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Sample records for rattlesnakes crotalus durissus

  1. The heart of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V; Nyengaard, Jens R; Wang, Tobias

    2010-09-01

    Most anatomical and physiological studies of the sauropsid heart have focused on species with extraordinary physiologies, and detailed anatomical descriptions of hearts from sauropsids with more common physiologies are therefore warranted. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the cardiac anatomy of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus). The cardiovascular physiology of this species has been investigated in a number of studies, whereas only a few cursory studies exist on the cardiac anatomy of viperid snakes. The heart of C. durissus is typically squamate in many regards. Both atria are thin-walled sacs, and the right atrium is the most voluminous. The single ventricle contains three major septa; the vertical septum, the muscular ridge (MR), and the bulbuslamelle. These partially divide the ventricle into three chambers; the systemic and left-sided cavum arteriosum (CA), the pulmonary and right-sided cavum pulmonale, and the medial cavum venosum (CV). The MR is the most developed septum, and several additional and minor septa are found within the CA and CV. An extraordinary thin cortical layer encloses the ventricle, and it is irrigated by a remarkably rich arborization of coronary arteries. Previous studies show high degrees of blood flow separation in the Crotalus heart, and this can only be explained by the coordinated actions of the septa and the prominent atrioventricular valves.

  2. Compartment syndrome after South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation.

    PubMed

    Bucaretchi, F; De Capitani, E M; Hyslop, S; Mello, S M; Fernandes, C B; Bergo, F; Nascimento, F B P

    2014-07-01

    In order to report the outcome of a patient who developed compartment syndrome after South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation, confirmed by subfascial pressure measurement and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 63-year-old male was admitted 1 h after being bitten on the right elbow by a "large" snake, which was not brought for identification. Physical and laboratory features upon admission revealed two fang marks, local tense swelling, paresthesia, intense local pain, hypertension, coagulopathy, and CK = 1530 U/L (RV < 170 U/L). The case was initially treated with bothropic antivenom (80 mL, intravenously), with no improvement. Evolution within 13-14 h post-bite revealed generalized myalgia, muscle weakness, palpebral ptosis, and severe rhabdomyolysis (CK = 126,160 U/L) compatible with envenoming by C. d. terrificus. The patient was then treated with crotalic antivenom (200 mL, intravenously), fluid replacement, and urine alkalinization. Twenty-four-hour post-bite MRI showed marked muscular edema in the anterior compartment of the right forearm, with a high subfascial pressure (40 mmHg) being detected 1 h later. ELISA of a blood sample obtained upon admission, before antivenom infusion, revealed a high serum concentration of C. d. terrificus venom. No fasciotomy was performed and the patient was discharged seven days later without sequelae. Snakebite by C. d. terrificus with subfascial venom injection may lead to increased intracompartmental pressure.

  3. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  4. The Evolutionary Implications of Hemipenial Morphology of Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurent, 1768) (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae).

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcovan; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Pissinatti, Lorenzo; Rodrigues, Renata Lopes; Rojas-Moscoso, Julio Alejandro; Cogo, José Carlos; Metze, Konradin; Antunes, Edson; Nahoum, César; Mónica, Fabíola Z; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Most amniotes vertebrates have an intromittent organ to deliver semen. The reptile Sphenodon and most birds lost the ancestral penis and developed a cloaca-cloaca mating. Known as hemipenises, the copulatory organ of Squamata shows unique features between the amniotes intromittent organ. They are the only paired intromittent organs across amniotes and are fully inverted and encapsulated in the tail when not in use. The histology and ultrastructure of the hemipenes of Crotalus durissus rattlesnake is described as the evolutionary implications of the main features discussed. The organization of hemipenis of Crotalus durissus terrificus in two concentric corpora cavernosa is similar to other Squamata but differ markedly from the organization of the penis found in crocodilians, testudinata, birds and mammals. Based on the available data, the penis of the ancestral amniotes was made of connective tissue and the incorporation of smooth muscle in the framework of the sinusoids occurred independently in mammals and Crotalus durissus. The propulsor action of the muscle retractor penis basalis was confirmed and therefore the named should be changed to musculus hemipenis propulsor.The retractor penis magnus found in Squamata has no homology to the retractor penis of mammals, although both are responsible for the retraction of the copulatory organ.

  5. The Evolutionary Implications of Hemipenial Morphology of Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurent, 1768) (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae)

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Marcovan; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Pissinatti, Lorenzo; Rodrigues, Renata Lopes; Rojas-Moscoso, Julio Alejandro; Cogo, José Carlos; Metze, Konradin; Antunes, Edson; Nahoum, César; Mónica, Fabíola Z.; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Most amniotes vertebrates have an intromittent organ to deliver semen. The reptile Sphenodon and most birds lost the ancestral penis and developed a cloaca-cloaca mating. Known as hemipenises, the copulatory organ of Squamata shows unique features between the amniotes intromittent organ. They are the only paired intromittent organs across amniotes and are fully inverted and encapsulated in the tail when not in use. The histology and ultrastructure of the hemipenes of Crotalus durissus rattlesnake is described as the evolutionary implications of the main features discussed. The organization of hemipenis of Crotalus durissus terrificus in two concentric corpora cavernosa is similar to other Squamata but differ markedly from the organization of the penis found in crocodilians, testudinata, birds and mammals. Based on the available data, the penis of the ancestral amniotes was made of connective tissue and the incorporation of smooth muscle in the framework of the sinusoids occurred independently in mammals and Crotalus durissus. The propulsor action of the muscle retractor penis basalis was confirmed and therefore the named should be changed to musculus hemipenis propulsor.The retractor penis magnus found in Squamata has no homology to the retractor penis of mammals, although both are responsible for the retraction of the copulatory organ. PMID:23840551

  6. Cardiovascular actions of rattlesnake bradykinin ([Val1,Thr6]bradykinin) in the anesthetized South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Taylor, Edwin W; Conlon, J Michael; Wang, Tobias

    2005-02-01

    Incubation of heat-denatured plasma from the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox with trypsin generated a bradykinin (BK) that contained two amino acid substitutions (Arg1 --> Val and Ser6 --> Thr) compared with mammalian BK. Bolus intra-arterial injections of synthetic rattlesnake BK (0.01-10 nmol/kg) into the anesthetized rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, produced a pronounced and concentration-dependent increase in systemic vascular conductance (Gsys). This caused a fall in systemic arterial blood pressure (Psys) and an increase in blood flow. Heart rate and stroke volume also increased. This primary response was followed by a significant rise in Psys and pronounced tachycardia (secondary response). Pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester reduced the NK-induced systemic vasodilatation, indicating that the effect is mediated through increased NO synthesis. The tachycardia associated with the late primary and secondary response to BK was abolished with propranolol and the systemic vasodilatation produced in the primary phase was also significantly attenuated by pretreatment, indicating that the responses are caused, at least in part, by release of cathecholamines and subsequent stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. In contrast, the pulmonary circulation was relatively unresponsive to BK.

  7. The adrenergic regulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Taylor, Edwin W; Wang, Tobias

    2007-11-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through alpha-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (G(sys)) more than doubled), while injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent alpha-adrenergic, and a weaker beta-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused a small but non-significant pulmonary vasodilatation and there was tendency of reducing this dilatation after either phentolamine or propranolol. Injection of phentolamine increased pulmonary conductance (G(pul)), while injection of propranolol produced a small pulmonary constriction, indicating that alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic receptors contribute to a basal regulation of the pulmonary vasculature. Our results suggest adrenergic regulation of the systemic vasculature, rather than the pulmonary, may be an important factor in the development of intracardiac shunts.

  8. Massive Muscular Infection by a Sarcocystis Species in a South American Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus).

    PubMed

    Roberts, J F; Wellehan, J F X; Weisman, J L; Rush, M; Childress, A L; Lindsay, David S

    2015-06-01

    Massive numbers of sarcocysts of a previously undescribed species of Sarcocystis were observed in the skeletal muscles throughout the body of an adult, female South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). Examination of tissue sections by light microscopy demonstrated that sarcocysts were present in 20 to 40% of muscle fibers from 5 sampled locations. Sarcocysts were not present in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or other organs. Sarcocysts were 0.05-0.15 mm wide, had variable length depending on the viewed orientation and size of the muscle fiber, and had a sarcocyst wall less than 1-μm thick. Sarcocysts were subdivided by septa and had central degeneration in older sarcocysts. Host induced secondary encapsulation or an inflammatory response was not present. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall was Type I, with a parasitophorous membrane of approximately 100 nanometers in width arranged in an undulating pattern and intermittently folded inward in a branching pattern. The sarcocysts contained metrocytes in different stages of development and mature bradyzoites. The nucleic acid sequence from a section of the 18S small subunit rRNA gene was most closely related to S. mucosa that uses marsupials as intermediate hosts and has an unknown definitive host. This is apparently the third report of muscular Sarcocystis infection in snakes and is the first to describe the ultrastructure of the sarcocysts and use sequencing methods to aid in identification.

  9. Blood oxygen affinity increases during digestion in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Rafael P; Fuga, Adriana; Micheli-Campbell, Mariana A; Carvalho, José E; Andrade, Denis V

    2015-08-01

    Digesting snakes experience massive increases in metabolism that can last for many days and are accompanied by adjustments in the oxygen transport cascade. Accordingly, we examined the oxygen-binding properties of the blood in the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) during fasting and 24 and 48h after the snakes have ingested a rodent meal corresponding to 15% (±2%) of its own body mass. In general, oxygen-hemoglobin (Hb-O2) affinity was significantly increased 24h post-feeding, and then returned toward fasting values within 48h post-feeding. Content of organic phosphates ([NTP] and [NTP]/[Hb]), hemoglobin cooperativity (Hill's n), and Bohr Effect (ΔlogP50/ΔpH) were not affected by feeding. The postprandial increase in Hb-O2 affinity in the South American rattlesnake can be almost entirely ascribed by the moderate alkaline tide that follows meal ingestion. In general, digesting snakes were able to regulate blood metabolites at quite constant levels (e.g., plasma osmolality, lactate, glucose, and total protein levels). The level of circulating lipids, however, was considerably increased, which may be related to their mobilization, since lipids are known to be incorporated by the enterocytes after snakes have fed. In conclusion, our results indicate that the exceptional metabolic increment exhibited by C. d. terrificus during meal digestion is entirely supported by the aerobic pathways and that among the attending cardiorespiratory adjustments, pulmonary Hb-O2 loading is likely improved due to the increment in blood O2 affinity.

  10. Effect of a biostimulatory homeopathic complex on venom production in captive rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Santa Rita, Paula Helena; Cleveland, Herbert Patric Kellermann; Pereira, Paula Laryssa Souza; Corrêa, William; Van Onselen, Valter Joost; Corrêa Filho, Ruy Alberto Caetano; Teixeira, Maria Araújo

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two administration methods of a biostimulatory homeopathic complex (Convert H(®)) on the production of fresh and lyophilized venom of rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) under intensive captivity conditions. Sixty snakes were subjected to treatment following a randomized block design. The effects of sex and size were controlled for. Thirteen consecutive extractions were performed over 21 months. The first factor considered in the experiment was the origin of mice used as prey: a conventional colony (A1) or the Convert H colony (A2; mice receiving the homeopathic complex in water at 1%). The type of water given to snakes was the second factor: pure (B1) or amended with 5% of Convert H(®) (B2). The experiment was structured in a factorial 2 × 2 design combining mouse and water types (A1B1, A1B2, A2B1, and A2B2). No consistent treatment effects on fresh venom production (mL) were observed when the experimental groups were compared with controls (A1B1). However, production of lyophilized venom (mg) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in A2B2 animals than in controls in eight of 13 extractions performed, and also in aggregate. The results revealed that production of lyophilized venom, measured over multiple extractions, can be increased by administering the homeopathic complex simultaneously to rattlesnakes and prey. Copyright © 2016 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracing an invasion: landbridges, refugia, and the phylogeography of the Neotropical rattlesnake (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Julia E; Quijada-Mascareñas, J Adrian; Pook, Catharine E; Salomão, Maria da Graça; Thorpe, Roger S

    2005-04-01

    Abstract Pleistocene fragmentation of the Amazonian rainforest has been hypothesized to be a major cause of Neotropical speciation and diversity. However, the role and even the reality of Pleistocene forest refugia have attracted much scepticism. In Amazonia, previous phylogeographical studies have focused mostly on organisms found in the forests themselves, and generally found speciation events to have predated the Pleistocene. However, molecular studies of open-formation taxa found both north and south of the Amazonian forests, probably because of vicariance resulting from expansion of the rainforests, may provide novel insights into the age of continuous forest cover across the Amazon basin. Here, we analyse three mitochondrial genes to infer the phylogeography of one such trans-Amazonian vicariant, the Neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), which occupies primarily seasonal formations from Mexico to Argentina, but avoids the rainforests of Central and tropical South America. The phylogeographical pattern is consistent with gradual dispersal along the Central American Isthmus, followed by more rapid dispersal into and across South America after the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama. Low sequence divergence between populations from north and south of the Amazon rainforest is consistent with mid-Pleistocene divergence, approximately 1.1 million years ago (Ma). This suggests that the Amazonian rainforests must have become fragmented or at least shrunk considerably during that period, lending support to the Pleistocene refugia theory as an important cause of distribution patterns, if not necessarily speciation, in Amazonian forest organisms. These results highlight the potential of nonforest species to contribute to an understanding of the history of the Amazonian rainforests themselves.

  12. Vagal tone regulates cardiac shunts during activity and at low temperatures in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Filogonio, Renato; Wang, Tobias; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Leite, Cléo A C

    2016-12-01

    The undivided ventricle of non-crocodilian reptiles allows for intracardiac admixture of oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood returning via the atria from the systemic circuit and the lungs. The distribution of blood flow between the systemic and pulmonary circuits may vary, based on differences between systemic and pulmonary vascular conductances. The South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus, has a single pulmonary artery, innervated by the left vagus. Activity in this nerve controls pulmonary conductance so that left vagotomy abolishes this control. Experimental left vagotomy to abolish cardiac shunting had no effect on long-term survival and failed to identify a functional role in determining metabolic rate, growth or resistance to food deprivation. Accordingly, the present investigation sought to evaluate the extent to which cardiac shunt patterns are actively controlled during changes in body temperature and activity levels. We compared hemodynamic parameters between intact and left-vagotomized rattlesnakes held at different temperatures and subjected to enforced physical activity. Increased temperature and enforced activity raised heart rate, cardiac output, pulmonary and systemic blood flow in both groups, but net cardiac shunt was reversed in the vagotomized group at lower temperatures. We conclude that vagal control of pulmonary conductance is an active mechanism regulating cardiac shunts in C. durissus.

  13. Structure of the polypeptide crotamine from the Brazilian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Monika A; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Georgieva, Dessislava; Sankaran, Banumathi; Murakami, Mario T; Arni, Raghuvir K; Betzel, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The crystal structure of the myotoxic, cell-penetrating, basic polypeptide crotamine isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus has been determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion techniques and refined at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure reveals distinct cationic and hydrophobic surface regions that are located on opposite sides of the molecule. This surface-charge distribution indicates its possible mode of interaction with negatively charged phospholipids and other molecular targets to account for its diverse pharmacological activities. Although the sequence identity between crotamine and human β-defensins is low, the three-dimensional structures of these functionally related peptides are similar. Since crotamine is a leading member of a large family of myotoxic peptides, its structure will provide a basis for the design of novel cell-penetrating molecules.

  14. Individual venom variability in the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Irma; Guerrero, Belsy; Maria Salazar, Ana; Girón, Maria E; Pérez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2007-08-01

    Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venoms from different Venezuelan regions, showed biochemical and hemostatic variations. Fibrino(geno)lytic, hemorrhagic and procoagulant activities and gel-filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE profiles were analyzed. Differences were observed in fibrinolytic activity: kallikrein-like amidolytic activity was highest in venoms of Santa Teresa, and Margarita. Lagunetica and Carrizales venoms showed the maximum fibrin lysis. The highest hemorrhagic activity was seen in Lagunetica venom. Margarita had the lowest LD(50) of 0.18. Lagunetica, Carrizales and Anzoátegui induced a rapid degradation of fibrinogen alpha chains and slower degradation on beta chains, which could possibly due to a higher content of alpha fibrinogenases in these venoms. This fibrinogenolytic activity is decreased by metalloprotease inhibitors. All venoms, except Carrizales, presented thrombin-like activity. Anzoátegui, Carrizales and Lagunetica, in which fibrinolytic activity was present, showed the largest concentration of high molecular mass components. These results represent a new finding, not previously described, of fibrinolytic activity in South American C. durissus venoms. Santa Teresa and Margarita had fibrinolytic activity, and lack of hemorrhagic activity, representing an important finding in Venezuelan venoms since the description of a fibrinolytic molecule without hemorrhagic activity can have valuable potential in thrombolytic therapy.

  15. The role of nitric oxide in the regulation of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature of the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Taylor, Edwin W; Wang, Tobias

    2005-04-01

    The functional role of nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus. Bolus, intra-arterial injections of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) caused a significant systemic vasodilatation resulting in a reduction in systemic resistance (Rsys). This response was accompanied by a significant decrease in systemic pressure and a rise in systemic blood flow. Pulmonary resistance (Rpul) remained constant while pulmonary pressure (Ppul) and pulmonary blood flow (Qpul) decreased. Injection of L-Arginine (L-Arg) produced a similar response to SNP in the systemic circulation, inducing an immediate systemic vasodilatation, while Rpul was unaffected. Blockade of NO synthesis via the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, did not affect haemodynamic variables in the systemic circulation, indicating a small contribution of NO to the basal regulation of systemic vascular resistance. Similarly, Rpul and Qpul remained unchanged, although there was a significant rise in Ppul. Via injection of SNP, this study clearly demonstrates that NO causes a systemic vasodilatation in the rattlesnake, indicating that NO may contribute in the regulation of systemic vascular resistance. In contrast, the pulmonary vasculature seems far less responsive to NO.

  16. Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Cid, Pedro; de la Torre, Pilar; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Dos Santos, M Cristina; Borges, Adolfo; Bremo, Adolfo; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2010-01-01

    We report a comparative venomic and antivenomic characterization of the venoms of newborn and adult specimens of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus, and of the subspecies cumanensis, durissus, ruruima, and terrificus of South American Crotalus durissus. Neonate and adult C. simus share about 50% of their venom proteome. The venom proteome of 6-week-old C. simus is predominantly made of the neurotoxic heterodimeric phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) crotoxin) (55.9%) and serine proteinases (36%), whereas snake venom Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (SVMPs), exclusively of class PIII, represent only 2% of the total venom proteins. In marked contrast, venom from adult C. simus comprises toxins from 7 protein families. A large proportion (71.7%) of these toxins are SVMPs, two-thirds of which belong to the PIII class. These toxin profiles correlate well with the overall biochemical and pharmacological features of venoms from adult (hemorrhagic) and newborn (neurotoxic) C. simus specimens. The venoms of the South American Crotalus subspecies belong to one of two distinct phenotypes. C. d. cumanensis exhibits high levels of SVMPs and low lethal potency (LD(50)), whereas C. d. subspecies terrificus, ruruima, and durissus have low SVMP activity and high neurotoxicity to mice. Their overall toxin compositions explain the outcome of envenomation by these species. Further, in all C. simus and C. durissus venoms, the concentration of neurotoxins (crotoxin and crotamine) is directly related with lethal activity, whereas lethality and metalloproteinase activity show an inverse relationship. The similar venom toxin profiles of newborn C. simus and adult C. durissus terrificus, ruruima, and durissus subspecies strongly suggests that the South American taxa have retained juvenile venom characteristics in the adult form (paedomorphism) along their North-South stepping-stone dispersal. The driving force behind paedomorphism is often competition or predation pressure. The increased

  17. Inhibition of crotoxin binding to synaptosomes by a receptor-like protein from Crotalus durissus terrificus (the South American rattlesnake).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Roberta Márcia Marques; Oliveira, Leida Calegário; Estevão-Costa, Maria Inácia; de Lima, Maria Elena; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

    2005-11-10

    Crotoxin (Ctx) is a potent neurotoxin of the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (the South American rattlesnake). Ctx is a heterodimer composed of CB, a toxic PLA(2) subunit, and CA, a non-toxic and non-enzymatic subunit, that potentiates the neurotoxicity of CB in vivo. The deleterious action of Ctx upon C. d. terrificus snakes themselves is known to be prevented by a PLA(2) inhibitor (CNF) present in their blood serum. CNF acts by replacing CA in Ctx, thus forming a new stable complex CNF-CB. This complex no longer interacts with the target receptor (TR) to deliver CB to cause its lethal effect. Furthermore, CNF-CB seems to be reminiscent of the interaction Ctx-TR at the pre-synaptic site. In the present work, the binding competition between rat brain synaptosomes (TR) and CNF for Ctx was investigated. Radiolabeled Ctx, made of CA and one isoform of CB (CA-(125)ICB(2)), was used as ligand. The competition by unlabeled Ctx was taken as a reference. The potency of CNF as a competitor was evaluated under different incubation conditions with varying time scale addition of reagents (CA-(125)ICB(2), synaptosomes and CA-CB(2) or CNF). CNF was able to inhibit the binding of the toxin to synaptosomes as well as to partially displace the toxin already bound to its membrane target. The mechanisms of competition involved were discussed and a previous schematic model of interactions between Ctx, TR and CNF was updated.

  18. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits 3H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Kattah, L S; Santoro, M M; Diniz, C R; De Lima, M E

    2000-09-01

    We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of 3H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0. 03-1 microM) and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased 3H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 microM) the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on 3H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits 3H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 +/- 5 nM). We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  19. Intraspecific variation in the venoms of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus).

    PubMed

    Francischetti, I M; Gombarovits, M E; Valenzuela, J G; Carlini, C R; Guimarães, J A

    2000-08-01

    The venom of eight individual Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in addition to pooled venom from Butantan Institute, were compared. Snakes were captured in distinct locations, some of them 600 km apart: Conselheiro Lafaiete, Entre Rios de Minas, Itauna, Itapecerica, Lavras, Patos de Minas, Paracatu, and Santo Antonio do Amparo. The crude venoms were tested for proteolytic, phospholipase A2, platelet aggregating, and hemagglutinating activities. The venoms were also analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). Chromatographic patterns of venom proteins on both gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatographies were also performed. All venoms presented high phospholipase A2 and platelet-aggregating activities, but only minimal hemagglutinating or proteolytic activities were found. Gel-filtration chromatography showed a characteristic profile for most venoms where four main peaks were separated, including the typical ones where convulxin and crotoxin were identified; however, peaks with high amounts of lower molecular weight proteins were found in the venoms from the Santo Antonio do Amparo location and Butantan Institute, characterizing these venoms as crotamine positive. Anion-exchange chromatographies presented a similar protein distribution pattern, although the number of peaks (up to ten) distinguished some venom samples. Consistent with these results, polyacrylamide gels that were silver stained after venom separation by PAGE or IEF presented a similar qualitative band distribution, although a quantitative heterogeneity was detected among venoms. Our results suggest that the variability found in venom components of C. d. terrificus venoms captured in Minas Gerais State may be genetically inherited and/or environmentally induced.

  20. Isolation, enzymatic characterization and antiedematogenic activity of the first reported rattlesnake hyaluronidase from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Karla C F; Perino, Márcio G; Giglio, José R; Arantes, Eliane C

    2012-12-01

    A hyaluronidase (CdtHya1) from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CdtV) was isolated and showed to exhibit a high activity on hyaluronan cleavage. However, surveys on this enzyme are still limited. This study aimed at its isolation, functional/structural characterization and the evaluation of its effect on the spreading of crotoxin and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). The enzyme was purified through cation exchange, gel filtration and hydrophobic chromatography. After that, it was submitted to a reverse-phase fast protein liquid chromatography (RP-FPLC) and Edman degradation sequencing, which showed the first N-terminal 44 amino acid residues whose sequence evidenced identity with other snake venom hyaluronidases. CdtHya1 is a monomeric glycoprotein of 64.5 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. It exhibited maximum activity in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl, at 37 °C, pH 5.5 and a specificity to hyaluronan higher than that to chondroitin-4-sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate or dermatan. Divalent cations (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and 1 M NaCl significantly reduced the enzyme activity. The specific activity of CdtHya1 was 5066 turbidity reducing units (TRU)/mg, against 145 TRU/mg for the soluble venom, representing a 34.9-fold purification. The pure enzyme increased the diffusion of crotoxin and PLA(2) through mice tissues. CdtHya1 (32 TRU/40 μL) potentiated crotoxin action, as evidenced by mice death, and it decreased the oedema caused by subplantar injections of buffer, crotoxin or PLA(2), thus evidencing the relevance of hyaluronidase in the crotalic envenoming. This work yielded a highly active antiedematogenic hyaluronidase from CdtV, the first one isolated from rattlesnake venoms.

  1. Crotalphine, a novel potent analgesic peptide from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Konno, Katsuhiro; Picolo, Gisele; Gutierrez, Vanessa P; Brigatte, Patrícia; Zambelli, Vanessa O; Camargo, Antonio C M; Cury, Yara

    2008-08-01

    We have shown that the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus induces a long-lasting antinociceptive effect mediated by activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite being mediated by opioid receptors, prolonged treatment with the crotalid venom does not cause the development of peripheral tolerance or abstinence symptoms upon withdrawal. In the present study, we have isolated and chemically characterized a novel and potent antinociceptive peptide responsible for the oral opioid activity of this crotalid venom. The amino acid sequence of this peptide, designated crotalphine, was determined by mass spectrometry and corroborated by solid-phase synthesis to be

  2. Quantification of crotamine, a small basic myotoxin, in South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with parallel-lines analysis.

    PubMed

    Oguiur, N; Camargo, M E; da Silva, A R; Horton, D S

    2000-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in Crotalus durissus terrificus venom composition was studied in relation to crotamine activity. Crotamine induces paralysis in extension of hind legs of mice and myonecrosis in skeletal muscle cells. To determine whether the venom of crotamine-negative rattlesnake contains a quantity of myotoxin incapable of inducing paralysis, we have developed a very sensitivity immunological assay method, an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), capable of detecting 0.6 ng of purified crotamine. The parallel-lines analysis of ELISA data showed to be useful because it shows the reliability of the experimental conditions. A variation in the amount of myotoxin in the crotamine-positive venom was observed, but not less than 0.1 mg of crotamine per mg of venom. It was not possible to detect it in crotamine-negative venom even at high venom concentrations.

  3. In vitro antibacterial and hemolytic activities of crotamine, a small basic myotoxin from rattlesnake Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Oguiura, Nancy; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Affonso, Regina; Zhang, Guolong

    2011-04-01

    Crotamine, a myotoxin from the venom of South American rattlesnake, is structurally related to β-defensins, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in vertebrate animals. Here, we tested the antibacterial properties of crotamine and found that it killed several strains of Escherichia coli, with the MICs ranging from 25 to 100 μg ml⁻¹. Time-kill and bacterial membrane permeabilization assays revealed that killing of bacteria by crotamine occurred within 1 h and reached the maximum by 2 h. Additionally, the anti-E. coli activity of crotamine was completely abolished with 12.5 mM NaCl. Furthermore, the three intramolecular disulfide bonds of crotamine appeared dispensable for its antibacterial activity. The reduced form of crotamine was active against E. coli as well. However, crotamine showed no or weak activity up to 200 μg ml⁻¹ against other species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Crotamine showed no appreciable hemolytic activity to erythrocytes. Our studies revealed that crotamine is also an AMP that kills bacteria through membrane permeabilization. However, crotamine appears to have a narrow antibacterial spectrum, distinct from many classical β-defensins, reinforcing the notion that crotamine originated from the β-defensin gene lineage, but has undergone significant functional diversification.

  4. Intraspecies differences in hemostatic venom activities of the South American rattlesnakes, Crotalus durissus cumanensis, as revealed by a range of protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ana M; Aguilar, Irma; Guerrero, Belsy; Girón, María E; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2008-09-01

    Crotalus durissus cumanensis is an endemic rattlesnake found in Venezuela and Colombia. In this study, a comparative analysis of hemorrhagic, coagulation and fibrino(geno)lytic activities in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors was performed with venoms of the same species Crotalus durissus cumanensis, from seven geographical regions of Venezuela (Lagunetica, Santa Teresa, Carrizales, Guarenas, Anzoátegui, Margarita and Maracay). Lagunetica, Carrizales and Anzoátegui venoms induced hemorrhagic activity. All venoms, except that of snakes from the Carrizales region presented thrombin-like activity, which was inhibited completely by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylene glycol-bis-N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. This effect of the latter could be explained by the high chelant calcium effect, which is a cofactor for the fibrin polymerization process. Soybean trypsin inhibitor was effective on Santa Teresa venom. Antithrombin III/Hep complex and phenantroline partially inhibited this activity in all venoms except Margarita and Anzoátegui, respectively, which were not inhibited. Serine protease inhibitors were more effective against thrombin, kallikrein and plasmin-like amidolytic activities. Additionally, metalloprotease inhibitors significantly inhibited the t-PA-like amidolytic activity and completely the hemorrhagic and fibrino(geno)lytic activities. In conclusion, the thrombin-like activity observed in these venoms was partially reduced by serine protease inhibitors, indicating the possible presence of catalytic domains in those enzymes that do not interact with these inhibitors. Using protease inhibitors on venom hemostatic activities could contribute to our understanding of the active components of snake venom on the hemostatic system, and further reveal the intraspecies variation of venoms, which is important in the treatment of envenomation, and in addition represents an interesting model for the study of venom in hemostasis.

  5. Chromatin supraorganization, DNA fragmentation, and cell death in erythrocytes of the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae), infected with the protozoan, Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae).

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Maristela; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2007-05-01

    Forms of the protozoan of the Hepatozoon genus are detected free in the circulation and also within some of the erythrocytes of infected snakes. In healthy snakes, DNA fragmentation and cell death usually affect a few circulating erythrocytes in agreement with the long life span expected for these cells. In the present study we investigated whether infection by Hepatozoon spp. affected the incidence of DNA fragmentation and cell death in erythrocytes from the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus. Methods such as the kinetics of Feulgen-DNA hydrolysis, and the TUNEL and comet assays, previously used for the study of chromatin organization and DNA fragmentation in erythrocytes of healthy snakes, were used. The results indicated that Hepatozoon spp. increased the DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation typical of cell death in circulating erythrocytes of C. d. terrificus, including cells that do not harbour the parasite. The Hepatozoon infection is thus suggested to accelerate destruction of erythrocytes in the rattlesnake, not only affecting cells harbouring the parasite, but also in those without it.

  6. Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake: Effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human neutrophils cells.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Caroline V; da S Setúbal, Sulamita; Lacouth-Silva, Fabianne; Pontes, Adriana S; Nery, Neriane M; de Castro, Onassis Boeri; Fernandes, Carla F C; Soares, Andreimar M; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2017-07-23

    Crotalus Neutralizing Factor (CNF) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), present in the blood plasma of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake. This inhibitor neutralizes the lethal and enzymatic activity of crotoxin, the main neurotoxin from this venom. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNF on the functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human neutrophils. The following parameters were evaluated: viability and proliferation, chemotaxis, cytokines and LTB4 production, cytosolic PLA2s activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide anion (O2(-)) production. CNF showed no toxicity on PBMCs or neutrophils, and acts by stimulating the release of TNF-α and LTB4, but neither stimulates IL-10 and IL-2 nor affects PBMCs proliferation and O2(-) release. In neutrophils, CNF induces chemotaxis but does not induce the release of both MPO and O2(-). However, it induces LTB4 and IL-8 production. These data show the influence of CNF on PBMCs' function by inducing TNF-α and LTB4 production, and on neutrophils, by stimulating chemotaxis and LTB4 production, via cytosolic PLA2 activity, and IL-8 release. The inflammatory profile produced by CNF is shown for the first time. Our present results suggest that CNF has a role in activation of leukocytes and exert proinflammatory effects on these cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for a respiratory component, similar to mammalian respiratory sinus arrhythmia, in the heart rate variability signal from the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Hamish A; Leite, Cleo A C; Wang, Tobias; Skals, Marianne; Abe, Augusto S; Egginton, Stuart; Rantin, F Tadeu; Bishop, Charles M; Taylor, Edwin W

    2006-07-01

    Autonomic control of heart rate variability and the central location of vagal preganglionic neurones (VPN) were examined in the rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), in order to determine whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) occurred in a similar manner to that described for mammals. Resting ECG signals were recorded in undisturbed snakes using miniature datalogging devices, and the presence of oscillations in heart rate (fh) was assessed by power spectral analysis (PSA). This mathematical technique provides a graphical output that enables the estimation of cardiac autonomic control by measuring periodic changes in the heart beat interval. At fh above 19 min(-1) spectra were mainly characterised by low frequency components, reflecting mainly adrenergic tonus on the heart. By contrast, at fh below 19 min(-1) spectra typically contained high frequency components, demonstrated to be cholinergic in origin. Snakes with a fh >19 min(-1) may therefore have insufficient cholinergic tonus and/or too high an adrenergic tonus acting upon the heart for respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) to develop. A parallel study monitored fh simultaneously with the intraperitoneal pressures associated with lung inflation. Snakes with a fh<19 min(-1) exhibited a high frequency (HF) peak in the power spectrum, which correlated with ventilation rate (fv). Adrenergic blockade by propranolol infusion increased the variability of the ventilation cycle, and the oscillatory component of the fh spectrum broadened accordingly. Infusion of atropine to effect cholinergic blockade abolished this HF component, confirming a role for vagal control of the heart in matching fh and fv in the rattlesnake. A neuroanatomical study of the brainstem revealed two locations for vagal preganglionic neurones (VPN). This is consistent with the suggestion that generation of ventilatory components in the heart rate variability (HRV) signal are dependent on spatially distinct loci for cardiac VPN. Therefore

  8. Peptidase activities in the semen from the ductus deferens and uterus of the neotropical rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Camila Eduardo; Almeida Santos, Selma Maria; Yamasaki, Simone Cristina; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2009-07-01

    To understand the role of peptidases in seminal physiology of Crotalus durissus terrificus, intra- and inter-seasonal activity levels of acid (APA), basic (APB), puromycin-sensitive (APN-PS) and puromycin-insensitive neutral (APN-PI), cystyl (CAP), dipeptidyl-IV (DPPIV), type-1 pyroglutamyl (PAP-I) and prolyl-imino (PIP) aminopeptidases as well as prolyl endopeptidase (POP) were evaluated in soluble (SF) and/or membrane-bound (MF) fractions of semen collected from the ductus deferens of the male reproductive tract and from the posterior portion of the uterus. Seminal APB, PIP and POP were detected in SF, while other peptidases were detected in SF and MF. Only the convoluted posterior uterus in winter and autumn had semen. Relative to other examined peptidases, in general, APN-PI, APN-PS and APB activities were predominant in the semen from the uterus and throughout the year in the semen from the ductus deferens, suggesting their great relevance in the seminal physiology of C. d. terrificus. The levels of peptidase activities in the ductus deferens semen varied seasonally and were different from those of semen in the uterus, suggesting that their modulatory actions on susceptible peptides are integrated to the male reproductive cycle events and spermatozoa viability of this snake.

  9. Alterations in the ultrastructure of cardiac autonomic nervous system triggered by crotoxin from rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus cumanensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Miguelina; Scannone, Héctor; Finol, Héctor J; Pineda, Maria E; Fernández, Irma; Vargas, Alba M; Girón, María E; Aguilar, Irma; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2007-10-01

    This study explored the toxic effects of crotoxin isolated from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom on the ultrastructure of mice cardiac autonomic nervous system. Mice were intravenously injected with saline (control group) and crotoxin diluted in saline venom (study group) at a dose of 0.107 mg/kg mouse body weight. Samples from the inter-ventricular septum were prepared for electron microscopy after 6 h (G1), 12 h (G2), 24 h (G3) and 48 h (G4). The G1 group showed some cardiomyocyte with pleomorphic mitochondria. Capillary swollen walls, nerve cholinergic endings with depleted acetylcholine vesicles in their interior and other depletions were observed. A space completely lacking in contractile elements was noticed. The G2 group demonstrated a myelinic figure, a subsarcolemic region with few myofibrils and nervous cholinergic terminal with scarce vacuoles in their interior. The G3 group demonstrated a structure with a depleted axonic terminal, mitochondrias varying in size and enhanced electron density. In addition, muscular fibers with myofibrillar structure disorganization, a depleted nervous structure surrounded by a Schwann cell along with an abundance of natriuretic peptides, were seen. An amyelinic terminal with depleted Schwann cell and with scarce vesicles was also observed. Finally, axonic lysis with autophagic vacuoles in their interior and condensed mitochondria was observed in the G4 group. This work describes the first report of ultrastructural damage caused by crotoxin on mice cardiac autonomic nervous system.

  10. Ablation of the ability to control the right-to-left cardiac shunt does not affect oxygen uptake, specific dynamic action or growth in the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Leite, Cleo A C; Taylor, Edwin W; Wang, Tobias; Abe, Augusto S; de Andrade, Denis O V

    2013-05-15

    The morphologically undivided ventricle of the heart in non-crocodilian reptiles permits the mixing of oxygen-rich blood returning from the lungs and oxygen-poor blood from the systemic circulation. A possible functional significance for this intra-cardiac shunt has been debated for almost a century. Unilateral left vagotomy rendered the single effective pulmonary artery of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus, unable to adjust the magnitude of blood flow to the lung. The higher constant perfusion of the lung circulation and the incapability of adjusting the right-left shunt in left-denervated snakes persisted over time, providing a unique model for investigation of the long-term consequences of cardiac shunting in a squamate. Oxygen uptake recorded at rest and during spontaneous and forced activity was not affected by removing control of the cardiac shunt. Furthermore, metabolic rate and energetic balance during the post-prandial metabolic increment, plus the food conversion efficiency and growth rate, were all similarly unaffected. These results show that control of cardiac shunting is not associated with a clear functional advantage in adjusting metabolic rate, effectiveness of digestion or growth rates.

  11. A new structurally atypical bradykinin-potentiating peptide isolated from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (South American rattlesnake).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Denise M; Junior, Norberto E G; Costa, Paula P C; Martins, Patrícia L; Santos, Cláudia F; Carvalho, Ellaine D F; Carvalho, Maria D F; Pimenta, Daniel C; Cardi, Bruno A; Fonteles, Manassés C; Nascimento, Nilberto R F; Carvalho, Krishnamurti M

    2014-11-01

    Venom glands of some snakes synthesize bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPP's) which increase bradykinin-induced hypotensive effect and decrease angiotensin I vasopressor effect by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. The present study shows a new BPP (BPP-Cdc) isolated from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom: Pro-Asn-Leu-Pro-Asn-Tyr-Leu-Gly-Ile-Pro-Pro. Although BPP-Cdc presents the classical sequence IPP in the C-terminus, it has a completely atypical N-terminal sequence, which shows very low homology with all other BPPs isolated to date. The pharmacological effects of BPP-Cdc were compared to BBP9a from Bothrops jararaca and captopril. BPP-Cdc (1 μM) significantly increased BK-induced contractions (BK; 1 μM) on the guinea pig ileum by 267.8% and decreased angiotensin I-induced contractions (AngI; 10 nM) by 62.4% and these effects were not significantly different from those of BPP9a (1 μM) or captopril (200 nM). Experiments with 4-week hypertensive 2K-1C rats show that the vasopressor effect of AngI (10 ng) was decreased by 50 μg BPP-Cdc (69.7%), and this result was similar to that obtained with 50 μg BPP9a (69.8%). However, the action duration of BPP-Cdc (60 min) was 2 times greater than that of BPP-9a (30 min). On the other hand, the hypotensive effect of BK (250 ng) was significantly increased by 176.6% after BPP-Cdc (50 μg) administration, value 2.5 times greater than that obtained with BPP9a administered at the same doses (71.4%). In addition, the duration of the action of BPP-Cdc (120 min) was also at least 4 times greater than that of BPP-9a (30 min). Taken together, these results suggest that BPP-Cdc presents more selective action on arterial blood system than BPP9a. Besides the inhibition of ACE, it may present other mechanisms of action yet to be elucidated.

  12. Insights on the structure of native CNF, an endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Crotalus durissus terrificus, the South American rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Ortolani, Paula Ladeira; Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre H; Lobo, Kelli Roberta; Amaral de Melo, Lutiana; Borges, Márcia Helena; Pazin, Wallance Moreira; Neto, Mário de Oliveira; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Fontes, Marcos Roberto M

    2014-09-01

    Several snake species possess endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors (sbPLIs) in their blood plasma, the primary role of which is protection against an eventual presence of toxic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from their venom glands in the circulation. These inhibitors have an oligomeric structure of, at least, three subunits and have been categorized into three classes (α, β and γ) based on their structural features. SbγPLIs have been further subdivided into two subclasses according to their hetero or homomeric nature, respectively. Despite the considerable number of sbγPLIs described, their structures and mechanisms of action are still not fully understood. In the present study, we focused on the native structure of CNF, a homomeric sbγPLI from Crotalus durissus terrificus, the South American rattlesnake. Based on the results of different biochemical and biophysical experiments, we concluded that, while the native inhibitor occurs as a mixture of oligomers, tetrameric arrangement appears to be the predominant quaternary structure. The inhibitory activity of CNF is most likely associated with this oligomeric conformation. In addition, we suggest that the CNF tetramer has a spherical shape and that tyrosinyl residues could play an important role in the oligomerization. The carbohydrate moiety, which is present in most sbγPLIs, is not essential for the inhibitory activity, oligomerization or complex formation of the CNF with the target PLA2. A minor component, comprising no more than 16% of the sample, was identified in the CNF preparations. The amino-terminal sequence of that component is similar to the B subunits of the heteromeric sbγPLIs; however, the role played by such molecule in the functionality of the CNF, if any, remains to be determined.

  13. Arterial acid-base status during digestion and following vascular infusion of NaHCO(3) and HCl in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Arvedsen, Sine K; Andersen, Johnnie B; Zaar, Morten; Andrade, Denis; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2005-12-01

    Digestion is associated with gastric secretion that leads to an alkalinisation of the blood, termed the "alkaline tide". Numerous studies on different reptiles and amphibians show that while plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)](pl)) increases substantially during digestion, arterial pH (pHa) remains virtually unchanged, due to a concurrent rise in arterial PCO(2) (PaCO(2)) caused by a relative hypoventilation. This has led to the suggestion that postprandial amphibians and reptiles regulate pHa rather than PaCO(2). Here we characterize blood gases in the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) during digestion and following systemic infusions of NaHCO(3) and HCl in fasting animals to induce a metabolic alkalosis or acidosis in fasting animals. The magnitude of these acid-base disturbances were similar in magnitude to that mediated by digestion and exercise. Plasma [HCO(3)(-)] increased from 18.4+/-1.5 to 23.7+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) during digestion and was accompanied by a respiratory compensation where PaCO(2) increased from 13.0+/-0.7 to 19.1+/-1.4 mm Hg at 24 h. As a result, pHa decreased slightly, but were significantly below fasting levels 36 h into digestion. Infusion of NaHCO(3) (7 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in a 10 mmol L(-1) increase in plasma [HCO(3)(-)] within 1 h and was accompanied by a rapid elevation of pHa (from 7.58+/-0.01 to 7.78+/-0.02). PaCO(2), however, did not change following HCO(3)(-) infusion, which indicates a lack of respiratory compensation. Following infusion of HCl (4 mmol kg(-1)), plasma pHa decreased by 0.07 units and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) was reduced by 4.6 mmol L(-1) within the first 3 h. PaCO(2), however, was not affected and there was no evidence for respiratory compensation. Our data show that digesting rattlesnakes exhibit respiratory compensations to the alkaline tide, whereas artificially induced metabolic acid-base disturbances of same magnitude remain uncompensated. It seems difficult to envision that the central and

  14. Enzyme specificity and effects of gyroxin, a serine protease from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on protease-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yonamine, Camila M; Kondo, Marcia Y; Nering, Marcela B; Gouvêa, Iuri E; Okamoto, Débora; Andrade, Douglas; da Silva, José Alberto A; Prieto da Silva, Alvaro R B; Yamane, Tetsuo; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Lapa, Antônio J; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa R

    2014-03-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease displaying a thrombin-like activity found in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Typically, intravenous injection of purified gyroxin induces a barrel rotation syndrome in mice. The serine protease thrombin activates platelets aggregation by cleaving and releasing a tethered N-terminus peptide from the G-protein-coupled receptors, known as protease-activated receptors (PARs). Gyroxin also presents pro-coagulant activity suggested to be dependent of PARs activation. In the present work, the effects of these serine proteases, namely gyroxin and thrombin, on PARs were comparatively studied by characterizing the hydrolytic specificity and kinetics using PARs-mimetic FRET peptides. We show for the first time that the short (sh) and long (lg) peptides mimetizing the PAR-1, -2, -3, and -4 activation sites are all hydrolyzed by gyroxin exclusively after the Arg residues. Thrombin also hydrolyzes PAR-1 and -4 after the Arg residue, but hydrolyzes sh and lg PAR-3 after the Lys residue. The kcat/KM values determined for gyroxin using sh and lg PAR-4 mimetic peptides were at least 2150 and 400 times smaller than those determined for thrombin, respectively. For the sh and lg PAR-2 mimetic peptides the kcat/KM values determined for gyroxin were at least 6500 and 2919 times smaller than those determined for trypsin, respectively. The kcat/KM values for gyroxin using the PAR-1 and -3 mimetic peptides could not be determined due to the extreme low hydrolysis velocity. Moreover, the functional studies of the effects of gyroxin on PARs were conducted in living cells using cultured astrocytes, which express all PARs. Despite the ability to cleavage the PAR-1, -2, -3, and -4 peptides, gyroxin was unable to activate the PARs expressed in astrocytes as determined by evaluating the cytosolic calcium mobilization. On the other hand, we also showed that gyroxin is able to interfere with the activation of PAR-1 by thrombin or

  15. Is the population of Crotalus durissus (Serpentes, Viperidae) expanding in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marcelo Ribeiro; Menezes, Frederico Alcântara

    2013-12-05

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise a plausible method of dispersal as inferred for some North American rattlesnakes. Based on the literature, it seems plausible that Crotalus durissus expanded their natural distribution in Brazil due to floods, but only in a few municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. Data entries of Butantan Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2012 show a declining tendency of snakes brought by donors. In addition, research shows no evidence of Crotalus durissus being an expanding species in the Brazilian territory.

  16. Is the population of Crotalus durissus (Serpentes, Viperidae) expanding in Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise a plausible method of dispersal as inferred for some North American rattlesnakes. Based on the literature, it seems plausible that Crotalus durissus expanded their natural distribution in Brazil due to floods, but only in a few municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. Data entries of Butantan Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2012 show a declining tendency of snakes brought by donors. In addition, research shows no evidence of Crotalus durissus being an expanding species in the Brazilian territory. PMID:24314146

  17. Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) infection and selected hematological values of the neotropical rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Serpentes: Viperidae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Motta, Rafael Otávio Cançado; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; da Silva, Israel José; Pinto, Ana Cristina Araújo; Braga, Erika Martins; da Cunha, Arildo Pinto; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to establish the hematological values of Crotalus durissus collilineatus snakes captured in Brazil as well as to verify the effects of hematozoan infection on these snakes. Eighty-three blood samples were drawn from C. d. collilineatus specimens for analysis. The sample set was composed of 30 males and 30 females, recently caught from the wild, and 11 males and 12 females bred in captivity. Blood samples were used to determine red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, thrombocyte counts, hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentration, and total plasma protein. Blood smears were used to diagnose Hepatozoon spp. infection and to calculate the parasitic load in the sample as well as the percentage of immature red cells. Results obtained for the wild-caught animals, with and without parasites, were compared among themselves and with the values obtained for the captive-bred animals. Hematological values for C. durissus were established. Wild-caught snakes had an infection rate of 38.3%, while no Hepatozoon sp. infection was detected in the captive-bred animals. The snakes which were not infected by the Hepatozoon sp. exhibited average weight, length, and weight-length ratios higher than those of the infected animals. An increase in immature red cells was noted in the Hepatozoon-infected snakes.

  18. Loss of the ability to control right-to-left shunt does not influence the metabolic responses to temperature change or long-term fasting in the South American Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Leite, Cleo A C; Wang, Tobias; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Leite, Gabrielle S P C; de Andrade, Denis O V

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the undivided ventricle of noncrocodilian reptiles, the blood perfusing the systemic circulation is a controlled combination of oxygenated pulmonary blood, flowing from left to right across the heart, and relatively deoxygenated systemic blood, flowing from right to left. A clear inverse correlation has been experimentally established between metabolic demand and the magnitude of right-to-left cardiac shunt in several reptile groups. Unilateral left vagotomy renders the single effective pulmonary artery of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) unable to adjust the magnitude of blood flow to the lung. This provides a unique model for investigation of the long-term consequences of abolition of the cardiac shunt in a squamate reptile. Rattlesnakes-vagotomized on the left or right side or sham operated-were exposed to long-term food deprivation or temperature change. Loss of control of the cardiac shunt following selective vagotomy did not change the progressive decrease in body mass or the onset of identifiable fasting stages. Resting metabolic rate and the increase in oxygen uptake measured during spontaneous or forced activity were also unchanged. The responses to reductions in temperature (from 30° to 20° or 15°C) in adult snakes or juvenile snakes were similarly unaffected by vagal transection. These data support rejection of the hypothesis that adjustment of the cardiac shunt is central to the control metabolic rate in squamate reptiles.

  19. Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis cerberus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    The Arizona black rattlesnake makes its home at higher elevations in Arizona and far western New Mexico. The snake's use of high-altitude habitat and its black coloration as an adult distinguishes it from other subspecies of the western rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis), which prefer lower elevations and range from tan to reddish in color as adults. These physical and habitat differences are also reflected in genetic differences that suggest that the Arizona black rattlesnake may be a new species of rattlesnake. Despite the species's limited range, basic biological information needed to make management decisions is lacking for most Arizona black rattlesnake populations. To address this need, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists conducted research on the species in Arizona national park units from 2003 to 2005. The research examined relative population abundance, movement patterns, range requirements, dietary habits, and winter and summer habitat. Research in Arizona national parks was made possible through the support of the Western National Parks Association, Tonto National Monument, and the USGS Science Internships for Workforce Diversity Program. Importantly, the park-based research was used to augment a long-term mark-recapture study of the species that has been conducted by USGS biologists at sites near Flagstaff, Arizona, since 1999. USGS researchers were the first to conduct extensive studies of this species in the wild.

  20. The unequal influences of the left and right vagi on the control of the heart and pulmonary artery in the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Taylor, E W; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Leite, Cleo A C; Wang, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in reptiles includes sympathetic components but heart rate (f(H)), pulmonary blood flow (Q(pul)) and cardiac shunt patterns are primarily controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. The vagus innervates both the heart and a sphincter on the pulmonary artery. The present study reveals that whereas both the left and right vagi influence f(H), it is only the left vagus that influences pulmonary vascular resistance. This is associated with the fact that rattlesnakes, in common with some other species of snakes, have a single functional lung, as the other lung regresses during development. Stimulation of the left cervical vagus in anaesthetised snakes slowed the heart and markedly reduced blood flow in the pulmonary artery whereas stimulation of the right cervical vagus slowed the heart and caused a small increase in stroke volume (V(S)) in both the systemic and pulmonary circulations. Central stimulation of either vagus caused small (5-10%) reductions in systemic blood pressure but did not affect blood flows or f(H). A bilateral differentiation between the vagi was confirmed by progressive vagotomy in recovered snakes. Transection of the left vagus caused a slight increase in f(H) (10%) but a 70% increase in Q(pul), largely due to an increase in pulmonary stroke volume (V(S,pul)). Subsequent complete vagotomy caused a 60% increase in f(H) accompanied by a slight rise in Q(pul), with no further change in V(S,pul). By contrast, transection of the right vagus elicited a slight tachycardia but no change in V(S,pul). Subsequent complete vagotomy was accompanied by marked increases in f(H), Q(pul) and V(S,pul). These data show that although the heart receives bilateral vagal innervation, the sphincter on the pulmonary artery is innervated solely by the left vagus. This paves the way for an investigation of the role of the cardiac shunt in regulating metabolic rate, as chronic left vagotomy will cause a pronounced left

  1. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Crotalus horridus (timber rattlesnake).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jacob B; Cobb, Vincent A; Cahoon, A Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The complete mitogenome of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) was completed using Sanger sequencing. It is 17,260 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs, two rRNAs and two control regions. Gene synteny is consistent with other snakes with the exception of a missing redundant tRNA (Ser) . This mitogenome should prove to be a useful addition of a well-known member of the Viperidae snake family.

  2. Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters †

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S.; Lara, Marcus V. S.; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2014-01-01

    Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

  3. Salmonella surveillance in a collection of rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.).

    PubMed

    Grupka, Lisa M; Ramsay, Edward C; Bemis, David A

    2006-09-01

    Over the past 15 yr, Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae (IIIa) 56:z4,z23:- has repeatedly been isolated from individual Crotalus willardi rattlesnakes with progressively debilitating osteomyelitis at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens. In April 2004, the serotype was linked with a fatal case of septicemia in another Crotalus species in this collection. Although the association of IIIa 56:z4,z23:- with disease in this colony of C. willardi is well established, prior disease or isolation of this serotype outside of the C. willardi colony had not been documented previously, and the serotype's distribution throughout the remainder of the Crotalus collection had yet to be determined. Forty-one fecal samples were obtained from each individual (n = 36) or exhibit group (n = 5) of crotalid snakes, representing nine species, housed at the zoo. Salmonella spp. were isolated from every sample, with 21 different serotypes. The 21 serotypes were distributed among S. enterica ssp. I (24%), IIIa (9%), and IIIb (67%). Although not recovered in the primary study, S. arizonae 56:z4,z23:- was recovered from additional samples taken from two C. willardi willardi. Although the overall recovery rate of this serotype from feces has been low, it seems that its distribution among the Crotalus collection at Knoxville Zoological Gardens remains largely restricted to the C. willardi species.

  4. Structural and biological characterization of two crotamine isoforms IV-2 and IV-3 isolated from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Daniel; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sergio

    2007-12-01

    In this work, we isolated the two new crotamine isoforms from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis rattlesnake venom and its "in vitro" neurotoxic, myotoxic and lethality (DL(50)) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) effects were characterized. These proteins were named IV-2 and IV-3 and were purified by combination of two chromatographic steps on molecular exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75 and reverse phase HPLC (mu-Bondapack C18). The molecular mass of the crotamine isoforms was 4905.96 Da for isoform IV-2 and 4956.97 Da for IV-3 and, as determined by mass spectrometry, and both contained six Cys residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis followed by de novo sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the primary structure of both isoforms. The positions of five sequenced tryptic peptides, including the N-terminal of the isoform IV-2 and four from isoform IV-3 were deduced by comparison with a homologous protein from the crotamine family. The isoforms IV-2 and IV-3 had a sequence of amino acids of 42 amino acid residues IV-2: YKRCHIKGGH CFPKEKLICI PPSSDIGKMD CPWKRKCCKK RS and pI value 9.54 and IV-3: YKQCHKKGGH CFPKEVLICI PPSSDFGKMD CRWKRKCCKK RS with a pI value of 9.54. This protein showed high molecular amino acid sequence identity with other crotamine-like proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus. These new crotamine isoforms induced potent blockade of neuromuscular transmission in young chicken biventer cervicis preparation and potent myotoxic effect. In mice, both isoforms induced myonecrosis, upon intramuscular or subcutaneous injections. These activities were modulated by the presence of positively charged amino acid residues. The LD(50) of isoform IV-2 was 0.07 mg/kg and isoform IV-3 was 0.06 mg/kg the animal weight, by i.c.v. route.

  5. Body Size Evolution in Insular Speckled Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii)

    PubMed Central

    Meik, Jesse M.; Lawing, A. Michelle; Pires-daSilva, André

    2010-01-01

    Background Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii) inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size) evolving in response to shifts in prey size. Methodology/Principal Findings Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Ángel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics

  6. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii).

    PubMed

    Meik, Jesse M; Lawing, A Michelle; Pires-daSilva, André

    2010-03-04

    Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii) inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size) evolving in response to shifts in prey size. Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively. Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over what are

  7. Structural and pharmacological characterization of the crotamine isoforms III-4 (MYX4_CROCu) and III-7 (MYX7_CROCu) isolated from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Marangoni, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    Two major crotamine isoforms (III-4 and III-7) were obtained combining two chromatographic steps on molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and ion-exchange column (Protein Pack SP 5PW) of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom. The "in vivo" myotoxic effect of the venom, its "in vitro" cytotoxicity in myoblasts and myotubes (C2C12) and the neurotoxic and edema-forming activity were characterized. The molecular masses of the crotamine isoforms were 4907.94 Da (III-4) and 4985.02 Da (III-7) and, as determined by mass spectrometry, both contained six Cys residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis followed by de novo sequencing through tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the primary structure of both isoforms. III-4 and III-7 isoforms presented a 42-amino acid residues sequence and showed high molecular amino acid sequence identity with other crotamine-like proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus. In vivo, both crotamine isoforms induced myotoxicty and a systemic interleukin-6 response upon intramuscular injection. These new crotamine isoforms induced low cytotoxicity in skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes (C2C12) and both induced a facilitatory effect on neuromuscular transmission in young chick biventer cervicis preparation. Edema-forming activity was also analyzed by injection of the crotamine isoforms into the right paw, since both crotamine isoforms exert a strong pro-inflammatory effect.

  8. Cross-neutralization of the neurotoxicity of Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararacussu venoms by antisera against crotoxin and phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom.

    PubMed

    Beghini, Daniela G; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Randazzo-Moura, Priscila; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Novello, José Camilo; Hyslop, Stephen; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2005-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that rabbit antisera raised against crotoxin from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (cdc-crotoxin) and its PLA2 (cdc-PLA2) neutralized the neurotoxicity of this venom and its crotoxin. In this study, we examined the ability of these antisera to neutralize the neurotoxicity of Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararacussu venoms and their major toxins, cdt-crotoxin and bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), respectively, in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. Immunoblotting showed that antiserum to cdc-crotoxin recognized cdt-crotoxin and BthTX-I, while antiserum to cdc-PLA2 recognized cdt-PLA2 and BthTX-I. ELISA corroborated this cross-reactivity. Antiserum to cdc-crotoxin prevented the neuromuscular blockade caused by C. d. terrificus venom and its crotoxin at a venom/crotoxin:antiserum ratio of 1:3. Antiserum to cdc-PLA2 also neutralized the neuromuscular blockade caused by C. d. terrificus venom or its crotoxin at venom or toxin:antiserum ratios of 1:3 and 1:1, respectively. The neuromuscular blockade caused by B. jararacussu venom and BthTX-I was also neutralized by the antisera to cdc-crotoxin and cdc-PLA2 at a venom/toxin:antiserum ratio of 1:10 for both. Commercial equine antivenom raised against C. d. terrificus venom was effective in preventing the neuromuscular blockade typical of B. jararacussu venom (venom:antivenom ratio of 1:2), whereas for BthTX-I the ratio was 1:10. These results show that antiserum produced against PLA2, the major toxin in C. durissus cascavella venom, efficiently neutralized the neurotoxicity of C. d. terrificus and B. jararacussu venoms and their PLA2 toxins.

  9. Anti-platelet effect of cumanastatin 1, a disintegrin isolated from venom of South American Crotalus rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Manuel; Lucena, Sara; Aguilar, Irma; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Salazar, Ana M; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, Maria E; Carvajal, Zoila; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-03-01

    Disintegrins have been previously described in the venom of several snake families inhibiting signal transduction, cell-cell interactions, and cell-matrix interactions and may have therapeutic potential in heart attacks, thrombotic diseases, and cancers. This investigation describes the first disintegrin isolated from South American Crotalus venom (Venezuelan rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis), which inhibits platelet adhesion to matrix proteins. C. d. cumanensis crude venom was first separated on a Sephadex G-100 column into 4 fractions (SI to SIV). Crude venom and SIII fraction significantly diminished platelet adhesion to fibrinogen (Fg) and to fibronectin (Fn). Anti-adhesive SIII fraction was further separated by DEAE-Sephacel followed by C-18 reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The platelet anti-adhesive fraction obtained was designated as cumanastatin-1. This disintegrin has a mass of 7.442 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and pI of 8.5. Cumanastatin-1 also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 158 nM. However, it did not significantly inhibit collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Cumanastatin-1 considerably inhibited anti-alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin binding to platelets in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not present any effect on the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin or on P-selectin.

  10. The genesis of an exceptionally lethal venom in the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) revealed through comparative venom-gland transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Snake venoms generally show sequence and quantitative variation within and between species, but some rattlesnakes have undergone exceptionally rapid, dramatic shifts in the composition, lethality, and pharmacological effects of their venoms. Such shifts have occurred within species, most notably in Mojave (Crotalus scutulatus), South American (C. durissus), and timber (C. horridus) rattlesnakes, resulting in some populations with extremely potent, neurotoxic venoms without the hemorrhagic effects typical of rattlesnake bites. Results To better understand the evolutionary changes that resulted in the potent venom of a population of C. horridus from northern Florida, we sequenced the venom-gland transcriptome of an animal from this population for comparison with the previously described transcriptome of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (C. adamanteus), a congener with a more typical rattlesnake venom. Relative to the toxin transcription of C. adamanteus, which consisted primarily of snake-venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, snake-venom serine proteinases, and myotoxin-A, the toxin transcription of C. horridus was far simpler in composition and consisted almost entirely of snake-venom serine proteinases, phospholipases A2, and bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptides. Crotalus horridus lacked significant expression of the hemorrhagic snake-venom metalloproteinases and C-type lectins. Evolution of shared toxin families involved differential expansion and loss of toxin clades within each species and pronounced differences in the highly expressed toxin paralogs. Toxin genes showed significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution than nontoxin genes. The expression patterns of nontoxin genes were conserved between species, despite the vast differences in toxin expression. Conclusions Our results represent the first complete, sequence-based comparison between the venoms of closely related snake species and reveal in unprecedented

  11. Diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holycross, A.T.; Painter, C.W.; Prival, D.B.; Swann, D.E.; Schroff, M.J.; Edwards, T.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake) using samples collected in the field and from museum specimens, as well as several records from unpublished reports. Most records (approximately 91%) were from the northern Sierra Madrean Archipelago. Diet consisted of 55.4% lizards, 28.3% scolopendromorph centipedes, 13.8% mammals, 1.9% birds, and 0.6% snakes. Sceloporus spp. comprised 92.4% of lizards. Extrapolation suggests that Sceloporus jarrovii represents 82.3% of lizard records. Diet was independent of geographic distribution (mountain range), sex, source of sample (stomach vs. intestine/feces), and age class. However, predator snout-vent length differed significantly among prey types; snakes that ate birds were longest, followed in turn by those that ate mammals, lizards, and centipedes. Collection date also differed significantly among prey classes; the mean date for centipede records was later than the mean date for squamate, bird, or mammal records. We found no difference in the elevation of collection sites among prey classes.

  12. Sensitivity to thermal stimulation in prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) after bilateral anesthetization of the facial pits

    SciTech Connect

    Chiszar, D.; Dickman, D.; Colton, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six yearling prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) were exposed to thermal stimuli prior to and after bilateral anesthetization of their facial pits with 2% xylocaine solution. This treatment eliminates trigeminally mediated electrophysiological responses of the pits to thermal stimulation. Nevertheless, the rattlesnakes continued to exhibit behavioral responses to thermal cues after anesthetization of the pits. An auxiliary infrared-sensitive system, nociceptors, or the common temperature sense could be responsible for these findings.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic longtailed rattlesnakes (Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Meik, Jesse M; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    The longtailed rattlesnakes of western Mexico represent an enigmatic group of poorly known venomous snake species: Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri. In the 120 years since their discovery, fewer than twenty individuals have been deposited in natural history collections worldwide. These three species share similar morphological traits, including a particularly long tail that has been interpreted as either an ancestral condition among rattlesnakes or as derived within the longtailed group. An understanding of the phylogenetic distinctiveness and relationships among the longtailed rattlesnakes, and their relationships to other rattlesnake groups, has previously been hampered by a dearth of comparative material and tissues for collection of DNA sequence data. Facilitated by the recent availability of tissue samples from multiple individuals of each species, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships among the longtailed rattlesnakes and their placement among other rattlesnake groups, using DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial and three nuclear gene fragments. We explore phylogenetic signal in our data using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, species tree analyses and hypothesis testing. Our results strongly support the monophyly of longtailed rattlesnakes and suggest the three species diverged from each other during the mid to late Pliocene or early Pleistocene (~1.5-5.6 mya). Contrary to prevailing hypotheses, we find no evidence for an early or basal divergence of the longtailed clade within the rattlesnake tree, and instead estimate that it diverged relatively recently (~6.8 mya) from its sister lineage, composed of the diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox group) and the prairie rattlesnakes (C. viridis group). With our added sampling of lineages and identification of previously used problematic sequences, we provide a revised hypothesis for relationships among Crotalus species, yet underscore the need for future studies and new data to

  14. Characterization of ten microsatellite loci in midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Parker, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    Primers for 10 microsatellite loci were developed for midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor), a small bodied subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake, which is found in the Colorado Plateau of eastern Utah, western Colorado and southwestern Wyoming. In a screen of 23 individuals from the most northern portion of the subspecies range in southwestern Wyoming, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from 4 to 11 alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses, which will ultimately aid in management efforts for this rare subspecies of rattlesnake.

  15. The impact of roads on the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

    1998-01-01

    Roads and associated vehicular traffic have the potential to significantly impact vertebrate populations. In eastern Texas we compared the densities of paved and unpaved roads within 2 and 4 km radii of timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) ocations and of random points. Road networks were significantly more dense at random points than at snake...

  16. Abbreviata terrapenis (Nematoda: Physalopteridae): an accidental parasite of the banded rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus klauberi).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R; Holycross, Andrew T

    2002-04-01

    The nematode, Abbreviata terrapenis (Physalopteridae) was found in 16 (6%) of 267 banded rock rattlesnakes (Crotalus lepidus klauberi) from Arizona and New Mexico. Abbreviata terrapenis in C. lepidus represents an accidental parasite in that "infection" was acquired by the ingestion of lizard prey. Feeding captive snakes on wild-caught lizards poses a risk of introducing nematodes to the snakes.

  17. Seasonal variation in hematology and blood plasma chemistry values of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus).

    PubMed

    LaGrange, Seth M; Kimble, Steven J A; MacGowan, Brian J; Williams, Rod N

    2014-10-01

    Hematology, biochemical analyses, and body condition indices are useful tools for describing animal health, especially when making management decisions for species of conservation concern. We report hematologic, biochemical, and body condition index data for 13 free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) sampled repeatedly over an active season in Indiana, USA.

  18. Arboreal behavior in the timber rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; R. R. Schaefer; D. Saenz; R. N. Conner

    2004-01-01

    There have been several recent reports, and anecdotal observations extending back at least to J. J. Audubon, suggesting that the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) is one of the most arboreal members of the genus. Most previous records are of snakes located at heights of less than 5 m. Telemetry studies in eastern Texas have documented more...

  19. Sperm storage in males of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Crotalinae: Viperidae) in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Santos, Selma M; Laporta-Ferreira, Iara L; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Carlos

    2004-10-01

    Seasonal variations in spermatozoa numbers and in sperm motility along the vas deferens in Crotalus durissus terrificus from southeastern Brazil were analyzed. Our data demonstrate storage and motility of the spermatozoa along the vas deferens throughout the year. This is characteristic of a postnuptial reproductive cycle, usually found in snakes living in temperate climates. We describe similarities in reproductive cycle patterns found in the tropical nonhibernator C. durissus terrificus and in hibernator snakes from temperate zones. Our results show that in C. durissus terrificus, a significant difference in spermatozoa counts occurs between winter and summer. Higher numbers of spermatozoa in summer and autumn, due to intense spermiogenesis, coincides with the mating season in autumn. These data indicate that after spermiogenesis in summer, the males combine the peak of sperm storage to the period females are attractive. Mating, however, is not linked to ovulation, and the sperm is stored in the females during winter until fertilization occurs in spring. In the males, after mating, spermatozoon counts low. In spring, they gradually increase, turning again the highest in summer and autumn. During spermiogenesis in the convoluted vas deferens, spermatozoa gain motility, enhancing their performance along their way towards the distal portion.

  20. Amino acid sequence of the basic subunit of Mojave toxin from the venom of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus s. scutulatus).

    PubMed

    Aird, S D; Kruggel, W G; Kaiser, I I

    1990-01-01

    The complete sequence of the basis subunit of Mojave toxin from the venom of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus s. scutulatus) is presented. It is shown to have great similarity to the basic subunits of related toxins from the venoms of the South American and midget faded rattlesnakes.

  1. Kinetic characterization of gyroxin, a serine protease from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.

    PubMed

    Yonamine, Camila M; Kondo, Marcia Y; Juliano, Maria A; Icimoto, Marcelo Y; Baptista, Gandhi R; Yamane, Tetsuo; Oliveira, Vitor; Juliano, Luis; Lapa, Antônio J; Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa R; Hayashi, Mirian A F

    2012-12-01

    This work describes for the first time the characterization of the enzymatic features of gyroxin, a serine protease from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, capable to induce barrel rotation syndrome in rodents. Measuring the hydrolysis of the substrate ZFR-MCA, the optimal pH for proteolytic cleavage of gyroxin was found to be at pH 8.4. Increases in the hydrolytic activity were observed at temperatures from 25 °C to 45 °C, and increases of NaCl concentration up to 1 M led to activity decreases. The preference of gyroxin for Arg residues at the substrate P1 position was also demonstrated. Taken together, this work describes the characterization of substrate specificity of gyroxin, as well as the effects of salt and pH on its enzymatic activity.

  2. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SNAKE VENOMICS OF Crotalus tigris: THE MINIMALIST TOXIN ARSENAL OF THE DEADLIEST NEARTIC RATTLESNAKE VENOM

    PubMed Central

    CALVETE, Juan J.; PÉREZ, Alicia; LOMONTE, Bruno; SÁNCHEZ, Elda E.; SANZ, Libia

    2012-01-01

    We report the proteomic and antivenomic characterization of Crotalus tigris venom. This venom exhibits the highest lethality for mice among rattlesnakes and the simplest toxin proteome reported to date. The venom proteome of C. tigris comprises 7–8 gene products from 6 toxin families: the presynaptic β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA2, Mojave toxin, and two serine proteinases comprise, respectively, 66% and 27% of the C. tigris toxin arsenal, whereas a VEGF-like protein, a CRISP molecule, a medium-sized disintegrin, and 1–2 PIII-SVMPs, each represents 0.1–5% of the total venom proteome. This toxin profile really explains the systemic neuro- and myotoxic effects observed in envenomated animals. In addition, we found that venom lethality of C. tigris and other North American rattlesnake type II venoms correlates with the concentration of Mojave toxin A-subunit, supporting the view that the neurotoxic venom phenotype of crotalid type II venoms may be described as a single-allele adaptation. Our data suggest that the evolutionary trend towards neurotoxicity, which has been also reported for the South American rattlesnakes, may have resulted by paedomorphism. The ability of an experimental antivenom to effectively immunodeplete proteins from the type II venoms of C. tigris, C. horridus, C. oreganus helleri, C. scutulatus scutulatus, and S. catenatus catenatus, indicated the feasibility of generating a pan-American anti-Crotalus type II antivenom, suggested by the identification of shared evolutionary trends among South American and North American Crotalus. PMID:22181673

  4. Characterization of ribonucleic acids from the venom glands of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Ophidia, Reptilia) after manual extraction of the venom. Studies on template activity and base composition

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, F. L.; Imaizumi, M. T.; Haddad, A.

    1974-01-01

    RNA synthesis in the venom glands of Crotalus durissus terrificus was stimulated by the manual extraction of the venom (milking). RNA was extracted from venom glands activated by milking and fractionated by centrifugation through sucrose density gradients. Template activity for protein synthesis and base composition of the RNA fractions were studied. RNA fractions that sediment between 18S and 4S had the highest template activity. The base composition analysis indicated that the 28S and 18S rRNA have a C+G content of 65.4 and 58% respectively. The `melting' temperature (Tm) of DNA in 0.15m-NaCl–0.015m-trisodium citrate, pH7.0, was 85°C, corresponding to a C+G content of 38%. The base ratio of the RNA fractions that showed a high template activity was intermediate between that of rRNA and homologous DNA. The possible role of these fractions in the synthesis of the two main toxins (crotoxin and crotamine) of the South American rattlesnake's venom is discussed. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4463939

  5. Origin and characterization of small membranous vesicles present in the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    PubMed

    Souza-Imberg, Andréia; Carneiro, Sylvia Mendes; Giannotti, Karina Cristina; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Yamanouye, Norma

    2017-09-15

    Small membranous vesicles are small closed fragments of membrane. They are released from multivesicular bodies (exosomes) or shed from the surface membrane (microvesicles). They contains various bioactive molecules and their molecular composition varies depending on their cellular origin. Small membranous vesicles have been identified in snake venoms, but the origin of these small membranous vesicles in the venom is controversial. The aim of this study was to verify the origin of the small membranous vesicles in venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus by morphological analyses using electron microscopy. In addition, the protein composition of the vesicles was analyzed by using a proteome approach. The small membranous vesicles present in the venom were microvesicles, since they originated from microvilli on the apical membrane of secretory cells. They contained cytoplasmic proteins, and proteins from the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and Golgi membrane. The release of microvesicles may be a mechanism to control the size of the cell membrane of the secretory cells after intense exocytosis. Microvesicle components that may have a role in envenoming include ecto-5'-nucleotidase, a cell membrane protein that releases adenosine, and aminopeptidase N, a cell membrane protein that may modulate the action of many peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammatory mediators release in urine from mice injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.

    PubMed

    Hernández Cruz, A; Barbosa Navarro, L; Mendonça, R Z; Petricevich, V L

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated in groups of female BALB/c mice injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt) the renal function based on creatinine clearance, percentage of fractional excretion cytokines and histological examination of renal tissue. Cdt caused renal alterations that induced proteinuria during the initial hours post-venom and reduced creatinine clearance 15 min. up to 2 hours post-venom administration. In urine from mice injected with Cdt induced a decrease in IL-4 levels. More pronounced increments of IL-5, IL-6 and IFN-γ were observed after 15 and 30 min, respectively. The highest levels of TNF and IL-10 were observed at 1 and 4 hs, respectively. The ratios of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in animals injected with Cdt, which may be manifested in the inflammatory status during the envenoming. In groups of animals treated with Cdt were observed a decreasing in creatinine clearance and its effect on glomerular filtration rate was accompanied by decreased fractional excretion of cytokines and morphologic disturbances. This loss of change selectively in envenomation could thus explain why the relatively excretion of cytokines is reduced while of total proteins increases. In conclusion the fractional excretion of cytokines is significantly reduced in mice injected with Cdt, despite proteinuria.

  7. Thermolability of 28S ribosomal ribonucleic acid from the liver of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Ophidia, Reptilia)

    PubMed Central

    Giorgini, J. F.; De Lucca, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    Instability of 28S rRNA of Crotalus durissus terrificus liver was observed during hotphenol extraction: purified 28S rRNA is converted into an 18S RNA component by heat treatment. It was also found that `6S' and `8S' low-molecular-weight RNA species were released during the thermal conversion. This conversion and the release of the low-molecular-weight species were also induced by 8m-urea and 80% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide at 0°C. Evidence is presented that this phenomenon is an irreversible process and results from the rupture of hydrogen bonds. The 18S RNA product was shown to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. The base composition of the 18S RNA products obtained by heat, urea or dimethyl sulphoxide treatments was similar. The C+G content of the 18S RNA product was different from that of the native 18S rRNA, but similar to that of 28S rRNA. PMID:4776876

  8. Thermolability of 28S ribosomal ribonucleic acid from the liver of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Ophidia, Reptilia).

    PubMed

    Giorgini, J F; De Lucca, F L

    1973-09-01

    Instability of 28S rRNA of Crotalus durissus terrificus liver was observed during hotphenol extraction: purified 28S rRNA is converted into an 18S RNA component by heat treatment. It was also found that ;6S' and ;8S' low-molecular-weight RNA species were released during the thermal conversion. This conversion and the release of the low-molecular-weight species were also induced by 8m-urea and 80% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide at 0 degrees C. Evidence is presented that this phenomenon is an irreversible process and results from the rupture of hydrogen bonds. The 18S RNA product was shown to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. The base composition of the 18S RNA products obtained by heat, urea or dimethyl sulphoxide treatments was similar. The C+G content of the 18S RNA product was different from that of the native 18S rRNA, but similar to that of 28S rRNA.

  9. Pulmonary mechanic and lung histology induced by Crotalus durissus cascavella snake venom.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Neto, Joselito de; Silveira, João Alison de Moraes; Serra, Daniel Silveira; Viana, Daniel de Araújo; Borges-Nojosa, Diva Maria; Sampaio, Célia Maria Souza; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila; Evangelista, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    This study have analyzed the pulmonary function in an experimental model of acute lung injury, induced by the Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (C. d. cascavella) (3.0 μg/kg - i.p), in pulmonary mechanic and histology at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. The C. d. cascavella venom led to an increase in Newtonian Resistance (RN), Tissue Resistance (G) and Tissue Elastance (H) in all groups when compared to the control, particularly at 12 h and 24 h. The Histeresivity (η) increased 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. There was a decrease in Static Compliance (CST) at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h and inspiratory capacity (IC) at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. d. cascavella venom showed significant morphological changes such as atelectasis, emphysema, hemorrhage, polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltrate, edema and congestion. After a challenge with methacholine (MCh), RN demonstrated significant changes at 6, 12 and 24 h. This venom caused mechanical and histopathological changes in the lung tissue; however, its mechanisms of action need further studies in order to better elucidate the morphofunctional lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inflammatory Mediators Release in Urine from Mice Injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Cruz, A.; Barbosa Navarro, L.; Mendonça, R. Z.; Petricevich, V. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated in groups of female BALB/c mice injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt) the renal function based on creatinine clearance, percentage of fractional excretion cytokines and histological examination of renal tissue. Cdt caused renal alterations that induced proteinuria during the initial hours post-venom and reduced creatinine clearance 15 min. up to 2 hours post-venom administration. In urine from mice injected with Cdt induced a decrease in IL-4 levels. More pronounced increments of IL-5, IL-6 and IFN-γ were observed after 15 and 30 min, respectively. The highest levels of TNF and IL-10 were observed at 1 and 4 hs, respectively. The ratios of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in animals injected with Cdt, which may be manifested in the inflammatory status during the envenoming. In groups of animals treated with Cdt were observed a decreasing in creatinine clearance and its effect on glomerular filtration rate was accompanied by decreased fractional excretion of cytokines and morphologic disturbances. This loss of change selectively in envenomation could thus explain why the relatively excretion of cytokines is reduced while of total proteins increases. In conclusion the fractional excretion of cytokines is significantly reduced in mice injected with Cdt, despite proteinuria. PMID:22174490

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma with vascular invasion in a diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric T; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Sandy, Jeanine R; Dorn, Brian; Boyette, Trent; Harms, Craig A

    2010-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common neoplasm diagnosed in domestic and wild animals, including several species of reptiles. However, reports of SCC invading vasculature or metastasizing in snakes are lacking. This report documents a case of SCC in an adult male eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) with a unique presentation and invasion into several small- to medium-sized vessels, suggestive of a metastatic process. What was initially suspected to be an abscessed tail was ultimately determined to be SCC originating at the base of the rattle.

  12. Genetic Basis for Variation of Metalloproteinase-Associated Biochemical Activity in Venom of the Mojave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus).

    PubMed

    Dagda, Ruben K; Gasanov, Sardar; De La Oiii, Ysidro; Rael, Eppie D; Lieb, Carl S

    2013-01-01

    The metalloproteinase composition and biochemical profiles of rattlesnake venom can be highly variable among rattlesnakes of the same species. We have previously shown that the neurotoxic properties of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) are associated with the presence of the Mojave toxin A subunit suggesting the existence of a genetic basis for rattlesnake venom composition. In this report, we hypothesized the existence of a genetic basis for intraspecies variation in metalloproteinase-associated biochemical properties of rattlesnake venom of the Mojave rattlesnake. To address this question, we PCR-amplified and compared the genomic DNA nucleotide sequences that code for the mature metalloproteinase domain of fourteen Mojave rattlesnakes captured from different geographical locations across the southwest region of the United States. In addition, the venoms from the same rattlesnakes were tested for their ability to hydrolyze fibrinogen, fibrin, casein, and hide powder azure and for induction of hemorrhage in mice. Overall, based on genomic sequencing and biochemical data, we classified Mojave rattlesnake venom into four distinct groups of metalloproteinases. These findings indicate that differences in nucleotide sequences encoding the mature proteinase domain and noncoding regions contribute to differences in venom metalloproteinase activities among rattlesnakes of the same species.

  13. Response of Western Diamondback Rattlesnakes ("Crotalus atrox") to Chemical Cues of Mice ("Mus musculus") of Different Genders and Reproductive Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saviola, Anthony J.; Chiszar, David; Bealor, Matthew T.; Smith, Hobart M.

    2010-01-01

    Eight western diamondback rattlesnakes ("Crotalus atrox") were exposed to 6 stimuli: (1) clean, unused bedding; (2) an adult male mouse; (3) an adult lactating female mouse; (4) an adult lactating female mouse with a litter; (5) 2 adult nonlactating female mice, to control for the extra surface area in Condition 4; and (6) a litter of newborn…

  14. Response of Western Diamondback Rattlesnakes ("Crotalus atrox") to Chemical Cues of Mice ("Mus musculus") of Different Genders and Reproductive Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saviola, Anthony J.; Chiszar, David; Bealor, Matthew T.; Smith, Hobart M.

    2010-01-01

    Eight western diamondback rattlesnakes ("Crotalus atrox") were exposed to 6 stimuli: (1) clean, unused bedding; (2) an adult male mouse; (3) an adult lactating female mouse; (4) an adult lactating female mouse with a litter; (5) 2 adult nonlactating female mice, to control for the extra surface area in Condition 4; and (6) a litter of newborn…

  15. Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Interferes With Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes in Murine Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Cruz, Anselmo; Z. Mendonça, Ronaldo; L. Petricevich, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt) is toxic for a variety of eukaryotic cells, especially at high concentrations. However its effects on host immune cells are not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Cdt on functional status and the mediators production in peritoneal macrophages. The effects of Cdt were analyzed in vitro and were detected using functional status of macrophages as determined by the H2O2 release, spreading percentage, phagocytic index, vacuole formation, and mediators production. Several functional bioassays were employed: cytotoxicity was determined by taking the lyses percentage and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in macrophages, using the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatants of macrophages by the Griess reaction. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity was detected by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L929 cells, and the production the level of other cytokines was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro studies revealed that Cdt produced (a) a discrete increase in the release of H2O2 and vacuole formation; (b) a decrease in spreading percentage and in the phagocytic index; and (c) an increment in the mediators production. More pronounced increments of IL-6 and TNF were observed after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Maximum levels of IFN-γ and NO were observed after 96 hours. Interestingly, levels of all mediators presented a discreet decrease, as the amount of Cdt was increased. In contrast, the IL-10 levels observed for all doses studied here did not alter. The IL-6/IL-10 ratio may possibly reflect the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be manifested in the inflammatory status during the envenoming processes. Taken together, these data indicate that Cdt have a differential effect on macrophage activation and that this venom is a potent inhibitor of anti-inflammatory response. PMID

  16. Tail morphology in the Western Diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Savitzky, Alan H; Moon, Brad R

    2008-08-01

    The shaker muscles in the tails of rattlesnakes are used to shake the rattle at very high frequencies. These muscles are physiologically specialized for sustaining high-frequency contractions. The tail skeleton is modified to support the enlarged shaker muscles, and the muscles have major anatomical modifications when compared with the trunk muscles and with the tail muscles of colubrid snakes. The shaker muscles have been known for many years to consist of three large groups of muscles on each side of the tail. However, the identities of these muscles and their serial homologies with the trunk muscles were not previously known. In this study, we used dissection and magnetic resonance imaging of the tail in the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox, to determine that the three largest muscles that shake the rattle are the M. longissimus dorsi, the M. iliocostalis, and the M. supracostalis lateralis. The architecture of these muscles differs from their serial homologs in the trunk. In addition, the rattlesnake tail also contains three small muscles. The M. semispinalis-spinalis occurs in the tail, where it is a thin, nonvibratory, postural muscle that extends laterally along the neural spines. An additional muscle, which derives from fusion of the M. interarticularis inferior and M. levator costae, shares segmental insertions with the M. longissimus dorsi and M. iliocostalis. Several small, deep ventral muscles probably represent the Mm. costovertebrocostalis, intercostalis series, and transversohypapophyseus. The architectural rearrangements in the tail skeleton and shaker muscles, compared with the trunk muscles, probably relate to their roles in stabilizing the muscular part of the tail and to shaking the rattle at the tip of the tail. Based on comparisons with the tail muscles of a colubrid snake described in the literature, the derived tail muscle anatomy in rattlesnakes evolved either in the pitvipers or within the rattlesnakes. J. Morphol., 2008

  17. Ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor) in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.M.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a three-year study to describe the ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake, Crotalus organus concolor. We encountered 426 and telemetered 50 C. o. concolor between 2000 and 2002. We found that their primary diet was lizards (associated with rock outcrops), though they will consume small mammals and birds. They den in aggregations, although in low numbers when compared to other subspecies. Movements and activity ranges were among the largest reported for rattlesnakes. Minimum convex polygon area was 117.8 ha for males, 63.9 ha for nongravid females, and 4.8 ha for gravid females. Mean distances traveled per year were 2122.0 m for males, 1956.0 m for nongravid females, and 296.7 m for gravid and postpartum females. Following emergence from hibernation, they spent several weeks shedding, often in aggregations before migration, and migrations occurred in early summer. Most snakes made straight-line movements to and from discrete summer activity ranges where short, multidirectional movements ensued, although others made multidirectional movements throughout the active season. We observed mating behavior between 21 July and 12 August. Gravid females gave birth during the third week of August. Mean clutch size was 4.17 (range 2-7). We found that the sex ratio was skewed favoring females 1:1.24, and they were sexually dimorphic in size (males SVL = 44.1 cm; females SVL = 40.8 cm). Our data further illustrate the diversity within the large group of Western Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Clinical presentation and management of an Aruban rattlesnake bite in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, Marieke A; Damhuis, Dorien E M; Meulenbelt, Jan; de Vries, Irma

    2016-06-01

    Bites by Aruban Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor) are rare and not known to induce severe envenomations. Here, we present a case of a 57 year-old man bitten by his pet Aruban Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor). He was admitted to hospital within 15 min. Three and a half hours later his fibrinogen concentration decreased to 0.6 g/L (normal: 2.0-4.0). Nine hours post-bite, he was treated with polyvalent snake antivenom covering Crotalus durissus. Three hours later his fibrinogen became undetectable while at that time clotting times were prolonged (PT 38.7 s (normal: 12.5-14.5) and aPTT 40 s (normal: 25-35)). His platelet count remained within normal limits. Creatine kinase (CK) concentrations reached a maximum of 1868 U/L (normal: <200) 16 h post-bite. After a second antivenom dose, 10.5 h after the first antivenom administration, clotting times returned to normal. Fibrinogen was restored to normal within three days. He was discharged from hospital on day five. In conclusion, administration of polyvalent snake antivenom covering Crotalus durissus snakebites shows cross-neutralization and is effective in the treatment of patients bitten by Crotalus durissus unicolor.

  19. Effects of Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom in the isolated rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Amora, Daniela N; Sousa, Ticiana M; Martins, Alice M C; Barbosa, Paulo S F; Magalhães, Marta R; Toyama, Marcus H; Fonteles, Manassés C; de Menezes, Dalgimar B; Monteiro, Helena S A

    2006-03-01

    Ophidian accidents caused by the subspecies Crotalus durissus are responsible for high morbity and mortality rates. Acute renal failure is a common complication observed in these accidents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal effects promoted by the venom of C. d. collilineatus and its fractions, crotoxin and phospholipase A2. C. d. collilineatus (Cdc; 30 microg mL(-1)), crotoxin (CTX; 10 microg mL(-1)) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2; 10 microg mL(-1)) were tested in isolated rat kidney. The first 30 min of each experiment were used as an internal control and Cdc or its fractions, CTX and PLA2 were added to the system after this period. All experiments lasted 120 min. The venom of Cdc decreased perfusion pressure (PP; control120 = 110.3 +/- 3.69 mmHg; Cdc120 = 96.7+/-8.1 mmHg), renal vascular resistance (RVR; control120 = 6.42+/-0.78 mmHg mL g(-1) min(-1); Cdc120 = 4.8+/-0.56 mmHg/mL g(-1) min(-1)), urinary flow (UF; control120 = 0.19+/-0.03 mL g(-1) min(-1); Cdc120 = 0.12 +/- 0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1)), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; control120 = 0.79 +/- 0.07 mL g(-1) min(-1); Cdc120 = 0.53 +/- 0.09 mL g(-1) min(-1)), but had no effect on the percent of sodium tubular transport (%TNa+), percent of chloride tubular transport (%TK+) and percent of potassium tubular transport (%TCl-). CTX and PLA2 reduced the GFR, while UF, PP and RVR remained stable during the full 120 min of perfusion. Crotoxin administration also diminished the %TK+ (control120 = 69.94 +/- 6.49; CTX120 = 33.28 +/- 4.78) and %TCl- (control120 = 79.53 +/- 2.67; CTX120 = 64.62 +/- 6.93). PLA2 reduced the %TK+, but exerted no effect on the %TNa+ or on that of TCl-. In conclusion, the C. d. collilineatus venom altered the renal functional parameters evaluated. We suggest that crotoxin and phospholipase A2 were involved in this process, since the renal effects observed would be due to the synergistic action of the components of the venom.

  20. Proteomic, toxicological and immunogenic characterization of Mexican west-coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) venom and its immunological relatedness with the venom of Central American rattlesnake (Crotalus simus).

    PubMed

    Segura, Álvaro; Herrera, María; Reta Mares, Francisco; Jaime, Claudia; Sánchez, Andrés; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Gómez, Aarón; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2017-03-31

    The venom of the Mexican west-coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) was characterized for its protein composition, toxicological profile and immunogenic properties. This venom is composed of 68% Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), 14% phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 11% serine proteinases, 4% SVMPs-inhibitor tripeptides (SVMP-ITs), 2% bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), 0.6% cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), and 0.2% l-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs). SVMPs present in the venom are responsible for azocasein hydrolysis and hemorrhagic activity, but their contribution to the lethal activity of the venom in mice is masked by the neurotoxic activity of PLA2s, which in addition are also responsible for myotoxic activity. Despite its relatively high content of serine proteinases, the venom of C. basiliscus did not exert in vitro coagulant or in vivo defibrinogenating activities. The ability of antivenoms raised against the venoms of C. basiliscus and C. simus (from Costa Rica) to neutralize homologous and heterologous venoms revealed antigenic similarities between toxins of both venoms. Preclinical evaluation of an antivenom produced by using the venom of C. basiliscus as immunogen demonstrated that it is able to neutralize not only the most relevant toxic activities of C. basiliscus venom, but also those exerted by Costa Rican C. simus venom, including coagulant and defibrinogenating activities.

  1. Successful treatment of a southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri) bite in a caracal (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Singleton, Cora L; Oosterhuis, James E; Seibold, Karen; Lamberski, Nadine

    2009-06-01

    A caracal (Caracal caracal) was bitten on the lower lip by a southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri) and quickly developed progressive, severe soft tissue swelling and bruising of this site. Initial laboratory results revealed prolonged clotting times within the first hour of envenomation, followed by signs of vasculitis and anemia. The caracal was successfully treated with intravenous crystalloids, four vials of polyvalent crotalidae antivenom, and transfusions of bovine hemoglobin glutamer-200 (Oxyglobin) and fresh whole blood. The progressive soft tissue swelling and bruising halted and the coagulation parameters improved after administration of antivenom; however, the caracal continued to show neurologic dysfunction, including depression, weakness, muscle fasciculations, anisocoria, and ataxia. Administration of an additional vial of antivenom 72 hr after envenomation quickly corrected the weakness and muscle fasciculations, whereas the anisocoria and mild ataxia persisted for another 24 hr. The caracal remains clinically normal 3 yr after the envenomation.

  2. Zebrin II / aldolase C expression in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

    PubMed

    Aspden, Joel W; Armstrong, Carol L; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian I; Hawkes, Richard; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Kohl, Tobias; Graham, David J; Wylie, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    Aldolase C, also known as Zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+), alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). The patterns of ZII+ and ZII- stripes in the cerebellum of birds and mammals are strikingly similar, suggesting that it may have first evolved in the stem reptiles. In this study, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). In contrast to birds and mammals, the cerebellum of the rattlesnake is much smaller and simpler, consisting of a small, unfoliated dome of cells. A pattern of alternating ZII+ and ZII- sagittal stripes cells was not observed: rather all Purkinje cells were ZII+. This suggests that ZII stripes have either been lost in snakes or that they evolved convergently in birds and mammals.

  3. Radio Transmitter Implantation and Movement in the Wild Timber Rattlesnake ( Crotalus horridus ).

    PubMed

    Hale, Vanessa; MacGowan, Brian; Corriveau, Lorraine; Huse, David; Currylow, Andrea F T; Thompson, Steve

    2017-02-13

    Radiotelemetry transmitters have become critical to studies of wildlife ecology. However, little is known about how transmitter implantation surgery affects the mobility of some species, including the timber rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus . Tracking snake movement can provide insights into the effects of transmitter implantation. During 2007-2011, 71 radio transmitters were surgically implanted intracoelomically in 47 timber rattlesnakes. Over 20 of these snakes underwent surgery at least twice in 5 yr to replace old transmitters. Surgeries were performed under general anesthesia with a local nerve block at the site of implantation, 20 cm cranial to the cloaca. Snakes were also administered postsurgical meloxicam and enrofloxacin every 24 h for three doses. Two to five days after surgery, snakes were released at their original locations and radiotracked regularly during the active seasons (April-October 2007-2011). Average daily movement data (distance traveled) were compiled for each snake. Snakes undergoing transmitter surgery in a given year did not differ significantly in distance traveled compared to snakes that had transmitters but did not have surgery in that year. Distance traveled for each snake did not differ before or after surgery or between weeks 1 and 2 postsurgery, indicating that the transmitter implantation did not alter snake movement.

  4. Mechanisms controlling venom expulsion in the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have documented variation in the amount of venom expended during bites of venomous snakes, the mechanistic source of this variation remains uncertain. This study used experimental techniques to examine how two different features of the venom delivery system, the muscle surrounding the venom gland (the Compressor Glandulae in the rattlesnake) and the fang sheath, could influence venom flow in the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. Differential contraction of the Compressor Glandulae explained only approximately 30% of the variation in venom flow. Lifting (compression) of the fang sheath as occurs during a normal strike produced marked increases in venom flow; these changes were closely correlated and exceed in magnitude by almost 10 x those recorded from the Compressor Glandulae alone. These results suggest that variation in these two aspects of the venom delivery system--both in terms of magnitude and temporal patterning--explain most of the observed variation in venom injection. The lack of functional or mechanical links between the Compressor Glandulae and the fang sheath, and the lack of skeletal or smooth muscle within the fang sheath, make it unlikely that variation in venom flow is under direct neural control. Instead, differential venom injection results from differences in the pressurization by the Compressor Glandulae, the gate keeping effects of the fang sheath and enclosed soft-tissue chambers, and by differences in the pressure returned by peripheral resistance of the target tissue. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Zebrin II / Aldolase C Expression in the Cerebellum of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)

    PubMed Central

    Aspden, Joel W.; Armstrong, Carol L.; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian I.; Hawkes, Richard; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Kohl, Tobias; Graham, David J.; Wylie, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Aldolase C, also known as Zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+), alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). The patterns of ZII+ and ZII- stripes in the cerebellum of birds and mammals are strikingly similar, suggesting that it may have first evolved in the stem reptiles. In this study, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). In contrast to birds and mammals, the cerebellum of the rattlesnake is much smaller and simpler, consisting of a small, unfoliated dome of cells. A pattern of alternating ZII+ and ZII- sagittal stripes cells was not observed: rather all Purkinje cells were ZII+. This suggests that ZII stripes have either been lost in snakes or that they evolved convergently in birds and mammals. PMID:25692946

  6. Diversity-dependent cladogenesis throughout western Mexico: Evolutionary biogeography of rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Crotalus and Sistrurus).

    PubMed

    Blair, Christopher; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    Rattlesnakes (Crotalus and Sistrurus) represent a radiation of approximately 42 species distributed throughout the New World from southern Canada to Argentina. Interest in this enigmatic group of snakes continues to accrue due, in part, to their ecomorphological diversity, contributions to global envenomations, and potential medicinal importance. Although the group has garnered substantial attention from systematists and evolutionary biologists for decades, little is still known regarding patterns of lineage diversification. In addition, few studies have statistically quantified broad-scale biogeographic patterns in rattlesnakes to ascertain how dispersal occurred throughout the New World, particularly among the different major biomes of the Americas. To examine diversification and biogeographic patterns in this group of snakes we assemble a multilocus data set consisting of over 6700bp encompassing three nuclear loci (NT-3, RAG-1, C-mos) and seven mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ATPase6, ATPase8, ND4, ND5, cytb). Fossil-calibrated phylogenetic and subsequent diversification rate analyses are implemented using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, to examine their evolutionary history and temporal dynamics of diversity. Based on ancestral area reconstructions we explore dispersal patterns throughout the New World. Cladogenesis occurred predominantly during the Miocene and Pliocene with only two divergences during the Pleistocene. Two different diversification rate models, advocating diversity-dependence, are strongly supported. These models indicate an early rapid radiation followed by a recent speciation rate decline. Biogeographic analyses suggest that the high elevation pine-oak forests of western Mexico served as a major speciation pump for the majority of lineages, with the desert biome of western North America colonized independently at least twice. All together, these results provide evidence for rapid diversification of rattlesnakes throughout the

  7. Venom phenotypes of the Rock Rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus) and the Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi) from México and the United States.

    PubMed

    Saviola, Anthony J; Gandara, Anthony J; Bryson, Robert W; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2017-08-19

    Although the Mexican Highlands has the highest diversity of small-bodied rattlesnakes in the world, studies on the species found throughout this region have been relatively scarce. This has led to challenges with examining venom phenotypic characteristics, as well as species misidentifications and misclassifications. In the current study we investigated venom variation among four subspecies of Crotalus lepidus (C. l. klaluberi, C. l. lepidus, C. l. maculosus, C. l. morulus) and four subspecies of C. willardi (C. w. amabilis, C. w. obscurus, C. w. silus, and C. w. willardi) that inhabit regions of southwestern United States and central México. SDS-PAGE patterns show the presence of many of the major compounds found in other rattlesnake venoms, although minor variations in protein banding patterns and intensity are recognizable. Most notably, PI-metalloproteinase (SVMP) bands appear to be very faint to absent in northern C. l. lepidus and C. l. klauberi subspecies, but are fairly prominent in all other C. lepidus and C. willardi subspecies. Enzyme activity assays revealed that C. lepidus subspecies exhibit higher SVMP and thrombin-like activities when compared to C. willardi subspecies. Significant differences between subspecies were also observed for kallikrein-like serine protease, L-amino acid oxidase, and phosphodiesterase activities, although these differences appear to be random and fail to follow a geographical or phylogenetic trend. The same relationship was also observed for fibrinogenolytic and coagulation assays. Toxicity assays conducted on lab mice (Mus musculus), house geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus), and house crickets (Acheta domestica) revealed varying toxicities between subspecies, with C. l klauberi being the most toxic towards mice (LD50 = 1.36 μg/g) and house geckos (LD50 = 0.17 μg/g), and C. w. silus being most toxic to house crickets (LD50 = 1.94 μg/g). These results provide additional evidence that geographical

  8. Additional observations and notes on the natural history of the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Shipley, Bryon K; Newquist, Kristin L; Vera, Rebecca; Flood, Aryn A

    2013-11-01

    On account of their unique anatomy, physiology, natural history, ecology, and behavior, rattlesnakes make ideal subjects for a variety of different scientific disciplines. The prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado was selected for investigation of its relationship to colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with regard to spatial ecology. A total of 31 snakes were anesthetized and had radiotransmitters surgically implanted. In addition, at the time of their capture, all snakes underwent the following: (1) they had bacterial culture taken from their mouths for potential isolation of pathogenic bacteria; (2) similarly, they had cloacal bacterial cultures taken to assess potentially harmful bacteria passed in the feces; and (3) they had blood samples drawn to investigate the presence of any zoonotic agents in the serum of the snakes. The results of the study and their implications are discussed here. Traditionally, a low incidence of bacterial wound infection has been reported following snakebite. Nevertheless, the oral cavity of snakes has long been known to house a wide variety of bacterial flora. In our study, 10 different bacterial species were isolated from the mouths of the rattlesnakes, 6 of which are capable of being zoonotic pathogens and inducing human disease. More studies are necessary to see why more rattlesnake bites do not become infected despite the presence of such pathogenic bacteria. The results of fecal bacteria isolated revealed 13 bacterial species, 12 of which can cause disease in humans. Of the snakes whose samples were cultured, 26% were positive for the presence of the pathogen Salmonella arizonae, one of the causative agents of reptile-related salmonellosis in humans. It has long been reported that captive reptiles have a much higher incidence than wild, free-ranging species. This study shows the incidence of Salmonella in a wild, free-ranging population of rattlesnakes. In addition, Stenotrophomonas

  9. Evolutionary trends in venom composition in the western rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis sensu lato): toxicity vs. tenderizers.

    PubMed

    Mackessy, Stephen P

    2010-07-01

    The Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis sensu lato, now including Crotalus oreganus) is broadly distributed across the western half of the United States, northwestern Mexico and southwestern Canada, and eight subspecies are currently recognized. Although some venom characteristics have been noted for most subspecies, a systematic study of venoms from all subspecies has not been reported. Venom was extracted from snakes collected from approximate geographic range centers for all subspecies and analyzed using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, enzyme and toxicity assays. Electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses demonstrated that small myotoxins, disintegrins and PLA(2) were abundant in most venoms. PIII and PI metalloproteinases ( approximately 54 kDa and 23 kDa, respectively) were common to all venoms except C. o. concolor, C. o. caliginis and C.o. helleri. Metalloproteinase activity was highest in C. o. cerberus and lowest in C. o. concolor venoms ( approximately 100-fold difference). Conversely, C. o. concolor venom was the most toxic and C. o. cerberus venom was least toxic (15-fold difference). In general, venoms with high metalloproteinase activity were less toxic (type I venoms), while venoms which were highly toxic showed low protease activity (type II venoms). Within the C. viridis/oreganus complex, these two extremes of venom compositional phenotypes are observed, and it appears that high metalloproteinase activity and high toxicity are incompatible qualities of these venoms. The functional significance of these biochemical characteristics likely relates to characteristics of prey consumed, and venoms with low metalloproteinase activity may constrain snake prey selection or foraging activity patterns.

  10. Natural history of a northern population of twin-spotted rattlesnakes, Crotalus pricei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prival, D.B.; Goode, M.J.; Swann, D.E.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Schroff, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The twin-spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pricei) is a small-bodied pitviper that has received little attention in the literature to date. The species reaches the northern limit of its range in southeastern Arizona, where it inhabits higher elevations than any of the state's 10 other rattlesnake species. During 1997-2000, we captured, measured, and marked 127 C. pricei in Arizona's Chiricahua Mountains between 2530 and 2900 m elevation. We also used radiotelemetry to track the movements of 16 C. pricei in the study area during 1997-1998. Mean (?? SE) snout-vent length of C. pricei was 387.8 ?? 8.3 mm (range = 168-572), and mean mass was 53.5 ?? 3.3 g (range = 3.6-188.5). Based on fecal analyses, lizards constituted the bulk of prey (74%), but the diet of C. pricei also included mammals, birds, and a conspecific. Mating was concentrated in August and early September and parturition took place during late July and August. Mean number of embryos was 3.94 ?? 0.34 (range = 1-6) and female reproduction appeared biennial or less frequent. Based on shed and growth rates, female C. pricei develop embryos at 4-5 years of age. Gravid females maintained warmer body temperatures relative to substrate temperature than nongravid females or males, presumably by spending more time basking than other snakes. Radiotelemetry revealed that movement patterns varied from year to year, as males moved over six times farther per week during the 1998 monsoon season (July to September) than during the 1997 monsoon season. Additionally, use of talus slopes by males decreased during 1998. During dry years, such as 1998, males may be forced off talus into cooler microclimates where resources are less concentrated than on talus.

  11. Osteomyelitis associated with Salmonella enterica SS arizonae in a colony of ridgenose rattlesnakes (Crotalus willardi).

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Edward C; Daniel, Gregory B; Tryon, Bern W; Merryman, Joyce I; Morris, Patrick J; Bemis, David A

    2002-12-01

    The identification of three Arizona ridgenose rattlesnakes (Crotalus willardi) with Salmonella arizonae-associated osteomyelitis led to a 5-yr prospective study of radiographic signs and Salmonella intestinal carriage rates in a 19-member colony of this rattlesnake species. Ventrodorsal radiographs were performed and cloacal swabs were cultured for Salmonella spp. annually. Ten snakes survived the 5-yr period, with six of them remaining free of bony lesions. Three snakes that had no bony lesions in 1995 developed radiographic signs of osteomyelitis during the study. Six snakes with bony lesions at the beginning of the study died or were euthanatized due to osteomyelitis during the study. The radiographic signs of osteomyelitis were progressive for five snakes that were serially radiographed. Only one snake with radiographic signs of osteomyelitis at the beginning of the study was still alive at the end of the study, and this animal's bony lesions were more extensive at the end. Thirty-nine intestinal S. arizonae isolates, representing 13 serotypes, were obtained from the 19 snakes. Salmonella arizonae serotype 56:Z4,Z23 was isolated only once from a cloacal culture, from a snake that had no radiographic bone lesions. Twelve extraintestinal Salmonella isolates, representing two serotypes, were isolated from six snakes. All extraintestinal isolates except one were of S. arizonae serotype 56:Z4,Z23, and all isolates from bone were of this serotype. One snake with characteristic bone lesions died, and Providencia rettgeri was cultured from each of the tissues cultured, whereas no Salmonella spp. were isolated from this snake. Salmonella arizonae serotype 56:Z4,Z23 [corrected] appears to have a tropism for bone and other extraintestinal sites in C. willardi and may cause a progressive, ultimately fatal disease in this species.

  12. Behavioral thermal tolerances of free-ranging rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) during the summer foraging season.

    PubMed

    Putman, Breanna J; Clark, Rulon W

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperature due to climate change is one of the greatest challenges for wildlife worldwide. Behavioral data on free-ranging individuals is necessary to determine at what temperatures animals modify activity as this would determine their capacity to continue to move, forage, and mate under altered thermal regimes. In particular, high temperatures could limit available surface activity time and time spent on fitness-related activities. Conversely, performance, such as feeding rate, can increase with temperature potentially having positive fitness effects. Here, we examine how the hunting behaviors of free-ranging Northern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) associate with air temperature and body temperature. We continuously recorded snakes in the field using videography, capturing behaviors rarely considered in past studies such as movements in and out of refuge and strikes on prey. We found that as mean daily air temperature increased, hunting activity and the likelihood of hunting at night decreased, while the number of movements and distance moved per day increased. Snakes typically retreated to refuge before body temperatures reached 31°C. Body temperatures of snakes hunting on the surface were lower compared to temperatures of non-hunting snakes in refuge in the morning, while this relationship was inverted in the afternoon. Snake body size influenced the disparity of these temperatures. Finally, strike initiation and success occurred across a wide range of body temperatures, indicating hunting performance may not be strongly constrained by temperature. These results on the temperatures at which free-ranging rattlesnakes exhibit fitness-related behaviors could be valuable for understanding their vulnerabilities to future climates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Incipient speciation with biased gene flow between two lineages of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

    PubMed

    Schield, Drew R; Card, Daren C; Adams, Richard H; Jezkova, Tereza; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Proctor, F Nicole; Spencer, Carol L; Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Mackessy, Stephen P; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-02-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 151 individuals to estimate population genetic structure across the range of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), a widely distributed North American pit viper. We also tested hypotheses of population structure using double-digest restriction site associated DNA (ddRADseq) data, incorporating thousands of nuclear genome-wide SNPs from 42 individuals. We found strong mitochondrial support for a deep divergence between eastern and western C. atrox populations, and subsequent intermixing of these populations in the Inter-Pecos region of the United States and Mexico. Our nuclear RADseq data also identify these two distinct lineages of C. atrox, and provide evidence for nuclear admixture of eastern and western alleles across a broad geographic region. We identified contrasting patterns of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across this genetic fusion zone that indicate partially restricted patterns of gene flow, which may be due to either pre- or post-zygotic isolating mechanisms. The failure of these two lineages to maintain complete genetic isolation, and evidence for partially-restricted gene flow, imply that these lineages were in the early stages of speciation prior to secondary contact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard William; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E

    2015-07-01

    Snakes are capable of surviving long periods without food. In this study we characterized the microbiota of a Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), devoid of digesta, living in the wild. Pyrosequencing-based metagenomics were used to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles with the aid of the MG-RAST server. Pyrosequencing of samples taken from the stomach, small intestine and colon yielded 691696, 957756 and 700419 high quality sequence reads. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Eukarya was the most predominant domain, followed by bacteria and then viruses, for all three tissues. The most predominant phylum in the domain Bacteria was Proteobacteria for the tissues examined. Functional classifications by the subsystem database showed cluster-based subsystems were most predominant (10-15 %). Almost equally predominant (10-13 %) was carbohydrate metabolism. To identify bacteria in the colon at a finer taxonomic resolution, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was created. Proteobacteria was again found to be the most predominant phylum. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the microbial ecology of snakes living in the wild.

  15. Organotopic organization of the primary Infrared Sensitive Nucleus (LTTD) in the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

    PubMed

    Kohl, Tobias; Bothe, Maximilian S; Luksch, Harald; Straka, Hans; Westhoff, Guido

    2014-12-15

    Pit vipers (Crotalinae) have a specific sensory system that detects infrared radiation with bilateral pit organs in the upper jaw. Each pit organ consists of a thin membrane, innervated by three trigeminal nerve branches that project to a specific nucleus in the dorsal hindbrain. The known topographic organization of infrared signals in the optic tectum prompted us to test the implementation of spatiotopically aligned sensory maps through hierarchical neuronal levels from the peripheral epithelium to the first central site in the hindbrain, the nucleus of the lateral descending trigeminal tract (LTTD). The spatial organization of the anatomical connections was revealed in a novel in vitro whole-brain preparation of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) that allowed specific application of multiple neuronal tracers to identified pit-organ-supplying trigeminal nerve branches. After adequate survival times, the entire peripheral and central projections of fibers within the pit membrane and the LTTD became visible. This approach revealed a morphological partition of the pit membrane into three well-defined sensory areas with largely separated innervations by the three main branches. The peripheral segregation of infrared afferents in the sensory epithelium was matched by a differential termination of the afferents within different areas of the LTTD, with little overlap. This result demonstrates a topographic organizational principle of the snake infrared system that is implemented by maintaining spatially aligned representations of environmental infrared cues on the sensory epithelium through specific neuronal projections at the level of the first central processing stage, comparable to the visual system.

  16. Venom variation in hemostasis of the southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri): isolation of hellerase.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ana Maria; Guerrero, Belsy; Cantu, Bruno; Cantu, Esteban; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Pérez, John C; Galán, Jacob A; Tao, Andy; Sánchez, Elda E

    2009-04-01

    Envenomations by the southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri) are the most common snakebite accidents in southern California. Intraspecies venom variation may lead to unresponsiveness to antivenom therapy. Even in a known species, venom toxins are recognized as diverse in conformity with interpopulational, seasonal, ontogenetic and individual factors. Five venoms of individual C. oreganus helleri located in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of southern California were studied for their variation in their hemostatic activity. The results demonstrated that Riverside 2 and San Bernardino 1 venoms presented the highest lethal activity without hemorrhagic activity. In contrast, San Bernardino 2 and 3 venoms had the highest hemorrhagic and fibrinolytic activities with low lethal and coagulant activities. Riverside 1, Riverside 2 and San Bernardino 1 venoms presented a significant thrombin-like activity. San Bernardino 2 and 3 venoms presented an insignificant thrombin-like activity. In relation to the fibrinolytic activity, San Bernardino 3 venom was the most active on fibrin plates, which was in turn neutralized by metal chelating inhibitors. These results demonstrate the differences amongst C. oreganus helleri venoms from close localities. A metalloproteinase, hellerase, was purified by anionic and cationic exchange chromatographies from San Bernardino 3 venom. Hellerase exhibited the ability to break fibrin clots in vitro, which can be of biomedically importance in the treatment of heart attacks and strokes.

  17. Observations on white and yellow venoms from an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri).

    PubMed

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Ownby, C L

    1987-01-01

    Biochemical differences in white and yellow venoms produced in the separate venom glands of an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri) were investigated. Compared to the yellow venom, the white venom contained fewer low molecular weight components and was considerably less toxic. Although the exact LD50 was not determined, the white venom did not produce toxic effects in mice when injected i.v. at concentrations up to 10 mg/kg. The i.v. LD50 of the yellow venom was approximately 1.6 mg/kg. Both white and yellow venoms had hemorrhagic activity, but the white venom caused less intradermal hemorrhage in mice. No L-amino acid oxidase activity was measured in the white venom and protease and phospholipase A2 activities of the white venom were much less than in the yellow venom. The white and yellow venoms both produced myonecrosis at 1, 3 and 24 hr after i.m. injection into mice, however, there were some qualitative differences in the myonecrosis produced. When the venom samples were reacted against Wyeth's polyvalent (Crotalidae) antivenom using immunodiffusion, three precipitin bands formed against the yellow venom, whereas only one formed against the white venom. When reacted against an antiserum to myotoxin alpha from C. viridis viridis venom, both the white and yellow venoms produced one precipitin band each.

  18. Comparative skin permeability of neonatal and adult timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus).

    PubMed

    Agugliaro, Joseph; Reinert, Howard K

    2005-05-01

    Skin permeability and lipid content were determined using shed epidermis of neonatal and adult timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from the Coastal Plain Pine Barrens of New Jersey and from the Appalachian Mountains of northern Pennsylvania. Differences between populations due to habitat and within populations due to age were tested. Skin permeability was not found to differ according to locality (P>0.05), but rates were significantly different for age. Permeability of adult epidermis was greater than that of neonates (P<0.01). Lipid content did not differ by locality (P>0.05), but differed between ages, paralleling the results found for permeation rates. Neonate sheds had a greater amount of extractable lipids than adult sheds (P<0.01). Despite the lower skin permeability of neonates, our estimates indicate that the percentage of their total body water content lost per hour may still be 2.2 times that of adults. Resistance to cutaneous water loss may be advantageous to neonates given their relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio.

  19. Parasites of prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) and gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pfaffenberger, G S; Jorgensen, N M; Woody, D D

    1989-04-01

    Three prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) and two gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of New Mexico (USA) were examined for parasites. One cestode (Oochoristica osheroffi), and two nematode (Kalicephalus inermis and Physoloptera retusa) species were recovered from two infected rattlesnakes. One female gopher snake was infected with two nematode (K. inermis and Rhabdias spp.) and one mite (Entonyssus halli) species.

  20. Allopurinol Reduces the Lethality Associated with Acute Renal Failure Induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus Snake Venom: Comparison with Probenecid

    PubMed Central

    Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute renal failure is one of the most serious complications of envenoming resulting from Crotalus durissus terrificus bites. This study evaluated the relevance of hyperuricemia and oxidative stress and the effects of allopurinol and probenecid in renal dysfunction caused by direct nephrotoxicity of C. d. terrificus venom. Methodology/Principal Findings Hematocrit, protein, renal function and redox status were assessed in mice. High ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione and hyperuricemia induced by C. d. terrificus venom were ameliorated by both, allopurinol or probenecid, but only allopurinol significantly reduced the lethality caused by C. d. terrificus venom. The effectiveness of probenecid is compromised probably because it promoted hypercreatinemia and hypocreatinuria and worsed the urinary hypo-osmolality in envenomed mice. In turn, the highest effectiveness of allopurinol might be due to its ability to diminish the intracellular formation of uric acid. Conclusions/Significance Data provide consistent evidences linking uric acid with the acute renal failure induced by C. d. terrificus venom, as well as that this envenoming in mice constitutes an attractive animal model suitable for studying the hyperuricemia and that the allopurinol deserves to be clinically evaluated as an approach complementary to anti-snake venom serotherapy. PMID:21909449

  1. Synthesis of ribonucleic acid in the venom gland of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Ophidia, Reptilia) after manual extraction of the venom

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, F. L.; Imaizumi, M. T.

    1972-01-01

    1. The incorporation of [5-3H]uridine into RNA of the venom gland of Crotalus durissus terrificus was studied after manual extraction (`milking') of the venom. The labelled precursor was injected immediately after milking. 2. The RNA was extracted 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h after injection of the label and analysed by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. 3. The sedimentation analysis showed that 18S rRNA synthesis is higher than 28S rRNA at all time-intervals. The specific radioactivities of both ribosomal components did not reach a plateau even at 8h after injection. 4. An RNA fraction was detected sedimenting between 18S rRNA and 4S tRNA and was called the 10–14S fraction. The specific radioactivity was always higher than that of both classes of rRNA and reached the maximum value at 6h of labelling. 5. The incorporation of the precursor was also studied by radioautography, which helped to elucidate the intracellular origin of the RNA analysed by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4664568

  2. Molecular models of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) venom metalloproteinases reveal a structural basis for differences in hemorrhagic activities.

    PubMed

    Dagda, Ruben K; Gasanov, Sardar E; Zhang, Boris; Welch, William; Rael, Eppie D

    2014-03-01

    Rattlesnake venom can differ in composition and in metalloproteinase-associated activities. The molecular basis for this intra-species variation in Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake) remains an enigma. To understand the molecular basis for intra-species variation of metalloproteinase-associated activities, we modeled the three-dimensional structures of four metalloproteinases based on the amino acid sequence of four variations of the proteinase domain of the C. s. scutulatus metalloproteinase gene (GP1, GP2, GP3, and GP4). For comparative purposes, we modeled the atrolysin metalloproteinases of C. atrox as well. All molecular models shared the same topology. While the atrolysin metalloproteinase molecular models contained highly conserved substrate binding sites, the Mojave rattlesnake metalloproteinases showed higher structural divergence when superimposed onto each other. The highest structural divergence among the four C. s. scutulatus molecular models was located at the northern cleft wall and the S'1-pocket of the substrate binding site, molecular regions that modulate substrate selectivity. Molecular dynamics and field potential maps for each C. s. scutulatus metalloproteinase model demonstrated that the non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinases (GP2 and GP3) contain highly basic molecular and field potential surfaces while the hemorrhagic metalloproteinases GP1 and atrolysin C showed extensive acidic field potential maps and shallow but less dynamic active site pockets. Hence, differences in the spatial arrangement of the northern cleft wall, the S'1-pocket, and the physico-chemical environment surrounding the catalytic site contribute to differences in metalloproteinase activities in the Mojave rattlesnake. Our results provide a structural basis for variation of metalloproteinase-associated activities in the rattlesnake venom of the Mojave rattlesnake.

  3. Comparison of the effect of Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima venoms on the equine antibody response towards Bothrops asper venom: implications for the production of polyspecific snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; Arroyo, Cynthia; Solano, Sergio; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Alvaro; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    Antivenoms are preparations of immunoglobulins purified from the plasma of animals immunized with snake venoms. Depending on the number of venoms used during the immunization, antivenoms can be monospecific (if venom from a single species is used) or polyspecific (if venoms from several species are used). In turn, polyspecific antivenoms can be prepared by purifying antibodies from the plasma of animals immunized with a mixture of venoms, or by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. The suitability of these strategies to produce polyspecific antibothropic-crotalic antivenoms was assessed using as models the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima. It was demonstrated that, when used as co-immunogen, C. simus and C. durissus ruruima venoms exert a deleterious effect on the antibody response towards different components of B. asper venom and in the neutralization of hemorrhagic and coagulant effect of this venom when compared with a monospecific B. asper antivenom. Polyspecific antivenoms produced by purifying immunoglobulins from the plasma of animals immunized with venom mixtures showed higher antibody titers and neutralizing capacity than those produced by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. Thus, despite the deleterious effect of Crotalus sp venoms on the immune response against B. asper venom, the use of venom mixtures is more effective than the immunization with separate venoms for the preparation of polyspecific bothropic-crotalic antivenoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflammatory oedema induced by phospholipases A2 isolated from Crotalus durissus sp. in the rat dorsal skin: a role for mast cells and sensory C-fibers.

    PubMed

    Câmara, Paula R S; Esquisatto, Laura C M; Camargo, Enilton A; Ribela, Maria Teresa C P; Toyama, Marcos H; Marangoni, Sergio; De Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2003-06-01

    The ability of the phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) from Crotalus durissus cascavella, Crotalus durissus collilineatus and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms and crotapotin to increase the vascular permeability in the rat skin as well as the contribution of both mast cells and sensory C-fibers have been investigated in this study. Vascular permeability was measured as the plasma extravascular accumulation at skin sites of intravenously injected 125I-human serum albumin. Intradermal injection of crotalic PLA(2)s (0.05-0.5 microg/site) in the rat skin resulted in dose-dependent increase in plasma extravascular whereas crotapotin (1 microg/site) failed to affect this response. Co-injection of crotapotin (1 microg/site) did not modify the increased vascular permeability induced by the PLA(2)s (0.05-0.5 microg/site). Previous treatment (30 min) of the animals with cyproheptadine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) markedly reduced PLA(2) (0.5 microg/site)-induced oedema. In rats treated neonatally with capsaicin to deplete neuropeptides, the plasma extravasation induced by all PLA(2)s (0.5 microg/site) was also significantly reduced. Similarly, the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist SR140333 (1nmol/site) significantly reduced the PLA(2)-induced oedema. In addition, the combination of SR140333 with cyproheptadine further reduced the increased plasma extravasation by PLA(2) from C. d. cascavella venom, but not by PLA(2) from C. d. terrificus and C. d. collilineatus venoms. Our results suggest that increase in skin vascular permeability by crotalic PLA(2)s is mediated by activation of sensory C-fibers culminating in the release of substance P, as well as by activation of mast cells which in turn release amines such as histamine and serotonin.

  5. Venom variability and envenoming severity outcomes of the Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake) from Southern Arizona.

    PubMed

    Massey, Daniel J; Calvete, Juan J; Sánchez, Elda E; Sanz, Libia; Richards, Kelvin; Curtis, Ryan; Boesen, Keith

    2012-05-17

    Twenty-one Mojave rattlesnakes, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (C. s. scutulatus), were collected from Arizona and New Mexico U.S.A. Venom proteome of each specimen was analyzed using reverse-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE. The toxicity of venoms was analyzed using lethal dose 50 (LD(50)). Health severity outcomes between two Arizona counties U.S.A., Pima and Cochise, were determined by retrospective chart review of the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center (APDIC) database between the years of 2002 and 2009. Six phenotypes (A-F) were identified based on three venom protein families; Mojave toxin, snake venom metalloproteinases PI and PIII (SVMP), and myotoxin-A. Venom changed geographically from SVMP-rich to Mojave toxin-rich phenotypes as you move from south central to southeastern Arizona. Phenotypes containing myotoxin-A were only found in the transitional zone between the SVMP and Mojave toxin phenotypes. Venom samples containing the largest amounts of SVMP or Mojave toxin had the highest and lowest LD(50s), respectively. There was a significant difference when comparing the presence of neurotoxic effects between Pima and Cochise counties (p=0.001). No significant difference was found when comparing severity (p=0.32), number of antivenom vials administered (p=0.17), days spent in a health care facility (p=0.23) or envenomation per 100,000 population (p=0.06). Although not part of the original data to be collected, death and intubations, were also noted. There is a 10× increased risk of death and a 50× increased risk of intubations if envenomated in Cochise County.

  6. Phenotypic integration in the feeding system of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus).

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; Wray, Kenneth P; Seavy, Margaret; McGivern, James J; Sanader, Dragana; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-07-01

    Selection can vary geographically across environments and temporally over the lifetime of an individual. Unlike geographic contexts, where different selective regimes can act on different alleles, age-specific selection is constrained to act on the same genome by altering age-specific expression. Snake venoms are exceptional traits for studying ontogeny because toxin expression variation directly changes the phenotype; relative amounts of venom components determine, in part, venom efficacy. Phenotypic integration is the dependent relationship between different traits that collectively produce a complex phenotype and, in venomous snakes, may include traits as diverse as venom, head shape and fang length. We examined the feeding system of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) across environments and over the lifetime of individuals and used a genotype-phenotype map approach, protein expression data and morphological data to demonstrate that: (i) ontogenetic effects explained more of the variation in toxin expression variation than geographic effects, (ii) both juveniles and adults varied geographically, (iii) toxin expression variation was a result of directional selection and (iv) different venom phenotypes covaried with morphological traits also associated with feeding in temporal (ontogenetic) and geographic (functional) contexts. These data are the first to demonstrate, to our knowledge, phenotypic integration between multiple morphological characters and a biochemical phenotype across populations and age classes. We identified copy number variation as the mechanism driving the difference in the venom phenotype associated with these morphological differences, and the parallel mitochondrial, venom and morphological divergence between northern and southern clades suggests that each clade may warrant classification as a separate evolutionarily significant unit.

  7. Phylogeographic structure and historical demography of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox): A perspective on North American desert biogeography.

    PubMed

    Castoe, Todd A; Spencer, Carol L; Parkinson, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    The western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) is a prominent member of North American desert and semi-arid ecosystems, and its importance extends from its impact on the region's ecology and imagery, to its medical relevance as a large deadly venomous snake. We used mtDNA sequences to identify population genetic structure and historical demographic patterns across the range of this species, and relate these to broader patterns of historical biogeography of desert and semi-arid regions of the southwestern USA and adjacent Mexico. We inferred a Late Pliocene divergence between peninsular and continental lineages of Crotalus, followed by an Early Mid Pleistocene divergence across the continental divide within C. atrox. Within desert regions (Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, Southern Plains, and Tamaulipan Plain) we observed population structure indicating isolation of populations in multiple Pleistocene refugia on either side of the continental divide, which we attempt to identify. Evidence of post-glacial population growth and range expansion was inferred, particularly in populations east of the continental divide. We observed clear evidence of (probably recent) gene flow across the continental divide and secondary contact of haplotype lineages. This recent gene flow appears to be particularly strong in the West-to-East direction. Our results also suggest that Crotalus tortugensis (Tortuga Island rattlesnake) and a population of 'C. atrox' inhabiting Santa Cruz Island (in the Gulf of California) previously suggested to be an unnamed species, are in fact deeply phylogenetically nested within continental lineages of C. atrox. Accordingly, we suggest C. tortugensis and 'C. atrox' from Santa Cruz Island be placed in the synonymy of C. atrox.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by pancreatic and crotalic (Crotalus durissus terrificus) phospholipases A2 on rabbit proximal tubules suspensions.

    PubMed

    Amora, Daniela N; Costa Martins, Alice M; Roeser, Nancy; Senter, Ruth; Ostrowsky, Tiffany; Weinberg, Joel M; Monteiro, Helena S A

    2008-12-15

    In the present study we show that phospholipases A2 isolated from porcine pancreas (PP-PLA2) and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (SV-PLA2) induced dose-dependent increases of LDH release from rabbit proximal tubules in suspension. Both porcine and crotalic PLA(2)s induced increases in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels (microg of NEFA/mg of tubule protein). It was observed that the NEFA levels in the pellets were higher than in the supernatant for both PLA2, and were dose-dependent for the crotalic PLA2 group. Furthermore, snake venom PLA2 induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) assessed by both JC-1 uptake and safranin O uptake. Porcine PLA2 produced no effects on JC-1 uptake with the highest concentrations and an unexpected increase in the group treated with the lowest concentration. In contrast, the safranin O method revealed decreases of energization with both phospholipases, so it had higher sensitivity to the presence of the increased NEFA levels. Addition of delipidated bovine serum albumin (dBSA) completely reversed the effects induced by phospholipases on DeltaPsi(m) measured with safranin O. Incubation with pancreatic and crotalic phospholipases A2 produced no changes on cell ATP levels. We conclude that the treatment of proximal tubule suspensions with porcine or crotalic phospholipases disturbed membrane integrity as well as mitochondrial function. Specific early NEFA-mediated mitochondrial effects of the phospholipases used in the present study are indicated by the benefit provided by dBSA.

  9. Flow cytometric characterization of peripheral blood leukocyte populations of 3 neotropical snake species: Boa constrictor, Bothrops jararaca, and Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle G T; Massoco, Cristina O; Rossi, Silmara; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Catão-Dias, José L; Grego, Kathleen F

    2016-06-01

    The reptilian immune system is represented by innate, humoral, and cell-mediated mechanisms, involving different types of blood leukocytes. The development of optimized methods for the advanced study of origin and function of reptilian blood leukocytes is needed. The purpose of the study was to optimize leukocyte density gradient isolation protocols from snake peripheral blood samples, and characterize recovered cells by flow cytometry based on size and internal complexity for a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of leukocyte populations in one boa (Boa constrictor), and 2 viper species (Bothrops jararaca, Crotalus durissus). Blood samples from 30 snakes (10 from each species, 5 males and 5 females) were collected in tubes with sodium heparin. Fresh blood was centrifuged with either ficoll-paque PLUS or percoll density gradients for leukocyte isolation. Flow cytometric leukocyte gates were defined based on size (forward scatter [FSC]) and internal complexity (side scatter [SSC]). Relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting the cells in these gates in one snake for each species were compared to conventional light microscopic differential counts on unsorted isolated leukocytes. There was no statistical difference in the relative leukocyte populations, including heterophils, azurophils, and small and large lymphocytes between samples isolated by ficoll or percoll. Four leukocyte gates were identified based on their location in FSC/SSC cytograms. The relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting in single animals showed some agreement with the light microscopy differential count on unsorted cells. Based on FSC and SSC, 4 distinct leukocyte populations were found in ficoll or percoll density gradient isolated leukocytes from peripheral blood from boa and viper species. Further optimization of the technique should allow the performance of functional assays. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus Is Able to Down-Modulate the Acute Intestinal Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Caroline de Souza; Andrade-Oliveira, Vinicius; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F.; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the induction of a

  11. Proteomic analysis of the rare Uracoan rattlesnake Crotalus vegrandis venom: Evidence of a broad arsenal of toxins.

    PubMed

    Viala, Vincent Louis; Hildebrand, Diana; Fucase, Tamara Mieco; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Riedner, Maria; Sanches, Leonardo; Nishimura, Paula Juliana; Oguiura, Nancy; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswami; Spencer, Patrick Jack

    2015-12-01

    The investigation of venoms has many clinical, pharmacological, ecological and evolutionary outcomes. The Crotalus spp. venom can cause hemorrhage, neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, coagulopathy and hypotension. Although neurotoxicity and hemorrhage usually does not occur for the same species, the rare Venezuelan species Crotalus vegrandis presents both characteristic. Different from the other species it has a restricted ecological niche and geographical distribution. Nevertheless, it has a raising medical importance as this rattlesnake population is increasing. Few works describe its neurotoxic and hemorrhagic features, but other toxins might play an important role in envenomation. We combined proteomic methods to identify for the first time the main components of it venom: 2D SDS-PAGE and gel-filtration chromatography for protein mixture decomplexation; LC-MS(2) of low molecular mass fractions and tryptic peptides; bioinformatic identification of toxin families and specific protein species based on unique peptide analysis and sequence database enriched with species-specific venom gland transcripts; and finally polyclonal anti-crotamine Western-blotting. Our results point to a broad arsenal of toxins in C. vegrandis venom: PIII and PII metalloproteases, crotoxin subunits, other phospholipases, isoforms of serine proteases and lectins, l-amino-acid oxidase, nerve growth factor, as well as other less abundant toxins.

  12. Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) lacking the acidic subunit DNA sequence lack Mojave toxin in their venom.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, B J; Pineda, G; Banuelas-Ornelas, J J; Dagda, R K; Gasanov, S E; Rael, E D; Lieb, C S

    2001-09-01

    The venom composition of Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) differs in that some individuals have Mojave toxin and others do not. In order to understand the genetic basis for this difference, genomic DNA samples from Mojave rattlesnakes collected in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences that relate to the acidic (Mta) and basic (Mtb) subunits of this toxin. DNA samples were subjected to PCR to amplify nucleotide sequences from second to fourth exons of the acidic and basic subunits. These nucleotide sequences were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences generated aligned exactly to previously published nucleotide sequences of Mojave toxin. All DNA samples analyzed generated product using the basic subunit primers, and aligned identically to the Mtb nucleotide sequence. However, only 11 out of the 14 samples generated a product with the acidic subunit primers. These 11 sequences aligned identically to the Mta nucleotide sequence. The venom from the three snakes whose DNA did not amplify with the acidic subunit primers were not recognized by antibodies to Mojave toxin. This suggests that snakes with venom lacking Mojave toxin also lack the productive nucleotide sequence for the acidic subunit in their DNA.

  13. Constipation associated with brumation? Intestinal obstruction caused by a fecalith in a wild red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber).

    PubMed

    Corbit, A G; Person, C; Hayes, W K

    2014-02-01

    This report describes the fecalith-induced intestinal obstruction of a free-ranging red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber) and the snake's subsequent history following surgical removal of the fecalith. The captured snake exhibited an abnormally distended abdomen and an extremely hard mass, detected via palpation, near its vent. Coeliotomy yielded a 2.5-cm, 5-g fecalith from the large intestine. Microscopic dissection of the fecalith revealed no evidence of gastrointestinal parasitic worms. Subsequently, we implanted a radio-transmitter that allowed us to track the snake's movements for 7 months (until the radio signal vanished), indicating normal behaviour, complete recovery and good health apart from the obstruction. This observation suggests that fecalith development and intestinal obstruction represent potential risks of long-term faecal retention, an unusual physiological trait well documented among rattlesnakes and other stout, heavy-bodied terrestrial viperid snakes. Dehydration and decreased gut motility associated with brumation (≈hibernation) may predispose temperate snakes to fecalith formation. Regional drought and a small mammal diet with indigestible hairs might have also promoted fecalith formation in this specimen.

  14. The transcriptomic and proteomic basis for the evolution of a novel venom phenotype within the Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus).

    PubMed

    Rokyta, Darin R; Wray, Kenneth P; McGivern, James J; Margres, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    The genetics underlying adaptive trait evolution describes the intersection between the probability that particular types of mutation are beneficial and the rates they arise. Snake venoms can vary in a directly meaningful manner through coding mutations and regulatory mutations. The amounts of different components determine venom efficacy, but point mutations in coding sequences can also change efficacy and function. The Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) has populations that have evolved neurotoxic venom from the typical hemorrhagic rattlesnake venom present throughout most of its range. We identified only a handful of nonsynonymous differences in just five loci between animals with each venom type, and these differences affected lower-abundance toxins. Expression of at least 18 loci encoding hemorrhagic toxins was severely reduced in the production of neurotoxic venom. The entire phospholipase A2 toxin family was completely replaced in the neurotoxic venom, possibly through intergeneric hybridization. Venom paedomorphosis could, at best, explain only some of the loss of expression of hemorrhagic toxins. The number of potential mechanisms for altering venom composition and the patterns observed for C. horridus suggest that rapid venom evolution should occur primarily through changes in venom composition, rather than point mutations affecting coding sequences.

  15. The role of the vomeronasal organ in rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus) predatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Alving, W R; Kardong, K V

    1996-01-01

    During predatory behavior, rattlesnakes depend primarily upon thermal and visual cues to initially aim a strike. However, it has been hypothesized that prey-related odors sensed by the vomeronasal system act as releasing stimuli of the strike and that such vomodors are primary stimuli during poststrike trailing and swallowing of the envenomated rodent. To test this, northern Pacific rattlesnakes were rendered avomic by bilateral lesions of the vomeronasal nerves, and their vomic and avomic predatory behaviors were compared. Avomic rattlesnakes exhibited fewer strikes and complete elimination of trailing and swallowing behavior. These results support the hypothesis that vomodors sensed via the vomeronasal organ are capable of acting as releasing stimuli of selected rattlesnake predatory behaviors. Sensory input via the vomeronasal organ is important during prestrike/strike behavior, and it is a major route of sensory input during poststrike trailing and ingestion of envenomated prey.

  16. Evolution of rattlesnakes (Viperidae; Crotalus) in the warm deserts of western North America shaped by Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Michael E; Douglas, Marlis R; Schuett, Gordon W; Porras, Louis W

    2006-10-01

    During Pleistocene, the Laurentide ice sheet rearranged and diversified biotic distributions in eastern North America, yet had minimal physical impact in western North America where lineage diversification is instead hypothesized to result from climatic changes. If Pleistocene climatic fluctuations impacted desert species, the latter would reflect patterns of restricted gene flow concomitant with indications of demographic bottlenecks. Accordingly, molecular evidence for refugia should be present within these distributions and for subsequent range expansions as conditions improved. We sought answers to these questions by evaluating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four species of rattlesnakes [Crotalus mitchellii (speckled rattlesnake), Crotalus cerastes (sidewinder), Crotalus tigris (tiger rattlesnake), Crotalus ruber (red diamond rattlesnake)] with distributions restricted to desert regions of southwestern North America. We inferred relationships using parsimony and maximum likelihood, tested intraspecific clades for population expansions, applied an isolation-with-migration model to determine bi-directional migration rates (m) among regions, and inferred divergence times for species and clades by applying a semiparametric penalized likelihood approach to our molecular data. Evidence for significant range expansion was present in two of eight regions in two species (Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus, C. tigris region north). Two species (C. cerastes, C. mitchellii) showed a distribution concomitant with northward displacement of Baja California from mainland México, followed by vicariant separation into subclades. Effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuations were found in the distributions of all four species. Three regional diversification patterns were identified: (i) shallow genetic diversity that resulted from Pleistocene climatic events (C. tigris, C. ruber); (ii) deep Pleistocene divisions indicating allopatric segregation of subclades within refugia (C

  17. Morulustatin, A Disintegrin that Inhibits ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation, Isolated from the Mexican Tamaulipan Rock Rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus).

    PubMed

    Borja, Miguel; Galan, Jacob Anthony; Cantu, Esteban; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lazcano, David; Lucena, Sara; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, Y Elda Eliza

    2016-01-01

    The Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus) is a montane snake that occurs in the humid pine-oak forest and the upper cloud forest of the Sierra Madre Oriental in southwestern Tamaulipas, central Nuevo Leon, and southeastern Coahuila in Mexico. Venom from this rattlesnake was fractionated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the purpose of discovering disintegrin molecules. Disintegrins are non-enzymatic, small molecular weight peptides that interfere with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions by binding to various cell receptors. Eleven fractions were collected by anion exchange chromatography and pooled into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, and VI). Proteins of the six groups were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blot using antibodies raised against a disintegrin. The antibodies recognized different protein bands in five (II, III, IV, V, and VI) of six groups in a molecular mass range of 7 to 105 kDa. Western blot analysis revealed fewer protein bands in the higher molecular mass range and two bands in the disintegrin weight range in group II compared with the other four groups. Proteins in group II were further separated into nine fractions using reverse phase C18 chromatography. Fraction 4 inhibited platelet aggregation and was named morulustatin, which exhibited a single band with a molecular mass of approximately 7 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of fraction 4 revealed the identification of disintegrin peptides LRPGAQCADGLCCDQCR (MH+ 2035.84) and AGEECDCGSPANCCDAATCK (MH+ 2328.82). Morulustatin inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood and was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 89.5 nM ± 12.

  18. Morulustatin, A Disintegrin that Inhibits ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation, Isolated from the Mexican Tamaulipan Rock Rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus)

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Miguel; Galan, Jacob Anthony; Cantu, Esteban; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Lazcano, David; Lucena, Sara; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, y Elda Eliza

    2016-01-01

    The Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus) is a montane snake that occurs in the humid pine-oak forest and the upper cloud forest of the Sierra Madre Oriental in southwestern Tamaulipas, central Nuevo Leon, and southeastern Coahuila in Mexico. Venom from this rattlesnake was fractionated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the purpose of discovering disintegrin molecules. Disintegrins are non-enzymatic, small molecular weight peptides that interfere with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions by binding to various cell receptors. Eleven fractions were collected by anion exchange chromatography and pooled into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, and VI). Proteins of the six groups were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blot using antibodies raised against a disintegrin. The antibodies recognized different protein bands in five (II, III, IV, V, and VI) of six groups in a molecular mass range of 7 to 105 kDa. Western blot analysis revealed fewer protein bands in the higher molecular mass range and two bands in the disintegrin weight range in group II compared with the other four groups. Proteins in group II were further separated into nine fractions using reverse phase C18 chromatography. Fraction 4 inhibited platelet aggregation and was named morulustatin, which exhibited a single band with a molecular mass of approximately 7 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of fraction 4 revealed the identification of disintegrin peptides LRPGAQCADGLCCDQCR (MH+ 2035.84) and AGEECDCGSPANCCDAATCK (MH+ 2328.82). Morulustatin inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood and was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 89.5 nM ± 12. PMID:28713196

  19. Experimentally altered navigational demands induce changes in the cortical forebrain of free-ranging northern pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus o. oreganus).

    PubMed

    Holding, Matthew L; Frazier, Julius A; Taylor, Emily N; Strand, Christine R

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus of birds and mammals plays a crucial role in spatial memory and navigation. The hippocampus exhibits plasticity in adulthood in response to diverse environmental factors associated with spatial demands placed on an animal. The medial and dorsal cortices of the telencephalon of squamate reptiles have been implicated as functional homologues to the hippocampus. This study sought to experimentally manipulate the navigational demands placed on free-ranging northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus o. oreganus) to provide direct evidence of the relationship between spatial demands and neuroplasticity in the cortical telencephalon of the squamate brain. Adult male rattlesnakes were radio-tracked for 2 months, during which time 1 of 3 treatments was imposed weekly, namely 225-meter translocation in a random direction, 225-meter walk and release at that day's capture site (handling control) or undisturbed (control). Snakes were then sacrificed and the brains were removed and processed for histological analysis of cortical features. The activity range was larger in the translocated (Tr) group compared to the handled (Hd) and undisturbed control (Cn) groups when measured via 95% minimum convex polygon (MCP). At the 100% MCP level, Tr snakes had larger activity ranges than the Cn snakes only. The volume of the medial cortex (MC) was larger in the Tr group compared to the Cn group. The MC of Hd snakes was not significantly different from that of either of the other groups. No differences in dorsal cortex (DC) or lateral cortex volumes were detected among the groups. Numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the MC and DC 3 weeks after BrdU injection were not affected by treatment. This study establishes a causal relationship between navigational demands and greater MC volume in a free-ranging reptile.

  20. Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise) and Crotalus ruber (red diamond rattlesnake). Burrow co-occupancy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    I observed an adult Desert Tortoise and an adult Red Diamond Rattlesnake (sexes unknown) in a shallow tortoise burrow on 6 January 1997 at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, USA (33.9599°N, 116.6613°W).

  1. Integrated Venomics and Venom Gland Transcriptome Analysis of Juvenile and Adult Mexican Rattlesnakes Crotalus simus, C. tzabcan, and C. culminatus Revealed miRNA-modulated Ontogenetic Shifts.

    PubMed

    Durban, Jordi; Sanz, Libia; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Neri-Castro, Edgar; Alagón, Alejandro; Calvete, Juan J

    2017-09-01

    Adult rattlesnakes within genus Crotalus express one of two distinct venom phenotypes, type I (hemorrhagic) and type II (neurotoxic). In Costa Rican Central American rattlesnake, ontogenetic changes in the concentration of miRNAs modulate venom type II to type I transition. Venomics and venom gland transcriptome analyses showed that adult C. simus and C. tzabcan expressed intermediate patterns between type II and type I venoms, whereas C. culminatus had a canonical type I venom. Neonate/juvenile and adult Mexican rattlesnakes showed notable inter- and intraspecific variability in the number, type, abundance and ontogenetic shifts of the transcriptional and translational venom gland activities. These results support a role for miRNAs in the ontogenetic venom compositional changes in the three congeneric Mexican rattlesnakes. It is worth noting the finding of dual-action miRNAs, which silence the translation of neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA2 crotoxin and acidic PLA2 mRNAs while simultaneously up-regulating SVMP-targeting mRNAs. Dual transcriptional regulation potentially explains the existence of mutually exclusive crotoxin-rich (type-II) and SVMP-rich (type-I) venom phenotypic dichotomy among rattlesnakes. Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the distribution of miRNAs, modulating the translational activity of venom gland toxin-encoding mRNAs in response to an external cue, may contribute to the mechanism generating adaptive venom variability.

  2. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G.; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K.; Calvete, Juan J.; Carter, Kimberley C.; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E.; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species. PMID:27322321

  3. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K; Calvete, Juan J; Carter, Kimberley C; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-06-16

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A₂ such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

  4. Capillary damage in the area postrema by venom of the northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus).

    PubMed

    Meléndez-Martínez, David; Macias-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro; Gatica-Colima, Ana; Plenge-Tellechea, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus) venom is mainly hemotoxic, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic. Its effects in the central nervous system are unknown and only poorly described for all Viperidae species in general. This is why we are interested in describe the damage induced by C. m. molossus venom in rat brain, particularly in the area postrema capillaries. Four C. m. molossus venom doses were tested (0.02, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20mg/kg) injected intramuscularly at the lower limb, incubated by 24 hours and the brains were harvested. Area postrema coronal sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin, and examined to observe the venom effect in quantity of capillaries and porphology. Starting from the 0.10mg/kg treatment we observed lysed extravasated erythrocytes and also capillary breakdown, as a consequence of hemorrhages appearance. The number of capillaries decreased significantly in response to the venom dose increment. Hemorrhages could be caused by the metalloproteinase activity on the basal membrane and the apoptosis generated by L-amino acid oxidases. Hemolysis could be caused by phospholipase A2 hemotoxic effect. We conclude that C. m. molossus crude venom produces hemolysis, capillary breakdown, hemorrhages, and the reduction in number of capillaries in the area postrema.

  5. Capillary damage in the area postrema by venom of the northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus)

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez-Martínez, David; Macias-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro; Gatica-Colima, Ana; Plenge-Tellechea, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus) venom is mainly hemotoxic, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic. Its effects in the central nervous system are unknown and only poorly described for all Viperidae species in general. This is why we are interested in describe the damage induced by C. m. molossus venom in rat brain, particularly in the area postrema capillaries. Four C. m. molossus venom doses were tested (0.02, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20mg/kg) injected intramuscularly at the lower limb, incubated by 24 hours and the brains were harvested. Area postrema coronal sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin, and examined to observe the venom effect in quantity of capillaries and porphology. Starting from the 0.10mg/kg treatment we observed lysed extravasated erythrocytes and also capillary breakdown, as a consequence of hemorrhages appearance. The number of capillaries decreased significantly in response to the venom dose increment. Hemorrhages could be caused by the metalloproteinase activity on the basal membrane and the apoptosis generated by L-amino acid oxidases. Hemolysis could be caused by phospholipase A2 hemotoxic effect. We conclude that C. m. molossus crude venom produces hemolysis, capillary breakdown, hemorrhages, and the reduction in number of capillaries in the area postrema. PMID:25035793

  6. Snake venomics of Crotalus tigris: the minimalist toxin arsenal of the deadliest Nearctic rattlesnake venom. Evolutionary Clues for generating a pan-specific antivenom against crotalid type II venoms [corrected].

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Pérez, Alicia; Lomonte, Bruno; Sánchez, Elda E; Sanz, Libia

    2012-02-03

    We report the proteomic and antivenomic characterization of Crotalus tigris venom. This venom exhibits the highest lethality for mice among rattlesnakes and the simplest toxin proteome reported to date. The venom proteome of C. tigris comprises 7-8 gene products from 6 toxin families; the presynaptic β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA(2), Mojave toxin, and two serine proteinases comprise, respectively, 66 and 27% of the C. tigris toxin arsenal, whereas a VEGF-like protein, a CRISP molecule, a medium-sized disintegrin, and 1-2 PIII-SVMPs each represent 0.1-5% of the total venom proteome. This toxin profile really explains the systemic neuro- and myotoxic effects observed in envenomated animals. In addition, we found that venom lethality of C. tigris and other North American rattlesnake type II venoms correlates with the concentration of Mojave toxin A-subunit, supporting the view that the neurotoxic venom phenotype of crotalid type II venoms may be described as a single-allele adaptation. Our data suggest that the evolutionary trend toward neurotoxicity, which has been also reported for the South American rattlesnakes, may have resulted by pedomorphism. The ability of an experimental antivenom to effectively immunodeplete proteins from the type II venoms of C. tigris, Crotalus horridus , Crotalus oreganus helleri, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus, and Sistrurus catenatus catenatus indicated the feasibility of generating a pan-American anti-Crotalus type II antivenom, suggested by the identification of shared evolutionary trends among South and North American Crotalus species.

  7. A novel phospholipase A2 (D49) from the venom of the Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand canyon rattlesnake).

    PubMed

    Martins, W; Baldasso, P A; Honório, K M; Maltarollo, V G; Ribeiro, R I M A; Carvalho, B M A; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Stábeli, R G; Caballol, M A O; Acosta, G; Oliveira, E; Marangoni, S; Albericio, F; Da Silva, S L

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Crotalus viridis was divided into two species: Crotalus viridis and Crotalus oreganus. The current classification divides "the old" Crotalus viridis into two new and independent species: Crotalus viridis (subspecies: viridis and nuntius) and Crotalus oreganus (subspecies: abyssus, lutosus, concolor, oreganus, helleri, cerberus, and caliginis). The analysis of a product from cDNA (E6d), derived from the gland of a specie Crotalus viridis viridis, was found to produce an acid phospholipase A2. In this study we isolated and characterized a PLA2 (D49) from Crotalus oreganus abyssus venom. Our studies show that the PLA2 produced from the cDNA of Crotalus viridis viridis (named E6d) is exactly the same PLA2 primary sequence of amino acids isolated from the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus. Thus, the PLA2 from E6d cDNA is actually the same PLA2 presented in the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus and does not correspond to the venom from Crotalus viridis viridis. These facts highlight the importance of performing more studies on subspecies of Crotalus oreganus and Crotalus viridis, since the old classification may have led to mixed results or mistaken data.

  8. A Novel Phospholipase A2 (D49) from the Venom of the Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon Rattlesnake)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, W.; Baldasso, P. A.; Honório, K. M.; Maltarollo, V. G.; Ribeiro, R. I. M. A.; Carvalho, B. M. A.; Soares, A. M.; Calderon, L. A.; Stábeli, R. G.; Caballol, M. A. O.; Acosta, G.; Oliveira, E.; Marangoni, S.; Albericio, F.; Da Silva, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Crotalus viridis was divided into two species: Crotalus viridis and Crotalus oreganus. The current classification divides “the old” Crotalus viridis into two new and independent species: Crotalus viridis (subspecies: viridis and nuntius) and Crotalus oreganus (subspecies: abyssus, lutosus, concolor, oreganus, helleri, cerberus, and caliginis). The analysis of a product from cDNA (E6d), derived from the gland of a specie Crotalus viridis viridis, was found to produce an acid phospholipase A2. In this study we isolated and characterized a PLA2 (D49) from Crotalus oreganus abyssus venom. Our studies show that the PLA2 produced from the cDNA of Crotalus viridis viridis (named E6d) is exactly the same PLA2 primary sequence of amino acids isolated from the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus. Thus, the PLA2 from E6d cDNA is actually the same PLA2 presented in the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus and does not correspond to the venom from Crotalus viridis viridis. These facts highlight the importance of performing more studies on subspecies of Crotalus oreganus and Crotalus viridis, since the old classification may have led to mixed results or mistaken data. PMID:24707493

  9. Preliminary observations on the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom poisoning in the rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Stolpe, M R; Norris, R L; Chisholm, C D; Hartshorne, M F; Okerberg, C; Ehler, W J; Posch, J

    1989-08-01

    Intermittent hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been shown to reduce skeletal muscle necrosis in a compartment syndrome animal model. To study whether intermittent exposure to hyperbaric oxygen augments antivenin therapy in reducing muscle necrosis, we injected sublethal doses of Western Diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom intramuscularly into the hind legs of New Zealand White rabbits. In this pilot study, the animals were divided into three treatment groups. The first group received one vial of antivenin intravenously, the second group received one vial of antivenin intravenously plus three hyperbaric oxygen treatments, and the third group received no treatments. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups. These preliminary observations suggest that muscle necrosis secondary to Crotalus atrox venom poisoning is not significantly altered either by Antivenin [Crotalidae] Polyvalent at the dose level we used or in combination with intermittent hyperbaric oxygen treatments in this rabbit model.

  10. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on redox status and markers of renal function in mice inoculated with Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms.

    PubMed

    Barone, Juliana Marton; Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2014-03-01

    Renal dysfunction is an important aggravating factor in accidents caused by Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) and Bothrops jararaca (Bj) bites. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) is well known as a nephroprotective antioxidant with low toxicity. The present study investigated the effects of NAC on redox status and markers of renal function in mice that received vehicle (controls) or venoms (v) of Cdt and Bj. In controls NAC promoted hypercreatinemia, hypouremia, hyperosmolality with decreased urea in urine, hyperproteinuria, decreased protein and increased dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) in membrane-bound fraction (MF) from renal cortex (RC) and medulla (RM). NAC ameliorated or normalized altered creatinuria, proteinemia and aminopeptidase (AP) acid in MF, AP basic (APB) in soluble fraction (SF), and neutral AP in SF and MF from RC and RM in vBj envenomation. NAC ameliorated or normalized altered neutral AP in SF from RC and RM, and DPPIV and protein in MF from RC in vCdt envenomation. NAC ameliorated or restored renal redox status respectively in vCdt and vBj, and normalized uricemia in both envenomations. These data are promising perspectives that recommend the clinical evaluation of NAC as potential coadjuvant in the anti venom serotherapy for accidents with these snake's genera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phospholipase A2 Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus Inactivates Dengue virus and Other Enveloped Viruses by Disrupting the Viral Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Vanessa Danielle; Soares, Ricardo Oliveira; dos Santos-Junior, Nilton Nascimento; Trabuco, Amanda Cristina; Cintra, Adelia Cristina; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu; Caliri, Antonio; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Aquino, Victor Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. PMID:25383618

  12. Biological and biochemical characterization of two new PLA2 isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 from Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Romero-Vargas, Frey Francisco; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Marangoni, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the purification, biological characterization and amino acid sequence of two new basic PLA(2) isoforms, Cdc-9 and Cdc-10, purified from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by one step analytical chromatography reverse phase HPLC. The molecular masses of the PLA(2) were 14,175+/-2.7 Da for Cdc-9 and 14,228+/-3.5 Da for Cdc-10 both deduced by primary structure and confirmed by MALDI-TOF. The isoforms presented an amino acid sequence of 122 amino acid residues, being Cdc-9: SLVQFNKMIK FETRKSGLPF YAAYGCYCGW GGQRPKDATD RCCFVHDCCY GKVAKCNTKW DIYSYSLKSG YITCGKGTWC KEQICECDRV AAECLRRSLS TYKNEYMFYP DSRCREPPEY TC with pI value of 8.25 and Cdc-10: SLLQFNKMIK FETRKSGVPF YAAYGCYCGW GGRRPKDPTD RCCFVHDCCY GKLTKCNTKW DIYSYSLKSG YITCGKGTWC KEQICECDRV AAECLRRSLN TYKNEYMFYP DSRCRGPPEY TC with a pI value of 8.46, showing highly conserved Ca(2+)-binding and catalytic sites. The PLA(2) activity decreased when the isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 were incubated with 4-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB), anhydrous acetic acid and p-nitrobenzene sulfonyl fluoride (NBSF) when compared with the activity of both native isoforms. In mice, the PLA(2) isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 induced myonecrosis and edema. Myotoxic and edema activities were reduced after treatment of the isoforms with p-BPB; acetylation of the lysine residues and the treatment of PLA(2) with NBSF have also induced edema reduction. However, p-BPB strongly diminishes the local and systemic myotoxic effects.

  13. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) Isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the Structure and Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Daniela O.; Ferreira, Marcelo J. P.; Romoff, Paulete; Fávero, Oriana A.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2 : 5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the α-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2. PMID:25258715

  14. Phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus inactivates dengue virus and other enveloped viruses by disrupting the viral envelope.

    PubMed

    Muller, Vanessa Danielle; Soares, Ricardo Oliveira; dos Santos, Nilton Nascimento; Trabuco, Amanda Cristina; Cintra, Adelia Cristina; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu; Caliri, Antonio; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Aquino, Victor Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.

  15. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  16. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis).

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Collyer, Michael L; Douglas, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respectively). The GM data (i.e., 33 dorsal and 50 lateral head landmarks) were gleaned from 2,824 individuals located in 10 museum collections. We also downloaded and concatenated sequences for six mtDNA genes from the NCBI GenBank database. GM analyses revealed significant head shape differences attributable to size and subspecies-designation (but not their interactions). Pairwise shape distances among subspecies were significantly greater than those derived from ancestral character states via squared-change parsimony, with the greatest differences separating those most closely related. This, in turn, suggests the potential for historic character displacement as a diversifying force in the complex. All subspecies, save one, were significantly differentiated in a Bayesian discriminant function analysis (DFA), regardless of whether our priors were uniform or informative (i.e., mtDNA data). Finally, shape differences among sister-clades were significantly greater than expected by chance alone under a Brownian model of evolution, promoting the hypothesis that selection rather than drift was the driving force in the evolution of the complex. Lastly, we combine head shape and mtDNA data so as to derived an integrative taxonomy that produced robust boundaries for six OTUs (operational taxonomic units) of the C. viridis complex. We suggest these boundaries are concomitant with species-status and subsequently provide a relevant nomenclature for its recognition and representation.

  17. Vascular effects and electrolyte homeostasis of the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon rattlesnake) venom.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, S L; Dias-Junior, C A; Baldasso, P A; Damico, D C S; Carvalho, B M A; Garanto, A; Acosta, G; Oliveira, E; Albericio, F; Soares, A M; Marangoni, S; Resende, R R

    2012-08-01

    Crotalus oreganus abyssus is a rattlesnake that is usually found in the Grand Canyon, United States of America. Knowledge regarding the composition of C. o. abyssus venom is scarce. New natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of members of the Crotalinae family. The NP family comprises three members, ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), BNP (b-type natriuretic peptide) and CNP (c-type natriuretic peptide), and has an important role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to characterize a novel natriuretic-like peptide (Coa_NP2), isolated from C. o. abyssus venom. The Coa_NP2 presents an average molecular mass of 3419.88Da (theoretical average molecular mass 3418.94Da, monoisotopic molecular mass 3416.66Da and theoretical PI 7.78) and its amino acid sequence presents the loop region that is characteristic of natriuretic peptides. The peptide has 32 amino acids and its complete sequence is SYGISSGCFGLKLDRIGTMSGLGCWRLLQDSP. Coa_NP2 is a natriuretic peptide of the ANP/BNP-like family, since the carboxyterminal region of CNP has its own NP domain. We demonstrate, herein, that Coa_NP2 produces a dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial pressure in rats, followed by significant increases in concentrations of markers of nitric oxide formation measured in the plasma and vasorelaxation in a thoracic aortic ring bath. The structural and biological aspects confirm Coa_NP2 as a new natriuretic peptide, isolated from snake venom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mark A.; Douglas, Marlis R.; Collyer, Michael L.; Douglas, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory ‘big data’ analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respectively). The GM data (i.e., 33 dorsal and 50 lateral head landmarks) were gleaned from 2,824 individuals located in 10 museum collections. We also downloaded and concatenated sequences for six mtDNA genes from the NCBI GenBank database. GM analyses revealed significant head shape differences attributable to size and subspecies-designation (but not their interactions). Pairwise shape distances among subspecies were significantly greater than those derived from ancestral character states via squared-change parsimony, with the greatest differences separating those most closely related. This, in turn, suggests the potential for historic character displacement as a diversifying force in the complex. All subspecies, save one, were significantly differentiated in a Bayesian discriminant function analysis (DFA), regardless of whether our priors were uniform or informative (i.e., mtDNA data). Finally, shape differences among sister-clades were significantly greater than expected by chance alone under a Brownian model of evolution, promoting the hypothesis that selection rather than drift was the driving force in the evolution of the complex. Lastly, we combine head shape and mtDNA data so as to derived an integrative taxonomy that produced robust boundaries for six OTUs (operational taxonomic units) of the C. viridis complex. We suggest these boundaries are concomitant with species-status and subsequently provide a relevant nomenclature for its recognition and representation. PMID

  19. Gape size, its morphological basis, and the validity of gape indices in western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    PubMed

    Hampton, Paul M; Moon, Brad R

    2013-02-01

    Maximum gape is important to the ecology and evolution of many vertebrates, particularly gape-limited predators, because it can restrict the sizes and shapes of prey that can be eaten. Although many cranial elements probably contribute to gape, it is typically estimated from jaw length or jaw width, or occasionally from a combination of these two measures. We measured maximum gape directly for 18 individuals of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. We measured each individual's body length, several external cranial dimensions, several cranial osteological dimensions from cleaned skeletons, and we calculated gape index values from two published gape indices (GI). Cranial bone lengths and gape circumference showed negative allometry with snout-vent length (SVL), indicating that small individuals have relatively larger heads and gapes than their larger conspecifics. We then used Akaike's Information Criterion to determine which external and osteological measurements were the best predictors of gape. Body size (SVL) was the best predictor of maximum gape overall; however, when SVL was excluded from the analysis, quadrate (QL) and mandible lengths (MdLs) were the best predictors of maximum gape using both external and osteological measurements. Quadrate length probably contributes directly to gape; however, the importance of MdL to gape is less clear and may be due largely to its allometric relationships with head length and SVL. The two published GI did not prove to be better indicators of actual gape than the jaw and QLs in this study, and the gape values they produced differed significantly from our empirically determined gapes. For these reasons, we urge caution with the use and interpretation of computed GI in future studies. The extensive variation in quadrate and mandible morphology among lineages suggest that these bones are more important to variation in gape among species and lineages than within a single species.

  20. Factors associated with the mass of venom expended by prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus v. viridis) feeding on mice.

    PubMed

    Hayes, W K

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess through correlation analyses the various factors and consequences associated with the mass of venom injected by prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus v. viridis) into their natural prey, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Fifty-seven predator-prey interactions were studied via slow motion videotape review. The mass of venom expended by snakes during biting was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of whole-animal homogenates. The quantity of venom expended was not related to size of prey; however, the range of mouse sizes (13-31 g) was quite narrow. Multiple bites of the same mouse were not associated with incremental increases in venom expenditure; only about 40% more venom was expended by striking prey a second time. The duration of fang contact and site of fang penetration had no discernible effects on venom expenditure. The site of fang penetration of prey appeared to be random, due to evasive actions of the mice. The components of striking (duration of launch, fang contact, and recoil, respectively) and distance of the strike were correlated and appeared to be influenced by the prey's reaction. After striking and releasing mice, the snakes did not attempt to relocate more quickly those prey which succumbed to venom relatively quickly. Both natural (snakebite) and artificial (syringe) injections indicated that the site of venom injection (e.g. anterior, posterior, muscle, vital organ) has a greater influence on subsequent mobility and survival of mice than the quantity of venom injected. It appears that some behavioral aspects of predation (especially the sequential components of striking) are flexible and responsive to prey reactions, while others (venom expenditure and poststrike immobility) are less subject to modification.

  1. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Elda E.; Galan, Jacob A.; Russell, William K.; Soto, Julio G.; Russell, David H.; Perez, John C. . E-mail: kfjcp00@tamuk.edu

    2006-04-01

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC{sub 5}s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin.

  2. Exploring the venom proteome of the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox, via snake venomics and combinatorial peptide ligand library approaches.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Fasoli, Elisa; Sanz, Libia; Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2009-06-01

    We report the proteomic characterization of the venom of the medically important North American western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox, using two complementary approaches: snake venomics (to gain an insight of the overall venom proteome), and two solid-phase combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL), followed by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometric characterization of in-gel digested protein bands (to capture and "amplify" low-abundance proteins). The venomics approach revealed approximately 24 distinct proteins belonging to 2 major protein families (snake venom metalloproteinases, SVMP, and serine proteinases), which represent 69.5% of the total venom proteins, 4 medium abundance families (medium-size disintegrin, PLA(2), cysteine-rich secretory protein, and l-amino acid oxidase) amounting to 25.8% of the venom proteins, and 3 minor protein families (vasoactive peptides, endogenous inhibitor of SVMP, and C-type lectin-like). This toxin profile potentially explains the cytotoxic, myotoxic, hemotoxic, and hemorrhagic effects evoked by C. atrox envenomation. Further, our results showing that C. atrox exhibits a similar level of venom variation as Sistrurus miliarius points to a "diversity gain" scenario in the lineage leading to the Sistrurus catenatus taxa. On the other hand, the two combinatorial hexapeptide libraries captured distinct sets of proteins. Although the CPLL-treated samples did not retain a representative venom proteome, protein spots barely, or not at all, detectable in the whole venom were enriched in the two CPLL-treated samples. The amplified low copy number C. atrox venom proteins comprised a C-type lectin-like protein, several PLA(2) molecules, PIII-SVMP isoforms, glutaminyl cyclase isoforms, and a 2-cys peroxiredoxin highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Peroxiredoxin and glutaminyl cyclase may participate, respectively, in redox processes leading to the structural/functional diversification of toxins, and in the N

  3. Individual venom profiling of Crotalus durissus terrificus specimens from a geographically limited region: crotamine assessment and captivity evaluation on the biological activities.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Airton; Zorzella Creste, Camila Fernanda; de Barros, Luciana Curtolo; Delazari dos Santos, Lucilene; Pimenta, Daniel C; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui Seabra

    2013-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom major components comprise crotoxin, crotamine, gyroxin and convulxin. Crotamine exerts a myotoxic action, among others, but its expression varies even amid snakes from the same region. Biochemical, enzymatic and pharmacological variations of venoms may be associated with the geography, climate, gender, age, and diet, as well as captivity time and venom extraction intervals. The present study aimed to characterize the Cdt venom from the Botucatu region, (SP, Brazil), by assessing its biochemical, pharmacological and enzymatic properties. Venoms from newly captured snakes and already-captured animals were characterized comparatively to verify the sexual, environmental (length of captivity) and ontogenetic variations that could influence the venom composition. Protein concentration, SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC were performed and the coagulant, toxic (LD50) and crotamine activities were assayed. Individual SDS-PAGE analyses (315 samples) were performed and the biological activities of the venom of 60 adults (captive and newly captured males and females) and 18 newborns were compared with the Brazilian Reference Venom. Crotamine was found in 39.7% (125/315) of the samples, as determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Protein concentration differed significantly between adults (75%) and newborns (60%). RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE analyses showed highly variable protein concentration and copious crotoxin isoforms; however, the LD50 values decreased during the captivity time. Cdt venom biological activities were similar among adult groups, but diminished during the captivity period. The current findings demonstrate that venoms vary significantly in terms activity and protein concentration, despite originating from the same specie and region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices.

  5. New nanostructured silica adjuvant (SBA-15) employed to produce antivenom in young sheep using Crotalus durissus terrificus and Apis mellifera venoms detoxified by cobalt-60.

    PubMed

    Seabra Ferreira Junior, Rui; Pavan Anderlini, Renato; Augusto Brazil Esteves Sant' Anna, Osvaldo; Carvalho Pimenta, Daniel; De Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo; Barraviera, Benedito

    2010-01-01

    Equine antivenom is considered the only treatment for animal-generated envenomations, but it is costly. The study aimed to produce Apis mellifera (Africanized honeybee) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (C.d.t.) antivenoms using nanostructured silica (SBA-15) as adjuvant and cobalt-60 ((60)Co)-detoxified venoms utilizing young sheep. Natural and (60)Co-irradiated venoms were employed in four different hyperimmunization protocols. Thus, 8 groups of 60- to 90-d-old sheep were hyperimmunized, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serum titers collected every 14 d were assessed clinically daily, and individual weight were measured, until d 84. Incomplete Freund's (IFA) and nanostructured silica (SBA15) adjuvants were compared. The lethal dose (LD(50)) for both venoms was determined following intraperitoneal (ip) administration to mice. High-performance liquid chromatography on reversed phase (HPLC-RP) was used also to measure the (60)Co irradiation effects on Apis venom. At the end of the study, sheep were killed in a slaughterhouse. Kidneys were histologically analyzed. LD(50) was 5.97 mg/kg Apis and 0.07 mg/kg C.d.t. for native compared to 13.44 mg/kg Apis and 0.35 mg/kg C.d.t. for irradiated venoms. HPLC revealed significant differences in chromatographic profiles between native and irradiated Apis venoms. Native venom plus IFA compared with SBA-15 showed significantly higher antibody titers for both venoms. Apis-irradiated venom plus IFA or SBA-15 displayed similar antibody titers but were significantly lower when compared with native venom plus IFA. Weight gain did not differ significantly among all groups. (60)Co irradiation decreased toxicity and maintained venom immunogenic capacity, while IFA produced higher antibody titers. SBA-15 was able to act as an adjuvant without producing adverse effects. Hyperimmunization did not affect sheep weight gain, which would considerably reduce the cost of antiserum production, as these sheep were still approved for human

  6. Intraspecies variation in the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus simus from Mexico: different expression of crotoxin results in highly variable toxicity in the venoms of three subspecies.

    PubMed

    Castro, Edgar Neri; Lomonte, Bruno; del Carmen Gutiérrez, María; Alagón, Alejandro; Gutiérrez, José María

    2013-07-11

    The composition and toxicological profile of the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus simus in Mexico was analyzed at the subspecies and individual levels. Venoms of the subspecies C. s. simus, C. s. culminatus and C. s. tzabcan greatly differ in the expression of the heterodimeric neurotoxin complex 'crotoxin', with highest concentrations in C. s. simus, followed by C. s. tzabcan, whereas the venom of C. s. culminatus is almost devoid of this neurotoxic PLA2. This explains the large variation in lethality (highest in C. s. simus, which also exerts higher myotoxicity). Coagulant activity on plasma and fibrinogen occurs with the venoms of C. s. simus and C. s. tzabcan, being absent in C. s. culminatus which, in turn, presents higher crotamine-like activity. Proteomic analysis closely correlates with toxicological profiles, since the venom of C. s. simus has high amounts of crotoxin and of serine proteinases, whereas the venom of C. s. culminatus presents higher amounts of metalloproteinases and crotamine. This complex pattern of intraspecies venom variation provides valuable information for the diagnosis and clinical management of envenoming by this species in Mexico, as well as for the preparation of venom pools for the production and quality control of antivenoms. This study describes the variation in venom composition and activities of the three subspecies of Crotalus simus from Mexico. Results demonstrate that there is a notorious difference in these venoms, particularly regarding the content of the potent neurotoxic phospholipase A2 complex 'crotoxin'. In addition, other differences were observed regarding myotoxic and coagulant activities, and expression of the myotoxin 'crotamine'. These findings have implications in, at least, three levels: (a) the adaptive role of variations in venom composition; (b) the possible differences in the clinical manifestations of envenomings by these subspecies in Mexico; and (c) the design of venom mixtures for the preparation of

  7. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects.

    PubMed

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E; Sánchez, Elda E; Pérez, John C

    2013-03-15

    A 5' truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, Crotalus atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC(50) of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC(50)s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders.

  8. Activity cycles and foraging behaviors of free-ranging sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes): the ontogeny of hunting in a precocial vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Dorr, Scott W; Whitford, Malachi D; Freymiller, Grace A; Putman, Breanna J

    2016-06-01

    Predators often employ a complex series of behaviors to overcome antipredator defenses and effectively capture prey. Although hunting behaviors can improve with age and experience, many precocial species are necessarily effective predators from birth. Additionally, many predators experience innate ontogenetic shifts in predatory strategies as they grow, allowing them to adapt to prey more appropriate for their increased size and energetic needs. Understanding how the relative roles of innate age-specific adaptation and learning have evolved requires information on how predation behavior develops in situ, in free-ranging predators. However, most of the research on the ontogeny of predation behavior is based on laboratory studies of captive animals, largely due to the difficulty of following newborn individuals in nature. Here, we take advantage of the unique tracks left by juveniles of a precocial viperid, the sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), which we used to follow free-ranging snakes in the field. We recorded details of their ambush hunting behavior, and compared the behaviors of these juveniles to adult snakes that we monitored in the field via radio telemetry. Although juvenile and adult behaviors were similar in most respects, we did find that adults chose more effective ambush sites, which may be due to their increased experience. We also found that juveniles (but typically not adults) perform periodic tail undulations while in ambush, and that juveniles displayed slightly different activity cycles. Both of these latter differences are likely the result of age-specific adaptations for juveniles' greater reliance on lizards versus small mammals as prey. We also compared the general predatory behavior of sidewinders to that of other species in the genus Crotalus. These findings will provide important baseline field information for more detailed empirical research on the ontogeny of predation behavior in precocial vertebrates.

  9. Eimeria crotalviridis sp. n. from prairie rattlesnakes, Crotalus viridis viridis, in New Mexico with data on excystation of sporozoites and ultrastructure of the oocyst wall.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, D W; Altenbach, M J; Marchiondo, A A; Speer, C A

    1977-08-01

    Oocysts of Eimeria crotalviridis sp. n. are described from praire rattlesnakes, Crotalus viridis viridis in New Mexico on the basis of light and electron microscopy and in vitro excystation of sporozoites. Sporulated oocysts of E. crotalviridis are elliptical, 26.4 X 22.3 (23-29 X 20-24) micrometer with ovoid sporocysts 11.7 X 8.1 (11-13 X 7-9) micromiter. A micropyle, micropyle cap and polar bodies are absent, but oocyst and sporocyst residua and Stieda and substieda bodies are present. Excysted sporozoites are 12.4 X 2.8 (11-13 X 2-3) micromiter and have 1 large posterior refractile body and a nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. Ultrastructurally, the oocyst wall has 2 layers, a thick, electron-dense, highly sculptured outer layer composed of a fine granular matrix and a thin, granular, osmiophilic inner layer, separated from the outer layer by at least one unit membrane. These layers are 441 (353-510) and 21.6 (19-29) nm thick, respectively. Within 15 min after exposure to a trypsin-sodium taurocholate fluid, sporozoites of E. crotalviridis excysted from 5-month-old sporocysts.

  10. Functional characterizations of venom phenotypes in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for expression-driven divergence in toxic activities among populations.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; Walls, Robert; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E; Rokyta, Darin R

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypes frequently vary across and within species. The connection between specific phenotypic effects and function, however, is less understood despite being essential to our understanding of the adaptive process. Snake venoms are ideal for identifying functionally important phenotypic variation because venom variation is common, and venoms can be functionally characterized through simple assays and toxicity measurements. Previous work with the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) used multivariate statistical approaches to identify six unique venom phenotypes. We functionally characterized hemolytic, gelatinase, fibrinogenolytic, and coagulant activity for all six phenotypes, as well as one additional venom, to determine if the statistically significant differences in toxin expression levels previously documented corresponded to differences in venom activity. In general, statistical differences in toxin expression predicted the identified functional differences, or lack thereof, in toxic activity, demonstrating that the statistical approach used to characterize C. adamanteus venoms was a fair representation of biologically meaningful differences. Minor differences in activity not accounted for by the statistical model may be the result of amino-acid differences and/or post-translational modifications, but overall we were able to link variation in protein expression levels to variation in function as predicted by multivariate statistical approaches.

  11. Potential environmental influences on variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism among Arizona populations of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amarello, Melissa; Nowak, Erica M.; Taylor, Emily N.; Schuett, Gordon W.; Repp, Roger A.; Rosen, Philip C.; Hardy, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in resource availability and quality along environmental gradients are important influences contributing to intraspecific variation in body size, which influences numerous life-history traits. Here, we examined variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in relation to temperature, seasonality, and precipitation among 10 populations located throughout Arizona of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Specifically, in our analyses we addressed the following questions: (i) Are adult males larger in cooler, wetter areas? (ii) Does female body size respond differently to environmental variation? (iii) Is seasonality a better predictor of body size variation? (iv) Is SSD positively correlated with increased resources? We demonstrate that male and female C. atrox are larger in body size in cooler (i.e., lower average annual maximum, minimum, and mean temperature) and wetter areas (i.e., higher average annual precipitation, more variable precipitation, and available surface water). Although SSD in C. atrox appeared to be more pronounced in cooler, wetter areas, this relationship did not achieve statistical significance.

  12. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rulon W.; Schuett, Gordon W.; Repp, Roger A.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F.; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  13. Functional characterizations of venom phenotypes in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for expression-driven divergence in toxic activities among populations

    PubMed Central

    Margres, Mark J.; Walls, Robert; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E.; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes frequently vary across and within species. The connection between specific phenotypic effects and function, however, is less understood despite being essential to our understanding of the adaptive process. Snake venoms are ideal for identifying functionally important phenotypic variation because venom variation is common, and venoms can be functionally characterized through simple assays and toxicity measurements. Previous work with the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) used multivariate statistical approaches to identify six unique venom phenotypes. We functionally characterized hemolytic, gelatinase, fibrinogenolytic, and coagulant activity for all six phenotypes, as well as one additional venom, to determine if the statistically significant differences in toxin expression levels previously documented corresponded to differences in venom activity. In general, statistical differences in toxin expression predicted the identified functional differences, or lack thereof, in toxic activity, demonstrating that the statistical approach used to characterize C. adamanteus venoms was a fair representation of biologically meaningful differences. Minor differences in activity not accounted for by the statistical model may be the result of amino-acid differences and/or post-translational modifications, but overall we were able to link variation in protein expression levels to variation in function as predicted by multivariate statistical approaches. PMID:27179420

  14. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  15. The effects of myotoxin from midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis concolor) venom on neonatal rat myotubes in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hayes, C E; Bieber, A L

    1986-01-01

    Neonatal rat myoblasts were isolated and grown in culture until they fused into multinucleated myotubes. A small percentage of the myotubes showed spontaneous contractions when maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. Incubation of mature myotubes (at least 3 days after fusion) with myotoxin II from Crotalus viridis concolor venom at a concentration as low as 18.5 nM caused a marked increase in the number of myotubes demonstrating contractile activity. The increase was apparent within 24 hr of myotoxin application. The response of the myotubes appeared to be specific since, of the proteins tested, only native myotoxins caused the increase in contractile activity. This tissue culture system offers a rapid screening assay that requires less time and fewer animals than the assays currently in use for determining myotoxic activity.

  16. Wound healing activity and mechanisms of action of an antibacterial protein from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus).

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Stiles, Bradley G; Rowan, Edward G; Becker, David; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Sethi, Gautam; Chow, Vincent T K

    2014-01-01

    Basic phospholipase A2 was identified from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. The Crotalus adamanteus toxin-II (CaTx-II) induced bactericidal effects (7.8 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus, while on Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW), and Enterobacter aerogenes were killed at 15.6 µg/ml. CaTx-II caused pore formation and membrane damaging effects on the bacterial cell wall. CaTx-II was not cytotoxic on lung (MRC-5), skin fibroblast (HEPK) cells and in mice. CaTx-II-treated mice showed significant wound closure and complete healing by 16 days as compared to untreated controls (**P<0.01). Histological examination revealed enhanced collagen synthesis and neovascularization after treatment with CaTx-II versus 2% Fusidic Acid ointment (FAO) treated controls. Measurement of tissue cytokines revealed that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) expression in CaTx-II treated mice was significantly suppressed versus untreated controls. In contrast, cytokines involved in wound healing and cell migration i.e., monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-b), chemokine (KC), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly enhanced in CaTx-II treated mice, but not in the controls. CaTx-II also modulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation during skin wound healing. The CaTx-II protein highlights distinct snake proteins as a potential source of novel antimicrobial agents with significant therapeutic application for bacterial skin infections.

  17. A high-throughput venom-gland transcriptome for the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for pervasive positive selection across toxin classes.

    PubMed

    Rokyta, Darin R; Wray, Kenneth P; Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Caudle, S Brian

    2011-04-01

    Despite causing considerable human mortality and morbidity, animal toxins represent a valuable source of pharmacologically active macromolecules, a unique system for studying molecular adaptation, and a powerful framework for examining structure-function relationships in proteins. Snake venoms are particularly useful in the latter regard as they consist primarily of a moderate number of proteins and peptides that have been found to belong to just a handful of protein families. As these proteins and peptides are produced in dedicated glands, transcriptome sequencing has proven to be an effective approach to identifying the expressed toxin genes. We generated a venom-gland transcriptome for the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) using Roche 454 sequencing technology. In the current work, we focus on transcripts encoding toxins. We identified 40 unique toxin transcripts, 30 of which have full-length coding sequences, and 10 have only partial coding sequences. These toxins account for 24% of the total sequencing reads. We found toxins from 11 previously described families of snake-venom toxins and have discovered two putative, previously undescribed toxin classes. The most diverse and highly expressed toxin classes in the C. adamanteus venom-gland transcriptome are the serine proteinases, metalloproteinases, and C-type lectins. The serine proteinases are the most abundant class, accounting for 35% of the toxin sequencing reads. Metalloproteinases are the most diverse; 11 different forms have been identified. Using our sequences and those available in public databases, we detected positive selection in seven of the eight toxin families for which sufficient sequences were available for the analysis. We find that the vast majority of the genes that contribute directly to this vertebrate trait show evidence for a role for positive selection in their evolutionary history.

  18. The ascending projection of the nucleus of the lateral descending trigeminal tract: a nucleus in the infrared system of the rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, L.R.; Schroeder, D.M.; Hartline, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    The efferent projections of the nucleus of the lateral descending trigeminal tract (LTTD) in the rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) were studied by anterograde tracing techniques. The LTTD, a brainstem trigeminal nucleus, is the sole projection site of the infrared-sensitive trigeminal fibers that innervate the pit organs in these snakes. The efferent fibers exit from the ventromedial edge of the LTTD and course medially and caudally toward the central grey area of the medulla. Upon reaching the central region of the medulla these fibers turn and move laterally and rostrally, eventually forming a tract on the ventrolateral surface of the brainstem. Embedded in this tract and slightly overlapping the LTTD in the rostrocaudal axis, is a population of large (20-45 micrometer) multipolar neurons that forms the nucleus reticularis caloris. Heavy terminal and preterminal degeneration in this area indicates that many of the efferent fibers of the LTTD terminate in this nucleus. A small bundle of degenerating fibers turn dorsally from the ventrolateral tract and ascend to terminate in a nucleus associated with the cerebellum, the lateral tegmental nucleus. No projection was found to any other nuclei or areas in the brain. This study demonstrates that the infrared-sensitive snakes, along with developing peripheral specializations (the pit organs), have developed specialized nuclei to handle this additional sensory information. The direct projection from the LTTD to the nucleus reticularis caloris provides a pathway linking the infrared-sensitive neurons of the LTTD with neurons of the same modality in the optic tectum. The second LTTD projection, to the lateral tegmental nucleus, suggests a connection between the infrared system and the cerebellum in these animals.

  19. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Rubelase, a Non-Hemorrhagic Elastase from Crotalus ruber ruber (Red Rattlesnake) Venom

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Yumiko; Sakai, Kaname; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Nikai, and Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A novel non-hemorrhagic basic metalloprotease, rubelase, was isolated from the venom of Crotalus ruber ruber. Rubelase hydrolyzes succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl p-nitroanilide (STANA), a specific substrate for elastase, and the hydrolytic activity was inhibited by chelating agents. It also hydrolyzes collagen and fibrinogen. However, hemorrhagic activity was not observed. By ESI/Q-TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry combined with Edman sequencing procedure, the molecular mass of rubelase was determined to be 23,266 Da. Although its primary structure was similar to rubelysin (HT-2), a hemorrhagic metalloprotease isolated from the same snake venom, the circumstances surrounding putative zinc binding domain HEXXHXXGXXH were found to be different when the three-dimensional computer models of both metalloproteases were compared. The cytotoxic effects of rubelase and rubelysin on cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells were also different, indicating that the substitution of several amino acid residues causes the changes of active-site conformation and cell preference. PMID:22069746

  20. Isolation and biochemical characterization of rubelase, a non-hemorrhagic elastase from Crotalus ruber ruber (Red Rattlesnake) venom.

    PubMed

    Komori, Yumiko; Sakai, Kaname; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Nikai, And Toshiaki

    2011-07-01

    A novel non-hemorrhagic basic metalloprotease, rubelase, was isolated from the venom of Crotalus ruber ruber. Rubelase hydrolyzes succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl p-nitroanilide (STANA), a specific substrate for elastase, and the hydrolytic activity was inhibited by chelating agents. It also hydrolyzes collagen and fibrinogen. However, hemorrhagic activity was not observed. By ESI/Q-TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry combined with Edman sequencing procedure, the molecular mass of rubelase was determined to be 23,266 Da. Although its primary structure was similar to rubelysin (HT-2), a hemorrhagic metalloprotease isolated from the same snake venom, the circumstances surrounding putative zinc binding domain HEXXHXXGXXH were found to be different when the three-dimensional computer models of both metalloproteases were compared. The cytotoxic effects of rubelase and rubelysin on cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells were also different, indicating that the substitution of several amino acid residues causes the changes of active-site conformation and cell preference.

  1. Integrated “omics” profiling indicates that miRNAs are modulators of the ontogenetic venom composition shift in the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus simus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the processes that drive the evolution of snake venom is a topic of great research interest in molecular and evolutionary toxinology. Recent studies suggest that ontogenetic changes in venom composition are genetically controlled rather than environmentally induced. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain elusive. Here we have explored the basis and level of regulation of the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus s. simus using a combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach. Results Proteomic analysis showed that the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of C. s. simus is essentially characterized by a gradual reduction in the expression of serine proteinases and PLA2 molecules, particularly crotoxin, a β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA2, concominantly with an increment of PI and PIII metalloproteinases at age 9–18 months. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the venom glands of neonate and adult C. s. simus specimens indicated that their transcriptomes exhibit indistinguisable toxin family profiles, suggesting that the elusive mechanism by which shared transcriptomes generate divergent venom phenotypes may operate post-transcriptionally. Specifically, miRNAs with frequency count of 1000 or greater exhibited an uneven distribution between the newborn and adult datasets. Of note, 590 copies of a miRNA targeting crotoxin B-subunit was exclusively found in the transcriptome of the adult snake, whereas 1185 copies of a miRNA complementary to a PIII-SVMP mRNA was uniquely present in the newborn dataset. These results support the view that age-dependent changes in the concentration of miRNA modulating the transition from a crotoxin-rich to a SVMP-rich venom from birth through adulhood can potentially explain what is observed in the proteomic analysis of the ontogenetic changes in the venom composition of C. s. simus. Conclusions Existing snake venom

  2. Integrated "omics" profiling indicates that miRNAs are modulators of the ontogenetic venom composition shift in the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus simus.

    PubMed

    Durban, Jordi; Pérez, Alicia; Sanz, Libia; Gómez, Aarón; Bonilla, Fabián; Rodríguez, Santos; Chacón, Danilo; Sasa, Mahmood; Angulo, Yamileth; Gutiérrez, José M; Calvete, Juan J

    2013-04-10

    Understanding the processes that drive the evolution of snake venom is a topic of great research interest in molecular and evolutionary toxinology. Recent studies suggest that ontogenetic changes in venom composition are genetically controlled rather than environmentally induced. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain elusive. Here we have explored the basis and level of regulation of the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus s. simus using a combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach. Proteomic analysis showed that the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of C. s. simus is essentially characterized by a gradual reduction in the expression of serine proteinases and PLA2 molecules, particularly crotoxin, a β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA2, concominantly with an increment of PI and PIII metalloproteinases at age 9-18 months. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the venom glands of neonate and adult C. s. simus specimens indicated that their transcriptomes exhibit indistinguisable toxin family profiles, suggesting that the elusive mechanism by which shared transcriptomes generate divergent venom phenotypes may operate post-transcriptionally. Specifically, miRNAs with frequency count of 1000 or greater exhibited an uneven distribution between the newborn and adult datasets. Of note, 590 copies of a miRNA targeting crotoxin B-subunit was exclusively found in the transcriptome of the adult snake, whereas 1185 copies of a miRNA complementary to a PIII-SVMP mRNA was uniquely present in the newborn dataset. These results support the view that age-dependent changes in the concentration of miRNA modulating the transition from a crotoxin-rich to a SVMP-rich venom from birth through adulthood can potentially explain what is observed in the proteomic analysis of the ontogenetic changes in the venom composition of C. s. simus. Existing snake venom toxins are the result of early

  3. Survival of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) estimated by capture-recapture models in relation to age, sex, color morph, time, and birthplace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W.S.; Kery, M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile survival is one of the least known elements of the life history of many species, in particular snakes. We conducted a mark–recapture study of Crotalus horridus from 1978–2002 in northeastern New York near the northern limits of the species' range. We marked 588 neonates and estimated annual age-, sex-, and morph-specific recapture and survival rates using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model. Wild-caught neonates (field-born, n  =  407) and neonates produced by captive-held gravid females (lab-born, n  =  181) allowed comparison of the birthplace, or lab treatment effect, in estimated survival. Recapture rates declined from about 10–20% over time while increasing from young to older age classes. Estimated survival rates (S ± 1 SE) in the first year were significantly higher among field-born (black morph: S  =  0.773 ± 0.203; yellow morph: S  =  0.531 ± 0.104) than among lab-born snakes (black morph: S  =  0.411 ± 0.131; yellow morph: S  =  0.301 ± 0.081). Lower birth weights combined with a lack of field exposure until release apparently contributed to the lower survival rate of lab-born snakes. Subsequent survival estimates for 2–4-yr-old snakes were S  =  0.845 ± 0.084 for the black morph and S  =  0.999 (SE not available) for the yellow morph, and for ≥5-yr-old snakes S  =  0.958 ± 0.039 (black morph) and S  =  0.822 ± 0.034 (yellow morph). The most parsimonious model overall contained an independent time trend for survival of each age, morph, and lab-treatment group. For snakes of the first two age groups (ages 1 yr and 2–4 yr), survival tended to decline over the years for both morphs, while for adult snakes (5 yr and older), survival was constant or even slightly increased. Our data on survival and recapture are among the first rigorous estimates of these parameters in a rattlesnake and among the few yet available for any viperid snake. These data are useful for analyses of the life

  4. Winter profile of plasma sex steroid levels in free-living male western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox (Serpentes: Viperidae).

    PubMed

    Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Taylor, Emily N; DeNardo, Dale F; Earley, Ryan L; Van Kirk, Edward A; Murdoch, William J

    2006-10-01

    Recent field studies on the reproductive ecology of western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) from populations in southern Arizona showed significant differences in the concentration of plasma sex steroids (testosterone, T; 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, DHT; and 17beta-estradiol, E2) throughout the active season (March-October), and peak levels were coincident with the two mating periods (late summer and early spring). There is, however, no information on levels of sex steroids during winter. Similar to most snakes, hibernating individuals of C. atrox are typically inaccessible, but in southern Arizona, where environmental conditions are typically mild during winter, adult males frequently bask at or near the entrances of communal dens. Basking activity, therefore, offers a unique logistical opportunity to assess the complete annual profile of plasma sex steroid levels in males of a temperate reptile in nature. From November to February, we measured levels of plasma T, DHT, and E2 in adult male C. atrox that were located basking at communal dens. Additionally, cloacal, core body, and ambient air temperatures were obtained to investigate potential relationships between body temperatures and levels of sex steroids. Mean levels of T, DHT, and E2 were relatively high, and the concentration hierarchy was T>DHT>E2. Mean levels of T, DHT, and E2 showed no significant variation across the four months of sampling; however, E2 levels decreased progressively. In the annul cycle, sex steroid levels during winter were not basal when compared to values obtained during the active season. Mean cloacal temperatures of basking males were significantly higher than core body temperatures of non-basking males (inside dens) from November-December, and in February, which suggests that one function of winter basking is to elevate body temperatures. Steroid levels, nonetheless, were not significantly correlated with cloacal temperatures. We suggest that future field studies of

  5. Comparative venomics of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from Colorado: Identification of a novel pattern of ontogenetic changes in venom composition and assessment of the immunoreactivity of the commercial antivenom CroFab®.

    PubMed

    Saviola, Anthony J; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Castoe, Todd A; Calvete, Juan J; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2015-05-21

    Here we describe and compare the venomic and antivenomic characteristics of both neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms. Although both neonate and adult venoms contain unique components, similarities among protein family content were seen. Both neonate and adult venoms consisted of myotoxin, bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinase (SVMP), serine proteinase, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) and disintegrin families. Quantitative differences, however, were observed, with venoms of adults containing significantly higher concentrations of the non-enzymatic toxic compounds and venoms of neonates containing higher concentrations of pre-digestive enzymatic proteins such as SVMPs. To assess the relevance of this venom variation in the context of snakebite and snakebite treatment, we tested the efficacy of the common antivenom CroFab® for recognition of both adult and neonate venoms in vitro. This comparison revealed that many of the major protein families (SVMPs, CRISP, PLA2, serine proteases, and LAAO) in both neonate and adult venoms were immunodepleted by the antivenom, whereas myotoxins, one of the major toxic components of C. v. viridis venom, in addition to many of the small peptides, were not efficiently depleted by CroFab®. These results therefore provide a comprehensive catalog of the venom compounds present in C. v. viridis venom and new molecular insight into the potential efficacy of CroFab® against human envenomations by one of the most widely distributed rattlesnake species in North America. Comparative proteomic analysis of venoms of neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from a discrete population in Colorado revealed a novel pattern of ontogenetic shifts in toxin composition for viperid snakes. The observed stage-dependent decrease of the relative content of disintegrins, catalytically active D49-PLA2s

  6. Neuromuscular paralysis by the basic phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom needs its acid chaperone to concurrently inhibit acetylcholine release and produce muscle blockage.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Walter L G; Noronha-Matos, José B; Timóteo, Maria A; Fontes, Marcos R M; Gallacci, Márcia; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2017-11-01

    Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye. Experiments were conducted using mice phrenic-diaphragm preparations. Real-time fluorescence video microscopy and liquid scintillation spectrometry techniques were used to detect transmitter exocytosis and nerve-evoked [(3)H]-acetylcholine ([(3)H]ACh) release, respectively. Nerve-evoked myographic recordings were also carried out for comparison purposes. Both CTX (5μg/mL) and its basic PLA2 subunit (CB, 20μg/mL) had biphasic effects on nerve-evoked transmitter exocytosis characterized by a transient initial facilitation followed by a sustained decay. CTX and CB reduced nerve-evoked [(3)H]ACh release by 60% and 69%, respectively, but only the heterodimer, CTX, decreased the amplitude of nerve-evoked muscle twitches. Data show that CTX exerts a presynaptic inhibitory action on ACh release that is highly dependent on its intrinsic PLA2 activity. Given the high safety margin of the neuromuscular transmission, one may argue that the presynaptic block caused by the toxin is not enough to produce muscle paralysis unless a concurrent postsynaptic inhibitory action is also exerted by the CTX heterodimer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. P9a(Cdt-PLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus as good immunogen to be employed in the production of crotalic anti-PLA2 IgG.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Luciano S; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Torres-Huaco, Frank; Huancahuire-Vega, Salomón; Teibler, Pamela; Acosta, Ofelia; Marangoni, Sergio; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Leiva, Laura C

    2015-10-01

    Four proteins with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, designated P9a(Cdt-PLA2), P9b(Cdt-PLA2), P10a(Cdt-PLA2) and P10b(Cdt-PLA2) were purified from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus by two chromatographic steps: a gel filtration and reversed phase HPLC. The profile obtained clearly shows that three of them have a similar abundance. The molecular mass, 14193.8340Da for P9a(Cdt-PLA2), 14134.9102Da for P9b(Cdt-PLA2), 14242.6289Da for P10a(Cdt-PLA2) and 14183.8730Da for P10b(Cdt-PLA2), were initially evaluated by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by ESI-Q-TOF spectrometry, and all of them displayed a monomeric conformation. Also, partial amino acid sequence of each protein was obtained and their alignments with other crotalic PLA2 revealed a high degree of identity among them. Additionally, we studied some pharmacological activities like neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and lethality, which prompted us to pick two of them, P9a(Cdt-PLA2) and P10a(Cdt-PLA2) that resulted to be less toxic that the others, and further characterize them to be used as immunogen. We next injected these last proteins in mice to produce antitoxins against them and ELISA and dot blots reveled that both toxins do not show immunogenic differences, unlike those other pharmacologic activities tested. Furthermore, the antibodies produced cross-reacted with all the isoforms purified demonstrating the feasibility of using only one of them and ensuring the cross-reaction of all. The results obtained show that P9a(Cdt-PLA2) isoform has the lowest toxicity and also a good purification performance; thus this protein may be a promising candidate to be employed in the production of crotalic antitoxins.

  8. Kin recognition in rattlesnakes.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rulon W

    2004-01-01

    Snakes are often regarded as the least social of all vertebrate groups, but this assumption stems from the fact that they are secretive and difficult to observe in nature, rather than direct evidence. Recent studies have revealed a surprising degree of social complexity in snakes. Here, I examine the ability of captive-raised timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) to recognize siblings by measuring the mean separation distance and frequency of contact between pairs of individuals housed together. The results show that female siblings associate more closely with each other than nonsibling pairs. Previous studies have shown that timber rattlesnakes occupying the same hibernacula have higher relatedness than snakes using neighbouring hibernacula, and frequently form social aggregations. Rattlesnakes exhibit other characteristics consistent with advanced sociality, including group defence, conspecific alarm signals and maternal defence of young. These findings reinforce the notion that, rather than being solitary and asocial, some snake species may form family groups. PMID:15252996

  9. Neutralization of lethal and myotoxic activities of South American rattlesnake venom by extracts and constituents of the plant Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Mors, W B; do Nascimento, M C; Parente, J P; da Silva, M H; Melo, P A; Suarez-Kurtz, G

    1989-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) neutralized the lethal activity of the venom of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) when mixed in vitro before i.p. injection into adult Swiss mice. Samples of ethanolic extract corresponding to 1.8 mg of dry extract per animal neutralized up to four lethal doses of the venom (LD50 = 0.08 micrograms venom/g animal). Three substances isolated from the plant--wedelolactone (0.54 mg/animal), sitosterol (2.3 mg/animal) and stigmasterol (2.3 mg/animal)--were able to neutralize three lethal doses of the venom. Aqueous extracts of the plant inhibited the release of creatine kinase from isolated rat muscle exposed to the crude venom. The protection conferred against the myotoxic effects of the venom could be demonstrated also in vivo, when the venom was preincubated with the extract prior to injection into mice.

  10. Anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2, derived from the Prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis).

    PubMed

    Lucena, Sara E; Jia, Ying; Soto, Julio G; Parral, Jessica; Cantu, Esteban; Brannon, Jeremy; Lardner, Kristina; Ramos, Carla J; Seoane, Agustin I; Sánchez, Elda E

    2012-07-01

    Snake venom disintegrins inhibit platelet aggregation and have anti-cancer activities. In this study, we report the cloning, expression, and functional activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2 (GenBank ID: JQ071899), from the Prairie rattlesnake. r-Viridistatin 2 was tested for anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities against six different cancer cell lines (human urinary bladder carcinoma (T24), human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2), human breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and murine skin melanoma (B16F10)). r-Viridistatin 2 shares 96% and 64% amino acid identity with two other Prairie rattlesnake medium-sized disintegrins, viridin and viridistatin, respectively. r-Viridistatin 2 was able to inhibit adhesion of T24, SK-MEL-28, HT-1080, CaCo-2 and MDA-MB-231 to various extracellular matrix proteins with different affinities. r-Viridistatin 2 decreased the ability of T24 and SK-MEL-28 cells to migrate by 62 and 96% respectively, after 24 h of incubation and the invasion of T24, SK-MEL-28, HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells were inhibited by 80, 85, 65 and 64% respectively, through a reconstituted basement membrane using a modified Boyden chamber. Finally, r-viridistatin 2 effectively inhibited lung colonization of murine melanoma cells in BALB/c mice by 71%, suggesting that r-viridistatin 2 could be a potent anti-cancer agent in vivo.

  11. Biochemical and functional studies of ColTx-I, a new myotoxic phospholipase A2 isolated from Crotalus oreganus lutosus (Great Basin rattlesnake) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J R; Resende, L M; Silva, A G; Ribeiro, R I M A; Stábeli, R G; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Marangoni, S; Da Silva, S L

    2016-07-01

    Commonly, phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) play key roles in the pathogenesis of the local tissue damage characteristic of crotaline and viperine snake envenomations. Crotalus oreganus lutosus snake venom has not been extensively studied; therefore, the characterization of its components represents a valuable biotechnological tool for studying pathophysiological processes of envenoming and for gaining a deeper understanding of its biological effects. In this study, for the first time, a basic PLA2 myotoxin, ColTx-I, was purified from C. o. lutosus through two chromatographic steps. ColTx-I is monomeric with calculated molecular mass weight (Mw) of 14,145 Da and a primary structure closely related to basic PLA2s from viperid venoms. The pure enzyme has a specific activity of 15.87 ± 0.65 nmol/min/mg at optimal conditions (pH 8.0 and 37 °C). ColTx-I activity was found to be dependent on Ca(2+), as its substitution by other ionic species as well as the addition of chelating agents significantly reduced its phospholipase activity. In vivo, ColTx-I triggered dose-dependent inflammatory responses, measured using the paw edema model, with an increase in IL-6 levels, systemic and local myotoxicity, characterized by elevated plasma creatine kinase activity. ColTx-I induced a complex series of degenerative events associated with edema, inflammatory infiltrate and skeletal muscle necrosis. These biochemical and functional results suggest that ColTx-I, a myotoxic and inflammatory mediator, plays a relevant role in C. o. lutosus envenomation. Thus, detailed studies on its mechanism of action, such as evaluating the synergism between ColTx-I and other venom components may reveal targets for the development of more specific and effective therapies.

  12. Spatial ecology of timber rattlesnakes on the hardwood ecosystem experiment: pre-treatment results

    Treesearch

    Brian J. MacGowan; Zachary J. Walker

    2013-01-01

    The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) is a species of conservation concern throughout much of its geographic range and may serve as a sentinel species in investigations of the effects of timber harvesting on forest reptiles. Our objective was to determine the effect of even-aged timber management regimes on timber rattlesnake home range and...

  13. Rattlesnake Neurotoxin Structure, Mechanism of Action, Immunology and Molecular Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    from the venom of the midget faded . rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis concolor . Toxicon 2&, 319- 323. Rehm, H. and Betz, H. (1982) Binding of B...8217determined. It was shown to have great similarity to the basic subunits of related toxins from the venoms of the South American and midget faded ...AD-A228 003 CONTRACT NO.: DAMD17-89-C-9007 TITLE: RATTLESNAKE NEUROTOXIN STRUCTURE, MECHANISM OF ACTION, IMMUNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PRINCIPAL

  14. Relationships between insolation and rattlesnake hibernacula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, B.T.; Nowak, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between insolation, climate, and hibernacula of black-tailed (Crotalus molossus), Great Basin (Crotalus lutosus), and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox) rattlesnakes at 4 sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, Hibernacula were located through a combination of visual searches and radio telemetry from 1995 to 2003. We used global information systems to calculate insolation and compared hibernaculum insolation values with random points representing available insolation of the surrounding habitat. Insolation reflects soil temperatures, and we predicted that hibernacula in cool climates, at high elevations, and at high latitudes would have higher insolation relative to their surroundings, while hibernacula in warmer climates would not differ from their surroundings in insolation. Coolest temperatures, highest elevations, and highest latitudes occurred on the C. lutosus and C. molossus sites, where hibernaculum insolation was higher than surrounding insolation. Temperatures were intermediate on the high-elevation C. atrox site, where hibernaculum insolation did not differ from random-point insolation, Temperatures were highest on the low-elevation C. atrox site, where hibernaculum insolation was unexpectedly lower than random-point insolation, Our observations suggest that rattlesnakes in cool climates utilize hibernacula with insolation values higher than those of their surroundings, Rattlesnakes in warm climates utilize hibernacula with insolation values lower than or similar to those of their surroundings.

  15. Antibody responses to natural rattlesnake envenomation and a rattlesnake toxoid vaccine in horses.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Lyndi L; Carmichael, Robert C; Holbrook, Todd C; Taylor, Jennifer M; Ownby, Charlotte L; McFarlane, Dianne; Payton, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    Antivenom antibody titers following administration of rattlesnake venom for antivenom production in horses are well documented; however, antivenom antibody titers following natural rattlesnake envenomation in horses are not. Antibody titers produced in response to the commercially available rattlesnake venom vaccine are also not published. Our study objectives were to measure antivenom antibody titers in rattlesnake-bitten horses and compare them to titers in horses vaccinated with the rattlesnake venom vaccine. Additionally, titers were compared in pregnant versus nonpregnant horses to assess the affect of pregnancy on vaccine response and were measured pre- and postsuckle in foals of vaccinated mares to detect passive transfer of vaccine immunoglobulins. Blood samples were collected from 16 rattlesnake-bitten horses. Thirty-six horses (11 pregnant mares, 12 nonpregnant mares, 13 geldings) were vaccinated using a Crotalus atrox venom toxoid vaccine. Blood was collected before administering each vaccination and 30 days following the third vaccination. Blood was collected from foals of vaccinated mares pre- and postsuckle. All serum was assayed for anti-Crotalus atrox venom antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rattlesnake-bitten horses had higher (P = 0.001) titers than vaccinated horses. There was no significant difference between titers in vaccinated pregnant versus nonpregnant horses. One mare had a positive titer at foaling, and the foals had positive postsuckle titers. Antivenom antibody titer development was variable following natural envenomation and vaccination, and vaccine-induced titers were lower than natural envenomation titers. Further studies are required to determine if natural or vaccine antivenom antibody titers reduce the effects of envenomation.

  16. Antibody Responses to Natural Rattlesnake Envenomation and a Rattlesnake Toxoid Vaccine in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Robert C.; Holbrook, Todd C.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Ownby, Charlotte L.; McFarlane, Dianne; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Antivenom antibody titers following administration of rattlesnake venom for antivenom production in horses are well documented; however, antivenom antibody titers following natural rattlesnake envenomation in horses are not. Antibody titers produced in response to the commercially available rattlesnake venom vaccine are also not published. Our study objectives were to measure antivenom antibody titers in rattlesnake-bitten horses and compare them to titers in horses vaccinated with the rattlesnake venom vaccine. Additionally, titers were compared in pregnant versus nonpregnant horses to assess the affect of pregnancy on vaccine response and were measured pre- and postsuckle in foals of vaccinated mares to detect passive transfer of vaccine immunoglobulins. Blood samples were collected from16 rattlesnake-bitten horses. Thirty-six horses (11 pregnant mares, 12 nonpregnant mares, 13 geldings) were vaccinated using a Crotalus atrox venom toxoid vaccine. Blood was collected before administering each vaccination and 30 days following the third vaccination. Blood was collected from foals of vaccinated mares pre- and postsuckle. All serum was assayed for anti-Crotalus atrox venom antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rattlesnake-bitten horses had higher (P = 0.001) titers than vaccinated horses. There was no significant difference between titers in vaccinated pregnant versus nonpregnant horses. One mare had a positive titer at foaling, and the foals had positive postsuckle titers. Antivenom antibody titer development was variable following natural envenomation and vaccination, and vaccine-induced titers were lower than natural envenomation titers. Further studies are required to determine if natural or vaccine antivenom antibody titers reduce the effects of envenomation. PMID:23515015

  17. Donning your enemy's cloak: ground squirrels exploit rattlesnake scent to reduce predation risk

    PubMed Central

    Clucas, Barbara; Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Ground squirrels (Spermophilus spp.) have evolved a battery of defences against the rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.) that have preyed on them for millions of years. The distinctive behavioural reactions by these squirrels to rattlesnakes have recently been shown to include self-application of rattlesnake scent—squirrels apply scent by vigorously licking their fur after chewing on shed rattlesnake skins. Here, we present evidence that this behaviour is a novel antipredator defence founded on exploitation of a foreign scent. We tested three functional hypotheses for snake scent application—antipredator, conspecific deterrence and ectoparasite defence—by examining reactions to rattlesnake scent by rattlesnakes, ground squirrels and ectoparasites (fleas). Rattlesnakes were more attracted to ground squirrel scent than to ground squirrel scent mixed with rattlesnake scent or rattlesnake scent alone. However, ground squirrel behaviour and flea host choice were not affected by rattlesnake scent. Thus, ground squirrels can reduce the risk of rattlesnake predation by applying rattlesnake scent to their bodies, potentially as a form of olfactory camouflage. Opportunistic exploitation of heterospecific scents may be widespread; many species self-apply foreign odours, but few such cases have been demonstrated to serve in antipredator defence. PMID:18198147

  18. Donning your enemy's cloak: ground squirrels exploit rattlesnake scent to reduce predation risk.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Barbara; Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-04-07

    Ground squirrels (Spermophilus spp.) have evolved a battery of defences against the rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.) that have preyed on them for millions of years. The distinctive behavioural reactions by these squirrels to rattlesnakes have recently been shown to include self-application of rattlesnake scent-squirrels apply scent by vigorously licking their fur after chewing on shed rattlesnake skins. Here, we present evidence that this behaviour is a novel antipredator defence founded on exploitation of a foreign scent. We tested three functional hypotheses for snake scent application--antipredator, conspecific deterrence and ectoparasite defence--by examining reactions to rattlesnake scent by rattlesnakes, ground squirrels and ectoparasites (fleas). Rattlesnakes were more attracted to ground squirrel scent than to ground squirrel scent mixed with rattlesnake scent or rattlesnake scent alone. However, ground squirrel behaviour and flea host choice were not affected by rattlesnake scent. Thus, ground squirrels can reduce the risk of rattlesnake predation by applying rattlesnake scent to their bodies, potentially as a form of olfactory camouflage. Opportunistic exploitation of heterospecific scents may be widespread; many species self-apply foreign odours, but few such cases have been demonstrated to serve in antipredator defence.

  19. Crotalus aquilus in the Mexican state of Mexico consumes a diverse summer diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mociño-deloya, E.; Setser, K.; Peurach, S.C.; Meik, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We report observations of the summer diet of Crotalus aquilus (Queretaro dusky rattlesnake) from an agricultural region near San Pedro de los Metates, municipality of Acambay, state of Mexico, Mexico. We recovered the remains of 12 individual prey items from 11 different snakes. Eleven of 38 (29%) snakes observed contained prey remains, including 6 mammals, 3 lizards, and 3 snakes. These observations suggest that C. aquilus consumes a diverse diet and that they may be more ophiophagous than many other rattlesnakes.

  20. Unraveling the antifungal activity of a South American rattlesnake toxin crotamine.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Erica S; Bizerra, Fernando C; Oliveira, Eduardo B; Moreira, Jéssica T; Rajabi, Mohsen; Nunes, Gabriel L C; de Souza, Ana O; da Silva, Ismael D C G; Yamane, Tetsuo; Karpel, Richard L; Silva, Pedro I; Hayashi, Mirian A F

    2013-02-01

    Crotamine is a highly basic peptide from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake. Its common gene ancestry and structural similarity with the β-defensins, mainly due to an identical disulfide bond pattern, stimulated us to assess the antimicrobial properties of native, recombinant, and chemically synthesized crotamine. Antimicrobial activities against standard strains and clinical isolates were analyzed by the colorimetric microdilution method showing a weak antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) of 50->200 μg/mL], with the exception of Micrococcus luteus [MIC ranging from 1 to 2 μg/mL]. No detectable activity was observed for the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum at concentrations up to 125 μg/mL. However, a pronounced antifungal activity against Candida spp., Trichosporon spp., and Cryptococcus neoformans [12.5-50.0 μg/mL] was observed. Chemically produced synthetic crotamine in general displayed MIC values similar to those observed for native crotamine, whereas recombinant crotamine was overridingly more potent in most assays. On the other hand, derived short linear peptides were not very effective apart from a few exceptions. Pronounced ultrastructure alteration in Candida albicans elicited by crotamine was observed by electron microscopy analyses. The peculiar specificity for highly proliferating cells was confirmed here showing potential low cytotoxic effect of crotamine against nontumoral mammal cell lines (HEK293, PC12, and primary culture astrocyte cells) compared to tumoral B16F10 cells, and no hemolytic activity was observed. Taken together these results suggest that, at low concentration, crotamine is a potentially valuable anti-yeast or candicidal agent, with low harmful effects on normal mammal cells, justifying further studies on its mechanisms of action aiming medical and industrial applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  1. Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in 27 New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Sonis, J M; Hackett, E S; Callan, R J; Holt, T N; Hackett, T B

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and case fatality from rattlesnake envenomation is regionally specific because of variability in relative toxicity of the species of snake encountered. A previous report of rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids (NWC) from the western coastal United States documented high case fatality rates and guarded prognosis for survival. To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome of NWC with prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) envenomation in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Twenty-seven NWC admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute rattlesnake envenomation between 1992 and 2012. Medical records of NWC evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation as coded by the attending clinician and identified by a database search were reviewed retrospectively. Month of admission, signalment, area of bite, clinical and clinicopathologic data, treatments, and outcome were recorded. Twenty-five llamas and 2 alpacas were admitted for envenomation. Llamas were overrepresented compared to hospital caseload. The face was the most common site of envenomation, observed in 96% of recorded cases. Presenting clinical signs included fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, and respiratory distress. Nine animals required a tracheotomy. Median hospitalization time was 3 days and overall survival rate was 69%. Case fatality rate for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in NWC was lower than that reported in the Western coastal region of the United States and similar to that reported for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. A rare case of multiple rattlesnake bites.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Yanko T; Kristeva, Sasha A; Prancheva, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    The rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) is a venomous viper inhabiting the southeastern parts of the United States. It is not found in the Balkans and Europe habitats. Subjects of the species are grown and seen in museums, exhibitions and terrariums, and sometimes in private collections. This may generate potentially toxic exposures to the venom in accidental contact. Acute poisoning with rattlesnake poison in Bulgaria is exotic, rare and even casuistic. The venom of the rattlesnake exhibits neuropathic, proteolytic and hemolytic activities. Antivenom is not currently easily available in Bulgaria--it is not usually stored in hospitals because it is very rarely used and therefore rather expensive. We present a case of multiple envenomation (two different occasions) of one and the same person who kept rattlesnakes in a private terrarium. Local toxic syndrome was observed with burning and stinging pain at bite site combined with limited hemorrhage and necrosis. The hemolytic reaction and the local toxic results were successfully managed without resorting to any specific antidotal therapy.

  3. Responses of timber rattlesnakes to fire: Lessons from two prescribed burns

    Treesearch

    Steven J. Beaupre; Lara E. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) are excellent model organisms for understanding the effects of large scale habitat manipulations because of their low-energy lifestyle, rapid response to changes in resource environment, uniform diet (small mammals), and simple behaviors. We present two case studies that illustrate interactions between timber...

  4. California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) defenses against rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic toxins.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Chien, David C; Coss, Richard G

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that some mammals are able to neutralize venom from snake predators. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) show variation among populations in their ability to bind venom and minimize damage from northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but the venom toxins targeted by resistance have not been investigated. Four California ground squirrel populations, selected for differences in local density or type of rattlesnake predators, were assayed for their ability to neutralize digestive and hemostatic effects of venom from three rattlesnake species. In Douglas ground squirrels (S. b. douglasii), we found that animals from a location where snakes are common showed greater inhibition of venom metalloprotease and hemolytic activity than animals from a location where snakes are rare. Effects on general proteolysis were not different. Douglas ground squirrels also reduced the metalloprotease activity of venom from sympatric northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus oreganus) more than the activity of venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox), but enhanced fibrinolysis of sympatric venom almost 1.8 times above baseline levels. Two Beechey ground squirrel (S. b. beecheyi) populations had similar inhibition of venoms from northern and southern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. helleri), despite differences between the populations in the locally prevalent predator. However, the venom toxins inhibited by Beechey squirrels did vary among venom from Pacific rattlesnake subspecies, and between these venoms and venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes. Blood plasma from Beechey squirrels showed highest inhibition of metalloprotease activity of northern Pacific rattlesnake venom, general proteolytic activity and hemolysis of southern Pacific rattlesnake venom, and hemolysis by allopatric western diamondback venom. These results reveal previously cryptic variation in venom activity against

  5. Kangaroo rats change temperature when investigating rattlesnake predators.

    PubMed

    Schraft, Hannes A; Clark, Rulon W

    2017-05-01

    Predator presence causes acute stress in mammals. A prey animal's stress response increases its chance of survival during life-threatening situations through adaptive changes in behavior and physiology. Some components of the physiological stress response can lead to changes in body surface temperatures. Body temperature changes in prey could provide information about prey state to predators that sense heat, such as pit vipers. We determined whether wild rodents undergo a stress-induced change in body surface temperature upon detecting and investigating rattlesnake predators. We staged encounters between free-ranging Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) and tethered Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) at baited feeding stations, and recorded interactions with a thermal-imaging camera. Kangaroo rats showed a significant change in maximum head temperature, snout temperature, and hind leg temperature during interactions with rattlesnakes. This supports the hypothesis that presence of a predator induces body temperature changes in prey animals. If changes in prey heat signature are detectable by heat-sensitive rattlesnakes, rattlesnakes could use this information to evaluate prey vigilance or arousal before striking; however, more detailed information on the sensory ecology of the pit organ under field conditions is needed to evaluate this possibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) blood sera affects proteolytic and hemolytic activities of rattlesnake venoms.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Coss, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus) from two sites in south central New Mexico, where prairie (Crotalus viridis viridis) and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox) rattlesnakes are common predators, were assayed for inhibition of rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic activities. At statistically significant levels rock squirrel blood sera reduced the metalloprotease and hemolytic activity of venoms from C. v. viridis and C. atrox more than venom from an allopatric snake species, the northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). In contrast, general proteolytic activity of venom from C. oreganus was inhibited more by S. variegatus serum defenses than activity of venom from sympatric snakes. For all three venoms, incubation with squirrel sera increased the level of fibrinolysis over venom-only treatments. These results suggest that rock squirrels (S. variegatus) can defend against metalloproteases and other proteases after envenomation from at least two of five rattlesnake predators they might encounter. However, there were statistically significant differences between general proteolytic activity and fibrinolytic activity of C. v. viridis and C. atrox venom, suggesting that rock squirrels might be differentially vulnerable to these two predators. The hypothesis that prey resistance influences snake venom evolution in a predator-prey arms race is given further support by the previously cryptic variation in venoms detected when assayed against prey defenses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. No safety in the trees: Local and species-level adaptation of an arboreal squirrel to the venom of sympatric rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Pomento, Abby M; Perry, Blair W; Denton, Robert D; Gibbs, H Lisle; Holding, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Within some species, squirrels respond to variable selection from venomous snake predators by showing population-level variation in resistance, while between species, some rattlesnakes possess venom that is more effective at overcoming venom resistance in different species of squirrels. A functional evaluation of resistance variation to venom within and between species of squirrels and snakes can link resistance variation to its evolutionary causes across these different evolutionary scales. To do this, we compared the effectiveness of squirrel sera in inhibiting rattlesnake (Crotalus spp.) venom metalloproteinase activity between populations and between species to test for a response to local variation in selection from a single rattlesnake predator and for specialization of two resistant squirrel species to each of their distinct sympatric snake predators. We found that Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) venom inhibition by Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) is higher at a site where the rattlesnakes are present, which suggests selection may maintain venom resistance in populations separated by short distances. Next, we performed a reciprocal cross of venoms and sera from two rattlesnake and two squirrel species. This showed that squirrel resistance is lower when tested against venom from allopatric compared to sympatric rattlesnake species, demonstrating that squirrel inhibitors are specialized to sympatric venom and suggesting a tradeoff in terms of specialization to the venom of a specific species of rattlesnake predator. This pattern can be explained if inhibitors must recognize venom proteins and resistance evolution tracks venom evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Opossum peptide that can neutralize rattlesnake venom is expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Komives, Claire F.; Sanchez, Elda E.; Rathore, Anurag S.; White, Brandon; Suntravat, Montamas; Balderrama, Michael; Cifelli, Angela; Joshi, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    An eleven amino acid ribosomal peptide was shown to completely neutralize Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom in mice when a lethal dose of the venom was pre-incubated with the peptide prior to intravenous injection. We have expressed the peptide as a concatenated chain of peptides and cleaved them apart from an immobilized metal affinity column using a protease. After ultrafiltration steps, the mixture was shown to partially neutralize rattlesnake venom in mice. Preliminary experiments are described here that suggest a potential life-saving therapy could be developed. To date, no recombinant therapies targeting cytotoxic envenomation have been reported. PMID:27718338

  9. California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) defenses against rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic toxins.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Chien, David C; Coss, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that some mammals are able to neutralize venom from snake predators. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) show variation among populations in their ability to bind venom and minimize damage from northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but the venom toxins targeted by resistance have not been investigated. Four California ground squirrel populations, selected for differences in local density or type of rattlesnake predators, were assayed for their ability to neutralize digestive and hemostatic effects of venom from three rattlesnake species. In Douglas ground squirrels (S. b. douglasii), we found that animals from a location where snakes are common showed greater inhibition of venom metalloprotease and hemolytic activity than animals from a location where snakes are rare. Effects on general proteolysis were not different. Douglas ground squirrels also reduced the metalloprotease activity of venom from sympatric northern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. oreganus) more than the activity of venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox), but enhanced the fibrinolysis of sympatric venom almost 1.8 times above baseline levels. Two Beechey ground squirrel (S. b. beecheyi) populations had similar inhibition of venoms from northern and southern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. helleri), despite differences between the populations in the locally prevalent predator. However, the venom toxins inhibited by Beechey squirrels varied among venom from Pacific rattlesnake subspecies, and between these venoms and venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes. Blood plasma from Beechey squirrels showed highest inhibition of metalloprotease activity of northern Pacific rattlesnake venom, general proteolytic activity and hemolysis of southern Pacific rattlesnake venom, and hemolysis by allopatric western diamondback venom. These results reveal previously cryptic variation in venom activity against resistant prey

  10. Effect of iron and carbon monoxide on fibrinogenase-like degradation of plasmatic coagulation by venoms of four Crotalus species.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Redford, Daniel T; Boyle, Patrick K

    2017-01-01

    Annually, thousands suffer poisonous snake bite, often from defibrinogenating species. Iron and carbon monoxide (CO) improve coagulation kinetics by modulation of fibrinogen as demonstrated in various Agkistrodon species and Crotalus atrox. Thus, we sought to determine whether pretreatment of plasma with iron and CO could attenuate venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen obtained from four common Crotalus species with known fibrinogenase activity. Human plasma was pretreated with ferric chloride (0-10 μmol/l) and CO-releasing molecule-2 (0-100 μmol/l) prior to exposure to venom from a Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Arizona black rattlesnake, prairie rattlesnake, or red diamond rattlesnake. The concentration of venom used decreased coagulation function of one or more kinetic parameters by at least 50% of normal values. Coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography.Three snake venoms significantly degraded plasmatic coagulation kinetics, prolonging the onset to clot formation, diminishing velocity of clot growth and decreasing clot strength. However, red diamond rattlesnake venom exposure resulted in mixed coagulation kinetics, significantly decreasing the time to onset of coagulation without decreasing the velocity of clot growth. Iron and CO attenuated these coagulation kinetic changes in a species-specific manner. Further in vitro investigation of other fibrinogenolytic venoms is indicated to determine if iron and CO can attenuate venom compromised coagulation.

  11. Preliminary Fractionation of Tiger Rattlesnake (Crotalus tigris) Venom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    any gross tissue pathology examined and noted. The LD5 0 was cal LulJud by the Spearman - Karber method (WORLD I EALTH ORGANIZATION, 1981). Venom samples...Veterans I lospital, Venom Research Laboratory, Salt I ,ku City, IJI). Mojave toxin was purified from .QL1culuj1a s . cuu ilJ venom by the method of...minfi Protein 11 unit according to the method of LAEMMI, 1(1970). Apparent nioluctilar weights were determined by Andrews plots. Protuins wtere delected

  12. Facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia after a timber rattlesnake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Madey, Jason J; Price, Amanda B; Dobson, Joseph V; Stickler, David E; McSwain, S David

    2013-11-01

    The timber rattlesnake, also known as Crotalus horridus, is well known to cause significant injury from toxins stored within its venom. During envenomation, toxic systemic effects immediately begin to cause damage to many organ systems including cardiovascular, hematologic, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurologic. One defining characteristic of the timber rattlesnake is a specific neurotoxin called crotoxin, or the "canebrake toxin," which is a potent β-neurotoxin affecting presynaptic nerves that can cause paralysis by inhibiting appropriate neuromuscular transmission. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old boy bitten twice on his calf by a timber rattlesnake, who presented with a life-threatening envenomation and suffered multisystem organ failure as well as a prominent presynaptic neurotoxicity resulting in facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia.

  13. Rattlesnake bites in children: antivenin treatment and surgical indications.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Brian A; Hosalkar, Harish S

    2002-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons working in the Americas may be consulted in the care of patients bitten by venomous rattlesnakes (genus Crotalus ), particularly with regard to the possibilities of compartment syndrome and soft-tissue destruction. Despite considerable evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of antivenin in the treatment of rattlesnake bites in adults, controversy persists regarding the roles of antivenin and surgery in the treatment of rattlesnake envenomations in children. Our hypothesis is that aggressive use of antivenin is just as effective and safe for children as it is for adults. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of twenty-four consecutive patients who had been managed at our hospital because of a bite from a western diamondback rattlesnake. Nineteen of the twenty-four patients had been envenomated. The uniformity of collected data was facilitated by the use of an intensive-care-unit protocol during the ten-year period that was reviewed. A questionnaire was developed for long-term follow-up. Aggressive use of polyvalent equine antivenin safely prevented the need for surgery in sixteen of the nineteen envenomated patients. Of the three patients who had surgical treatment, two were managed with limited soft-tissue debridement and one was managed with a fasciotomy of the leg because of a compartment syndrome that occurred when adequate antivenin was withheld. No serious adverse effects were noted in association with the antivenin, and no functional impairments were noted at the time of discharge. Antivenin, rather than surgery, is the proper initial treatment of severe rattlesnake envenomations in children.

  14. Reducing rattlesnake-human conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    Arizona is home to 11 species of rattlesnakes. As rapidly growing Arizona communities move into formerly undeveloped landscapes, encounters between people and rattlesnakes increase. As a result, the management of nuisance snakes, or snakes found in areas where people do not want them, is increasingly important. Since 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted research on the behavior and ecology of nuisance rattlesnake in Arizona national park units. A decade of research provides important insights into rattlesnake behavior that can be used by national parks and communities to reduce rattlesnake-human conflicts.

  15. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.A.; Mayerle, Ronald T.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area in Montana identified a small area of substantiated resource potential for a low-grade stratabound copper occurrence along the northwest border of the area. A demonstrated barite (BaSO//4) resource of 45 tons and a demonstrated limestone resource suitable for cement production are present in the southern part of the roadless area. Limestone, silica in quartz veins, and sand and gravel deposits are known in the southern part of the area but similar deposits occur widely outside the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area.

  16. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-09-15

    Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. The current study investigates both phenomena resulting from the hybridization of a male snake with type I degradative venom, Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), and a female snake with type II highly toxic venom, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake). SDS-PAGE, enzymology, Western blot and reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) were used to characterize the venom of the C. o. helleri male, the C. s. scutulatus female and their two hybrid offspring as they aged. In general, Crotalus o. helleri × C. s. scutulatus hybrid venoms appeared to exhibit overlapping parental venom profiles, and several different enzyme activity patterns. Both hybrids expressed C. o. helleri father-specific myotoxins as well as C. s. scutulatus mother-specific Mojave toxin. Snake venom metalloprotease activity displayed apparent sex-influenced expression patterns, while hybrid serine protease activities were intermediate to parental activities. The C. s. scutulatus × C. o. helleri hybrid male's venom profile provided the strongest evidence that type I and type II venom characteristics are expressed simultaneously in hybrid venoms, as this snake contained distinctive characteristics of both parental species. However, the possibility of

  17. The Deep Origin and Recent Loss of Venom Toxin Genes in Rattlesnakes

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Noah L.; Giorgianni, Matt W.; Kassner, Victoria A.; Selegue, Jane E.; Sanchez, Elda E.; Carroll, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The genetic origin of novel traits is a central but challenging puzzle in evolutionary biology. Among snakes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-related toxins have evolved in different lineages to function as potent neurotoxins, myotoxins, or hemotoxins. Here, we traced the genomic origin and evolution of PLA2 toxins by examining PLA2 gene number, organization, and expression in both neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic rattlesnakes. We found that even though most North American rattlesnakes do not produce neurotoxins, the genes of a specialized heterodimeric neurotoxin predate the origin of rattlesnakes and were present in their last common ancestor (~22 mya). The neurotoxin genes were then deleted independently in the lineages leading to the Western Diamondback (Crotalus atrox) and Eastern Diamondback (C. adamanteus) rattlesnakes (~6 mya), while a PLA2 myotoxin gene retained in C. atrox was deleted from the neurotoxic Mojave rattlesnake (C. scutulatus; ~4 mya). The rapid evolution of PLA2 gene number appears to be due to transposon invasion that provided a template for non-allelic homologous recombination. PMID:27641771

  18. Comparison of venom composition and biological activities of the subspecies Crotalus lepidus lepidus, Crotalus lepidus klauberi and Crotalus lepidus morulus from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Gerardo; Rucavado, Alexandra; Lazcano, David; Gutiérrez, José María; Borja, Miguel; Lomonte, Bruno; Garza-García, Yolanda; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    The rock rattlesnakes Crotalus lepidus comprise a group (lepidus, klauberi, morulus and maculosus) of poorly known mountain cold-tolerant snakes in Mexico. In particular, Crotalus lepidus morulus is a snake endemic of the northeast of Mexico, whereas Crotalus lepidus klauberi and C. l. lepidus are distributed in some regions of the north and central Mexico and southern U. S. Until now very little data are available from C. lepidus subspecies from Mexico, as the terrain inhabited by these snakes is generally steep and rugged. In this work, we have determined some biochemical and biological properties of C. l. morulus, C. l. klauberi and C. l. lepidus crude venoms. Some minor differences in venoms were noted in SDS-PAGE, HPLC profile and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Partial sequences of metalloproteinases, phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂) and galactose-specific lectins were identified in the venoms. Venoms of C. l. klauberi and C. l. lepidus had significantly higher hemorrhagic and lethal activities than C. l. morulus venom. Proteolytic activity in azocasein was higher in C. l. morulus venom, whereas gelatin hydrolysis was higher in C. l. klauberi. Fibrinogenolytic and PLA₂ activities were very similar in all venoms tested. The histological observations in the gastrocnemius muscle damaged by venoms from all the subspecies confirmed myonecrotic and hemorrhagic activities (at 3 and 24 h), which resulted in a poor regenerative response after 14 days. However, C. l. lepidus and C. l. klauberi venom induced a higher increase in the plasma activity of creatine kinase (CK), evidencing higher myotoxicity, whereas paw edema-inducing activity was higher in C. l. lepidus venom. The results indicate that the venoms from the three subspecies have similar protein profiles in electrophoresis, HPLC and molecular weight determinations. However, differences were found in the biological activities in mice. Notably, the venoms of C. l. lepidus and C. l. klauberi present higher

  19. Delayed antivenom treatment for a patient after envenomation by Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Rosen, P B; Leiva, J I; Ross, C P

    2000-01-01

    Bites by the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) are the most common cause of envenomation in Texas. We describe a patient who had delayed administration of antivenom after envenomation by C atrox. Because of an initial adverse response to a test dose, the patient had been unwilling to receive antivenom therapy. When compartment syndrome developed 52 hours after envenomation, however, the patient consented to antivenom therapy as an alternative to fasciotomy. We documented a decrease in compartment pressures and resolution of thrombocytopenia that was concomitant with antivenom administration.

  20. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    PubMed

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements.

  1. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlstrom, Thor N.V.; McColly, Robert

    1984-01-01

    There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Arizona, as judged from field studies. Significant concentrations of minerals within the roadless area are not indicated by geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, or aeromagnetic studies. Basalt, volcanic cinders, sand and gravel, and sandstone that may be suitable for construction materials occur in the area, but are more readily accessible outside the roadless area boundary.

  2. Eastern diamondback rattlesnake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-13

    An eastern diamondback rattlesnake slithers through the grass near the NASA News Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The diamondback is Florida's largest venomous snake and may exceed six feet in length. It lives throughout Florida in a variety of dry habitats, such as pinelands, scrub and golf courses. Kennedy shares a boundary with the Merritt Island Wildlife Nature Refuge, which is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  3. Eastern diamondback rattlesnake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-13

    An eastern diamondback rattlesnake warms in the sun near the NASA News Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The diamondback is Florida's largest venomous snake and may exceed six feet in length. It lives throughout Florida in a variety of dry habitats, such as pinelands, scrub and golf courses. Kennedy shares a boundary with the Merritt Island Wildlife Nature Refuge, which is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  4. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  5. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  6. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  7. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  8. Attachment of rattlesnake venom myotoxin a to sarcoplasmic reticulum: peroxidase conjugated method.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, A. T.; Morita, M.

    1983-01-01

    Myotoxin a is a muscle-damaging toxin isolated from the venom of Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) and is composed of 42 amino acid residues. Earlier electron microscopic observation indicated that the toxin causes extensive swelling of the sarcoplasmic reticulum followed by disorganization of the sarcomers. In the present paper we describe the evidence for the attachment of peroxidase-conjugated myotoxin a to the membrane of sarcoplasmic reticulum of human muscle. It is thus suggested that the attachment of the toxin to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the subsequent swelling are the first steps in myonecrosis induced by myotoxin a. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6661395

  9. Clinical findings associated with prairie rattlesnake bites in dogs: 100 cases (1989-1998).

    PubMed

    Hackett, Tim B; Wingfield, Wayne E; Mazzaferro, Elisa M; Benedetti, Joanna S

    2002-06-01

    To identify clinically relevant variables and treatments for dogs bitten by prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis). Retrospective study. 100 client-owned dogs. Records of dogs evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation from 1989 to 1998 were reviewed. Analysis was performed to test for significant associations among clinical variables or treatments and cell counts, costs, and duration of hospitalization. Most prairie rattlesnake bites occurred between May and September. Dogs were 3 months to 12 years old (median, 3.7 years); most were bitten on the head in the late afternoon. There was no sex predilection. Median time to evaluation was 1 hour (range, 15 minutes to 13 hours). Swelling in the area of the bite was the primary physical abnormality. Principal initial laboratory findings were echinocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and prolonged activated clotting time. Ninety-four dogs were hospitalized; 48 were discharged the following day. Antimicrobials and crystalloid fluids, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, and antivenin administered i.v. were the most commonly used treatments. One dog died, and small dogs were hospitalized longer than large dogs. Antivenin administration was not significantly associated with duration of hospitalization but was associated with higher platelet counts after treatment and higher total hospital costs. Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in dogs is associated with high morbidity rate but low mortality rate. The efficacy of administration of antivenin for dogs with bites from this snake species is questionable.

  10. Ground squirrels use an infrared signal to deter rattlesnake predation

    PubMed Central

    Rundus, Aaron S.; Owings, Donald H.; Joshi, Sanjay S.; Chinn, Erin; Giannini, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of communicative signals involves a major hurdle; signals need to effectively stimulate the sensory systems of their targets. Therefore, sensory specializations of target animals are important sources of selection on signal structure. Here we report the discovery of an animal signal that uses a previously unknown communicative modality, infrared radiation or “radiant heat,” which capitalizes on the infrared sensory capabilities of the signal's target. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) add an infrared component to their snake-directed tail-flagging signals when confronting infrared-sensitive rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but tail flag without augmenting infrared emission when confronting infrared-insensitive gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus). Experimental playbacks with a biorobotic squirrel model reveal this signal's communicative function. When the infrared component was added to the tail flagging display of the robotic models, rattlesnakes exhibited a greater shift from predatory to defensive behavior than during control trials in which tail flagging included no infrared component. These findings provide exceptionally strong support for the hypothesis that the sensory systems of signal targets should, in general, channel the evolution of signal structure. Furthermore, the discovery of previously undescribed signaling modalities such as infrared radiation should encourage us to overcome our own human-centered sensory biases and more fully examine the form and diversity of signals in the repertoires of many animal species. PMID:17704254

  11. A retrospective review of rattlesnake bites in 100 children.

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto; Gómez-Rivera, Norberto

    2017-04-01

    A retrospective review of clinical features and treatment of children hospitalized for rattlesnake bite. One hundred clinical records were reviewed. Variables included: age, gender, season of the year, signs, symptoms, poisoning grade, complications, treatment and sequelae. Fifty-nine percent were males and 37% were less than 5 years of age; 87% occurred in rural areas; 63% of the snakebites occurred during the summer, of them, 39% occurred within the perimeter of the domicile and 8% within the home. Sixty-seven percent of children bitten by snakes reached the second degree of envenomation. During the first period (1977-1996), treatment for intoxication included treatment with polyvalent equine anti-snake venom serum. During the second period (1997-2014, a polyvalent polyclonal horse anti-snake venom F(Ab) was used. The second period hospitalization time was reduced to 3.9 days (P<0.0001). Hematological complications dominated during the first period (P=0.093) with wound infections occurring in 26% of the cases, neurological symptoms in 24 %, fasciotomy in 6% and mortality in 1%. The second degree poisoning was more frequent and was more severe in 7% of the patients. It was determined that the best treatment for snakebite was F(Ab') 2 therapy. Mortality occurred in 1% of the cases. Rattlesnake (Crotalus sp.) bite, in Mexico is less frequent as compared to other crotalidae species. The hematological complications are more frequent. We did not observe any recurrent phenomenons.

  12. Roads, interrupted dispersal, and genetic diversity in timber rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Brown, William S; Stechert, Randy; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2010-08-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often creates barriers to animal movement, transforming formerly contiguous habitat into a patchwork of habitat islands with low connectivity. Roadways are a feature of most landscapes that can act as barriers or filters to migration among local populations. Even small and recently constructed roads can have a significant impact on population genetic structure of some species, but not others. We developed a research approach that combines fine-scale molecular genetics with behavioral and ecological data to understand the impacts of roads on population structure and connectivity. We used microsatellite markers to characterize genetic variation within and among populations of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) occupying communal hibernacula (dens) in regions bisected by roadways. We examined the impact of roads on seasonal migration, genetic diversity, and gene flow among populations. Snakes in hibernacula isolated by roads had significantly lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation than snakes in hibernacula in contiguous habitat. Genetic-assignment analyses revealed that interruption to seasonal migration was the mechanism underlying these patterns. Our results underscore the sizeable impact of roads on this species, despite their relatively recent construction at our study sites (7 to 10 generations of rattlesnakes), the utility of population genetics for studies of road ecology, and the need for mitigating effects of roads.

  13. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    PubMed

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  14. Antibiotics after rattlesnake envenomation.

    PubMed

    LoVecchio, Frank; Klemens, Jane; Welch, Sharon; Rodriguez, Ron

    2002-11-01

    To record the outcome, with regard to infection rate, of patients with rattlesnake bites (RSBs) who do not receive prophylactic antibiotics, a prospective observational study was performed of patients with RSBs treated at our institution during a consecutive 18-month period. The inclusion criteria were RSBs <24 h old and completion of follow-up (telephone call, mail reply, medical toxicologist, or private physician examination) 7-10 days following envenomation. Fifty-six consecutive patients (Median age: 32.8 years [range 4-67 years]) were enrolled. One patient was excluded because of presentation 38 h after envenomation and two patients failed to complete the required follow-up. One patient received a dose of antibiotics before transfer. Antibiotics were discontinued upon arrival. Of the total 56 RSB patients, 34 (61%) RSBs involved the upper extremity and 22 (39%) involved the lower extremity. Six patients (11%) applied ice and two (4%) used a tourniquet before evaluation. The mean arrival time was 2.7 h (Range <1-24 h). Forty-three patients (81%) received antivenin. Fifty-three patients (100%) had extremity swelling and 38 patients (72%) had tender proximal lymph nodes. Of the 53 patients who completed the study, 3 (6%) received antibiotics from their primary care physicians at 7-10 day follow-up, with no cases (0%) of documented infection. Prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in patients with rattlesnake bites.

  15. New immunization protocol to produce crotalic antivenom combining Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and its PLA2.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Luciano Sebastián; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Teibler, Pamela; Maruñak, Silvana; Acosta, Ofelia; Leiva, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Antivenoms are usually obtained by animal immunization with successive inoculations of increasing sublethal amounts of venom, which may impair the animal health. The high lethality of venom requires prolonged immunization plans with small amounts of venom. Thus, we propose an alternative plan that includes a pre-immunization of the animal with phospholipase A2, the main crotoxin component, which is responsible for the whole venom lethality. For comparison, three different immunization schemes were designed: high dose protocol (HDP; 0.5-27 mg of venom), low dose protocol (LDP; 0.1-7 mg of venom) and Mix protocol (MP; preimmunization 0.1-1.2 mg of crotalic PLA2, and then 4.5-8 mg of venom). Antibody titers were determined by ELISA, in blood plasma obtained from the marginal vein of the ear. The neutralizing ability of the different sera obtained by all protocols (HDS, LDS and MS) was tested against the most important pharmacological activities of whole venom: PLA2 activity, myotoxicity, thrombin like activity and lethality. MS showed the best neutralizing efficacy and at the same time, it was obtained by an immunization protocol that takes account of animal health care, since it requires low quantities of venoms in comparison to traditional protocols. Copyright © 2014 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Denim clothing reduces venom expenditure by rattlesnakes striking defensively at model human limbs.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Shelton S; Hayes, William K

    2009-12-01

    Venomous snakebites can be painful, costly, and potentially life threatening. We seek to learn whether ordinary clothing (denim material from blue jeans) interferes with the kinematics of venom delivery, thereby reducing the amount of venom injected by a representative viper into a human limb. In a laboratory study, we used model human limbs (warm, saline solution-filled gloves) to elicit defensive strikes from small and large southern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus helleri). Each snake was videotaped biting a bare glove and a denim-covered glove. The snakes injected significantly less venom into denim-covered gloves than bare gloves during defensive strikes, with a 60% reduction for small snakes and 66% for large snakes. Latency to bite, number of bites, and duration of fang contact during the bite were similar for the 2 glove types, suggesting that the 2 targets elicited similar defensive behaviors and strikes. Several findings suggested that denim interfered with venom delivery, including the high proportion of dry bites for denim-covered gloves and the large quantity of venom spilled harmlessly on the denim cover. Large rattlesnakes struck more readily, maintained longer fang contact during the bite, and delivered 26 to 41 times more venom into gloves than small snakes. In our model, denim clothing proved effective at reducing venom injection by both small and large rattlesnakes. Wearing long denim pants as an alternative to shorts may provide a simple, low-cost means of reducing the severity of snakebites.

  17. Clinical predictors of tissue necrosis following rattlesnake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Heise, C William; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Padilla-Jones, Angela; Truitt Hayek, Carrie; Gerkin, Richard D

    2017-09-08

    Rattlesnake envenomation (RSE) causes edema, hemotoxicity and tissue necrosis. Necrosis may result in permanent disability. To study patient-related factors associated with tissue necrosis after Crotalus envenomation. Prospective cohort study of patients admitted to the Medical Toxicology service with diagnosis of RSE between April 2011 and November 2014. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years and upper extremity (UE) envenomation site. Primary outcome was tissue necrosis, including dermonecrosis, manifesting as bullae. Secondary outcome was amputation. 77 subjects, age 18 to 88 years, met inclusion criteria. Rattlesnake species was unknown in most cases. All received Fab antivenom. 62 (82%) had a digital envenomation. 31 (40.3%) had necrosis. Necrotic area ranged from 0.1 cm(2) to 14 cm(2). Procedural interventions, (superficial debridement, dermotomy, surgical exploration, and operative debridement of devitalized tissue) occurred in 25 (32.5%). Five (6.5%) underwent dermotomy and 6 (7.8%) operative debridement. No amputations were performed. Patients with cyanosis on presentation had increased risk of developing necrosis (11/12; RR 2.98 95% CI 1.99-4.46). Ecchymosis on presentation was also associated with increased risk of necrosis (24/32; RR 4.04 95% CI 2.08-7.86). Patients with social or regular ethanol use were more likely to develop necrosis than those without (28/53; RR 4.23 95% CI 1.42-12.6). Regular cocaine use was associated with increased risk of operative debridement (4/6; RR 9.13 95% CI 2.33-35.8). A nonsignificant risk of operative debridement occurred with tobacco use (RR 1.14 95%CI 0.99-1.31 p = 0.09). Time to antivenom did not correlate with risk of necrosis. UE RSE patients who presented with cyanosis, ecchymosis or history of ethanol use were at increased risk of developing necrosis. Cocaine use was associated with increased risk of operative debridement.

  18. North-south regional variation in phospholipase A activity in the venom of Crotalus ruber.

    PubMed

    Straight, R C; Glenn, J L; Wolt, T B; Wolfe, M C

    1992-11-01

    1. Twenty-seven individual venoms from the rattlesnake species Crotalus ruber from different regions were comparatively analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC and analyzed for phospholipase A (PLA) content using a polarographic assay. 2. Two fractions containing PLA activity were detected by HPLC in the venoms of all the C. ruber specimens from southern Baja, Mexico, but specimens from southern California, U.S.A., were lacking corresponding fractions and were extremely low or lacking in PLA activity in their venoms. 3. The north-south regional variation in PLA content in C. ruber venom does not correlate with the north-south ranges (based on external morphology) of the subspecies C. ruber ruber and C. ruber lucasensis.

  19. Western Immunoblot Analysis of Twenty-One Snake Venoms from Three Snake Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), using enzyme-linked immuno- sorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion ", Toxicon, 19 (1981) pp. 131...5, 11). Unlike immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion , Western immunoblotting allows relatively easy determination of the size and number of...completely neglected area in the cross-reactive analysis of snake venom proteins. Previously, only immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion assays

  20. When less means more: dehydration improves innate immunity in rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Brusch, George A; DeNardo, Dale F

    2017-04-12

    Immune function can vary based on availability of resources, and most studies of such influences have focused on the co-investment of energy into immune and other physiological functions. When energy resources are limited, trade-offs exist, which can compromise immunity for other functions. As with energy, water limitation can also alter various physiological processes, yet water has received little consideration for its role in possibly modulating immune functions. We examined the relationship between immunocompetence and hydration state using the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). This species is known to undergo substantial seasonal fluctuations in water availability with extreme limitations during the hot, dry season. We collected blood samples from free-ranging C. atrox to compare osmolality and innate immune function (lysis, agglutination, bacterial growth inhibition) during the milder and relatively moister early spring season, the hot-dry season, and the hot-wet season. To isolate effects of dehydration from other possible seasonal influences, we complemented this field study with a laboratory study in which we withheld food and water from individually housed adult C. atrox for up to 16 weeks. We collected blood samples from each snake as it dehydrated and collected a final sample after the snake was given ad lib water at the end of the experiment. Our results demonstrate that C. atrox experience significant dehydration during the hot-dry season, and that, in general, innate immune function is highly correlated with osmolality, whether natural or artificially manipulated.

  1. Isolation of salmonellae from dried rattlesnake preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K; Sonnenberg, M; Kathpalia, S; Ortega, P; Swiatlo, A L; Kocka, F E

    1990-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae and other Salmonella serovars were isolated from four different rattlesnake preparations which were used for self-treatment of various diseases. A case of disseminated S. arizonae infection is reported in a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and ingested dried rattlesnake. Images PMID:2312681

  2. Year End Progress Report on Rattlesnake Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark David; Gleicher, Frederick Nathan; Ortensi, Javier; Schunert, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Rattlesnake is a MOOSE-based radiation transport application developed at INL to support modern multi-physics simulations. At the beginning of the last year, Rattlesnake was able to perform steady-state, transient and eigenvalue calculations for the multigroup radiation transport equations. Various discretization schemes, including continuous finite element method (FEM) with discrete ordinates method (SN) and spherical harmonics expansion method (PN) for the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation, continuous FEM (CFEM) with SN for the least square (LS) formulation, diffusion approximation with CFEM and discontinuous FEM (DFEM), have been implemented. A separate toolkit, YAKXS, for multigroup cross section management was developed to support Rattlesnake calculations with feedback both from changes in the field variables, such as fuel temperature, coolant density, and etc., and in isotope inventory. The framework for doing nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) within Rattlesnake has been set up, and both NDA calculations with SAAF-SN-CFEM scheme and Monte Carlo with OpenMC have been performed. It was also used for coupling BISON and RELAP-7 for the full-core multiphysics simulations. Within the last fiscal year, significant improvements have been made in Rattlesnake. Rattlesnake development was migrated into our internal GITLAB development environment at the end of year 2014. Since then total 369 merge requests has been accepted into Rattlesnake. It is noted that the MOOSE framework that Rattlesnake is based on is under continuous developments. Improvements made in MOOSE can improve the Rattlesnake. It is acknowledged that MOOSE developers spent efforts on patching Rattlesnake for the improvements made on the framework side. This report will not cover the code restructuring for better readability and modularity and documentation improvements, which we have spent tremendous effort on. It only details some of improvements in the following sections.

  3. Rattlesnake Bites in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Alfred N.

    1983-01-01

    In a series of 59 cases of rattlesnake bites at two major northern California hospitals, no deaths occurred, no amputations or fasciotomies were required and only one patient had tissue necrosis requiring a graft. Because patients are being seen in major medical facilities earlier, envenomation is encountered in earlier stages. Less specific national standards of treatment, therefore, should receive less emphasis than treatment based on the virulence of the snakes in the particular geographic region. Initial doses of antivenin given intravenously should be based on the degree of envenomation, with additional titration done for worsening symptoms. PMID:6636730

  4. The binding effectiveness of anti-r-disintegrin polyclonal antibodies against disintegrins and PII and PIII metalloproteases: An immunological survey of type A, B and A+B venoms from Mohave rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Esteban; Mallela, Sahiti; Nyguen, Matthew; Báez, Raúl; Parra, Victoria; Johnson, Rachel; Wilson, Kyle; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Sánchez, Elda E

    2017-01-01

    Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs). Also, type A+B venom contains a combination of Mojave toxin and SVMP. The use of an anti-disintegrin antibody in a simple Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) can be used to identify the difference between the venoms of the type A, B, and A+B Mohave rattlesnakes. This study implements the use of an anti-recombinant disintegrin polyclonal antibody (ARDPA) for the detection of disintegrins and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) in individual crude snake venoms of Mohave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) of varying geographical locations. After correlation with Western blots, coagulation activity and LD50 data, it was determined that the antibody allows for a quick and cost-efficient identification of venom types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The binding effectiveness of anti-r-disintegrin polyclonal antibodies against disintegrins and PII and PIII metalloproteases: An immunological survey of type A, B and A + B venoms from Mohave rattlesnakes

    PubMed Central

    Cantú, Esteban; Mallela, Sahiti; Nyguen, Matthew; Báez, Raúl; Parra, Victoria; Johnson, Rachel; Wilson, Kyle; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Sánchez, Elda E.

    2016-01-01

    Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs). Also, type A + B venom contains a combination of Mojave toxin and SVMP. The use of an anti-disintegrin antibody in a simple Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) can be used to identify the difference between the venoms of the type A, B, and A+B Mohave rattlesnakes. This study implements the use of an anti-recombinant disintegrin polyclonal antibody (ARDPA) for the detection of disintegrins and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) in individual crude snake venoms of Mohave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) of varying geographical locations. After correlation with Western blots, coagulation activity and LD50 data, it was determined that the antibody allows for a quick and cost-efficient identification of venom types. PMID:27989783

  6. Growth rates and post-release survival of captive neonate timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2003-01-01

    The need for conservation and management of rare species is becoming increasingly important as wildlife species and their habitat continue to decline. Translocation of wild captured adults to augment and reintroduce populations has been successfully used for some endangered avian species (see Carrie et al. 1999; Rudolph et al. 1992). In general, success rates for...

  7. A Noninvasive Technique for Blocking Vomeronasal Chemoreception in Rattlesnakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, C. Patrick; Chiszar, David; Smith, Hobart M.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the effects of vomeronasal deprivation on strike-induced chemosensory searching (SICS) in rattlesnakes we used a newly developed technique to anesthetize the vomeronasal organs. We compared rate of tongue flicking after striking prey in avomic rattlesnakes to vomic controls. Avomic rattlesnakes exhibited significantly fewer tongue…

  8. A Noninvasive Technique for Blocking Vomeronasal Chemoreception in Rattlesnakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, C. Patrick; Chiszar, David; Smith, Hobart M.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the effects of vomeronasal deprivation on strike-induced chemosensory searching (SICS) in rattlesnakes we used a newly developed technique to anesthetize the vomeronasal organs. We compared rate of tongue flicking after striking prey in avomic rattlesnakes to vomic controls. Avomic rattlesnakes exhibited significantly fewer tongue…

  9. Rattlesnakes are extremely fast and variable when striking at kangaroo rats in nature: Three-dimensional high-speed kinematics at night

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Timothy E.; Clark, Rulon W.; Collins, Clint E.; Whitford, Malachi D.; Freymiller, Grace A.

    2017-01-01

    Predation plays a central role in the lives of most organisms. Predators must find and subdue prey to survive and reproduce, whereas prey must avoid predators to do the same. The resultant antagonistic coevolution often leads to extreme adaptations in both parties. Few examples capture the imagination like a rapid strike from a venomous snake. However, almost nothing is known about strike performance of viperid snakes under natural conditions. We obtained high-speed (500 fps) three-dimensional video in the field (at night using infrared lights) of Mohave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) attempting to capture Merriam’s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami). Strikes occurred from a range of distances (4.6 to 20.6 cm), and rattlesnake performance was highly variable. Missed capture attempts resulted from both rapid escape maneuvers and poor strike accuracy. Maximum velocity and acceleration of some rattlesnake strikes fell within the range of reported laboratory values, but some far exceeded most observations. Thus, quantifying rapid predator-prey interactions in the wild will propel our understanding of animal performance. PMID:28084400

  10. Rattlesnakes are extremely fast and variable when striking at kangaroo rats in nature: Three-dimensional high-speed kinematics at night.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Clark, Rulon W; Collins, Clint E; Whitford, Malachi D; Freymiller, Grace A

    2017-01-13

    Predation plays a central role in the lives of most organisms. Predators must find and subdue prey to survive and reproduce, whereas prey must avoid predators to do the same. The resultant antagonistic coevolution often leads to extreme adaptations in both parties. Few examples capture the imagination like a rapid strike from a venomous snake. However, almost nothing is known about strike performance of viperid snakes under natural conditions. We obtained high-speed (500 fps) three-dimensional video in the field (at night using infrared lights) of Mohave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) attempting to capture Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami). Strikes occurred from a range of distances (4.6 to 20.6 cm), and rattlesnake performance was highly variable. Missed capture attempts resulted from both rapid escape maneuvers and poor strike accuracy. Maximum velocity and acceleration of some rattlesnake strikes fell within the range of reported laboratory values, but some far exceeded most observations. Thus, quantifying rapid predator-prey interactions in the wild will propel our understanding of animal performance.

  11. Clinical safety evaluation of F(ab')₂ antivenom (Crotalus durissus-Bothrops asper) administration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Woods, Craig; Young, David

    2011-10-01

    Antivenoms consisting of selective antigen binding antibody fragments, or F(ab')(2), are becoming more popular in human and veterinary medicine, owing to their preferred kinetics, tissue distribution, and removal of the Fc binding portion of IgG. Consequences of antivenom administration can include acute and delayed reactions, dependent, in part, on the antivenom's donor source, purity, and composition. This study evaluated an equine-derived polyvalent F(ab')(2) pit viper antivenom in healthy dogs of various size, age, and breed under controlled conditions. Dogs were allocated into 6 treatment groups (n = 10 per group) based on weight (3 weight groups) and dose (2 dose groups) and administered F(ab')(2) antivenom over 1 hour by IV infusion. Dogs were observed for adverse events at 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after administration and blood was collected for CBC and serum biochemistry before and at 24 hours postadministration. No abnormalities were noted in the 3-vial group. In the 6-vial group, 3 dogs developed mild self-limiting edema around the head or neck, suggestive of a type 1 hypersensitivity, while another dog vomited and developed mild hypocalcemia at 24 hours, reflecting a 13% reaction rate at high doses. However, no dogs exhibited clinical signs of hypocalcemia or had any severe adverse events. CBC remained normal in all groups. This study demonstrated that the polyvalent F(ab')(2) pit viper antivenom is well tolerated in dogs given large doses in a short period of time. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  12. Rattlesnake envenomation in 12 New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Dykgraaf, Susanne; Pusterla, Nicola; Van Hoogmoed, Linda M

    2006-01-01

    Rattlesnake envenomation of New World camelids is a seasonal problem with often dramatic clinical signs. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical signs, laboratory results, treatment methods, and outcome for rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids. Medical records from 1988 to 2004 were searched for New World camelids presented for rattlesnake bite or clinical signs suspected to be related to recent envenomation. Twelve records were identified. From these records a retrospective study was performed. Nine camelids presented for acute disease (2/9 arrived dead), whereas 3 presented for subacute onset of disease. Swelling of the lips, head and neck, tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia, and lethargy were the most common presenting signs. Snake bites were most commonly located to the muzzle (10/12). Common complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemical abnormalities were neutrophilia, lymphopenia, increased muscle enzyme activity, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and thrombocytopenia. Treatment included combinations of intravenous fluid therapy, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory drugs, tetanus prophylaxis, tracheostomy, supplemental oxygen, antivenom, total parenteral nutrition, and nursing care. Five of the 10 animals with acute onset of clinical signs survived, and all animals with subacute presentation died. The mortality rate for New World camelids with severe local tissue reaction and systemic signs of envenomation was 58%. New World camelids that sustain rattlesnake envenomation and severe facial swelling precluding prehension and mastication have a guarded prognosis for survival. Aggressive treatment is recommended to optimize the chances of survival. Animals with less severe local tissue reaction and absence of systemic signs have a better prognosis.

  13. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area are eight United States Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1.... The area's boundary is defined as follows: (1) The beginning point is on the Yakima East map at...

  14. Summary of geotechnical information in the Rattlesnake Mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K.R.; Gephart, R.E.; Graham, D.L.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes the available geotechnical information from the Rattlesnake Mountain area, located along the southwestern boundary of the Hanford Site. The discussion emphasizes the geohydrologic environment of the anticlinal ridges in the vicinity of Rattlesnake Mountain. Included in the document is information concerning the stratigraphy, structure, geomorphology, seismology, climatology, and hydrology, as well as the resource potential of the Rattlesnake Mountain area. 77 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Rattlesnake Neurotoxin Structure, Mechanism of Action, Immunology and Molecular Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-10

    Aird, S. D., and Kaiser, I. I. (1988) Physiological and immunological properties of small myotoxins from -Zhe venom of the midget faded rattlesnake ...AD-A258 669 AD RATTLESNAKE NEUROTOXIN STRUCTURE, MECHANISM OF ACTION, IMMUNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY FINAL REPORT D TIC IVAN I. KAISER ELECTE S DEC...u m_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6 2 7 8 7 A I 6 2 7 8 7 A 8 7 7 I A A [ ~A 3 1 7 8 2 1 (u) Rattlesnake neurotoxin structure

  16. Limitations of Climatic Data for Inferring Species Boundaries: Insights from Speckled Rattlesnakes

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Fujita, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypes, DNA, and measures of ecological differences are widely used in species delimitation. Although rarely defined in such studies, ecological divergence is almost always approximated using multivariate climatic data associated with sets of specimens (i.e., the “climatic niche”); the justification for this approach is that species-specific climatic envelopes act as surrogates for physiological tolerances. Using identical statistical procedures, we evaluated the usefulness and validity of the climate-as-proxy assumption by comparing performance of genetic (nDNA SNPs and mitochondrial DNA), phenotypic, and climatic data for objective species delimitation in the speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii) complex. Ordination and clustering patterns were largely congruent among intrinsic (heritable) traits (nDNA, mtDNA, phenotype), and discordance is explained by biological processes (e.g., ontogeny, hybridization). In contrast, climatic data did not produce biologically meaningful clusters that were congruent with any intrinsic dataset, but rather corresponded to regional differences in atmospheric circulation and climate, indicating an absence of inherent taxonomic signal in these data. Surrogating climate for physiological tolerances adds artificial weight to evidence of species boundaries, as these data are irrelevant for that purpose. Based on the evidence from congruent clustering of intrinsic datasets, we recommend that three subspecies of C. mitchellii be recognized as species: C. angelensis, C. mitchellii, and C. Pyrrhus. PMID:26107178

  17. Multilocus species delimitation in the Crotalus triseriatus species group (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Robert W; Linkem, Charles W; Dorcas, Michael E; Lathrop, Amy; Jones, Jason M; Alvarado-Díaz, Javier; Grünwald, Christoph I; Murphy, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    Members of the Crotalus triseriatus species group of montane rattlesnakes are widely distributed across the highlands of Mexico and southwestern USA. Although five species are currently recognized within the group, species limits remain to be tested. Genetic studies suggest that species may be paraphyletic and that at least one cryptic species may be present. We generate 3,346 base pairs of DNA sequence data from seven nuclear loci to test competing models of species delimitation in the C. triseriatus group using Bayes factor delimitation. We also examine museum specimens from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt for evidence of cryptic species. We find strong support for a nine-species model and genetic and morphological evidence for recognizing two new species within the group, which we formally describe here. Our results suggest that the current taxonomy of the C. triseriatus species group does not reflect evolutionary history. We suggest several conservative taxonomic changes to the group, but future studies are needed to better clarify relationships among species and examine genetic patterns and structure within wide-ranging lineages.

  18. Sites of action of Mojave toxin isolated from the venom of the Mojave rattlesnake

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnakone, P.; Hawgood, B.J.; Holbrooke, S.E.; Marsh, N.A.; De Sa, S. Santana; Tu, A.T.

    1980-01-01

    1 Mojave toxin isolated from the venom of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) produced an irreversible blockade of the contractile response of the mouse hemidiaphragm to stimulation of the phrenic nerve in vitro, at concentrations of 0.16 to 20 μg/ml; the response to direct stimulation was not affected over a testing period of several hours. 2 Mojave toxin (1 to 4 μg/g) was injected into the tail vein of mice and the intoxicated hemidiaphragm preparation was removed either for testing the contractile response or for intracellular recording. 3 In fully intoxicated hemidiaphragms the contractile response to indirect stimulation was either small and transient or absent, whilst the response to direct stimulation was well maintained. 4 Intracellular recording showed that resting membrane potentials of the muscle fibres were within the normal range. Endplates were difficult to locate but miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) were recorded at sites at which neurally evoked responses either could not be detected or did not exceed 2 mV which corresponds to transmitter release of a few quanta only. 5 The mean frequency of m.e.p.ps at fully intoxicated endplates was not significantly different from controls but potassium depolarization produced only a small increase in m.e.p.p. frequency relative to the control response. A 50 Hz tetanus had no effect on m.e.p.p. frequency. 6 When a sub-lethal dose (3 μg) of Mojave toxin was injected into one hindlimb of mice and the tissues examined at 72 h, there was histological evidence of myonecrosis. 7 The isolated perfused heart of the rat was exposed to recycled Mojave toxin (50 and 100 μg/ml) but showed no change in rate or force of ventricular contraction. 8 Post-mortem examination of intoxicated mice showed a frequent incidence of localized areas of interstitial and intra-alveolar haemorrhage in the lungs. Other organs including skin and muscle were not affected. 9 Mojave toxin showed antigenic

  19. Cloning, expression, and hemostatic activities of a disintegrin, r-mojastin 1, from the mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elda E; Lucena, Sara E; Reyes, Steven; Soto, Julio G; Cantu, Esteban; Lopez-Johnston, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Belsy; Salazar, Ana Maria; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Galán, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-01

    Interactions with exposed subendothelial extracellular proteins and cellular integrins (endothelial cells, platelets and lymphocytes) can cause alterations in the hemostatic system associated with atherothrombotic processes. Many molecules found in snake venoms induce pathophysiological changes in humans, cause edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Disintegrins are low molecular weight, non-enzymatic proteins found in snake venom that mediate changes by binding to integrins of platelets or other cells and prevent binding of the natural ligands such as fibrinogen, fibronectin or vitronectin. Disintegrins are of great biomedical importance due to their binding affinities resulting in the inhibition of platelet aggregation, adhesion of cancer cells, and induction of signal transduction pathways. RT-PCR was used to obtain a 216 bp disintegrin cDNA from a C. s. scutulatus snake venom gland. The cloned recombinant disintegrin called r-mojastin 1 codes for 71 amino acids, including 12 cysteines, and an RGD binding motif. r-Mojastin 1 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibronectin with an IC50 of 58.3 nM and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood with an IC50 of 46 nM. r-Mojastin 1 was also tested for its ability to inhibit platelet ATP release using PRP resulting with an IC50 of 95.6 nM. MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis showed that r-mojastin has a mass of 7.95676 kDa.

  20. Electrophysiological studies of myotoxin a, isolated from prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venom, on murine skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Hong, S J; Chang, C C

    1985-01-01

    Myotoxin a reduced the resting membrane potential of mouse and rat diaphragms from about -80 mV to -60 mV, induced spontaneous repetitive firing and enhanced the contractile force in response to single stimulations. The depolarizing effect was reversed noncompetitively by tetrodotoxin, local anesthetics or low Na+ solution, but was augmented by ouabain or low Cl-solution while being unaffected by high K+ solution or electrical stimulation of the muscle. The duration of muscle action potential was prolonged by only 20-30%, whereas the rate of rise (dV/dt) was unaffected. About a 40% increase of membrane conductance was observed, be abolished by the Na+-channel blocker tetrodotoxin. By contrast, K+ conductance was unaffected. Effects on caffeine-induced contracture, quantal release of neurotransmitter and the amplitude of miniature endplate potential were not appreciably affected. These effects of myotoxin a indicate that the toxin affects the muscle, but not the nerve, by acting specifically on the Na+-channel of the sarcolemma or T-tubule, like crotamine, rather than on the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The effects of sea anemone toxin II on the Na+-channel (marked depolarization and prolongation of action potential) could not be prevented by saturating the muscle with myotoxin a. On the other hand, the effect of veratridine, a member of another group of toxins acting on the Na+-channel, was enhanced. These results suggest that myotoxin a acts on the Na+-channel at a site which is discrete from those of tetrodotoxin, veratridine and sea anemone toxin II.

  1. Physiological and immunological properties of small myotoxins from the venom of the midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis concolor).

    PubMed

    Ownby, C L; Aird, S D; Kaiser, I I

    1988-01-01

    Myotoxins from C. v. concolor venom were isolated by gel filtration. This crude myotoxin peak was subfractionated into either two or four subfractions by cation exchange FPLC, depending upon the source of the venom. When injected at 2 micrograms/g, crude concolor myotoxin caused vacuolation of mouse muscle cells typical of myotoxin a from C. v. viridis and crotamine from C. d. terrificus. All four subfractions showed qualitatively identical myotoxin activity. In double immunodiffusion studies, myotoxin a antiserum produced lines of identity when reacted with myotoxin a, crude concolor myotoxin and the four concolor subfractions. A second batch of material showed two major components when subfractionated by cation exchange FPLC. The more basic of these two components displayed approximately twice the i.v. lethality of the more acidic component. The LD50 for the basic component lies between 0.625 and 0.75 microgram/g while that of the acidic component falls between 1.00 and 1.25 micrograms/g.

  2. Organic energy budget of Rattlesnake Springs, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Calculation of organic energy budgets has become a widely used method to compare lotic ecosystems and ecosystem functioning. Fisher and Likens included import and export of particulate organic matter (POM) with the parameters of production (P) and respiration (R), providing stream ecologists an added refinement in characterizing the trophic basis of streams. An annual organic energy budget for Rattlesnake Springs showed the system to be autotrophic as measured by the P/R ratio (P/R = 1.38). In terms of detrital processing, however, the system was a net importer on an annual basis despite one major export (remissive) event. Suggestions are made concerning the expression and comparison of annual stream energy budgets.

  3. Losing it in New Guinea: the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jordan

    2005-06-01

    The voyage of the HMS Rattlesnake to New Guinea and the archipelago to the east of it could have achieved so much for science. 'Make sure of what you do', enthused British hydrographer Francis Beaufort to the Rattlesnake's commander Owen Stanley in 1848. 'Do not leave interesting questions to be answered at the next visit - give names to Capes and Islands...and bring yourself and your people back without quarrels'. But for some reason Stanley wavered. There were several scientists on board the Rattlesnake desperate to ask interesting questions of these uncharted islands. But these natural historians, and in particular a young Thomas Henry Huxley, found their ambitions thwarted by their increasingly edgy captain.

  4. Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis following a rattlesnake bite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lydia; Yao, Jeffrey

    2010-07-13

    Snakebite victims have been described previously in orthopedic literature in regard to complications such as compartment syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome. We introduce a previously unreported complication of stenosing flexor tenosynovitis in a patient bitten by a rattlesnake. After being bitten in her right forearm, the patient experienced mild systemic symptoms of fever and nausea and was assessed at an outside hospital, where it was determined that she did not suffer from envenomation and therefore did not require antivenin therapy. She presented to our institution 1 week later with signs and symptoms of acute, new-onset right thumb flexor tenosynovitis, with pain and tenderness at the level of the A1 pulley of the thumb, with intermittent triggering. She also presented the following week with ipsilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The patient reported no such symptoms prior to the snakebite. Given the recent development of these conditions after her snakebite, in addition to her history of endocrine disorders, we believe that our patient suffered from envenomation that led to these complications. Nonoperative measures including splinting and steroid injections were taken, with mixed results, and surgical intervention was necessary. While the proper management of snakebites is controversial, especially in regard to the administration of antivenin, we believe our patient would have benefitted from immediate evaluation and consideration for antivenin. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Iron and carbon monoxide attenuate Crotalus atrox venom-enhanced tissue-type plasminogen activator-initiated fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Boyer, Leslie V; Matika, Ryan W; Amos, Quinlan; Redford, Daniel T

    2016-07-01

    In addition to degrading fibrinogen as a source of consumptive coagulopathy, rattlesnake venom has also been demonstrated to enhance fibrinolysis and degrade alpha-2-antiplasmin. The goals of this investigation was to characterize the kinetic fibrinolytic profile of Crotalus atrox venom in the absence and presence of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and to also ascertain if iron and carbon monoxide (CO, a positive modulator of alpha-2-antiplasmin) could attenuate venom-enhanced fibrinolysis. Utilizing thrombelastographic methods, the coagulation and fibrinolytic kinetic profiles of human plasma exposed to C. atrox venom (0-2 μg/ml) were determined in the absence or presence of tPA (0-100 IU/ml). Then, either separately or in combination, plasma was exposed to iron (ferric chloride, 10 μmol/l) or CO (carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2, 100 μmol/l) prior to incubation with venom; the plasma sample was subsequently subjected to thrombelastographic analysis with addition of tPA. Venom exposure in the absence of tPA did not result in detectable fibrinolysis. In the presence of tPA, venom markedly enhanced fibrinolysis. Iron and CO, markedly attenuated venom enhancement of fibrinolysis. C. atrox venom enhances tPA-mediated fibrinolysis, and interventions that enhance/protect alpha-2-antiplasmin activity significantly attenuate venom-enhanced fibrinolysis. Future preclinical investigation is required to determine if iron and CO can attenuate venom-mediated degradation of alpha-2-antiplasmin-dependent fibrinolytic resistance.

  6. "Salmonella arizona" Infections in Latinos Associated with Rattlesnake Folk Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Stephen H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted a case-control study to determine the magnitude of the problem of Latino patients who ingested rattlesnake capsules and then developed serious "Salmonella arizona" infections. Eighty-two percent of infected Latinos in 1986-87 who were questioned reported ingesting snake capsules. Discusses the association of ingesting snake…

  7. "Salmonella arizona" Infections in Latinos Associated with Rattlesnake Folk Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Stephen H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted a case-control study to determine the magnitude of the problem of Latino patients who ingested rattlesnake capsules and then developed serious "Salmonella arizona" infections. Eighty-two percent of infected Latinos in 1986-87 who were questioned reported ingesting snake capsules. Discusses the association of ingesting snake…

  8. Numerical simulation of the nocturnal turbulence characteristics over Rattlesnake Mountain

    Treesearch

    W.E. Heilman; E.S. Takle

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional second-order turbulence-closure model based on Mellor-Yamada level 3 is used to examine the nocturnal turbulence characteristics over Rattlesnake Mountain in Washington. Simulations of mean horizontal velocities and potential temperatures agree well with data. The equations for the components of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) show that anisotropy...

  9. Notice of release of Rattlesnake germplasm bottlebrush squirreltail

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rattlesnake Germplasm bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Swezey ssp. elymoides) was released 29 Oct. 2007 for use in rangeland seedings. This plant material was developed from T-1175, an accession collected in Elmore County, Idaho. Seeds of eight T-1175 lines selected for dry-matter...

  10. Preliminary Results for the OECD/NEA Time Dependent Benchmark using Rattlesnake, Rattlesnake-IQS and TDKENO

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D.; Mausolff, Zander; Weems, Zach; Popp, Dustin; Smith, Kristin; Shriver, Forrest; Goluoglu, Sedat; Prince, Zachary; Ragusa, Jean

    2016-08-01

    One goal of the MAMMOTH M&S project is to validate the analysis capabilities within MAMMOTH. Historical data has shown limited value for validation of full three-dimensional (3D) multi-physics methods. Initial analysis considered the TREAT startup minimum critical core and one of the startup transient tests. At present, validation is focusing on measurements taken during the M8CAL test calibration series. These exercises will valuable in preliminary assessment of the ability of MAMMOTH to perform coupled multi-physics calculations; calculations performed to date are being used to validate the neutron transport solver Rattlesnake\\cite{Rattlesnake} and the fuels performance code BISON. Other validation projects outside of TREAT are available for single-physics benchmarking. Because the transient solution capability of Rattlesnake is one of the key attributes that makes it unique for TREAT transient simulations, validation of the transient solution of Rattlesnake using other time dependent kinetics benchmarks has considerable value. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recently developed a computational benchmark for transient simulations. This benchmark considered both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D configurations for a total number of 26 different transients. All are negative reactivity insertions, typically returning to the critical state after some time.

  11. Anthropogenic impacts drive niche and conservation metrics of a cryptic rattlesnake on the Colorado Plateau of western North America

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, M. R.; Davis, M. A.; Amarello, M.; Smith, J. J.; Schuett, G. W.; Herrmann, H.-W.; Holycross, A. T.; Douglas, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems transition quickly in the Anthropocene, whereas biodiversity adapts more slowly. Here we simulated a shifting woodland ecosystem on the Colorado Plateau of western North America by using as its proxy over space and time the fundamental niche of the Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus cerberus). We found an expansive (= end-of-Pleistocene) range that contracted sharply (= present), but is blocked topographically by Grand Canyon/Colorado River as it shifts predictably northwestward under moderate climate change (= 2080). Vulnerability to contemporary wildfire was quantified from available records, with forested area reduced more than 27% over 13 years. Both ‘ecosystem metrics' underscore how climate and wildfire are rapidly converting the Plateau ecosystem into novel habitat. To gauge potential effects on C. cerberus, we derived a series of relevant ‘conservation metrics' (i.e. genetic variability, dispersal capacity, effective population size) by sequencing 118 individuals across 846 bp of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-ATPase8/6. We identified five significantly different clades (net sequence divergence = 2.2%) isolated by drainage/topography, with low dispersal (FST = 0.82) and small sizes (2Nef = 5.2). Our compiled metrics (i.e. small-populations, topographic-isolation, low-dispersal versus conserved-niche, vulnerable-ecosystem, dispersal barriers) underscore the susceptibility of this woodland specialist to a climate and wildfire tandem. We offer adaptive management scenarios that may counterbalance these metrics and avoid the extirpation of this and other highly specialized, relictual woodland clades. PMID:27152218

  12. Rattlesnake Phospholipase A2 Increases CFTR-Chloride Channel Current and Corrects ∆F508CFTR Dysfunction: Impact in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Faure, Grazyna; Bakouh, Naziha; Lourdel, Stéphane; Odolczyk, Norbert; Premchandar, Aiswarya; Servel, Nathalie; Hatton, Aurélie; Ostrowski, Maciej K; Xu, Haijin; Saul, Frederick A; Moquereau, Christelle; Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Planelles, Gabrielle; Teulon, Jacques; Herrmann, Harald; Roldan, Ariel; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Dadlez, Michal; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ollero, Mario; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Edelman, Aleksander

    2016-07-17

    Deletion of Phe508 in the nucleotide binding domain (∆F508-NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR; a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel) is the most frequent mutation associated with cystic fibrosis. This mutation affects the maturation and gating of CFTR protein. The search for new high-affinity ligands of CFTR acting as dual modulators (correctors/activators) presents a major challenge in the pharmacology of cystic fibrosis. Snake venoms are a rich source of natural multifunctional proteins, potential binders of ion channels. In this study, we identified the CB subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus as a new ligand and allosteric modulator of CFTR. We showed that CB interacts with NBD1 of both wild type and ∆F508CFTR and increases their chloride channel currents. The potentiating effect of CB on CFTR activity was demonstrated using electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in CFTR-HeLa cells, and ex vivo in mouse colon tissue. The correcting effect of CB was shown by functional rescue of CFTR activity after 24-h ΔF508CFTR treatments with CB. Moreover, the presence of fully glycosylated CFTR was observed. Molecular docking allowed us to propose a model of the complex involving of the ABCβ and F1-like ATP-binding subdomains of ΔF508-NBD1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis confirmed stabilization in these regions, also showing allosteric stabilization in two other distal regions. Surface plasmon resonance competition studies showed that CB disrupts the ∆F508CFTR-cytokeratin 8 complex, allowing for the escape of ∆F508CFTR from degradation. Therefore CB, as a dual modulator of ΔF508CFTR, constitutes a template for the development of new anti-CF agents.

  13. Timber rattlesnakes and Louisiana pine snakes of the West Gulf Coastal Plain: hypotheses of decline

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    1997-01-01

    Timber rattlesnakes (Croatlus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus ruthveni) are large-bodies snakes occurring on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Both species are thoguht to be declining due to increasing habitat alteration. Timber rattlesnakes occur in closed canopy hardwood and pine-hardwood forests, and...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard W; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, Deanna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; Tencate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De'andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-09

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense.

  16. Comparison of phenotypic traits and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae isolates from a colony of ridgenose rattlesnakes with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bemis, David A; Owston, Michael A; Lickey, Adrienne L A; Kania, Stephen A; Ebner, Paul; Rohrbach, Barton W; Ramsay, Edward C

    2003-07-01

    Reptiles are well-known sources of human Salmonella infections; however, little is known about the ability of Salmonella to cause disease in reptiles. Thirty-seven isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae (S. arizonae) were obtained from retrospective and prospective studies of a closed colony of ridgenose rattlesnakes (Crotalus willardi) with osteomyelitis. All isolates (N = 7) from bone lesions were of a single serotype, 56:z4,z23, and this serotype was found on only 1 occasion among 8 other serotypes isolated from 21 cloacal and intestinal samples. The remainder (N = 7) of serotype 56:z4,z23 isolates were from other extraintestinal sites, including liver, ovary, blood, and testis. S. arizonae isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials, and plasmid profiles did not correlate with serotype or antimicrobial resistance. Isolates of the 56:z4,z23 serotype (N = 14) formed a tight cluster with 95% similarity by XbaI macrorestriction analysis. Individual isolates of serotypes, 56:z4,z23, 38:(k)-z35, and 48:i-z invaded HeLa cells but an isolate of serotype 50:r-z did not. The same individual isolates of serotype 56:z4,z23 and 48:i-z also invaded viper heart cells. The Salmonella InvA gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all S. arizonae serotypes tested, including 5 serotype 56:z4,z23 isolates and individual isolates of serotypes 48:i-z and 50:r-z. A source or possible explanation for increased virulence of S. arizonae serotype 56:z4,z23 in this unique host has not been found.

  17. Resolution of compartment syndrome after rattlesnake envenomation utilizing non-invasive measures.

    PubMed

    Gold, Barry S; Barish, Robert A; Dart, Richard C; Silverman, Ronald P; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2003-04-01

    Western diamondback rattlesnake envenomation is usually managed by administration of neutralizing antivenom. The development of compartment syndrome is a rare complication that has sparked considerable debate regarding medical vs. surgical management. We report a case of compartment syndrome resulting from a rattlesnake envenomation, which responded to large doses of neutralizing antivenom given concomitantly with mannitol and hyperbaric oxygen. This regimen obviated the need for surgical fasciotomy and its associated morbidity.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the heterodimeric crotoxin complex and the isolated subunits crotapotin and phospholipase A{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, K. F.; Murakami, M. T.; Toyama, M. H.; Marangoni, S.; Forrer, V. P.; Brandão Neto, J. R.; Polikarpov, I.; Arni, R. K.

    2007-04-01

    Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A{sub 2} and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A{sub 2} analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A{sub 2} and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A{sub 2} analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. The crotoxin complex crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.2, b = 68.7, c = 84.2 Å, and diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution. The crystal of the phospholipase A{sub 2} domain belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22 (or its enantiomorph P6{sub 5}22), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 38.7, c = 286.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. The crotapotin crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution; however, the highly diffuse diffraction pattern did not permit unambiguous assignment of the unit-cell parameters.

  19. Purification and characterization of phosphodiesterase from Crotalus venom.

    PubMed

    Philipps, G R

    1975-07-01

    A procedure for the purification of phosphodiesterase from Crotalus venom on DEAE-cellulose at alkaline pH is described. The enzyme gives a single band in polyacrylamide gels and is free of contaminating nucleolytic enzymes. The molecular weight is about 115000. Concentration in an Amicon ultrafiltrator gave a highly concentrated active enzyme. Phosphodiesterase is relatively stable and can be stored at 4 degrees C in the presence of Mg2 and serum albumin for years. For the detection of contaminating endonuclease, an assay was used in which tRNA was the substrate and possible internal breaks were detected in polyacrylamide gel after denaturation. With bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate as substrate, 15mM Mg2 was necessary for optimal activity. The reaction remained linear for at least 15 min at 22 degrees C. At 45 degrees C, the liberation of p-nitrophenol was highest within 25 min of incubation. At 75 degrees C, inactivation of the enzyme occurred after 4 min.

  20. The Rattlesnake Hills of central Wyoming revisited: Further paleomagnetic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheriff, Steven D.; Shive, Peter N.

    1980-08-01

    Paleomagnetic results from the Eocene igneous rocks of the Rattlesnake Hills in central Wyoming have added 9 reliable virtual geomagnetic pole positions to previous paleomagnetic data from the area. These new data when combined with corrected results from the previous study yield a paleomagnetic pole located at 146.2° E, 79.4° N; α95 = 9.6°. This pole position, at about 44 mybp, agrees very well with other Eocene paleopole determinations for stable North America. The proximity of these pole positions to the present rotation axis shows that most of the angular distance between the apparent pole position for the Late Cretaceous and the present was closed in the Paleocene and/or early Eocene.

  1. Rattlesnake Bites in Southern California and Rationale for Recommended Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wingert, Willis A.; Chan, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Rattlesnake bite is most common in young men who often are intoxicated and have purposely handled a venomous snake. The incidence of bites is highest in the spring and early summer months, and they most often occur in the afternoon. The hands and feet only are involved in 95% of all bites. First-aid therapy should be limited to splinting the extremity and transporting the victim to a medical facility. Definitive therapy is administering antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent intravenously in adequate initial doses and repeating every two hours until the venom is completely neutralized. Serum sickness usually follows all doses of more than five vials but is readily controlled by giving corticosteroids. Bites are avoided by protecting the hands and feet, not handling venomous snakes, and using utmost caution while in the snakes' habitat. PMID:3277335

  2. New Mexico rattlesnake bites: demographic review and guidelines for treatment.

    PubMed

    Downey, D J; Omer, G E; Moneim, M S

    1991-10-01

    The demographic features, treatment, and outcome of 36 rattlesnake envenomation cases are reviewed. Two populations at special risk are identified: (1) young children (12/36) who sustain lower extremity bites, and (2) adults who consume alcohol and handle snakes (10/36) who sustain upper extremity bites. Antivenin was used in 22 cases with only one serious case of serum sickness. Three definite diagnoses of compartment syndrome were made on the basis of elevated compartment pressures. Hand bites accounted for 20 of the 36 cases. The greatest functional disability followed digit bites in that 11 patients developed decreased motion and sensation. The indications for fasciotomy and debridement are discussed, both for digit and non-digit envenomations. General treatment recommendations are given.

  3. Development of a double sandwich fluorescent ELISA to detect rattlesnake venom in biological samples from horses with a clinical diagnosis of rattlesnake bite.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Lyndi L; Ownby, Charlotte L; McFarlane, Dianne; Canida, Amy; Holbrook, Todd C; Payton, Mark E; Krehbiel, Clinton R

    2013-10-01

    Rattlesnake bites in horses are not uncommon and the clinical outcomes are widely variable. Treatment of horses with anti-venom is often cost prohibitive and could have negative consequences; therefore, the development of a quantitative test to determine if anti-venom therapy is indicated would be valuable. The objective of this study was to develop an ELISA to detect rattlesnake venom in biological samples from clinically bitten horses. Nineteen horses were enrolled in the study. Urine was available from 19 horses and bite site samples were available from 9 horses. A double sandwich fluorescent ELISA was developed and venom was detected in 5 of 9 bite site samples and 12 of 19 urine samples. In order to determine if this assay is useful as a guide for treatment, a correlation between venom concentration and clinical outcome needs to be established. For this, first peak venom concentration needs to be determined. More frequent, consistent sample collection will be required to define a venom elimination pattern in horses and determine the ideal sample collection time to best estimate the maximum venom dose. This report describes development of an assay with the ability to detect rattlesnake venom in the urine and at the bite site of horses with a clinical diagnosis of rattlesnake bite.

  4. Venom characteristics as an indicator of hybridization between Crotalus viridis viridis and Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Glenn, J L; Straight, R C

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen venoms from 46 populations of Crotalus viridis viridis were screened by immunodiffusion for protein toxins antigenically similar to the phospholipase A2 (PLA) toxin 'Mojave toxin', using a polyclonal antibody to it's basic PLA subunit. Venom i.p. LD50 values in mice were recorded from 22 of the 46 populations. The venoms of three of 14 specimens from southwest (S.W.) New Mexico and one specimen from northern Arizona were immunologically positive by the immunodiffusion tests and produced low LD50 values (0.38-0.65 mg/kg) compared to all immunologically negative venoms (0.9-5.5 mg/kg). These four specimens were morphologically typical for C. v. viridis and their venoms were the only samples of 15 southern New Mexico specimens examined by reverse phase HPLC to exhibit peaks corresponding to the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin. Alkaline polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis of the recombined subunit peaks from the C.v. viridis venom from the S.W. New Mexico specimens showed more similarity to Mojave toxin from C.s. scutulatus venom than to similar toxins in C.v. concolor venom. The combined results of the immunodiffusion, lethal toxicity tests, HPLC profiles and PAGE analysis strongly suggest that the venoms of the three New Mexico specimens contain Mojave toxin(s), as a result of some previous hybridization with C.s. scutulatus. The northern Arizona specimen likely contains 'concolor toxin' through integration with C.v. concolor in its' genetic background.

  5. Improving Remedial Planning Performance: The Rattlesnake Creek Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, C.R.; Spector, H.L.; Andrews, S.M.; Durham, L. A.; Johnson, R. L.; Racino, R. R.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Buffalo District, has responsibility for characterizing and remediating radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Most of these FUSRAP sites include radionuclide contamination in soils where excavation and offsite disposal is the selected remedial action. For many FUSRAP soil remediation projects completed to date, the excavated contaminated soil volumes have significantly exceeded the pre-excavation volume estimates that were developed for project planning purposes. The exceedances are often attributed to limited and sparse datasets that are used to calculate the initial volume estimates. These volume exceedances complicate project budgeting and planning. Building on these experiences, the USACE took a different approach in the remediation of Rattlesnake Creek, located adjacent to the Ashland 2 site, in Tonawanda, New York. This approach included a more extensive pre-design data collection effort to improve and reduce the uncertainty in the pre-excavation volume estimates, in addition to formalizing final status survey data collection strategies prior to excavation. The final status survey sampling was fully integrated with the pre-design data collection, allowing dual use of the pre-design data that was collected (i.e., using the data to close out areas where contamination was not found, and feeding the data into volume estimates when contamination was encountered). The use of real-time measurement techniques (e.g., X-ray fluorescence [XRF] and gamma walkover surveys) during pre-excavation data collection allowed the USACE to identify and respond to unexpected contamination by allocating additional data collection to characterizing new areas of concern. The final result was an estimated soil volume and excavation footprint with a firm technical foundation and a reduction in uncertainty. However, even with extensive pre-design data collection, additional

  6. Salmonella arizonae bacteremia as the presenting manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection following rattlesnake meat ingestion.

    PubMed

    Noskin, G A; Clarke, J T

    1990-01-01

    Recurrent nontyphoid salmonella septicemia is one of the opportunistic infections characteristic of AIDS. The increased incidence of severe salmonellosis in immunocompromised patients is due, in part, to defective cellular immunity. The literature contains reports of nine cases of extraintestinal Salmonella arizonae infections in patients ingesting rattlesnake capsules, all of whom had known underlying medical illnesses. We describe a previously healthy Hispanic man who developed S. arizonae bacteremia as his initial manifestation of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The patient ultimately stated that he had consumed rattlesnake meat for medicinal purposes--a relatively common practice among Hispanics. S. arizonae was cultured from the powder of all capsules remaining in his possession. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported case of S. arizonae bacteremia as the presenting manifestation of HIV infection following the ingestion of capsules containing rattlesnake meat.

  7. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Webb, Colleen T; Collyer, Michael L; Holycross, Andrew T; Painter, Charles W; Kamees, Larry K; Douglas, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  8. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mark A.; Douglas, Marlis R.; Webb, Colleen T.; Collyer, Michael L.; Holycross, Andrew T.; Painter, Charles W.; Kamees, Larry K.; Douglas, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., ‘short range endemics,’ SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Nocturnal Turbulence Characteristics over Rattlesnake Mountain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, W. E.; Takle, E. S.

    1991-08-01

    A two4Mensional second-order turbulence-closure model based on Mellor-Yamada level 3 is used to examine the nocturnal turbulence characteristics over Rattlesnake Mountain in Washington. Simulations of mean horizontal velocities and potential temperatures agree well with data. The equations for the components of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) show that anisotropy contributes in ways that are counter to our intuition developed from mean now considerations: shear production under stable conditions forces the suppression of the vertical component proportion of loud TKE, while potential-temperature variance under stable conditions leads to a positive (countergradient) contribution to the heat flux that increases the vertical component proportion of total TKE. This paper provides a qualitative analysis of simulated turbulence fields, which indicates significant variation over the windward and leeward slopes. From the simulation results, turbulence anisotropy is seen to develop in the katabatic flow region where vertical wind shears and atmospheric stability are large. An enhancement of the vertical component proportion of the total TKE takes place over the leeward slope as the downslope distance increases. The countergradient portion of the turbulent heat flux plays an important role in producing regions of anisotropy.

  10. Niche divergence and lineage diversification among closely related Sistrurus rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Wooten, J A; Gibbs, H L

    2012-02-01

    Comparing niche divergence among closely related taxa can yield important insights into the ecological distinctiveness of genetically similar forms, and identify the processes that are responsible for diversification in such organisms. Here, we apply newly developed techniques for analysing niche divergence to assess how ecologically distinct a group of closely related rattlesnakes (Sistrurus sp.) are and to explore the role that niche divergence may have played in their diversification. We find that all taxa even the most recently evolved subspecies (approximately 100,000 years old) are now ecologically distinct, implying a role for ecology in the diversification process. Statistical analysis based on comparisons with null models show that niche divergence between forms is more common than niche conservation. Finally, there is nonlinear relationship between phylogenetic and niche divergence in this group whereby niche divergence develops more rapidly between recently diverged subspecies than more distantly related forms. Overall, our results argue that ecology may play an important role in the diversification process in these snakes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Water-quality assessment of Rattlesnake Creek watershed, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Kenneth F.; Tobin, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical and biological water quality in Rattlesnake Creek basin, Ohio, are evaluated. The data include field and laboratory data for eight sites during August 1976- August 1977 and summaries of earlier (1972-76) data. Streamflow was below normal during the study period. Basin waters types were calcium bicarbonate or calcium magnesium bicarbonate. Specific conductance ranged from 405 to 1,300 micromhos per centimeter. High concentrations of sodium (110-140 milligrams per liter) , nitrogen (24 milligrams per liter as N), and phosphorus (7.8 milligrams per liter as P) were observed during low flows downstream from domestic sewage facilities. Nonpoint sources contributed high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen to all streams during the high flows of winter and spring. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the upper basin ranged from 3.2 to 18.4 milligrams per liter. Mean saturation values of dissolved oxygen were at or near 100 percent in the lower basin. Stream pH exceeded 8.4 when dissolved-oxygen saturation was above 120 percent. Bacteria and invertebrate data suggest that moderate pollution from cultural sources may exist in the upper basin. Water quality was poorest in the sluggish flows of the upper basin but improved downstream. Increases in flow velocity and stream aeration rates, dilution, and biological activity contributed to the downstream recovery. Except for' high nitrogen concentrations, water quality was best in the lower basin.

  12. Salmonella arizona infections in Latinos associated with rattlesnake folk medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, S H; Juarez, G; Carr, S J; Kilman, L

    1990-01-01

    In 1987 two Los Angeles County (California) hospitals reported four Latino patients with serious Salmonella arizona (Salmonella subgroup 3) infections who gave a medical history of taking rattlesnake capsules prior to illness. Capsules supplied by the patients or household members grew Salmonella arizona. We reviewed surveillance data for this Salmonella species and conducted a case-control study to determine the magnitude of this public health problem. Eighteen (82 percent) of the 22 Latino cases in 1986 and 1987 who were questioned reported ingesting snake capsules compared to two (8 percent) of 24 matched Latino controls with non-subgroup 3 salmonellosis or shigellosis (matched pair odds ratio = 18.0, CI = 4.2, 76.3). An average of 18 cases per year of Salmonella arizona were reported in the county between 1980 and 1987. In this investigation the majority of S. arizona cases reporting snake capsule ingestion had underlying illnesses such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, arthritis, cancer. The capsules were obtained primarily from Tijuana, Mexico and from Los Angeles, California pharmacies in Latino neighborhoods. Despite publicity and attempts to remove the capsules from sale in California, Salmonella arizona cases associated with snake-capsule ingestion continue to occur. PMID:2305906

  13. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.J.

    1987-10-01

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides.

  14. Effects of Deprivation of Vomeronasal Chemoreception on Prey Discrimination in Rattlesnakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, C. Patrick; Tiernan, Chelsea; Chiszar, David

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that rattlesnakes can discriminate between envenomed and nonenvenomed rodent prey based on venom-related cues deposited during the strike. This behavior is crucial to the snake's ability to choose the chemical trail left by an envenomed rodent fleeing the strike area and aids in the snake's ability to relocate the rodent.…

  15. Effects of Deprivation of Vomeronasal Chemoreception on Prey Discrimination in Rattlesnakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, C. Patrick; Tiernan, Chelsea; Chiszar, David

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that rattlesnakes can discriminate between envenomed and nonenvenomed rodent prey based on venom-related cues deposited during the strike. This behavior is crucial to the snake's ability to choose the chemical trail left by an envenomed rodent fleeing the strike area and aids in the snake's ability to relocate the rodent.…

  16. Microcomputed Tomographic, Morphometric, and Histopathologic Assessment of Congenital Bone Malformations in Two Neotropical Viperids.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; de Campos Fonseca-Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandão; Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-05-02

    Congenital malformations have been reported in all classes of vertebrates and may be a determinant of life span and survival. In reptiles, the incidence of congenital malformations can be associated with genetic and environmental causes, including pollution. The characterization of pathological processes involved in the development of congenital malformations of bone in snakes is rare in the literature, but is of great relevance in the field of reptile conservation and environmental health. We describe congenital bone lesions in 50 newborn jararaca (Bothrops jararaca) and 26 South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus) born from wild-caught pregnant females in Southeastern Brazil. Lesions were evaluated by morphometric quantitative analysis, x-ray microtomography, and histopathologic descriptive analysis. Morphometric analysis showed that jararaca presented more severe axial lesions (kyphosis, scoliosis, and kyphoscoliosis) than rattlesnakes. Female rattlesnakes presented more severe axial lesions than did males. In rattlesnakes, spinal deformities were more frequently diagnosed in the caudal segment of the body. We present x-ray microtomographic assessments and images of malformed snakes (n=9) and characterized novel malformations, such as the agenesis of frontal, parietal, and supraoccipital bones in a jararaca specimen. Histopathologic findings included vertebral body fusion, myositis, coagulation necrosis, and disorganization of periaxial muscle fibers. The new methods and results presented in this study will be useful and informative for future research in pathology, teratology, embryology, and ecotoxicology in snakes.

  17. Antivenomics as a tool to improve the neutralizing capacity of the crotalic antivenom: a study with crotamine.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Araújo, Ricardo; Castanheira, Patrícia; Brazil-Más, Leonora; Pontes, Francisco; Leitão de Araújo, Moema; Machado Alves, Maria Lucia; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Correa-Netto, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite treatment requires administration of an appropriate antivenom that should contain antibodies capable of neutralizing the venom. To achieve this goal, antivenom production must start from a suitable immunization protocol and proper venom mixtures. In Brazil, antivenom against South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) bites is produced by public institutions based on the guidelines defined by the regulatory agency of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, ANVISA. However, each institution uses its own mixture of rattlesnake venom antigens. Previous works have shown that crotamine, a toxin found in Crolatus durissus venom, shows marked individual and populational variation. In addition, serum produced from crotamine-negative venoms fails to recognize this molecule. In this work, we used an antivenomics approach to assess the cross-reactivity of crotalic antivenom manufactured by IVB towards crotamine-negative venom and a mixture of crotamine-negative/crotamine-positive venoms. We show that the venom mixture containing 20% crotamine and 57% crotoxin produced a strong immunogenic response in horses. Antivenom raised against this venom mixture reacted with most venom components including crotamine and crotoxin, in contrast to the antivenom raised against crotamine-negative venom. These results indicate that venomic databases and antivenomics analysis provide a useful approach for choosing the better venom mixture for antibody production and for the subsequent screening of antivenom cross-reactivity with relevant snake venom components.

  18. Complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Missoula County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulik, Dolores M.

    1986-01-01

    The rocks in the study area consist mainly of the Helena Formation and the Missoula Group of the Belt Supergroup (Proterozoic Y).  Rock units of less importance are diabase sills and dikes of probable Proterozoic Z age, Middle Cambrian rocks, and glacial deposits.  Structurally, the study area consists of the Rattlesnake thrust system in the south part and a parautochthonous area broken by vertical faults in the north part.

  19. Convergence study of Rattlesnake solutions for the two-dimensional C5G7 MOX benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark David; Gaston, Derek Ray; Gleicher, Frederick Nathan; Martineau, Richard Charles; Peterson, John William; Schunert, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the convergence study of a specific transport scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with the discrete ordinates (SN) method and continuous finite element method (CFEM), implemented with Rattlesnake, on solving the well known two-dimensional C5G7 MOX benchmark. Both the convergence in space and angle are studied. Numerical results show the convergence of the spatial and angular refinements.

  20. Integration of visual and infrared information in bimodal neurons in the rattlesnake optic tectum

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, E.A.; Hartline, P.H.

    1981-08-14

    Bimodal neurons in the rattlesnake tectum, which receive sensory input from the retina and from the infrared-sensing pit organ, exhibit novel, highly nonlinear cross-modality interactions. Some units respond only to simultaneous bimodal stimulation. Others respond to only one of the two modalities, but show greatly enhanced or depressed responses when stimulated simultaneously in the second modality. These cross-modality interactions may play an important role in recognizing and orienting toward biologically important objects.

  1. Electric shocks are ineffective in treatment of lethal effects of rattlesnake envenomation in mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Mackessy, S P

    1987-01-01

    Electrical shocks, even crudely delivered from 'stun guns' and gasoline engine spark plugs, have been reported to be effective in the treatment of snake bite. We thus applied similar electric shocks to mice artificially injected with reconstituted rattlesnake venom at various LD50 multiples. Those envenomated mice treated with electric shock survived no better than the controls. We thus found no evidence that electric shocks crudely administered had any life saving effect in mice.

  2. Thromboelastography Utilization in Delayed Recurrent Coagulopathy after Severe Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Envenomation.

    PubMed

    McBride, Katherine M; Bromberg, William; Dunne, James

    2017-04-01

    Venomous snakebites are fairly common in the United States and can present with a wide range of symptoms. A 48-year-old man presented after Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake envenomation. His hospital course was complicated by right leg compartment syndrome and delayed recurrent coagulopathy, requiring multiple doses of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab) antivenom and transfusions. Thromboelastography was used as an adjunct to standard coagulation studies in monitoring his delayed recurrent coagulopathy.

  3. Functional basis of a molecular adaptation: prey-specific toxic effects of venom from Sistrurus rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H Lisle; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2009-05-01

    Understanding the molecular bases of adaptations requires assessing the functional significance of phenotypic variation at the molecular level. Here we conduct such an assessment for an adaptive trait (snake venom proteins) which shows high levels of interspecific variation at the molecular level. We tested the toxicity of venom from four taxa of Sistrurus rattlesnakes with different diets towards 3 representative prey (mice, lizards and frogs). There were significant differences among prey in their overall susceptibility to Sistrurus venom, with frogs being an order of magnitude more resistant than mice or lizards. However, only in mice was there substantial variation in the toxicity of venom from different Sistrurus taxa, with the variation being roughly correlated with the incidence of mammals in the snake's diet. A comparative analysis using published data of the toxicity of rattlesnake and outgroup (Agkistrodon) venoms to mice confirms that both the gain and loss of toxicity to mammals were major modes of venom evolution in Sistrurus catenatus and Sistrurus miliarius. Our findings identify toxicity to mammals as a major axis along which venom evolution has occurred among Sistrurus rattlesnakes, with little evidence for evolutionary changes in toxicity towards the other prey tested. They also emphasize the need to consider ecological and evolutionary factors other than diet alone as causes of variation in venom toxicity.

  4. Coevolution of venom function and venom resistance in a rattlesnake predator and its squirrel prey

    PubMed Central

    Biardi, James E.; Gibbs, H. Lisle

    2016-01-01

    Measuring local adaptation can provide insights into how coevolution occurs between predators and prey. Specifically, theory predicts that local adaptation in functionally matched traits of predators and prey will not be detected when coevolution is governed by escalating arms races, whereas it will be present when coevolution occurs through an alternate mechanism of phenotype matching. Here, we analyse local adaptation in venom activity and prey resistance across 12 populations of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes and California ground squirrels, an interaction that has often been described as an arms race. Assays of venom function and squirrel resistance show substantial geographical variation (influenced by site elevation) in both venom metalloproteinase activity and resistance factor effectiveness. We demonstrate local adaptation in the effectiveness of rattlesnake venom to overcoming present squirrel resistance, suggesting that phenotype matching plays a role in the coevolution of these molecular traits. Further, the predator was the locally adapted antagonist in this interaction, arguing that rattlesnakes are evolutionarily ahead of their squirrel prey. Phenotype matching needs to be considered as an important mechanism influencing coevolution between venomous animals and resistant prey. PMID:27122552

  5. Exceptionally high thermal sensitivity of rattlesnake TRPA1 correlates with peak current amplitude.

    PubMed

    Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-02-01

    Extraordinary infrared-sensing ability of snake pit organs closely correlates with rich expression of TRPA1 transcripts in pit-innervating sensory neurons, strongly suggesting that TRPA1 is the molecular basis of the infrared detection. Here, it is shown that temperature coefficient Q10 (the fold current increase over 10°C increase) of rattlesnake TRPA1 heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes increases proportionally to current amplitudes when appraised with two independent methods, the canonical Arrhenius plot analysis and newly devised Q10 scanning that assigns Q10 to each recorded temperature point. Moreover, for larger TRPA1 currents, the rise of Q10 from elevation of current sizes was steeper, yielding maximal Q10s up to ~100,000. TRPA1 from boas with less sensitive infrared-sensing ability was also sharply activated by temperature increase in oocytes, while Q10 rise from escalating current amplitudes was moderate compared to rattlesnake TRPA1. In contrast, thermal sensitivity of Drosophila TRPA1 was little dependent on current sizes, indicating that the steeply proportional current amplitude/thermosensitivity relationship is unique to the snake TRPA1s. Taken together, rattlesnake and boa TRPA1s are regulated to generate sufficient thermal sensitivity for infrared detection, providing an interesting context to further study the temperature-dependent activation mechanism of thermo-TRPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial RattleSnake Calculations of the Hot Zero Power BEAVRS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ellis; J. Ortensi; Y. Wang; K. Smith; R.C. Martineau

    2014-01-01

    The validation of the Idaho National Laboratory's next generation of reactor physics analysis codes is an essential and ongoing task. The validation process requires a large undertaking and includes detailed, realistic models that can accurately predict the behavior of an operational nuclear reactor. Over the past few years the INL has developed the RattleSnake application and supporting tools on the MOOSE framework to perform these reactor physics calculations. RattleSnake solves the linearized Boltzmann transport equation with a variety of solution meth­ ods. Various traditional reactor physics benchmarks have already been performed, but a more realistic light water reactor comparison was needed to solidify the status of the code and deter­ mine its fidelity. The INL team decided to use the Benchmark for Evaluation and Validation of Reactor Simulations, which was made available in early 2013. This benchmark is a one­ of-a-kind document assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which includes two cycles of detailed, measured PWR operational data. The results from this initial study of the hot zero power conditions show the current INL analysis procedure with DRAGON4 cross section preparation and using the low order diffusion solver in RattleSnake for the whole core calculations yield very encouraging results for PWR analysis. The radial assembly power distributions, radial detector measurements and control rod worths were computed with good accuracy. The computation of the isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity require further study.

  7. Coevolution of venom function and venom resistance in a rattlesnake predator and its squirrel prey.

    PubMed

    Holding, Matthew L; Biardi, James E; Gibbs, H Lisle

    2016-04-27

    Measuring local adaptation can provide insights into how coevolution occurs between predators and prey. Specifically, theory predicts that local adaptation in functionally matched traits of predators and prey will not be detected when coevolution is governed by escalating arms races, whereas it will be present when coevolution occurs through an alternate mechanism of phenotype matching. Here, we analyse local adaptation in venom activity and prey resistance across 12 populations of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes and California ground squirrels, an interaction that has often been described as an arms race. Assays of venom function and squirrel resistance show substantial geographical variation (influenced by site elevation) in both venom metalloproteinase activity and resistance factor effectiveness. We demonstrate local adaptation in the effectiveness of rattlesnake venom to overcoming present squirrel resistance, suggesting that phenotype matching plays a role in the coevolution of these molecular traits. Further, the predator was the locally adapted antagonist in this interaction, arguing that rattlesnakes are evolutionarily ahead of their squirrel prey. Phenotype matching needs to be considered as an important mechanism influencing coevolution between venomous animals and resistant prey. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Iron and carbon monoxide attenuate degradation of plasmatic coagulation by Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Boyer, Leslie V

    2016-07-01

    Hypofibrinogenemia is an important clinical consequence following envenomation by Crotalus species, usually attenuated or prevented by administration of antivenom. It has been determined that iron and carbon monoxide (CO) enhance fibrinogen as a thrombin substrate, likely secondary to conformational changes in molecular structure. We tested the hypothesis that pretreatment of plasma with iron and CO could attenuate the effects of exposure to Crotalus atrox venom. Human plasma was exposed to 0 to 10 μmol/l ferric chloride (iron source) and 0 to 100 μmol/l CO-releasing molecule-2 (CO source) followed by exposure to 0 to 0.5 μg/ml venom for 5 to 20 min. Changes in coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography. Iron and CO significantly attenuated venom-mediated degradation of plasmatic coagulation in terms of onset time, velocity of clot growth and final clot strength. Further preclinical investigation of iron and CO administration as a 'bridge-to-antivenom' to preserve plasmatic coagulation is justified.

  9. Identification and functional analysis of a novel bradykinin inhibitory peptide in the venoms of New World Crotalinae pit vipers

    SciTech Connect

    James Graham, Robert Leslie . E-mail: rl.graham@ulster.ac.uk; Graham, Ciaren; McClean, Stephen; Chen, Tianbao; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David; Theakston, David; Shaw, Chris

    2005-12-23

    A novel undecapeptide has been isolated and structurally characterized from the venoms of three species of New World pit vipers from the subfamily, Crotalinae. These include the Mexican moccasin (Agkistrodon bilineatus), the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis), and the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta). The peptide was purified from all three venoms using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Automated Edman degradation sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established its peptide primary structure as: Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, with a non-protonated molecular mass of 1063.18 Da. A synthetic replicate of the peptide was found to be an antagonist of bradykinin action at the rat vascular B2 receptor. This is the first bradykinin inhibitory peptide isolated from snake venom. Database searching revealed the peptide to be highly structurally related (10/11 residues) with a domain residing between the bradykinin-potentiating peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide domains of a recently cloned precursor from tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom gland. BIP thus represents a novel biological entity from snake venom.

  10. Late hematologic toxicity following treatment of rattlesnake envenomation with crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom.

    PubMed

    Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Curry, Steven C; Albrecht, Clay; Riley, Brad; Pizon, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    North American rattlesnake envenomations commonly produce defibrination, coagulopathy and/or thrombocytopenia, which may be reversed following treatment with Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab Ovine (FabAV). Despite initial resolution with FabAV, late onset or recurrence of venom-induced hematologic effects may occur. Time at which onset of late hematotoxicity may first be detected is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and time of onset of recurrent or new late hypofibrinogenemia, coagulopathy, or thrombocytopenia in a cohort of rattlesnake envenomation patients seen in outpatient follow-up after treatment with FabAV, and to report hematologic outcomes in these patients. Review of 66 charts of patients with rattlesnake envenomation who were treated with FabAV, and subsequently had outpatient follow-up evaluation at least 48 h after last FabAV, was performed. Demographic information, rattlesnake and bite characteristics, dose and timing of antivenom administration, adverse events, in-patient laboratory values, length of hospital stay, and follow-up laboratory values were collected. The primary outcome parameters were recurrent or delayed onset coagulopathy, hypofibrinogenemia, or thrombocytopenia identified no sooner than 48 h after last dose of FabAV. Prior to control of the envenomation with FabAV, 42 patients (63.6%) experienced hematologic toxicity. At follow-up, 21 patients (32%) were found to have late coagulopathy, hypofibrinogenemia, or thrombocytopenia. Of twenty-three patients (35%) with more than one follow-up visit, fifteen had normal laboratory findings at the first follow-up visit. Five of these 15 patients (8% of total study group; 33% of this subgroup) with normal hematologic studies at first follow-up exhibited late hematologic toxicity at second follow-up. Severe late hematologic toxicity developed in five of 66 (8%) patients. One patient was retreated with FabAV for late severe thrombocytopenia. Recurrent and delayed

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P. J.; Andrade, H. F.; Guarnieri, M. C.; Rogero, J. R.

    1998-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. Inn order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, susbequentely submitted to irradiaiton. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocured in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain).

  12. Gravitational gradients and blood flow patterns in specialized arboreal (Ahaetulla nasuta) and terrestrial (Crotalus adamanteus) snakes.

    PubMed

    Young, B A; Wassersug, R J; Pinder, A

    1997-01-01

    Blood pressure and blood flow patterns were recorded from the carotid artery and aortae of a thick-bodied terrestrial snake (Crotalus adamanteus) and a thin-bodied arboreal species (Ahaetulla nasuta) anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. Hemodynamic stress induced by rotation resulted in pronounced changes in the blood flow patterns and pressure in C. adamanteus: rotation of A. nasuta produced changes of a similar type, but of a much lower magnitude. The markedly different responses of these two species, the baroreceptor reflexes of which were disrupted, suggest that morphological factors--such as differential gross cardiac displacement, or variation in the interaortic foramen--in addition to physiological factors, are important in determining a snake's ability to withstand hemodynamic stress.

  13. Two Dimensional Numerical Simulations of the Turbulence Characteristics Over Rattlesnake Mountain during Stable and Unstable Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, Warren Emanuel

    A two-dimensional second-order turbulence-closure model based on level three of the Mellor-Yamada turbulence hierarchy has been developed and used to examine the nocturnal and early morning turbulence characteristics over Rattlesnake Mountain in Washington. The model includes radiation, soil, canopy, and slope parameterizations for calculating mean and turbulence variables over two-dimensional terrain features. Simulations of mean horizontal velocities and potential temperatures show good agreement with data obtained over Rattlesnake Mountain during nocturnal drainage-flow conditions. Qualitative analysis of simulated turbulence fields during these conditions indicates significant variations over the windward and leeward slopes. Turbulence anisotropy develops in the drainage-flow region where vertical wind shears and atmospheric stability are large. The buoyant portion of the turbulent heat flux enhances the vertical component of turbulent kinetic energy, especially over the leeward slope. Derived turbulent diffusivities reflect the developed anisotropic turbulence conditions. Simulations of the atmospheric conditions over Rattlesnake Mountain during the early morning hours indicate significant growth of the convective boundary layer when the initial stability over the entire depth of the modeled region is very weak. Upslope flow develops when no ambient wind is present. The buoyancy-generated turbulence inhibits the formation of large upslope velocity maxima when ambient winds are present. Spatial variations in the turbulent kinetic energy develop over the mountain, but they are less than the variations during nocturnal drainage-flow conditions. Turbulence anisotropy is significant in the convective boundary layer. However, the developed anisotropy plays a minor role in affecting turbulent diffusivity magnitudes. The transition from nocturnal drainage-flow conditions to convective conditions is characterized by a redistribution of energy among the turbulent

  14. Does the aggressive use of polyvalent antivenin for rattlesnake bites result in serious acute side effects?

    PubMed Central

    Offerman, Steven R; Smith, Timothy S; Derlet, Robert W

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and severity of acute side effects from the use of polyvalent antivenin in victims of rattlesnake bites. Design We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who presented with rattlesnake bites to a university teaching hospital during an 11-year period. From patient medical records, we extracted demographic data, clinical measurements, and outcomes during emergency department evaluation and subsequent hospitalization. Data regarding serum sickness were not collected. Outcome measures Primary outcome variables were the occurrence of immediate hypersensitivity reaction to antivenin, the type of reaction, permanent disability at hospital discharge, and mortality. Results We identified a total of 73 patients with rattlesnake bites during the study period. Bite envenomation was graded as nonenvenomated, 7 patients (10%); mild, 23 patients (32%); moderate, 32 patients (44%); and severe, 11 patients (15%). We identified 65 patients who received antivenin. Antivenin doses ranged from 1 to 30 vials per patient (mean, 12.0 ± 6.0), for a total of 777 vials. In 43 patients (66%), 10 or more vials of antivenin were given. The mean number of vials of antivenin given to each snakebite grade were as follows: mild, 8.4 (±4.0); moderate, 11.8 (±5.7); and severe, 18.7 (±6.3). No deaths, amputations, or permanent disability from snakebite occurred in the patients receiving antivenin. Acute side effects of antivenin—occurring within the first 6 hours after administration—were seen in 12 patients (18%; 95% confidence interval, 10%-30%). Acute side effects consisted solely of urticaria in all but 1 patient (2%; 95% confidence interval, 0%-8%). This patient had a history of previous antivenin reaction and required a short course of intravenous epinephrine for blood pressure support. No other complications occurred. Conclusion The administration of polyvalent Crotalidae antivenin is safe. Acute hypersensitivity, when it occurs

  15. Prospective evaluation of the incidence of wound infection in rattlesnake envenomation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Carr, Amy; Schultz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of wound infection following crotalidae envenomation in dogs and determine if the use of prophylactic antibiotics is warranted. Prospective observational study. A 24-hour private practice specialty and emergency center in Murrieta, California. One hundred and two dogs with acute rattlesnake envenomation. One hundred and forty-three consecutive cases of suspected acute rattlesnake envenomation were evaluated between March of 2012 and May of 2013. One hundred and two cases received no antimicrobials as part of management. Eight cases were placed on prophylactic antimicrobials by the primary care veterinarian prior to referral and were excluded. Two cases were excluded because they were initiated on antimicrobials during hospitalization for reasons unrelated to snakebite. Three cases involved cats and were excluded. Three patients died acutely near the time of presentation and were excluded. Twenty-one cases of suspected envenomation were excluded for lack of strong evidence of snakebite. Four cases were lost to follow-up and were excluded. Follow-up was conducted within 2 weeks either by phone or by direct inspection of the wound. Of the 102 patients included in the study only 1 infection developed. This patient developed an abscess subsequent to suspected compartment syndrome. The incidence of wound infection in rattlesnake envenomation is low, and the use of prophylactic antimicrobials is not recommended. The use of antimicrobials should be reserved for wounds with necrosis or abscess and the choice of antimicrobial should be based on a culture and sensitivity of the wound. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  16. Hybrid PN-SN Calculations with SAAF for the Multiscale Transport Capability in Rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaqi; Schunert, Sebastian; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Two interface conditions, the Lagrange multiplier method and the upwinding method, for hybrid \\pn-\\sn calculations is proposed for the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation of the transport equation using the continuous finite element method (FEM) for spatial discretization. These interface conditions are implemented in Rattlesnake, the radiation transport application built on MOOSE, for the on-going multiscale transport simulation effort at INL. For smoothing the solution at the interface for the Lagrange multiplier method, a method based on \\sn Lagrange interpolation on the sphere is proposed. Numerical results indicate that the interface conditions give the expected convergence.

  17. Geochemical map of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Coconino and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerstel, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The geochemical survey of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area was conducted in May 1982 by the U.S. Geological Survey to aid in a mineral resource appraisal of the area. A total of 114 stream-sediment samples, 68 heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment, 20 rock samples, and 4 water samples was collected by S.C. Rose, D.E. Hendzel, and W.J. Gerstel, with helicopter support from Jack Ruby, pilot for Helicopters Unlimited. All sample localities are plotted on the map; sample localities showing anomalous barium and lead are also indicated on the map.

  18. Improved Quasi-Static Method: IQS Method Implementation for CFEM Diffusion in Rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, Zachary M.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Wang, Yaqi

    2016-02-29

    The improved quasi-static (IQS) method is a transient spatial kinetics method that involves factorizing flux into space- and time-dependent components. These components include the flux’s power and shape. Power is time-dependent, while the shape is both space- and time-dependent. However, the impetus of the method is the assumption that the shape is only weakly dependent on time; therefore, the shape may not require computation at every time step, invoking the quasi-static nature. This paper describes the implementation and testing of IQS as an alternative kinetics solver within Rattlesnake to provide improved time performance with minimal reduction in accuracy.

  19. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Gregory

    2003-05-01

    This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

  20. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984), are...

  1. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  2. [Desiccated rattlesnake capsules: a potential source of gram-negative bacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Márquez-Dávila, G; Martínez-Barreda, C; Suárez-Ramírez, I

    1991-01-01

    The ingestion of rattlesnake powder capsules is frequent in Mexico in view of their alleged curative properties in various diseases, among them different malignancies. Based on previous reports showing both bacteremia and septicemia in patients with malignant diseases ingesting such capsules, we conducted a study to evaluate the presence of microorganisms in 16 different preparations of rattlesnake powder capsules, obtained in six different cities of our country. We found that all the samples were significantly contaminated with gram-negative coliform bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae, Salmonella arizona and Salmonella of groups B, E4 and G. Eighty one percent of the capsules were contaminated with Salmonella sp. The most frequent was S. arizona with a natural reservoir in snakes. Contamination was probably derived from both the flesh of the snake and fecal contamination during the domestic preparation of the powder to produce the capsules. These data, together with those previously published regarding bacteremia and septicemia derived from the ingestion of the capsules, suggests that there is danger in their use.

  3. Paleomagnetic characteristics of the Late Miocene Rattlesnake and Devine Canyon ash-flow tuffs, southeastern Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Stimac, J.P.; Weldon, R.J. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Continuing work on the Late Miocene Rattlesnake ([approximately]7.2 Ma) and Devine Canyon ([approximately]9.2 Ma) ash-flow tuffs indicates that both have stable remanence directions that can be determined by either alternating field (AF) or thermal (TT) demagnetization techniques. Fourteen (14) sites from the Devine Canyon Ash-flow Tuff and eighteen (18) sites from the Rattlesnake Ash-flow Tuff, with three sites in common,have been analyzed. High precision site statistics are produced using both AF and TT techniques. Differences in primary remanence directions were compared by lateral and vertical transects at a single site. Intrasite comparison of direction indicate little variation in the calculated mean direction. Comparison between the AF and TT demagnetization techniques indicates that both yield similar magnetization directions; however, TT demagnetization can distinguish several remanence directions. Three components are commonly visible in the TT hyperbolic Zijderveld diagrams: primary (high temperature), secondary and overprint directions. Magnetic intensities decreased sharply above 450 C and total demagnetication occurred near 570 C. This behavior, along with bulk susceptibility measurements, indicates the primary magnetic carrier is magnetite or titanomagnetite along with a secondary, altered component of titanohematite. This conclusion is supported by isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) and demagnetization studies which indicate that the primary carrier is probably single domain or pseudo single domain magnetite with a secondary component of hematite or titanohematite.

  4. Resistivity and Conductivity Studies of the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, C.; Doser, D. I.

    2009-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs are a high-discharge artesian springs situated in the upper Black River Valley in southwestern Eddy Country, New Mexico. The aquifer that supplies the Rattlesnake Springs has been the main water source for domestic use by visitors of Carlsbad Caverns National Park and residents of neighboring ranches since the 1930s. Several geological studies relying on surface geology and limited water wells had previously been conducted in the area to examine the trend of ground water flow. We collected ground conductivity data at ~10m spacing around the perimeter and easily accessible areas owned by the National Park and surrounding ranches. In addition, we conducted Schlumberger and Wenner vertical electrical sounding at 10 sites, primarily to investigate the depth extend of conductivity anomalies, and a lateral resistivity survey across a suspected barrier to fluid flow. The conductivity and resistivity data indicate higher conductivities north and east of the springs reflecting moist soils, while two other highs at the eastern and western boundaries of the park are likely due to increased clay content of the soil.

  5. Uncollided Flux Techniques for Discrete-Ordinate Radiation Transport Solutions in Rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Ragusa, Jean C.; DeHart, Mark D.

    2016-08-01

    One of the only real-time-resolved measurement tools used at the Transient Test Reactor (TREAT) is the fast-neutron hodoscope. The hodoscope was used for monitoring and measuring fuel motion during a transient pulse. The hodoscope is a line of sight detection and imaging system that provides both temporal and spatial resolution of fuel motion during transients, and in-place measurement of fuel distribution during and after transient experiments. However, the hodoscope relies on fast neutron streaming out of the reactor core, which provides a challenge to transient modeling and simulation. However, use of a first collision source approach can be used to overcome this shortcoming. Hence, the TREAT modeling and simulation team has initiated research to implement such capabilities in the neutron transport code Rattlesnake. This report reviews uncollided flux techniques (first and last collision methods) to be implemented in the Rattlesnake SN code in order to mitigate ray effects in modeling the TREAT reactor+hodoscope system. Angular discretization techniques (SN and PN) for the transport equation are notoriously poor at capturing effectively streaming effects.

  6. Phenocryst-poor rhyolites of bimodal, tholeiitic provinces: the Rattlesnake Tuff and implications for mush extraction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, Martin J.; Grunder, Anita L.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the origin of rhyolites associated with tholeiitic basalt in bimodal provinces, as exemplified by the Rattlesnake Tuff of the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, in comparison to rhyolites associated with calcalkaline suites in light of recent models of extraction of rhyolite from crystal mush (Hildreth, J Volcanol Geotherm Res, 136:169 198, 2004; Bachmann and Bergantz, J Petrol, 45:1565 1582, 2004). The High Lava Plains encompass a strongly bimodal, tholeiite-rhyolite suite, spatially and compositionally related to the Snake River Plain and Yellowstone Plateau. In our assessment we draw the distinction between fractionation dominated processes to make rhyolites from rhyolites and processes required to make the parental rhyolite melt. New isotopic data and compositional zoning profiles in phenocrysts confirm that crystal fractionation dominated the generation of progressively more evolved, discrete rhyolites in the zoned Rattlesnake Tuff and are consistent with an origin of the least evolved high-silica rhyolites by partial melting of a mafic crust. While the most evolved rhyolites are compositionally virtually indistinguishable from those of calcalkaline suites, the parental rhyolites from bimodal suites are more Fe-rich than their calcalkaline counterparts. Oxygen isotope thermometry yields pre-eruptive temperatures of 860°C, in keeping with 800 880°C zircon saturation temperatures. High magmatic temperatures are common among rhyolites of bimodal suites, distinguishing them from cooler rhyolites of calcalkaline suites. Extraction of interstitial melt from a granodioritic mush cannot produce compositions of the Rattlesnake Tuff on the basis of major and trace element arguments (especially Fe, Ba, Sr, and Eu) and on the basis of temperature considerations. Chemically viable parental crystal mushes are syenite and alkali (A-type) granites for the production of all more evolved Rattlesnake Tuff rhyolites; ferro-dacitic mush is required for production of

  7. Review of treatment and complications in 79 children with rattlesnake bite.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Norberto

    2008-06-01

    Envenomation by snakebite is a health problem in Mexico. To review the treatment and complications of rattlesnake bites in 79 children. The variables studied were age, sex, season, hour, signs, symptoms, and complications during 1977 to 1996 (group I) and 1997 to 2006 (group II). Hospitalization time and antivenom type, including polyvalent equine antiviperin serum and a [F(ab')2] antivenom (fabotherapic), were also studied. Results. Most incidents (35%) occurred within the perimeter of children's homes and 8.8% took place inside homes; 40.5% of the children were females; and most snakebites occurred during the summer (70.8%). Members of groups I and II received polyvalent equine antiviperin serum and fabotherapy, respectively. Hospitalization time was less in group II members (P < .0001). The complications in group I members included hypoprothrombinemia and hypofibrinogenemia (P < .0001). Hospitalization time, complications, and treatment cost were less in patients undergoing fabotherapy.

  8. A Search for Correlations Between Four Different Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement Systems Atop Rattlesnake Mountain, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrath, Brian

    2004-05-01

    Accurate atmospheric aerosol transport measurements are important to international nuclear test monitoring, emergency response, health and ecosystem toxicology, and climate change. An International Monitoring System (IMS) is being established which will include a suite of aerosol radionuclide sensors. To explore the possibility of using the IMS sites to improve the understanding of global atmospheric aerosol transport, four state-of-the-art aerosol measurement systems were placed atop Rattlesnake Mountain at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer measures radionuclide concentration via gamma-ray spectroscopy. The Cascade Impactor Beam Analyzer Technique measures 30 elements in three aerosol sizes using PNNLâ's Ion Beams Materials Analysis Laboratory. The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance provides time-averaged aerosol mass concentrations for a range of sizes. The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measures the solar irradiance to derive an aerosol optical depth. Results and correlations from the four different detectors will be presented.

  9. Geohydrology of the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed in the Gable Mountain Pond area

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, S.R.; Moore, B.A.

    1982-12-01

    Liquid waste disposal practices at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site include the discharge of low-level radioactive liquid waste to cribs, trenches, and surface ponds. A study was conducted to develop a conceptual ground-water flow model and characterize the current distribution of radionuclides in the ground water of the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed at one of these facilities, the Gable Mountain Pond (facility 216-A-25). Specially constructed wells were drilled in the vicinity of Gable Mountain Pond to obtain radionuclide distribution data and hydrologic properties of the aquifer. The acquired data were analyzed to determine concentrations of anions, cations, selected radionuclides and groundwater flow patterns. Geologic mechanisms which may be responsible for the determined concentration distribution were evaluated using borehole and subsurface geophysical techniques.

  10. Multiscale Capability in Rattlesnake using Contiguous Discontinuous Discretization of Self-Adjoint Angular Flux Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Weixiong; Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark D.

    2016-09-01

    In this report, we present a new upwinding scheme for the multiscale capability in Rattlesnake, the MOOSE based radiation transport application. Comparing with the initial implementation of multiscale utilizing Lagrange multipliers to impose strong continuity of angular flux on interface of in-between subdomains, this scheme does not require the particular domain partitioning. This upwinding scheme introduces discontinuity of angular flux and resembles the classic upwinding technique developed for solving first order transport equation using discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) on the subdomain interfaces. Because this scheme restores the causality of radiation streaming on the interfaces, significant accuracy improvement can be observed with moderate increase of the degrees of freedom comparing with the continuous method over the entire solution domain. Hybrid SN-PN is implemented and tested with this upwinding scheme. Numerical results show that the angular smoothing required by Lagrange multiplier method is not necessary for the upwinding scheme.

  11. Life-threatening upper airway edema caused by a distal rattlesnake bite.

    PubMed

    Hinze, J D; Barker, J A; Jones, T R; Winn, R E

    2001-07-01

    A 36-year-old man captured a timber rattlesnake and was accidentally envenomated in the thumb by the severed head. At a local emergency department, hypotension and confusion developed. Facial and glossal edema were also observed. Oxygen was delivered by face mask, and crystalloids and dopamine were administered. Respiratory distress developed with progressive hypoxemia. Intubation was unsuccessful because of massive glossal and epiglottic (laryngeal) edema, and an emergency cricothyrotomy was performed. High-dose antivenom therapy was administered, and mechanical ventilation was started. Recovery was rapid, and the patient was discharged from the hospital a week later. This is the first report of life-threatening upper airway edema caused by snake envenomation not in the vicinity of the head or neck.

  12. Osteonecrosis of Interphalangeal Joint of Thumb Two Months after Rattlesnake Bite.

    PubMed

    Bonasso, Patrick; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Jacob, Glen

    2015-01-01

    This case report details the osteonecrosis of the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb two months after a rattlesnake bite. It describes the clinical presentation, imaging studies, histological review, pathology review, and review of literature. Our patient was a fifty-one year-old male who obtained a poisonous snakebite to the thumb. While in the hospital for acute treatment, a blood blister was debrided. He was seen two weeks after discharge for further debridement of epidermolysis. Patient presented one month later with a hand x-ray demonstrating bony erosions, and a bone scan showing active changes in the IP joint of his right thumb. He was taken to the OR for further debridement and definitive diagnosis. Pathology results confirmed osteonecrosis with negative bone cultures. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and operative management of osteonecrosis offer a unique challenge, especially in a patient presenting with osteonecrosis from a poisonous snakebite.

  13. Full Core TREAT Kinetics Demonstration Using Rattlesnake/BISON Coupling Within MAMMOTH

    SciTech Connect

    Ortensi, Javier; DeHart, Mark D.; Gleicher, Frederick N.; Wang, Yaqi; Alberti, Anthony L.; Palmer, Todd S.

    2015-08-01

    This report summarizes key aspects of research in evaluation of modeling needs for TREAT transient simulation. Using a measured TREAT critical measurement and a transient for a small, experimentally simplified core, Rattlesnake and MAMMOTH simulations are performed building from simple infinite media to a full core model. Cross sections processing methods are evaluated, various homogenization approaches are assessed and the neutronic behavior of the core studied to determine key modeling aspects. The simulation of the minimum critical core with the diffusion solver shows very good agreement with the reference Monte Carlo simulation and the experiment. The full core transient simulation with thermal feedback shows a significantly lower power peak compared to the documented experimental measurement, which is not unexpected in the early stages of model development.

  14. High Resolution Magnetic and Gravity Surveys to Constrain Maar Geometry and Eruption Mechanisms, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Harburger, A.; Richardson, J. A.; Courtland, L. M.; Farrell, A. K.; Kiflu, H. G.; Malservisi, R.; McNiff, C. M.; Njoroge, M.; Nushart, N.; Rookey, K.

    2013-12-01

    Located 25 kilometers east of Flagstaff, Arizona, Rattlesnake Crater is an oblong phreatomagmatic feature in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The shallow crater is approximately 1.4 kilometers at its widest point, and surrounded by an uneven tuff ring which is overlapped by a scoria cone volcano on the southeastern side. Improved understanding of its formation and evolution requires geophysical study because there are very few outcrops, and no digging is permitted on site. Geologic features related to the crater are further obscured by deposits from the overlapping scoria cone, as well as tephra from eruptions at nearby Sunset Crater. We present the results of a detailed magnetic and gravity survey in and around Rattlesnake Crater. A substantial NW-SE trending elongate magnetic anomaly (1400 nT) and a smaller similarly trending anomaly are observed inside the crater, as well as a longer wavelength positive gravitational anomaly (+1.0-1.5 mGal) across the crater. The magnetic survey was completed on foot with a 50 meter line spacing inside the crater, and 100 meter line spacing across a portion of the surrounding area outside the crater. The gravity survey was done on two intersecting survey lines - one running west to east, and another roughly north to south, with recordings every 100 meters extending at least 1000 meters outside the crater in all four directions. 2D models of the magnetic and gravity data are presented illustrating the possible geometry of the diatreme, and the approximate size and shape of the major intrusive features. Eruption estimates based on the models are calculated, and the models are favorably compared to the size and depth estimates given in a recent publication (Valentine 2012) that used xenolith content to estimate the size and depth of the diatreme.

  15. Sensationalistic journalism and tales of snakebite: are rattlesnakes rapidly evolving more toxic venom?

    PubMed

    Hayes, William K; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2010-03-01

    Recent reports in the lay press have suggested that bites by rattlesnakes in the last several years have been more severe than those in the past. The explanation, often citing physicians, is that rattlesnakes are evolving more toxic venom, perhaps in response to anthropogenic causes. We suggest that other explanations are more parsimonious, including factors dependent on the snake and factors associated with the bite victim's response to envenomation. Although bites could become more severe from an increased proportion of bites from larger or more provoked snakes (ie, more venom injected), the venom itself evolves much too slowly to explain the severe symptoms occasionally seen. Increased snakebite severity could also result from a number of demographic changes in the victim profile, including age and body size, behavior toward the snake (provocation), anatomical site of bite, clothing, and general health including asthma prevalence and sensitivity to foreign antigens. Clinical management of bites also changes perpetually, rendering comparisons of snakebite severity over time tenuous. Clearly, careful study taking into consideration many factors will be essential to document temporal changes in snakebite severity or venom toxicity. Presently, no published evidence for these changes exists. The sensationalistic coverage of these atypical bites and accompanying speculation is highly misleading and can produce many detrimental results, such as inappropriate fear of the outdoors and snakes, and distraction from proven snakebite management needs, including a consistent supply of antivenom, adequate health care, and training. We urge healthcare providers to avoid propagating misinformation about snakes and snakebites. Copyright (c) 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rattlesnake hunting behavior: correlations between plasticity of predatory performance and neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Kardong, K V; Berkhoudt, H

    1999-01-01

    Rattlesnakes may shift between visual (eyes) and infrared (facial pits) stimuli without significant loss of predatory performance during an envenomating strike. The relative equivalency of these proximate stimuli is correlated with the organization of the associated neural pathways in the central nervous system. Visual and infrared information, although gathered by different sensory organs, converges within the optic tectum in an orderly spatiotopical representation where bimodal neurons respond to both stimuli. In turn, the tectum sends efferent pathways directly to premotor areas (brainstem) and indirectly to motor areas (spinal cord) where axial muscles involved in the strike might be activated. On the other hand, rattlesnakes do not maintain a high level of equivalent predatory performance when switching between chemosensory stimuli i.e., olfactory, and vomeronasal information. Deprived of vomeronasal input, strikes drop by about half, and poststrike trailing is lost entirely. Surprisingly, compensation by switching to information delivered via an intact olfactory input does not occur, despite the convergence of chemosensory information within the central nervous system. Finally, the launch of a targeted, envenomating strike involves both these modalities: radiation reception (visual, infrared) and chemoreception (olfactory, vomeronasal). However, in the absence of chemosensory information, the radiation modalities do not completely compensate, nor does the animal maintain a high level of predatory performance. Similarly, in the absence of radiation information, the chemosensory modalities do not completely compensate, nor does the animal maintain a high level of predatory performance. The absence of compensation in this multimodal system is also correlated with an absence of convergence of radiation and chemical information, at least at the level of first and second-order neurons, in the central nervous system.

  17. Crotoxin: Structural Studies, Mechanism of Action and Cloning of its Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    immunological properties of small myotoxins from the venom of the midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis Qoncolod. Toxicon, in press. 31. Israel, M. and...JdIeI~fy bOr ici flJwfbff FIELD -GROUP SUB.GROTJPI--- --Crotoxin; Presynaptic neurotoxins. rattlesnake toxins’, 06 01 natural toxins3 i 06 03 II- * 19...Venoms from the Great Basin rattlesnake (C. v. lutosis), the Uracoan rattlesnake (C. vegrandis), and the Western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox), as

  18. The forked tongue and edge detection in snakes (Crotalus oreganus): an experimental test.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2008-02-01

    Many stimulus-detection systems are lateralized to allow for simultaneous comparison of paired stimuli. It has been hypothesized that the deeply forked tongue of snakes and some derived lizards functions as a chemical edge detector where cues gathered by each tine are kept separate to provide two points of lateral odor assessment by the central nervous system via vomeronasal input. While following a chemical trail, one time can be on the trail, the other off, and such differential information prompts the snake to turn back to the trail. The authors tested this hypothesis in rattlesnakes within a predatory context by unilaterally severing the vomeronasal nerves. If edge detection is used by snakes during prey trailing, then unilateral denervation should disrupt trailing ability. The authors found no change in the seven separate trailing parameters measured. Therefore, they found no support for the edge detection hypothesis as it applies to prey trailing behavior. Instead, the deeply forked tongue may represent a chemosensory specialization to increase odor-sampling area, with snakes and derived lizards detecting only the concentration of chemical trails. (c) 2008 APA.

  19. Significant envenomation from a preserved rattlesnake head (in a patient with a history of immediate hypersensitivity to antivenin).

    PubMed

    Griffen, D; Donovan, J W

    1986-08-01

    We present a case of significant envenomation from a severed, preserved rattlesnake head in a 22-year-old man. The patient was treated successfully with 15 vials of Crotalidae polyvalent antivenin despite a history of severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction to antivenin. The patient developed a mild case of serum sickness five days after antivenin infusion that was treated successfully with a course of steroids. The patient experienced complete recovery. This case demonstrates the hazard of even preserved snake heads and fangs.

  20. Thrombelastographic characterization of the thrombin-like activity of Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper venoms.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Boyer, Leslie V; Redford, Daniel T; Ford, Paul

    2017-04-01

    : Annually, thousands suffer venomous snake-bite from Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper vipers in central and South America. The goals of the present study were to generally characterize the thrombin-like effects of venom from these snakes in human plasma with viscoelastic methods. Human plasma was exposed to the venom of three different C. simus subspecies and venoms obtained from B. asper vipers located in three different locations in Mexico. To characterize the factor X-activating and thrombin-like activity of these venoms, plasma (normal or factor XIII deficient) was pretreated with a variety of additives (e.g., heparin) in the absence or presence of calcium prior to exposure to 2.0 μg/ml of each viper's venom. These profiles were compared with plasma without venom that had contact activation of coagulation. Coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography. All venoms had thrombin-like activity, with C. s. simus creating a slow growing, weak clot that was likely mediated by metalloproteinases. In contrast, B. asper venoms had rapid onset of coagulation and a high velocity of thrombus growth. Further, B. asper venom activity was calcium-independent, activated prothrombin, activated factor XIII, and independently polymerized fibrinogen. The viscoelastic methods used were able to differentiate subspecies of C. simus and specimens of B. asper, and provide insight into the mechanisms by which the venoms acted on plasma. These methods may be useful in the profiling of similar venoms and perhaps can assist in the assessment of interventions designed to treat envenomation (e.g., antivenom).

  1. Acute kidney injury caused by Crotalus and Bothrops snake venom: a review of epidemiology, clinical manifestations and treatment.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Polianna L M M; Jacinto, Camilla N; Silva Junior, Geraldo B; Lima, Juliana B; Veras, Maria do Socorro B; Daher, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents.

  2. ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents. PMID:24037282

  3. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  4. Clonal relatedness of Salmonella isolates associated with invasive infections in captive and wild-caught rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Bemis, David A; Grupka, Lisa M; Liamthong, Sumalee; Folland, Douglas W; Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-03-10

    This study examines the serotype distribution and clonal relatedness among Salmonella isolates obtained from healthy and diseased snakes. Isolates from extraintestinal body sites were obtained through routine diagnostic lab submissions from snakes in two facilities that had experienced a high prevalence of osteomyelitis in Crotalus species. Gastrointestinal isolates were predominantly from fecal samples collected from healthy snakes of both crotalid and non-crotalid species in one facility. PFGE macrorestriction analysis of Salmonella isolates confirmed the clonal and species-restricted nature of Salmonella serotype IIIa 56: z4, z23: - in one facility. Fourteen of 15 isolates from suspected osteomyelitis lesions in wild-caught snakes at the second facility were also from Salmonella subgroup IIIa (serotype IIIa 18: z4, z23: -) and appeared to be closely related by PFGE. Evaluation of a PCR assay for the spvC gene in 209 isolates demonstrated that this method consistently distinguished isolates of subgroup IIIa from those of subgroup IIIb. The data presented establish that Salmonella of subgroup IIIb are abundant and regularly associated with gastrointestinal shedding in snakes but that Salmonella in subgroup IIIa disproportionately cause infections in bone or other extraintestinal sites.

  5. Population Characteristics and Seasonal Movement Patterns of the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd - Status Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, B.L.; Zufelt, R.K.; Turner, S.; Cadwell, L.L.; Bender, L.; Turner, G.K.

    2000-10-10

    Population characteristics of the Rattlesnake Hills elk herd indicate reduced herd growth rates from the 1980s compared to the 1990s (McCorquodale 1988; Eberhardt 1996). However, the population continued to grow approximately 25% annually through the 1990s, reaching a high of 838 animals in summer 1999. Calf recruitment rates appear to be cyclic and are likely related to reduced calf survival during the first weeks of life; however, late-term abortions may also have occurred. The cause(s) could be predator-related and/or a function of shifts in nutritional condition (age-class distributions, assuming older-age cows are less likely to recruit calves, major climate shifts) or changes in the human-related disturbances during gestation, and/or calf rearing periods. In fall 1999 and spring 2000, the population was reduced from 838 individuals to 660 individuals. The primary controlling factors were modified hunting seasons on private and state lands and the large-scale roundup conducted in spring 2000. Continued removal of animals (particularly females) within the population will be pivotal to maintain the population at a level that minimizes land damage complaints, animal-vehicle collisions, use of central Hanford areas, and deterioration of natural resources.

  6. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Precision Gravity Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.; Langford, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole domestic water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the fracture controlled aquifer system. We have conducted a series of precision gravity surveys (station spacing 200 to 300 m in a 4 x 4 km area), combined with other geophysical studies and geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our combined results suggest several pathways for water to enter the springs. A series of WNW-ESE striking features are apparent in our gravity data that appear to align with relict spring valleys we have mapped to the west of the springs. A self potential survey indicates that water is entering the springs at a shallow level from the northwest direction. However, gravity data also indicate a north-south trending fracture system could be providing a pathway for water to enter from the south. This is consistent with drawdown tests conducted in the 1950’s and 1960’s on irrigation wells located to the south of the springs. The north-south fracture system appears related to a basin bounding fault system observed in the regional gravity data.

  7. Variability in surface moisture content along a hillslope transect: Rattlesnake Hill, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Rudnicki, J. W.; Rodell, M.

    1998-09-01

    Surface soil moisture content exhibits a high degree of spatial and temporal variability. The purpose of this study was (a) to characterize variations in moisture content in the 0-5 cm surface soil layer along a hillslope transect by means of intensive sampling in both space and time; and (b) to make inferences regarding the environmental factors that influence this variability. Over a period of seven months, soil moisture content was measured (gravimetric method) on a near-daily basis at 10 m intervals along a 200 m downslope transect at the Rattlesnake Hill field site in Austin, Texas. Results indicate that significant variability in soil moisture content exists along the length of the transect; that variability decreases with decreasing transectmean moisture content as the hillslope dries down following rain events; and that the dominant influences on moisture content variability are dependent upon the moisture conditions on the hillslope. While topographic and soil attributes operate jointly to redistribute soil water following storm events, under wet conditions, variability in surface moisture content is most strongly influenced by porosity and hydraulic conductivity, and under dry conditions, correlations are strongest to relative elevation, aspect and clay content. Consequently, the dominant influence on soil moisture variability gradually changes from soil heterogeneity to joint control by topographic and soil properties as the transect dries following significant rain events.

  8. Geologic Controls on Channel Morphology and Low-Flow Habitat; Rattlesnake Creek, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, G.; Keller, E.

    2006-12-01

    Channel morphology and baseflow are limiting factors in sustaining low-flow habitat for the spawning and rearing of endangered southern steelhead trout in southern California. To aid the recovery of steelhead trout, it is imperative to determine how pools are formed and maintained in steep mountain streams, and what hydrogeologic factors control baseflow. Rattlesnake Creek, a steep (6 to 31%) boulder-bedrock channel in Santa Barbara, California, was investigated to determine if geologic and hydrogeologic properties, specifically rock strength and fracture density, control channel morphology and low-flow habitat. Analysis of rock strength, fracture density, and channel morphology using a single-factor analysis of variance, Kolmorgorov-Smirnov test and t-test suggest that rock strength and fracture density of the underlying lithology (bed and banks) does not significantly affect the channel morphology at the 0.05 level of significance. However, this study does show that boulder large roughness elements (LREs) armor the channel, controlling channel gradient and the location, abundance and type of pools. Step pools are the dominant pool type, found in reaches up to 18% where cascades might be expected, and steps are composed of resistant sandstone boulder LREs. Although fracture density does not influence the morphology of the channel, baseflow for low-flow habitat is predominantly supplied through fractures in the coldwater sandstone.

  9. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Shallow Subsurface Geophysical Techniques and Geologic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Langford, R. P.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.

    2007-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the karst aquifer. We have used geophysical techniques, combined with geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our initial work has focused on a 700 m by 700 m region surrounding the springs. We conducted a series of ground conductivity surveys with follow-up DC resistivity surveys (Wenner array vertical electrical soundings and a pole- pole survey) to determine variations in soil grain size and moisture content. Surface geologic mapping was used to identify a series of Holocene terraces and valleys that incise the terraces. Our combined results suggest that northwest-southeast and north-south trending fractures and dissolution features control regional water flow. Relict spring valleys are found to the west of the present springs. A pole-pole survey conducted around the perimeter of the springs suggests main water flow into the springs occurs from the northwest. We plan to complete a precision gravity survey in September and October 2007 to map bedrock topography and determine its relation to structural and dissolution features. Ground penetrating radar data will be collected on the northwestern side of the springs in an attempt to better delineate structures controlling inflow into the springs.

  10. Recurrent Coagulopathy after Rattlesnake Bite Requiring Continuous Intravenous Dosing of Antivenom

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Context. Snakebite envenomation is common and may result in systemic coagulopathy. Antivenom can correct resulting laboratory abnormalities; however, despite antivenom use, coagulopathy may recur, persist, or result in death after a latency period. Case Details. A 50-year-old previously healthy man presented to the emergency department after a rattlesnake bite to his right upper extremity. His presentation was complicated by significant glossal and oropharyngeal edema requiring emergent cricothyrotomy. His clinical course rapidly improved with the administration of snake antivenom (FabAV); the oropharyngeal and upper extremity edema resolved within several days. However, over the subsequent two weeks, he continued to have refractory coagulopathy requiring multiple units of antivenom. The coagulopathy finally resolved after starting a continuous antivenom infusion. Discussion. Envenomation may result in latent venom release from soft tissue depots that can last for two weeks. This case report illustrates the importance of close hemodynamic and laboratory monitoring after snakebites and describes the administration of continuous antivenom infusion, instead of multidose bolus, to neutralize latent venom release and correct residual coagulopathy. PMID:25664187

  11. Compartment syndrome, fasciotomy, and neuropathy after a rattlesnake envenomation: aspects of monitoring and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hardy, David L; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2006-01-01

    Compartment syndrome resulting from pitviper envenomation is uncommon in North America; however, when it does occur, early diagnosis, optimal antivenom therapy, and possible surgical decompression are the primary means of preventing the complication of neuropathy. Here, we report a case of a rattlesnake envenomation in the anterior compartment of the lower leg that required high doses of morphine to control pain. Although compartment syndrome was considered a possible outcome, subfascial pressures were not monitored and antivenom was discontinued at 24 hours. At 36 hours, the patient developed dorsal foot numbness and foot drop, and 15 hours later pressures within the anterior compartment were >68 mm Hg. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 59 hours postenvenomation. Peroneal neuropathy was evident after surgery and only partially recovered postoperatively. Earlier monitoring of subfascial pressures and using those pressures as a guide for decisions about time and dose of CroFab antivenom treatment may have permitted earlier surgical treatment after onset of compartment syndrome or even prevented the onset of this condition.

  12. The Compartment Syndrome Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis due to Rattlesnake Bite: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tincu, Radu Ciprian; Ghiorghiu, Zoie; Tomescu, Dana; Macovei, Radu Alexandru

    2017-08-04

    Snakebite is a health issue specific to some parts of the world, especially in the tropical areas, where it produces many victims. The main clinical damage caused by snakebite involves haemotoxic, neurotoxic and myotoxic reactions. We report the case of a young woman suffering from snakebite who developed deep vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome. We present the case of a 32-year-old Romanian woman who was injured by her own Crotalinae snake (also known as pit viper or rattlesnake) on her left forearm. When admitted to our Emergency Department, she was conscious with a Glasgow coma scale of 12/15, somnolent, febrile, suffering of headache, tachypnoea; the marks of the snakebite were located in the distal part of the anterior left forearm; she had pain and bleeding at the bite site and swelling of the left upper limb with lymphangitis up to the axilla. She experienced fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the upper limb and required unfractionated heparin and close monitoring using activated partial thromboplastin time evolution due to micro-thrombosis in the brachial vein. Local improvement was achieved in the next 4 days with progressive diminishment of local tenderness and swelling. Limb deep vein thrombosis might be induced by snakebite, despite the pro-haemorrhagic general condition induced by the envenomation. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed for early diagnosis and timely management, which can improve survival of these patients.

  13. Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (46.4° N, 119.6° W) Multispectral Optical Depth Measurements: 1979-1994

    DOE Data Explorer

    Larson, N. R.; Michalsky, J. J.; LeBaron, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface measurements of solar irradiance of the atmosphere were made by a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory in eastern Washington. The observatory is located at 46.4° N, 119.6° W at an elevation of 1088 m above mean sea level. The photometer measures the attenuation of direct solar radiation for different wavelengths using 12 filters. Five of these filters (i.e., at 428 nm, 486 nm, 535 nm, 785 nm, and 1010 nm, with respective half-power widths of 2, 2, 3, 18, and 28 nm) are suitable for monitoring variations in the total optical depth of the atmosphere.

  14. Scoria Cone and Tuff Ring Stratigraphy Interpreted from Ground Penetrating Radar, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, S. E.; McNiff, C. M.; Marshall, A. M.; Courtland, L. M.; Connor, C.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Connor, L.; Farrell, A. K.; Harburger, A.; Kiflu, H. G.; Malservisi, R.; Njoroge, M.; Nushart, N.; Richardson, J. A.; Rookey, K.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous recent studies have demonstrated that detailed investigation of scoria cone and maar morphology can reveal rich details the eruptive and erosion histories of these volcanoes. A suite of geophysical surveys were conducted to images Rattlesnake Crater in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, US. We report here the results of ~3.4 km of ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys that target the processes of deposition and erosion on the pair of cinder cones that overprint the southeast edge of Rattlesnake crater and on the tuff ring that forms the crater rim. Data were collected with 500, 250, 100, and 50 MHz antennas. The profiles were run in a radial direction down the northeast flanks of the cones (~1 km diameter, ~120 meters height) , and on the inner and outer margins of the oblong maar rim (~20-80 meters height). A maximum depth of penetration of GPR signal of ~15m was achieved high on the flanks of scoria cones. A minimum depth of essentially zero penetration occurred in the central crater. We speculate that maximum penetration occurs near the peaks of the cones and crater rim because ongoing erosion limits new soil formation. Soil formation would tend to increase surface conductivity and hence decrease GPR penetration. Soil is probably better developed within the crater, precluding significant radar penetration there. On the northeast side of the gently flattened rim of the easternmost scoria cone, the GPR profile shows internal layering that dips ~20 degrees northeast relative to the current ground surface. This clearly indicates that the current gently dipping surface is not a stratigraphic horizon, but reflects instead an erosive surface into cone strata that formed close to the angle of repose. Along much of the cone flanks GPR profiles show strata dipping ~4-5 degrees more steeply than the current surface, suggesting erosion has occurred over most of the height of the cone. An abrupt change in strata attitude is observed at the gradual slope

  15. Type specimens of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) re-examined, with new evidence after more than a century of confusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardwell, Michael D.; Gotte, Steve W.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gilmore, Ned; Poindexter, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The original description of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) was published in 1861 by Robert Kennicott, who did not identify a type specimen or a type locality. We review the history of specimens purported to be the type(s) and various designations of type locality. We provide evidence that ANSP 7069 (formerly one of two specimens of USNM 5027) is the holotype and that the appropriate type locality is Fort Buchanan, near present-day Sonoita, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

  16. A New Mission for the 0.8-meter Telescope at Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, K. R.; Anheier, N. C.; Gephart, R. E.; Rither, A. C.; Leber, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    An effort is underway to refurbish and modernize the 0.8-meter Cassegrain reflecting telescope at Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (RMO) near the Tri-Cities metropolitan area (Richland, Pasco, Kennewick) in southeastern Washington State. Designed and built in 1971, the telescope ranks as one of the largest in the Pacific Northwest. It was used regularly for astronomical research through the early 1980s, but soon after fell into disuse. Since 1996, a non-profit group made up largely of scientists, engineers, and education professionals from the nearby Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been engaged in a project to enable remote access to the telescope and provide for its automated operation. To date, the telescope has seen the overhaul and replacement of several of its major subsystems. Some of the improvements include a fully programmable dual-axis servo-motor drive system, computer controlled dome operation, radio-modem link to PNNL, and comprehensive control software. The telescope and several of its auxiliary systems are currently under local computer control, whereby an observer, residing within the dome, may operate the telescope and dome completely through the computer interface. This primarily volunteer project seeks to allow the eventual incorporation of the telescope into science classrooms within the local community, across Washington State, and beyond. In the broader sense, the RMO 0.8-meter telescope will become an integral part of a much larger initiative, the goals of which are to expand the opportunities for science education in our schools and to promote a greater appreciation for scientific research among the general population.

  17. Dendrogeomorphic Assessment of the Rattlesnake Gulf Landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tamulonis, Kathryn L.; Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Dendrogeomorphic techniques were used to assess soil movement within the Rattlesnake Gulf landslide in the Tully Valley of central New York during the last century. This landslide is a postglacial, slow-moving earth slide that covers 23 acres and consists primarily of rotated, laminated, glaciolacustrine silt and clay. Sixty-two increment cores were obtained from 30 hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees across the active part of the landslide and from 3 control sites to interpret the soil-displacement history. Annual growth rings were measured and reaction wood was identified to indicate years in which ring growth changed from concentric to eccentric, on the premise that soil movement triggered compensatory growth in displaced trees. These data provided a basis for an 'event index' to identify years of landslide activity over the 108 years of record represented by the oldest trees. Event-index values and total annual precipitation increased during this time, but years with sudden event-index increases did not necessarily correspond to years with above-average precipitation. Multiple-regression and residual-values analyses indicated a possible correlation between precipitation and movement within the landslide and a possible cyclic (decades-long) tree-ring response to displacement within the landslide area from the toe upward to, and possibly beyond, previously formed landslide features. The soil movement is triggered by a sequence of factors that include (1) periods of several months with below-average precipitation followed by persistent above-average precipitation, (2) the attendant increase in streamflow, which erodes the landslide toe and results in an upslope propagation of slumping, and (3) the harvesting of mature trees within this landslide during the last century and continuing to the present.

  18. 272 cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dogs: Demographics and treatment including safety of F(ab')2 antivenom use in 236 patients.

    PubMed

    Witsil, Amanda J; Wells, Raegan J; Woods, Craig; Rao, Sangeeta

    2015-10-01

    Medical records of 272 rattlesnake envenomations of canines from 5 veterinary emergency centers in Maricopa County, Arizona between 2010 and 2012 were investigated. The objectives were to examine the patient demographics, severity of clinical signs, and treatment modalities employed, in order to discuss the outcomes of certain therapies including glucocorticoid use, antibiotic use, rattlesnake vaccination, and safety of antivenom administration in dogs. Evaluation was performed to model each response (survival, proposed canine snakebite severity score (cSSS), and length of stay) as a function of multiple variables. Of the 272 bite incidences, 8 dogs had a fatal outcome. In dogs older than 10 years, there was a greater likelihood of fatal outcome associated with a longer delay between the bite and presentation. 236 of the envenomated patients were treated with a F(ab')2 antivenom, 24 with a whole immunoglobulin antivenom, and 12 with both products. Overall incidence of acute hypersensitivity reaction was 0.7% with one incident observed in each antivenom group and F(ab')2 antivenom administration having the lowest rate of acute hypersensitivity reactions; no reactions were life-threatening. Antivenom administration was found to be generally safe in treatment of canine rattlesnake envenomation. In view of the results of this study, in dogs with rattlesnake envenomation, there is no evidence that use of glucocorticoids, diphenhydramine, prophylactic antibiotics, or vaccination lessen morbidity or mortality.

  19. Ground-water hydrology of the Sagebrush Flat area as related to the discharge of Rattlesnake Springs, Grant and Douglas counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Washington Department of Ecology, investigated the hydrology of the Sagebrush Flat area as it relates to Rattlesnake Springs. Rattlesnake Springs and all known wells on Sagebrush Flat obtain water from basalt aquifers. The wells tap aquifers at or below the altitude of the spring discharge. Water levels in some wells on Sagebrush Flat, and in a well 27 miles to the northeast in an area of no groundwater development, show slight fluctuations that may correspond to annual variations in precipitation. However, hydrographs of most wells on Sagebrush Flat show water-level declines and rises that correspond with the beginning and end of the pumping season. The discharge of Rattlesnake Springs started to decrease at about the beginning of the 1978 pumping season and did not start to increase until after most pumping was stopped. The water level in deep aquifers beneath Sagebrush Flat is at a lower altitude than in shallow a quifers, and water moves down well boreholes from shallow aquifers to deeper aquifers. This downward movement of water diverts groundwater that is moving toward natural discharge points such as Rattlesnake Springs, thereby decreasing the discharge at these points. (USGS)

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S.

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  1. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  2. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  3. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  4. Ground squirrel tail-flag displays alter both predatory strike and ambush site selection behaviours of rattlesnakes

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Matthew A.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2012-01-01

    Many species approach, inspect and signal towards their predators. These behaviours are often interpreted as predator-deterrent signals—honest signals that indicate to a predator that continued hunting is likely to be futile. However, many of these putative predator-deterrent signals are given when no predator is present, and it remains unclear if and why such signals deter predators. We examined the effects of one such signal, the tail-flag display of California ground squirrels, which is frequently given both during and outside direct encounters with northern Pacific rattlesnakes. We video-recorded and quantified the ambush foraging responses of rattlesnakes to tail-flagging displays from ground squirrels. We found that tail-flagging deterred snakes from striking squirrels, most likely by advertising squirrel vigilance (i.e. readiness to dodge a snake strike). We also found that tail-flagging by adult squirrels increased the likelihood that snakes would leave their ambush site, apparently by elevating the vigilance of nearby squirrels which reduces the profitability of the ambush site. Our results provide some of the first empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which a prey display, although frequently given in the absence of a predator, may still deter predators during encounters. PMID:22787023

  5. Ground squirrel tail-flag displays alter both predatory strike and ambush site selection behaviours of rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Matthew A; Clark, Rulon W

    2012-09-22

    Many species approach, inspect and signal towards their predators. These behaviours are often interpreted as predator-deterrent signals--honest signals that indicate to a predator that continued hunting is likely to be futile. However, many of these putative predator-deterrent signals are given when no predator is present, and it remains unclear if and why such signals deter predators. We examined the effects of one such signal, the tail-flag display of California ground squirrels, which is frequently given both during and outside direct encounters with northern Pacific rattlesnakes. We video-recorded and quantified the ambush foraging responses of rattlesnakes to tail-flagging displays from ground squirrels. We found that tail-flagging deterred snakes from striking squirrels, most likely by advertising squirrel vigilance (i.e. readiness to dodge a snake strike). We also found that tail-flagging by adult squirrels increased the likelihood that snakes would leave their ambush site, apparently by elevating the vigilance of nearby squirrels which reduces the profitability of the ambush site. Our results provide some of the first empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which a prey display, although frequently given in the absence of a predator, may still deter predators during encounters.

  6. Crystallization and welding variations in a widespread ignimbrite sheet; the Rattlesnake Tuff, eastern Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, Martin J.; Grunder, Anita L.

    1995-06-01

    The 7.05 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff covers ca. 9000 km2, but the reconstructed original coverage was between 30000 and 40000 km2. Thicknesses are remarkably uniform, ranging between 15 and 30 m for the most complete sections. Only 13% of the area is covered with tuff thicker than 30 m, to a maximum of 70 m. The present day estimated tuff volume is 130 km3 and the reconstructed magma volume of the outflow is 280 km3 DRE (dense rock equivalent). The source area of the tuff is inferred to be in the western Harney Basin, near the center of the tuff distribution, based mainly on a radial exponential decrease in average pumice size, and is consistent with a general radial decrease in welding and degree of post-emplacement crystallization. Rheomorphic tuff is found to a radius of 40 60 km from the inferred source. Four facies of welding and four of post-emplacement crystallization are distinguishable. They are: non-welded, incipiently welded, partially welded and densely welded zones; and vapor phase, pervasively devitrified, spherulite and lithophysae zones. The vapor phase, pervasively devitrified and lithophysae zones are divided into macroscopically distinguishable subzones. At constant thickness (20±3 m), and over a distance of 1 3 km, nonrheomorphic sections can cary between two extremes: (a) entirely vitric sections grading from nonwelded to incipiently welded; and (b) highly zoned sections. Highly zoned sections have a basal non- to densely welded vitric tuff overlain by a spherulite zone that grades upward through a lithophysae-dominated zone to a zone of pervasive devitrification, which, in turn, is overlain by a zone of vapor-phase crystallization and is capped by partially welded vitric tuff. A three-dimensional welding and crystallization model has been developed based on integrating local and regional variations of 85 measured sections. Strong local variations are interpreted to be the result of threshold-governed welding and crystallization controlled by

  7. Hydrologic test results for the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed and Pomona basalt flow top at Borehole DB-15

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, S.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1983-07-01

    This report presents results and description of hydrologic test activities for the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed and Pomona basalt flow top at Borehole DB-15. Hydrologic tests conducted include constant discharge air-lift and constant discharge submersible pumping tests. An observed hydraulic head for the test interval was 409 {plus minus} 1 feet above mean sea level. Transmissivity values determined from hydrologic tests performed, ranged between 493 and 469 ft{sup 2}/day. The best estimate of transmissivity is 480 ft{sup 2}/day. The best estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity, based on an effective test thickness of 56 feet is 8.6 ft/day. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE IMPROVED QUASI-STATIC METHOD IN RATTLESNAKE/MOOSE FOR TIME-DEPENDENT RADIATION TRANSPORT MODELLING

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary M. Prince; Jean C. Ragusa; Yaqi Wang

    2016-02-01

    Because of the recent interest in reactor transient modeling and the restart of the Transient Reactor (TREAT) Facility, there has been a need for more efficient, robust methods in computation frameworks. This is the impetus of implementing the Improved Quasi-Static method (IQS) in the RATTLESNAKE/MOOSE framework. IQS has implemented with CFEM diffusion by factorizing flux into time-dependent amplitude and spacial- and weakly time-dependent shape. The shape evaluation is very similar to a flux diffusion solve and is computed at large (macro) time steps. While the amplitude evaluation is a PRKE solve where the parameters are dependent on the shape and is computed at small (micro) time steps. IQS has been tested with a custom one-dimensional example and the TWIGL ramp benchmark. These examples prove it to be a viable and effective method for highly transient cases. More complex cases are intended to be applied to further test the method and its implementation.

  9. Identification of Lys49-PLA2 from crude venom of Crotalus atrox as a human neutrophil-calcium modulating protein.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Md Tipu; Li, Hong-Mei; Lee, Yong Zu; Lim, Soon Sung; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-03-01

    We fortuitously observed a human neutrophil intracellular free-calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) increasing activity in the commercially available phosphodiesterase I (PDE I), which is actually dried crude venom of Crotalus atrox. As this activity was not observed with another commercially available pure PDE I, we tried to find out the causative molecule(s) present in 'crude' PDE, and identified Lys49-phospholipase A2 (Lys49-PLA2 or K49-PLA2), a catalytically inactive protein which belongs to the phospholipase A2 family, by activity-driven three HPLC (reverse phase, size exclusion, reverse phase) steps followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. K49-PLA2 induced Ca(2+) infl ux in human neutrophils without any cytotoxic eff ect. Two calcium channel inhibitors, 2-aminoetoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (30 µM) and SKF-96365 (20 µM) signifi cantly inhibited K49-PLA2-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. These results suggest that K49-PLA2 modulates [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils via 2-APB- and SKF-96365-sensitive calcium channels without causing membrane disruption.

  10. Crotalus atrox venom preconditioning increases plasma fibrinogen and reduces perioperative hemorrhage in a rat model of surgical brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cherine H.; McBride, Devin W.; Raval, Ronak; Sherchan, Prativa; Hay, Karen L.; Gren, Eric C. K.; Kelln, Wayne; Lekic, Tim; Hayes, William K.; Bull, Brian S.; Applegate, Richard; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative bleeding is a potentially devastating complication in neurosurgical patients, and plasma fibrinogen concentration has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for perioperative bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate preconditioning with Crotalus atrox venom (Cv-PC) as potential preventive therapy for reducing perioperative hemorrhage in the rodent model of surgical brain injury (SBI). C. atrox venom contains snake venom metalloproteinases that cleave fibrinogen into fibrin split products without inducing clotting. Separately, fibrinogen split products induce fibrinogen production, thereby elevating plasma fibrinogen levels. Thus, the hypothesis was that preconditioning with C. atrox venom will produce fibrinogen spilt products, thereby upregulating fibrinogen levels, ultimately improving perioperative hemostasis during SBI. We observed that Cv-PC SBI animals had significantly reduced intraoperative hemorrhage and postoperative hematoma volumes compared to those of vehicle preconditioned SBI animals. Cv-PC animals were also found to have higher levels of plasma fibrinogen at the time of surgery, with unchanged prothrombin time. Cv-PC studies with fractions of C. atrox venom suggest that snake venom metalloproteinases are largely responsible for the improved hemostasis by Cv-PC. Our findings indicate that Cv-PC increases plasma fibrinogen levels and may provide a promising therapy for reducing perioperative hemorrhage in elective surgeries. PMID:28102287

  11. Hydrogeologic properties and ground-water chemistry of the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed at well 699-25-80 (DB-14) Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Howland, M.D.; Strait, S.R.

    1980-11-01

    Offsite migration studies were conducted to characterize the hydraulic properties and groundwater chemistry of confined aquifer systems within the Hanford Site. These studies support the recommendations in ERDA-1538 to provide input for hydrologic modeling of groundwater flow within the Hanford Site, to afford information concerning possible contamination of underlying confined aquifer systems and to make the results available to the public. This report presents analytical results and aquifer test procedures used in characterizing the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed at well 699-25-80. The overall close association in groundwater chemistries and presence of elevated nitrate levels suggest that the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed may be locally in communication with the overlying unconfined aquifer system. Other physical evidence which indicates a potential local communication with the unconfined aquifer system includes: favorable stratigraphic position; absence of the confining Elephant Mountain basalt in surrounding areas; and intersection of a recharge boundary during aquifer tests of well 699-25-80.

  12. Welding variations in a thin and extremely widespread ignimbrite sheet: The Rattlesnake Tuff, eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Grunder, A. L.

    2003-04-01

    The 7.05-Ma Rattlesnake Tuff covers ca. 9000 km^2 but reconstructed original coverage was between 30,000 and 40,000 km^2. Travel distances are among the furthest recorded and were in excess of 150 km from the inferred source near the center of the tuff's distribution based on existing outcrops. Eruption products are mostly (>99%) high-silica rhyolites with narrow, but distinct ranges in major element composition. Thickness of outcrops is remarkably uniform, ranging between 15 and 30 m for the most complete sections. Only 13% of the area is covered with tuff thicker than 30 m, to a maximum of ˜70 m. Excellent preservation allows to distinguish multiple welding and crystallization facies; in addition, rheomorphic tuff can be found up to a radius of 40 to 60 km from the inferred source (Bull Volcanol 57: 151-169, 1995). The entire welding range is subdivided into five mappable facies of welding which are (with associated densities and porosities): nonwelded ( < 1.5 g/cm^3; > 36%), incipiently welded (1.50-1.65 g/cm^3; 36-30%), partially welded with pumice (1.65-2.05 g/cm^3; 30-12%), partially welded with fiamme (2.05-2.30 g/cm^3; 12-2%), and densely welded ( 2.30-2.34 g/cm^3; < 2%). In the partially welded zone, deformation of pumices proceeds the one of matrix shards and leads to fiamme composed of dense glass while the shard matrix has a remaining porosity of 12% or less. Degree of welding generally decreases with distance as it is manifested by only rarely found densely welded tuff beyond ˜70 km, and partially welded with fiamme tuff beyond ˜130 km from the source. Thus, a regional change in welding is only observed subtly in the highest welding degrees because strong local variations are often observed that complicate simple welding scenarios whereby loss of temperature during travel and/or reduced tuff thickness with distance leads to less welding. Strong local variations are most dramatic near the source where observed welding degrees encompasses the entire

  13. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  14. A chance to cut is not always a chance to cure- fasciotomy in the treatment of rattlesnake envenomation: A retrospective poison center study.

    PubMed

    Darracq, Michael A; Cantrell, F Lee; Klauk, Bryan; Thornton, Stephen L

    2015-07-01

    Fasciotomy has been described in the treatment of rattlesnake-envenomation. We sought to compare the characteristics of patients undergoing fasciotomy with those where fasciotomy was discussed but not performed. A retrospective case-series constructed from a single-statewide-poison-system electronic database for cases of fasciotomy discussion or completion in rattlesnake-envenomation between January 2001 and May 2012. Age, gender, bite location, antivenom administered, compartment pressure measurements, Snakebite Severity Score (SSS) and length of hospitalization (LOS) were recorded. Comparisons were made between fasciotomy completed and where fasciotomy was only discussed. One-hundred-five cases of fasciotomy discussion or completion were identified. Fasciotomy was performed in 28 cases (27%). There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between groups in age, gender, bite site, SSS, and total number of vials of antivenom administered. Only 2 of 28 (7%) had compartment pressure measurements. Patients undergoing fasciotomy spent an additional 2 days in the hospital. Fasciotomies continue to take place, without compartment pressure measurements, and without repeat dosing of antivenom. In the absence of clear objective evidence that limb-threatening compartment syndrome occurs despite adequate antivenom administration, fasciotomy does not favorably impact morbidity and may be associated with increased costs for care following rattlesnake envenomation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapeutic potential of peptides with neutralizing ability towards the venom and toxin (CaTx-I) of crotalus adamanteus.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Bradley G; Bow, Ho; Chow, Vincent T K; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam

    2011-01-01

    The CaTx-I (PLA2) toxin of Crotalus adamanteus venom is responsible for most of the symptoms observed during envenomation. Synthetic peptides were designed and screened for venom (0.8 μg/ml) and CaTx-I (0.1 μM) inhibition at varying doses of the peptide (10000- 0.0001 μM) using a Cayman chemical human secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2, Type II) assay kit. Further, in vitro neutralization studies were evaluated by a fixed dose of peptide (1 μM) against venom (0.8 μg/ml) and toxin (0.1 μM). Among the linear peptides (PIP-18, cyclic C and PIP59-67) that showed potent neutralizing effects against the venom/toxin of C. adamanteus. PIP-18 [IC50, 1.23 μM] and cyclic C [IC50, 1.27 μM] peptides possessed the strongest inhibitory effect against CaTx-I. A fixed dose of CaTx-I (75 μg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) into mice followed by an i.p. injection of peptides PIP-18 and cyclic C at (6 μg/mouse), venom (150 μg/kg) and toxin CaTx-I alone served as references. Mice treated with PIP-18 and cyclic C showed a very strong neutralizing effect and markedly reduced mortality compared to the control after 24 h. The CA venom and CaTx-I injected mice showed severe toxicity after 24 h. Peptides PIP-18 and cyclic C were non-hemolytic at 100 μM. They produced a significant decrease in lipid peroxidase (LPx) and enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Glutathione-s-transferase (GST) levels indicating their antioxidant property against venom-induced changes in mice. This study confirmed the potent snake venom neutralizing properties of peptides.

  16. Experimental and textural investigation of welding: effects of compaction, sintering, and vapor-phase crystallization in the rhyolitic Rattlesnake Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, Anita L.; Laporte, Didier; Druitt, Tim H.

    2005-04-01

    The abrupt changes in character of variably welded pyroclastic deposits have invited decades of investigation and classification. We conducted two series of experiments using ash from the nonwelded base of the rhyolitic Rattlesnake Tuff of Oregon, USA, to examine conditions of welding. One series of experiments was conducted at atmospheric pressure (1 At) in a muffle furnace with variable run times and temperature and another series was conducted at 5 MPa and 600 °C in a cold seal apparatus with variable run times and water contents. We compared the results to a suite of incipiently to densely welded, natural samples of the Rattlesnake Tuff. Experiments at 1 At required a temperature above 900 °C to produce welding, which is in excess of the estimated pre-eruptive magmatic temperature of the tuff. The experiments also yielded globular clast textures unlike the natural tuff. During the cold-seal experiments, the gold sample capsules collapsed in response to sample densification. Textures and densities that closely mimic the natural suite were produced at 5 MPa, 600 °C and 0.4 wt.% H 2O, over run durations of hours to 2 days. Clast deformation and development of foliation in 2-week runs were greater than in natural samples. Both more and less water reduced the degree of welding at otherwise constant run conditions. For 5 MPa experiments, changes in the degree of foliation of shards and of axial ratios of bubble shards and non-bubble (mainly platy) shards, are consistent with early densification related to compaction and partial rotation of shards into a foliation. Subsequent densification was associated with viscous deformation as indicated by more sintered contacts and deformation of shards. Sintering (local fusion of shard-shard contacts) was increasingly important with longer run times, higher temperatures, and greater pressures. During runs with high water concentrations, sintering was rare and adhesion between clasts was dominated by precipitation of

  17. Biochemical and enzymatic characterization of two basic Asp49 phospholipase A2 isoforms from Lachesis muta muta (Surucucu) venom.

    PubMed

    Damico, Daniela C S; Lilla, Sérgio; de Nucci, Gilberto; Ponce-Soto, Luis A; Winck, Flávia V; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2005-10-30

    Two basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms were isolated from Lachesis muta muta snake venom and partially characterized. The venom was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography in ammonium bicarbonate buffer followed by reverse-phase HPLC on a C-18 mu-Bondapack column and RP-HPLC on a C-8 column. From liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, the molecular mass of the two isoforms LmTX-I and LmTX-II was respectively measured as 14,245.4 and 14,186.2 Da. The pI was respectively estimated to be 8.7 and 8.6 for LmTX-I and LmTX-II, as determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The two proteins were sequenced and differentiated from each other by a single amino acid substitution, Arg65 (LmTX-I)-->Pro65 (LmTX-II). The amino acid sequence showed a high degree of homology between PLA2 isoforms from Lachesis muta muta and other PLA2 snake venoms. LmTX-I and LmTX-II had PLA2 activity in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behaviour; with maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 35-45 degrees C. Full PLA2 activity required Ca2+ and was respectively inhibited by Cu2+ and Zn2+ in the presence and absence of Ca2+. Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom significantly inhibited (P<0.05) the enzymatic activity of LmTX-I, suggesting that the binding site for crotapotin in this PLA2 was similar to another in the basic PLA2 of the crotoxin complex from C. durissus cascavella venom.

  18. Is the Rattlesnake Creek terrane out of place with respect to other terranes in the Klamath Mountains, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Wyld, S.J.; Wright, J.E. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Rattlesnake Creek terrane (RCT) of the western Klamath Mtns. (KM) represents an Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic arc assemblage constructed on a serpentinite matrix melange basement. Following Saleeby (1992), melange basement is believed to be the disrupted remnants of a Paleozoic( ) oceanic fracture zone. Overlying arc volcanics include a lower group of pillowed to massive basalts with tholeiitic IAB chemistry and an upper group of cpx-phyric lavas and volcaniclastics with calc-alkaline to shoshinitic IAB chemistry. Volcanogenic rocks are interbedded with chert, argillite and epiclastic rocks derived from a terrigenous source. Gabbroic to dioritic intrusions, dated at 212--198 Ma (U/Pb zircon), intrude both melange basement and overlying arc strata and are interpreted as the intrusive roots of the arc. Collectively, these relations suggest that the RCT did not originate in or develop adjacent to the rest of the KM province, although cross-cutting relations require that the RCT was situated adjacent to the KM by [approximately]170 Ma. The authors propose a model in which the RCT was translated, probably by fore-arc strike slip faulting in response to oblique subduction, from a point of origin elsewhere along the early Mesozoic Cordillera margin, most likely the western Sierra Nevada.

  19. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae “teju” lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was “problems affecting the respiratory system”. Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna. PMID:23050756

  20. Walker 256 Tumor Growth Suppression by Crotoxin Involves Formyl Peptide Receptors and Lipoxin A4

    PubMed Central

    Brigatte, Patrícia; Faiad, Odair Jorge; Ferreira Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio; Landgraf, Richardt G.; Palma, Mario Sergio; Cury, Yara; Curi, Rui; Sampaio, Sandra Coccuzzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Crotoxin (CTX), the main toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, on Walker 256 tumor growth, the pain symptoms associated (hyperalgesia and allodynia), and participation of endogenous lipoxin A4. Treatment with CTX (s.c.), daily, for 5 days reduced tumor growth at the 5th day after injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the plantar surface of adult rat hind paw. This observation was associated with inhibition of new blood vessel formation and decrease in blood vessel diameter. The treatment with CTX raised plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and its natural analogue 15-epi-LXA4, an effect mediated by formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). In fact, the treatment with Boc-2, an inhibitor of FPRs, abolished the increase in plasma levels of these mediators triggered by CTX. The blockage of these receptors also abolished the inhibitory action of CTX on tumor growth and blood vessel formation and the decrease in blood vessel diameter. Together, the results herein presented demonstrate that CTX increases plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and 15-epi-LXA4, which might inhibit both tumor growth and formation of new vessels via FPRs. PMID:27190493

  1. The effect of crotoxin on the release of acetylcholine and lactate dehydrogenase from rat brain cortical slices.

    PubMed

    Araújo, D A; Beirão, P S; Gomez, M V

    1992-01-01

    1. We have studied the effects of crotoxin, the neurotoxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the release of acetylcholine and lactate dehydrogenase from rat brain cortical slices. 2. Crotoxin enhances the release of [3H]-acetylcholine from cortical slices (control values 92.8 +/- 5.9 and 150.3 +/- 11.7 DPM/mg and crotoxin values 199.1 +/- 7.0 and 336.0 +/- 26.0 DPM/mg, at 60 and 120 min incubation, respectively) in parallel with the release of lactate dehydrogenase (control values 50.4 +/- 16.8 and 80.3 +/- 19.5 U/mg and crotoxin values 162.5 +/- 39.1 and 355.7 +/- 38.2 U/mg, at 60 and 120 min incubation, respectively). Both effects are markedly reduced when substituting Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium. 3. It is concluded that the phospholipase activity of crotoxin is responsible for the observed effects.

  2. Gyroxin increases blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue dye in mice.

    PubMed

    Alves da Silva, J A; Oliveira, K C; Camillo, M A P

    2011-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme component of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom. This toxin displays several activities, including the induction of blood coagulation (fibrinogenolytic activity), vasodilation and neurotoxicity, resulting in an effect called barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not well known. Because gyroxin is a member of a potentially therapeutic family of enzymes, including thrombin, ancrod, batroxobin, trypsin and kallicrein, the identification of the mechanism of gyroxin's action is extremely important. In this study, gyroxin was isolated from crude venom by affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. Analysis of the isolated gyroxin via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single protein band with a molecular weight of approximately 28 kDa, confirming the identity of the molecule. Furthermore, intravenous administration of purified gyroxin (0.25 μg/g of body weight) to mice resulted in symptoms compatible with barrel rotation syndrome, confirming the neurotoxic activity of the toxin. Mice treated with gyroxin showed an increase in the concentration of albumin-Evans blue in brain extracts, indicating an increase in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. This gyroxin-induced increase in BBB permeability was time-dependent, reaching a peak within 15 min after exposure, similar to the time span in which the neurotoxic syndrome (barrel rotation) occurs. This work provides the first evidence of gyroxin's capacity to temporarily alter the permeability of the BBB.

  3. Biophysical studies suggest a new structural arrangement of crotoxin and provide insights into its toxic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos A. H.; Pazin, Wallance M.; Dreyer, Thiago R.; Bicev, Renata N.; Cavalcante, Walter L. G.; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L.; Ito, Amando S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L. P.; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Crotoxin (CTX) is the main neurotoxin found in Crotalus durissus rattlesnake venoms being composed by a nontoxic and non-enzymatic component (CA) and a toxic phospholipase A2 (CB). Previous crystallographic structures of CTX and CB provided relevant insights: (i) CTX structure showed a 1:1 molecular ratio between CA and CB, presenting three tryptophan residues in the CA/CB interface and one exposed to solvent; (ii) CB structure displayed a tetrameric conformation. This study aims to provide further information on the CTX mechanism of action by several biophysical methods. Our data show that isolated CB can in fact form tetramers in solution; however, these tetramers can be dissociated by CA titration. Furthermore, CTX exhibits a strong reduction in fluorescence intensity and lifetime compared with isolated CA and CB, suggesting that all tryptophan residues in CTX may be hidden by the CA/CB interface. By companying spectroscopy fluorescence and SAXS data, we obtained a new structural model for the CTX heterodimer in which all tryptophans are located in the interface, and the N-terminal region of CB is largely exposed to the solvent. Based on this model, we propose a toxic mechanism of action for CTX, involving the interaction of N-terminal region of CB with the target before CA dissociation. PMID:28256632

  4. Biophysical studies suggest a new structural arrangement of crotoxin and provide insights into its toxic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos A H; Pazin, Wallance M; Dreyer, Thiago R; Bicev, Renata N; Cavalcante, Walter L G; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; Ito, Amando S; Oliveira, Cristiano L P; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Fontes, Marcos R M

    2017-03-03

    Crotoxin (CTX) is the main neurotoxin found in Crotalus durissus rattlesnake venoms being composed by a nontoxic and non-enzymatic component (CA) and a toxic phospholipase A2 (CB). Previous crystallographic structures of CTX and CB provided relevant insights: (i) CTX structure showed a 1:1 molecular ratio between CA and CB, presenting three tryptophan residues in the CA/CB interface and one exposed to solvent; (ii) CB structure displayed a tetrameric conformation. This study aims to provide further information on the CTX mechanism of action by several biophysical methods. Our data show that isolated CB can in fact form tetramers in solution; however, these tetramers can be dissociated by CA titration. Furthermore, CTX exhibits a strong reduction in fluorescence intensity and lifetime compared with isolated CA and CB, suggesting that all tryptophan residues in CTX may be hidden by the CA/CB interface. By companying spectroscopy fluorescence and SAXS data, we obtained a new structural model for the CTX heterodimer in which all tryptophans are located in the interface, and the N-terminal region of CB is largely exposed to the solvent. Based on this model, we propose a toxic mechanism of action for CTX, involving the interaction of N-terminal region of CB with the target before CA dissociation.

  5. Crotalphine desensitizes TRPA1 ion channels to alleviate inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Elisangela; Touska, Filip; Vetter, Irina; Kistner, Katrin; Kichko, Tatjana I; Teixeira, Nathália B; Picolo, Gisele; Cury, Yara; Lewis, Richard J; Fischer, Michael J M; Zimmermann, Katharina; Reeh, Peter W

    2016-11-01

    Crotalphine is a structural analogue to a novel analgesic peptide that was first identified in the crude venom from the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Although crotalphine's analgesic effect is well established, its direct mechanism of action remains unresolved. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of crotalphine on ion channels in peripheral pain pathways. We found that picomolar concentrations of crotalphine selectively activate heterologously expressed and native TRPA1 ion channels. TRPA1 activation by crotalphine required intact N-terminal cysteine residues and was followed by strong and long-lasting desensitization of the channel. Homologous desensitization of recombinant TRPA1 and heterologous desensitization in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons was observed. Likewise, crotalphine acted on peptidergic TRPA1-expressing nerve endings ex vivo as demonstrated by suppression of calcitonin gene-related peptide release from the trachea and in vivo by inhibition of chemically induced and inflammatory hypersensitivity in mice. The crotalphine-mediated desensitizing effect was abolished by the TRPA1 blocker HC030031 and absent in TRPA1-deficient mice. Taken together, these results suggest that crotalphine is the first peptide to mediate antinociception selectively and at subnanomolar concentrations by targeting TRPA1 ion channels.

  6. Peripheral kappa and delta opioid receptors are involved in the antinociceptive effect of crotalphine in a rat model of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Brigatte, Patricia; Konno, Katsuhiro; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Sampaio, Sandra Coccuzzo; Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Picolo, Gisele; Curi, Rui; Cury, Yara

    2013-08-01

    Cancer pain is an important clinical problem and may not respond satisfactorily to the current analgesic therapy. We have characterized a novel and potent analgesic peptide, crotalphine, from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. In the present work, the antinociceptive effect of crotalphine was evaluated in a rat model of cancer pain induced by intraplantar injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Intraplantar injection of tumor cells caused the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia, detected on day 5 after tumor cell inoculation. Crotalphine (6 μg/kg), administered p.o., blocked both phenomena. The antinociceptive effect was detected 1 h after treatment and lasted for up to 48 h. Intraplantar injection of nor-binaltorphimine (50 g/paw), a selective antagonist of κ-opioid receptors, antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the peptide, whereas N,N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Phe-Leu (ICI 174,864, 10 μg/paw), a selective antagonist of δ-opioid receptors, partially reversed this effect. On the other hand, D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr amide (CTOP, 20 g/paw), an antagonist of μ-opioid receptors, did not modify crotalphine-induced antinociception. These data indicate that crotalphine induces a potent and long lasting opioid-mediated antinociception in cancer pain.

  7. Relationship between the structure and the enzymatic activity of crotoxin complex and its phospholipase A2 subunit: an in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Gómez, Iván Dario; Patiño, Arley Camilo

    2012-05-01

    Crotoxin, one of the major toxins of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus subspecies, is an heterodimeric complex composed of two distinct subunits: a basic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2), CB) and an acidic nontoxic catalytically inactive protein, crotapotin (CA). It's well known that CB has a high enzymatic activity; however the molecular aspects that determine this fact remain unknown. In this study, an in silico approach was used to predict the CA structure by homology modeling, and the crotoxin structure by means of molecular docking. CA structure was built using the software Modeller taking Crotalus atrox PLA(2) (1PP2:R) as a template. Different criteria measured by Procheck, Verify 3D and ProSA were indicative of the reliability and the proper fold for the predicted structural model of CA. Then, a combination of this model and CB crystal structure was used to build the structure of crotoxin complex through rigid-body protein-protein docking. The crotoxin-3D model suggested that by means of hydrophobic and π-π stacking interactions, CA-Y24 and CA-F119 interact with CB-F24 and CB-F119, respectively. Those interactions could prevent the interfacial adsorption of the CB onto the lipid/water interface by blocking part of the interfacial binding surface of the PLA(2). This fact could explain the differences regarding to enzymatic activity between the crotoxin complex and CB. In addition, the crotoxin-3D model showed solvent-exposed regions of CA that could bind the receptor expressed in target cells. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. General characterization of the venoms from two species of rattlesnakes and an intergrade population (C. lepidus x aquilus) from Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Eric; Neri-Castro, Edgar; Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Hernánez-Dávila, Arely I; Zamudio, F; Alagón, Alejandro

    2017-09-08

    The venoms from two species of rock rattlesnakes and an intergrade population were studied. Differences were noted in SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC profiles and only the venom from the intergrade population showed low procoagulant activity. Also, a Crotoxin-like neurotoxic PLA2 was identified in the venom of C. l. klauberi, the most toxic of the analyzed venoms. This is the first report of such a toxin in C. l. klauberi from Aguascalientes, Mexico. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Subsurface structure of a maar-diatreme and associated tuff ring from a high-resolution geophysical survey, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Anita; Connor, Charles; Kruse, Sarah; Malservisi, Rocco; Richardson, Jacob; Courtland, Leah; Connor, Laura; Wilson, James; Karegar, Makan A.

    2015-10-01

    Geophysical survey techniques including gravity, magnetics, and ground penetrating radar were utilized to study the diatreme and tuff ring at Rattlesnake Crater, a maar in the San Francisco Volcanic Field of northern Arizona. Significant magnetic anomalies (+ 1600 nT) and a positive gravity anomaly (+ 1.4 mGal) are associated with the maar. Joint modeling of magnetic and gravity data indicate that the diatreme that underlies Rattlesnake Crater has volume of 0.8-1 km3, and extends to at least 800 m depth. The modeled diatreme comprises at least two zones of variable density and magnetization, including a low density, highly magnetized unit near the center of the diatreme, interpreted to be a pyroclastic unit emplaced at sufficiently high temperature and containing sufficient juvenile fraction to acquire thermal remanent magnetization. Magnetic anomalies and ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging demonstrate that the bedded pyroclastic deposits of the tuff ring also carry high magnetization, likely produced by energetic emplacement of hot pyroclastic density currents. GPR profiles on the tuff ring reveal long (~ 100 m) wavelength undulations in bedding planes. Elsewhere, comparable bedforms have been interpreted as base surge deposits inflated by air entrainment from eruption column collapse. Interpretation of these geophysical data suggests that Rattlesnake Crater produced highly energetic phreatomagmatic activity that gave way to less explosive activity as the eruption progressed. The positive gravity anomaly associated with the maar crater is interpreted to be caused by coherent bodies within the diatreme and possibly lava ponding on the crater floor. These dense magnetized bodies have excess mass of 2-4 × 1010 kg, and occupy approximately 5% of the diatreme by volume. Magnetic anomalies on the crater floor are elongate NW-SE, suggesting that the eruption may have been triggered by the interaction of ascending magma with water in fractures of this orientation

  10. Opioid neurotransmission modulates defensive behavior and fear-induced antinociception in dangerous environments.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Norberto Cysne; Calvo, Fabrício; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Ubiali, Walter Adriano; Lobão-Soares, Bruno; Tracey, Irene

    2017-06-23

    The effects of endogenous opioid peptide antagonists on panic-related responses are controversial. Using elevated mazes and a prey-versus-predator paradigm, we investigated the involvement of the endogenous opioid peptide-mediated system in the modulation of anxiety- and panic attack-induced responses and innate fear-induced antinociception in the present work. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally pretreated with either physiological saline or naloxone at different doses and were subjected to either the elevated plus- or T-maze test or confronted by Crotalus durissus terrificus. The defensive behaviors of the rats were recorded in the presence of the predator and at 24h after the confrontation, when the animals were placed in the experimental enclosure without the rattlesnake. The peripheral non-specific blockade of opioid receptors had a clear anxiolytic-like effect on the rats subjected to the elevated plus-maze but not on those subjected to the elevated T-maze; however, a clear panicolytic-like effect was observed, i.e., the defensive behaviors decreased, and the prey-versus-predator interaction responses evoked by the presence of the rattlesnakes increased. A similar effect was noted when the rats were exposed to the experimental context in the absence of the venomous snake. After completing all tests, the naloxone-treated groups exhibited less anxiety/fear-induced antinociception than the control group, as measured by the tail-flick test. These findings demonstrate the anxiolytic and panicolytic-like effects of opioid receptor blockade. In addition, the fearlessness behavior displayed by preys treated with naloxone at higher doses enhanced the defensive behavioral responses of venomous snakes. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E.

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. PMID:26354849

  12. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    PubMed

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in reptiles: a comparative study of four species with different lung structures and pulmonary blood pressures.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2005-11-01

    Low O2 levels in the lungs of birds and mammals cause constriction of the pulmonary vasculature that elevates resistance to pulmonary blood flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) diverts pulmonary blood flow from poorly ventilated and hypoxic areas of the lung to more well-ventilated parts and is considered important for the local matching of ventilation to blood perfusion. In the present study, the effects of acute hypoxia on pulmonary and systemic blood flows and pressures were measured in four species of anesthetized reptiles with diverse lung structures and heart morphologies: varanid lizards (Varanus exanthematicus), caimans (Caiman latirostris), rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus), and tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae). As previously shown in turtles, hypoxia causes a reversible constriction of the pulmonary vasculature in varanids and caimans, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 37 and 31%, respectively. These three species possess complex multicameral lungs, and it is likely that HPV would aid to secure ventilation-perfusion homogeneity. There was no HPV in rattlesnakes, which have structurally simple lungs where local ventilation-perfusion inhomogeneities are less likely to occur. However, tegu lizards, which also have simple unicameral lungs, did exhibit HPV, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 32%, albeit at a lower threshold than varanids and caimans (6.2 kPa oxygen in inspired air vs. 8.2 and 13.9 kPa, respectively). Although these observations suggest that HPV is more pronounced in species with complex lungs and functionally divided hearts, it is also clear that other components are involved.

  15. Apparent discrepancy between single-unit activity and (/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose labeling in optic tectum of the rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Auker, C.R.; Meszler, R.M.; Carpenter, D.O.

    1983-06-01

    Autoradiographic analysis of (1-/sup 14/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate ((/sup 14/C)2-DG-P) accumulation in the rattlesnake brain stem and optic tectum was used in an effort to map infrared and visual neuronal pathways. Visual stimulation with a standard stimulus (a heat lamp) resulted in dense labeling of the superficial layers of the optic tectum. Infrared stimulation resulted in labeling at the first synaptic relay, the lateral descending nucleus of the trigeminal tract, but not at higher levels. Responses of infrared units in one hemitectum and visual units in the other were analyzed. There were no clear differences in the number, maximal density, spread, or rates of accommodation of visual units and infrared units, although the locus of maximal density was more superficial for visual units. In general, infrared units generated a greater number of action potentials. All infrared units responded to onset but they varied greatly in their ability to maintain discharge for the duration of the stimulus. Infrared stimuli generated single, large, triphasic on-responses, whereas visual stimulation generated complex multiphasic and long-lasting on- and off-responses. The major infrared-on peak reached maximal amplitude at greater depths and was larger than the major visual-on peak. Amplitude of the infrared peak fell off more rapidly with distance than did amplitude of the visual peak. These observations are consistent with the view that infrared stimulation is effective in discharging neurons but is not associated with intense synaptic excitation. Our observations suggest that 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake is not necessarily correlated with the degree of action potential activation of specific neuronal pathways. The amount of (/sup 14/C)2-DG-P labeling may reflect the metabolic requirements for support of synaptic depolarization as well as that supporting action potentials.

  16. Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

  17. Core body temperature as adjunct to endpoint determination in murine median lethal dose testing of rattlesnake venom.

    PubMed

    Cates, Charles C; McCabe, James G; Lawson, Gregory W; Couto, Marcelo A

    2014-12-01

    Median lethal dose (LD50) testing in mice is the 'gold standard' for evaluating the lethality of snake venoms and the effectiveness of interventions. As part of a study to determine the murine LD50 of the venom of 3 species of rattlesnake, temperature data were collected in an attempt to more precisely define humane endpoints. We used an 'up-and-down' methodology of estimating the LD50 that involved serial intraperitoneal injection of predetermined concentrations of venom. By using a rectal thermistor probe, body temperature was taken once before administration and at various times after venom exposure. All but one mouse showed a marked, immediate, dose-dependent drop in temperature of approximately 2 to 6°C at 15 to 45 min after administration. The lowest temperature sustained by any surviving mouse was 33.2°C. Surviving mice generally returned to near-baseline temperatures within 2 h after venom administration, whereas mice that did not survive continued to show a gradual decline in temperature until death or euthanasia. Logistic regression modeling controlling for the effects of baseline core body temperature and venom type showed that core body temperature was a significant predictor of survival. Linear regression of the interaction of time and survival was used to estimate temperatures predictive of death at the earliest time point and demonstrated that venom type had a significant influence on temperature values. Overall, our data suggest that core body temperature is a useful adjunct to monitoring for endpoints in LD50 studies and may be a valuable predictor of survival in venom studies.

  18. Core Body Temperature as Adjunct to Endpoint Determination in Murine Median Lethal Dose Testing of Rattlesnake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Charles C; McCabe, James G; Lawson, Gregory W; Couto, Marcelo A

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal dose (LD50) testing in mice is the ‘gold standard’ for evaluating the lethality of snake venoms and the effectiveness of interventions. As part of a study to determine the murine LD50 of the venom of 3 species of rattlesnake, temperature data were collected in an attempt to more precisely define humane endpoints. We used an ‘up-and-down’ methodology of estimating the LD50 that involved serial intraperitoneal injection of predetermined concentrations of venom. By using a rectal thermistor probe, body temperature was taken once before administration and at various times after venom exposure. All but one mouse showed a marked, immediate, dose-dependent drop in temperature of approximately 2 to 6 °C at 15 to 45 min after administration. The lowest temperature sustained by any surviving mouse was 33.2 °C. Surviving mice generally returned to near-baseline temperatures within 2 h after venom administration, whereas mice that did not survive continued to show a gradual decline in temperature until death or euthanasia. Logistic regression modeling controlling for the effects of baseline core body temperature and venom type showed that core body temperature was a significant predictor of survival. Linear regression of the interaction of time and survival was used to estimate temperatures predictive of death at the earliest time point and demonstrated that venom type had a significant influence on temperature values. Overall, our data suggest that core body temperature is a useful adjunct to monitoring for endpoints in LD50 studies and may be a valuable predictor of survival in venom studies. PMID:25527024

  19. Validation of a shed skin corticosterone enzyme immunoassay in the African House Snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) and its evaluation in the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Hyatt, Crystal; Gilman, Christine; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the use of an enzyme immunoassay to measure keratin glucocorticoid concentrations in reptilian shed skins. Keratin glucocorticoid concentrations were compared to fecal glucocorticoid concentrations during the period of keratin growth in the African House Snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) and the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus). Biochemical validation was performed for the shed skin and fecal corticosterone enzyme immunoassays in the African House Snake. Biological and physiological validations were attempted in the African House Snake. A statistically significant positive association was detected between shed skin corticosterone and the mean fecal corticosterone metabolites from 3 weeks before to 1 week after the previous ecdysis in the African House Snake. A statistically significant difference was not detected between the shed skin corticosterone concentrations of the minimally handled control and the weekly handled (or experimentally stressed) African House Snakes. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation did not result in the physiological validation anticipated for shed skin corticosterone concentrations in the African House Snake.

  20. Environmental and physiological correlates of the severity of clinical signs of snake fungal disease in a population of pigmy rattlesnakes, Sistrurus miliarius

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Ciera M.; Lind, Craig M.; Farrell, Terence M.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, snake fungal disease (SFD) has been identified as an emerging threat to snake populations throughout the eastern USA. Snake fungal disease is caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Little is known regarding the environmental or physiological variables that affect host vulnerability and O. ophiodiicola virulence in wild snake populations. Understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that correlate with infection severity is a key first step in understanding host–pathogen dynamics. Host vulnerability may vary seasonally as a result of thermal conditions or energetic trade-offs, and pathogen growth rates or dispersal may be tied to seasonal trends in climate. To determine whether season, environmental temperature or energetic trade-offs associated with life-history stage influence an individual's susceptibility to infection, we monitored the severity of clinical signs of SFD, surface air temperature, reproductive status, body condition and serum complement activity (plasma bactericidal ability) in free-ranging pigmy rattlesnakes, Sistrurus miliarius, over the course of 18 months. Seasonal increases in the severity of clinical signs of SFD were correlated negatively with monthly air surface temperature and the mean body condition of the population. Bactericidal ability varied seasonally, but pigmy rattlesnakes suffering from active SFD infections did not exhibit deficits in innate immune function. Infected snakes were in significantly lower body condition when compared with the general population, but seasonal patterns in the mean body condition of the population were not driven by seasonal patterns of infection severity. Our results highlight the potential importance of the thermal environment and energetic status in determining infection severity and outcomes and the need for managers and researchers to consider seasonality of symptom presentation when the goal is to identify the prevalence or incidence of SFD in populations. PMID

  1. Enrichment of basalt and mixing of dacite in the rootzone of a large rhyolite chamber: inclusions and pumices from the Rattlesnake Tuff, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, Martin J.; Grunder, Anita L.

    A variety of cognate basalt to basaltic andesite inclusions and dacite pumices occur in the 7-Ma Rattlesnake Tuff of eastern Oregon. The tuff represents 280km3 of high-silica rhyolite magma zoned from highly differentiated rhyolite near the roof to less evolved rhyolite at deeper levels. The mafic inclusions provide a window into the processes acting beneath a large silicic chamber. Quenched basaltic andesite inclusions are substantially enriched in incompatible trace elements compared to regional primitive high-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) lavas, but continuous chemical and mineralogical trends indicate a genetic relationship between them. Basaltic andesite evolved from primitive basalt mainly through protracted crystal fractionation and multiple cycles (>=10) of mafic recharge, which enriched incompatible elements while maintaining a mafic bulk composition. The crystal fractionation history is partially preserved in the mineralogy of crystal-rich inclusions (olivine, plagioclase+/-clinopyroxene) and the recharge history is supported by the presence of mafic inclusions containing olivines of Fo80. Small amounts of assimilation ( 2%) of high-silica rhyolite magma improves the calculated fit between observed and modeled enrichments in basaltic andesite and reduces the number of fractionation and recharge cycles needed. The composition of dacite pumices is consistent with mixing of equal proportions of basaltic andesite and least-evolved, high-silica rhyolite. In support of the mixing model, most dacite pumices have a bimodal mineral assemblage with crystals of rhyolitic and basaltic parentage. Equilibrium dacite phenocrysts are rare. Dacites are mainly the product of mingling of basaltic andesite and rhyolite before or during eruption and to a lesser extent of equilibration between the two. The Rattlesnake magma column illustrates the feedback between mafic and silicic magmas that drives differentiation in both. Low-density rhyolite traps basalts and induces

  2. Environmental and physiological correlates of the severity of clinical signs of snake fungal disease in a population of pigmy rattlesnakes, Sistrurus miliarius.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Ciera M; Lind, Craig M; Farrell, Terence M

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, snake fungal disease (SFD) has been identified as an emerging threat to snake populations throughout the eastern USA. Snake fungal disease is caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Little is known regarding the environmental or physiological variables that affect host vulnerability and O. ophiodiicola virulence in wild snake populations. Understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that correlate with infection severity is a key first step in understanding host-pathogen dynamics. Host vulnerability may vary seasonally as a result of thermal conditions or energetic trade-offs, and pathogen growth rates or dispersal may be tied to seasonal trends in climate. To determine whether season, environmental temperature or energetic trade-offs associated with life-history stage influence an individual's susceptibility to infection, we monitored the severity of clinical signs of SFD, surface air temperature, reproductive status, body condition and serum complement activity (plasma bactericidal ability) in free-ranging pigmy rattlesnakes, Sistrurus miliarius, over the course of 18 months. Seasonal increases in the severity of clinical signs of SFD were correlated negatively with monthly air surface temperature and the mean body condition of the population. Bactericidal ability varied seasonally, but pigmy rattlesnakes suffering from active SFD infections did not exhibit deficits in innate immune function. Infected snakes were in significantly lower body condition when compared with the general population, but seasonal patterns in the mean body condition of the population were not driven by seasonal patterns of infection severity. Our results highlight the potential importance of the thermal environment and energetic status in determining infection severity and outcomes and the need for managers and researchers to consider seasonality of symptom presentation when the goal is to identify the prevalence or incidence of SFD in populations.

  3. Retrospective evaluation of the effect of antivenom administration on hospitalization duration and treatment cost for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis: 113 dogs (2004-2012).

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, Julia E; Foy, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effect of antivenom administration on mortality, hospitalization duration, and cost of hospitalization for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis. Retrospective study (January 2004-December 2012). Private veterinary emergency and referral center. One hundred thirteen dogs with confirmed C. viridis envenomation. None. Dogs were divided into groups treated with either supportive care only (group 1) or supportive care plus antivenin crotalidae polyvalent (group 2). A modified snakebite severity score was used to compare patients from group 1 and group 2. Patients in group 2 received one 10 mL vial of antivenin crotalidae polyvalent over 4-6 hours. The mortality rate was 1.8% (2/113).  Group 1 had a median duration of hospitalization of 20 hours (range, 8-50 hours), while group 2 had a median duration of hospitalization of 24 hours (range, 1.5-74 hours). Group 1 had a median cost of hospitalization of 1050.00 USD (range, 423.52-2266.09 USD) while group 2 had a median cost of hospitalization of 2002.19 USD (range, 1139.91-6908.01 USD). Both the duration of hospitalization (P < 0.01) and the cost of hospitalization (P < 0.01) were significantly greater in the group of dogs receiving antivenom. Both the cost and the duration of hospitalization were significantly greater in the group of dogs that received antivenom. The difference in cost between the groups was approximately the cost of the antivenom vial and administration. Amongst the parameters evaluated, no significant benefit was associated with antivenom administered to dogs envenomated by C. viridis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  4. CoaTx-II, a new dimeric Lys49 phospholipase A2 from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom with bactericidal potential: Insights into its structure and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J R; Lancellotti, M; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Ramírez, D; González, W; Marangoni, S; Da Silva, S L

    2016-09-15

    Snake venoms are rich and intriguing sources of biologically-active molecules that act on target cells, modulating a diversity of physiological functions and presenting promising pharmacological applications. Lys49 phospholipase A2 is one of the multifunctional proteins present in these complex secretions and, although catalytically inactive, has a variety of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, inflammatory, antifungal activities. Herein, a Lys49 phospholipase A2, denominated CoaTx-II from Crotalus oreganus abyssus, was purified and structurally and pharmacologically characterized. CoaTx-II was isolated with a high degree of purity by a combination of two chromatographic steps; molecular exclusion and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This toxin is dimeric with a mass of 13868.2 Da (monomeric form), as determined by mass spectrometry. CoaTx-II is rich in Arg and Lys residues and displays high identity with other Lys49 PLA2 homologues, which have high isoelectric points. The structural model of dimeric CoaTx-II shows that the toxin is non-covalently stabilized. Despite its enzymatic inactivity, in vivo CoaTx-II caused local muscular damage, characterized by increased plasma creatine kinase and confirmed by histological alterations, in addition to an inflammatory activity, as demonstrated by mice paw edema induction and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 elevation. CoaTx-II also presents antibacterial activity against gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 31NM, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and positive (Staphyloccocus aureus BEC9393 and Rib1) bacteria. Therefore, data show that this newly purified toxin plays a central role in mediating the degenerative events associated with envenomation, in addition to demonstrating antibacterial properties, with potential for use in the development of strategies for antivenom therapy and combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  5. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the

  6. Peptide fingerprinting of snake venoms by direct infusion nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: potential use in venom identification and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Souza, Gustavo H M F; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Ifa, Demian R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Hyslop, Stephen

    2008-05-01

    Fingerprinting by mass spectrometry has been increasingly used to study venom variations and for taxonomic analyses based on venom components. Most of these studies have concentrated on components heavier than 3 kDa, but Bothrops snake venoms contain many biologically active peptides, principally C-type natriuretic peptides and bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs). In this work, we have examined the peptide profile of Bothrops venoms (B. alternatus, B. erythromelas, B. insularis, B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. leucurus and B. moojeni) using direct infusion nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS) subjecting the data further to principal components analysis (PCA) to assess whether the peptide distributions are reliable in distinguishing the venoms. ESI-MS of a low molar mass fraction obtained by ultrafiltration of each venom (5 kDa nominal cutoff filters) revealed that the venoms have a variety of peptides in common but that each venom also contains taxonomic marker peptides not shared with other venoms. One BPP peptide, QGGWPRPGPEIPP, was found to be common to the seven Bothrops species examined. This peptide may represent a specific marker for this genus since it was not found in the venom of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus. PCA on the ESI-MS data reveals a close relationship between B. jararaca, B. jararacussu and B. moojeni venoms, with B. leucurus and B. erythromelas being more distant from these three; B. alternatus and B. insularis were also located distant from these five species, as was C. d. terrificus. These results agree partially with established phylogenetic relationships among these species and suggest that ESI-MS peptide fingerprinting of snake venoms coupled with PCA is a useful tool for identifying venoms and for taxonomic analyses.

  7. Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic PLA2 Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Corasolla Carregari, Victor; Stuani Floriano, Rafael; Rodrigues-Simioni, Lea; Winck, Flavia V.; Baldasso, Paulo Aparecido; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode) mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25–37°C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca2+ and in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12). The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena. PMID:23509754

  8. Biochemical, pharmacological, and structural characterization of new basic PLA2 Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom.

    PubMed

    Corasolla Carregari, Victor; Stuani Floriano, Rafael; Rodrigues-Simioni, Lea; Winck, Flavia V; Baldasso, Paulo Aparecido; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode) mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25-37°C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca(2+) and in the presence of Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+) it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca(2+). Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12). The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena.

  9. Biological and biochemical characterization of new basic phospholipase A(2) BmTX-I isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom.

    PubMed

    Calgarotto, Andrana K; Damico, Daniela C S; Ponce-Soto, L A; Baldasso, Paulo A; Da Silva, Saulo L; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Eberlin, Marcos N; Marangoni, Sergio

    2008-06-15

    BmTX-I, an Asp49 phospholipase A(2), was purified from Bothrops moojeni venom after only one chromatographic step using reverse-phase HPLC on mu-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14238.71Da was determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Amino acid analysis showed a high content of hydrophobic and basic amino acids as well as 14 half-cysteine residues. The BmTX-I PLA(2) had a sequence of 121 residues of amino acids: DLWQFNKMIK KEVGKLPFPF YGAYGCYCGW GGRGEKPKDG TDRCCFVHDC CYKKLTGCPK WDDRYSYSWK DITIVCGEDL PCEEICECDR AAAVCFYENL GTYNKKYMKH LKPCKKADYP C and pI value 7.84, and showed a high degree of homology with basic Asp49 PLA(2) myotoxins from other Bothrops venoms. BmTX-I presented PLA(2) activity in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 35-45 degrees C. Maximum PLA(2) activity required Ca(2+) and in the presence of Mg(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) it was reduced in presence or absence of Ca(2+). Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus colillineatus rattlesnake venom has significantly inhibited (P<0.05) the enzymatic activity of BmTX-I. In vitro, the whole venom and BmTX-I caused a blockade of the neuromuscular transmission in young chick biventer cervicis preparations in a similar way to other bothrops species. In mice, BmTX-I and the whole venom-induced myonecrosis and a systemic interleukin-6 response upon intramuscular injection. Edema-forming activity was also analyzed through injection of the venom and the purified BmTX-I into the subplantar region of the right footpad. Since BmTX-I exert a strong proinflammatory effect; the enzymatic phospholipids hydrolysis might be relevant for these phenomena.

  10. Integrated numerical modeling for basin-wide water management: The case of the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.A.; Koelliker, J.K.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S.R.; Perkins, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water fights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.

  11. Integrated numerical modeling for basin-wide water management: The case of the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, M. A.; Koelliker, J. K.; Govindaraju, R. S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S. R.; Perkins, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water rights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.

  12. Rattlesnake Mountain Observator (46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W) multispectral optical depth measurements, 1979--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, R.C.

    1995-09-22

    Surface measurements of solar irradiance of the atmosphere were made by a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory. The observatory is located at 46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W at an elevation of 1088 m above mean sea level. The photometer measures the attenuation of direct solar radiation for different wavelengths using 12 filters. Five of these filters (ie., at 428 nm, 486 nm, 535 nm, 785 nm, and 1010 nm, with respective half-power widths of 2, 2, 3, 18, and 28 nm) are suitable for monitoring variations in the total optical depth of the atmosphere. Total optical depths for the five wavelength bands were derived from solar irradiance measurements taken at the observatory from August 5, 1979, to September 2, 1994; these total optical depth data are distributed with this numeric data package (NDP). To determine the contribution of atmospheric aerosols to the total optical depths, the effects of Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption were subtracted (other molecular scattering was minimal for the five filters) to obtain total column aerosol optical depths. The total aerosol optical depths were further decomposed into tropospheric and stratospheric components by calculating a robustly smoothed mean background optical depth (tropospheric component) for each wavelength using data obtained during periods of low stratospheric aerosol loading. By subtracting the smoothed background tropospheric aerosol optical depths from the total aerosol optical depths, residual aerosol optical depths were obtained. These residuals are good estimates of the stratospheric aerosol optical depth at each wavelength and may be used to monitor the long-term effects of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere. These data are available as an NDP from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), and the NDP consists of this document and a set of computerized data files.

  13. The venom gland transcriptome of the Desert Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii): towards an understanding of venom composition among advanced snakes (Superfamily Colubroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Pahari, Susanta; Mackessy, Stephen P; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-01-01

    Background Snake venoms are complex mixtures of pharmacologically active proteins and peptides which belong to a small number of superfamilies. Global cataloguing of the venom transcriptome facilitates the identification of new families of toxins as well as helps in understanding the evolution of venom proteomes. Results We have constructed a cDNA library of the venom gland of a threatened rattlesnake (a pitviper), Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii (Desert Massasauga), and sequenced 576 ESTs. Our results demonstrate a high abundance of serine proteinase and metalloproteinase transcripts, indicating that the disruption of hemostasis is a principle mechanism of action of the venom. In addition to the transcripts encoding common venom proteins, we detected two varieties of low abundance unique transcripts in the library; these encode for three-finger toxins and a novel toxin possibly generated from the fusion of two genes. We also observed polyadenylated ribosomal RNAs in the venom gland library, an interesting preliminary obsevation of this unusual phenomenon in a reptilian system. Conclusion The three-finger toxins are characteristic of most elapid venoms but are rare in viperid venoms. We detected several ESTs encoding this group of toxins in this study. We also observed the presence of a transcript encoding a fused protein of two well-characterized toxins (Kunitz/BPTI and Waprins), and this is the first report of this kind of fusion in a snake toxin transcriptome. We propose that these new venom proteins may have ancillary functions for envenomation. The presence of a fused toxin indicates that in addition to gene duplication and accelerated evolution, exon shuffling or transcriptional splicing may also contribute to generating the diversity of toxins and toxin isoforms observed among snake venoms. The detection of low abundance toxins, as observed in this and other studies, indicates a greater compositional similarity of venoms (though potency will differ) among

  14. Anti-fungal activity of Ctn[15-34], the C-terminal peptide fragment of crotalicidin, a rattlesnake venom gland cathelicidin.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Carolina Sidrim P; Falcão, Cláudio B; Fontenelle, Raquel Os; Andreu, David; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2017-03-01

    Crotalicidin (Ctn), a 34-residue cathelicidin from a South American rattlesnake, and its fragment (Ctn[15-34]) have shown anti-infective and cytotoxic activities against Gram-negative bacteria and certain tumor lines, respectively. The extent of such effects has been related to physicochemical characteristics such as helicity and hydrophobicity. We now report the anti-fungal activity of Ctn and its fragments (Ctn[1-14]) and (Ctn[15-34]). MIC determination and luminescent cell viability assays were used to evaluate the anti-infective activity of Ctn and its fragments (Ctn[1-14]) and (Ctn[15-34]) as anti-fungal agents against opportunistic yeast and dermatophytes. Cytotoxicity towards healthy eukaryotic cells was assessed in vitro with healthy human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells and erythrocytes. The checkerboard technique was performed to estimate the effects of combining either one of the peptides with amphotericin B. Ctn was the most active peptide against dermatophytes and also the most toxic to healthy eukaryotic cells. Fragments Ctn[1-14] and Ctn[15-35] lost activity against dermatophytes, but became more active against pathogenic yeasts, including several Candida species, both clinical isolates and standard strains, with MICs as low as 5 μm. Interestingly, the two peptide fragments were less cytotoxic to healthy HK-2 cells and less hemolytic to human erythrocytes than the standard-of-care amphotericin B. Also noteworthy was the synergy between Ctn peptides and amphotericin B, with consequent reduction in MICs of both drug and peptides. Altogether, Ctn and its fragments, particularly Ctn[15-34], are promising leads, either alone or in combined regimen with amphotericin B, for the treatment of fungal diseases.

  15. Modulation of the pharmacological effects of enzymatically-active PLA2 by BTL-2, an isolectin isolated from the Bryothamnion triquetrum red alga

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Simone CB; Fonseca, Fabiana V; Antunes, Edson; Camargo, Enilton A; Morganti, Rafael P; Aparício, Ricardo; Toyama, Daniela O; Beriam, Luís OS; Nunes, Eudismar V; Cavada, Benildo S; Nagano, Celso S; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Nascimento, Kyria S; Toyama, Marcos H

    2008-01-01

    Background An interaction between lectins from marine algae and PLA2 from rattlesnake was suggested some years ago. We, herein, studied the effects elicited by a small isolectin (BTL-2), isolated from Bryothamnion triquetrum, on the pharmacological and biological activities of a PLA2 isolated from rattlesnake venom (Crotalus durissus cascavella), to better understand the enzymatic and pharmacological mechanisms of the PLA2 and its complex. Results This PLA2 consisted of 122 amino acids (approximate molecular mass of 14 kDa), its pI was estimated to be 8.3, and its amino acid sequence shared a high degree of similarity with that of other neurotoxic and enzymatically-active PLA2s. BTL-2 had a molecular mass estimated in approximately 9 kDa and was characterized as a basic protein. In addition, BTL-2 did not exhibit any enzymatic activity. The PLA2 and BTL-2 formed a stable heterodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 24–26 kDa, estimated by molecular exclusion HPLC. In the presence of BTL-2, we observed a significant increase in PLA2 activity, 23% higher than that of PLA2 alone. BTL-2 demonstrated an inhibition of 98% in the growth of the Gram-positive bacterial strain, Clavibacter michiganensis michiganensis (Cmm), but only 9.8% inhibition of the Gram-negative bacterial strain, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae (Xap). PLA2 decreased bacterial growth by 27.3% and 98.5% for Xap and Cmm, respectively, while incubating these two proteins with PLA2-BTL-2 inhibited their growths by 36.2% for Xap and 98.5% for Cmm. PLA2 significantly induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets, whereas BTL-2 did not induce significant platelet aggregation in any assay. However, BTL-2 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by PLA2. In addition, PLA2 exhibited strong oedematogenic activity, which was decreased in the presence of BTL-2. BTL-2 alone did not induce oedema and did not decrease or abolish the oedema induced by the 48/80 compound. Conclusion The

  16. Structural and microstructural evolution of the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (Wyoming, USA): New insights into the Sevier and Laramide orogenic stress build-up in the Bighorn Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Leprêtre, Rémi; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Amrouch, Khalid; Callot, Jean-Paul; Emmanuel, Laurent; Daniel, Jean-Marc

    2012-11-01

    The Rocky Mountains in western US provide among the best examples of thick-skinned tectonics: following a period of thin-skinned tectonics related to the Sevier orogeny, the compressional reactivation of basement faults gave birth to the so-called Laramide uplifts/arches. The Bighorn basin, located in Wyoming, is therefore a key place to study the transition from thin- to thick-skinned tectonics in orogenic forelands, especially in terms of microstructural and stress/strain evolution. Our study focuses on a classic Laramide structure: the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (RMA, Wyoming, USA), a basement-cored anticline located in the western part of the Bighorn basin. Stress and strain evolution analysis in folded sedimentary layers and underlying faulted basement rocks were performed on the basis of combined analyses of fractures, fault-slip data and calcite twinning paleopiezometry. Most of the fractures are related to three main tectonic events: the Sevier thin-skinned contraction, the Laramide thick-skinned contraction, and the Basin and Range extension. Serial balanced cross-sections of RMA and displacement profiles suggest that all thrust faults were coeval, evidencing strain distribution in the basement during faulting. The comparison of RMA with another structure located in the eastern edge of the Bighorn basin, i.e. the Sheep Mountain Anticline (SMA), allows to propose a conceptual model for the geometric and kinematic evolution of Laramide-related basement-cored anticlines. Finally, the stress evolution is reconstructed at both the fold scale and the basin scale. We show that the evolution of stress trends and magnitudes was quite similar in both structures (RMA and SMA) during Laramide times (thick-skinned tectonics), in spite of different stress regimes. During Sevier (thin-skinned tectonics) and post-Laramide times, stress trends and fracture patterns were different in these two structures. These results suggest that the distance to the orogenic front

  17. [Toxicity of venoms from snakes of medical importance in México].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Estévez-Ramírez, Judith; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge F; Litwin, Silvana; Carvajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; Dolab, Jorge A; Robles-Ortiz, Luis E; Alagón, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the toxic activities of snake venoms is necessary to understand the physiopathology of the envenomation and to test the potency of the antivenoms used to treat this pathology. Because of the lack of data on the toxic activities of venoms from Mexican snakes of medical importance, we studied the venoms from Bothrops asper, Athropoides nummifrr, Agkistrodon billineatus, Crotalus durissus durissus, Crotalus basiliscus, Crotalus scutulatus, Crotalus atrox and Micrurus nigrocinctus. The studies performed were: SDS-PAOE, determination of lethal potency, hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulation on plasma and fibrinogen, phospholipasic and fibri(noge)nolytic activities. In addition we studied the neutralizing capacity of the toxic activities of an antivenom currently used for the treatment of snakebites in Mexico. The venom from viperids showed important hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulative on plasma, prothrombinic, fibrinogenolytic and phospholipase activities. The venoms with the highest lethal potency were those of Micrurus nigrocinctus and Crotalus scutulatus; however, the viperine venom that globally displayed the most potent toxic activities was from Bothrops asper. All the venoms showed toxic activities of similar range to those described for other American venomous snakes. The activity on plasma or fibrinogen varied widely among the different venoms but all displayed capacity to act on the coagulation system. The antivenom tested not only neutralized the lethality B. asper venom but also its other toxic activities.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    blotched lizard Uta stansburiana Spiny lizard Scoloporus magister Western diamondback rattlesnake Crotalus atrox Mammal Species Common Name...Deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus Desert cottontail Sylvilagus audubonii Hoary bat Lariusrus cinereus Kit fox Vulpes macrotis Little brown myotis...Erethizon doratum Rock squirrel Spermophilus variegatus Silky pocket mouse s Perognathus flavu Silver-haired bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Spotted bat

  19. Snake mortality associated with late season radio-transmitter implantation

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Robert T. Zappalorth

    1998-01-01

    Radio-telemetry is an increasingly used procedure to obtain data on the biology of free-living snakes (Reinert 1992, 1994). In Texas and Louisiana we have been using the surgical technique of Weatherhead and Anderka (1984) to implant transmitters in timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus...

  20. Don't tread on me

    Treesearch

    N. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    Always be careful when you turn over a piece of wood that is lying on the ground. You might find something horrid there. Last month, under an insect· rearing cage in the Delta Experimental Forest, a research associate discovered a Canebrake rattlesnake, Crotalus horrid us, coiled up and ready to strike. The associate carefully collected the snake; we took some pictures...

  1. Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2013-03-14

    Senate - 06/12/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2013-03-14

    06/12/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2013-03-14

    06/12/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Cross-reactivity and cross-immunomodulation between venoms of the snakes Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys, and its effect in the production of polyspecific antivenom for Central America.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Cynthia; Solano, Sergio; Segura, Álvaro; Herrera, María; Estrada, Ricardo; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2017-08-09

    A mixture of the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys is used as immunogen to produce the polyspecific Central American antivenom (PoliVal-ICP). In this work, we studied the ability of each of these venoms to modulate the antibody response induced by the other two venoms included in the immunization mixture. For that, equine monospecific, bispecific and polyspecific antivenoms were prepared and compared regarding their ability to neutralize the phospholipase A2, coagulant and lethal activities of each venom, and their anti-venom antibodies concentration. Results indicate that there is low cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization between venoms of B. asper, C. simus and L. stenophrys, hence justifying the use of all of them as immunogens for the production of the Central American antivenom. It was also found that the venom of B. asper reduces the anti-crotalic response while the venom of C. simus does not affect the anti-bothropic response. On the other hand, the venoms of B. asper and C. simus increase the anti-lachesic response, and L. stenoprhys venom reduced both the anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic responses. On the basis of these results, the immunization strategy can be adjusted by preventing or taking advantage of cross-immunomodulation between venoms, in order to maximize the antibody response towards all venoms. Immune responses can be improved by injecting horses with several immunogen mixtures, composed by one or two of the three venoms, and administering them at different times during the immunization, eventually generating a high titer against the three venoms. Our results suggest that addressing the issue of immunomodulation by venoms might improve antivenom manufacture worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Clinical Studies for Evaluation of 8-C-Rhamnosyl Apigenin Purified from Peperomia obtusifolia against Acute Edema.

    PubMed

    Tamayose, Cinthia I; Romoff, Paulete; Toyama, Daniela O; Gaeta, Henrique H; Costa, Caroline R C; Belchor, Mariana N; Ortolan, Bruna D; Velozo, Leosvaldo S M; Kaplan, Maria A C; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Toyama, Marcos H

    2017-09-14

    Compound 8-C-rhamnosyl apigenin (8CR) induced a moderate reduction in the enzymatic activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but the compound also significantly inhibited the enzymatic activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. In vitro assays showed that the compound induced a slight change in the secondary structure of sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In vivo assays were divided into two steps. In the first step, the 8CR compound was administered by intraperitoneal injections 30 min prior to administration of sPLA2. In this condition, 8CR inhibited edema and myonecrosis induced by the sPLA2 activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and lipid peroxidation. This has been demonstrated by monitoring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat paws after the course of edema induced by sPLA2. These results, for the first time, show that sPLA2 of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom induces massive muscle damage, as well as significant edema by mobilization of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Additionally, its pharmacological activity involves increased lipid peroxidation as well as TNF-α and IL-1β production. Previous administration by the peritoneal route has shown that dose-dependent 8CR significantly decreases the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes. This resulted in a decrease of the amount of bioactive lipids involved in inflammation; it also promoted a significant cellular protection against lipid peroxidation. In vivo experiments performed with 8CR at a concentration adjusted to 200 μg (8 mg/kg) of intraperitoneal injection 15 min after sPLA2 injection significantly reduced sPLA2 edema and the myotoxic effect induced by sPLA2 through the decrease in the enzymatic activity of cPLA2, cyclooxygenase, and a massive reduction of lipid peroxidation

  6. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Raynner RD; de MS Souto, Wedson; da S Mourão, José

    2007-01-01

    Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary) by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings) as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years) although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus), and foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even mentioned. Fat from

  7. DNA-Interactive Properties of Crotamine, a Cell-Penetrating Polypeptide and a Potential Drug Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Chun; Hayashi, Mirian A. F.; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Karpel, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Crotamine, a 42-residue polypeptide derived from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, has been shown to be a cell-penetrating protein that targets chromosomes, carries plasmid DNA into cells, and shows specificity for actively proliferating cells. Given this potential role as a nucleic acid-delivery vector, we have studied in detail the binding of crotamine to single- and double-stranded DNAs of different lengths and base compositions over a range of ionic conditions. Agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry analysis indicate that complexes of crotamine with long-chain DNAs readily aggregate and precipitate at low ionic strength. This aggregation, which may be important for cellular uptake of DNA, becomes less likely with shorter chain length. 25-mer oligonucleotides do not show any evidence of such aggregation, permitting the determination of affinities and size via fluorescence quenching experiments. The polypeptide binds non-cooperatively to DNA, covering about 5 nucleotide residues when it binds to single (ss) or (ds) double stranded molecules. The affinities of the protein for ss- vs. ds-DNA are comparable, and inversely proportional to salt levels. Analysis of the dependence of affinity on [NaCl] indicates that there are a maximum of ∼3 ionic interactions between the protein and DNA, with some of the binding affinity attributable to non-ionic interactions. Inspection of the three-dimensional structure of the protein suggests that residues 31 to 35, Arg-Trp-Arg-Trp-Lys, could serve as a potential DNA-binding site. A hexapeptide containing this sequence displayed a lower DNA binding affinity and salt dependence as compared to the full-length protein, likely indicative of a more suitable 3D structure and the presence of accessory binding sites in the native crotamine. Taken together, the data presented here describing crotamine-DNA interactions may lend support to the design of more effective nucleic

  8. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.W.; Krone, J.R.; Bieber, A.L.; Williams, P.

    1995-04-01

    A new, general method of immunoassay is demonstrated. The approach is based on the microscale immunoaffinity capture of target antigens followed by mass-specific identification and quantitation using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Immunoaffinity capture of antigens effectively overcomes signal suppression effects typically encountered during traditional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis of complex biological mixtures while simultaneously concentrating the analyte into a small volume. Sample incubation and processing methods were such that a typical analysis could be performed in less than 1 h while subnanomolar sensitivities were maintained. The technique has been used for the rapid, selective, and quantitative screening of human blood for the presence of myotoxin a, and Mojave toxin from the venoms of the prairie rattlesnake, Crotalus virdis virdis, and the Mojave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Fang tip spread, puncture distance, and suction for snake bite.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, K R; Hardy, D L; Martins, M; Greene, H W

    2000-05-01

    We measured the distance between fang tip punctures in defensive bites by western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) and the distance between their retracted fangs. Because the fang tips at penetration average 112% further apart than their bases at rest, The Extractor, a device widely marketed in the United States for snake bite first aid, will not simultaneously cover both punctures of most adult New World pitvipers.

  10. Antiophidian properties of the aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, Victor A; Marcussi, Silvana; Daher, Maristela A F; Oliveira, Clayton Z; Couto, Lucélio B; Gomes, Odair A; França, Suzelei C; Soares, Andreimar M; Pereira, Paulo S

    2005-12-01

    Aqueous extracts, prepared from dried or fresh roots, stems or leaves of Mikania glomerata, a plant found in Mata Atlântica in Southeastern Brazil, were able to efficiently neutralize different toxic, pharmacological, and enzymatic effects induced by venoms from Bothrops and Crotalus snakes. Phospholipase A(2) activity and the edema induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were inhibited around 100 and approximately 40%, respectively, although this inhibition was only partial for Bothrops venoms. The hemorrhagic activity of Bothrops venoms (Bothrops altenatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops neuwiedi, and Bothrops jararacussu) was significantly inhibited by this vegetal species, while the clotting activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops jararacussu, and Bothrops neuwiedi venoms was totally inhibited. Although, the mechanism of action of Mikania glomerata extract is still unknown, the finding that no visible change was detected in the electrophoretic pattern of snake venom after incubation with the extract excludes proteolytic degradation as a potential mechanism. Since the extract of Mikania glomerata significantly inhibited the studied snake venoms, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serumtherapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2)s, metalloproteases and serineproteases, enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases.

  11. Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2011-08-01

    12/15/2011 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2011-08-01

    Senate - 12/15/2011 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2011-08-01

    12/15/2011 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. XENOTRANSFUSION IN AN ISLAND FOX (UROCYON LITTORALIS CLEMENTAE) USING BLOOD FROM A DOMESTIC DOG (CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS).

    PubMed

    Martony, Molly E; Krause, Kristian J; Weldy, Scott H; Simpson, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    Successful xenotransfusion in an island fox ( Urocyon littoralis clementae) has not been previously reported but may be necessary in an emergency. An 11-yr-old male, intact, captive island fox was exhibiting clinical signs of rattlesnake envenomation including hypoperfusion, tachypnea, facial edema, and multifocal facial and cervical ecchymosis. Blood work revealed severe thrombocytopenia (18 K/μl) and anemia (Hct 15.8%). A presumptive diagnosis of rattlesnake ( Crotalus sp.) envenomation was made. Initial treatment included oxygen therapy, fluid therapy, antibiotics, antacids, pain medications, and polyvalent crotalid anti-venom. Emergency xenotransfusion using whole blood (45 ml) from a domestic dog was used due to worsening clinical signs from anemia. No acute or delayed transfusion reactions were observed in the fox and the patient made a full recovery 5 days later. Successful xenotransfusion in an island fox using whole blood from a domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is possible and may be lifesaving.

  15. Sidewinding snakes on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Dimenichi, Dante; Chrystal, Robert; Mendelson, Joseph; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David; Georgia Tech and Zoo Atlanta Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Desert snakes such as the rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes propel themselves over sand using sidewinding, a mode of locomotion relying upon helical traveling waves. While sidewinding on hard ground has been described, the mechanics of movement on more natural substrates such as granular media remain poorly understood. In this experimental study, we use 3-D high speed video to characterize the motion of a sidewinder rattlesnake as it moves on a granular bed. We study the movement both on natural desert sand and in an air-fluidized bed trackway which we use to challenge the animal on different compactions of granular media. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the snake's thrust on this media using friction and normal forces on the piles of sand created by the snake's body. The authors thank the NSF (PHY-0848894), Georgia Tech, and the Elizabeth Smithgall Watts endowment for support. We would also like to thank Zoo Atlanta staff for their generous help with this project.

  16. Sidewinding with minimal slip: snake and robot ascent of sandy slopes.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Gong, Chaohui; Gravish, Nick; Astley, Henry; Travers, Matthew; Hatton, Ross L; Mendelson, Joseph R; Choset, Howie; Hu, David L; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-10-10

    Limbless organisms such as snakes can navigate nearly all terrain. In particular, desert-dwelling sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes) operate effectively on inclined granular media (such as sand dunes) that induce failure in field-tested limbless robots through slipping and pitching. Our laboratory experiments reveal that as granular incline angle increases, sidewinder rattlesnakes increase the length of their body in contact with the sand. Implementing this strategy in a physical robot model of the snake enables the device to ascend sandy slopes close to the angle of maximum slope stability. Plate drag experiments demonstrate that granular yield stresses decrease with increasing incline angle. Together, these three approaches demonstrate how sidewinding with contact-length control mitigates failure on granular media. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Commentary on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    PubMed

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Kohl, Zachary F

    2017-06-01

    The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature. We analyze the data and conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) regarding the role of vascular distensibilities in determining net cardiac shunt patterns in reptiles in comparison with toads. In our view, the conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) are not supported by the data primarily because vascular distensibilities were not measured in the reptiles analyzed in their study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Systemic skeletal muscle necrosis induced by crotoxin.

    PubMed

    Salvini, T F; Amaral, A C; Miyabara, E H; Turri, J A; Danella, P M; Selistre de Araújo, H S

    2001-08-01

    Systemic skeletal muscle necrosis induced by crotoxin, the major component of the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, was investigated. Mice received an intramuscular injection of crotoxin (0.35mg/kg body weight) into the right tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, which were evaluated 3h, 24h and 3 days later. Control mice were injected with saline. Right and left TAs, gastrocnemius, soleus and right masseter and longissimus dorsi were removed and frozen. Histological sections were stained with Toluidine Blue or incubated for acidic phosphatase reaction. Three and 24h after the injection, signals of muscle fiber injury were found: (a) in the injected TA muscles; (b) in both right and contralateral soleus and red gastrocnemius; and (c) in the masseter muscles. Contralateral TA, longissimus dorsi and white gastrocnemius muscles were not injured. In conclusion, crotoxin induced a systemic and selective muscle injury in muscles or muscle regions composed by oxidative muscle fibers.

  19. Analysis of fatty acids released by crotoxin in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Kattah, Luciene Rodrigues; Ferraz, Vany; Matos Santoro, Marcelo; Ribeiro da Silva Camargos, Elizabeth; Ribeiro Diniz, Carlos; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Crotoxin, the main toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, exerts its lethal effect by blocking neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction level through a triphasic mechanism. This effect seems to depend on its phospholipasic activity, suggesting that the mechanism of neurotransmission blockage may be related to fatty acids release in specific sites of the nervous terminal. In this work, we purified the fatty acids released by crotoxin's activity and this outline was compared with other phospholipases A(2), including CB, a subunit of crotoxin. Our results show a higher release of palmitate and arachidonate by crotoxin when compared to other phospholipases A(2). Since palmitate has a role in protein acylation processes and arachidonate participates in signal transduction events, these mechanisms may be related to the neurotoxic actions of crotoxin.

  20. A new heterologous fibrin sealant as a scaffold to cartilage repair—Experimental study and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Caio Nunes; Miluzzi Yamada, Ana Lúcia; Junior, Rui Seabra F; Barraviera, Benedito; Hussni, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Jaqueline Brandão; Watanabe, Marcos Jun; Rodrigues, Celso Antônio

    2015-01-01

    Autologous fibrin gel is commonly used as a scaffold for filling defects in articular cartilage. This biomaterial can also be used as a sealant to control small hemorrhages and is especially helpful in situations where tissue reparation capacity is limited. In particular, fibrin can act as a scaffold for various cell types because it can accommodate cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. Despite knowledge of the advantages of this biomaterial and mastery of the techniques required for its application, the durability of several types of sealant at the site of injury remains questionable. Due to the importance of such data for evaluating the quality and efficiency of fibrin gel formulations on its use as a scaffold, this study sought to analyze the heterologous fibrin sealant developed from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus using studies in ovine experimental models. The fibrin gel developed from the venom of this snake was shown to act as a safe, stable, and durable scaffold for up to seven days, without causing adverse side effects. Fibrin gel produced from the venom of the Crotalus durissus terrificus snake possesses many clinical and surgical uses. It presents the potential to be used as a biomaterial to help repair skin lesions or control bleeding, and it may also be used as a scaffold when applied together with various cell types. The intralesional use of the fibrin gel from the venom of this snake may improve surgical and clinical treatments in addition to being inexpensive and adequately consistent, durable, and stable. The new heterologous fibrin sealant is a scaffold candidate to cartilage repair in this study. PMID:26264444

  1. [Charcoal, cocaine and rattlesnakes: evidence-based treatment of poisoning].

    PubMed

    Schaper, A

    2013-10-01

    Since ancient times poisoning has been treated medicinally. Clinical toxicology, in the narrow sense of the term, developed from the foundation of specialized medical treatment units for poisoning and the formation of the first poison information centers in the second half of the twentieth century. Historically, the first poison information centers were often localized at pediatric clinics or departments of internal medicine. It became increasingly more obvious that this pooling of competences made sense. This article gives a general introduction in clinical toxicology and presents the functions and key activities of emergency poison centers. The organisation and work of a poisons centre is demonstrated on the basis of the Poisons Information Center (GIZ) North annual report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the primary removal of poisons by gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal, secondary removal of poisons by enhanced elimination using hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular adsorbent recirculating systems (MARS) and the indications for administration of specific antidotes or antivenins (antisera against poisoning by poisonous animals). Gastric lavage is indicated within 1 h after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening dose of a poison. In cases of poisoning with substances which penetrate the central nervous system (CNS) gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of poisoned patients by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way to hospital is presented. The Bremen list, a compilation of the five antidotes, atropine, 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP), tolonium chloride, naloxone and activated charcoal for out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is presented. In all, even questionable cases of poisoning consultation at emergency poison centers is recommended. An extensive list of all German speaking poison information centers is available on the homepage of GIZ-Nord (http://www.giz-nord.de).

  2. Isolation and identification of a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor from California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) blood sera.

    PubMed

    Biardi, J E; Ho, C Y L; Marcinczyk, J; Nambiar, K P

    2011-11-01

    California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) show blood-based defenses to a variety of toxins in the venom of the Northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus). In this study we demonstrate the presence of an effective snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor (SVMPI) in S. beecheyi. The blood sera of California ground squirrels were effective at reducing the metalloproteinase activity of Northern Pacific (C. o. oreganus) and prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms by over 75%, significantly more than its ability to reduce the activity of western diamondback rattlesnake venom. We used anion exchange and affinity chromatography to isolate this protein from the blood sera of S. beecheyi. This SVMPI had a molecular mass of 108.3 kDa and a pI of 5.1. The IC(50) of this inhibitor against whole venom from C. o. oreganus was determined to be 3.14 × 10(-8) M. Subsequent LC MS/MS analysis of a CNBr/tryptic digest of the inhibitor yielded multiple internal peptide sequences. These sequences showed homology to three other known mammalian plasma proteins: inter-α trypsin inhibitor, and two hibernation-associated proteins, HP25 and HP27. The presence of SVMPI in S. beecheyi blood sera is consistent with the resistance of these animals to venom-induced hemorrhage and tissue damage, and consistent with the protective factors conferring venom resistance in other mammals. However, the variety of SVMPI identified to date from mammalian taxa suggests that different species have converged on neutralization of venom metalloproteinase activity as a key step in venom neutralization. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Treatment of snake bites by Bothrops species and Lachesis muta in Ecuador: laboratory screening of candidate antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Theakston, R D; Laing, G D; Fielding, C M; Lascano, A F; Touzet, J M; Vallejo, F; Guderian, R H; Nelson, S J; Wüster, W; Richards, A M

    1995-01-01

    Bothrops xanthogrammus/asper, B. atrox and Lachesis muta are probably responsible for most cases of severe envenoming in Ecuador. In recent years, the most widely used antivenom ('Myn' Ronti, imported from Mexico) has proved clinically ineffective. There is an urgent need to identify an effective alternative for clinical testing. Five antivenoms with activity against Bothrops venoms were compared using standard World Health Organization rodent and in vitro assays: (i) 'Myn', Ronti Mexico SA ('B. atrox', 'Crotalus terrificus'), (ii) Instituto Butantan (Bothrops polyvalent, Brazil), (iii) Instituto Nacional de Hygiene y Medicina Tropical (Bothrops polyvalent, Ecuador), (iv) Instituto Nacional de Salud (B. asper, C. durissus and Lachesis muta, Colombia), and (v) Laboratorios Probiol (Bothrops, Lachesis and Crotalus, Colombia). The venoms against which these antivenoms were tested were Ecuadorian B. atrox, B. asper and B. xanthogrammus. Brazilian antivenom proved to be the most effective, followed by the Ecudorian and Colombian antivenoms. Mexican antivenom was completely ineffective in neutralizing the lethal effects of Ecuadorian Bothrops venoms. Monospecific Brazilian L. muta antivenom (Instituto Butantan) proved effective against Ecuadorian L. muta venom, but the Colombian polyspecific antivenoms did not. Clinical trials of Brazilian and Ecuadorian antivenoms are planned in the Amazon region of Ecuador in the near future.

  4. THE PHOTODYNAMIC ACTION OF EOSIN AND ERYTHROSIN UPON SNAKE VENOM

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1906-01-01

    Since the hæmolysins of the several venoms respond differently to photodynamic action, they may be regarded as possessing different chemical constitutions. As regards stability, cobra hæmolysin ranks first, daboia second, and Crotalus third. The toxicity of all the venoms is more or less diminished by eosin and erythrosin in sunlight. This reduction in toxicity depends upon chemical changes, of more or less profound nature, taking place in certain of the active principles of the venom. The more stabile the predominant active principles the less the reduction in toxicity, and vice versa. Venom-neurotoxins are highly resistant to photodynamic action, venom-hæmolysins are less resistant, while the hæmorrhagin and thrombokinase of Crotalus and daboia venoms exhibit weak powers of resistance to their action. Hence it follows that while cobra venom remained almost unaltered, rattlesnake and daboia venoms were greatly reduced in toxicity when mixed with the fluorescent dyes and exposed to sunlight. There is an interesting parallel between the action of eosin and erythrosin upon the different venoms and their reactions to other injurious agencies. For example, the hæmolysins of cobra and daboia venoms are more heat resistant than the hæmolysin of Crotalus venom, and the former are less injured by the dyes than the latter. The neurotoxin of the former venoms is also more heat stabile than that of the rattlesnake, and the same relative degree of resistance holds for this substance and the anilines. Just as the hæmorrhagin of rattlesnake venom and the thrombokinase of daboia venom are destroyed by a temperature of 75° C., so are they readily inactivated by the photo dynamic substances employed. The globulin-precipitating and blood corpuscle-protecting principle of cobra venom is relatively thermostabile and in contradistinction to the immunity-precipitins it is also unaffected by eosin and erythrosin. This study of the action of photodynamic substances upon snake

  5. Snake co-occurrence patterns are best explained by habitat and hypothesized effects of interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Craig Rudolph, D; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Jeffrey Humphries, W; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Snakes often occur in species-rich assemblages, and sympatry is thought to be facilitated primarily by low diet overlap, not interspecific interactions. We selected, a priori, three species pairs consisting of species that are morphologically and taxonomically similar and may therefore be likely to engage in interspecific, consumptive competition. We then examined a large-scale database of snake detection/nondetection data and used occupancy modelling to determine whether these species occur together more or less frequently than expected by chance while accounting for variation in detection probability among species and incorporating important habitat categories in the models. For some snakes, we obtained evidence that the probabilities that habitat patches are used are influenced by the presence of potentially competing congeneric species. Specifically, timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) were less likely than expected by chance to use areas that also contained eastern diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus) when the proportion of evergreen forest was relatively high. Otherwise, they occurred together more often than expected by chance. Complex relationships were revealed between habitat use, detection probabilities and occupancy probabilities of North American racers (Coluber constrictor) and coachwhips (Coluber flagellum) that indicated the probability of competitive exclusion increased with increasing area of grassland habitat, although there was some model uncertainty. Cornsnakes (Pantherophis guttatus or Pantherophis slowinskii) and ratsnakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis, Pantherophis spiloides, or Pantherophis obsoletus) exhibited differences in habitat selection, but we obtained no evidence that patterns of use for this species pair were influenced by current interspecific interactions. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that competitive interactions influence snake assemblage composition; the strength of these effects was

  6. Soluble P-selectin rescues viper venom–induced mortality through anti-inflammatory properties and PSGL-1 pathway-mediated correction of hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Der-Shan; Ho, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are lethal and occur frequently worldwide each year, and receiving the antivenom antibody is currently the most effective treatment. However, the specific antivenom might be unavailable in remote areas. Snakebites by Viperidae usually lead to hemorrhage and mortality if untreated. In the present study, challenges of rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom markedly increased the circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) level, but not P-selectin (P-sel, Selp−/−) mutants, in wild-type mice. Because sP-sel enhances coagulation through the P-selectin ligand 1 (PSGL-1, Selplg) pathway to produce tissue factor–positive microparticles, we hypothesized that increasing the plasma sP-sel level can be a self-rescue response in hosts against snake venom–mediated suppression of the coagulation system. Confirming our hypothesis, our results indicated that compared with wild-type mice, Selp−/− and Selplg−/− mice were more sensitive to rattlesnake venom. Additionally, administration of recombinant sP-sel could effectively reduce the mortality rate of mice challenged with venoms from three other Viperidae snakes. The antivenom property of sP-sel is associated with improved coagulation activity in vivo. Our data suggest that the elevation of endogenous sP-sel level is a self-protective response against venom-suppressed coagulation. The administration of recombinant sP-sel may be developed as a new strategy to treat Viperidae snakebites. PMID:27779216

  7. Poisonous snakebite in central Texas. Possible indicators for antivenin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    White, R R; Weber, R A

    1991-01-01

    Sixty-seven patients hospitalized for poisonous snakebite between 1975 and 1990 were managed by elevation, tetanus prophylaxis, intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and often by a limited excision of the bite site in the Emergency Department, with sequential laboratory studies as needed. Antivenin was used for systemic envenomation, and 23 of the 67 patients (34%) received 133 vials. Thirteen of the twenty-three patients (56%) had adverse reactions to the antivenin. Two significant observations arose. First age was an indicator. Eleven of eighteen patients 12 years or younger (61%) received antivenin, whereas 12 of 49 patients older than 12 years (24%) received antivenin (p = 0.0085, Fisher's exact test). Second species of snake was an indicator. Sixty-two snakes were identified (93%). Of 39 rattlesnake (Crotalus and Sistrurus) bites, 20 patients received antivenin (53%), but of 23 copperhead and water moccasin (Agkistrodon) bites, only three patients (12.5%) received antivenin (p = 0.0025). Antivenin may be indicated for use in systemic rattlesnake envenomation, especially in younger patients. PMID:2025067

  8. Physiological and behavioral effects of exogenous corticosterone in a free-ranging ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Claunch, Natalie M; Frazier, Julius A; Escallón, Camilo; Vernasco, Ben J; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2017-02-22

    In the face of global change, free-ranging organisms are expected to experience more unpredictable stressors. An understanding of how organisms with different life history strategies will respond to such changes is an integral part of biodiversity conservation. Corticosterone (CORT) levels are often used as metrics to assess the population health of wild vertebrates, despite the fact that the stress response and its effects on organismal function are highly variable. Our understanding of the stress response is primarily derived from studies on endotherms, leading to some contention on the effects of chronic stress across and within taxa. We assessed the behavioral and hormonal responses to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels in a free-ranging, arid-adapted ectotherm, the Southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus helleri). Plasma CORT was significantly elevated in CORT-implanted snakes 15days after implantation. Implantation with CORT did not affect testosterone (T) levels or defensive behavior. Interestingly, we observed increased defensive behavior in snakes with more stable daily body temperatures and in snakes with higher plasma T during handling (tubing). Regardless of treatment group, those individuals with lower baseline CORT levels and higher body temperatures tended to exhibit greater increases in CORT levels following a standardized stressor. These results suggest that CORT may not mediate physiological and behavioral trait expression in arid-adapted ectotherms such as rattlesnakes.

  9. Molecular identification of Spirometra spp. (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in some wild animals from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Coscarelli, Daniel; Melo, Maria Norma; Melo, Alan Lane; Pinto, Hudson Alves

    2016-10-01

    Species of the genus Spirometra are diphyllobothriid tapeworms with complex life cycles and are involved in human sparganosis, a neglected disease that affects individuals worldwide. Although some species were reported in wild felids and human cases of sparganosis were described in Brazil, the biology and taxonomy of these parasites are poorly understood. In the present study, samples of diphyllobothriids (eggs and/or proglottids) obtained from the stools of wild carnivores (Leopardus pardalis and Lycalopex vetulus) and plerocercoid larvae found in a snake (Crotalus durissus) from Brazil were analysed by amplifying a fragment of the gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1). The DNA sequences obtained here for the first time from the Spirometra spp. from Brazil were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships with other species. Molecular data identified two species in the Brazilian samples (evolutionary divergence of 17.8-19.2%). The species were identified as Spirometra sp. 1, found in Le. pardalis, and Spirometra sp. 2 found in Ly. vetulus and C. durissus, and they differed from Asian isolates of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (17.5-20.2% and 12.2-15.6%, respectively), a species previously considered to be distributed worldwide. Moreover, Spirometra sp. 1 is genetically distinct from Sparganum proliferum from Venezuela (19.6-20.4%), while Spirometra sp. 2 is more closely related with the Venezuelan species (6.1-7.0%). Sequences of Spirometra sp. 2 revealed that it is conspecific with the Argentinean isolate of Spirometra found in Lycalopex gymnocercus (1.9-2.2%). Taxonomic and phylogenetic aspects related to New World species of Spirometra are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the thermal effects of translocation in a large-bodied pitviper.

    PubMed

    Holding, Matthew L; Owen, Dustin A S; Taylor, Emily N

    2014-10-01

    Acute stressors can be costly, often requiring alteration of normal physiological processes to mitigate their effects. Animal translocation may be a very stressful event and result in a reduced ability to maintain homeostasis. The impacts of translocation on the thermal ecology of ectothermic vertebrates, which may rely on preferred habitats for thermoregulation, are currently unknown. In this study, 22 adult male Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus oreganus) were implanted with automated temperature loggers and radio-tracked. Snakes were assigned to one of three treatments: translocation, handling control, and undisturbed control. Short-distance translocation (SDT) and handling treatments were applied weekly for 6 weeks. Hourly body temperature (Tb ) was recorded during the course of the study. Mean Tb was impacted in a time-dependent fashion, where translocated snakes had lower mean Tb than handled controls during the first week of the study only, especially the first 24 hr after translocation. Separating the dataset into day and night revealed that this effect was localized to Tb variation during the day only. Variance in temperature was not impacted by translocation or handling. Snake body mass and time of year were the major factors influencing the thermal profiles of these rattlesnakes. Thermal ecology in male rattlesnakes is resilient to SDT, suggesting that they quickly resume normal behaviors following repeated bouts of acute capture stress and disturbance of their spatial ecology. This study provides support for SDT as a safe measure for mitigating human-snake interactions and facilitating conservation practices regarding male snakes, which are the most frequently encountered sex.

  11. Increase of the cytotoxic effect of Bothrops jararacussu venom on mouse extensor digitorum longus and soleus by potassium channel blockers and by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tomaz, Marcelo A; Fernandes, Fabrício F A; El-Kik, Camila Z; Moraes, Raphael A M; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Ownby, Charlotte L; Melo, Paulo A

    2008-09-15

    We investigated the myotoxicity of Bothrops jararacussu crude venom and other cytolytic agents on mouse isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles, which present distinct properties: EDL is a fast-twitch, white muscle with predominantly glycolytic fibers, while SOL is slow-twitch, red muscle with predominantly oxidative fibers. Muscles were exposed to B. jararacussu crude venom (25 microg/ml) and other crotaline venoms (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus; Crotalus viridis viridis; Crotalus durissus terrificus) at the same concentration. Basal creatine kinase (CK) release to bathing solution was 0.43+/-0.06 for EDL and 0.29+/-0.06 for SOL (U g(-)(1) h(-)(1), n=36 for each muscle). Sixty minutes after exposure to B. jararacussu venom, EDL presented higher increase in the rate of CK release than SOL, respectively, 13.2+/-1.5 and 2.9+/-0.7 U g(-)(1)h(-)(1), n=10-12. Muscle denervation, despite decreasing CK content, did not affect sensitivities to B. jararacussu venom. Ouabain and potassium channel blockers (TEA; clotrimazole; glibenclamide) increased the rate of CK release by B. jararacussu in EDL and SOL muscles, decreasing and almost abolishing the different sensitivity. When we exposed EDL or SOL muscles to Naja naja, Apis mellifera venoms (25 microg/ml), or Triton X-100 (0.01%), they showed similar rate of CK release. Our present data suggest that a mechanism involving intracellular calcium regulation or potassium channels may participate in the different sensitivity of EDL and SOL to B. jararacussu venom.

  12. Tertiary Structural studies of Myotoxin a from Crotalus viridis viridis Venom by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    electrophorus electri... 47 47 47 Sw:Ibb2SWheat P09864 wheat (triticum aestivum). proteina ... 46 46 51 Sw:Pa29$Pseau P20253 mulga snake (pseudechis...Sw:Pa2bSPsepo P20259 red-bellied black snake (pseudechis... 34 46 37 Sw:IbblSWheat P09863 wheat (triticum aestivum). proteina ... 46 46 52 Sw:Pa2a$Psepo P20258 red

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of β-defensin-like genes of Bothrops, Crotalus and Lachesis snakes.

    PubMed

    Correa, Poliana G; Oguiura, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Defensins are components of the vertebrate innate immune system; they comprise a diverse group of small cationic antimicrobial peptides. Among them, β-defensins have a characteristic β-sheet-rich fold plus six conserved cysteines with particular spacing and intramolecular bonds. They have been fully studied in mammals, but there is little information about them in snakes. Using a PCR approach, we described 13 β-defensin-like sequences in Bothrops and Lachesis snakes. The genes are organized in three exons and two introns, with exception of B.atrox_defensinB_01 which has only two exons. They show high similarities in exon 1, intron 1 and intron 2, but exons 2 and 3 have undergone accelerated evolution. The theoretical translated sequences encode a pre-β-defensin-like molecule with a conserved signal peptide and a mature peptide. The signal peptides are leucine-rich and the mature β-defensin-like molecules have a size around 4.5 kDa, a net charge from +2 to +11, and the conserved cysteine motif. Phylogenetic analysis was done using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, and all resulted in similar topologies with slight differences. The genus Bothrops displayed two separate lineages. The reconciliation of gene trees and species tree indicated eight to nine duplications and 23 to 29 extinctions depending on the gene tree used. Our results together with previously published data indicate that the ancestral β-defensin-like gene may have three exons in vertebrates and that their evolution occurred according to a birth-and-death model.

  14. Substituted thiobenzoic acid S-benzyl esters as potential inhibitors of a snake venom phospholipase A2: Synthesis, spectroscopic and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao Castañeda, I. C.; Pereañez, J. A.; Jios, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    4-Chlorothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (I), 3-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (II), 4-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (III) and 4-methylthiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (IV) were prepared and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations were performed with Gaussian 09 to calculate the geometric parameters and vibrational spectra. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was purified from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, followed by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Two studies of the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity were performed using phosphatidilcholine and 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxybenzoic acid as substrates, in both cases compound II showed the best inhibitory ability, with 74.89% and 69.91% of inhibition, respectively. Average percentage of inhibition was 52.49%. Molecular docking was carried out with Autodock Vina using as ligands the minimized structures of compounds (I-IV) and as protein PLA2 (PDB code 2QOG). The results suggest that compounds I-IV could interact with His48 at the active site of PLA2. In addition, all compounds showed Van der Waals interactions with residues from hydrophobic channel of the enzyme. This interaction would impede normal catalysis cycle of the PLA2.

  15. A study on the venom yield of venomous snake species from Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, A R; Dolab, J A; Galarce, P P; Gould, E; Litwin, S; Dokmetjian, J C; Segre, L; Vidal, J C

    1998-12-01

    A study on the venom yield of snakes from Argentina over a three year period was carried out on adult specimens of Bothrops alternatus (n = 74); Bothrops neuwiedii (n = 127); Bothrops ammodytoides (n = 30); Bothrops moojeni (n = 14); Bothrops jararaca (n = 14); B. jararacussu (n = 6); Crotalus durissus terrificus (n = 120) and Micrurus spp. (n = 6) as well as with 12 specimens of newborn C. d. terrificus kept in captivity. While for each species there was a positive correlation between venom yield and number of snakes milked, the correlation with the snake's body weights after individual milkings was even better, suggesting that the size of the snakes is more important in determining the venom yield than the number of snakes milked or the specimen's sex. Individual milkings indicated that, in addition to the snake size, when the amount of venom is normalized per 100 g body weight there is a species specific difference in venom yield. It follows the order B. jararacussu > B. moojeni approximately = B. jararaca approximately = B. alternatus > B. neuwiedii> Micrurus spp approximately = B. ammodytoides> C. d. terrificus. Although the venom yield per 100 g body weight of newborn C. d. terrificus specimens is 2-fold higher than that of adults, no correlation was observed between venom yield and body weight.

  16. Pioneers of anti-venomous serotherapy: Dr Vital Brazil (1865-1950).

    PubMed

    Hawgood, B J

    1992-01-01

    Dr Vital Brazil was a great humanitarian and pioneer of medical science. His main work arose from his concern with poisonous snakebite accidents to labourers working the land. Vital Brazil estimated that, at the beginning of this century, deaths due to crotaline snakebites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were nearly 3000 per year, representing a mortality rate of about 25%, the majority being due to bothropic envenomation. After reading a report of Calmette's anti-Naja serum, Vital Brazil raised monovalent serum against the venom of Bothrops jararaca and the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus. In 1989 this led to the first demonstration of the specificity of anti-venomous serum and later, the first production of polyvalent serum for therapeutic use. As Director of the newly founded Institute Butantan in São Paulo, Vital Brazil was actively engaged in every aspect of serotherapeutic treatment. This included organizing a unique system of exchanging anti-ophidic serum for snakes as well as a wide-ranging teaching programme. His many outstanding contributions to the fields of immunology, public health, toxinology and herpetology required not only a very high level of observational, deductive and practical ability but also an unswerving vision and sense of duty; this was allied to great administrative skill and exceptional energy.

  17. Direct Spinal Ventral Root Repair following Avulsion: Effectiveness of a New Heterologous Fibrin Sealant on Motoneuron Survival and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barbizan, Roberta; Seabra Ferreira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4–L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant. The spinal cords were processed to evaluate neuronal survival, synaptic stability, and glial reactivity, 4 and 12 weeks after lesion. Sciatic nerves were processed to investigate Schwann cell activity by p75NTR expression (4 weeks after surgery) and to count myelinated axons and morphometric evaluation (12 weeks after surgery). Walking track test was used to evaluate gait recovery, up to 12 weeks. The results indicate that both fibrin sealants are similarly efficient. However, the snake-derived fibrin glue is a potentially safer alternative for being a biological and biodegradable product which does not contain human blood derivatives. Therefore, the venom glue can be a useful tool for the scientific community due to its advantages and variety of applications. PMID:27642524

  18. The complementarity-determining region sequences in IgY antivenom hypervariable regions.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, David Gitirana; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; de Almeida, Claudia Maria Costa; da Silva, Claudia Letícia; Magnoli, Fabio Carlos; da Silva, Osmair Élder; da Silva, Wilmar Dias

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Development of IgY antibodies against anti-snake toxins endowed with highly lethal neutralizing activity" (da Rocha et al., 2017) [1]. Complementarity-determining region (CDR) sequences are variable antibody (Ab) sequences that respond with specificity, duration and strength to identify and bind to antigen (Ag) epitopes. B lymphocytes isolated from hens immunized with Bitis arietans (Ba) and anti-Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venoms and expressing high specificity, affinity and toxicity neutralizing antibody titers were used as DNA sources. The VLF1, CDR1, CDR2, VLR1 and CDR3 sequences were validated by BLASTp, and values corresponding to IgY VL and VH anti-Ba or anti-Cdt venoms were identified, registered [Gallus gallus IgY Fv Light chain (GU815099)/Gallus gallus IgY Fv Heavy chain (GU815098)] and used for molecular modeling of IgY scFv anti-Ba. The resulting CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 sequences were combined to construct the three - dimensional structure of the Ab paratope.

  19. Reply to the commentary by Hillman et al. on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    PubMed

    Filogonio, Renato; Costa Leite, Cléo Alcantara; Wang, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Our meta-analysis (Filogonio et al., 2017) on central vascular blood flows in a snake (Crotalus durissus) and a turtle (Trachemys scripta) was motivated by Hillman et al.'s (2014) analysis on amphibians to investigate whether cardiac shunt patterns depend on cardiac output and vascular distensibilities. In contrast to Hillman et al. (2014), we did not uncover a general trend that supports the notion that cardiac shunts in reptiles are dictated by vascular distensibilities. In addition to our response to the criticism raised by Hillman et al. (2017), we suggest that future experiments should consider (i) both compliance and distensibility of the major arteries; (ii) differences in volume of the systemic and pulmonary circuits to account for the accommodation of stroke volume; and (iii) an evaluation of the pulsatile pressures in both the ventricle and the major arteries to consider the timing of the ventricular ejection provided by opening of the ventricular valves. We hope these suggestions may help future clarification of the relative importance of passive arterial mechanical properties compared to autonomic regulation in determining intracardiac shunts in both amphibians and reptiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2): friends or foes? Are they actors in antibacterial and anti-HIV resistance?].

    PubMed

    Villarrubia, Vicente G; Costa, Luis A; Díez, Roberto A

    2004-11-27

    In this paper the authors update on the deletereous or beneficial roles of human and animal secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2). Although human sPLA2-IIA (inflammatory) was initially thought as a foe because its pathogenic implication in sepsis, multiorganic failure or other related syndromes, recent data indicates its role in in the antiinfectious host resistance. Thus, sPLA2-IIA exhibits potent bactericidal activities against gram-negative and gram-positive (in this case, together with other endogenous inflammatory factors) bacteria. Surprisingly, human sPLA-IIA does not show in vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity, whilst several sPLA2-IA isolated from bee and serpent venons do it: this is the case for crotoxin, a sPLA2-IA isolated from the venon of Crotalus durissus terrificus (sPLA2-Cdt). The mechanism for the in vitro anti-HIV activity of sPLA2-Cdt (inhibition of Gag p24) appears to be related to the ability of the drug to desestabilize ancorage (heparans) and fusion (cholesterol) receptors on HIV target cells.

  1. Endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors in snakes: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Campos, Patrícia Cota; de Melo, Lutiana Amaral; Dias, Gabriel Latorre Fortes; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

    2016-01-01

    The blood plasma of numerous snake species naturally comprises endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors, which primarily neutralize toxic phospholipases A2 that may eventually reach their circulation. This inhibitor type is generally known as snake blood phospholipase A2 inhibitors (sbPLIs). Most, if not all sbPLIs are oligomeric glycosylated proteins, although the carbohydrate moiety may not be essential for PLA2 inhibition in every case. The presently known sbPLIs belong to one of three structural classes - namely sbαPLI, sbβPLI or sbγPLI - depending on the presence of characteristic C-type lectin-like domains, leucine-rich repeats or three-finger motifs, respectively. Currently, the most numerous inhibitors described in the literature are sbαPLIs and sbγPLIs, whereas sbβPLIs are rare. When the target PLA2 is a Lys49 homolog or an Asp49 myotoxin, the sbPLI is denominated a myotoxin inhibitor protein (MIP). In this brief overview, the most relevant data on sbPLIs will be presented. Representative examples of sbαPLIs and sbγPLIs from two Old World - Gloydius brevicaudus and Malayopython reticulatus - and two New World - Bothrops alternatus and Crotalus durissus terrificus - snake species will be emphasized.

  2. [Pharmacologic and enzymatic effects of snake venoms from Antioquia and Choco (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Guillermo Osorio, R; Valderrama, R; Augusto Giraldo, C

    1992-01-01

    We compared several pharmacological and enzymatic effects induced by 11 snake venoms from seven species, six of them from different geographic areas of Antioquia and Choco, north-west of Colombia, South America (Bothrops atrox, B. nasutus, B. schlegelii, B. punctatus, Lachesis muta, Micrurus mipartitus), and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, from specimens captured in other provinces of the country (Tolima, Huila, Meta and Atlantico). Differences were observed in edema-forming, hemorrhage, defibrination, indirect hemolysis, myonecrosis, proteolysis and lethal activity between venoms from different genera or species, as well as according to the geographic area of origin in B. atrox and B. nasutus snake venoms. Bothrops venoms, in particular B. atrox and L. muta, produced major local effects. All of the venoms, including M. mipartitus, had myotoxic effects. The most defibrinating venoms were B. atrox, L. muta, B. punctatus and C. d. terrificus. All of the venoms had indirect hemolytic activity; the venom of M. mipartitus being greatest. The most lethal venoms were those of C. d. terrificus and M. mipartitus. Within Bothrops species, the venom of B. schlegelii was the least active in terms of local and systemic pathologic effects.

  3. [Occurrence of Salmonella in healthy snakes and snake cadavers- isolation of a new Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus IV (S. IV 18:Z36, Z38:-) (AUTHOR'S TRANSL)].

    PubMed

    Pagon, S; Rohde, R; Schweizer, R

    1976-12-01

    Forty-seven isolation attempts performed with 20 fecal samples of exotic snakes yielded 27 Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus I-IV. The majority of isolates (78.7%), however, was identified as sub-genus III (Arizona). The snakes under study were hold captured for less than one year (one part) or for longer than one year. Bacteriological investigations of the 7 snakes studied, repeated 7 to 21 months thereafter, revealed uniformly other Salmonella species in comparison to those found at primary examination. Necropsy investigations were performed with materials from 3 snakes. One Salmonella species (Arizona) was isolated from the colon of one snake presenting with massive necrotic enteritis. The results with blood, bile and other colon sections were negative. Several Salmonella species were found in the colon of two other snakes presenting with infiltrative and necrotic changes in the organs, but without any pathologic finding in the intestinal tract. A new Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus IV (S. IV 18:Z36, Z38:-) was recovered from fecal sample of a Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) and another Cascabel snake (Crotalus durissus terrificus).

  4. Neutralization of Bothrops mattogrossensis snake venom from Bolivia: experimental evaluation of llama and donkey antivenoms produced by caprylic acid precipitation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Gil Patrick; Segura, Alvaro; Herrera, María; Velasco, Williams; Solano, Gabriela; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Polyspecific bothropic/crotalic and bothropic/lachesic antivenoms were produced in Bolivia by immunizing two donkeys with the venoms of Bothrops mattogrossensis and Crotalus durissus terrificus and one llama with the venoms of B. mattogrossensis and Lachesis muta. These antivenoms are currently being used for snakebite envenomation in Bolivia. The rationale for using these animals is that donkeys and llamas are better adapted than horses to the high altitudes in South America and constitute good alternatives for antivenom production in these regions. Plasma was fractionated by caprylic acid precipitation of non-immunoglobulin plasma proteins, to obtain whole IgG preparations. Donkey-derived antivenom showed one band of 150 kDa when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, whereas llama antivenom presented two immunoglobulin bands, of 170 kDa and 120 kDa, the latter corresponding to the heavy-chain antibodies present in camelid sera. The effectiveness of these antivenoms to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-forming, and defibrinogenating activities of the venom of B. mattogrossensis from Bolivia, a species formerly known as Bothrops neuwiedii, was assessed at the experimental level. Although llama antivenom has a total protein concentration four times lower than donkey antivenom, both preparations have similar neutralizing capacity against all toxic activities assessed. Llama and donkey IgG-based antivenoms are effective in the neutralization of B. mattogrossensis venom and represent valuable alternatives for antivenom manufacture in highland regions of South America. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    PubMed

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  6. Distribution of Balsamorhiza rosea in Rattlesnake Hills with respect to various environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Balsamorhiza rosea (Compositae), a suffrutescent perennial, is found on several rocky hilltops with sparse canopy cover in Eastern Washington. This study investigated B. rosea's abundance and its associated species along several physical gradients. Important elements of microclimate selected for this analysis were elevation, slope aspect, slope angle, and soil depth. Results show that the occurrence of B. rosea is associated more strongly with soil depth than with other factors examined. The distribution of B. rosea was not fully explained by the factors in this study. Other potential factors determining its distribution are discussed.

  7. Population Characteristics and Seasonal Movement Patterns of the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd - Status Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, Brett L; Cadwell, Larry L; Zufelt, Rhett K; Turner, Scott D; Turner, Gerald K

    2000-10-10

    Wildlife biologists documented an isolated elk population in 1972 on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Since then the herd has grown, exceeding 800 animals in 1999. Limited harvests on adjacent private lands have occurred since 1986. The large herd size coupled with limited annual harvest have increased concerns about private land crop damages, vehicle collisions, degradation of the native environment, and the herd's use of radiologically controlled areas on the Hanford Site. As a result, in 1999, a decision was made by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) (animal management), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) (land management), and DOE (landowner) to conduct a large-scale animal roundup to remove elk from the DOE-owned lands and relocate them to distant areas within Washington State. The interagency roundup and relocation occurred in spring 2000. This report presents the current status of the herd size and composition, annual removal estimates, and some limited seasonal area-use patterns by several radio-collared elk subsequent to the large-scale elk roundup. The elk herd maintained an approximate 25% annual increase until 2000. A large harvest offsite in 1999 coupled with the large-scale roundup in spring 2000 reduced herd size to the current estimate of 660 animals. As of August 2000, the herd consisted of 287 (43%) males, 282 (42%) females, and 91 (13%) calves. There has been a notable cycling of calf recruitment rates throughout the 1990s and in 2000. Elk home-range estimates revealed a substantial decrease in summer home ranges in 2000, presumably, in part, as a result of the summer 2000 Hanford Site wildfire. Movement analysis also determined that, as population size increased, so has the frequency and extent of the animals' offsite movements, particularly on private lands adjacent to the Hanford Site in both spring and summer seasons. The frequency and duration of movements by male elk onto the central portions of the Hanford Site has increased substantially as the population increased.

  8. Simple nocturnal slope-flow data from the Rattlesnake Mountain site

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.

    1982-10-01

    Detailed vertical profiles of the wind and temperture structure of nocturnal slope flows were measured at a site that is uniform in the cross-slope direction. The upper part of the slope closely approximates a simple, tilted plane. These measurements were made from three towers at different distances from the ridge crest, each of which extended through the local depth of the katabatic flow. The tower wind and temperature data from the four best cases of slope flow observed in 1980 and 1981 are listed, as well as ambient wind and temperature profiles to a height of 300m from a Tethersonde flown at the experimental site and surface winds from a network of stations surrounding the site.

  9. Cambrian pisolites as paleoenvironment and paleotectonic stress indicators, Rattlesnake Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, D.G.; Vernon, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Pisolitic-rich carbonates occur within the uppermost 0.5 m of the Meagher Limestone member of the lower Gros Ventre formation in exposures near Cody, Wyoming. The Meagher Limestone is overlain by 51 m, and underlain by 63 m of dark gray Gros Ventre shale. Pisolites range in size from 2.0 to 18 mm in diameter and occur in lime grainstones associated with trilobite fragments, peloids, glauconite, fine-grained subangular quartz, and minor oolites. Girvanella grainstones 15-20 cm thick directly underlie the pisolite strata and have contributed to some of the carbonate material within pisolite nuclei. Dolomite and ankerite may occur within pisolitic rocks as finely crystalline irregular patches. Pisoliths commonly show an oblate ellipsoid shape, with maximum flattening perpendicular to bedding. Long-axis to short-axis ratios of these grains in fracture planes perpendicular to bedding average between 2.5 to 3.5, with the long axis parallel or subparallel to bedding. Grains observed in bedding planes have ratios averaging between 1.5 to 2.0. A paleostress state has produced a strain ellipsoid with long-axis ratios ranging from 1.7 to over 3.0. There appears to be little or no tectonic strain on the bedding plane, so the strain can be described as uniaxial, with maximum compression perpendicular to bedding. The majority of carbonate rocks in the Meagher Limestone were deposited in a normal marine subtidal setting, while ooid and pisolitic grain types are suggestive of subtidal-peritidal conditions. Because of the strain deformed pisoliths, a subaqueous versus subaerial environment of pisolite genesis is difficult to assess. A siliciclastic sandstone, 0.6 m thick with low-angle tabular crossbedding, is present immediately beneath the Meagher Limestone. The sandstone is composed of 94% fine to medium sand-size subangular quartz grains and is associated with glauconite, minor biotite, zircon, and ilmenite.

  10. Aeromagnetic map of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Coconino and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Canyon rims in the roadless area are accessible by several four-wheel-drive trails across the plateau surface from points along Schnebly Hill Road and Highway I-17. Access to Jacks Canyon is by road and four-wheel-drive trail to Jacks Canyon Tank, about 4 mi up the canyon from Highway 179. Access to the head of Jacks Canyon is by foot or horse along a well-maintained trail. Access to the bottom of Woods Canyon is by four-wheel-drive vehicle for about 2 mi from Highway 179 and then by pack trail for about 5 mi more.

  11. Microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex variation in an endangered rattlesnake, the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus).

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Collin P; Duvall, Melvin R; Swanson, Bradley J; Phillips, Christopher A; Dreslik, Michael J; Baker, Sarah J; King, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    Genetic diversity is fundamental to maintaining the long-term viability of populations, yet reduced genetic variation is often associated with small, isolated populations. To examine the relationship between demography and genetic variation, variation at hypervariable loci (e.g., microsatellite DNA loci) is often measured. However, these loci are selectively neutral (or near neutral) and may not accurately reflect genomewide variation. Variation at functional trait loci, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), can provide a better assessment of adaptive genetic variation in fragmented populations. We compared patterns of microsatellite and MHC variation across three Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) populations representing a gradient of demographic histories to assess the relative roles of natural selection and genetic drift. Using 454 deep amplicon sequencing, we identified 24 putatively functional MHC IIB exon 2 alleles belonging to a minimum of six loci. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates provided evidence of historical positive selection at the nucleotide level, and Tajima's D provided support for balancing selection in each population. As predicted, estimates of microsatellite allelic richness, observed, heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity varied among populations in a pattern qualitatively consistent with demographic history and abundance. While MHC allelic richness at the population and individual levels revealed similar trends, MHC nucleotide diversity was unexpectedly high in the smallest population. Overall, these results suggest that genetic variation in the Eastern Massasauga populations in Illinois has been shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms. Thus, conservation efforts should consider both neutral and functional genetic variation when managing captive and wild Eastern Massasauga populations.

  12. Anti-angiogenic activities of two recombinant disintegrins derived from the Mohave and Prairie rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Sara E; Romo, Karen; Suntravat, Montamas; Sánchez, Elda E

    2014-02-01

    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in the growth and spread of cancer. New vascularization nourishes cancer cells with oxygen and nutrients, allowing these cells to grow, invade nearby tissue, spread to other parts of the body, and form new colonies of cancer cells. Tumor angiogenesis consists of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation into the tumor mass. The study of natural and synthetic angiogenesis inhibitors is a promising area for therapeutics since tumors cannot grow or spread without the formation of new blood vessels. Anti-angiogenic activities have been identified in peptides known as disintegrins. Disintegrins are a family of small proteins (45-84 amino acids in length), many which are found in snake venom that function as potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. This study reports two recombinant disintegrins (r-mojastin 1 and r-viridistatin 2) inhibiting, with similar effectiveness, distinct steps in angiogenesis such as proliferation, adhesion to fibronectin, migration, and tube formation in vitro and in vivo. Both recombinant disintegrins bind to α(v)β₃ and α(v)β₅ receptors that are upregulated in tumor endothelial cells, having a higher binding activity to α(v)β₃ integrin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Snakebite Survivors Club: retrospective review of rattlesnake bites in Central California.

    PubMed

    Spano, Susanne; Macias, Fernando; Snowden, Brandy; Vohra, Rais

    2013-07-01

    We investigated clinical patterns of crotaline envenomation presenting to a tertiary-care academic hospital in Central California over a 10-year period. An IRB-approved, retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients diagnosed with snakebite from December 2000 to December 2010. Data abstracted: demographics, anatomic location of bite, comorbid conditions and intoxicants, length of stay, antivenom dose, laboratory results, and complications or procedures. There were 46 snakebite cases admitted over the study period. Five were "dry bites"; the remaining cases (41/46) received antivenom. There was a male predominance (83% male victims). Upper extremity bites were more common (32/41 upper vs 10/42 lower extremity). One victim sustained bilateral bites to the hands. Thirty-five patients (85%) were admitted, with an average length of stay 2.12 days. The longest hospitalization was 15 days. There were no fatalities. The average time from bite to ED presentation was 2 h 44 min. Bites occurred during every month except November, with the majority occurring during spring and summer months and peaking in June (12/42 cases). Most bites occurred in the hours between noon and 8 pm. The amount of antivenom given ranged from 2 to 35 vials (average, 9 vials). Interfacility transfers were common in our study population: thirteen (32%) patients were transferred into our emergency department for a higher level of care, and 3 (7%) were transferred out (two because of insurance requirements, and one for higher level of Pediatric ICU care). There were no surgical interventions in our study group. Intoxication did not appear to play a major role in this population as only 3 patients (7%) were found to be acutely intoxicated: one with cannabis and amphetamines, 1 with alcohol, and 1 with opioids. In Central California, crotaline envenomations occurred mainly in adult males. Dry bites, or bites not requiring antivenom administration, were uncommon, comprising only 10% of bites in this study population. Contrary to popular and clinical beliefs, substance abuse and/or alcohol intoxication did not appear to play a role in the majority of patients in this study. Care providers and snakebite specialists should be aware that snakebite patients are often transferred between facilities, a finding that may be useful in designing future first aid protocols and research. We hope these findings add concrete data and help correct some common misconceptions about snakebites in Central California. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Full-Length Venom Protein cDNA Sequences from Venom-Derived mRNA: Exploring Compositional Variation and Adaptive Multigene Evolution.

    PubMed

    Modahl, Cassandra M; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-06-01

    Envenomation of humans by snakes is a complex and continuously evolving medical emergency, and treatment is made that much more difficult by the diverse biochemical composition of many venoms. Venomous snakes and their venoms also provide models for the study of molecular evolutionary processes leading to adaptation and genotype-phenotype relationships. To compare venom complexity and protein sequences, venom gland transcriptomes are assembled, which usually requires the sacrifice of snakes for tissue. However, toxin transcripts are also present in venoms, offering the possibility of obtaining cDNA sequences directly from venom. This study provides evidence that unknown full-length venom protein transcripts can be obtained from the venoms of multiple species from all major venomous snake families. These unknown venom protein cDNAs are obtained by the use of primers designed from conserved signal peptide sequences within each venom protein superfamily. This technique was used to assemble a partial venom gland transcriptome for the Middle American Rattlesnake (Crotalus simus tzabcan) by amplifying sequences for phospholipases A2, serine proteases, C-lectins, and metalloproteinases from within venom. Phospholipase A2 sequences were also recovered from the venoms of several rattlesnakes and an elapid snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), and three-finger toxin sequences were recovered from multiple rear-fanged snake species, demonstrating that the three major clades of advanced snakes (Elapidae, Viperidae, Colubridae) have stable mRNA present in their venoms. These cDNA sequences from venom were then used to explore potential activities derived from protein sequence similarities and evolutionary histories within these large multigene superfamilies. Venom-derived sequences can also be used to aid in characterizing venoms that lack proteomic profiles and identify sequence characteristics indicating specific envenomation profiles. This approach, requiring only venom, provides

  15. Modulation of orthogonal body waves enables high maneuverability in sidewinding locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Astley, Henry C.; Gong, Chaohui; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Serrano, Miguel M.; Vela, Patricio A.; Choset, Howie; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Hu, David L.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Many organisms move using traveling waves of body undulation, and most work has focused on single-plane undulations in fluids. Less attention has been paid to multiplane undulations, which are particularly important in terrestrial environments where vertical undulations can regulate substrate contact. A seemingly complex mode of snake locomotion, sidewinding, can be described by the superposition of two waves: horizontal and vertical body waves with a phase difference of ±90°. We demonstrate that the high maneuverability displayed by sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes) emerges from the animal’s ability to independently modulate these waves. Sidewinder rattlesnakes used two distinct turning methods, which we term differential turning (26° change in orientation per wave cycle) and reversal turning (89°). Observations of the snakes suggested that during differential turning the animals imposed an amplitude modulation in the horizontal wave whereas in reversal turning they shifted the phase of the vertical wave by 180°. We tested these mechanisms using a multimodule snake robot as a physical model, successfully generating differential and reversal turning with performance comparable to that of the organisms. Further manipulations of the two-wave system revealed a third turning mode, frequency turning, not observed in biological snakes, which produced large (127°) in-place turns. The two-wave system thus functions as a template (a targeted motor pattern) that enables complex behaviors in a high-degree-of-freedom system to emerge from relatively simple modulations to a basic pattern. Our study reveals the utility of templates in understanding the control of biological movement as well as in developing control schemes for limbless robots. PMID:25831489

  16. Full-Length Venom Protein cDNA Sequences from Venom-Derived mRNA: Exploring Compositional Variation and Adaptive Multigene Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Modahl, Cassandra M.; Mackessy, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Envenomation of humans by snakes is a complex and continuously evolving medical emergency, and treatment is made that much more difficult by the diverse biochemical composition of many venoms. Venomous snakes and their venoms also provide models for the study of molecular evolutionary processes leading to adaptation and genotype-phenotype relationships. To compare venom complexity and protein sequences, venom gland transcriptomes are assembled, which usually requires the sacrifice of snakes for tissue. However, toxin transcripts are also present in venoms, offering the possibility of obtaining cDNA sequences directly from venom. This study provides evidence that unknown full-length venom protein transcripts can be obtained from the venoms of multiple species from all major venomous snake families. These unknown venom protein cDNAs are obtained by the use of primers designed from conserved signal peptide sequences within each venom protein superfamily. This technique was used to assemble a partial venom gland transcriptome for the Middle American Rattlesnake (Crotalus simus tzabcan) by amplifying sequences for phospholipases A2, serine proteases, C-lectins, and metalloproteinases from within venom. Phospholipase A2 sequences were also recovered from the venoms of several rattlesnakes and an elapid snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), and three-finger toxin sequences were recovered from multiple rear-fanged snake species, demonstrating that the three major clades of advanced snakes (Elapidae, Viperidae, Colubridae) have stable mRNA present in their venoms. These cDNA sequences from venom were then used to explore potential activities derived from protein sequence similarities and evolutionary histories within these large multigene superfamilies. Venom-derived sequences can also be used to aid in characterizing venoms that lack proteomic profiles and identify sequence characteristics indicating specific envenomation profiles. This approach, requiring only venom, provides

  17. Management of Tissue Loss After Agkistrodon Snakebite: Appropriate Use of Crotalidae-Fab Antivenin.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kenneth W; Schaefer, Keith R; Austin, Cindy; Norton, Rhy; Finley, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Although initially created for the treatment of rattlesnake (genus: Crotalus) bites, Crotalidae-Fab antivenin is used to treat many different pit viper envenomations. However, the efficacy of Crotalidae-Fab in preventing tissue loss from copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) or cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakebites remains unclear. Recent reports show that Agkistrodon-related bites rarely require treatment beyond simple observation and pain control. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of tissue loss in patients who received Crotalidae-Fab compared with those who did not after an Agkistrodon bite. After institutional review board approval, a retrospective study was completed at a Level 1 trauma center. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 57 snakebites were identified. Of the 57 bites, the snake species was documented in 36 cases including 31 copperheads, 1 cottonmouth, and 4 rattlesnakes. The other 21 bites were from unknown or nonvenomous species. Of the 32 Agkistrodon-related bites, 15 patients received Crotalidae-Fab (average of 3 vials administered) and 17 did not receive Crotalidae-Fab. None of the 32 patients, regardless of treatment option, had tissue loss or required surgical interventions. Only 1 patient received Crotalidae-Fab and debridement of a vesicle associated with the bite. No clinically significant differences were observed between the groups. These findings support previous literature that failed to show added benefit of Crotalidae-Fab treatment for Agkistrodon bites beyond patient comfort and pain control. Evaluation of current protocols for Agkistrodon envenomations is warranted. Snakebite wound education in trauma physicians and nurses may decrease unnecessary use of antivenom medication.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of two vascular apoptosis-inducing proteins (VAPs) from Crotalus atrox venom

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Tomoko; Oishi, Yuko; Araki, Satohiko; Mori, Hidezo; Takeda, Soichi

    2006-07-01

    Vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1) and VAP2 from C. atrox venom were crystallized in variety of different crystal forms. Diffraction data sets were obtained to 2.5 and 2.15 Å resolution for VAP1 and VAP2, respectively. VAPs are haemorrhagic snake-venom toxins belonging to the reprolysin family of zinc metalloproteinases. In vitro, VAPs induce apoptosis specifically in cultured vascular endothelial cells. VAPs have a modular structure that bears structural homology to mammalian ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases). VAP1 is a homodimer with a MW of 110 kDa in which the monomers are connected by a single disulfide bridge. VAP2 is homologous to VAP1 and exists as a monomer with a MW of 55 kDa. In the current study, several crystal forms of VAP1 and VAP2 were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected using SPring-8 beamlines. The best crystals of VAP1 and VAP2 generated data sets to 2.5 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively.

  19. The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin C, a disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich protein isolated from Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, J. J.; Moreno-Murciano, M. P.; Sanz, L.; Jürgens, M.; Schrader, M.; Raida, M.; Benjamin, D. C.; Fox, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin-C was determined by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The N-terminal disintegrin-like domain is a compact structure including eight disulfide bonds, seven of them in the same pattern as the disintegrin bitistatin. The protein has two extra cysteine residues (XIII and XVI) that form an additional disulfide bond that is characteristically found in the disintegrin-like domains of cellular metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and PIII snake venom Zn-metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of catrocollastatin-C contains five disulfide bonds between nearest-neighbor cysteines and a long range disulfide bridge between CysV and CysX. These results provide structural evidence for a redefinition of the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain boundaries. An evolutionary pathway for ADAMs, PIII, and PII SVMPs based on disulfide bond engineering is also proposed. PMID:10933502

  20. Identification of 30 kDa protein for Ca(2+) releasing action of myotoxin a with a mechanism common to DIDS in skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Y; Nakahata, N; Ohkura, M; Ohizumi, Y

    1999-08-12

    The molecular mechanism of Ca(2+) release by myotoxin a (MTYX), a polypeptide toxin isolated from the venom of prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis), was investigated in the heavy fraction of sarcoplasmic reticulum (HSR) of rabbit skeletal muscles. [(125)I]MYTX bound to four HSR proteins (106, 74, 53 and 30 kDa) on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. DIDS, 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, bound predominantly to 30 kDa protein on the PVDF membrane, the molecular weight of which was similar to one of the MYTX binding proteins. The maximum (45)Ca(2+) release induced by caffeine (30 mM) was further increased in the presence of MYTX (10 microM) or DIDS (30 microM), whereas that induced by DIDS (30 microM) was not affected by MYTX (10 microM). MYTX inhibited [(3)H]DIDS binding to HSR in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, [(125)I]MYTX binding to 30 kDa protein was inhibited by DIDS in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that MYTX and DIDS release Ca(2+) from HSR in a common mechanism. The 30 kDa protein may be a target protein for the Ca(2+) releasing action of MYTX and DIDS.

  1. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Predation and the maintenance of color polymorphism in a habitat specialist squamate.

    PubMed

    Farallo, Vincent R; Forstner, Michael R J

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have addressed the mechanisms maintaining polymorphism within a population. However, several examples exist where species inhabiting diverse habitats exhibit local population-specific polymorphism. Numerous explanations have been proposed for the maintenance of geographic variation in color patterns. For example, spatial variation in patterns of selection or limited gene flow can cause entire populations to become fixed for a single morph, resulting in separate populations of the same species exhibiting separate and distinct color morphs. The mottled rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus lepidus) is a montane species that exhibits among-population color polymorphism that correlates with substrate color. Habitat substrate in the eastern part of its range is composed primarily of light colored limestone and snakes have light dorsal coloration, whereas in the western region the substrate is primarily dark and snakes exhibit dark dorsal coloration. We hypothesized that predation on high contrast color and blotched patterns maintain these distinct color morphs. To test this we performed a predation experiment in the wild by deploying model snakes at 12 sites evenly distributed within each of the two regions where the different morphs are found. We employed a 2×2 factorial design that included two color and two blotched treatments. Our results showed that models contrasting with substrate coloration suffered significantly more avian attacks relative to models mimicking substrates. Predation attempts on blotched models were similar in each substrate type. These results support the hypothesis that color pattern is maintained by selective predation.

  3. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C.; Meik, J. M.; Dashevsky, D.; Card, D. C.; Castoe, T. A.; Schaack, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  4. Contrasting modes and tempos of venom expression evolution in two snake species.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; McGivern, James J; Seavy, Margaret; Wray, Kenneth P; Facente, Jack; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-01-01

    Selection is predicted to drive diversification within species and lead to local adaptation, but understanding the mechanistic details underlying this process and thus the genetic basis of adaptive evolution requires the mapping of genotype to phenotype. Venom is complex and involves many genes, but the specialization of the venom gland toward toxin production allows specific transcripts to be correlated with specific toxic proteins, establishing a direct link from genotype to phenotype. To determine the extent of expression variation and identify the processes driving patterns of phenotypic diversity, we constructed genotype-phenotype maps and compared range-wide toxin-protein expression variation for two species of snake with nearly identical ranges: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We detected significant expression variation in C. adamanteus, identified the specific loci associated with population differentiation, and found that loci expressed at all levels contributed to this divergence. Contrary to expectations, we found no expression variation in M. fulvius, suggesting that M. fulvius populations are not locally adapted. Our results not only linked expression variation at specific loci to divergence in a polygenic, complex trait but also have extensive conservation and biomedical implications. C. adamanteus is currently a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the loss of any major population would result in the irrevocable loss of a unique venom phenotype. The lack of variation in M. fulvius has significant biomedical application because our data will assist in the development of effective antivenom for this species.

  5. Sidewinding as a control template for climbing on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Gong, Chaohui; Gravish, Nick; Mendeslon, Joseph; Hatton, Ross; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Sidewinding, translation of a limbless system through lifting of body segments while others remain in static contact with the ground, is used by desert-dwelling snakes like sidewinder rattlesnakes Crotalus cerastes to locomote effectively on hard ground, rocky terrain, and loose sand. Biologically inspired snake robots using a sidewinding gait perform well on hard ground but suffer significant slip when ascending granular inclines. To understand the biological organisms and give robots new capabilities, we perform the first study of sidewinding on granular media. We vary the incline angle (0 < θ <20°) of a trackway composed of desert sand. Surface plate drag measurements reveal that as incline angle increases, downhill yield stresses decrease by 50%. Our biological measurements reveal that the animals double the length of the contact region as θ increases; we hypothesize that the snakes control this contact to reduce ground shear stress and avoid slipping. Implementing the anti-slip motion in a snake robot using contact patch modulation enables the robot to ascend granular inclines.

  6. Sidewinding as a control template for climbing on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Gong, Chaohui; Travers, Matthew; Gravish, Nick; Mendelson, Joseph; Hatton, Ross; Choset, Howie; Hu, David; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Sidewinding, translation of a limbless system through lifting of body segments while others remain in static contact with the ground, is used by desert-dwelling snakes like sidewinder rattlesnakes Crotalus cerastes to locomote effectively on hard ground, rocky terrain, and loose sand. Biologically inspired snake robots using a sidewinding gait perform well on hard ground but suffer significant slip when trying to ascend granular inclines. To understand the biological organisms and give robots new capabilities, we perform the first study of mechanics of sidewinding on granular media. We vary the incline angle (0 < θ <20°) of a trackway composed of desert sand. Surface plate drag measurements reveal that as incline angle increases, downhill yield stresses decrease by 50%. Our biological measurements reveal that the animals double the length of the contact region as θ increases; we hypothesize that snakes control this contact to reduce ground shear stress and so avoid slipping. Implementing this anti-slip strategy in a snake robot using contact patch modulation enables the robot to successfully ascend granular inclines.

  7. Stable isotopes may provide evidence for starvation in reptiles.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Pollock, Erik D

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have attempted to correlate stable isotope signatures of tissues with the nutritional condition of birds, mammals, fishes, and invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between food limitation and the isotopic composition of reptiles. We examined the effects that starvation has on delta13C and delta15N signatures in the tissues (excreta, carcass, scales, and claws) of six, distantly related squamate reptiles (gaboon vipers, Bitis gabonica; ball pythons, Python regius; ratsnakes, Elaphe obsoleta; boa constrictors, Boa constrictor; western diamondback rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox, and savannah monitor lizards, Varanus exanthematicus). Analyses revealed that the isotopic composition of reptile carcasses did not change significantly in response to bouts of starvation lasting up to 168 days. In contrast, the isotopic signatures of reptile excreta became significantly enriched in 15N and depleted in 13C during starvation. The isotopic signatures of reptile scales and lizard claws were less indicative of starvation time than those of excreta. We discuss the physiological mechanisms that might be responsible for the starvation-induced changes in 13C and 15N signatures in the excreta, and present a mixing model to describe the shift in excreted nitrogen source pools (i.e. from a labile source pool to a nonlabile source pool) that apparently occurs during starvation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that naturally occurring stable isotopes might ultimately have some utility for characterizing nitrogen and carbon stress among free-living reptiles.

  8. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-07-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date.

  9. Genetic characterization of a reptilian calicivirus (Cro1)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vesiviruses in the family Caliciviridae infect a broad range of animal hosts including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. The vesivirus Cro1 strains were isolated from diseased snakes in the San Diego zoo in 1978 and reported as the first caliciviruses found in reptiles. The goal of this study was to characterize the Cro1 strain 780032I that was isolated in cell culture from a rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus) in the original outbreak. Results We re-amplified the original virus stock in Vero cells, and determined its full-length genome sequence. The Cro1 genome is 8296 nucleotides (nt) in length and has a typical vesivirus organization, with three open reading frames (ORF), ORF1 (5643 nt), ORF2 (2121 nt), and ORF3 (348 nt) encoding a nonstructural polyprotein, the major capsid protein precursor, and a minor structural protein, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence revealed that the Cro1 virus clustered most closely with the VESV species of the genus Vesivirus, but was genetically distinct (82-83% identities with closest strains). Conclusions This is the first description of a full-length genome sequence from a reptile calicivirus (Cro1). The availability of the Cro1 genome sequence should facilitate investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in Cro1 virus evolution and host range. PMID:23190937

  10. Rare alluvial sands of El Monte Valley, California (San Diego County), support high herpetofaunal species richness and diversity, despite severe habitat disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Smith, Nathan W.; Nordland, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Robert N