibalistic behavior with some caterpillars moving into already occupied bore holes, killing...

  10. The Art of Making Assessment Anti-Venom: Injecting Assessment in Small Doses to Create a Faculty Culture of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Philip I.

    2009-01-01

    Many college faculty react to student outcomes assessment the way most people react when they see a rattlesnake within striking distance. Common faculty reactions to the perceived threat of assessment include metaphorically running away and throwing rocks or sticks at it. Like a hiker in the desert doing her best to avoid being struck when she…

  11. SNAKE VENOM POISONING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Findlay E.

    1960-01-01

    The annual incidence of rattlesnake bite in Southern California is approximately 1 per 75,000 population. The case fatality rate is 1.5 per cent. The snakes implicated in the greatest number of injuries are the southern Pacific rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake and the sidewinder. Rattlesnake venom produces deleterious changes in the blood cells, defects in blood coagulation, injury to the intimal linings of vessels, damage to the heart muscle, alterations in the respiratory cycle and, to a lesser extent, changes in neuromuscular conduction. The most frequently observed symptoms and signs following ophidiasis in this area are swelling and edema, pain, ecchymosis, swelling of the regional lymph nodes, weakness, sweating, increased body temperature, faintness, and hemorrhagic vesiculations. First aid treatment consists of immobilization of the affected part, application of a constriction band, incision and suction with subsequent local application of ice packs. Treatment in hospital consists of administration of antivenin, antitetanus agent and antibiotic. Transfusions, oxygen and a corticosteroid may be indicated in some cases. PMID:13744840

  12. Venom Evolution: Gene Loss Shapes Phenotypic Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Casewell, Nicholas R

    2016-09-26

    Snake venoms are variable protein mixtures with a multitude of bioactivities. New work shows, surprisingly, that it is the loss of toxin-encoding genes that strongly influences venom function in rattlesnakes, highlighting how gene loss can underpin adaptive phenotypic change. PMID:27676304

  13. 75 FR 26714 - Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Forest Service Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act...: Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site. SUMMARY: Rattlesnake Bay ATV Trail is located near Beaumont... Gainey, Recreation Program Manager, 601-965-1617, National Forests in Mississippi, 100 West...

  14. Recovery Act Weekly Video: Upper ALE Building Demolition

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company demolition of 6652C Space Science Laboratory. The largest building atop Rattlesnake Mountain, the laboratory served as a nightly radar patrol center as well as a barracks. The Recovery Act funded project is helping reduce the site footprint.

  15. Secondary production of benthic insects in three cold-desert streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, W.L.

    1987-07-01

    Aquatic insect production was studied in three cold-desert streams in eastern Washington (Douglas Creek, Snively Springs, and Rattlesnake Springs). The size-frequency method was applied to individual taxa to estimate total insect production. production was also assessed for functional groups and trophic levels in each stream. Optioservus sp. (riffle beetles) and Baetis sp. (mayflies) accounted for 72% of the total insect numbers and 50% of the total biomass in Douglas Creek. Baetis sp. accounted for 42% of the total insect numbers and 25% of the total biomass in Snively Springs. Simulium sp. (blackflies) and Baetis sp. comprised 74% of the total insect numbers and 55% of the total biomass in Rattlesnake Springs. Grazer-scrapers (49%) and collectors (48%) were the most abundant functional groups in Douglas Creek. Collectors were the most abundant functional group in Snively Springs and Rattlesnake Springs. Herbivores and detritivores were the most abundant trophic level in Snively Springs and Rattlesnake Springs. Dipterans (midges and blackflies) were the most productive taxa within the study streams, accounting for 40% to 70% of the total community production. Production by collectors and detritivores was the highest of all functional groups and trophic levels in all study streams.

  16. 78 FR 62346 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    .... Description: 2299R2 Rattlesnake Creek Wind Project, LLC GIA to be effective 9/26/2013. Filed Date: 10/8/13... 10/22/13. Docket Numbers: ER13-2308-000. Applicants: Sapphire Power Marketing LLC. Description: Supplement to September 3, 2013 Sapphire Power Marketing LLC tariff filing. Filed Date: 10/8/13....

  17. Evolutionary clock - Nonconstancy of rate in different species.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.; Holmquist, R.

    1972-01-01

    By using various methods for comparing polypeptide sequences we find that the evolutionary divergence of rattlesnake cytochrome c from cytochromes c of species in other classes has been more rapid than that of cytochrome c of another reptile, the snapping turtle. This suggests that the evolutionary rate of change of cytochromes c is species-dependent as well as time-dependent.

  18. Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: differentiation, evolutionary strata, and lack of global dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Emerson, J J; Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes

  19. Evidence for lack of DNA photoreactivating enzyme in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ywan Feng Li; Sang-Tae Kim; Sancar, A. )

    1993-05-15

    Photoreactivating enzyme (DNA photolyase; deoxyribocyclobutadipyrimidine pyrimidine-lyase, EC 4.1.99.3) repairs uv damage to DNA by utilizing the energy of near-uv/visible light to split pyrimidine dimers into monomers. The enzyme is widespread in nature but is absent in certain species in a seemingly unpredictable manner. Its presence in humans has been a source of considerable controversy. To help resolve the issue the authors used a very specific and sensitive assay to compare photoreactivation activity in human, rattlesnake, yeast, and Escherichia coli cells. Photolyase was easily detectable in E. coli, yeast, and rattlesnake cell-free extracts but none was detected in cell-free extracts from HeLa cells or human white blood cells with an assay capable of detecting 10 molecules per cell. They conclude that humans most likely do not have DNA photolyase. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Alvarez, R.M.; Ruppert, K.R.; Goforth, B.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5??km/h to about 90??km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the

  1. Biochemical and biological activities of the venom of a new species of pitviper from Vietnam, Triceratolepidophis sieversorum.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Kuch, Ulrich; Herrmann, Hans Werner; Ziegler, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Biochemical and biological activities of a venom sample from a recently discovered new genus and species of pitviper from Vietnam, Triceratolepidophis sieversorum, were assayed and compared with those of five other viperid snakes (Bothrops asper, Crotalus atrox, Protobothrops flavoviridis, Trimeresurus insularis, and Vipera ammodytes). The venom had high casein hydrolysis, arginine ester hydrolysis and haemorrhagic activities, lacked measurable phosphodiesterase and L-amino acid oxidase activities, and had no procoagulant activity on either bovine fibrinogen or human plasma. Other enzymatic activities (phospholipase A(2), kallikrein) were moderate. The approximate i.p. LD(50) (mice) of the venom is about 5-6 mg/kg. PMID:12565732

  2. N-terminal amino acid sequences and some characteristics of fibrinolytic/hemorrhagic metalloproteinases purified from Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masugi; Sugiki, Masahiko; Anai, Keita; Yoshida, Etsuo

    2002-08-01

    We determined the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the fibrinolytic/hemorrhagic metalloproteinases (jararafibrases I, III and IV) purified from Bothrops jararaca venom. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of jararafibrase I and its degradation products were identical to those of jararhagin, another hemorrhagic metalloproteinase purified from the same snake venom. Together with enzymatic and immunological properties, we concluded that those two enzymes are identical. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of jararafibrase III was quite similar to C-type lectin isolated from Crotalus atrox, and the protein had a hemagglutinating activity on intact rat red blood cells. PMID:12165326

  3. Astronaut John Young looks over a boulder at Station no. 13 during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, looks over a large boulder at Station No. 13 during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This was the site of the permanently shadowed soil sample which was taken from a hole extending under overhanging rock. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph. Concerning Young's reaching under the big rock, Duke remarked: 'You do that in west Texas and you get a rattlesnake!'

  4. Does the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) use auditory aposematism to deter mammalian herbivores?

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2016-08-01

    Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium). In this tree, the large and hollow thorn bases whistle when wind blows. This type of aposematism compliments the well-known conspicuous thorn and mutualistic ant based aposematism during day and may operate during night when the conspicuous thorns are invisible.

  5. Savage Island Project borehole completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Gilmore, T.J.; Teel, S.S.

    1993-02-01

    This report discusses three wells which were drilled in 1990 and 1991 in support of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Ground-Water surveillance Project. These wells were intended to monitor the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed aquifer and the deeper portion of the unconfined aquifer to determine whether ground-water contamination emanating from the Hanford Site was migrating offsite through these aquifers. This report discusses well construction, lithologies encountered, and other data collected during drilling. At least three reports have been or are being prepared to discuss the results of this well monitoring project.

  6. Savage Island Project borehole completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Gilmore, T.J.; Teel, S.S.

    1993-02-01

    This report discusses three wells which were drilled in 1990 and 1991 in support of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Ground-Water surveillance Project. These wells were intended to monitor the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed aquifer and the deeper portion of the unconfined aquifer to determine whether ground-water contamination emanating from the Hanford Site was migrating offsite through these aquifers. This report discusses well construction, lithologies encountered, and other data collected during drilling. At least three reports have been or are being prepared to discuss the results of this well monitoring project.

  7. NEAMS-Funded University Research in Support of TREAT Modeling and Simulation, FY15

    SciTech Connect

    Dehart, Mark; Mausolff, Zander; Goluoglu, Sedat; Prince, Zach; Ragusa, Jean; Haugen, Carl; Ellis, Matt; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord; Alberti, Anthony; Palmer, Todd

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes university research activities performed in support of TREAT modeling and simulation research. It is a compilation of annual research reports from four universities: University of Florida, Texas A&M University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Oregon State University. The general research topics are, respectively, (1) 3-D time-dependent transport with TDKENO/KENO-VI, (2) implementation of the Improved Quasi-Static method in Rattlesnake/MOOSE for time-dependent radiation transport approximations, (3) improved treatment of neutron physics representations within TREAT using OpenMC, and (4) steady state modeling of the minimum critical core of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT).

  8. Exotic snakes are not always found in exotic places: how poison centres can assist emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Lubich, Carol; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-11-01

    Emergency departments throughout the USA may have some familiarity with the management of envenomation from indigenous snake species such as Crotalinae (rattlesnakes) and Micrurus (coral snakes). However, venomous species may include exotic reptiles whose bites pose substantial treatment challenges due to both a lack of experience and the difficulty in obtaining antivenoms. Two pet cobra envenomation incidents illustrate the challenges that face emergency departments, especially in urban settings, that are confronted with these exposures. It is important for emergency departments to be aware of the large underground presence of exotic venomous reptile pets and to utilise the expertise of regional poison centres that will also assist in the procurement of exotic antivenoms.

  9. Impact of fracture stratigraphy on the paleohydrogeology of the Madison limestone in two basement involved folds in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Mickael; Leprêtre, Rémi; Hamon, Youri; Callot, Jean-Paul; Gasparrini, Marta; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Lacombe, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Based on the study of the Madison Limestone at Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain, a unique outcrop dataset including (1) facies and diagenenitc analyses, (2) vertical persistence and cement stratigraphy of vein sets and (3) fluid inclusions thermometry are used to demonstrate (i) the importance of the eo-diagenetic phases on reservoirs petrophysical and mechanical properties, and (ii) the impact of folding and fracturing on paleo-hydrogeology. The different phases of porosity and permeability development of the carbonates of the Madison Limestone occurred mainly during the syn-depositional eogenesis, the postponed eogenesis (reflux of brine during LFS3) and during the karstification at the end of the Mississippian. The early sealing by the Amsden Formation during the Early Pennsylvanian, limited the vertical exchanges and initiated the confinement of the Madison "aquifer". The burial of the Madison Limestone leaded to the occlusion of the pore network due to the calcite cementation in the distal parts of the platform whereas it leaded to the pore network development due to the crystallization of dolomite in proximal parts. Quantification of the vertical persistence of fractures shows that Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain differ by the vertical persistence of the pre-folding Laramide vein sets, which are strictly bed-confined in Sheep Mountain but cut across bedding at Rattlesnake Mountain, whereas the syn-folding veins are through-going in both. The emplacement chronology and the various sources of the fluids responsible for the paragenetic sequence are based on isotope chemistry and fluid inclusions analysis of the matrix and vein cements. At Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain, the two cements related to the burial are characterized by isotopic signatures of marine formation waters that were diluted during the karstification of the Madison Platform at the end of Mississippian. Meteoric fluids, presumably migrating during the Cenomanian from Wind

  10. Comparative study of anticoagulant and procoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms from families Elapidae, Viperidae, and purified Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X).

    PubMed

    Suntravat, Montamas; Nuchprayoon, Issarang; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-15

    Snake venoms consist of numerous molecules with diverse biological functions used for capturing prey. Each component of venom has a specific target, and alters the biological function of its target. Once these molecules are identified, characterized, and cloned; they could have medical applications. The activated clotting time (ACT) and clot rate were used for screening procoagulant and anticoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms. Crude venoms from Daboia russellii siamensis, Bothrops asper, Bothrops moojeni, and one Crotalus oreganus helleri from Wrightwood, CA, had procoagulant activity. These venoms induced a significant shortening of the ACT and showed a significant increase in the clot rate when compared to the negative control. Factor X activator activity was also measured in 28 venoms, and D. r. siamensis venom was 5-6 times higher than those of B. asper, B. moojeni, and C. o. helleri from Wrightwood County. Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X) was purified from D. r. siamensis venom, and then procoagulant activity was evaluated by the ACT and clot rate. Other venoms, Crotalus atrox and two Naja pallida, had anticoagulant activity. A significant increase in the ACT and a significant decrease in the clot rate were observed after the addition of these venoms; therefore, the venoms were considered to have anticoagulant activity. Venoms from the same species did not always have the same ACT and clot rate profiles, but the profiles were an excellent way to identify procoagulant and anticoagulant activities in snake venoms. PMID:20677373

  11. Helodermatine, a kallikrein-like, hypotensive enzyme from the venom of Heloderma horridum horridum (Mexican beaded lizard)

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We have purified and characterized the major N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester hydrolase from the venom of Heloderma horridum horridum. The enzyme belongs to the serine proteinase family, and its activity vs. peptide amide substrates and human high-molecular-weight kininogen suggests a similarity to the family of kallikreins. This interpretation is corroborated by its reactivity with the natural inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor and Kunitz-type bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin). Injection of the enzyme (2-16 micrograms/kg) into anesthetized rabbits leads to a rapid dose-dependent transient decrease of the arterial blood pressure. Like glandular kallikrein it specifically converts single-chain tissue type plasminogen activator into its double chain form. In contrast to other kallikrein-like enzymes from snake venoms it shows no thrombin-like or plasminogen activator activity. The enzyme is a single-chain glycoprotein (Mr 63,000). The N-terminal sequence revealed significant homology to pig pancreatic kallikrein and to kallikrein like enzymes from Crotalus atrox and Crotalus adamanteus venom. This enzyme, which we name Helodermatine, is the first purified from Sauria with kallikrein-like properties. PMID:3537191

  12. Structure and characterization of the glycan moiety of L-amino-acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma.

    PubMed

    Geyer, A; Fitzpatrick, T B; Pawelek, P D; Kitzing, K; Vrielink, A; Ghisla, S; Macheroux, P

    2001-07-01

    Ophidian L-amino-acid oxidase (L-amino-acid oxygen:oxidoreductase, deaminating, EC 1.4.3.2) is found in the venom of many poisonous snakes (crotalids, elapids and viperids). This FAD-dependent glycoprotein has been studied from several snake species (e.g. Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus atrox and Calloselasma rhodostoma) in detail with regard to the biochemical and enzymatic properties. The nature of glycosylation, however, as well as the chemical structure(s) of the attached oligosaccharide(s) are unknown. In view of the putative involvement of the glycan moiety in the biological effects of ophidian L-amino-acid oxidase, notably the apoptotic activity of the enzyme, structural knowledge is needed to evaluate its exact function. In this study we report on the glycosylation of L-amino-acid oxidase from the venom of the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma). Its glycosylation is remarkably homogeneous with the major oligosaccharide accounting for approximately 90% of the total sugar content. Based on detailed analysis of the isolated oligosaccharide by 2D NMR spectroscopies and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the glycan is identified as a bis-sialylated, biantennary, core-fucosylated dodecasaccharide. The biological significance of this finding is discussed in light of the biological activities of the enzyme. PMID:11453999

  13. From Tusko to Titin: the role for comparative physiology in an era of molecular discovery.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, S L; Nishikawa, K C

    2015-06-15

    As we approach the centenary of the term "comparative physiology," we reexamine its role in modern biology. Finding inspiration in Krogh's classic 1929 paper, we first look back to some timeless contributions to the field. The obvious and fascinating variation among animals is much more evident than is their shared physiological unity, which transcends both body size and specific adaptations. The "unity in diversity" reveals general patterns and principles of physiology that are invisible when examining only one species. Next, we examine selected contemporary contributions to comparative physiology, which provides the context in which reductionist experiments are best interpreted. We discuss the sometimes surprising insights provided by two comparative "athletes" (pronghorn and rattlesnakes), which demonstrate 1) animals are not isolated molecular mechanisms but highly integrated physiological machines, a single "rate-limiting" step may be exceptional; and 2) extremes in nature are rarely the result of novel mechanisms, but rather employ existing solutions in novel ways. Furthermore, rattlesnake tailshaker muscle effectively abolished the conventional view of incompatibility of simultaneous sustained anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative ATP production. We end this review by looking forward, much as Krogh did, to suggest that a comparative approach may best lend insights in unraveling how skeletal muscle stores and recovers mechanical energy when operating cyclically. We discuss and speculate on the role of the largest known protein, titin (the third muscle filament), as a dynamic spring capable of storing and recovering elastic recoil potential energy in skeletal muscle. PMID:25855309

  14. DNA Binding Proteins and Drug Delivery Vehicles: Tales of Elephants and Snakes.

    PubMed

    Karpel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    We compare the DNA-interactive properties of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein (gp32) with those of crotamine, a component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake. Gene 32 protein is a classical single-stranded DNA binding protein that has served as a model for this class of proteins. We discuss its biological functions, structure, binding specificities, and how it controls its own expression. In addition, we delineate the roles of the structural domains of gp32 and how they regulate the protein's various activities. Crotamine, a component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake, is probably not a DNA binding protein in nature, but clearly shows significant DNA binding in vitro. Crotamine has been shown to selectively disrupt rapidly dividing cells and this specificity has been demonstrated for crotamine-facilitated delivery of plasmid DNA Thus, crotamine, or a variant of the protein, could have important clinical and/or diagnostic roles. Understanding its DNA binding properties may therefore lead to more effective drug delivery vehicles.

  15. From Tusko to Titin: the role for comparative physiology in an era of molecular discovery.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, S L; Nishikawa, K C

    2015-06-15

    As we approach the centenary of the term "comparative physiology," we reexamine its role in modern biology. Finding inspiration in Krogh's classic 1929 paper, we first look back to some timeless contributions to the field. The obvious and fascinating variation among animals is much more evident than is their shared physiological unity, which transcends both body size and specific adaptations. The "unity in diversity" reveals general patterns and principles of physiology that are invisible when examining only one species. Next, we examine selected contemporary contributions to comparative physiology, which provides the context in which reductionist experiments are best interpreted. We discuss the sometimes surprising insights provided by two comparative "athletes" (pronghorn and rattlesnakes), which demonstrate 1) animals are not isolated molecular mechanisms but highly integrated physiological machines, a single "rate-limiting" step may be exceptional; and 2) extremes in nature are rarely the result of novel mechanisms, but rather employ existing solutions in novel ways. Furthermore, rattlesnake tailshaker muscle effectively abolished the conventional view of incompatibility of simultaneous sustained anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative ATP production. We end this review by looking forward, much as Krogh did, to suggest that a comparative approach may best lend insights in unraveling how skeletal muscle stores and recovers mechanical energy when operating cyclically. We discuss and speculate on the role of the largest known protein, titin (the third muscle filament), as a dynamic spring capable of storing and recovering elastic recoil potential energy in skeletal muscle.

  16. Shrub-Steppe Seasons A Natural History of the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    LE Rogers

    1995-08-01

    This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.

  17. The interplay of fold mechanisms and basement weaknesses at the transition between Laramide basement-involved arches, north-central Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Thomas G.; Erslev, Eric A.

    2009-09-01

    Horizontally-shortened, basement-involved foreland orogens commonly exhibit anastomosing networks of bifurcating basement highs (here called arches) whose structural culminations are linked by complex transition zones of diversely-oriented faults and folds. The 3D geometry and kinematics of the southern Beartooth arch transition zone of north-central Wyoming were studied to understand the fold mechanisms and control on basement-involved arches. Data from 1581 slickensided minor faults are consistent with a single regional shortening direction of 065°. Evidence for oblique-slip, vertical axis rotations and stress refraction at anomalously-oriented folds suggests formation over reactivated pre-existing weaknesses. Restorable cross-sections and 3D surfaces, constrained by surface, well, and seismic data, document blind, ENE-directed basement thrusting and associated thin-skinned backthrusting and folding along the Beartooth and Oregon Basin fault systems. Between these systems, the basement-cored Rattlesnake Mountain backthrust followed basement weaknesses and rotated a basement chip toward the basin before the ENE-directed Line Creek fault system broke through and connected the Beartooth and Oregon Basin fault systems. Slip was transferred at the terminations of the Rattlesnake Mountain fault block by pivoting to the north and tear faulting to the south. In summary, unidirectional Laramide compression and pre-existing basement weaknesses combined with fault-propagation and rotational fault-bend folding to create an irregular yet continuous basement arch transition.

  18. Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) envenomation of dogs: 52 cases (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jessica C; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Hanel, Rita M; Wood, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Copperhead envenomation is common within the US, and no studies exist describing the clinical course of copperhead envenomation in dogs. Almost all treatment decisions regarding those bites are extrapolated from retrospective studies evaluating the clinical course of rattlesnake bites. Because copperheads and rattlesnakes produce venom with different potency, assumptions that treatment of the different envenomations should be similar may be incorrect. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical course of copperhead envenomation in dogs and administered treatments. Medical records of 52 dogs treated for copperhead envenomation were reviewed, and owners were contacted regarding outcome. The most common clinical signs associated with copperhead envenomation included swelling, pain, and ecchymosis. Clinicopathological abnormalities (e.g., thrombocytopenia, elevated clotting times, leukocytosis) were mild, and red blood cell morphology changes and coagulopathies were rare. Most dogs were treated with antimicrobials, analgesics, and fluid therapy. No dogs in this study required the use of antivenin and all survived to discharge. This study found that the clinical course after copperhead envenomation is generally limited to local rather than systemic illness. Copperhead envenomation in dogs is largely self-limiting and responsive to supportive care with hospitalization for monitoring. PMID:25028441

  19. Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) envenomation of dogs: 52 cases (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jessica C; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Hanel, Rita M; Wood, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Copperhead envenomation is common within the US, and no studies exist describing the clinical course of copperhead envenomation in dogs. Almost all treatment decisions regarding those bites are extrapolated from retrospective studies evaluating the clinical course of rattlesnake bites. Because copperheads and rattlesnakes produce venom with different potency, assumptions that treatment of the different envenomations should be similar may be incorrect. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical course of copperhead envenomation in dogs and administered treatments. Medical records of 52 dogs treated for copperhead envenomation were reviewed, and owners were contacted regarding outcome. The most common clinical signs associated with copperhead envenomation included swelling, pain, and ecchymosis. Clinicopathological abnormalities (e.g., thrombocytopenia, elevated clotting times, leukocytosis) were mild, and red blood cell morphology changes and coagulopathies were rare. Most dogs were treated with antimicrobials, analgesics, and fluid therapy. No dogs in this study required the use of antivenin and all survived to discharge. This study found that the clinical course after copperhead envenomation is generally limited to local rather than systemic illness. Copperhead envenomation in dogs is largely self-limiting and responsive to supportive care with hospitalization for monitoring.

  20. Rosmarinic acid in Argusia argentea inhibits snake venom-induced hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Aung, Hnin Thanda; Nikai, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masatake; Takaya, Yoshiaki

    2010-10-01

    A methanolic extract of Argusia (or Messerschmidia or Tournefortia) argentea (Boraginaceae) significantly inhibited hemorrhage induced by crude venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis. The extract was then separated according to antivenom activity by using silica gel column chromatography and HPLC equipped with an octadecylsilanized silica gel (ODS) column to afford rosmarinic acid (RA) (1) as an active principle. RA (1) significantly inhibited the hemorrhagic effect of crude venoms of T. flavoviridis, Crotalus atrox, Gloydius blomhoffii, Bitis arietans as well as snake venom metalloproteinases, HT-b (C. atrox), bilitoxin 2 (Agkistrodon bilineatus), HF (B. arietans), and Ac1-proteinase (Deinagkistrodon acutus). This is the first report of the antihemorrhage activity of RA (1), and RA (1) greatly contributes to the antihemorrhagic efficiency of A. argentea against crude snake venoms and hemorrhagic toxins.

  1. The defensive strike of five species of lanceheads of the genus Bothrops (Viperidae).

    PubMed

    Araújo, M S; Martins, M

    2007-05-01

    We studied the defensive strike of one species of each of five recognized lineages within the genus Bothrops, namely, B. alternatus, B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. pauloensis. The defensive strike of the studied species was in general similar to that of Crotalus viridis and C. atrox, but some important differences were observed. Bothrops alternatus and B. pauloensis struck preferentially from a tight body posture, whereas B. jararaca and B. moojeni from a loose body posture. Defensive strikes were either true or false (during the latter, the mouth remains closed or partially open). Almost all strikes were successful; only on a few occasions snakes missed their target (flawed strikes). Strike variables were very conservative among the five species, especially strike distance and height, and one possible explanation may be related to constraints imposed on strike variables as a way of increasing strike accuracy. PMID:17876444

  2. Synthesis of γ-Phosphate-Labeled and Doubly Labeled Adenosine Triphosphate Analogs.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Welter, Moritz; Marx, Andreas

    2015-03-09

    This unit describes the synthesis of γ-phosphate-labeled and doubly labeled adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogs and their characterization using the phosphodiesterase I from Crotalus adamanteus (snake venom phosphodiesterase; SVPD). In the key step of the synthesis, ATP or an ATP analog, bearing a linker containing a trifluoroacetamide group attached to the nucleoside, are modified with an azide-containing linker at the terminal phosphate using an alkylation reaction. Subsequently, different labels are introduced to the linkers by transformation of one functional group to an amine and coupling to an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Specifically, the Staudinger reaction of the azide is employed as a straightforward means to obtain an amine in the presence of various labels. Furthermore, the fluorescence characteristics of a fluorogenic, doubly labeled ATP analog are investigated following enzymatic cleavage by SVPD.

  3. Trimeresurus venom inhibition of anti-HPA-1a and anti-HPA-1b antibody binding to human platelets.

    PubMed

    Wlodar, S J; Stone, D L; Sinor, L T

    1995-01-01

    A solid-phase red cell adherence assay was used to demonstrate the specific inhibitory effect of seven species of Trimeresurus snake venom on the binding of HPA-1a- and HPA-1b-specific platelet antibodies. Trimeresurus venom did not inhibit the binding of HLA-, HPA-3a-, HPA-3b-, HPA-4a-, HPA-5a-, and HPA-5b-specific platelet antibodies. Venom from other genera of snakes, including representatives from Agkistrodon, Ancistrodon, Bitis, Bothrops, Bungarus, Causus, Crotalus, Dendroaspis, Ecis, Micrurus, Naja, Notechis, Ophiophagus, Pseudechis, Sepedon (Hemachatus), and Vipera, all failed to specifically inhibit anti-HPA-1a and HPA-1b binding. These results may indicate that the component in Trimeresurus snake venom previously reported to bind to the platelet GPIIb-IIIa complex, inhibiting fibrinogen binding, binds close to the HPA-1a and HPA-1b epitopes.

  4. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  5. Discovery of a Novel Accessory Structure of the Pitviper Infrared Receptor Organ (Serpentes: Viperidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bolívar-G, Wilmar; Antoniazzi, Marta M.; Grant, Taran; Jared, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The facial pits of rattlesnakes, copperheads, lanceheads, bushmasters and other American and Asian pitvipers (Crotalinae) are highly innervated and densely vascularized infrared (IR) receptor organs. For over a century, studies have focused on a small sample of model species from North America and Asia. Based on an expanded survey of Central and South American crotalines, we report a conspicuous accessory structure composed of well-defined papillae that project from the anterior orbital adnexa. The papillae are continuous with the inner chamber of the IR receptor organ and our histological and ultrastructural data suggest that they possess a well-developed nervous network and extensive vascularization; however, they lack the characteristic IR-sensitive terminal nerve masses found in the IR-receptive pit membrane. The function of the IR receptor organ papillae is unknown. PMID:24595025

  6. Life history and demographic variation in the lizard Sceloporus graciosus: A long-term study

    SciTech Connect

    Tinkle, D.W. ); Dunham, A.E. ); Congdon, J.D. )

    1993-12-01

    An 11-yr study of life history and demographic variation in the sagebrush lizard Sceloporus graciosus was carried out on two study areas (Rattlesnake Ridge and Ponderosa Flat) in the Kolob Mesa Section of Zion National Park, Utah. Two primary objectives of this mark-recapture study were to: (1) quantify variation in age structure, age, and size at maturity, age-specific survivorship and fecundity, and individual growth rates, and (2) conduct a series of density reduction experiments designed to elucidate the effects of density on growth rates and survival of posthatchling lizards. In addition, the authors examined the relationships of variation in population density and deviation from long-term average precipitation and temperature to variation in individual growth, reproduction, and demography. 43 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Hyampom 15' quadrangle, Trinity County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The Hyampom 15' quadrangle lies west of the Hayfork 15' quadrangle in the southern part of the Klamath Mountains geologic province of northern California. It spans parts of four generally northwest-trending tectono- stratigraphic terranes of the Klamath Mountains, the Eastern Hayfork, Western Hayfork, Rattlesnake Creek, and Western Jurassic terranes, as well as, in the southwest corner of the quadrangle, a small part of the Pickett Peak terrane of the Coast Range province. Remnants of the Cretaceous Great Valley overlap sequence that once covered much of the pre-Cretaceous bedrock of the quadrangle are now found only as a few small patches in the northeast corner of the quadrangle. Fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the mid-Tertiary Weaverville Formation crop out in the vicinity of the village of Hyampom. The Eastern Hayfork terrane is a broken formation and m-lange of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that include blocks of chert and limestone. The chert has not been sampled; however, chert from the same terrane in the Hayfork quadrangle contains radiolarians of Permian and Triassic ages, but none clearly of Jurassic age. Limestone at two localities contains late Paleozoic foraminifers. Some of the limestone from the Eastern Klamath terrane in the Hayfork quadrangle contains faunas of Tethyan affinity. The Western Hayfork terrane is part of an andesitic volcanic arc that was accreted to the western edge of the Eastern Hayfork terrane. It consists mainly of metavolcaniclastic andesitic agglomerate and tuff, as well as argillite and chert, and it includes the dioritic Ironside Mountain batholith that intruded during Middle Jurassic time (about 170 Ma). This intrusive body provides the principal constraint on the age of the terrane. The Rattlesnake Creek terrane is a melange consisting mostly of highly dismembered ophiolite. It includes slabs of serpentinized ultramafic rock, basaltic volcanic rocks, radiolarian chert of Triassic and Jurassic ages, limestone containing

  8. A new mathematical adjoint for the modified SAAF-SN equations

    SciTech Connect

    Schunert, Sebastian; Wang, Yaqi; Martineau, Richard; DeHart, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new adjoint FEM weak form, which can be directly used for evaluating the mathematical adjoint, suitable for perturbation calculations, of the self-adjoint angular flux SN equations (SAAF-SN) without construction and transposition of the underlying coefficient matrix. Stabilization schemes incorporated in the described SAAF-SN method make the mathematical adjoint distinct from the physical adjoint, i.e. the solution of the continuous adjoint equation with SAAF-SN . This weak form is implemented into RattleSnake, the MOOSE (Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment) based transport solver. Numerical results verify the correctness of the implementation and show its utility both for fixed source and eigenvalue problems.

  9. S. Weir mitchell and his snakes: unraveling the "united web and woof of popular and scientific beliefs".

    PubMed

    Cervetti, Nancy

    2007-09-01

    Although best known as a nineteenth-century neurologist and creator of the rest cure, S. Weir Mitchell was one of the first Americans to engage in large-scale animal experimentation. In 1860 he published Researches Upon the Venom of the Rattlesnake, and in 1886, in collaboration with Dr. Edward T. Reichert, he published Researches Upon the Venoms of Poisonous Serpents. Yet, Mitchell's pioneering work in scientific medicine remains a little known aspect of his career. This essay, based mainly on primary source material, tells the story of Mitchell's medical education and research on venomous snakes in order to reveal the ways myth and metaphor influenced medicine as it was becoming a science.

  10. Processing of Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: Generation of Toxin Diversity and Enzyme Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Moura-da-Silva, Ana M.; Almeida, Michelle T.; Portes-Junior, José A.; Nicolau, Carolina A.; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Valente, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are abundant in the venoms of vipers and rattlesnakes, playing important roles for the snake adaptation to different environments, and are related to most of the pathological effects of these venoms in human victims. The effectiveness of SVMPs is greatly due to their functional diversity, targeting important physiological proteins or receptors in different tissues and in the coagulation system. Functional diversity is often related to the genetic diversification of the snake venom. In this review, we discuss some published evidence that posit that processing and post-translational modifications are great contributors for the generation of functional diversity and for maintaining latency or inactivation of enzymes belonging to this relevant family of venom toxins. PMID:27294958

  11. Most lay people can correctly identify indigenous venomous snakes.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Stephen W; Anderson, Brian; Nelson, Brett; Bush, Sean; Hayes, William K; Cardwell, Mike D

    2005-10-01

    We attempted to determine how accurately members of the public can identify venomous snakes. Six different snakes indigenous to southern California were displayed in cages for 265 people to view at a street fair. These included 4 nonvenomous snakes and 2 venomous snakes. People were asked whether the snake was venomous and the name of the snake, if they knew it. Overall, people recognized whether a snake was venomous or nonvenomous 81% of the time. They were most accurate at identifying rattlesnakes as being venomous (95%) but incorrectly identified nonvenomous snakes as being venomous 25% of the time. Men were more accurate than women, and adults were more accurate than children. Subjects were less well able to identify the exact species of snakes. The results suggest that there may be no need to capture, kill, or bring a snake to the hospital for identification, at least in this geographic area.

  12. Gene transfer from a parasitic flowering plant to a fern

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Charles C; Anderson, William R; Wurdack, Kenneth J

    2005-01-01

    The rattlesnake fern (Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.) is obligately mycotrophic and widely distributed across the northern hemisphere. Three mitochondrial gene regions place this species with other ferns in Ophioglossaceae, while two regions place it as a member of the largely parasitic angiosperm order Santalales (sandalwoods and mistletoes). These discordant phylogenetic placements suggest that part of the genome in B. virginianum was acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), perhaps from root-parasitic Loranthaceae. These transgenes are restricted to B. virginianum and occur across the range of the species. Molecular and life-history traits indicate that the transfer preceded the global expansion of B. virginianum, and that the latter may have happened very rapidly. This is the first report of HGT from an angiosperm to a fern, through either direct parasitism or the mediation of interconnecting fungal symbionts. PMID:16191635

  13. Mineral resource potential map of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-217), San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Obi, Curtis M.; Powell, Robert E.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Griscom, Andrew; Sabine, Charles; Cwick, Gary J.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, together with a review of historical mining and prospecting activities, suggests that most of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area has low potential for the discovery of all types of mineral and energy resources-including precious and base metals, building stone and aggregate, fossil fuels, radioactive-mineral resources, and geothermal resources. Low-grade mineralization has been documented in one small area near Rattlesnake Canyon, and this area has low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of precious and base metals. Thorium and uranium enrichment have been documented in two small areas in the eastern part of the wilderness study area; these two areas have low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of radioactive-mineral resources.

  14. Does the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) use auditory aposematism to deter mammalian herbivores?

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2016-08-01

    Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium). In this tree, the large and hollow thorn bases whistle when wind blows. This type of aposematism compliments the well-known conspicuous thorn and mutualistic ant based aposematism during day and may operate during night when the conspicuous thorns are invisible. PMID:27359246

  15. Measurement and estimated health risks of semivolatile organic compounds (PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and phthalates) in ambient air at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Gilfoil, T.J.

    1997-09-01

    Air samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, phthalate plasticizers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected at three Hanford Site locations (300-Area South Gate, southeast of 200-East Area, and a background location near Rattlesnake Springs). Samples were collected using high-volume air samplers equipped with a glass fiber filter and polyurethane foam plug sampling train. Target compounds were extracted from the sampling trains and analyzed using capillary gas chromatography with either electron capture detection or mass selective detection. Twenty of the 28 PCB congeners analyzed were found above the detection limits, with 8 of the congeners accounting for over 80% of the average PCB concentrations. The average sum of all individual PCB congeners ranged from 500-740 pg/m{sup 3}, with little apparent difference between the sampling locations. Twenty of the 25 pesticides analyzed were found above the detection limits, with endosulfan I, endosulfan II, and methoxychlor having the highest average concentrations. With the exception of the endosulfans, all other average pesticide concentrations were below 100 pg/m{sup 3}. There was little apparent difference between the air concentrations of pesticides measured at each location. Sixteen of the 18 PAHs analyzed were found above the detection limit. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, fluorene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and naphthalene were the only PAHs with average concentrations above 100 pg/m{sup 3}. Overall, the 300 Area had higher average PAH concentrations compared to the 200-East Area and the background location at Rattlesnake Springs; however, the air concentrations at the 300-Area also are influenced by sources on the Hanford Site and from nearby communities.

  16. Pleistocene climate, phylogeny, and climate envelope models: an integrative approach to better understand species' response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Lawing, A Michelle; Polly, P David

    2011-01-01

    Mean annual temperature reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change increases at least 1.1°C to 6.4°C over the next 90 years. In context, a change in climate of 6°C is approximately the difference between the mean annual temperature of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and our current warm interglacial. Species have been responding to changing climate throughout Earth's history and their previous biological responses can inform our expectations for future climate change. Here we synthesize geological evidence in the form of stable oxygen isotopes, general circulation paleoclimate models, species' evolutionary relatedness, and species' geographic distributions. We use the stable oxygen isotope record to develop a series of temporally high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions spanning the Middle Pleistocene to Recent, which we use to map ancestral climatic envelope reconstructions for North American rattlesnakes. A simple linear interpolation between current climate and a general circulation paleoclimate model of the LGM using stable oxygen isotope ratios provides good estimates of paleoclimate at other time periods. We use geologically informed rates of change derived from these reconstructions to predict magnitudes and rates of change in species' suitable habitat over the next century. Our approach to modeling the past suitable habitat of species is general and can be adopted by others. We use multiple lines of evidence of past climate (isotopes and climate models), phylogenetic topology (to correct the models for long-term changes in the suitable habitat of a species), and the fossil record, however sparse, to cross check the models. Our models indicate the annual rate of displacement in a clade of rattlesnakes over the next century will be 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater (430-2,420 m/yr) than it has been on average for the past 320 ky (2.3 m/yr).

  17. [Epidemiology of accidents due to bites of poisonous snakes: a study of cases attended in 1988].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L A; Jorge, M T; Iversson, L B

    1995-10-01

    The attendance given to patients by ta specialized Hospital, in S. Paulo, Brazil, during 1988 is studied. The study is based on the medical records of 322 patients and on questionnaires filled out by author during interviews with 209 patients or their companions. The 322 snake-bites occurred mainly between October and April, in the diurnal period, mainly in the afternoon. Most of patients were adult males, mainly between 10 and 20 years of age. The parts of the body most frequently affected were the feet, hands and legs. The snakes of the genera Bothrops, Crotalus and Micrurus were responsible, respectively, for 306 (95.0%) 14 (4.4%) and 2 (0.6%) of the accidents under study. Among the 160 snakes that were classified at the Herpetological Section of the IB, 152 were Bothrops; 142 B. Jararaca, mostly young reptiles, and 8 were of the genus Crotalus. Of the patients, 90.4% recovered completely, 2.2% presented sequelae, 7.5% were transferred and thus it was impossible to follow them up. Of the 209 persons interviewed, the occupational group most prone to snake bites was agricultural workers, followed by studentes; nearly 60% of the accidents ocurred during work; most of the patients had their inferior extremities unprotected at the moment of the bite. On hundred and sixty patients (76.6%) submitted to some from of treatment before coming to the HVB-IB, the more common being the use of a tourniquet (50.2%), local squeezing in an attempt to remove part of the venom (33.5), application of substances on the site of the snake bite (36.8%) and the ingestion of others (12.9%). Slightly over a quarter of the patients underwent some kind of medical treatment before coming to the HVB-IB, the most common being antissepsis (8.2%), administration of antivenom (6.2%), antihistamines (5.7%) and analgesics (5.3%). The snake was seen before it struch by 187 (89.5%) of the 209 persons interviewed and in most cases it adopted the strike posture just before the first bite. PMID:8731278

  18. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of adepleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio,site.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    Perimeter Road, within the corridors along Little Beaver Creek, the Northwest Tributary stream, and a wooded area east of the X-100 facility. However, no Indiana bats were collected during surveys of these areas in 1994 and 1996. Locations A, B, and C do not support suitable habitat for the Indiana bat and would be unlikely to be used by Indiana bats. Indiana bat habitat also does not occur at Proposed Areas 1 and 2. Although Locations A and C contain small wooded areas, the small size and lack of suitable maturity of these areas indicate that they would provide poor habitat for Indiana bats. Trees that may be removed during construction would not be expected to be used for summer roosting by Indiana bats. Disturbance of Indiana bats potentially roosting or foraging in the vicinity of the facility during operations would be very unlikely, and any disturbance would be expected to be negligible. On the basis of these considerations, DOE concludes that the proposed action is not likely to adversely affect the Indiana bat. No critical habitat exists for this species in the action area. Although the timber rattlesnake occurs in the vicinity of the Portsmouth site, it has not been observed on the site. In addition, habitat for the timber rattlesnake is not present on the Portsmouth site. Therefore, DOE concludes that the proposed action would not affect the timber rattlesnake.

  19. Characterization of surface-water quality based on real-time monitoring and regression analysis, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, south-central Kansas, December 1998 through June 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the considerable wildlife benefits offered by the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in south-central Kansas, there is a desire to ensure suitable water quality. To assess the quality of water flowing from Rattlesnake Creek into the refuge, the U.S. Geological Survey collected periodic water samples from December 1998 through June 2001 and analyzed the samples for physical properties, dissolved solids, total suspended solids, suspended sediment, major ions, nutrients, metals, pesticides, and indicator bacteria. Concentrations of 10 of the 125 chemicals analyzed did not meet water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life and drinking water in a least one sample. These were pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, phosphorus, total coliform bacteria, E. coli bacteria, and fecal coliform bacteria. No metal or pesticide concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria. Twenty-two of the 43 metals analyzed were not detected, and 36 of the 46 pesticides analyzed were not detected. Because dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, fecal coliform bacteria, and other chemicals that are a concern for the health and habitat of fish and wildlife at the refuge cannot be measured continuously, regression equations were developed from a comparison of the analytical results of periodic samples and in-stream monitor measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. A continuous record of estimated chemical concentrations was developed from continuously recorded in-stream measurements. Annual variation in water quality was evaluated by comparing 1999 and 2000 sample data- the 2 years for which complete data sets were available. Median concentrations of alkalinity, fluoride, nitrate, and fecal coliform bacteria were smaller or did not change from 1999 to 2000. Dissolved solids, total suspended solids, sodium, chloride, sulfate, total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus had increases in median concentrations

  20. Stable isotope chemistry of fossil bone as a new paleoclimate indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; Law, J. Mclver

    2006-02-01

    During fossilization, bone is thought to recrystallize and alter chemically on timescales of kyr to a few tens of kyr, i.e., similar to the timescale for formation of soils. Therefore, C- and O-isotope compositions of bone apatite should correlate with trends in soil water composition and aridity, and serve as paleoclimate indicators. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing C- and O-isotope compositions of the CO 3 component of fossil bone apatite from mid-Oligocene through late Pleistocene units in Oregon and western Idaho, including the John Day (19.4-30.0 Ma), Mascall (15.2-15.8 Ma), and Rattlesnake (7.2-7.8 Ma) Formations, whose paleosol sequences have been studied in detail, and the Juntura (10-11 Ma), Hagerman (3.2 Ma), and Fossil Lake (<23-650 ka) fossil localities. Tooth enamel δ18O values provide a baseline of meteoric water compositions. Stable isotope compositions of bone CO 3 do change in response to broad climatic trends, but show poor correlation with compositions of corresponding paleosol CO 3 at specific horizons. Instead, compositional deviations between bone and paleosol CO 3 correlate with compositional deviations with the next higher paleosol; this suggests that the timescale for fossilization exceeds one paleosol cycle. Based on stratigraphic evidence and simple alteration models, fossilization timescales are estimated at 20-50 kyr, indicating that bone CO 3 will prove most useful for sequences spanning >100 kyr. C-isotopes show negative and strong positive deviations during wet and dry climates respectively, and short-term trends correspond well with changes in aridity within the Mascall and Rattlesnake Formations, as inferred from paleosols. A proposed correction to δ18O values based on δ13C anomalies implies a small, ˜1.5‰ increase in meteoric water δ18O during the late Oligocene global warming event, consistent with a minimum temperature increase of ˜4 °C. A strong inferred decrease in δ18O of 4-5‰ after 7 Ma closely parallels

  1. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Dubakella Mountain 15 quadrangle, Trinity, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Yule, J. Douglas; Court, Bradford L.; Snoke, Arthur W.; Stern, Laura A.; Copeland, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The Dubakella Mountain 15' quadrangle is located just south of the Hayfork quadrangle and just east of the Pickett Peak quadrangle. It spans a sequence of four northwest-trending tectonostratigraphic terranes of the Klamath Mountains geologic province that includes, from east to west, the Eastern Hayfork, Western Hayfork, Rattlesnake Creek, and Western Jurassic terranes, as well as, in the southwest corner of the quadrangle, part of a fifth terrane, the Pickett Peak terrane of the Coast Ranges geologic province. The Eastern Hayfork terrane is a broken formation and melange of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that include blocks of limestone and chert. The limestone contains late Permian microfossils of Tethyan faunal affinity. The chert contains radiolarians of Mesozoic age, mostly Triassic, but none clearly Jurassic. The Western Hayfork terrane is an andesitic volcanic arc that consists mainly of agglomerate, tuff, argillite, and chert, and includes the Wildwood pluton. That pluton is related to the Middle Jurassic (about 170 Ma) Ironside Mountain batholith that is widely exposed farther north beyond the Dubakella Mountain quadrangle. The Rattlesnake Creek terrane is a highly disrupted ophiolitic melange of probable Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age. Although mainly ophiolitic, the melange includes blocks of plutonic rocks (about 200 Ma) of uncertain genetic relation. Some scattered areas of well-bedded mildly slaty detrital rocks of the melange appear similar to Galice Formation (unit Jg) and may be inliers of the nearby Western Jurassic terrane. The Western Jurassic terrane consists mainly of slaty to phyllitic argillite, graywacke, and stretched-pebble conglomerate and is correlative with the Late Jurassic Galice Formation of southwestern Oregon. The Pickett Peak terrane, the most westerly of the succession of terranes of the Dubakella Mountain quadrangle, is mostly fine-grained schist that includes the blueschist facies mineral lawsonite and is of Early

  2. The Influence of Grain Size and Crystal Content on Rheology and Deformation of Pyroclastic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquereau-Lebti, P.; Robert, G.; Grunder, A. L.; Russell, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    Pyroclastic deposits undergo variable degrees of sintering, viscous deformation of particles and loss of pore space, which combine to produce the dramatic textural variations that define welded facies. We here investigate the effects of grain size and crystal content on the rheology and welding of pyroclastic material.Uniaxial deformation experiments were conducted using sintered cores of natural rhyolite ash under conditions consistent with welding. Experiments were done in the University of British Columbia Volcanology Deformation Rig (VDR). This apparatus is designed to run experiments relevant to volcanology, by supporting low-load, high temperature, deformation experiments (Quane et al., 2004). We ran experiments at constant displacement rate (2.5.10-6 m.s-1), under ambient water pressure ("Dry"), at temperatures of 850 and 900°C and to maximal strain of 50%. Grain-size effect was investigated using sintered cores from three different sieving fractions of Rattlesnake Tuff (RST, Eastern Oregon, USA) ash: fine ash (grain size < 0.6 mm), coarse ash (0.6 to 2mm) and row unsieved ash. The effect of crystal content was explored using cores of sintered unsieved RST ash, variably enriched in crystals of feldspars and quartz.Unsieved and fine ash cores suffered higher total porosity reduction than coarse ash cores during deformation experiments. For cores of unsieved ash, porosity loss is facilitated by mechanical compaction, which includes orientation and organisation of different size clasts to a compact assemblage, without any deformation of individual particles. Isolated porosity decreases faster than connected porosity in coarse and fine ash cores, whereas cores of raw ash mainly loose connected porosity. This is also consistent with mechanical compaction for cores of unsieved ash, in which isolated porosity of weakly deformed individual pumice clasts or glass shards is maintained. Increasing strain causes a reduction in porosity and correlates with increase in

  3. Characterization and cDNA cloning of aminopeptidase A from the venom of Gloydius blomhoffi brevicaudus.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yuko; Murayama, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Yoshiaki; Yanoshita, Ryohei

    2007-06-15

    The aminopeptidase activities of snake venoms from Gloydius blomhoffi brevicaudus, Gloydius halys blomhoffii, Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus atrox were investigated. Aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase B and aminopeptidase N activities were present in all snake venoms. The strongest APA activity was found in venom from G. blomhoffi brevicaudus. The susceptibility to metallopeptidase inhibitors and the pH optimum of the partially purified enzyme from G. blomhoffi brevicaudus venom were similar to those of known APAs from mammals. A G. blomhoffi brevicaudus venom gland cDNA library was screened to isolate cDNA clones using probes based on highly conserved amino acid sequences in known APAs. Molecular cloning of APA from G. blomhoffi brevicaudus venom predicted that it was a type II integral membrane protein containing 958 amino acid residues with 17 potential N-linked glycosylation sites. It possessed a His-Glu-Xaa-Xaa-His-(Xaa)(18)-Glu zinc binding motif that allowed the classification of this protein as a member of the M1 family of zinc-metallopeptidases, or gluzincins. The deduced amino acid sequence shows approximately 60% sequence identity to mammalian APA sequences. This is the first study to report the primary structure of APA from a reptile. PMID:17383704

  4. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil. PMID:19665598

  5. The Use of Ecological Niche Modeling to Infer Potential Risk Areas of Snakebite in the Mexican State of Veracruz

    PubMed Central

    Yañez-Arenas, Carlos; Peterson, A. Townsend; Mokondoko, Pierre; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Background Many authors have claimed that snakebite risk is associated with human population density, human activities, and snake behavior. Here we analyzed whether environmental suitability of vipers can be used as an indicator of snakebite risk. We tested several hypotheses to explain snakebite incidence, through the construction of models incorporating both environmental suitability and socioeconomic variables in Veracruz, Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings Ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to estimate potential geographic and ecological distributions of nine viper species' in Veracruz. We calculated the distance to the species' niche centroid (DNC); this distance may be associated with a prediction of abundance. We found significant inverse relationships between snakebites and DNCs of common vipers (Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper), explaining respectively 15% and almost 35% of variation in snakebite incidence. Additionally, DNCs for these two vipers, in combination with marginalization of human populations, accounted for 76% of variation in incidence. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that niche modeling and niche-centroid distance approaches can be used to mapping distributions of environmental suitability for venomous snakes; combining this ecological information with socioeconomic factors may help with inferring potential risk areas for snakebites, since hospital data are often biased (especially when incidences are low). PMID:24963989

  6. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    PubMed

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat.

  7. Structures of adamalysin II with peptidic inhibitors. Implications for the design of tumor necrosis factor alpha convertase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Gomis-Rüth, F. X.; Meyer, E. F.; Kress, L. F.; Politi, V.

    1998-01-01

    Crotalus adamanteus snake venom adamalysin II is the structural prototype of the adamalysin or ADAM family comprising proteolytic domains of snake venom metalloproteinases, multimodular mammalian reproductive tract proteins, and tumor necrosis factor alpha convertase, TACE, involved in the release of the inflammatory cytokine, TNFalpha. The structure of adamalysin II in noncovalent complex with two small-molecule right-hand side peptidomimetic inhibitors (Pol 647 and Pol 656) has been solved using X-ray diffraction data up to 2.6 and 2.8 A resolution. The inhibitors bind to the S'-side of the proteinase, inserting between two protein segments, establishing a mixed parallel-antiparallel three-stranded beta-sheet and coordinate the central zinc ion in a bidentate manner via their two C-terminal oxygen atoms. The proteinase-inhibitor complexes are described in detail and are compared with other known structures. An adamalysin-based model of the active site of TACE reveals that these small molecules would probably fit into the active site cleft of this latter metalloproteinase, providing a starting model for the rational design of TACE inhibitors. PMID:9521103

  8. Diagnostic uses of snake venom.

    PubMed

    Marsh, N A

    2001-01-01

    Snake venom toxins are invaluable for the assay of coagulation factors and for the study of haemostasis generally. Thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLE) are used for fibrinogen and fibrinogen breakdown product assays as well as detecting dysfibrinogenaemias. Since SVTLE are not inhibited by heparin, they can be used for assaying antithrombin III in samples containing heparin. Snake venom prothrombin activators are utilised in prothrombin assays, whilst Russell's viper venom (RVV) can be used to assay clotting factors V, VII, X and lupus anticoagulants (LA). Activators from the taipan, Australian brown snake and saw-scaled viper have also been used to assay LA. Protein C (PC) and activated PC (APC) resistance can be measured by means of RVV, Protac (from Southern copperhead snake venom) and STA-Staclot (from Crotalus viridis helleri) whilst von Willebrand factor can be studied with Botrocetin (Bothrops jararaca). Finally, snake venom C-type lectins and metalloproteinase disintegrins are being used to study platelet glycoprotein receptors and show great potential for use in the routine coagulation laboratory. PMID:11910187

  9. Incorporation of 3H from delta-(L-alpha-amino (4,5-3H)adipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-(4,4-3H)valine into isopenicillin N.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, J; Bleaney, R C; Huddleston, J A; Abraham, E P

    1979-01-01

    1. delta-(L-alpha-Amino[4,5-3H]adipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-[4,4-3H]valine has been synthesized from its constituent amino acids, the L-alpha-amino[4,5-3H]adipic acid being obtained by reduction with 3H2 of methyl 5-acetamido-5,5-diethoxycarbonylpent-2-enoate and subsequent decarboxylation and hydrolysis. 2. In a cell-free system prepared by lysis of protoplasts of Cephalosporium acremonium 3H was incorporated from the doubly labelled tripeptide into a compound that behaved like penicillin N or isopenicillin N. The relative specific radioactivities of the alpha-aminoadipyl and penicillamine moieties of the penicillin were the same (within experimental error) as those of the alpha-aminoadipic acid and valine residues respectively of the tripeptide. 3. The behaviour of the labelled alpha-aminoadipic acid from the penicillin to the L-amino acid oxidase of Crotalus adamanteus venom showed that it was mainly L-alpha-aminoadipic acid. 4. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the carbon skeleton of the LLD-tripeptide is incorporated intact into the penicillin molecule and that the first product is isopenicillin N. PMID:575040

  10. [Health assessments of a military company stationed on the Maroni River in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Lial, J P

    1999-01-01

    Over a 5 month period (October 1996 to February 1997), a rotating company of 146 servicemen belonging to the Navy Airborne 6th Regiment were assigned along the Maroni River in French Guyana. During this mission, the medical personnel treated 387 local residents. Etiologies comprised 51 malaria attacks including 46 involving Plasmodium falciparum and 4 rattlesnake envenomations. The most common cause of consultation by military personnel was mycotic and staphylococcal skin infections, but 5 cases involving poor acclimatization were treated during the hot and dry season. Seven malaria attacks involving Plasmodium falciparum including 2 that were severe occurred despite prophylaxis using chloroquine-proguanil. Treatment with halofantrine was successful in all but one case which required combined chemotherapy using quinine and doxycycline. Five cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were observed in subjects involved in jungle training. No case of HIV infection was detected upon returning home since most personnel either followed the recommendation to abstain from sex (51 p. 100) or used a condom (90 p. 100 of personnel who had sexual relations). These data illustrate the health risks for mainland French nationals in the region of the Maroni River and underline the need for preventive measures and education.

  11. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2011-03-31

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 16 local earthquakes during the first quarter of FY 2011. Six earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), seven earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the pre-basalt sediments, and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, thirteen earthquakes were located in known swarm areas and three earthquakes were classified as random events. The highest magnitude event (1.8 Mc) was recorded on October 19, 2010 at depth 17.5 km with epicenter located near the Yakima River between the Rattlesnake Mountain and Horse Heaven Hills swarm areas.

  12. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move.

  13. Arid Lands Ecology Facility management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1993-02-01

    The Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) facility is a 312-sq-km tract of land that lies on the western side of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. The US Atomic Energy Commission officially set aside this land area in 1967 to preserve shrub-steppe habitat and vegetation. The ALE facility is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for ecological research and education purposes. In 1971, the ALE facility was designated the Rattlesnake Hills Research Natural Area (RNA) as a result of an interagency federal cooperative agreement, and remains the largest RNA in Washington. it is also one of the few remaining large tracts of shrub-steppe vegetation in the state retaining a predominant preeuropean settlement character. This management plan provides policy and implementation methods for management of the ALE facilities consistent with both US Department of Energy Headquarters and the Richland Field Office decision (US Congress 1977) to designate and manage ALE lands as an RNA and as a component of the DOE National Environmental Research Park System.

  14. Counting California's Snakebites

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Henry M.; Diekroeger, James L.; Hall, Homer K.

    1964-01-01

    Poisonous snakebites happen in all sections of California, but they are especially frequent in Southern California. An estimated 221 (138 in-patients and 83 out-patients) people were bitten by snakes annually, an incidence of 1.41 bites per 100,000 people. However, the estimated case-fatality rate was less than one-half of one per cent. Of 135 in-patients reported in detail by California hospitals during 1958 and 1959, 123 (91 per cent) were bitten by rattlesnakes, one (1 per cent) by a foreign snake, and 11 (8 per cent) by unidentified poisonous snakes. “Seasonal epidemics” of snakebites occurred, 90 per cent of the bites being inflicted from April through October. Males had higher bite rates than females and Caucasians had higher rates than non-whites. Fifty per cent of the cases were among children and young adults less than 20 years of age. Ninety-nine per cent of the bites were on the extremities—65 per cent on the upper extremities and 34 per cent on the lower extremities. The recommended treatment of poisonous snakebites included incision and suction and the 3 A's (antivenin, antibiotics and antitetanus treatment). PMID:14229743

  15. Bacteria Isolated from Bats Inhibit the Growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Joseph R.; Cheng, Tina L.; Langwig, Kate E.; Hee, Mallory M.; Frick, Winifred F.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species. PMID:25853558

  16. Geometric Mechanics Reveals Optimal Complex Terrestrial Undulation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chaohui; Astley, Henry; Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Goldman, Daniel; Choset, Howie; CMU Team; GT Team

    Geometric mechanics offers useful tools for intuitively analyzing biological and robotic locomotion. However, utility of these tools were previously restricted to systems that have only two internal degrees of freedom and in uniform media. We show kinematics of complex locomotors that make intermittent contacts with substrates can be approximated as a linear combination of two shape bases, and can be represented using two variables. Therefore, the tools of geometric mechanics can be used to analyze motions of locomotors with many degrees of freedom. To demonstrate the proposed technique, we present studies on two different types of snake gaits which utilize combinations of waves in the horizontal and vertical planes: sidewinding (in the sidewinder rattlesnake C. cerastes) and lateral undulation (in the desert specialist snake C. occipitalis). C. cerastes moves by generating posteriorly traveling body waves in the horizontal and vertical directions, with a relative phase offset equal to +/-π/2 while C. occipitalismaintains a π/2 offset of a frequency doubled vertical wave. Geometric analysis reveals these coordination patterns enable optimal movement in the two different styles of undulatory terrestrial locomotion. More broadly, these examples demonstrate the utility of geometric mechanics in analyzing realistic biological and robotic locomotion.

  17. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: water year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, Steven R.; Wierl, J.A.; Owens, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    For two of the eight rural streams (Rattlesnake and Kuenster Creeks) minimal BMP implementation has occurred, hence a comparison of pre- BMP and data collected after BMP implementation began is not warranted. For two other rural streams (Brewery and Garfoot Creeks), BMP implementation is complete. For the four remaining rural streams (Bower, Otter, Eagle, and Joos Valley Creeks), the pre-BMP load data were compared to the transitional data to determine if significant reductions in the loads have occurred as a result of the BMP implementation to date. For all sites, the actual constituent loads for suspended solids and total phosphorus exhibit no statistically significant reductions after BMP installation. Multiple regressions were used to remove some of the natural variability in the data. Based on the residual analysis, for Otter Creek, there is a significant difference in the suspended-solids regression residuals between the pre-BMP and transitional periods, indicating a potential reduction as a result of the BMP implementation after

  18. Bacterial Community Structure after a 17-year Reciprocal Soil Transplant Simulating Climate Change with Elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V. L.; McCue, L.; Fansler, S.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hess, N. J.; Smith, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    In 1994, a reciprocal soil transplant experiment was initiated between two elevations (310 m, warmer and drier, and 844 m, cooler and wetter) on Rattlesnake Mountain in southeastern Washington, USA. In March 2012 we resampled the original transplanted soils, control cores transplanted in situ, and native soils from each elevation, to study longer-term changes in microbial community composition, soil C and N dynamics, and soil physical structure. Our studies of these soils suggested that climate change has significantly altered the C dynamics in these soils, and that even after 17 years of adaptation, the soil microbial communities have not recovered to a condition similar to their new environment. To more thoroughly define the response of the native bacterial communities to this long-term transplant, we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S genes for all the treatments in this study, broken into 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15-cm depth intervals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the sequence data reveal a strong surface influence, with some separation of the 5-10 and 10-15-cm depths. We are investigating these data, and companion metagenomic data, for signatures of the bacterial community's response to simulated climate change.

  19. Development and use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in snakes.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Bunick, David; Dzhaman, Elena; Burrus, Lucienne; Maddox, Carol

    2015-03-01

    Fungal pathogens threatening the conservation of wildlife are becoming increasingly common. Since 2008, free-ranging snakes across North America have been experiencing a marked increase in the prevalence of snake fungal disease associated with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Diagnosis has historically relied on histology, microbiology, and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). More sensitive methods are needed to adequately characterize the epidemiology. The current study describes the development of a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for detecting a segment of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region between the 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. The assay was able to detect as few as 1.05 × 10(1) gene copies per reaction. An additional 4 positive cases were detected when comparing a conventional PCR (n = 3) and the qPCR (n = 7) when used on swab samples from 47 eastern massasauga rattlesnakes. The newly developed assay is a sensitive and specific tool for surveillance and monitoring in the conservation of free-ranging snakes.

  20. Groundwater maps of the Hanford Site Separations Area, January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, G.L.; Schatz, A.L.

    1989-03-01

    The groundwater maps of the Hanford Site Separations Area, dated January 1989, are prepared by the Environmental Engineering and Technology Function, Environmental Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. The groundwater maps are updated on a semiannual basis and are complementary to the Hanford Site water table map prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The Separations Area consists of the 200 East and 200 West areas and the surrounding vicinity on the Hanford Site. Chemical processing operations are carried out in the Separations Area by Westinghouse Hanford for the US Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office. This set of groundwater maps consists of: (1) Separations Area depth-to-water map, (2) Separations Area water table map, and (3) a map comparing the potentiometric surface of the Rattlesnake Ridge confined aquifer with the water table of the unconfined aquifer. The field measurements for these maps were collected during the period January 19 to February 8, 1989, and are listed in Table 1. For clarity, the locating prefixes have been omitted from all well numbers shown on the maps. Wells in the 200 Areas have the prefix 299, and the wells outside of these areas have the prefix 699.

  1. Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead) is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. Methods A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the extant medical literature and performed targeted analyses of existing databases to inform specific clinical decisions. A trained external facilitator used modified Delphi and structured consensus methodology to achieve consensus on the final treatment algorithm. Results A unified treatment algorithm was produced and endorsed by all nine expert panel members. This algorithm provides guidance about clinical and laboratory observations, indications for and dosing of antivenom, adjunctive therapies, post-stabilization care, and management of complications from envenomation and therapy. Conclusions Clinical manifestations and ideal treatment of crotaline snakebite differ greatly, and can result in severe complications. Using a modified Delphi method, we provide evidence-informed treatment guidelines in an attempt to reduce variation in care and possibly improve clinical outcomes. PMID:21291549

  2. Geomorphic terranes of the central Klamath Mountains: Applications to ecosystem management

    SciTech Connect

    De La Fuente, J.; Biery, E.; Creasy, M.; Elder, D.; Haessig, P.; Laurent, T.; Snavely, W. )

    1993-04-01

    Five geomorphic terranes have been identified in the Dillon Mountain area, about 20 miles southwest of Happy Camp, California. These terranes are defined as lands with similar geologic histories, where modern geomorphic processes are similar, and where soils and biotic communities are similar. They include: (1) slump/earthflow terrane; (2) glacial deposit terrane; (3) mountain slope terrane; (4) headwall terrane (steep, fan-shaped headwaters of first order drainages); and (5) inner gorge terrane (the steep landform which develops adjacent to rapidly downcutting streams). These primary geomorphic terranes are further subdivided on a basis of lithology, slope gradient, and geomorphic setting. Geomorphic terrane maps are derived from primary data layers in a geographic information system (GIS). The primary data layers include field-generated lithology, structure, and geomorphology. Slope gradient information is also used, and is derived from digital terrain data, modified by field observations. The distribution of geomorphic terranes is strongly influenced by local stratigraphy, which includes portions of the Western Jurassic Belt (Galice Formation), and the Western Paleozoic and Triassic Belt (Rattlesnake Creek, and Hayfork terranes). Tectonic and climatic events of the Pleistocene Epoch also played a major role in the formation and distribution of geomorphic terranes. These included rapid uplift, seismic activity, and alternating glacial and interglacial conditions. Work is underway to refine the geomorphic terranes by applying other variables such as bedrock structure, precipitation zones, and elevation zones.

  3. MULTI-TECHNIQUE APPROACH TO MEASURE SIZE AND TIME RESOLVED ATMOSPHERIC AND RADIONUCLIDE AEROSOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V; Xie, YuLong; Disselkamp, Robert S; Laulainen, Nels S; Smith, Edward A; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2008-12-01

    Accurate quantifications of aerosol components are crucial to predict global atmospheric transport models. Recently developed International Monitoring System (IMS) network represents an opportunity to enhance comprehensive systematic aerosol observations on a global scale because it provides a global infrastructure. As such, a local pilot study utilizing several state-of-the-art instruments has been conducted at the peak of Rattlesnake Mountain, Washington, USA, during three month periods (June-August) in 2003 to explore this opportunity. In this study, routine aerosol samples were collected using a 3-stage Cascade Impactor Beam Analyzer (0.07 to 2.5 µm) with time resolution about 6 hours on long Teflon strips while radionuclide aerosols were collected using Radionuclide aerosol sampler/analyzer (RASA) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The elemental composition and hydrogen concentration were measured using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA), respectively. In addition, short and long-lived radionuclides that exist in nature were measured with same time resolution (6 hours) using RASA. In this method, high-resolution gamma-ray spectra were analyzed for radionuclide concentration. Combination of trace radioactive and non-radioactive element analysis in aerosols makes this investigation unique.

  4. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  5. Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    Like the saguaro cactus (Carnegia gigantea) and the rattlesnake, the Gila monster is emblematic of the desert Southwest. The Gila monster is not only the largest lizard native to the United States, but also one of only two known species of venomous lizard in the Americas. This stout-bodied lizard can grow to 50 cm (20 in) and is covered with black and pink or orange markings and bead-like scales. The Gila monster's range is centered in western and southern Arizona, continuing south to Sonora, Mexico. Despite public fascination with the species, relatively little is known about the ecology and behavior of the Gila monster in the wild. For this reason, managers at Tonto National Monument, Arizona, contacted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to investigate why Gila monsters were being seen in developed areas of the park, particularly crossing the main road. Managers were concerned about possible lizard-human conflicts and the risk of vehicle traffic killing Gila monsters. USGS scientists initiated a research effort in Tonto National Monument beginning in 2004 to provide information needed to make management decisions and improve scientific understanding of the species. Specifically, USGS scientists examined the movement patterns, range requirements, dietary habits, and use of developed areas by Gila monsters within the park. The 2004 research effort also extended a program begun in Tonto National Monument in 1994 to recognize individual Gila monsters based on unique dorsal patterns identified from photographs.

  6. Estimating hybridization in the presence of coalescence using phylogenetic intraspecific sampling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A well-known characteristic of multi-locus data is that each locus has its own phylogenetic history which may differ substantially from the overall phylogenetic history of the species. Although the possibility that this arises through incomplete lineage sorting is often incorporated in models for the species-level phylogeny, it is much less common for hybridization to also be formally included in such models. Results We have modified the evolutionary model of Meng and Kubatko (2009) to incorporate intraspecific sampling of multiple individuals for estimation of speciation times and times of hybridization events for testing for hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting. We have also utilized a more efficient algorithm for obtaining our estimates. Using simulations, we demonstrate that our approach performs well under conditions motivated by an empirical data set for Sistrurus rattlesnakes where putative hybridization has occurred. We further demonstrate that the method is able to accurately detect the signature of hybridization in the data, while this signal may be obscured when other species-tree inference methods that ignore hybridization are used. Conclusions Our approach is shown to be powerful in detecting hybridization when it is present. When applied to the Sistrurus data, we find no evidence of hybridization; instead, it appears that putative hybrid snakes in Missouri are most likely pure S. catenatus tergeminus in origin, which has significant conservation implications. PMID:21978073

  7. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: water year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, Steven R.; Wierl, J.A.; Owens, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    For two of the eight rural streams (Rattlesnake and Kuenster Creeks) minimal BMP implementation has occurred, hence a comparison of pre- BMP and data collected after BMP implementation began is not warranted. For two other rural streams (Brewery and Garfoot Creeks), BMP implementation is complete. For the four remaining rural streams (Bower, Otter, Eagle, and Joos Valley Creeks), the pre-BMP load data were compared to the transitional data to determine if significant reductions in the loads have occurred as a result of the BMP implementation to date. For all sites, the actual constituent loads for suspended solids and total phosphorus exhibit no statistically significant reductions after BMP installation. Multiple regressions were used to remove some of the natural variability in the data. Based on the residual analysis, for Otter Creek, there is a significant difference in the suspended-solids regression residuals between the pre-BMP and transitional periods, indicating a potential reduction as a result of the BMP implementation after accounting for natural variability. For Joos Valley Creek, the residuals for suspended solids and total phosphorus both show a significant reduction after accounting for natural variability. It is possible that the other sites will also show statistically significant reductions in suspended solids and total phosphorus if additional BMPs are implemented.

  8. Modulation of orthogonal body waves enables high maneuverability in sidewinding locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, Henry; Gong, Chaohui; Travers, Matt; Serrano, Miguel; Vela, Patricio; Choset, Howie; Mendelson, Joseph, III; Hu, David; Goldman, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    To simplify control of high degree of freedom bodies, organisms may target a set of simple shape changes (a ``template''). Recent work has revealed that the locomotion of sidewinder rattlesnakes can be described by a combination of horizontal and vertical body waves with a phase difference of +/- π/2, representing a possible control template. These animals display high maneuverability which we hypothesize emerges from their ability to independently modulate these waves. Snakes used two distinct turning methods which we term differential turning (24° turn per cycle) and reversal turning (80°). Kinematic data suggested that during differential turning the animals imposed an amplitude modulation in the horizontal wave while in reversal turning they shifted the phase of the vertical wave by π. We tested these mechanisms in the robot, generating differential and reversal turning. Further manipulations of the two-wave system revealed a third turning mode, ``frequency turning,'' not observed in biological snakes which allowed the robot to execute large (127°) in-place turns. The two-wave system enables unprecedented maneuverability of high degree-of-freedom systems, revealing a practical benefits of the search for control templates. Zoo Atlanta

  9. Hydrogeologic, geophysical, water-quality, transient-tracer and flow-model analysis of the ground-water flow system near Dillon, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, D.A.; Clark, D.W.; Shapiro, S.D.; Lawlor, S.M.

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of the report is describe the groundwater flow system in the basin-fill aquifer in the lower Blacktail Deer Creek, lower Beaverhead River, and lower Rattlesnake Creek valleys near Dillon. Specific objectives of the study, conducted during 1993--1994, were to: (1) Describe the ground-water flow system in the basin-fill aquifer using water-level data; (2) Help to further define the hydrogeologic framework of the basin-fill aquifer using the geophysical technique, seismic refraction; (3) Differentiate sources of recharge to the aquifer based on water-quality data collected in the study area; (4) Determine the ages of groundwater in the aquifer from samples collected from wells throughout the study area using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium and helium isotope (({sup 3}H)-({sup 3}He)) dating techniques; and (5) Develop a conceptual and numerical cross-sectional ground-water flow model of the flow system along a designated flow path in the aquifer.

  10. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hee, Mallory M; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species. PMID:25853558

  11. Improved Neutronics Treatment of Burnable Poisons for the Prismatic HTR

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang; A. A. Bingham; J. Ortensi; C. J. Permann

    2012-10-01

    In prismatic block High Temperature Reactors (HTR), highly absorbing material such a burnable poison (BP) cause local flux depressions and large gradients in the flux across the blocks which can be a challenge to capture accurately with traditional homogenization methods. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the error associated with spatial homogenization, spectral condensation and discretization and to highlight what is needed for improved neutronics treatments of burnable poisons for the prismatic HTR. A new triangular based mesh is designed to separate the BP regions from the fuel assembly. A set of packages including Serpent (Monte Carlo), Xuthos (1storder Sn), Pronghorn (diffusion), INSTANT (Pn) and RattleSnake (2ndorder Sn) is used for this study. The results from the deterministic calculations show that the cross sections generated directly in Serpent are not sufficient to accurately reproduce the reference Monte Carlo solution in all cases. The BP treatment produces good results, but this is mainly due to error cancellation. However, the Super Cell (SC) approach yields cross sections that are consistent with cross sections prepared on an “exact” full core calculation. In addition, very good agreement exists between the various deterministic transport and diffusion codes in both eigenvalue and power distributions. Future research will focus on improving the cross sections and quantifying the error cancellation.

  12. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  13. Inhibition of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum development by crotamine, a cell penetrating peptide from the snake venom.

    PubMed

    El Chamy Maluf, S; Dal Mas, C; Oliveira, E B; Melo, P M; Carmona, A K; Gazarini, M L; Hayashi, M A F

    2016-04-01

    We show here that crotamine, a polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom with cell penetrating and selective anti-fungal and anti-tumoral properties, presents a potent anti-plasmodial activity in culture. Crotamine inhibits the development of the Plasmodium falciparum parasites in a dose-dependent manner [IC50 value of 1.87 μM], and confocal microscopy analysis showed a selective internalization of fluorescent-labeled crotamine into P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, with no detectable fluorescence in uninfected healthy erythrocytes. In addition, similarly to the crotamine cytotoxic effects, the mechanism underlying the anti-plasmodial activity may involve the disruption of parasite acidic compartments H(+) homeostasis. In fact, crotamine promoted a reduction of parasites organelle fluorescence loaded with the lysosomotropic fluorochrome acridine orange, in the same way as previously observed mammalian tumoral cells. Taken together, we show for the first time crotamine not only compromised the metabolism of the P. falciparum, but this toxin also inhibited the parasite growth. Therefore, we suggest this snake polypeptide as a promising lead molecule for the development of potential new molecules, namely peptidomimetics, with selectivity for infected erythrocytes and ability to inhibit the malaria infection by its natural affinity for acid vesicles. PMID:26806200

  14. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher E.; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  15. Circulating immune complexes, complement activation kinetics and serum sickness following treatment with heterologous anti-snake venom globulin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H; Sørensen, H; Faber, V; Svehag, S E

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive serum and plasma samples, from a patient receiving 100 ml polyvalent horse anti-venom globulin after a rattlesnake bite, were analysed for circulating immune complexes (IC) and activation of complement factors. IC were determined by two independent methods, a complement consumption assay and a Clq-binding assay. Rapidly rising levels of complement-fixing circulating IC were detected as early as 4--5 days after the serum treatment and distinct IC-activity was recorded in both assays on day 8 when clinical symptoms of serum sickness were observed. The IC remained in circulation for at least 5 weeks. Signs of intravascular C-activation in the form of low C3, C4 and C5 values was noted on day 1 after treatment. Factor B was demonstrable 3--4 days after the snake bite and this factor and C3c attained a peak around day 8, just before maximal suppression of native C3 and C4. 14 days after the globulin treatment C3c and B were declining rapidly while C3 and C4 approached normal values first 36 days after treatment. An increase in heterophilic antibodies to sheep erythrocytes was observed after treatment with anti-venom globulin. PMID:635471

  16. Piezometer completion report for borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20, and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow, Sentinel Gap flow top, Ginkgo flow top, Rocky Coulee flow top, Cohassett flow top and Umtanum flow top. The D-series piezometer monitors the Mabton interbed. The B-series pumping well was completed in the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. A rational design for the nanoencapsulation of poisonous animal venoms in liposomes prepared with natural phospholipids.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Maria Helena Bueno; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo A; Quintilio, Wagner; Schwendener, Reto Albert; de Araujo, Pedro Soares

    2012-11-01

    Liposomes have been used since the 1970's to encapsulate drugs envisaging enhancement in efficacy and therapeutic index, avoidance of side effects and increase in the encapsulated agent stability. The major problem when encapsulating snake venoms is the liposomal membrane instability caused by venom phospholipases. Here the results obtained encapsulating Crotalus durissimus terrificus and a pool of Bothropic venoms within liposomes (LC and LB, respectively) used to produce anti-venom sera are presented. The strategy was to modify the immunization protocol to enhance antibody production and to minimize toxic effects by encapsulating inactivated venoms within stabilized liposomes. Chemically modified venoms were solubilized in a buffer containing an inhibitor and a chelating agent. The structures of the venoms were analyzed by UV, CD spectroscopy and ELISA. In spite of the differences in the helical content between natural and modified venoms, they were recognized by horse anti-sera. To maintain long-term stability, mannitol was used as a cryoprotectant. The encapsulation efficiencies were 59 % (LB) and 99 % (LC), as followed by filtration on Sephacryl S1000. Light scattering measurements led us to conclude that both, LB (119 ±47 nm) and LC (147±56 nm) were stable for 22 days at 4 °C, even after lyophilization. Genetically selected mice and mixed breed horses were immunized with these formulations. The animals did not show clinical symptoms of venom toxicity. Both, LB and LC enhanced by at least 30 % the antibody titers 25 days after injection and total IgG titers remained high 91 days after immunization. The liposomal formulation clearly exhibited adjuvant properties.

  18. Crotalid snake venom subproteomes unraveled by the antiophidic protein DM43.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Surza L G; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Trugilho, Monique R O; Chapeaurouge, Alex; León, Ileana R; Valente, Richard H; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2009-05-01

    Snake venoms are mixtures of proteins and peptides with different biological activities, many of which are very toxic. Several animals, including the opossum Didelphis aurita, are resistant to snake venoms due to the presence of neutralizing factors in their blood. An antihemorrhagic protein named DM43 was isolated from opossum serum. It inhibits snake venom metalloproteinases through noncovalent complex formation with these enzymes. In this study, we have used DM43 and proteomic techniques to explore snake venom subproteomes. Four crotalid venoms were chromatographed through an affinity column containing immobilized DM43. Bound fractions were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. With this approach, we could easily visualize and compare the metalloproteinase compositions of Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops insularis, and Crotalus atrox snake venoms. The important contribution of proteolytic processing to the complexity of this particular subproteome was demonstrated. Fractions not bound to DM43 column were similarly analyzed and were composed mainly of serine proteinases, C-type lectins, C-type lectin-like proteins, l-amino acid oxidases, nerve growth factor, cysteine-rich secretory protein, a few metalloproteinases (and their fragments), and some unidentified spots. Although very few toxin families were represented in the crotalid venoms analyzed, the number of protein spots detected was in the hundreds, indicating an important protein variability in these natural secretions. DM43 affinity chromatography and associated proteomic techniques proved to be useful tools to separate and identify proteins from snake venoms, contributing to a better comprehension of venom heterogeneity. PMID:19267469

  19. A multifaceted analysis of viperid snake venoms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: an approach to understanding venom proteomics.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Solange M T; Shannon, John D; Wang, Deyu; Camargo, Antonio C M; Fox, Jay W

    2005-02-01

    The complexity of Viperid venoms has long been appreciated by investigators in the fields of toxinology and medicine. However, it is only recently that the depth of that complexity has become somewhat quantitatively and qualitatively appreciated. With the resurgence of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and the advances in mass spectrometry virtually all venom components can be visualized and identified given sufficient effort and resources. Here we present the use of 2-DE for examining venom complexity as well as demonstrating interesting approaches to selectively delineate subpopulations of venom proteins based on particular characteristics of the proteins such as antibody cross-reactivity or enzymatic activities. 2-DE comparisons between venoms from different species of the same genus (Bothrops) of snake clearly demonstrated both the similarity as well as the apparent diversity among these venoms. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry we were able to identify regions of the two-dimensional gels from each venom in which certain classes of proteins were found. 2-DE was also used to compare venoms from Crotalus atrox and Bothrops jararaca. For these venoms a variety of staining/detection protocols was utilized to compare and contrast the venoms. Specifically, we used various stains to visualize subpopulations of the venom proteomes of these snakes, including Coomassie, Silver, Sypro Ruby and Pro-Q-Emerald. Using specific antibodies in Western blot analyses of 2-DE of the venoms we have examined subpopulations of proteins in these venoms including the serine proteinase proteome, the metalloproteinase proteome, and the phospholipases A2 proteome. A functional assessment of the gelatinolytic activity of these venoms was also performed by zymography. These approaches have given rise to a more thorough understanding of venom complexity and the toxins comprising these venoms and provide insights to investigators who wish to focus on these venom

  20. Comparison of indirect and direct approaches using ion-trap and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for exploring viperid venom proteomes.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jay W; Ma, Li; Nelson, Kristina; Sherman, Nicholas E; Serrano, Solange M T

    2006-05-01

    In a sense, the field of snake venom proteomics has been under investigation since the very earliest biochemical studies where it was soon recognized that venoms are comprised of complex mixtures of bioactive molecules, most of which are proteins. Only with the re-emergence of 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) and the recent developments in mass spectrometry for the identification/characterization of proteins coupled with venom gland transcriptomes has the field of snake venom proteomics began to flourish and provide exciting insights into the protein composition of venoms and subsequently their pathological activities. In this manuscript we will briefly discuss the state of snake venom proteomics followed by the presentation of several straightforward experiments designed to explore approaches to investigating venom proteomics. The first set of experiments used 1D gel electrophoresis (1D PAGE) of Crotalus atrox venom followed by slice-by-slice analysis of the proteins using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In the second set of experiments, C. atrox and Bothrops jararaca venoms were subjected to in-solution digestion followed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) LC/MS/MS. The peptide ion-maps of these venoms were compared along with the proteins identified. In addition, the results were compared to the results observed from the 1D PAGE approach. From these studies it is clear that sample de-complexation/fractionation before mass spectrometry is still the best approach for maximum proteome coverage. Furthermore, comparison of venom proteomes based on tryptic peptide identities between the proteomes is not particularly effective since there does not appear to be a sufficient number of such identical peptides, derived from related proteins, present in venoms. Finally, as has previously been recognized without either better databases of venom protein sequences or facile and rapid de novo sequencing

  1. Inhibition of hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of snake venoms by a broad-spectrum protease inhibitor, murinoglobulin; the effect on venoms from five different genera in Viperidae family.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Filho, Wilker; Sugiki, Masahiko; Yoshida, Etsuo; Maruyama, Masugi

    2003-08-01

    In order to obtain basic data on the effect of broad-spectrum protease inhibitor against local symptoms of Viperidae snake envenomation, inhibitory capacity of rat murinoglobulin on local hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of venoms from Crotalus atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Lachesis muta muta, Trimeresurus flavoviridis and Echis carinatus sochureki were examined. Murinoglobulin, pre-incubated with the crude venoms at 37 degrees C for 15 min, inhibited hemorrhagic activity of all five venoms to various extents. The activity of C. atrox was almost completely inhibited at the murinoglobulin/venom ratio (w/w) of 20. The activity of B. jararaca, Lachesis muta muta and T. flavoviridis venoms was considerably inhibited at the ratio of 20 (77.2, 80.0 and 86.2% inhibition, respectively), however some of the activity still remained even at the ratio of 40 (84.2, 79.8 and 86.2% inhibition, respectively). Among the five venoms, E. c. sochureki venom is quite resistant to murinoglobulin treatment and statistically significant inhibition was only found at the ratio of 40 (64.1% inhibition). Fibrinolytic and gelatinase activities were more susceptible to murinoglobulin inhibition. The treatment at the ratios of 10 and 20 almost completely inhibited respectively the fibrinolytic and the gelatinase activities of all the venoms. Murinoglobulin treatment also significantly inhibited the edematogenic activity of L. muta muta, T. flavoviridis and Echis carinatus sochureki. The treatment of murinoglobulin at the ratio of 40 considerably suppressed the swelling up to 60 min after subcutaneous injection of L. muta muta and E. c. sochureki venoms, and up to 30 min after T. flavoviridis venom injection. Murinoglobulin is a potent inhibitor against local effects of multiple snake venoms in Viperidae family. PMID:12906888

  2. Venoms, toxins and derivatives from the Brazilian fauna: valuable sources for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    De Marco Almeida, Flávia; de Castro Pimenta, Adriano Monteiro; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2015-06-25

    Animal venoms have been widely investigated throughout the world. The great number of biotechnological articles as well as patent applications in the field of drug discovery based on these compounds indicates how important the source is. This review presents a list of the most studied Brazilian venomous animal species and shows the most recent patent applications filed from 2000 to 2013, which comprise Brazilian venoms, toxins and derivatives. We analyze the data according to the species, the type of products claimed and the nationality of the inventors. Fifty-five patent applications were found, involving 8 genera. Crotalus, Lachesis, Bothrops and Loxosceles represented 78% of the patent applications. The other 22% were represented by Phoneutria, Tityus, Acanthoscurria and Phyllomedusa. Most of the inventions (42%) involved anticancer, immunomodulator or antimicrobial drugs, while 13% involved anti-venoms and vaccines, 11% involved hypotensive compositions, 9% involved antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory compositions, and the other 25% involved methods, kits or compositions for various purposes. Brazilian inventors filed 49% of the patent applications, but other countries, mainly the United States of America, Germany, Russia and France, also filed patent applications claiming products comprising venoms, toxins and/or derivatives from the Brazilian fauna. Brazil holds an important number of patent applications which mostly belong to universities and research institutes, but the pharmaceutical industry in this field is still weak in Brazil. Although, Brazilian venomous animal species have been reported in drug discovery throughout the world, many species remain to be explored as valuable and promising tools for drug discovery and development.

  3. Venoms, toxins and derivatives from the Brazilian fauna: valuable sources for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    De Marco Almeida, Flávia; de Castro Pimenta, Adriano Monteiro; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2015-06-25

    Animal venoms have been widely investigated throughout the world. The great number of biotechnological articles as well as patent applications in the field of drug discovery based on these compounds indicates how important the source is. This review presents a list of the most studied Brazilian venomous animal species and shows the most recent patent applications filed from 2000 to 2013, which comprise Brazilian venoms, toxins and derivatives. We analyze the data according to the species, the type of products claimed and the nationality of the inventors. Fifty-five patent applications were found, involving 8 genera. Crotalus, Lachesis, Bothrops and Loxosceles represented 78% of the patent applications. The other 22% were represented by Phoneutria, Tityus, Acanthoscurria and Phyllomedusa. Most of the inventions (42%) involved anticancer, immunomodulator or antimicrobial drugs, while 13% involved anti-venoms and vaccines, 11% involved hypotensive compositions, 9% involved antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory compositions, and the other 25% involved methods, kits or compositions for various purposes. Brazilian inventors filed 49% of the patent applications, but other countries, mainly the United States of America, Germany, Russia and France, also filed patent applications claiming products comprising venoms, toxins and/or derivatives from the Brazilian fauna. Brazil holds an important number of patent applications which mostly belong to universities and research institutes, but the pharmaceutical industry in this field is still weak in Brazil. Although, Brazilian venomous animal species have been reported in drug discovery throughout the world, many species remain to be explored as valuable and promising tools for drug discovery and development. PMID:26109299

  4. Crovirin, a Snake Venom Cysteine-Rich Secretory Protein (CRISP) with Promising Activity against Trypanosomes and Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Adade, Camila M.; Carvalho, Ana Lúcia O.; Tomaz, Marcelo A.; Costa, Tatiana F. R.; Godinho, Joseane L.; Melo, Paulo A.; Lima, Ana Paula C. A.; Rodrigues, Juliany C. F.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2014-01-01

    Background The neglected human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are currently treated with toxic therapy with limited efficacy. In search for novel anti-trypanosomatid agents, we showed previously that the Crotalus viridis viridis (Cvv) snake venom was active against infective forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we describe the purification of crovirin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) from Cvv venom with promising activity against trypanosomes and Leishmania. Methodology/Principal Findings Crude venom extract was loaded onto a reverse phase analytical (C8) column using a high performance liquid chromatographer. A linear gradient of water/acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was used. The peak containing the isolated protein (confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry) was collected and its protein content was measured. T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, L. amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes and T. brucei rhodesiense procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes were challenged with crovirin, whose toxicity was tested against LLC-MK2 cells, peritoneal macrophages and isolated murine extensor digitorum longus muscle. We purified a single protein from Cvv venom corresponding, according to Nano-LC MS/MS sequencing, to a CRISP of 24,893.64 Da, henceforth referred to as crovirin. Human infective trypanosomatid forms, including intracellular amastigotes, were sensitive to crovirin, with low IC50 or LD50 values (1.10–2.38 µg/ml). A considerably higher concentration (20 µg/ml) of crovirin was required to elicit only limited toxicity on mammalian cells. Conclusions This is the first report of CRISP anti-protozoal activity, and suggests that other members of this family might have potential as drugs or drug leads for the development of novel agents against trypanosomatid-borne neglected diseases. PMID:25330220

  5. Thrombin-dependent Incorporation of von Willebrand Factor into a Fibrin Network*

    PubMed Central

    Miszta, Adam; Pelkmans, Leonie; Lindhout, Theo; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; de Groot, Philip G.; Hemker, Coenraad H.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Attachment of platelets from the circulation onto a growing thrombus is a process involving multiple platelet receptors, endothelial matrix components, and coagulation factors. It has been indicated previously that during a transglutaminase reaction activated factor XIII (FXIIIa) covalently cross-links von Willebrand factor (VWF) to polymerizing fibrin. Bound VWF further recruits and activates platelets via interactions with the platelet receptor complex glycoprotein Ib (GPIb). In the present study we found proof for binding of VWF to a fibrin monomer layer during the process of fibrinogen-to-fibrin conversion in the presence of thrombin, arvin, or a snake venom from Crotalus atrox. Using a domain deletion mutant we demonstrated the involvement of the C domains of VWF in this binding. Substantial binding of VWF to fibrin monomers persisted in the presence of the FXIIIa inhibitor K9-DON, illustrating that cross-linking via factor XIII is not essential for this phenomenon and suggesting the identification of a second mechanism through which VWF multimers incorporate into a fibrin network. Under high shear conditions, platelets were shown to adhere to fibrin only if VWF had been incorporated. In conclusion, our experiments show that the C domains of VWF and the E domain of fibrin monomers are involved in the incorporation of VWF during the polymerization of fibrin and that this incorporation fosters binding and activation of platelets. Fibrin thus is not an inert end product but partakes in further thrombus growth. Our findings help to elucidate the mechanism of thrombus growth and platelet adhesion under conditions of arterial shear rate. PMID:25381443

  6. Thrombin-dependent Incorporation of von Willebrand Factor into a Fibrin Network.

    PubMed

    Miszta, Adam; Pelkmans, Leonie; Lindhout, Theo; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; de Groot, Philip G; Hemker, Coenraad H; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2014-12-26

    Attachment of platelets from the circulation onto a growing thrombus is a process involving multiple platelet receptors, endothelial matrix components, and coagulation factors. It has been indicated previously that during a transglutaminase reaction activated factor XIII (FXIIIa) covalently cross-links von Willebrand factor (VWF) to polymerizing fibrin. Bound VWF further recruits and activates platelets via interactions with the platelet receptor complex glycoprotein Ib (GPIb). In the present study we found proof for binding of VWF to a fibrin monomer layer during the process of fibrinogen-to-fibrin conversion in the presence of thrombin, arvin, or a snake venom from Crotalus atrox. Using a domain deletion mutant we demonstrated the involvement of the C domains of VWF in this binding. Substantial binding of VWF to fibrin monomers persisted in the presence of the FXIIIa inhibitor K9-DON, illustrating that cross-linking via factor XIII is not essential for this phenomenon and suggesting the identification of a second mechanism through which VWF multimers incorporate into a fibrin network. Under high shear conditions, platelets were shown to adhere to fibrin only if VWF had been incorporated. In conclusion, our experiments show that the C domains of VWF and the E domain of fibrin monomers are involved in the incorporation of VWF during the polymerization of fibrin and that this incorporation fosters binding and activation of platelets. Fibrin thus is not an inert end product but partakes in further thrombus growth. Our findings help to elucidate the mechanism of thrombus growth and platelet adhesion under conditions of arterial shear rate. PMID:25381443

  7. Potential for formation of disinfection by-products from storage of chlorinated surface water in the Basalt aquifer near Fallon, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lico, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    Increased pumpage from a basalt aquifer near Fallon, Nevada, has caused its water levels to decline and has induced changes in the quality of water pumped from the basalt. The aquifer is the sole source of water for municipal supply to the city of Fallon, the Naval Air Station Fallon, and the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe. These changes may be mitigated by storage of surface water in the basalt for subsequent use. Because chlorination of the surface water may be required for storage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, made laboratory tests using laboratory carbon-organic-free water, surface-water, ground-water, and basaltic-rock samples to determine the potential for formation of disinfection by-products. Experiments with water samples only (no rock and no chlorine) indicated no change in dissolved-organic-carbon (DOC) concentrations over a 20-day reaction period; whereas, all experiments using rock, water, and no chlorine indicated an increase in DOC concentrations. The greatest increase in DOC concentrations for all three water samples occurred in experiments with the rock samples from outcrops on Rattlesnake Hill. Experiments with water only and chlorine yielded a total trihalomethane (THM) concentration of 97.4 ?g/L for the ground-water sample and 347 ?g/L for the surface-water sample. Experiments with mixtures of water, rocks, and chlorine indicated that reactions with the rock consumed chlorine and released significant amounts of organic carbon from the rock, increasing the DOC concentration in the water. The organic carbon in the rocks likely is associated with the secondary clay minerals that line vesicles and fractures in the rocks. THM concentrations were greatest, from 335 to 909 ?g/L, for surface water equilibrated with rock samples from Rattlesnake Hill. However, the concentration of chlorine required to produce these high THM concentrations ranged from 18 to 84 mg/L. The results of the experiments suggest

  8. Methodology and application of combined watershed and ground-water models in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perkins, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Increased irrigation in Kansas and other regions during the last several decades has caused serious water depletion, making the development of comprehensive strategies and tools to resolve such problems increasingly important. This paper makes the case for an intermediate complexity, quasi-distributed, comprehensive, large-watershed model, which falls between the fully distributed, physically based hydrological modeling system of the type of the SHE model and the lumped, conceptual rainfall-runoff modeling system of the type of the Stanford watershed model. This is achieved by integrating the quasi-distributed watershed model SWAT with the fully-distributed ground-water model MODFLOW. The advantage of this approach is the appreciably smaller input data requirements and the use of readily available data (compared to the fully distributed, physically based models), the statistical handling of watershed heterogeneities by employing the hydrologic-response-unit concept, and the significantly increased flexibility in handling stream-aquifer interactions, distributed well withdrawals, and multiple land uses. The mechanics of integrating the component watershed and ground-water models are outlined, and three real-world management applications of the integrated model from Kansas are briefly presented. Three different aspects of the integrated model are emphasized: (1) management applications of a Decision Support System for the integrated model (Rattlesnake Creek subbasin); (2) alternative conceptual models of spatial heterogeneity related to the presence or absence of an underlying aquifer with shallow or deep water table (Lower Republican River basin); and (3) the general nature of the integrated model linkage by employing a watershed simulator other than SWAT (Wet Walnut Creek basin). These applications demonstrate the practicality and versatility of this relatively simple and conceptually clear approach, making public acceptance of the integrated watershed modeling

  9. Reconnaissance Geologic Map of the Hayfork 15' Quadrangle, Trinity County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The Hayfork 15' quadrangle is located just west of the Weaverville 15' quadrangle in the southern part of the Klamath Mountains geologic province of northern California. It spans parts of six generally north-northwest-trending tectonostratigraphic terranes that are, from east to west, the Eastern Klamath, Central Metamorphic, North Fork, Eastern Hayfork, Western Hayfork, and Rattlesnake Creek terranes. Remnants of a once-widespread postaccretionary overlap assemblage, the Cretaceous Great Valley sequence, crop out at three localities in the southern part of the Hayfork quadrangle. The Tertiary fluvial and lacustrine Weaverville Formation occupies a large, shallow, east-northeast-trending graben in the south half of the quadrangle. The small area of Eastern Klamath terrane is part of the Oregon Mountain outlier, which is more widely exposed to the east in the Weaverville 15' quadrangle. It was originally mapped as a thrust plate of Bragdon(?) Formation, but it is now thought by some to be part of an outlier of Yreka terrane that has been dislocated 60 km southward by the La Grange Fault. The Central Metamorphic terrane, which forms the footwall of the La Grange Fault, was formed by the eastward subduction of oceanic crustal basalt (the Salmon Hornblende Schist) and its overlying siliceous sediments with interbedded limestone (the Abrams Mica Schist) beneath the Eastern Klamath terrane. Rb-Sr analysis of the Abrams Mica Schist indicates a Middle Devonian metamorphic age of approximately 380 Ma, which probably represents the age of subduction. The North Fork terrane, which is faulted against the western boundary of the Central Metamorphic terrane, consists of the Permian(?) North Fork ophiolite and overlying broken formation and melange of Permian to Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian) marine metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The ophiolite, which crops out along the western border of the terrane, is thrust westward over the Eastern Hayfork terrane. The Eastern

  10. Hydrogeology of a Biosolids-Application Site Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1993-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2003-01-01

    general close hydraulic connection between alluvial and bedrock aquifers, recharge of the Cottonwood Creek and much of the Muddy Creek alluvial aquifers by the bedrock aquifer, and possible recharge of the bedrock aquifer by a Rattlesnake Creek tributary. Some areas of shallow ground water were recharged by infiltration from rain or ponds, but other areas likely were recharged by other ground water. Data for shallow ground water indicate that ground-water recharge takes less than a day at some sites to about 40 years at another site. Depth to shallow ground water in the study area ranged from about 2 feet to about 37 feet below land surface. Shallow ground-water levels likely were affected by evapotranspiration. Ground water is present in shallow parts of the bedrock aquifer or in alluvial aquifers in four drainage basins: Badger Creek, Cottonwood Creek, Muddy Creek, and Rattlesnake Creek. These drainage basins generally contained only ephemeral streams, which flow only after intense rain.

  11. The Dinner Creek Tuff: A Widespread Co-CRBG Ignimbrite Sheet in Eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. F.; Ricker, C.; Handrich, T.

    2011-12-01

    Erosional remnants of ignimbrite sheets (>5,000 km2) are depicted either as minor units (e.g., Twt, Tt, or Tr) or included within larger volcanic/sedimentary units on many geologic quadrangle maps in eastern Oregon. Such maps provide analytical and detailed mapping targets for the purpose of correlating widespread outcrops and arriving at a more accurate picture of the eruptive and petrologic history of the magmas involved. In this study, we have targeted the mid-Miocene rhyolitic Dinner Creek Tuff which was previously considered to being restricted to an area ˜3000 km2 centered along the Malheur River. Numerous outcrops to the north that had been mapped by prior workers as generic Miocene welded tuff have now been sampled. Analytical results allow us to correlate exposures previously referred to as "Mascall" or "Pleasant Valley" tuff, unnamed tuff outcrops as well as tuff outcrops not previously mapped with the Dinner Creek Tuff, thus increasing the size of the Dinner Creek Tuff to an area of about 20,000 km2, rivaling the late Miocene Devine Canyon and Rattlesnake Tuffs in size (e.g. Streck and Ferns, 2004). Dinner Creek Tuff fallout extends from northern Nevada (Nash et al., 2006) to northern Union county, Oregon. Compositional, lithological, and age data show the Dinner Creek Tuff to consist of multiple cooling units erupted over a time span of ˜500,000 years. Duration of activity is defined by new Ar-Ar dates ranging from 15.9±0.13 to 15.38±0.17 (2σ) Ma on feldspar separates. Welded tuff lithics with Dinner Creek Tuff compositions document reworking of older tuffs and are clear evidence for multiple ignimbrite eruptions. First eruptions were the most silicic, producing high-silica rhyolites. Later eruptions were more mafic, producing low silica rhyolite with ubiquitous dark pumices of dacitic to andesitic composition. Rhyolitic and intermediate magmas of Dinner Creek Tuff are crystal poor (1-5%) and Fe rich, carrying chemical fingerprints typical of other

  12. Development of a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction procedure for the detection of marine caliciviruses with potential application for nucleotide sequencing.

    PubMed

    Reid, S M; Ansell, D M; Ferris, N P; Hutchings, G H; Knowles, N J; Smith, A W

    1999-09-01

    A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure is described for the detection of marine caliciviruses including vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV), San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV), bovine Tillamook virus (BCV Bos-1) and caliciviruses (CV) isolated from dolphin (Cetacean CV), gorilla (Primate CV) and rattlesnake (Reptile CV) using primers (1F and 1R) designed from the capsid-coding region of the viral genome. These primers were compared with those described by Neill, J.D. and Seal, B.S., 1995: Development of PCR primers for specific amplification of two distinct regions of the genomes of San Miguel sea lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses, Mol. Cell. Probes 9, 33-38 (Hel1/Hel2), which had been designed from the 2C-like region of the calicivirus genome. Both sets proved to be extremely useful diagnostic tools for all of the known marine calicivirus serotypes with the exception of three: SMSV-8 and -12 and mink CV suggesting that these three caliciviruses may belong to a different group. Neither of the two primer sets reacted with strains of the vesicular disease viruses of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), swine vesicular disease (SVD) or vesicular stomatitis (VS) nor with two feline caliciviruses (FCV). The 1F/1R primer set has the advantage over the Hel1/Hel2 set in that it generates a larger PCR product for nucleotide sequence investigations and so provides greater opportunity for identifying molecular differences between the viruses. PMID:10507417

  13. Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah J.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Liu, Chongxuan; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2016-03-02

    The effects of climate change on soil organic matter—its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response—remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampledmore » the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5 °C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. Lastly, these results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in surprising ways, even

  14. New geochronologic constraints on Early, Middle, and Late Jurassic orogenesis in the Klamath Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Donato, M.M. ); Hacker, B.R.; McWilliams, M.O.

    1993-04-01

    More than 40 new Ar/Ar ages, in conjunction with radiometric data published by many other authors, allow improved recognition of the spatial and temporal ranges of magmatic, metamorphic and deformational events associated with the formation of continental crust in the Klamath Mountains. Magmatism in earliest Jurassic time, [approx]200 Ma, is now recognized to have been widespread. Volcanoplutonic arcs of this age are present in upper levels of the Rattlesnake Creek terrane and in lower levels of the North Fork/Salmon River terrane. Roughly 200 Ma metaplutonic rocks are also found in the basement of the Rogue/Chetco arc, Preston Peak mafic complex, and Lems Ridge olistostrome. From 167--155 Ma, magmatic and structural extension occurred along a NW-SE corridor restricted to the northern Klamaths. Igneous rocks include the Wooley Creek, Preston Peak, Josephine, and Rogue/Chetco suites, and the Marble Mountains fault may represent a contemporaneous normal fault. The southern edge of the extended corridor is the Salmon tectonic line of Irwin (1985), but the northern boundary has not been recognized or named. Both boundaries were presumably transfer zones accommodating differential subhorizontal extension, but many details are still to be determined. The Siskiyou and Nevadan orogenies can no longer be assigned specific, narrow time windows and may have outlived their usefulness as currently defined. Enough geochronologic data are now available to consider the ages and characteristics of specific plutons, deformation fabrics, and metamorphic minerals in individual areas, rather than assuming such events occur throughout the orogen within specific time ranges.

  15. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  16. Three-dimensional ground-motion simulations of earthquakes for the Hanford area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Thorne, Paul; Rohay, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of ground-motion simulations of earthquakes using three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) crustal models conducted for the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) of the Hanford facility, Washington, under the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) guidelines. The first portion of this report demonstrates that the 3D seismic velocity model for the area produces synthetic seismograms with characteristics (spectral response values, duration) that better match those of the observed recordings of local earthquakes, compared to a 1D model with horizontal layers. The second part of the report compares the response spectra of synthetics from 3D and 1D models for moment magnitude (M) 6.6–6.8 earthquakes on three nearby faults and for a dipping plane wave source meant to approximate regional S-waves from a Cascadia great earthquake. The 1D models are specific to each site used for the PSHA. The use of the 3D model produces spectral response accelerations at periods of 0.5–2.0 seconds as much as a factor of 4.5 greater than those from the 1D models for the crustal fault sources. The spectral accelerations of the 3D synthetics for the Cascadia plane-wave source are as much as a factor of 9 greater than those from the 1D models. The differences between the spectral accelerations for the 3D and 1D models are most pronounced for sites with thicker supra-basalt sediments and for stations with earthquakes on the Rattlesnake Hills fault and for the Cascadia plane-wave source.

  17. Structure and evolution of the Horse Heaven Hills in South-Central Washington. [BWIP

    SciTech Connect

    Hagood, M.C.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the structure and evolution of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift at its abrupt structural transition. This was achieved by: (1) delineating the structure within the two trends as they approach the intersection; (2) determining the timing and location of uplift within each trend; (3) comparing and contrasting Miocene vertical growth rates along folds within both trends; and (4) imposing constraints for tectonic models that pertain to the genesis of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift. These objectives can only be fulfilled if the stratigraphy of the area is first delineated. Data from this study suggest that tectonic models that directly or indirectly pertain to the origin of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift may be constrained by: (1) the predominance of monoclinal or near-monoclinal fold geometries and reverse faults along both the northwest and northeast trends; (2) preliminary data which suggest clockwise rotation has occurred along folds of both trends; (3) folds along both trends developing simultaneously and at similar rates (at least during Wanapum and Saddle Mountains time); (4) folds along the northwest trend of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift being genetically related to and forming simultaneously with at least certain folds along the Rattlesnake-Wallula structural alignment; (5) the uplift developing simultaneously with the north-northwest-trending Hog Ranch-Naneum Ridge anticline as well as other Yakima folds during at least Columbia River Basalt Group time. It is proposed that folds of both trends of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift were generated by the same tectonic processes.

  18. Kangaroo rat locomotion: design for elastic energy storage or acceleration?

    PubMed

    Biewener, A A; Blickhan, R

    1988-11-01

    Mechanical stresses (force/cross-sectional area) acting in muscles, tendons and bones of the hindlimbs of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) were calculated during steady-speed hops and vertical jumps. Stresses were determined from both high-speed ciné films (light and X-ray) and force plate recordings, as well as from in vivo tendon force recordings. Stresses in each hindlimb support element during hopping (1.6-3.1 m s-1) were generally only 33% of those acting during jumping (greater than or equal to 40 cm height): ankle extensor muscles, 80 +/- 12 (S.D.) versus 297 +/- 42 kPa; ankle extensor tendons, 7.9 +/- 1.5 versus 32.7 +/- 4.8 MPa; tibia, -29 +/- 5 versus -110 +/- 25 MPa (all values are for hopping versus jumping). The magnitude of stress in each structure during these locomotor activities was similarly matched to the strength of each element, so that a consistent safety factor to failure is achieved for the hindlimb as a whole (1.5-2.0). The large stresses during jumping were correlated with a three-fold increase in ground reaction forces exerted on the ground compared with the fastest steady hopping speeds. We conclude that, for its size, the kangaroo rat has disproportionately large hindlimb muscles, tendons and bones to withstand the large forces associated with rapid acceleration to avoid predation, which limits their ability to store and recover elastic strain energy. Middle ear morphology and behavioural observations of kangaroo rats jumping vertically to avoid predation by owls and rattlesnakes support this view.

  19. 3D Model of the McGinness Hills Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The McGinness Hills geothermal system lies in a ~8.5 km wide, north-northeast trending accommodation zone defined by east-dipping normal faults bounding the Toiyabe Range to the west and west-dipping normal faults bounding the Simpson Park Mountains to the east. Within this broad accommodation zone lies a fault step-over defined by north-northeast striking, west-dipping normal faults which step to the left at roughly the latitude of the McGinness Hills geothermal system. The McGinness Hills 3D model consists of 9 geologic units and 41 faults. The basal geologic units are metasediments of the Ordovician Valmy and Vininni Formations (undifferentiated in the model) which are intruded by Jurassic granitic rocks. Unconformably overlying is a ~100s m-thick section of Tertiary andesitic lava flows and four Oligocene-to-Miocene ash-flow tuffs: The Rattlesnake Canyon Tuff, tuff of Sutcliffe, the Cambell Creek Tuff and the Nine Hill tuff. Overlying are sequences of pre-to-syn-extensional Quaternary alluvium and post-extensional Quaternary alluvium. 10-15º eastward dip of the Tertiary stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Geothermal production comes from two west dipping normal faults in the northern limb of the step over. Injection is into west dipping faults in the southern limb of the step over. Production and injection sites are in hydrologic communication, but at a deep level, as the northwest striking fault that links the southern and northern limbs of the step-over has no permeability.

  20. Habitat associations of vertebrate prey within the controlled area study zone

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, N.V.; Brandt, C.A.; Fitzner, R.E.; Poole, L.D.

    1988-03-01

    Twelve study locations were established in nine habitat types in the vicinity of the proposed reference repository location. Eight species of small mammals were captured. Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) comprised the majority of individuals captured, followed by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), Northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides), Western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotus), Grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), Montane vole, (Microtus montanus), House mouse (Mus musculus), and the Bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea). Pocket mice were captured in all habitats sampled; deer mice were obtained in all habitats save hopsage and nearly pure cheatgrass stands. The highese capture rates were found in bitterbrush and riparian habitats. Capture sex ratios for both pocket mice and deer mice were significantly different from equality. Body weights for deer mice and pocket mice exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity across trap sites, although only the heterogeneity for pocket mice was significant. In general, body weights for both species were greater in the sagebrush habitats than elsewhere. These differences are interpreted in light of habitat evaluation methodologies. Six species of reptiles and one species of amphibian were captured. Side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were by far the most frequently captured species. The predominant snakes captured were the yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor) and the Great Basin gopher snake (Pituophis melanoleucus). Two Great Basin spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus intermontanus) captured at the Rattlesnake Springs trap site. Species diversity was quite low (Shannon-Wiener H )equals) 1.03). Side-blotched lizards were found in all habitats save near the talus on Gable Mountain and on the gravel pad site. The only other lizard species (northern sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) and short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglasii)) were obtained in bitterbrush habitat. 20 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  1. [Thomas H.Huxley--the naval doctor who became Darwin's bulldog].

    PubMed

    Hauge, A

    2000-12-10

    Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895) was an English physician and biologist who had a deep impact on the Victorian age. More than any other at his time he introduced scientifically based values. As a member of London's school board he brought science into the curriculum, encouraging school-children to ask questions and to make their own observations. Huxley came from a lower middle class family with little money. By sheer determination and hard work he managed to get a medical education at Charing Cross Hospital Medical School. He then obtained a posting on H.M.S. Rattlesnake, which gave him a chance to explore the southern seas and to study marine species. The results were published by the Royal Society of which Huxley became a member at the age of 26, and later its president. After several years of uncertainty he secured a position at the Royal School of Mines, which he transformed into the Imperial College of Science. He was a prolific scientist with wide interests, doing valuable work in paleontology, taxonomy and ethnology. Huxley wrote numerous essays on philosophy and scientific subjects. He coined the word agnostic to explain his attitude to Christian dogma. His style was clear and direct, and his essays still read very well. However, Huxley is now mostly, perhaps unfairly, remembered for his defence of Darwin's theory of evolution. In his book Evidence as to man's place in nature, Huxley, in contrast to Darwin, deals with the evolution of humans, mainly based on comparative anatomy. Huxley advocated a firmly held belief that scientific truths will have a liberating effect on the minds of men. His lectures on scientific subjects attracted large audiences of people who had not had the benefit of a higher education.

  2. Lower Cretaceous-Upper Jurassic carbonate complex of southern margin of Florida-Bahama platform in northern Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, G.O.

    1988-09-01

    Examination of core samples and cuttings from seven wells in northern Cuba has shown that the southern margin of the Florida-Bahama platform is composed largely of dolomitized carbonate mound and talus material. Dolomitization is possibly due to reflux of the highly saline waters from the South Florida evaporite basin to the north. At least four separate episodes of mound construction are present, accompanied by seaward talus material. South of the dolomitized carbonate complex, three wells penetrated a deeper water continental slope facies consisting principally of light-colored limestone with uncommon beds of shale and radiolarian limestone. Zones of shallower facies appear to be intercalated. Farther to the south beyond the scope of this study, volcanics and serpentine are reported in the literature. The northernmost wells on the island are cut by one or more high-angle thrust faults. Intense crumpling and faulting are present in the deeper water facies between the continental margin complex and the oceanic volcanic-serpentine province. The intense crumpling was probably caused as the deep-water sediments were scraped off by the subduction of an oceanic plate from the south beneath the continental crust of the Florida-Bahama platform. Certain beds in the northern Cuba carbonate complex can be correlated with the standard section in Florida, as exhibited in the Cay Sal well to the north. Three anhydrite beds in the Cayo Coco well appear to correlate with thick anhydrites in the Punto Gorda, Pumpkin Bay, and Bone Island formations. In the Collazo well to the south, a limestone-anhydrite section appears to correlate with the Pumpkin Bay. Three limestone intervals in the Blanquizal well seem to correlate with portions of the Rattlesnake Hammock, Pumpkin Bay, and Bone Island formations in the Cay Sal well.

  3. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  4. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-12-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. PMID:8553638

  5. Reduced temperature sensitivity of soil respiration after a 17-year climate change experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Bailey, V. L.; Fansler, S.; Liu, C.; Smith, J. L.; Bolton, H.

    2012-12-01

    In 1994, a reciprocal soil transplant experiment was initiated between two elevations (310 m, warmer and drier, and 844 m, cooler and wetter) on Rattlesnake Mountain in southeastern Washington, USA, testing whether the microbial and biochemical dynamics that developed under cool, moist conditions would be destabilized under hot, dry conditions. In March 2012 we resampled the original transplanted soils to study longer-term changes in microbial community composition, soil C and N dynamics, and soil physical structure. These resampled cores were randomly assigned to climate-control chambers simulating the lower or upper site climates. We measured respiration throughout a 100-day incubation, coupled with biogeochemical analyses, to examine how these soils had responded to environmental changes over 17 years. Temperature and soil moisture were the primary drivers of CO2 evolution, but transplant source and destination both exerted significant effects. Most strikingly, respiration from cores originally from the hotter, low-elevation site that spent 17 years at the upper site exhibited almost no temperature sensitivity (Q10=1.07, 13-33 °C). Cores from the upper site had more carbon (~1.1% versus 0.8%), but equivalent C:N ratios, while soils incubated in the 'upper' chamber had greater N-acetylglucosaminidase and β-glucosidase potentials. Tomographic reconstructions revealed that porosity, moisture content, grain size distribution, and organic C were highly heterogeneous, consistent with the observed macro-scale variability. These results suggest that the upper-site soils were more resilient to the 1994 transplant, but that there is a significantly altered microbial community in the transplanted soils, particularly the lower-to-upper cores, that has not recovered almost two decades after the original experiment. This raises more general questions of how current climate change will affect soil resistance to future perturbations, and how confidently we can model this

  6. Melanophoromas and iridophoromas in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Heckers, K O; Aupperle, H; Schmidt, V; Pees, M

    2012-01-01

    Chromatophoromas are tumours of pigment-producing cells of the skin and are rarely reported in reptiles. These tumours are subclassified on the basis of the type of pigment. The present study characterizes chromatophoromas arising in 26 reptiles, including six snakes, 19 lizards and a tortoise. These include the first reports of melanophoromas in a yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus), pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus spp.), southern water snake (Nerodia fasciata), veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius); the first reports of benign iridophoromas in a savannah monitor (Varanus exanthematicus), veiled chameleon and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps); and the first description of a malignant iridophoroma in a bearded dragon. Additionally, in three bearded dragons a 'mucinous' type of melanophoroma is described for the first time. Chromatophoromas generally arose from the skin of the body and head and ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.0cm in diameter. In six cases the animals were humanely destroyed immediately after diagnosis. Three further animals were humanely destroyed following recurrence of their tumour. Six of these nine reptiles had visceral metastases. Grossly, melanophoromas (n=20) were grey or black, while iridophoromas (n=6) were white in colour. Microscopically, most of the tumours were composed of spindle cells with varying pigmentation and 0-2 mitoses per 10 high power fields. Six of the 20 melanophoromas were classified as malignant due to the presence of intravascular tumour cells, visceral metastases, high pleomorphism and/or mitotic figures. Five of the six iridophoromas were classified as benign and the one malignant tumour was defined by the presence of intravascular tumour cells and visceral metastases. Immunohistochemically, melan A and S100 were coexpressed by all of the chromatophoromas. PMID:21864845

  7. The integrated simulation and assessment of the impacts of process change in biotherapeutic antibody production.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sunil; Jones, Carl; Francis, Richard; O'Donovan, Kieran; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Newcombe, Anthony; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Growing commercial pressures in the pharmaceutical industry are establishing a need for robust computer simulations of whole bioprocesses to allow rapid prediction of the effects of changes made to manufacturing operations. This paper presents an integrated process simulation that models the cGMP manufacture of the FDA-approved biotherapeutic CroFab, an IgG fragment used to treat rattlesnake envenomation (Protherics U.K. Limited, Blaenwaun, Ffostrasol, Llandysul, Wales, U.K.). Initially, the product is isolated from ovine serum by precipitation and centrifugation, before enzymatic digestion of the IgG to produce FAB and FC fragments. These are purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography to remove the FC and non-specific FAB fragments from the final venom-specific FAB product. The model was constructed in a discrete event simulation environment and used to determine the potential impact of a series of changes to the process, such as increasing the step efficiencies or volumes of chromatographic matrices, upon product yields and process times. The study indicated that the overall FAB yield was particularly sensitive to changes in the digestive and affinity chromatographic step efficiencies, which have a predicted 30% greater impact on process FAB yield than do the precipitation or centrifugation stages. The study showed that increasing the volume of affinity matrix has a negligible impact upon total process time. Although results such as these would require experimental verification within the physical constraints of the process and the facility, the model predictions are still useful in allowing rapid "what-if" scenario analysis of the likely impacts of process changes within such an integrated production process.

  8. Listening to data from the 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Kilb, D. L.; Shelly, D. R.; Enescu, B.

    2011-12-01

    It is important for seismologists to effectively convey information about catastrophic earthquakes, such as the magnitude 9.0 earthquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, to general audience who may not necessarily be well-versed in the language of earthquake seismology. Given recent technological advances, previous approaches of using "snapshot" static images to represent earthquake data is now becoming obsolete, and the favored venue to explain complex wave propagation inside the solid earth and interactions among earthquakes is now visualizations that include auditory information. Here, we convert seismic data into visualizations that include sounds, the latter being a term known as 'audification', or continuous 'sonification'. By combining seismic auditory and visual information, static "snapshots" of earthquake data come to life, allowing pitch and amplitude changes to be heard in sync with viewed frequency changes in the seismograms and associated spectragrams. In addition, these visual and auditory media allow the viewer to relate earthquake generated seismic signals to familiar sounds such as thunder, popcorn popping, rattlesnakes, firecrackers, etc. We present a free software package that uses simple MATLAB tools and Apple Inc's QuickTime Pro to automatically convert seismic data into auditory movies. We focus on examples of seismic data from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. These examples range from near-field strong motion recordings that demonstrate the complex source process of the mainshock and early aftershocks, to far-field broadband recordings that capture remotely triggered deep tremor and shallow earthquakes. We envision audification of seismic data, which is geared toward a broad range of audiences, will be increasingly used to convey information about notable earthquakes and research frontiers in earthquake seismology (tremor, dynamic triggering, etc). Our overarching goal is that sharing our new visualization tool will foster an interest in seismology, not

  9. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  10. Modification of the platelet binding domain of von Willebrand Factor (vWF)

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, C.; Mascelli, M.A.; Karl, D.W.; Kirby, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Bovine vWF has been modified with /sup 125/I-Bolton Hunter reagent (I/sup */-BHR) with a concomittant loss of its platelet agglutinating activity and a reduction in its ability to bind to platelets. BHR labels free alpha and epsilon amino groups. The I/sup */-BHR-vWF migrated as a single band of M/sub r/ = 210kD on reduced SDS polyacrylamide gels. Its multimeric composition on SDS agarose gels was identical to unlabeled vWF. Incorporation of an average of 1.2 moles of I/sup */-BHR/subunit vWF at pH 8.5 caused a 50% loss of platelet agglutinating activity. This represents less than 2% of the 118 lysine residues in each subunit vWF. No I/sup */-BHR was released after treatment with 1M hydroxylamine which would cleave O-acylated tyrosines. Digestion of both unlabeled and I/sup */-BHR-vWF with Protease 1, a metalloprotease from the venom of western diamondback rattlesnake, produces two fragments which have an M/sub r/ of 250kD and 200kD. The 250kD fragment contains the platelet binding site and is composed of 3 peptide chains with M/sub r/ 125kD, 78kD and 45kD. Gels of the 250kD fragment from I/sup */-BHR-vWF revealed radioactivity predominantly in the 125kD fragment, suggesting that the platelet binding site resides on the 125kD fragment.

  11. Spatiotemporal links between fire, climate and resource redistribution in chaparral ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, E. J.; Schimel, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Roberts, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Chaparral soil properties are reorganized over time and space by intertwining biotic and physical feedback mechanisms. Interactions between fire and hydrology in particular can drastically enhance the cycling of nutrients and alter their retention rates at multiple scales. In order to study watershed responses to high intensity landscape fire, we conducted on-the-ground sampling of soil nitrogen dynamics in the Mission Canyon and Rattlesnake Canyon Watersheds that span the foothills of the Santa Ynez Mountains in Santa Barbara County, California. Large portions of these watersheds burned intensively in the November 2008 Tea Fire and/or the May 2009 Jesusita Fire. Fifteen burned and three unburned 15 m by 15 m plots were established in November 2009 and were monitored on a monthly basis through June 2011. In each plot four in-situ field-incubation cores were installed to provide an index of overall nitrogen availability. Bulk density, water holding capacity, volumetric water content, total carbon, total nitrogen, soil pH, exchangeable nitrate and ammonium, and microbial carbon and nitrogen were quantified for all soil samples. We also used AVIRIS imagery to determine burn severities for each plot using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and Differenced NBR (dNBR) indices. Initial results show that burn severities were high across all sampling locations. Soil samples collected prior to the onset of rain were relatively enriched in ammonium, and low in nitrate. Following the season's first rain event, ammonium concentrations decreased while nitrate levels simultaneously increased. These results are consistent with previous studies showing that ammonium tends become more concentrated following fire. Monthly variation in ammonium and nitrate concentrations within cores, as well as leached ammonium and nitrate captured by resin discs is being compared over both years to nitrogen export from streams to better understand the controls over sediment and nitrogen flux within

  12. Soil Respiration and Bacterial Structure and Function after 17 Years of a Reciprocal Soil Transplant Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Liu, Chongxuan; McCue, Lee Ann; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on soil organic matter—its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response—remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampled the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5°C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1 precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. These results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in surprising ways, even as shorter- and

  13. Soil Respiration and Bacterial Structure and Function after 17 Years of a Reciprocal Soil Transplant Experiment.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Liu, Chongxuan; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeffrey; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on soil organic matter-its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response-remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampled the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5°C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1 precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. These results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in surprising ways, even as shorter- and

  14. Peripheral Sensitization Increases Opioid Receptor Expression and Activation by Crotalphine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids. PMID:24594607

  15. Peripheral sensitization increases opioid receptor expression and activation by crotalphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids.

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar and Magnetic Investigations of Phreatomagmatic Tephra Rings in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S.; Macorps, E.; Charbonnier, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be a valuable geophysical tool for studying near-surface volcanic stratigraphy in areas where outcrops do not exist. Likewise, high resolution ground-based magnetic surveys have the potential to reveal significant features not exposed at the surface, especially in the case of small-volume basaltic volcanoes. Here we present the results of geophysical studies to investigate the eruptive history of deposits surrounding phreatomagmatic eruption sites, and why some may become magnetized. Magnetic surveys undertaken at basaltic phreatomagmatic sites suggest that some tuff rings carry no discernable magnetic signature, while others reveal slight to significant magnetic anomalies. Material deposited in the tephra ring could become magnetized through Thermal Remanent Magnetization - emplacement of magnetically susceptible material above 560° C. In this case tephra layers would need to be deposited in sufficient thickness to retain high temperatures long enough for the magnetic material to orient itself to the magnetic field. To test this hypothesis we examine GPR data collected at Rattlesnake Maar in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona, and we will collect GPR data at two other tephra rings in the same volcanic field. The first site, Sugarloaf Mountain, is an active quarry with excellent exposures of tephra ring stratigraphy. Although this site is rhyolitic in composition and not suitable for magnetic study, it is an excellent site to determine how well GPR reflectors correlate with actual stratigraphy. The second site, an un-named phreatomagmatic ring nearby, will then be studied by GPR and walking magnetic survey. GPR reflectors will be compared to depositional patterns defined in previous studies and correlated with magnetic survey results to determine if a correlation can be made - little to no magnetization where only thin units are recorded by GPR, and positive magnetization where thick units are recorded.

  17. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  18. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-03-21

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

  19. Paleogeography of Paleocene Wind River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.

    1986-08-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin was deposited in response to Laramide deformation between south-verging faults to the north (Owl Creek and Casper thrusts) and south (Wind River and Granite thrusts). Exposures in this asymmetric basin include a lower fluvial member overlain by the Waltman (lacustrine) and time-equivalent Shotgun (fluvial) members in the northeast and a single fluvial unit in the southeast. In the northeast, low sinuosity, ribbon channel sandstones (northwest paleoflow, about 40 m thick) are overlain by sheet-sand deposits interspersed with channel sandstones (southwest paleoflow, about 700 m thick), which are in turn overlain by the Waltman Member. The basal channel sands are wide (about 100 m perpendicular to flow), thick (5 to 10 m), and trough cross-bedded. The sheet-sand deposits consist of upward-fixing cycles 1 to 10 m thick. These facies are interpreted to be the product of longitudinal drainage flowing parallel to the Casper thrust, overlain by fan-delta sediments prograding perpendicular to the thrust. Palynology suggests a nearly complete Paleocene record for this sequence. To the south along the Rattlesnake Hills, trough cross-bedded sheet sandstones and gravel channel deposits (northward, 140 m thick) are overlain by layered mudstones and siltstones (180 m thick). The top of these high-energy braided-stream deposits and overlying low-energy delta-plain sediments are equivalent in age to the Waltman Member. A topographic low paralleled the Casper arch thrust during the earliest Paleocene. Prograding alluvial-fan sedimentation gradually shifted this topographic low away from the Casper thrust. Southern exposures record drainage toward, and ponding in, the topographic low.

  20. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  1. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the seismic activity in and around the Hanford Site during Fiscal year 2003. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 1,336 triggers during fiscal year 2003. Of these triggers, 590 were earthquakes. One hundred and one earthquakes of the 590 earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 35 (34.6%) occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 29 (28.7%) were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 37 (36.7%) were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 48 (47%) earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 4 (4%) earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 49 (49%) were classified as random events. During the third and fourth quarters, an earthquake swarm consisting of 27 earthquakes occurred on the south limb of Rattlesnake Mountain. The earthquakes are centered over the northwest extension of the Horse Heaven Hills anticline and probably occur near the interface of the Columbia River Basalt Group and pre-basalt sediments.

  2. [Thomas H.Huxley--the naval doctor who became Darwin's bulldog].

    PubMed

    Hauge, A

    2000-12-10

    Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895) was an English physician and biologist who had a deep impact on the Victorian age. More than any other at his time he introduced scientifically based values. As a member of London's school board he brought science into the curriculum, encouraging school-children to ask questions and to make their own observations. Huxley came from a lower middle class family with little money. By sheer determination and hard work he managed to get a medical education at Charing Cross Hospital Medical School. He then obtained a posting on H.M.S. Rattlesnake, which gave him a chance to explore the southern seas and to study marine species. The results were published by the Royal Society of which Huxley became a member at the age of 26, and later its president. After several years of uncertainty he secured a position at the Royal School of Mines, which he transformed into the Imperial College of Science. He was a prolific scientist with wide interests, doing valuable work in paleontology, taxonomy and ethnology. Huxley wrote numerous essays on philosophy and scientific subjects. He coined the word agnostic to explain his attitude to Christian dogma. His style was clear and direct, and his essays still read very well. However, Huxley is now mostly, perhaps unfairly, remembered for his defence of Darwin's theory of evolution. In his book Evidence as to man's place in nature, Huxley, in contrast to Darwin, deals with the evolution of humans, mainly based on comparative anatomy. Huxley advocated a firmly held belief that scientific truths will have a liberating effect on the minds of men. His lectures on scientific subjects attracted large audiences of people who had not had the benefit of a higher education. PMID:11215943

  3. Soil Respiration and Bacterial Structure and Function after 17 Years of a Reciprocal Soil Transplant Experiment.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Liu, Chongxuan; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeffrey; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on soil organic matter-its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response-remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampled the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5°C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1 precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. These results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in surprising ways, even as shorter- and

  4. Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects. Results The venom gland transcriptomes of 8 Costa Rican taxa from 5 genera (Crotalus, Bothrops, Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Bothriechis) of pitvipers were investigated using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 100,394 out of 330,010 masked reads produced significant hits in the available databases. 5.165,220 nucleotides (8.27%) were masked by RepeatMasker, the vast majority of which corresponding to class I (retroelements) and class II (DNA transposons) mobile elements. BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes, of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. Strong discrepancies between the transcriptome-computed and the proteome-gathered toxin compositions were obvious at first sight. Although the reasons underlaying this discrepancy are elusive, since no clear trend within or between species is apparent, the data indicate that individual mRNA species may be translationally controlled in a species-dependent manner. The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. Reads encoding ORF regions of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins were uniquely found in Bothriechis schlegelii and B. lateralis transcriptomes, suggesting a genus-specific recruitment event during the early-Middle Miocene. A transcriptome-based cladogram supports the large divergence between A. mexicanus

  5. Nucleic acid programmed polymeric nanomaterials for biological communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Anthony Michael

    A number of nucleic acid-polymer conjugates were synthesized, resulting in amphiphilic polymer-nucleic acid conjugates with the capability to self-assemble into a range of discrete nanoscale architectures. These nanomaterials, termed DNA-polymer amphiphile nanoparticles (DPA NPs), were studied with respect to their enzymatic processing by both endo- and exonucleases and further deployed as antisense genetic regulatory elements in live cultured human cells. DPA NPs were designed to act as substrates for both non sequence-specific exonucleases and a sequence-specific endonuclease. In all cases, nucleic acids arranged in the corona of spherical nanoparticles exhibited increased resistance to nucleolytic cleavage as compared to native single- or double-stranded analogues. For the exonucleases studied (Exonuclease III from E. Coli and phosphodiesterase I from Crotalus adamanteus), nanoparticle display retarded enzymatic processing by roughly a factor of five. For the endonuclease studied (Nt.CviPII), nanoparticle display prohibited virtually all enzyme activity on oligonucleotides within the nanoparticle shell. To test the ability of these materials to regulate mRNA levels in live cultured human cells, LPA (LNA-polymer amphiphile) NPs were designed to be perfectly complementary to a 20-base region of mRNA encoding the anti-apoptosis protein survivin. In this study two key observations were made. The first observation is that packaging LNA into spherical micellar nanoparticles serves to dramatically enhance cellular uptake of LNA based on flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy data. The second observation is that LPA NPs are capable of regulating mRNA levels by what is hypothesized to be activation of target mRNA for catalytic RNase H-mediated degradation. These materials represent a unique class of DNA delivery system capable of rendering nucleic acids with natural backbone chemistry resistant to nuclease degradation and further serving to deliver DNA into cells to

  6. The Influence of the Wallula Fault and Pasco Basin on the Tectonic Framework of South-Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB) in eastern Washington manifests broad-scale regional deformation of the Cascadia backarc occurring prior, during, and after emplacement of Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). CRBG basalts are strongly magnetic, and anticlines and faults of the YFTB are well displayed in high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. Gravity anomalies, on the other hand, reflect in part the thickness of pre-Miocene sedimentary rocks beneath CRBG. The broad width of the YFTB in central Washington narrows eastward toward Idaho, with anticlines and faults merging into the narrow Wallula fault zone (WFZ). The WFZ is one element of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), an alignment of topographic and structural elements extending from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington to the Wallowa Mountains in Oregon. The tectonic relevance of the OWL, particularly the degree to which dextral shear has contributed to its evolution, is still a matter of discussion. The Pasco basin, a late Cenozoic sedimentary basin atop CRBG, is associated with a broad gravity low. The thickness of post-CRBG sediments is insufficient to account for the entire gravity anomaly, suggesting the presence of a sediment-filled basin beneath CRBG. YFTB evolution and Quaternary deformation appear to have been influenced by the Pasco basin, as evidenced by potential-field anomalies. Northernmost faults of the YFTB (Frenchman Hills, Saddle Mountains, and Umtanum Ridge) abruptly terminate as they cross the western margin of the basin. Derivative maps (e.g., maximum horizontal gradient and tilt derivative) calculated from high-resolution magnetic anomalies show no evidence of these faults beyond their mapped extent in this area. Southern faults of the YFTB (Rattlesnake Mountain, Horse Heaven Hills, and Columbia Hills) in central Washington are on strike with the Pasco basin but veer abruptly southeastward at its southwestern margin to merge into the WFZ. Northwest

  7. Reduced Microbial Resilience after a 17-Year Climate Gradient Transplant Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V. L.; Fansler, S.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Liu, C.; Smith, J. L.; Bolton, H.

    2012-12-01

    In 1994, a reciprocal soil transplant experiment was initiated between two elevations (310 m, warmer and drier, and 844 m, cooler and wetter) on Rattlesnake Mountain in southeastern Washington, USA. The original experiment sought to detect whether the microbial and biochemical dynamics developed under cool, moist conditions would be destabilized under hot, dry conditions. In March 2012 we resampled the original transplanted soils, control cores transplanted in situ, and native soils from each elevation, to study longer-term changes in microbial community composition, soil C and N dynamics, and soil physical structure. These resampled cores were randomly assigned to climate-control chambers simulating the diurnal conditions at either the lower or upper sites. We monitored respiration over 100 days, and couple these data with biogeochemical analyses conducted at time-zero, and at the end of the experiment, to examine the consequences of long-term climate change on microbial C cycling under new environmental stresses. All soil types incubated respired more C while in the simulated hotter, drier climate compared with the cooler, moister condition, except for those that had been transplanted from the lower elevation to the upper elevation in 1994, which actually respired less when returned to this, their original climate. These soils also exhibited almost no temperature sensitivity (Q10=1.07, 13-33 °C). Soils incubated in the cooler, moister chamber had greater N-acetylglucosaminidase and β-glucosidase potentials, suggesting that while loss of C as carbon dioxide respiration is reduced under these conditions, internal cycling of C may be enhanced. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was used to fingerprint the bacterial community of all of these soils to identify possible high-level shifts in community composition in the 0-5, 5-10, and deeper depths in these soils. These results suggest that climate change has significantly altered the C dynamics in these soils, and

  8. RELAP-7 Development Updates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Gleicher, Frederick Nathan; DeHart, Mark David; Zou, Ling; Andrs, David; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2015-09-01

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear systems safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory, and is the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series. RELAP-7 development began in 2011 to support the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical methods, and physical models in order to provide capabilities needed for the RISMC methodology and to support nuclear power safety analysis. The code is being developed based on Idaho National Laboratory’s modern scientific software development framework – MOOSE (the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). The initial development goal of the RELAP-7 approach focused primarily on the development of an implicit algorithm capable of strong (nonlinear) coupling of the dependent hydrodynamic variables contained in the 1-D/2-D flow models with the various 0-D system reactor components that compose various boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs). During Fiscal Year (FY) 2015, the RELAP-7 code has been further improved with expanded capability to support boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor NPPs analysis. The accumulator model has been developed. The code has also been coupled with other MOOSE-based applications such as neutronics code RattleSnake and fuel performance code BISON to perform multiphysics analysis. A major design requirement for the implicit algorithm in RELAP-7 is that it is capable of second-order discretization accuracy in both space and time, which eliminates the traditional first-order approximation errors. The second-order temporal is achieved by a second-order backward temporal difference, and the one-dimensional second-order accurate spatial discretization

  9. INL Results for Phases I and III of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Javier Ortensi; Sonat Sen; Hans Hammer

    2013-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Methods Core Simulation group led the construction of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR) 350 MW benchmark for comparing and evaluating prismatic VHTR analysis codes. The benchmark is sponsored by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and the project will yield a set of reference steady-state, transient, and lattice depletion problems that can be used by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and vendors to assess their code suits. The Methods group is responsible for defining the benchmark specifications, leading the data collection and comparison activities, and chairing the annual technical workshops. This report summarizes the latest INL results for Phase I (steady state) and Phase III (lattice depletion) of the benchmark. The INSTANT, Pronghorn and RattleSnake codes were used for the standalone core neutronics modeling of Exercise 1, and the results obtained from these codes are compared in Section 4. Exercise 2 of Phase I requires the standalone steady-state thermal fluids modeling of the MHTGR-350 design, and the results for the systems code RELAP5-3D are discussed in Section 5. The coupled neutronics and thermal fluids steady-state solution for Exercise 3 are reported in Section 6, utilizing the newly developed Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for INL Code System (PHISICS)/RELAP5-3D code suit. Finally, the lattice depletion models and results obtained for Phase III are compared in Section 7. The MHTGR-350 benchmark proved to be a challenging simulation set of problems to model accurately, and even with the simplifications introduced in the benchmark specification this activity is an important step in the code-to-code verification of modern prismatic VHTR codes. A final OECD/NEA comparison report will compare the Phase I and III results

  10. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  11. New determination of the shape of the Seattle basin, Washington from gravity and magnetic data: Implications for seismic ground motion and crustal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. L.; Waters, K.; Dragovich, J. D.; Blakely, R. J.; Wells, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The greater Seattle urban area overlies a large basin subject to amplification of seismic waves during earthquakes. The depth and shape of the Seattle basin was last determined via inversion of regional gravity data in 2001; since that time, we have collected over 2000 new gravity data points across the basin. Two dimensional modeling of these gravity data with existing aeromagnetic data reveal a boundary between the two major basement rock types, the basaltic Crescent Formation (a part of Siletzia) to the west and the metamorphic western mélange belt to the east, passing beneath the middle of the basin. Our most surprising results include a westward dip for this boundary across the Seattle uplift, as opposed to an eastward dip across the Kingston arch, and steeply-dipping, deeply-rooted slices of non-magnetic Crescent included within Siletzia under the Puget lowland. We explain these results with one tectonic story: amalgamation of Siletzia with North America during the Eocene involved subduction-related duplication in a fold and thrust belt style within the Crescent and its likely obduction over the western mélange belt near the Seattle uplift. The new data also show local gravity gradients that correlate with steeply-dipping, neotectonic faults that traverse the eastern end of the Seattle basin. Prominent examples include the northwest-striking, right-lateral Rattlesnake and Whidbey Island fault systems, as well as a possible new fault striking northwest through the Lake Sammamish/Bellevue area. A simple assessment of gravity anomalies for the depth of the basin suggest it is deeper and wider to the east of Seattle than to the west. However, including the basement boundary in the gravity inversion and utilizing measured rock densities which show the western mélange belt is less dense than the Crescent Formation, we find a basement/sediment contact that is a consistent depth at a large scale across much of the basin and even shallows to the east in some areas

  12. Age, geochemical composition, and distribution of Oligocene ignimbrites in the northern Sierra Nevada, California: Implications for landscape morphology, elevation, and drainage divide geography of the Nevadaplano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassel, E.J.; Calvert, A.T.; Graham, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the topographic and landscape evolution of the Cenozoic Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range, we combine geochemical and isotopic age correlations with palaeoaltimetry data from widely distributed ignimbrites in the northern Sierra Nevada, California. A sequence of Oligocene rhyolitic ignimbrites is preserved across the modern crest of the range and into the western foothills. Using trace and rare earth element geochemical analyses of volcanic glass, these deposits have been correlated to ignimbrites described and isotopically dated in the Walker Lane fault zone and in central Nevada (Henry et al., 2004, Geologic map of the Dogskin mountain quadrangle; Washoe County, Nevada; Faulds et al., 2005, Geology, v. 33, p. 505-508). Ignimbrite deposits were sampled within the northern Sierra Nevada and western Nevada, and four distinct geochemical compositions were identified. The majority of samples from within the northern Sierra Nevada have compositions similar to the tuffs of Axehandle Canyon or Rattlesnake Canyon, both likely sourced from the same caldera complex in either the Clan Alpine Mountains or the Stillwater Range, or to the tuff of Campbell Creek, sourced from the Desatoya Mountains caldera. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from these samples of 31.2, 30.9, and 28.7Ma, respectively, support these correlations. Based on an Oligocene palinspastic reconstruction of the region, our results show that ignimbrites travelled over 200km from their source calderas across what is now the crest of the Sierra Nevada, and that during that time, no drainage divide existed between the ignimbrite source calderas in central Nevada and sample locations 200km to the west. Palaeoaltimetry data from Sierra Nevada ignimbrites, based on the hydrogen isotopic composition of hydration water in glass, reflect the effect of a steep western slope on precipitation and indicate that the area had elevations similar to the present-day range. These combined

  13. Interactive effects of climate, hydrology and fire on nitrogen retention and export in coastal California chaparral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, E. J.; Schimel, J.; Tague, C.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is a major restructuring force in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, inducing nutrient redistribution that is frequently invoked as a driver of ecosystem recovery. Fire regimes are expected to change with climate warming and associated droughts. To study watershed responses to high severity landscape fire, we combined ground-based sampling of soil nitrogen dynamics with modeling in two burned, chaparral-dominated watersheds. These two watersheds, Mission Canyon and Rattlesnake Canyon, span the foothills of the Santa Ynez Mountains in Santa Barbara County, California, and large portions of both watersheds burned in November 2008 and/or May 2009. We established fifteen burned and three unburned plots in November 2009 and monitored them on a monthly basis through June 2011 for a variety of ecosystem properties including water content, soil and foliar carbon and nitrogen, soil pH, exchangeable inorganic nitrogen, and microbial biomass. We then used the GIS-based hydro-biogeochemical model, Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) to to evaluate the effects of fire season, climate and hydrology on biogeochemical fluxes across the fire-scarred watersheds. Fires were imposed at the beginning and end of the growing season under various climates. Soil samples collected prior to the onset of rain were relatively enriched in ammonium, presumably due to ash residue deposition. Storm events then stimulated nitrification and pulses of mineralization. Ephemeral herbs established quickly following the first post-fire rain events, thereby maintaining ecosystem nutrient capital as shrubs gradually returned. Nitrate production was significantly enhanced in burned chaparral perhaps because fires elevated soil pH, which can both raise the solubility of soil organic matter, and stimulate nitrification, or perhaps because fires released nitrifying bacteria from competition with vegetation for ammonium. Overall however, nitrogen retention and export varied among plots

  14. New Insights to the Mid Miocene Calc-alkaline Lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics, NE Oregon Surrounded by the Coeval Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strawberry Volcanics (SV) of NE Oregon were distributed over 3,400 km2 during the mid-Miocene and comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The predominant composition of this volcanic suite is calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, although tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province surround the SV. Here we will discuss new ages and geochemical data, and present a new geologic map and stratigraphy of the SV. The SV are emplaced on top of pre-Tertiary accreted terranes of the Blue Mountain Province, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and older Tertiary volcanic rocks thought to be mostly Oligocene of age. Massive rhyolites (~300 m thick) are exposed mainly along the western flank and underlie the intermediate composition lavas. In the southern portion of this study area, alkali basaltic lavas, thought to be late Miocene to early Pliocene in age, erupted and overlie the SV. In addition, several regional ignimbrites reach into the area. The 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff and the 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff also overlie the SV. The 15.9-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff is mid-Miocene, and clear stratigraphic relationships are found in areas where the tuff is intercalated between thick SV lava flows. All of the basalts of the SV are TH and are dominated by phenocryst-poor (≤2%) lithologies. These basalts have an ophitic texture dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine (often weathered to iddingsite). Basalts and basaltic andesites have olivine Fo #'s ranging from 44 at the rims (where weathered to iddingsite) and as high as 88 at cores. Pyroxene Mg #'s range from 65 to 85. Andesites of the SV are sub-alkaline, and like the basalts, are exceedingly phenocryst-poor (≤3%) with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and lesser pyroxene and olivine, which occasionally occur as crystal clots of ~1-3 mm instead of single crystals. In addition, minimal

  15. Geophysical Investigation of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, Hanford Site, Washington (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Weaver, C. S.; Wells, R. E.; Sherrod, B. L.; Rohay, A.; Wicks, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic anomalies provide insights into possible tectonic causes of a swarm of over ~1500 shallow (<2 km deep) microearthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford Site, Washington. The swarm was concentrated in a 2 km2 area at Wooded Island in the Columbia River, about 16 km northeast of the Rattlesnake Mountain fault and 17 km south of the Gable Mountain fault. The largest earthquake was MW 3.0 and had first motion consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of surface deformation observable in satellite interferometry, interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a shallow, west-northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) [Wicks et al., in press]. A linear magnetic anomaly over the Yakima Ridge anticline 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond exposed CRBG, suggesting that anticlinal structures also extend southeastward in the subsurface. This interpretation is consistent with the depth to the top of CRBG as determined from closely spaced boreholes in this area [Thorne et al., 2006], which also define a subsurface ridge extending southeastward from Yakima Ridge, coincident with the magnetic anomaly, to about longitude 119°26'W. The CRBG ridge seen in borehole data does not obviously continue east of this longitude, but the magnetic anomaly continues discontinuously all the way to the Columbia River and beyond. The source of the anomaly is entirely concealed by Quaternary sediments, but subtle hints of surface uplift are seen in 7.5-minute topographic maps and in a discontinuous pattern of late Pleistocene Missoula flood deposits exposed through younger dune sands. The positive magnetic anomaly passes through the southern part of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, where it strikes parallel to subtle patterns in the distribution of epicenters and is coincident with a northeast-side-up reverse fault interpreted from

  16. Spatial database of mining-related features in 2001 at selected phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Kayser, Helen Z.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the spatial database, PHOSMINE01, and the processes used to delineate mining-related features (active and inactive/historical) in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The spatial data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, for many of the closed or inactive mines the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study, three active phosphate mines - Enoch Valley (nearing closure), Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon - and 16 inactive (or historical) phosphate mines - Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Dry Valley, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Approximately 6,000 hc (15,000 ac), or 60 km2 (23 mi2) of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage. Spatial data for the inactive mines is current because no major changes have occurred; however, the spatial data for active mines were derived from digital maps prepared in early 2001 and therefore recent activity is not included. The inactive Gay Mine has the largest total area of disturbance, 1,900 hc (4,700 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda Mine with 610 hc (1,500 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon Mine, the largest of the active mines with about 550 hc (1,400 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (141) from various industry maps were reduced to 15 types or features based on a generic classification system used for this study: mine pit; backfilled mine pit; waste rock dump; adit and waste rock dump; ore stockpile; topsoil stockpile; tailings or tailings pond; sediment

  17. Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a description of data and processes used to produce a spatial database that delineates mining-related features in areas of historic and active phosphate mining in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features at many of the closed or inactive mines. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study. A total of 5,728 hc (14,154 ac), or more than 57 km2 (22 mi2), of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage of the core of the southeast Idaho phosphate resource area. The study includes 4 active phosphate mines—Dry Valley, Enoch Valley, Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon—and 15 historic phosphate mines—Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Spatial data on the inactive historic mines is relatively up-to-date; however, spatially described areas for active mines are based on digital maps prepared in early 1999. The inactive Gay mine has the largest total area of disturbance: 1,917 hc (4,736 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda mine with 607 hc (1,504 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon mine, the largest of the active mines with 497 hc (1,228 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (approximately 80) were reduced to 13 types or features used in this study—adit and pit, backfilled mine pit, facilities, mine pit, ore stockpile, railroad, road, sediment catchment, tailings or tailings pond, topsoil stockpile, water reservoir, and disturbed

  18. Yakima Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity : Progress Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Gayeski, Nick

    2002-09-30

    Sample collections in project-years two and three (2001 & 2002) proceeded as planned. Twenty-eight (28) sites were sampled in 2001 between August 14 and September 12. Sites included two (2) mainstem Yakima River sites between Selah Gap and Union Gap, three (3) Yakima river sites upstream of Roza Dam, and three (3) mainstem Naches River sites between Cliffdell and the Wapatox Canal. The other twenty sites were tributary sites, including the Cle Elum River below Cle Elum Lake, lower Bumping river, and the American River at Pleasant Valley. Six (6) tributaries of second to fourth order were sampled at or near the same location at which they were sampled in 2000, as were two sites on the upper mainstem Yakima and one on the mainstem Naches. Thirty-three (33) sites were sampled in 2002 between August 12 and September 13. These included one (1) mainstem Yakima River site between Selah Gap and Union Gap, four (4) sites in the mainstem Yakima upstream of Roza Dam, and two (2) sites on the mainstem Naches between Naches and Cliffdell. The other twenty-six (26) sites were tributary sites, including one (1) site on the lower Tieton river, three (3) sites on the Bumping River (two downstream of Bumping Reservoir and one upstream), and two sites on the American River. Four (4) other sites were on smaller tributaries to the mainstem Naches, three (3) of which had been sampled in one (1) of the two preceding years, and one (1) (upper Rattlesnake Creek) that has been sampled in all three (3) years. Two (2) tributary sites in the upper Ahtanum subbasin were sampled, one (1) of which was sampled in 2000 and the other of which has been sampled in all three (3) years. One tributary (lower Wenas Creek) to the mainstem Yakima upstream of Selah Gap and downstream of Roza Dam was sampled. This was also sampled in 2001. Thirteen (13) sites were sampled in tributaries to the upper Yakima River, including two in the Teanaway subbasin one of which was sampled in 2000 and the other of which

  19. Dextral Shear on the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament, Washington--Evidence from High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Anomalies and Implications for Cascadia Seismic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Weaver, C. S.; Wells, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Olympic-Wallowa physiographic lineament (OWL) extends northwestward ~500 km from northeastern Oregon to Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The tectonic relevance of the OWL, particularly the degree to which horizontal shear has contributed to its evolution, is an important element in assessing kinematic connections between the Cascadia backarc and forearc, and the consequent seismic hazard it poses to the region. Past workers have come to rather different conclusions, some suggesting sinistral, others suggesting dextral, and still others suggesting no horizontal displacement on the OWL. North-northwest-striking dikes of the 8.5 Ma Ice Harbor Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group are offset and disrupted by the Wallula fault zone (WFZ), a 45-km-long segment of the OWL southeast of Kennewick. Although mostly concealed by young deposits, Ice Harbor dikes are clearly delineated in high-resolution aeromagnetic anomalies as near-vertical intrusions, affording an opportunity to estimate the sense and amount of offset along this part of the OWL. Aided by various derivative products calculated from magnetic anomalies, we interpret five piercing points from single-dike anomalies intersecting the Wallula fault (the northernmost strand of the WFZ), together indicating an average of 1.72 km of right-lateral offset on this single strand. Right-lateral offset across the entire WFZ is 6.9 km, an average rate of 0.8 mm/y since 8.5 Ma. We cannot rule out the possibility that tectonic offsets are only apparent because the injection process itself was offset during emplacement. However, consistent right-lateral offsets are observed in stream drainages along the OWL, supporting our magnetic anomaly interpretations. Aerial photography and airborne LiDAR surveys show seven offset streams along a fault scarp on the northeastern slope of Rattlesnake Mountain, located along the OWL about 70 km northwest of the WFZ. Incised in Pleistocene deposits, these stream offsets average about

  20. Results of test drilling in the Basalt aquifer near Fallon, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, Douglas K.

    2002-01-01

    Drilling of two test holes into the Fallon basalt aquifer commenced August 14, 2001. The basalt aquifer is located beneath the Carson Desert, near Fallon, Nevada, and is the sole source of drinking water for the City of Fallon, the Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, and the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe. Basalt comprising the aquifer is exposed at Rattlesnake Hill, an eroded volcanic cone, about 1 mile northeast of Fallon, and the remainder is buried beneath sediments deposited by the Carson River and ancient Lake Lahontan to depths of 600 feet near its edges (fig. 1). The basalt-aquifer system is a mushroom-shaped body of highly permeable volcanic rock. Viewed from above, the lateral extent of the basalt body is oval-shaped, about 4-miles wide and 10-miles long (fig. 1). Drilling was part of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Reclamation, and NAS Fallon. The study was started because of concern about the continued viability of the basalt-aquifer system as a source of municipal water supply. Increased pumping from about 1,700 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) in the 1970?s to over 3,000 acre-ft/yr in the late 1990?s has caused water levels in the basalt to decline as much as 12 feet (fig. 2). During this same time period, water pumped from the aquifer at NAS Fallon and the City of Fallon wells showed that concentrations of dissolved chloride increased, although chloride concentrations were well within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) drinking-water standards; at this rate of increase, it would take decades to exceed the present standard (Maurer and Welch, 2001, p. 46). Concentrations of arsenic in the aquifer are about 0.1 milligrams per liter (mg/L), exceeding the drinking-water standard of 0.01 mg/L, but show no apparent change over time (Maurer and Welch, 2001, p. 10 and 48; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001). Increasing concentrations of chloride may be caused by increased pumping, that induces

  1. Projecting climate effects on birds and reptiles of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    are presently considered candidates for prospective endangerment. We project range losses of over 40 percent, from its current extent of occurrence, for the plateau striped whiptail, Arizona black rattlesnake, and common lesser earless lizard. Currently, these reptile species are thought to be common or at least locally abundant throughout their ranges. The total contribution of plants in each distribution model was very small, but models that contained at least one plant always outperformed models with only physical variables (climatic or landscape). The magnitude of change in projected range increased further into the future, especially when a plant was in the model. Among bird species, those that had the strongest association with a landscape feature during the breeding season, such as terrain ruggedness and insolation, exhibited the smallest contractions in projected breeding range in the future. In contrast, bird species that had weak associations with landscape features, but strong climatic associations, suffered the greatest breeding range contractions. Thus, landscape effects appeared to buffer some of the negative effects of climate change for some species. Among bird species, magnitude of change in projected breeding range was positively related to the annual average temperature of their baseline distribution, thus species with the warmest breeding ranges exhibited the greatest changes in future breeding ranges. This pattern was not evident for reptiles, but might exist if additional species were included in the model. Our results provide managers with a series of projected range maps that will enable scientists, concerned citizens, and wildlife managers to identify what the potential effects of climate change will be on bird and reptile distributions in the Western United States. We hope that our results can be used in proactive ways to mitigate some of the potential effects of climate change on selected species.

  2. Venomous snakebites.

    PubMed

    Adukauskienė, Dalia; Varanauskienė, Eglė; Adukauskaitė, Agnė

    2011-01-01

    More than 5 million people are bitten by venomous snakes annually and more than 100,000 of them die. In Europe, one person dies due to envenomation every 3 years. There is only one venomous snake species in Lithuania--the common adder (Vipera berus)--which belongs to the Viperidae family; however, there are some exotic poisonous snakes in the zoos and private collections, such as those belonging to the Elapidae family (cobras, mambas, coral snakes, etc.) and the Crotalidae subfamily of the Viperidae family (pit vipers, such as rattlesnakes). Snake venom can be classified into hemotoxic, neurotoxic, necrotoxic, cardiotoxic, and nephrotoxic according to the different predominant effects depending on the family (i.e., venom of Crotalidae and Viperidae snakes is more hemotoxic and necrotoxic, whereas venom of Elapidae family is mainly neurotoxic). The intoxication degree is estimated according to the appearance of these symptoms: 1) no intoxication ("dry" bite); 2) mild intoxication (local edema and pain); 3) moderate intoxication (pain, edema spreading out of the bite zone, and systemic signs); 4) severe intoxication (shock, severe coagulopathy, and massive edemas). This topic is relevant because people tend to make major mistakes providing first aid (e.g., mouth suction, wound incision, and application of ice or heat). Therefore, this article presents the essential tips on how first aid should be performed properly according to the "Guidelines for the Management of Snake-Bites" by the World Health Organization (2010). Firstly, the victim should be reassured. Rings or other things must be removed preventing constriction of the swelling limb. Airway/breathing must be maintained. The bitten limb should be immobilized and kept below heart level to prevent venom absorption and systemic spread. Usage of pressure bandage is controversial since people usually apply it improperly. Incision, mouth suction, or excision should not be performed; neither a tourniquet nor ice or

  3. Ophiolites and Continental Margins of the Mesozoic Western U.S. Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Y.

    2001-12-01

    The Mesozoic tectonic history of the western U.S. Cordillera records evidence for multiple episodes of accretionary and collisional orogenic events and orogen-parallel strike-slip faulting. Paleozoic-Jurassic volcanic arc complexes and subduction zone assemblages extending from Mexico to Canada represent an East-Pacific magmatic arc system and an accretionary-type orogen evolved along the North American continental margin. Discontinuous exposures of Paleozoic upper mantle rocks and ophiolitic units structurally beneath this magmatic arc system are remnants of the Panthalassan oceanic lithosphere, which was consumed beneath the North American continent. Pieces of this subducted Panthalassan oceanic lithosphere that underwent high-P metamorphism are locally exposed in the Sierra Nevada foothills (e.g. Feather River Peridotite) indicating that they were subsequently (during the Jurassic) educted in an oblique convergent zone along the continental margin. This west-facing continental margin arc evolved in a broad graben system during much of the Jurassic as a result of extension in the upper plate, keeping pace with slab rollback of the east-dipping subduction zone. Lower to Middle Jurassic volcanoplutonic complexes underlain by an Upper Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic polygenetic ophiolitic basement currently extend from Baja California-western Mexico through the Sierra-Klamath terranes to Stikinia-Intermontane Superterranes in Canada and represent an archipelago of an east-facing ensimatic arc terrane that developed west and outboard of the North American continental margin arc. The Smartville, Great Valley, and Coast Range ophiolites (S-GV-CR) in northern California are part of this ensimatic terrane and represent the island arc, arc basement, and back-arc tectonic settings, respectively. The oceanic Josephine-Rogue-Chetco-Rattlesnake-Hayfork tectonostratigraphic units in the Klamath Mountains constitute a west-facing island arc system in this ensimatic terrane as a

  4. Permo-Triassic Accretionary Subduction Complex, southwestern Klamath Mountains, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, James E.

    1982-05-01

    The western Paleozoic and Triassic subprovince of the southwestern Klamath Mountains has previously been subdivided into three relatively steeply dipping, fault-bounded, litho-tectonic terranes. In descending structural order from east to west, these terranes are (1) the North Fork terrane, (2) the Hayfork terrane, and (3) the Rattlesnake Creek terrane. In a general fashion each of these terranes exhibits its own particular set of lithologic, structural, and temporal relationships that sets it apart from adjacent terranes. This threefold subdivision of the southwestern Klamath Mountains needs modification only as far as the Hayfork terrane is concerned. The Hayfork terrane is actually a composite terrane consisting of a structurally lower assemblage of predominantly basaltic metavolcaniclastic rocks and a structurally higher assemblage of chaotically disrupted metasedimentary rocks, juxtaposed along a previously unrecognized major regional thrust. These two lithologically and structurally distinct assemblages have been elevated to the status of a terrane in this report and are herein referred to as the western Hayfork terrane (structurally lower metavolcaniclastic assemblage) and the eastern Hayfork terrane (structurally overlying metasedimentary assemblage), and the fault which juxtaposes these two terranes is herein referred to as the Wilson Point thrust. This paper will focus on the eastern Hayfork and North Fork terranes and their relationship to other roughly coeval tectonic elements of the Klamath Mountain province. The eastern Hayfork terrane is best described as a tectono-stratigraphic unit consisting of a complex chert, argillite, and quartzose sandstone melange and broken formation that contains radiolarian cherts as young as Late Triassic in age. Scattered throughout this terrane are various types of blocks, some of which are clearly exotic. Metachert is by far the most common type of metamorphic block, and these blocks appear to have been derived via

  5. Unraveling the volcanic and post-volcanic history at Upsal Hogback, Fallon, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E.; Cousens, B.

    2013-12-01

    Upsal Hogback is a < 25 ka phreatomagmatic volcanic center situated near Fallon, Nevada. The volcano neighbors two other young volcanic complexes: the Holocene Soda Lakes maars and Rattlesnake Hill, a ~ 1 Ma volcanic neck (Shevenell et al., 2005). These volcanoes lie on the transition between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range province, as well as on the edge of the Walker Lane. Upsal Hogback includes two to four vents, fewer than mapped by Morrison (1964), and can be divided into north (one vent) and south (three potential vents) complexes. The vents all produced phreatomagmatic eruptions resulting in tuff rings composed primarily of coarse, indurated lapilli tuffs with abundant volcanic bombs. Ash tuffs are infrequent, as are structures such as crossbedding. The bombs and lapilli include olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts. The basalts are alkaline and have intraplate-type normalized incompatible element patterns. Both complexes are enriched in LREE compared to HREE, though the north complex overall has lower concentrations of the REE. The flat HREE pattern is indicative of spinel peridotite mantle source. Epsilon Nd values for the north complex are +2.50+/-0.02 and for the south complex are +2.83+/-0.02. The magmas appear to have an enriched asthenospheric mantle source. Bomb samples show that eruptions from the two complexes are geochemically distinguishable both in major and trace elements, suggesting that the two complexes tapped different magma types during eruptions that likely occurred at slightly different times. The proximity of Upsal Hogback to Fallon makes constraining its age important to characterize the hazard to the city. It lies above the Wono ash bed, dated at 25,000 years (Fultz et al., 1983), and tufa deposited over the edifice is dated at 11,100 +/- 100 and 8,600 +/- 200 years (Benson et al., 1992; Broecker and Kaufman, 1965). 40Ar/39Ar total gas age by Shevenell et al. (2005) dated the volcano at 0.60 +/- 0.09 Ma, but with no plateau

  6. Molecular Analysis of Endolithic Microbial Communities in Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Meo, C. A.; Giovannoni, S.; Fisk, M.

    2002-12-01

    Terrestrial and marine volcanic glasses become mineralogically and chemically altered, and in many cases this alteration has been attributed to microbial activity. We have used molecular techniques to study the resident microbial communities from three different volcanic environments that may be responsible for this crustal alteration. Total microbial DNA was extracted from rhyolite glass of the 7 million year old Rattlesnake Tuff in eastern Oregon. The DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bacterial primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rDNA was cloned and screened with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 89 total clones screened, 46 belonged to 13 different clone families containing two or more members, while 43 clones were unique. Sequences of eight clones representing the most dominant clone families in the library were 92 to 97% similar to soil bacterial species. In a separate study, young pillow basalts (<20 yrs old) from six different sites along the ridge axis at 9°N, East Pacific Rise were examined for microbial life. Total DNA was extracted from the basalt glass and screened for the presence of both bacteria and archaea using the PCR. Repeated attempts with different primer sets yielded no bacterial genes, whereas archaeal genes were quite abundant. A genetic fingerprinting technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was used to compare the archaeal community compositions among the six different basalts. Filtered deep-sea water samples (~15 L) were examined in parallel to identify any overlap between rock- and seawater-associated archaea. The six rock community profiles were quite similar to each other, and the background water communities were also similar, respectively. Both the rock and water communities shared the same dominant peak. To identify the T-RFLP peaks corresponding to the individual members of the rock and seawater communities, clone libraries of the archaeal

  7. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    for Waves. 16-10 Interference of Waves. 16-11 Phasors. 16-12 Standing Waves. 16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 17 Waves--II. How can an emperor penguin .nd its mate among thousands of huddled penguins? 17-1 What Is Physics? 17-2 Sound Waves. 17-3 The Speed of Sound. 17-4 Traveling Sound Waves. 17-5 Interference. 17-6 Intensity and Sound Level. 17-7 Sources of Musical Sound. 17-8 Beats. 17-9 The Doppler Effect. 17-10 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. How can a dead rattlesnake detect and strike a reaching hand? 18-1 What Is Physics?. 18-2 Temperature. 18-3 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. 18-4 Measuring Temperature. 18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales. 18-6 Thermal Expansion. 18-7 Temperature and Heat. 18-8 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids. 18-9 A Closer Look at Heat and Work. 18-10 The First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-11 Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-12 Heat Transfer Mechanisms. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases. How can cooling steam inside a railroad tank car cause the car to be crushed? 19-1 What Is Physics? 19-2 Avogadro's Number. 19-3 Ideal Gases. 19-4 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed. 19-5 Translational Kinetic Energy. 19-6 Mean Free Path. 19-7 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds. 19-8 The Molar Speci.c Heats of an Ideal Gas. 19-9 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Speci.c Heats. 19-10 A Hint of Quantum Theory. 19-11 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Why is the popping of popcorn irreversible? 20-1 What Is Physics? 20-2 Irreversible Processes and Entropy. 20-3 Change in Entropy. 20-4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics. 20-5 Entropy in the Real World: Engines. 20-6 Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators. 20-7 The Ef.ciencies of Real

  8. Comparison and continuous estimates of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in selected Kansas streams, May 1999 through April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2003-01-01

    linear regression models were developed for estimating E. coli densities on the basis of measured fecal coliform densities for six individual and six groups of surface-water sites. Regression models developed for the six individual surface-water sites and six groups of sites explain at least 89 percent of the variability in E. coli densities. The EC/FC ratios and regression models are site specific and make it possible to convert historic fecal coliform bacteria data to estimated E. coli densities for the selected sites. The EC/FC ratios can be used to estimate E. coli for any range of historical fecal coliform densities, and in some cases with less error than the regression models. The basin- and statewide regression models explained at least 93 percent of the variance and best represent the sites where a majority of the data used to develop the models were collected (Kansas and Little Arkansas Basins). Comparison of the current (2003) KDHE geometric-mean primary contact criterion for fecal coliform bacteria of 200 col/100 mL to the 2002 USEPA recommended geometric-mean criterion of 126 col/100 mL for E. coli results in an EC/FC ratio of 0.63. The geometric-mean EC/FC ratio for all sites except Rattlesnake Creek (site 21) is 0.77, indicating that considerably more than 63 percent of the fecal coliform is E. coli. This potentially could lead to more exceedances of the recommended E. coli criterion, where the water now meets the current (2003) 200-col/100 mL fecal coliform criterion. In this report, turbidity was found to be a reliable estimator of bacteria densities. Regression models are provided for estimating fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria densities using continuous turbidity measurements. Prediction intervals also are provided to show the uncertainty associated with using the regression models. Eighty percent of all measured sample densities and individual turbidity-based estimates from the regression models were in agreement as exceedi

  9. Bacterial signaling and motility: Sure bets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhulin, Igor B

    2008-01-01

    The IX International Conference on Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction (BLAST IX) was held from 14 to 19 January 2007 in Laughlin, NV, a town in the Mojave Desert on the Nevada-Arizona border near old Route 66 and along the banks of the Colorado River. This area is a home to rattlesnakes, sagebrush, abandoned gold mines, and compulsive gamblers. What better venue could scientists possibly dream of for a professional meeting? So there they were, about 190 scientists gathered in the Aquarius Casino Resort, the largest hotel and casino in Laughlin, discussing the latest advances in the field. Aside from a brief excursion to an abandoned gold mine and a dinner cruise on the Colorado River, the scientists focused on nothing but their data and hypotheses, in spirited arguments and rebuttals, and outlined their visions and future plans in a friendly and open environment. The BLAST IX program was dense, with nearly 50 talks and over 90 posters. For that reason, this meeting report will not attempt to be comprehensive; instead it will first provide general background information on the central topics of the meeting and then highlight only a few talks that were of special interest to us and hopefully to the wider scientific community. We will also attempt to articulate some of the future directions or perspectives to the best of our abilities. The best known and understood bacterial motility mechanism is swimming powered by flagella. The rotation of bacterial flagella drives this form of bacterial movement in an aqueous environment. A bacterial flagellum consists of a helical filament attached to the cell body through a complex structure known as the hook-basal body, which drives flagellar rotation. The essential components of the basal body are the MotA-MotB motor-stator proteins bound to the cytoplasmic membrane. These stator proteins interact with proteins that comprise the supramembrane and cytoplasmic rings, which are components of the motor imbedded in the

  10. The Impossible Siblings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    roughly the size of a large city. Perhaps the most astonishing result is the fact that the two components have a shape close to the one predicted by the French scientist Edouard Roche in 1849 for self-gravitating, rotating fluid objects orbiting each other and tidally locked. Of course, the asteroids are not gaseous nor liquids, they are solids, but their internal structure must be so loose that their bodies can readjust themselves due to the gravitational influence of the companion. The scientists were also able to derive the density of the objects, only a quarter higher than the density of water. This means the asteroids are very porous, having 30 percent empty space, and thereby suggesting a rubble-pile structure. This structure could explain why it was easier for the asteroids to reach equilibrium shapes, while being so small. "Despite this intensive study, the origin of this unique doublet still remains a mystery," says Descamps. "The formation of such a large double system is an improbable event and represents a formidable challenge to theory. One possibility is that a parent body was spun up so much that it took the shape of an apple core, then split into two similar-sized pieces." More Information This work is reported in a paper published in the journal Icarus ("Figure of the double Asteroid 90 Antiope from adaptive optics and lightcurve observations", by P. Descamps et al.). The team is composed of P. Descamps, F. Marchis, F. Vachier, F. Colas, J. Berthier, D. Hestroffer, R. Viera-Martins, and M. Birlan (Observatoire de Paris, France), T. Michalowski and M. Polinska (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland), M. Assafin (Observatorio do Valongo/UFRJ, Brazil), P.B. Dunckel (Rattlesnake Creek Observatory, USA), W. Pych (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw, Poland), J.-P. Teng-Chuen-Yu, A. Peyrot, B. Payet, J. Dorseuil, Y. Léonie, and T. Dijoux (Makes Observatory, Réunion Island, France). F. Marchis is also at the University of California at

  11. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    skilled diver's high catapult in springboard diving? 15-1 What Is Physics? 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 15-6 Pendulums. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 16. Waves--I. How can a submarine wreck be located by distant seismic stations? 16-1 What Is Physics? 16-2 Types of Waves. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String. 16-8 The Wave Equation. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition for Waves. 16-10 Interference of Waves. 16-11 Phasors. 16-12 Standing Waves. 16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 17. Waves--II. How can an emperor penguin .nd its mate among thousands of huddled penguins? 17-1 What Is Physics? 17-2 Sound Waves. 17-3 The Speed of Sound. 17-4 Traveling Sound Waves. 17-5 Interference. 17-6 Intensity and Sound Level. 17-7 Sources of Musical Sound. 17-8 Beats. 17-9 The Doppler Effect. 17-10 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 18. Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. How can a dead rattlesnake detect and strike a reaching hand? 18-1 What Is Physics? 18-2 Temperature. 18-3 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. 18-4 Measuring Temperature. 18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales. 18-6 Thermal Expansion. 18-7 Temperature and Heat. 18-8 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids. 18-9 A Closer Look at Heat and Work. 18-10 The First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-11 Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-12 Heat Transfer Mechanisms. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 19. The Kinetic Theory of Gases. How can cooling