Science.gov

Sample records for rave system requirements

  1. RAVE: Rapid Visualization Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Anderson, Kevin; Simoudis, Avangelos

    1994-01-01

    Visualization is used in the process of analyzing large, multidimensional data sets. However, the selection and creation of visualizations that are appropriate for the characteristics of a particular data set and the satisfaction of the analyst's goals is difficult. The process consists of three tasks that are performed iteratively: generate, test, and refine. The performance of these tasks requires the utilization of several types of domain knowledge that data analysts do not often have. Existing visualization systems and frameworks do not adequately support the performance of these tasks. In this paper we present the RApid Visualization Environment (RAVE), a knowledge-based system that interfaces with commercial visualization frameworks and assists a data analyst in quickly and easily generating, testing, and refining visualizations. RAVE was used for the visualization of in situ measurement data captured by spacecraft.

  2. Ukidna: the RAVE machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Andrew J.; Saunders, Will; Watson, Fred; Miziarski, Stan

    2004-09-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory is currently designing a new fibre positioner for the UK Schmidt Telescope. The instrument will have 2250 fibres, positioned with sub-arcsecond accuracy across a six degree field of view, and will have a reconfiguration time of one minute. The instrument is to enable the RAVE survey of high precision abundances and velocities for up to 50 million stars. The design is largely adapted from the AAO's FMOS-Echidna fibre positioner for Subaru. New design challenges for Ukidna include the enormous number of fibres, the large focal surface, and the field curvature of the Schmidt telescope. These features are mostly shared with the expected needs of future prime-focus multi-fibre systems on 8-30m class telescopes. We present details and performance of the multi-actuator design.

  3. Galactic Archaeology Highlights from RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordopatis, G.; RAVE Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) collected from 2003 to 2013 spectra for half a million low-mass stars of our galaxy. The information collected by the project helped to better understand the observed properties of the Milky Way outside the immediate Solar neighborhood and to unravel parts of the history of the evolution of the Galaxy. In this paper we make an overview of the results of RAVE and present some perspectives about future synergies of this project with the Gaia mission.

  4. Milky Way Kinematics from RAVE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasetto, S.; Grebel, E. K.; RAVE Co.

    2012-08-01

    We present a method to derive kinematic parameters for the Galactic thick and thin disks of the Milky Way (MW) based on the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE Steinmetz et al. 2006). We introduce selection criteria in order to clean the observed radial velocities from the Galactic large scale effects and to take into account the partial sky coverage of RAVE. The data are disentangled from a mixture of thin and thick disk stars as explained in a forthcoming paper (Pasetto et al. 2012) on the basis of pure kinematics arguments and supplied with photometric distances and proper motions. We deduce the components of the Solar motion relative to the Local Standard of Rest (LSR) in the radial and vertical directions as well as the components of the velocity dispersion tensors for the two MW component on the basis of pure kinematics arguments. The selected sample is a limited subsample from the RAVE catalogue roughly extending 500 pc above and below the Galactic plane. This sample tracks the velocity dispersion trend in radial direction to 1 kpc within and 500pc outside the Solar radius in the Galactic reference system.

  5. Searching for stars closely encountering with the solar system based on data from the Gaia DR1 and RAVE5 catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2017-08-01

    We have searched for the stars that either encountered in the past or will encounter in the future with the Solar system closer than 2 pc. For this purpose, we took more than 216 000 stars with the measured proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes from the Gaia DR1 catalogue and their radial velocities from the RAVE5 catalogue. We have found several stars for which encounters closer than 1 pc are possible. The star GJ 710, for which the minimum distance is d m = 0.063 ± 0.044 pc at time t m = 1385 ± 52 thousand years, is the record-holder among them. Two more stars, TYC 8088-631-1 and TYC 6528-980-1, whose encounter parameters, however, are estimated with large errors, are of interest.

  6. THE RAVE SURVEY: RICH IN VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Ruchti, Gregory R.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, Eva; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Siviero, A.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Steinmetz, M.

    2010-11-20

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <-2 dex, and down to below -4 dex, can be efficiently identified within the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of bright stars, without requiring additional confirmatory observations. We determine a calibration of the equivalent width of the calcium triplet lines measured from the RAVE spectra onto true [Fe/H], using high spectral resolution data for a subset of the stars. These RAVE iron abundances are accurate enough to obviate the need for confirmatory higher-resolution spectroscopy. Our initial study has identified 631 stars with [Fe/H] {<=}-2, from a RAVE database containing approximately 200,000 stars. This RAVE-based sample is complete for stars with [Fe/H] {approx_lt}-2.5, allowing statistical sample analysis. We identify three stars with [Fe/H] {approx_lt}-4. Of these, one was already known to be 'ultra metal-poor', one is a known carbon-enhanced metal-poor star, but we obtain [Fe/H] = -4.0, rather than the published [Fe/H] = -3.3, and derive [C/Fe] = +0.9, and [N/Fe] = +3.2, and the third is at the limit of our signal-to-noise ratio. RAVE observations are ongoing and should prove to be a rich source of bright, easily studied, very metal-poor stars.

  7. The RAVE Survey: Rich in Very Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Ruchti, Gregory R.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, Eva; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Zwitter, T.

    2010-11-01

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <-2 dex, and down to below -4 dex, can be efficiently identified within the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of bright stars, without requiring additional confirmatory observations. We determine a calibration of the equivalent width of the calcium triplet lines measured from the RAVE spectra onto true [Fe/H], using high spectral resolution data for a subset of the stars. These RAVE iron abundances are accurate enough to obviate the need for confirmatory higher-resolution spectroscopy. Our initial study has identified 631 stars with [Fe/H] <=-2, from a RAVE database containing approximately 200,000 stars. This RAVE-based sample is complete for stars with [Fe/H] lsim-2.5, allowing statistical sample analysis. We identify three stars with [Fe/H] lsim-4. Of these, one was already known to be "ultra metal-poor," one is a known carbon-enhanced metal-poor star, but we obtain [Fe/H] = -4.0, rather than the published [Fe/H] = -3.3, and derive [C/Fe] = +0.9, and [N/Fe] = +3.2, and the third is at the limit of our signal-to-noise ratio. RAVE observations are ongoing and should prove to be a rich source of bright, easily studied, very metal-poor stars. Based in part on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, in the framework of proposals 081.B-0900 and 080.B-0927.

  8. New distances to RAVE stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, J.; Burnett, B.; Kordopatis, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Sharma, S.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Steinmetz, M.; Gilmore, G.; Williams, M. E. K.; Navarro, J.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Probability density functions (pdfs) are determined from new stellar parameters for the distance moduli of stars for which the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) has obtained spectra with S/N ≥ 10. Single-Gaussian fits to the pdf in distance modulus suffice for roughly half the stars, with most of the other half having satisfactory two-Gaussian representations. As expected, early-type stars rarely require more than one Gaussian. The expectation value of distance is larger than the distance implied by the expectation of distance modulus; the latter is itself larger than the distance implied by the expectation value of the parallax. Our parallaxes of Hipparcos stars agree well with the values measured by Hipparcos, so the expectation of parallax is the most reliable distance indicator. The latter are improved by taking extinction into account. The effective temperature-absolute magnitude diagram of our stars is significantly improved when these pdfs are used to make the diagram. We use the method of kinematic corrections devised by Schönrich, Binney and Asplund to check for systematic errors for general stars and confirm that the most reliable distance indicator is the expectation of parallax. For cool dwarfs and low-gravity giants, <ϖ> tends to be larger than the true distance by up to 30 per cent. The most satisfactory distances are for dwarfs hotter than 5500 K. We compare our distances to stars in 13 open clusters with cluster distances from the literature and find excellent agreement for the dwarfs and indications that we are overestimating distances to giants, especially in young clusters.

  9. Raves, psychosis, and spirit healing.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2010-07-01

    This paper reflects the intersection of three cultures: the rave (all night dance party and use of the drug, Ecstasy) culture; the ward culture of an inpatient psychiatric program for First Episode Psychosis; the spirit healing culture of the Philippines. All three intersected in Toronto, Canada in the mid 1990s, as illustrated by the clinical case of a 19-year-old university student who was hospitalized with symptoms of drug-induced psychosis. Her initial treatment was not successful and presented dilemmas for the treating staff. Transfer to a second psychiatric facility that permitted attendance at a traditional Filipino healing ceremony resulted in a cure, with no recurrence 10 years later. According to James Dow's 1986 formulation, the components of the key spiritual healing session paralleled the very elements the young woman had sought by participating in raves, an activity that was problematic because it led to family displeasure. Whereas attendance at a rave triggered illness, the healing session, sanctioned by her family and taking place in their midst, resulted in healing.

  10. DOUBLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STARS IN THE RAVE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.

    2010-07-15

    We devise a new method for the detection of double-lined binary stars in a sample of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey spectra. The method is both tested against extensive simulations based on synthetic spectra and compared to direct visual inspection of all RAVE spectra. It is based on the properties and shape of the cross-correlation function, and is able to recover {approx}80% of all binaries with an orbital period of order 1 day. Systems with periods up to 1 yr are still within the detection reach. We have applied the method to 25,850 spectra of the RAVE second data release and found 123 double-lined binary candidates, only eight of which are already marked as binaries in the SIMBAD database. Among the candidates, there are seven that show spectral features consistent with the RS CVn type (solar type with active chromosphere) and seven that might be of W UMa type (over-contact binaries). One star, HD 101167, seems to be a triple system composed of three nearly identical G-type dwarfs. The tested classification method could also be applicable to the data of the upcoming Gaia mission.

  11. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  12. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  13. The selection function of the RAVE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojno, Jennifer; Kordopatis, Georges; Piffl, Tilmann; Binney, James; Steinmetz, Matthias; Matijevič, Gal; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Sharma, Sanjib; McMillan, Paul; Watson, Fred; Reid, Warren; Kunder, Andrea; Enke, Harry; Grebel, Eva K.; Seabroke, George; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Zwitter, Tomaž; Bienaymé, Olivier; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Gibson, Brad K.; Gilmore, Gerry; Helmi, Amina; Munari, Ulisse; Navarro, Julio F.; Parker, Quentin A.; Siebert, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    We characterize the selection function of RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) using 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) as our underlying population, which we assume represents all stars that could have potentially been observed. We evaluate the completeness fraction as a function of position, magnitude and colour in two ways: first, on a field-by-field basis, and second, in equal-size areas on the sky. Then, we consider the effect of the RAVE stellar parameter pipeline on the final resulting catalogue, which in principle limits the parameter space over which our selection function is valid. Our final selection function is the product of the completeness fraction and the selection function of the pipeline. We then test if the application of the selection function introduces biases in the derived parameters. To do this, we compare a parent mock catalogue generated using galaxia with a mock-RAVE catalogue where the selection function of RAVE has been applied. We conclude that for stars brighter than I = 12, between 4000 < Teff < 8000 K and 0.5 < log g < 5.0, RAVE is kinematically and chemically unbiased with respect to expectations from galaxia.

  14. An Exploration of Recent Club Drug Use among Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Raves are characterized by large numbers of youth dancing for long periods of time and by the use of "club drugs," such as 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). While a small body of research has explored the use of ecstasy and other club drugs (EOCD) among club rave attendees in the United States, we are…

  15. An Exploration of Recent Club Drug Use among Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Raves are characterized by large numbers of youth dancing for long periods of time and by the use of "club drugs," such as 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). While a small body of research has explored the use of ecstasy and other club drugs (EOCD) among club rave attendees in the United States, we are…

  16. The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE): Third Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, A.; Williams, M. E. K.; Siviero, A.; Reid, W.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Fulbright, J.; Munari, U.; Zwitter, T.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; de Jong, R. S.; Enke, H.; Anguiano, B.; Burton, D.; Cass, C. J. P.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Ritter, A.; Russel, K. S.; Stupar, M.; Bienaymé, O.; Freeman, K. C.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Famaey, B.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Matijevič, G.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Sharma, S.; Smith, M. C.; Wylie-de Boer, E.

    2011-06-01

    We present the third data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) which is the first milestone of the RAVE project, releasing the full pilot survey. The catalog contains 83,072 radial velocity measurements for 77,461 stars in the southern celestial hemisphere, as well as stellar parameters for 39,833 stars. This paper describes the content of the new release, the new processing pipeline, as well as an updated calibration for the metallicity based upon the observation of additional standard stars. Spectra will be made available in a future release. The data release can be accessed via the RAVE Web site.

  17. THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT (RAVE): THIRD DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, A.; Williams, M. E. K.; Siviero, A.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; De Jong, R. S.; Enke, H.; Anguiano, B.; Reid, W.; Ritter, A.; Fulbright, J.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Munari, U.; Zwitter, T.; Watson, F. G.; Burton, D.; Cass, C. J. P.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Russel, K. S.

    2011-06-15

    We present the third data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) which is the first milestone of the RAVE project, releasing the full pilot survey. The catalog contains 83,072 radial velocity measurements for 77,461 stars in the southern celestial hemisphere, as well as stellar parameters for 39,833 stars. This paper describes the content of the new release, the new processing pipeline, as well as an updated calibration for the metallicity based upon the observation of additional standard stars. Spectra will be made available in a future release. The data release can be accessed via the RAVE Web site.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Omega Cen candidates RAVE-selected (Fernandez-Trincado+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Vieira, K.; Moreno, E.; Bienayme, O.; Reyle, C.; Valenzuela, O.; Pichardo, B.; Robles-Valdez, F.; Martins, A. M. M.

    2015-11-01

    The sample was selected from the RAVE DR4 catalog (Kordopatis et al., 2013, Cat. III/272), which provides accurate radial velocities with typical errors of σRV~2km/s, and distances and individual abundances with errors of about 10-20%, determined for approximately 390000 relatively bright stars (9magRAVE DR4 were compiled from several catalogs, however, in this work we use UCAC4 (Zacharias et al., 2013, Cat. I/322). We used these data to make a kinematical selection of RAVE stars possibly related to omega Centauri, also taking spatial distribution and metallicity into account, as well as some additional quality control cuts to select robust data. In this work we restricted our study to RAVE stars with Galactic longitudes 240°required the stars to have high quality spectra ({chi}2<2000) with a signal-to-noise ratio S/N>20 (algo_conv=0 was required, indicating that the pipeline converges, see Kordopatis et al., 2013, Cat. III/272). This cut allowed us to obtain precise radial velocity measurements, typically σRV<2km/s, in order to constraint the full space motion. The metallicity [Fe/H] distribution for giant stars within Omega Centauri spans more than a magnitude order, from -2.2dex<[Fe/H]<-0.7dex (Johnson & Pilachowski, 2010, Cat. J/ApJ/722/1373), therefore we allowed stars in our sample to be in this range of metallicity. (1 data file).

  19. EXPLORING THE MORPHOLOGY OF RAVE STELLAR SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M.; Watson, F. G.; and others

    2012-06-01

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a medium-resolution (R {approx} 7500) spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way that has already obtained over half a million stellar spectra. They present a randomly selected magnitude-limited sample, so it is important to use a reliable and automated classification scheme that identifies normal single stars and discovers different types of peculiar stars. To this end, we present a morphological classification of {approx}350, 000 RAVE survey stellar spectra using locally linear embedding, a dimensionality reduction method that enables representing the complex spectral morphology in a low-dimensional projected space while still preserving the properties of the local neighborhoods of spectra. We find that the majority of all spectra in the database ({approx} 90%-95%) belong to normal single stars, but there is also a significant population of several types of peculiars. Among them, the most populated groups are those of various types of spectroscopic binary and chromospherically active stars. Both of them include several thousands of spectra. Particularly the latter group offers significant further investigation opportunities since activity of stars is a known proxy of stellar ages. Applying the same classification procedure to the sample of normal single stars alone shows that the shape of the projected manifold in two-dimensional space correlates with stellar temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity.

  20. Exploring the Morphology of RAVE Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevič, G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2012-06-01

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a medium-resolution (R ~ 7500) spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way that has already obtained over half a million stellar spectra. They present a randomly selected magnitude-limited sample, so it is important to use a reliable and automated classification scheme that identifies normal single stars and discovers different types of peculiar stars. To this end, we present a morphological classification of ~350, 000 RAVE survey stellar spectra using locally linear embedding, a dimensionality reduction method that enables representing the complex spectral morphology in a low-dimensional projected space while still preserving the properties of the local neighborhoods of spectra. We find that the majority of all spectra in the database (~ 90%-95%) belong to normal single stars, but there is also a significant population of several types of peculiars. Among them, the most populated groups are those of various types of spectroscopic binary and chromospherically active stars. Both of them include several thousands of spectra. Particularly the latter group offers significant further investigation opportunities since activity of stars is a known proxy of stellar ages. Applying the same classification procedure to the sample of normal single stars alone shows that the shape of the projected manifold in two-dimensional space correlates with stellar temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity.

  1. RAVE stars in K2. I. Improving RAVE red giants spectroscopy using asteroseismology from K2 Campaign 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, M.; Chiappini, C.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Mosser, B.; Lund, M. N.; Miglio, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Rodrigues, T. S.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Matijevič, G.; Kordopatis, G.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Munari, U.; Bienaymé, O.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Kunder, A.; McMillan, P.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Sharma, S.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.; Mott, A.

    2017-04-01

    We present a set of 87 RAVE stars with detected solar like oscillations, observed during Campaign 1 of the K2 mission (RAVE K2-C1 sample). This data set provides a useful benchmark for testing the gravities provided in RAVE data release 4 (DR4), and is key for the calibration of the RAVE data release 5 (DR5). The RAVE survey collected medium-resolution spectra (R = 7500) centred in the Ca II triplet(8600 Å) wavelength interval, which although being very useful for determining radial velocity and metallicity, even at low S/N, is known be affected by a log (g)-Teff degeneracy. This degeneracy is the cause of the large spread in the RAVE DR4 gravities for giants. The understanding of the trends and offsets that affects RAVE atmospheric parameters, and in particular log (g), is a crucial step in obtaining not only improved abundance measurements, but also improved distances and ages. In the present work, we use two different pipelines, GAUFRE and Sp_Ace, to determine atmospheric parameters and abundances by fixing log (g) to the seismic one. Our strategy ensures highly consistent values among all stellar parameters, leading to more accurate chemical abundances. A comparison of the chemical abundances obtained here with and without the use of seismic log (g) information has shown that an underestimated (overestimated) gravity leads to an underestimated (overestimated) elemental abundance (e.g. [Mg/H] is underestimated by 0.25 dex when the gravity is underestimated by 0.5 dex). We then perform a comparison between the seismic gravities and the spectroscopic gravities presented in the RAVE DR4 catalogue, extracting a calibration for log (g) of RAVE giants in the colour interval 0.50 < (J-KS) < 0.85. Finally, we show a comparison of the distances, temperatures, extinctions (and ages) derived here for our RAVE K2-C1 sample with those derived in RAVE DR4 and DR5. DR5 performs better than DR4 thanks to the seismic calibration, although discrepancies can still be important

  2. THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT (RAVE): FOURTH DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Carrillo, I.; Boeche, C.; Roeser, S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; De Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Anguiano, B.; and others

    2013-11-01

    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron, and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline that is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration Web site and the Vizier database.

  3. The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE): Fourth Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Boeche, C.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Roeser, S.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Carrillo, I.; Anguiano, B.; Burton, D.; Campbell, R.; Cass, C. J. P.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Ritter, A.; Russell, K. S.; Stupar, M.; Watson, F. G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Conrad, C.; Famaey, B.; Faure, C.; Just, A.; Kos, J.; Matijevič, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Minchev, I.; Scholz, R.; Sharma, S.; Siviero, A.; de Boer, E. Wylie; Žerjal, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron, and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline that is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration Web site and the Vizier database.

  4. Chemical separation of disc components using RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojno, Jennifer; Kordopatis, Georges; Steinmetz, Matthias; McMillan, Paul; Matijevič, Gal; Binney, James; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Boeche, Corrado; Just, Andreas; Grebel, Eva K.; Siebert, Arnaud; Bienaymé, Olivier; Gibson, Brad K.; Zwitter, Tomaž; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Navarro, Julio F.; Parker, Quentin A.; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George; Watson, Fred

    2016-10-01

    We present evidence from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of chemically separated, kinematically distinct disc components in the solar neighbourhood. We apply probabilistic chemical selection criteria to separate our sample into α-low (`thin disc') and α-high (`thick disc') sequences. Using newly derived distances, which will be utilized in the upcoming RAVE DR5, we explore the kinematic trends as a function of metallicity for each of the disc components. For our α-low disc, we find a negative trend in the mean rotational velocity (Vφ) as a function of iron abundance ([Fe/H]). We measure a positive gradient ∂Vφ/∂[Fe/H] for the α-high disc, consistent with results from high-resolution surveys. We also find differences between the α-low and α-high discs in all three components of velocity dispersion. We discuss the implications of an α-low, metal-rich population originating from the inner Galaxy, where the orbits of these stars have been significantly altered by radial mixing mechanisms in order to bring them into the solar neighbourhood. The probabilistic separation we propose can be extended to other data sets for which the accuracy in [α/Fe] is not sufficient to disentangle the chemical disc components a priori. For such data sets which will also have significant overlap with Gaia DR1, we can therefore make full use of the improved parallax and proper motion data as it becomes available to investigate kinematic trends in these chemical disc components.

  5. The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE): Fifth Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunder, Andrea; Kordopatis, Georges; Steinmetz, Matthias; Zwitter, Tomaž; McMillan, Paul J.; Casagrande, Luca; Enke, Harry; Wojno, Jennifer; Valentini, Marica; Chiappini, Cristina; Matijevič, Gal; Siviero, Alessandro; de Laverny, Patrick; Recio-Blanco, Alejandra; Bijaoui, Albert; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Binney, James; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, Amina; Jofre, Paula; Antoja, Teresa; Gilmore, Gerard; Siebert, Arnaud; Famaey, Benoit; Bienaymé, Olivier; Gibson, Brad K.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Navarro, Julio F.; Munari, Ulisse; Seabroke, George; Anguiano, Borja; Žerjal, Maruša; Minchev, Ivan; Reid, Warren; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Kos, Janez; Sharma, Sanjib; Watson, Fred; Parker, Quentin A.; Scholz, Ralf-Dieter; Burton, Donna; Cass, Paul; Hartley, Malcolm; Fiegert, Kristin; Stupar, Milorad; Ritter, Andreas; Hawkins, Keith; Gerhard, Ortwin; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Lund, M. N.; Miglio, A.; Mosser, B.

    2017-02-01

    Data Release 5 (DR5) of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is the fifth data release from a magnitude-limited (9< I< 12) survey of stars randomly selected in the Southern Hemisphere. The RAVE medium-resolution spectra (R˜ 7500) covering the Ca-triplet region (8410-8795 Å) span the complete time frame from the start of RAVE observations in 2003 to their completion in 2013. Radial velocities from 520,781 spectra of 457,588 unique stars are presented, of which 255,922 stellar observations have parallaxes and proper motions from the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution in Gaia DR1. For our main DR5 catalog, stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and overall metallicity) are computed using the RAVE DR4 stellar pipeline, but calibrated using recent K2 Campaign 1 seismic gravities and Gaia benchmark stars, as well as results obtained from high-resolution studies. Also included are temperatures from the Infrared Flux Method, and we provide a catalog of red giant stars in the dereddened color {(J-{Ks})}0 interval (0.50, 0.85) for which the gravities were calibrated based only on seismology. Further data products for subsamples of the RAVE stars include individual abundances for Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni, and distances found using isochrones. Each RAVE spectrum is complemented by an error spectrum, which has been used to determine uncertainties on the parameters. The data can be accessed via the RAVE Web site or the VizieR database.

  6. Molecular Interactions and Cellular Itinerary of the Yeast RAVE (Regulator of the H+-ATPase of Vacuolar and Endosomal Membranes) Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Smardon, Anne M.; Nasab, Negin Dehdar; Tarsio, Maureen; Diakov, Theodore T.; Kane, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    The RAVE complex (regulator of the H+-ATPase of vacuolar and endosomal membranes) is required for biosynthetic assembly and glucose-stimulated reassembly of the yeast vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). Yeast RAVE contains three subunits: Rav1, Rav2, and Skp1. Rav1 is the largest subunit, and it binds Rav2 and Skp1 of RAVE; the E, G, and C subunits of the V-ATPase peripheral V1 sector; and Vph1 of the membrane Vo sector. We identified Rav1 regions required for interaction with its binding partners through deletion analysis, co-immunoprecipitation, two-hybrid assay, and pulldown assays with expressed proteins. We find that Skp1 binding requires sequences near the C terminus of Rav1, V1 subunits E and C bind to a conserved region in the C-terminal half of Rav1, and the cytosolic domain of Vph1 binds near the junction of the Rav1 N- and C-terminal halves. In contrast, Rav2 binds to the N-terminal domain of Rav1, which can be modeled as a double β-propeller. Only the V1 C subunit binds to both Rav1 and Rav2. Using GFP-tagged RAVE subunits in vivo, we demonstrate glucose-dependent association of RAVE with the vacuolar membrane, consistent with its role in glucose-dependent V-ATPase assembly. It is known that V1 subunit C localizes to the V1-Vo interface in assembled V-ATPase complexes and is important in regulated disassembly of V-ATPases. We propose that RAVE cycles between cytosol and vacuolar membrane in a glucose-dependent manner, positioning V1 and V0 subcomplexes and orienting the V1 C subunit to promote assembly. PMID:26405040

  7. Raves: a review of the culture, the drugs and the prevention of harm

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E

    2000-01-01

    Raves are all-night dance parties attended by large numbers of youth, sometimes in excess of 20,000. The rave scene, which is international in scope, is distinguished by clandestine venues, hypnotic electronic music and the liberal use of drugs such as ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and ketamine. Several rave-related deaths in Canada in 1999 alerted health authorities, parents and police to the health risks of rave attendance. Family physicians, emergency physicians and pediatricians should have some understanding of raves, the drugs and the health risks so they can effectively counsel and treat patients. The rave culture in Canada and the drugs commonly used at raves are reviewed, and strategies and initiatives for harm reduction are discussed. PMID:10906922

  8. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  9. TWRSview system requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  10. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  11. THE RAVE CATALOG OF STELLAR ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES: FIRST DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Boeche, C.; Williams, M.; De Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Siebert, A.; Bienayme, O.; Fulbright, J. P.; Ruchti, G. R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; and others

    2011-12-15

    We present chemical elemental abundances for 36,561 stars observed by the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), an ambitious spectroscopic survey of our Galaxy at Galactic latitudes |b| > 25 Degree-Sign and with magnitudes in the range 9 RAVE spectra cover the Ca-triplet region at 8410-8795 A with resolving power R {approx} 7500. This first data release of the RAVE chemical catalog is complementary to the third RAVE data release of radial velocities and stellar parameters, and it contains chemical abundances for the elements Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni, with a mean error of {approx}0.2 dex, as judged from accuracy tests performed on synthetic and real spectra. Abundances are estimated through a dedicated processing pipeline in which the curve of growth of individual lines is obtained from a library of absorption line equivalent widths to construct a model spectrum that is then matched to the observed spectrum via a {chi}{sup 2} minimization technique. We plan to extend this pipeline to include estimates for other elements, such as oxygen and sulfur, in future data releases.

  12. The RAVE Catalog of Stellar Elemental Abundances: First Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeche, C.; Siebert, A.; Williams, M.; de Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Fulbright, J. P.; Ruchti, G. R.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2011-12-01

    We present chemical elemental abundances for 36,561 stars observed by the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), an ambitious spectroscopic survey of our Galaxy at Galactic latitudes |b| > 25° and with magnitudes in the range 9 RAVE spectra cover the Ca-triplet region at 8410-8795 Å with resolving power R ~ 7500. This first data release of the RAVE chemical catalog is complementary to the third RAVE data release of radial velocities and stellar parameters, and it contains chemical abundances for the elements Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni, with a mean error of ~0.2 dex, as judged from accuracy tests performed on synthetic and real spectra. Abundances are estimated through a dedicated processing pipeline in which the curve of growth of individual lines is obtained from a library of absorption line equivalent widths to construct a model spectrum that is then matched to the observed spectrum via a χ2 minimization technique. We plan to extend this pipeline to include estimates for other elements, such as oxygen and sulfur, in future data releases.

  13. Distance determination for RAVE stars using stellar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breddels, M. A.; Smith, M. C.; Helmi, A.; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Burnett, B. C. M.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: We develop a method for deriving distances from spectroscopic data and obtaining full 6D phase-space coordinates for the RAVE survey's second data release. Methods: We used stellar models combined with atmospheric properties from RAVE (effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) and (J-Ks) photometry from archival sources to derive absolute magnitudes. In combination with apparent magnitudes, sky coordinates, proper motions from a variety of sources and radial velocities from RAVE, we are able to derive the full 6D phase-space coordinates for a large sample of RAVE stars. This method is tested with artificial data, Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes and observations of the open cluster M 67. Results: When we applied our method to a set of 16 146 stars, we found that 25% (4037) of the stars have relative (statistical) distance errors of <35%, while 50% (8073) and 75% (12 110) have relative (statistical) errors smaller than 45% and 50%, respectively. Our various tests show that we can reliably estimate distances for main-sequence stars, but there is an indication of potential systematic problems with giant stars owing to uncertainties in the underlying stellar models. For the main-sequence star sample (defined as those with log(g) > 4), 25% (1744) have relative distance errors <31%, while 50% (3488) and 75% (5231) have relative errors smaller than 36% and 42%, respectively. Our full dataset shows the expected decrease in the metallicity of stars as a function of distance from the Galactic plane. The known kinematic substructures in the U and V velocity components of nearby dwarf stars are apparent in our dataset, confirming the accuracy of our data and the reliability of our technique. We provide independent measurements of the orientation of the UV velocity ellipsoid and of the solar motion, and they are in very good agreement with previous work. Conclusions: The distance catalogue for the RAVE second data release is available at

  14. It's a Rave New World: Estimating the Prevalence and Perceived Harm of Ecstasy and Other Drug Use among Club Rave Attendees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Boyle, Cynthia; Harding, Christine A.; Loftus, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    This study collected self-report drug use information from 70 adult "club rave" attendees. Eighty-six percent of the respondents reported lifetime ecstasy use, 51 percent reported 30-day use, and 30 percent reported using ecstasy within the two days preceding the interview. Findings suggest that rave attendees may be an important…

  15. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION OFFICE HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION REQUIREMENTS POCKET GUIDE SEPTEMBER 2009 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE Pocket Guide 3. DATES...COVERED 00-09-2009 to 00-12-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Human Systems Integration Requirements Pocket Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. The games: what can the sports medicine community learn from raves?

    PubMed

    Grange, Jeff T; Corbett, Stephen W; Downs, Dawn M

    2014-01-01

    Electronic dance music festivals, also known as raves, are increasing in popularity. Despite the occasional tragedy in the lay press regarding medical incidents at raves, such events are relatively safe when compared to other mass gatherings. While the medical usage rates are lower than rock concerts and marathons, there are many similarities to both types of events with regard to the types of injuries and medical complaints. This article may assist in planning medical support for raves in the future.

  17. Impulsivity and executive functions in polysubstance-using rave attenders.

    PubMed

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Del Mar Sánchez-Fernández, María; Alonso-Maroto, Luisa María; Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Perales, Jose C; Lozano, Oscar; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Rave parties are characterized by high levels of drug use and polysubstance-using patterns that may be especially harmful for psychological and neuropsychological functioning. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of different aspects of impulsivity and executive functions in a sample of polysubstance-using rave attenders. We collected data from two groups: rave attenders (RvA, n = 25) and drug-free healthy comparison individuals (HCI, n = 27). RvA were regular users of cannabis, cocaine, methampethamine, hallucinogens, and alcohol. The assessment protocol included a drug-taking interview, the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the delay-discounting questionnaire and a set of neuropsychological tests taxing different aspects of executive functions: response speed, working memory, reasoning, response inhibition and switching, self-regulation, decision making, and emotion perception. For impulsivity measures, RvA had significantly elevated scores on lack of perseverance and positive and negative urgency, but did not differ from controls on lack of premeditation or sensation seeking. For neuropsychological functioning, RvA had significantly poorer performance on indices of analogical reasoning, processing speed, working memory, inhibition/switching errors, and decision making, but performed similar to controls on indices of self-regulation, reversal learning, and emotion processing. Peak and binge alcohol and drug use were positively correlated with positive urgency, and negatively correlated with performance on executive indices. Rave attenders have selective alterations of impulsive personality and executive functions. These findings can contribute to delineate the neuropsychological profiles that distinguish recreational polysubstance use from substance dependence.

  18. Harm reduction behaviors among young polysubstance users at raves.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Lozano-Rojas, Óscar; Rojas-Tejada, Antonio; Bilbao-Acedos, Izaskun; Vidal-Giné, Claudio; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; González-Saiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Raves may be considered recreational settings in which drug use and health risks related to polydrug use are higher than in others. Harm reduction behaviors implemented by ravers are of particular relevance in reducing such risks. This study analyzes harm reduction behaviors and their relationship to raver polysubstance use patterns. Cross-sectional study of 248 ravers recruited at underground raves in Andalusia (Spain). A questionnaire was developed to collect information about their sociodemographics, drug use, and harm reduction behaviors. The results show that ravers employ harm reduction behaviors for minimizing drug-related harm. Nevertheless, only a small minority of the participants frequently employed harm reduction behavior for polysubstance use as well. Ravers identified as high polysubstance users protected themselves significantly less than those identified as low polysubstance users. This study provides empirical information that may be useful for harm reduction intervention in a hidden and hard-to-reach population like rave attendees. The results point to the need to inform and increase harm reduction behavior specifically aimed at polysubstance use by ravers, especially among more frequent users. Future directions for research are also suggested.

  19. Toward an Ecstasy and Other Club Drug (EOCD) Prevention Intervention for Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Miller, Sarah; Pianim, Selwyn; Kunz, Michael; Orrick, Erin; Link, Tanja; Palacios, Wilson R.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    A growing body of recent research has identified that "rave" attendees are at high risk for the use of "club drugs," such as 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). Rave attendees, however, comprise only one of several club-going populations. In the current study, we explore the prevalence of ecstasy and other club drug (EOCD) use…

  20. Toward an Ecstasy and Other Club Drug (EOCD) Prevention Intervention for Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Miller, Sarah; Pianim, Selwyn; Kunz, Michael; Orrick, Erin; Link, Tanja; Palacios, Wilson R.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    A growing body of recent research has identified that "rave" attendees are at high risk for the use of "club drugs," such as 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). Rave attendees, however, comprise only one of several club-going populations. In the current study, we explore the prevalence of ecstasy and other club drug (EOCD) use…

  1. Space systems requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The compilation of Scientific Data Requirements (SDRs) were based on discussions with a representative cross section of the scientific community and a selected survey of the extensive literature dealing with the measurement of CO2-induced climatic changes. This approach resulted in a baseline set of SDRs to determine what could be accomplished with space-based sensors. Twenty-three SDRs emerged as the basis for the investigation of space systems.

  2. Requirements management system browser software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the essential user requirements for the Requirements Management System Browser (RMSB) application. This includes specifications for the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the supporting database structures. The RMSB application is needed to provide an easy to use PC-based interface to browse system engineering data stored and managed in a UNIX software application. The system engineering data include functions, requirements, and architectures that make up the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) technical baseline. This document also covers the requirements for a software application titled ``RMSB Data Loader (RMSB- DL)``, referred to as the ``Parser.`` The Parser is needed to read and parse a data file and load the data structure supporting the Browser.

  3. The RAVE/VERTIGO vertex reconstruction toolkit and framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltenberger, W.; Mitaroff, W.; Moser, F.; Pflugfelder, B.; Riedel, H. V.

    2008-07-01

    A detector-independent toolkit for vertex reconstruction (RAVE1) is being developed, along with a standalone framework (VERTIGO2) for testing, analyzing and debugging. The core algorithms represent state-of-the-art for geometric vertex finding and fitting by both linear (Kalman filter) and robust estimation methods. Main design goals are ease of use, flexibility for embedding into existing software frameworks, extensibility, and openness. The implementation is based on modern object-oriented techniques, is coded in C++ with interfaces for Java and Python, and follows an open-source approach. A beta release is available.

  4. The RAVE survey: the Galactic escape speed and the mass of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piffl, T.; Scannapieco, C.; Binney, J.; Steinmetz, M.; Scholz, R.-D.; Williams, M. E. K.; de Jong, R. S.; Kordopatis, G.; Matijevič, G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-02-01

    We made new estimates of the Galactic escape speed at various Galactocentric radii using the latest data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE DR4). Compared to previous studies we have a database that is larger by a factor of 10, as well as reliable distance estimates for almost all stars. Our analysis is based on statistical analysis of a rigorously selected sample of 90 high-velocity halo stars from RAVE and a previously published data set. We calibrated and extensively tested our method using a suite of cosmological simulations of the formation of Milky Way-sized galaxies. Our best estimate of the local Galactic escape speed, which we define as the minimum speed required to reach three virial radii R340, is 533+54-41 km s-1 (90% confidence), with an additional 4% systematic uncertainty, where R340 is the Galactocentric radius encompassing a mean overdensity of 340 times the critical density for closure in the Universe. From the escape speed we further derived estimates of the mass of the Galaxy using a simple mass model with two options for the mass profile of the dark matter halo: an unaltered and an adiabatically contracted Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) sphere. If we fix the local circular velocity, the latter profile yields a significantly higher mass than the uncontracted halo, but if we instead use the statistics for halo concentration parameters in large cosmological simulations as a constraint, we find very similar masses for both models. Our best estimate for M340, the mass interiorto R340 (dark matter and baryons), is 1.3+0.4-0.3 × 1012 M⊙ (corresponds to M200 = 1.6+0.5-0.4 × 1012 M⊙). This estimate is in good agreement with recently published, independent mass estimates based on the kinematics of more distant halo stars and the satellite galaxy Leo I.

  5. RAVE J203843.2-002333: The First Highly R-process-enhanced Star Identified in the RAVE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Holmbeck, Erika M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Surman, Rebecca A.; Ji, Alexander P.; Ezzeddine, Rana; Points, Sean D.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Hansen, Terese T.; Sakari, Charli M.; Casey, Andrew R.

    2017-07-01

    We report the discovery of RAVE J203843.2-002333, a bright (V = 12.73), very metal-poor ([{Fe}/{{H}}] = -2.91), r-process-enhanced ([{Eu}/{Fe}] = +1.64 and [{Ba}/{Eu}] = -0.81) star selected from the RAVE survey. This star was identified as a metal-poor candidate based on its medium-resolution (R ˜ 1600) spectrum obtained with the KPNO/Mayall Telescope, and followed up with high-resolution (R ˜ 66,000) spectroscopy with the Magellan/Clay Telescope, allowing for the determination of elemental abundances for 24 neutron-capture elements, including thorium and uranium. RAVE J2038-0023 is only the fourth metal-poor star with a clearly measured U abundance. The derived chemical abundance pattern exhibits good agreement with those of other known highly r-process-enhanced stars, and evidence suggests that it is not an actinide-boost star. Age estimates were calculated using U/X abundance ratios, yielding a mean age of 13.0 ± 1.1 Gyr. Based on observations gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO Prop. ID: 14B-0231; PI: Placco), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The authors are honored to be permitted to conduct astronomical research on Iolkam Du’ag (Kitt Peak), a mountain with particular significance to the Tohono O’odham.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RAVE DR2 distance catalogue (Breddels+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breddels, M. A.; Smith, M. C.; Helmi, A.; Bienayme, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Burnett, B. C. M.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2010-06-01

    We used stellar models combined with atmospheric properties from RAVE (effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) and (J-Ks) photometry from archival sources to derive absolute magnitudes. In combination with apparent magnitudes, sky coordinates, proper motions from a variety of sources and radial velocities from RAVE, we are able to derive the full 6D phase-space coordinates for a large sample of RAVE stars. This method is tested with artificial data, Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes and observations of the open cluster M 67. (1 data file).

  7. Distance determination for RAVE stars using stellar models. III. The nature of the RAVE survey and Milky Way chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, B.; Binney, J.; Sharma, S.; Williams, M.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Fulbright, J.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2011-08-01

    We apply the method of Burnett & Binney (2010, MNRAS, 407, 339) for the determination of stellar distances and parameters to the internal catalogue of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE; Steinmetz et al. 2006, AJ, 132, 1645). Subsamples of stars that either have Hipparcos parallaxes or belong to well-studied clusters inspire confidence in the formal errors. Distances to dwarfs cooler than ~6000 K appear to be unbiased, but those to hotter dwarfs tend to be too small by ~10% of the formal errors. Distances to giants tend to be too large by about the same amount. The median distance error in the whole sample of 216 000 stars is 28% and the error distribution is similar for both giants and dwarfs. Roughly half the stars in the RAVE survey are giants. The giant fraction is largest at low latitudes and in directions towards the Galactic Centre. Near the plane the metallicity distribution is remarkably narrow and centred on [M/H] = -0.04 dex; with increasing |z| it broadens out and its median moves to [M/H] ≃ -0.5. Mean age as a function of distance from the Galactic centre and distance |z| from the Galactic plane shows the anticipated increase in mean age with |z|.

  8. The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), a preview to what to expect from the Gaia RVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a large wide-field spectroscopic stellar survey of the Milky Way. Over the period 2003-2013, 574,630 spectra for 483,330 stars have been amassed at a resolution of R=7500 in the Ca-triplet region of 8410-8795 Å. Wavelength coverage and resolution are thus comparable to that anticipated from the Gaia RVS. Derived data products of RAVE include radial velocities, stellar parameters, chemicals abundances for Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni, and absorption measured based on the DIB at 8620 Å. Since more than 290000 RAVE targets are drawn from the Tycho-2 catalogue, RAVE will be interesting prototype for the anticipated full Gaia data releases, in particular when combined with the first Gaia data releases, in particular when combined with the early Gaia data releases, which contain astrometry but not yet stellar parameters and abundances.

  9. RAVE as a Gaia precursor: what to expect from the Gaia RVS?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a large wide-field spectroscopic stellar survey of the Milky Way. Over the period 2003-2013, 574,630 spectra for 483,330 stars have been amassed at a resolution of R=7500 in the Ca-triplet region of 8410-8795 Å. Wavelength coverage and resolution are thus comparable to that anticipated from the Gaia RVS. Derived data products of RAVE include radial velocities, stellar parameters, chemicals abundances for Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni, and absorption measures based on the diffuse interstellar bands (DIB) at 8620 Å. Since more than 290 000 RAVE targets are drawn from the Tycho-2 catalogue, RAVE will be an interesting prototype for the anticipated full Gaia data releases, in particular when combined with the early Gaia data releases, which contain astrometry but not yet stellar parameters and abundances.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Distance determination for RAVE stars. II. (Zwitter+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwitter, T.; Matijevic, G.; Breddels, M. A.; Smith, M. C.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Bienayme, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Brown, A. G. A.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Fulbright, J.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2010-11-01

    Spectrophotometric distance moduli to ~16000 stars in the Milky Way southern hemisphere calculated from spectroscopic stellar parameters as determined by the RAVE spectroscopic survey using the 6dF instrument at the AAO. (1 data file).

  11. Look before leaping: combined opioids may not be the rave.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar P; LeGrand, Susan B; Lagman, Ruth

    2005-10-01

    The use of combinations of potent opioids is a common clinical practice. The addition of one potent opioid to another has been recommended to reduce opioid side effects, improve pain control, and limit dose escalation of the first opioid. The advantages of using combined opioids have been reported to be relative to differences in receptor activation versus endocytosis (RAVE). However, the advantages and detriment to combining opioids are related to naturally occurring opioid receptor dimers. Dimers and oligomers result in a unique opioid pharmacodynamics which influence opioid binding, G protein interactions, desensitization, receptor trafficking, and endocytosis. The pharmacodynamics of dimers may lead to positive or negative cooperativity when two opioids are combined. The use of multiple opioids in practice can lead to increased risk for dosing errors, reduced patient compliance, increased drug interactions and cost. Opioid combinations should not be used until prospective randomized trials clarify the benefits and safety.

  12. Local stellar kinematics from RAVE data - II. Radial metallicity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkunoǧlu, B.; Ak, S.; Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Önal, Ö.; Yaz, E.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G. M.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate radial metallicity gradients for a sample of dwarf stars from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 3 (DR3). We select a total of approximately 17 000 F-type and G-type dwarfs, using a selection of colour, log g and uncertainty in the derived space motion, and calculate for each star a probabilistic (kinematic) population assignment to a thick or thin disc using space motion and additionally another (dynamical) assignment using stellar vertical orbital eccentricity. We additionally subsample by colour, to provide samples biased toward young thin-disc and older thin-disc stars. We derive a metallicity gradient as a function of Galactocentric radial distance, i.e. d[M/H]/dRm=-0.051 ± 0.005 dex kpc-1, for the youngest sample, F-type stars with vertical orbital eccentricities ev≤ 0.04. Samples biased toward older thin-disc stars show systematically shallower abundance gradients.

  13. SINGLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STAR CANDIDATES IN THE RAVE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Watson, F. G.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Freeman, K. C.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2011-06-15

    Repeated spectroscopic observations of stars in the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) database are used to identify and examine single-lined binary (SB1) candidates. The RAVE latest internal database (VDR3) includes radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and other parameters for approximately a quarter of a million different stars with slightly less than 300,000 observations. In the sample of {approx}20,000 stars observed more than once, 1333 stars with variable radial velocities were identified. Most of them are believed to be SB1 candidates. The fraction of SB1 candidates among stars with several observations is between 10% and 15% which is the lower limit for binarity among RAVE stars. Due to the distribution of time spans between the re-observation that is biased toward relatively short timescales (days to weeks), the periods of the identified SB1 candidates are most likely in the same range. Because of the RAVE's narrow magnitude range most of the dwarf candidates belong to the thin Galactic disk while the giants are part of the thick disk with distances extending to up to a few kpc. The comparison of the list of SB1 candidates to the VSX catalog of variable stars yielded several pulsating variables among the giant population with radial velocity variations of up to few tens of km s{sup -1}. There are 26 matches between the catalog of spectroscopic binary orbits (S{sub B}{sup 9}) and the whole RAVE sample for which the given periastron time and the time of RAVE observation were close enough to yield a reliable comparison. RAVE measurements of radial velocities of known spectroscopic binaries are consistent with their published radial velocity curves.

  14. Illicit Drug Use among Rave Attendees in a Nationally Representative Sample of US High School Seniors

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The popularity of electronic dance music and rave parties such as dance festivals has increased in recent years. Targeted samples of party-goers suggest high rates of drug use among attendees, but few nationally representative studies have examined these associations. Methods We examined sociodemographic correlates of rave attendance and relationships between rave attendance and recent (12-month) use of various drugs in a representative US sample of high school seniors (modal age: 18) from the Monitoring the Future study (2011–2013; Weighted N= 7,373). Results One out of five students (19.8%) reported ever attending a rave, and 7.7% reported attending at least monthly. Females and highly religious students were less likely to attend raves, and Hispanics, students residing in cities, students with higher income and those who go out for fun multiple times per week were more likely to attend. Rave attendees were more likely than non-attendees to report use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (35.5% vs. 15.6%, p < .0001). Attendees were more likely to report use of each of the 18 drugs assessed, and attendees were more likely to report more frequent use (≥6 times) of each drug (ps < .0001). Controlling for sociodemographic covariates, frequent attendance (monthly or more often) was associated with higher odds of use of each drug (ps < .0001). Frequent attendees were at highest risk for use of “club drugs.” Discussion Findings from this study can help inform prevention and harm reduction among rave attendees at greatest risk for drug use. PMID:26005041

  15. Single-lined Spectroscopic Binary Star Candidates in the RAVE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevič, G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2011-06-01

    Repeated spectroscopic observations of stars in the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) database are used to identify and examine single-lined binary (SB1) candidates. The RAVE latest internal database (VDR3) includes radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and other parameters for approximately a quarter of a million different stars with slightly less than 300,000 observations. In the sample of ~20,000 stars observed more than once, 1333 stars with variable radial velocities were identified. Most of them are believed to be SB1 candidates. The fraction of SB1 candidates among stars with several observations is between 10% and 15% which is the lower limit for binarity among RAVE stars. Due to the distribution of time spans between the re-observation that is biased toward relatively short timescales (days to weeks), the periods of the identified SB1 candidates are most likely in the same range. Because of the RAVE's narrow magnitude range most of the dwarf candidates belong to the thin Galactic disk while the giants are part of the thick disk with distances extending to up to a few kpc. The comparison of the list of SB1 candidates to the VSX catalog of variable stars yielded several pulsating variables among the giant population with radial velocity variations of up to few tens of km s-1. There are 26 matches between the catalog of spectroscopic binary orbits (S_{B^9}) and the whole RAVE sample for which the given periastron time and the time of RAVE observation were close enough to yield a reliable comparison. RAVE measurements of radial velocities of known spectroscopic binaries are consistent with their published radial velocity curves.

  16. Requirements based system risk modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steven; Feather, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The problem that we address in this paper is assessing the expected degree of success of the system or mission based on the degree to which each requirement is satisfied and the relative weight of the requirements. We assume a complete list of the requirements, the relevant risk elements and their probability of occurrence and the quantified effect of the risk elements on the requirements. In order to assess the degree to which each requirement is satisfied, we need to determine the effect of the various risk elements on the requirement.

  17. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-08-04

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

  18. Analysis of the first- and second-generation Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts containing methylone and pentedrone.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; ElJordi, Omar I; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of designer drugs sold as "Bath Salts" have appeared on the market. In July of 2011, Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts was obtained over the Internet. This product became unavailable in October of that year coinciding with the DEA issuing a temporarily schedule of mephedrone, methylone, and MDPV. Four months later in February of 2012, a new product was released from the same company under the new name Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust. The contents of both products were identified using spectroscopy methods: nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, UV-visible, tandem mass spectrometry, and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was determined that Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts contained methylone. The replacement product Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust contained the unscheduled drug pentedrone. The Raving Dragon brand of products illustrates the rapid change of ingredients in these products to circumvent laws restricting availability, distribution, and use.

  19. Very metal-poor stars observed by the RAVE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevič, G.; Chiappini, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Kunder, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.

    2017-07-01

    Metal-poor stars trace the earliest phases in the chemical enrichment of the Universe. They give clues about the early assembly of the Galaxy as well as on the nature of the first stellar generations. Multi-object spectroscopic surveys play a key role in finding these fossil records in large volumes. Here we present a novel analysis of the metal-poor star sample in the complete Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 5 catalog with the goal of identifying and characterizing all very metal-poor stars observed by the survey. Using a three-stage method, we first identified the candidate stars using only their spectra as input information. We employed an algorithm called t-SNE to construct a low-dimensional projection of the spectrum space and isolate the region containing metal-poor stars. Following this step, we measured the equivalent widths of the near-infrared Ca ii triplet lines with a method based on flexible Gaussian processes to model the correlated noise present in the spectra. In the last step, we constructed a calibration relation that converts the measured equivalent widths and the color information coming from the 2MASS and WISE surveys into metallicity and temperature estimates. We identified 877 stars with at least a 50% probability of being very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2 dex), out of which 43 are likely extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -3 dex). The comparison of the derived values to a small subsample of stars with literature metallicity values shows that our method works reliably and correctly estimates the uncertainties, which typically have valuesσ[Fe/H] ≈ 0.2 dex. In addition, when compared to the metallicity results derived using the RAVE DR5 pipeline, it is evident that we achieve better accuracy than the pipeline and therefore more reliably evaluate the very metal-poor subsample. Based on the repeated observations of the same stars, our method gives very consistent results. We intend to study the identified sample further by acquiring high

  20. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  1. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  2. A large catalog of young active RAVE stars in the Solar neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žerjal, Maruša; Zwitter, Tomaž; Matijevič, Gal; RAVE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The catalog of 38,000 chromospherically active RAVE dwarfs represents one of the largest samples of young active solar-like and later-type single field stars in the Solar neighbourhood. It was established from the unbiased magnitude limited RAVE Survey using an unsupervised stellar classification algorithm based merely on stellar fluxes (Ca II infrared triplet). Using a newly-calibrated age-activity relation, ~15,000 active stars are estimated to be younger than 1 Gyr. Almost 2000 stars are presumably younger than ~100 Myr and possibly still in the pre-main sequence phase, the latter being supported by their significant offset from the main sequence in the N UV - V versus J - K space. 16,000 stars from the sample have positional and velocity vectors available (using TGAS parallaxes and proper motions and radial velocities from RAVE).

  3. The Dawning of the Stream of Aquarius in RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. E. K.; Steinmetz, M.; Sharma, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; de Jong, R. S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Helmi, A.; Freeman, K. C.; Binney, J.; Minchev, I.; Bienaymé, O.; Campbell, R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, E. K.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2011-02-01

    We identify a new, nearby (0.5kpc <~ d <~ 10 kpc) stream in data from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). As the majority of stars in the stream lie in the constellation of Aquarius, we name it the Aquarius Stream. We identify 15 members of the stream lying between 30° < l < 75° and -70° < b < -50°, with heliocentric line-of-sight velocities V los ~ -200 km s-1. The members are outliers in the radial velocity distribution, and the overdensity is statistically significant when compared to mock samples created with both the Besançon Galaxy model and newly developed code Galaxia. The metallicity distribution function and isochrone fit in the log g-T eff plane suggest that the stream consists of a 10 Gyr old population with [M/H] ~ -1.0. We explore relations to other streams and substructures, finding that the stream cannot be identified with known structures: it is a new, nearby substructure in the Galaxy's halo. Using a simple dynamical model of a dissolving satellite galaxy, we account for the localization of the stream. We find that the stream is dynamically young and therefore likely the debris of a recently disrupted dwarf galaxy or globular cluster. The Aquarius stream is thus a specimen of ongoing hierarchical Galaxy formation, rare for being right in the solar suburb.

  4. APASS Landolt-Sloan BVgri Photometry of RAVE Stars. I. Data, Effective Temperatures, and Reddenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Henden, A.; Frigo, A.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Levine, S. E.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Smith, T. C.; Steinmetz, M.; Templeton, M.; Terrell, D.; Welch, D. L.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2014-11-01

    We provide AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all 425,743 stars included in the fourth RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as the error of the mean of data obtained and separately calibrated over a median of four distinct observing epochs and distributed between 2009 and 2013, is 0.013, 0.012, 0.012, 0.014, and 0.021 mag for the B, V, g', r', and i' bands, respectively. The equally high external accuracy of APASS photometry has been verified on secondary Landolt and Sloan photometric standard stars not involved in the APASS calibration process and on a large body of literature data on field and cluster stars, confirming the absence of offsets and trends. Compared with the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog (CMC-15), APASS astrometry of RAVE stars is accurate to a median value of 0.098 arcsec. Brightness distribution functions for the RAVE stars have been derived in all bands. APASS photometry of RAVE stars, augmented by 2MASS JHK infrared data, has been χ2 fitted to a densely populated synthetic photometric library designed to widely explore temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and reddening. Resulting T eff and E B - V , computed over a range of options, are provided and discussed, and will be kept updated in response to future APASS and RAVE data releases. In the process, we find that the reddening caused by a homogeneous slab of dust, extending for 140 pc on either side of the Galactic plane and responsible for EpolesB-V = 0.036 ± 0.002 at the Galactic poles, is a suitable approximation of the actual reddening encountered at Galactic latitudes |b| >= 25°.

  5. Chemical gradients in the Milky Way from the RAVE data. II. Giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeche, C.; Siebert, A.; Piffl, T.; Just, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Sharma, S.; Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Chiappini, C.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B. K.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienaymé, O.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We provide new constraints on the chemo-dynamical models of the Milky Way by measuring the radial and vertical chemical gradients for the elements Mg, Al, Si, Ti, and Fe in the Galactic disc and the gradient variations as a function of the distance from the Galactic plane (Z). Methods: We selected a sample of giant stars from the RAVE database using the gravity criterium 1.7 RAVE mock sample with the Galaxia code based on the Besançon model and selected a corresponding mock sample to compare the model with the observed data. We measured the radial gradients and the vertical gradients as a function of the distance from the Galactic plane Z to study their variation across the Galactic disc. Results: The RAVE sample exhibits a negative radial gradient of d[Fe/H]/dR = -0.054 dex kpc-1 close to the Galactic plane (| Z | < 0.4 kpc) that becomes flatter for larger | Z |. Other elements follow the same trend although with some variations from element to element. The mock sample has radial gradients in fair agreement with the observed data. The variation of the gradients with Z shows that the Fe radial gradient of the RAVE sample has little change in the range | Z | ≲ 0.6 kpc and then flattens. The iron vertical gradient of the RAVE sample is slightly negative close to the Galactic plane and steepens with | Z |. The mock sample exhibits an iron vertical gradient that is always steeper than the RAVE sample. The mock sample also shows an excess of metal-poor stars in the [Fe/H] distributions with respect to the observed data. These discrepancies can be reduced by decreasing the number of thick disc stars and increasing their average metallicity in the Besançon model.

  6. APASS Landolt-Sloan BVgri photometry of Rave stars. I. Data, effective temperatures, and reddenings

    SciTech Connect

    Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Henden, A.; Frigo, A.; Bienaymé, O.; Siebert, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Kordopatis, G.; Helmi, A.; Levine, S. E.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; and others

    2014-11-01

    We provide AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all 425,743 stars included in the fourth RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as the error of the mean of data obtained and separately calibrated over a median of four distinct observing epochs and distributed between 2009 and 2013, is 0.013, 0.012, 0.012, 0.014, and 0.021 mag for the B, V, g', r', and i' bands, respectively. The equally high external accuracy of APASS photometry has been verified on secondary Landolt and Sloan photometric standard stars not involved in the APASS calibration process and on a large body of literature data on field and cluster stars, confirming the absence of offsets and trends. Compared with the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog (CMC-15), APASS astrometry of RAVE stars is accurate to a median value of 0.098 arcsec. Brightness distribution functions for the RAVE stars have been derived in all bands. APASS photometry of RAVE stars, augmented by 2MASS JHK infrared data, has been χ{sup 2} fitted to a densely populated synthetic photometric library designed to widely explore temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and reddening. Resulting T {sub eff} and E {sub B–V}, computed over a range of options, are provided and discussed, and will be kept updated in response to future APASS and RAVE data releases. In the process, we find that the reddening caused by a homogeneous slab of dust, extending for 140 pc on either side of the Galactic plane and responsible for E{sub B−V}{sup poles} = 0.036 ± 0.002 at the Galactic poles, is a suitable approximation of the actual reddening encountered at Galactic latitudes |b| ≥ 25°.

  7. γ-Hydroxybutyrate: experience of 9 years of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-related incidents during rave parties in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Krul, Jan; Girbes, Armand R J

    2011-04-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to determine the health disturbances and to assess the severity of the incidents as reported during a 9-year experience of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-related First Aid Attendees attending First Aid Stations at rave parties. DESIGN. This study was a prospective observational study of self-referred patients from the year 2000 to 2008. During rave parties, First Aid Stations were staffed with specifically trained medical and paramedical personnel. Patients were diagnosed and treated, and data were recorded using standardized methods. RESULTS. During a 9-year period with 202 rave parties, involving approximately three million visitors, 22 604 First Aid Attendees visited the First Aid Stations, of which 771 reported GHB-related health problems. The mean age of the GHB-using First Aid Attendees was 25.7 ± 6.1 years, most of them (66.4%) were male. Approximately one-third (32.7%) of them used one substance, while 48.1% combined GHB with ecstasy, alcohol, or cannabis. One of five (19.2%) combined GHB with other substances or more than one substance. One case was categorized as severe/life-threatening and 202 (26.2%) cases as moderate, requiring further medical care. In total, 43 (5.6%) First Aid Attendees needed hospital care. The most encountered health disturbance was altered consciousness. Combinations of altered consciousness, vomiting, and/or low body temperature were found in 186 cases (24.1%) and considered to be potentially dangerous. GHB-related First Aid Attendees required a longer stay at the First Aid Stations than the total group First Aid Attendees did (median 45 min vs 10 min). CONCLUSION. We found very little, severe short-term GHB-related health disturbances during rave parties in The Netherlands. Hospital referrals were rare. The most found symptom was altered consciousness, sometimes accompanied by vomiting and low body temperature. At events where the visitors use GHB, a well-trained and qualified

  8. Constraining the Galaxy's dark halo with RAVE stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piffl, T.; Binney, J.; McMillan, P. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Helmi, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Watson, F.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-12-01

    We use the kinematics of ˜200 000 giant stars that lie within ˜1.5 kpc of the plane to measure the vertical profile of mass density near the Sun. We find that the dark mass contained within the isodensity surface of the dark halo that passes through the Sun ((6 ± 0.9) × 1010 M⊙), and the surface density within 0.9 kpc of the plane ((69 ± 10) M⊙ pc-2) are almost independent of the (oblate) halo's axis ratio q. If the halo is spherical, 46 per cent of the radial force on the Sun is provided by baryons, and only 4.3 per cent of the Galaxy's mass is baryonic. If the halo is flattened, the baryons contribute even less strongly to the local radial force and to the Galaxy's mass. The dark matter density at the location of the Sun is 0.0126 q-0.89 M⊙ pc-3 = 0.48 q-0.89 GeV cm-3. When combined with other literature results we find hints for a mildly oblate dark halo with q ≃ 0.8. Our value for the dark mass within the solar radius is larger than that predicted by cosmological dark-matter-only simulations but in good agreement with simulations once the effects of baryonic infall are taken into account. Our mass models consist of three double-exponential discs, an oblate bulge and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo, and we model the dynamics of the RAVE (RAdial Velocity Experiment) stars in the corresponding gravitational fields by finding distribution functions f J that depend on three action integrals. Statistical errors are completely swamped by systematic uncertainties, the most important of which are the distance to the stars in the photometric and spectroscopic samples and the solar distance to the Galactic Centre. Systematics other than the flattening of the dark halo yield overall uncertainties ˜15 per cent.

  9. Johnson Noise Thermometry System Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr, Charles L; Roberts, Michael; Ezell, N Dianne Bull; Qualls, A L; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2013-01-01

    This document is intended to capture the requirements for the architecture of the developmental electronics for the ORNL-lead drift-free Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) project conducted under the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) research pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development (R&D) program. The requirements include not only the performance of the system but also the allowable measurement environment of the probe and the allowable physical environment of the associated electronics. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [1].

  10. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  11. Expert system requirements for power system restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. ); Milanicz, D.P. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper is one of series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration. Expert systems are being considered for restoring bulk power supplies. In general, there are three restoration periods following a major power disturbance: establishment of initial sources of power, re-integration of a skeleton of the bulk power supply, and minimization of the unserved loads. Expert systems together with analytical tools have the potential of addressing the restoration procedures over these three periods. This paper describes the expert system requirements from the point of view of the practicing power engineers with emphasis placed on the initial power sources and requirements. The paper draws on the previous reports by the Power System Restoration Working Group.

  12. Symmetric States Requiring System Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous synchronization has long served as a paradigm for behavioral uniformity that can emerge from interactions in complex systems. When the interacting entities are identical and their coupling patterns are also identical, the complete synchronization of the entire network is the state inheriting the system symmetry. As in other systems subject to symmetry breaking, such symmetric states are not always stable. Here, we report on the discovery of the converse of symmetry breaking—the scenario in which complete synchronization is not stable for identically coupled identical oscillators but becomes stable when, and only when, the oscillator parameters are judiciously tuned to nonidentical values, thereby breaking the system symmetry to preserve the state symmetry. Aside from demonstrating that diversity can facilitate and even be required for uniformity and consensus, this suggests a mechanism for convergent forms of pattern formation in which initially asymmetric patterns evolve into symmetric ones.

  13. Asymmetric metallicity patterns in the stellar velocity space with RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoja, T.; Kordopatis, G.; Helmi, A.; Monari, G.; Famaey, B.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Grebel, E. K.; Steinmetz, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Bienaymé, O.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Zwitter, T.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The chemical abundances of stars encode information on their place and time of origin. Stars formed together in e.g. a cluster, should present chemical homogeneity. Also disk stars influenced by the effects of the bar and the spiral arms might have distinct chemical signatures depending on the type of orbit that they follow, e.g. from the inner versus outer regions of the Milky Way. Aims: We explore the correlations between velocity and metallicity and the possible distinct chemical signatures of the velocity over-densities of the local Galactic neighbourhood. Methods: We use the large spectroscopic survey RAVE and the Geneva Copenhagen Survey. We compare the metallicity distribution of regions in the velocity plane (vR,vφ) with that of their symmetric counterparts (-vR,vφ). We expect similar metallicity distributions if there are no tracers of a sub-population (e.g. a dispersed cluster, accreted stars), if the disk of the Galaxy is axisymmetric, and if the orbital effects of the bar and the spiral arms are weak. Results: We find that the metallicity-velocity space of the solar neighbourhood is highly patterned. A large fraction of the velocity plane shows differences in the metallicity distribution when comparing symmetric vR regions. The typical differences in the median metallicity are of 0.05 dex with statistical significant of at least 95% confidence, and with values up to 0.6 dex. For stars with low azimuthal velocity vφ, the ones moving outwards. These include stars in the Hercules and Hyades moving groups and other velocity branch-like structures. For higher vφ, the stars moving inwards have higher metallicity than those moving outwards. We have also discovered a positive gradient in vφ with respect to metallicity at high metallicities, apart from the two known positive and negative gradients for the thick and thin disks. Conclusions: The most likely interpretation of the metallicity asymmetry is that it is mainly due to the orbital effects of

  14. Weighing the local dark matter with RAVE red clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienaymé, O.; Famaey, B.; Siebert, A.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-11-01

    We determine the Galactic potential in the solar neigbourhood from RAVE observations. We select red clump stars for which accurate distances, radial velocities, and metallicities have been measured. Combined with data from the 2MASS and UCAC catalogues, we build a sample of ~4600 red clump stars within a cylinder of 500 pc radius oriented in the direction of the South Galactic Pole, in the range of 200 pc to 2000 pc distances. We deduce the vertical force and the total mass density distribution up to 2 kpc away from the Galactic plane by fitting a distribution function depending explicitly on three isolating integrals of the motion in a separable potential locally representing the Galactic one with four free parameters. Because of the deep extension of our sample, we can determine nearly independently the dark matter mass density and the baryonic disc surface mass density. We find (i) at 1 kpc Kz/ (2πG) = 68.5 ± 1.0 M⊙ pc-2; and (ii) at 2 kpc Kz/ (2πG) = 96.9 ± 2.2 M⊙ pc-2. Assuming the solar Galactic radius at R0 = 8.5 kpc, we deduce the local dark matter density ρDM(z = 0) = 0.0143 ± 0.0011 M⊙pc-3 = 0.542 ± 0.042 Gev cm-3 and the baryonic surface mass density Σbar = 44.4 ± 4.1 M⊙pc-2. Our results are in agreement with previously published Kz determinations up to 1 kpc, while the extension to 2 kpc shows some evidence for an unexpectedly large amount of dark matter. A flattening of the dark halo of order 0.8 can produce such a high local density in combination with a circular velocity of 240 km s-1. It could also be consistent with a spherical cored dark matter profile whose density does not drop sharply with radius. Another explanation, allowing for a lower circular velocity, could be the presence of a secondary dark component, a very thick disc resulting either from the deposit of dark matter from the accretion of multiple small dwarf galaxies, or from the presence of an effective "phantom" thick disc in the context of effective galactic

  15. From "Candy Kids" to "Chemi-Kids": a typology of young adults who attend raves in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Jill A; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel S; Siegal, Harvey A

    2005-01-01

    Although young people attending raves have been most visibly associated with the use of ecstasy and other "club drugs" in the United States, there is reason to believe that they are not a homogenous group in terms of their drug use practices. The purpose of this article is to begin developing a typology of young adult ecstasy users involved in the rave subculture--known as Ravers or Party Kids. The study is based on focus groups and qualitative interviews conducted between November 2001 and September 2003 with 36 current and former ecstasy users, aged 19-31, in central Ohio, as well as participant observation conducted in raves, clubs, and bars where "club drugs" are often used. Findings suggest the existence of five main subgroups in attendance at raves--Chemi-Kids, Candy Kids, non-affiliated Party Kids, Junglists, and Old School Ravers. These groups differ in regard to musical taste, philosophy, style of clothing worn, amount of time in the rave subculture, and most importantly, patterns of drug use. For example, while the use of ecstasy appears most common among Candy Kids, Junglists tend to be more involved with the use of ketamine and methamphetamine. The use of alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens is also widespread in the rave subculture. The typology can aid in the development of communication strategies necessary for successful prevention activities among some categories of ecstasy users.

  16. Kinematic Modeling Of The Milky Way Using The RAVE And GCS Stellar Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Rave Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the kinematic parameters of the Milky Way disc using the Radial Velocity (RAVE) and Geneva-Copenhagen (GCS) stellar surveys. We do this by fitting a kinematic model to the data. Using two distinct Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, we investigate the full posterior distributions of the parameters given the data. For RAVE, we restrict ourselves to angular position and radial velocity for each star since these quantities are determined to high accuracy. For GCS, the data consist of the full 6 dimensional phase space but, in contrast to RAVE, are confined to the Solar neighborhood only. We show results using the traditional Gaussian distribution function and compare to the Shu distribution function that handles non-circular orbits more accurately. We investigate the `age-velocity dispersion' relation (AVR) for the three kinematic components (σ_R,σ_φ, σ_z), the radial dependence of the velocity dispersions, the Solar peculiar motion (U_Sun,V_Sun, W_Sun) and the circular velocity (v_c) at the Sun. We investigate models with and without a thick disc. We find that the kinematic parameters derived from RAVE and GCS are in good agreement. The Shu model fits the RAVE data better than the Gaussian model, but a perfect fit could not be found for either model. Furthermore, the Gaussian model predicts a positive radial gradient for the velocity dispersion, while the Shu model does not. The measured Solar peculiar motion, U_Sun=10.5 ±0.13, V_Sun=10.27±0.11, and W_Sun=7.44± 0.09, is in good agreement with estimates of Schonrich et al (2010) but our values for (U_Sun, V_Sun) are slightly lower. We stress that V_Sun is a highly model-dependent quantity and claims of accuracy must be treated with caution. For RAVE, we find that v_c = 212 ±1.4 km/s ; this is a lower bound on the true value as the vertical dependence of asymmetric drift for an isothermal population has been ignored in our analysis.

  17. Identification of Globular Cluster Stars in RAVE data II: Extended tidal debris around NGC 3201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguiano, B.; De Silva, G. M.; Freeman, K.; Da Costa, G. S.; Zwitter, T.; Quillen, A. C.; Zucker, D. B.; Navarro, J. F.; Kunder, A.; Siebert, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Gibson, B. K.; Seabroke, G.; Sharma, S.; Wojno, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Steinmetz, M.; Boeche, C.; Gilmore, G.; Bienaymé, O.; Reid, W.; Watson, F.

    2016-04-01

    We report the identification of extended tidal debris potentially associated with the globular cluster NGC 3201, using the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) catalogue. We find the debris stars are located at a distance range of 1-7 kpc based on the forthcoming RAVE distance estimates. The derived space velocities and integrals of motion show interesting connections to NGC 3201, modulo uncertainties in the proper motions. Three stars, which are among the four most likely candidates for NGC 3201 tidal debris, are separated by 80° on the sky yet are well matched by the 12 Gyr, [Fe/H] = -1.5 isochrone appropriate for the cluster. This is the first time tidal debris around this cluster has been reported over such a large spatial extent, with implications for the cluster's origin and dynamical evolution.

  18. [Raves and drug use from an epidemiologic and psychosocial approach: a bibliographic systematic review].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Lozano-Rojas, Óscar M; Rojas-Tejada, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    The high drug use that occurs at raves and the specific characteristics of these parties make them a high risk recreational context the health of participants. The aim of this paper is to establish a categorization of research on drug use and raves according to their objectives and main results. Knowledge and research needs identified as a result of this review are discussed. To this end, a systematic review of scientific literature through Medline, Psycinfo and Psicodoc was conducted. After applying the inclusion criteria, 36 papers were obtained, classified into six categories. The results show that 23 studies aim psychosocial profile analysis, and the prevalence and patterns of drug use. Nine studies focus on risks related to drug use, and nine in the drug effects. Given the high risk associated with raves and the scarcity of empirical studies identified, the need to develop further empirical studies is addressed. There is still insufficient evidence to guide intervention strategies to prevent risks and harms among ravers. There is also a need to explore: polydrug use, harm reduction strategies, positive effects and motivations.

  19. A RAVE investigation on Galactic open clusters. I. Radial velocities and metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, C.; Scholz, R.-D.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Schilbach, E.; Röser, S.; Boeche, C.; Kordopatis, G.; Siebert, A.; Williams, M.; Munari, U.; Matijevič, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Zwitter, T.; de Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G.; Freeman, K.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W.; Watson, F.; Gibson, B. K.; Bienaymé, O.; Wyse, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Siviero, A.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Galactic open clusters (OCs) mainly belong to the young stellar population in the Milky Way disk, but are there groups and complexes of OCs that possibly define an additional level in hierarchical star formation? Current compilations are too incomplete to address this question, especially regarding radial velocities (RVs) and metallicities ([M/H]). Aims: Here we provide and discuss newly obtained RV and [M/H] data, which will enable us to reinvestigate potential groupings of open clusters and associations. Methods: We extracted additional RVs and [M/H] from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) via a cross-match with the Catalogue of Stars in Open Cluster Areas (CSOCA). For the identified OCs in RAVE we derived overlineRV and overline{[M/H]} from a cleaned working sample and compared the results with previous findings. Results: Although our RAVE sample does not show the same accuracy as the entire survey, we were able to derive reliable overlineRV for 110 Galactic open clusters. For 37 OCs we publish overlineRV for the first time. Moreover, we determined overline{[M/H]} for 81 open clusters, extending the number of OCs with overline{[M/H]} by 69. Tables 8 and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A54

  20. The Requirements Generation System: A tool for managing mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Sylvia B.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, NASA's cost for developing mission requirements has been a significant part of a mission's budget. Large amounts of time have been allocated in mission schedules for the development and review of requirements by the many groups who are associated with a mission. Additionally, tracing requirements from a current document to a parent document has been time-consuming and costly. The Requirements Generation System (RGS) is a computer-supported cooperative-work tool that assists mission developers in the online creation, review, editing, tracing, and approval of mission requirements as well as in the production of requirements documents. This paper describes the RGS and discusses some lessons learned during its development.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and decision-making preferences of men considering participation in the TROG RAVES Prostate Cancer Trial (TROG 08.03).

    PubMed

    Tesson, Stephanie; Sundaresan, Puma; Ager, Brittany; Butow, Phyllis; Kneebone, Andrew; Costa, Daniel; Woo, Henry; Pearse, Maria; Juraskova, Ilona; Turner, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The RAVES (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 08.03) randomised controlled trial (RCT), compares adjuvant radiotherapy with early salvage radiotherapy in men with high risk histopathological features at prostatectomy. The RAVES Decision Aid study evaluates the utility of a decision aid for men considering participation in the RAVES RCT. We report the RAVES Decision Aid study participants' attitudes and knowledge regarding RCTs, decision-making preferences and decisional-conflict. Baseline questionnaires assessed knowledge and attitudes towards RCTs and RAVES RCT. Sociodemographic and clinical predictors of knowledge were examined. Involvement in decision-making and difficulties with the decision-making process were assessed using validated tools. 127 men (median age=63years) were recruited through urologists (n=91) and radiation oncologists (n=36). Men preferred collaborative (35%) or semi-active (35%) decision-making roles. Most (>75%) felt the RAVES RCT was worthwhile and important with participation being wise. However, nearly half had high decisional-conflict regarding participation. Scores of objective knowledge regarding RCTs and RAVES RCT were low. Most men with high-risk histopathological features at prostatectomy desire active involvement in decision-making regarding further management. Despite positive attitudes towards RCTs and the RAVES RCT, there were gaps in knowledge and high decisional-conflict surrounding participation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical gradients in the Milky Way from the RAVE data. I. Dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeche, C.; Siebert, A.; Piffl, T.; Just, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Sharma, S.; Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Chiappini, C.; Williams, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienaymé, O.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: We aim at measuring the chemical gradients of the elements Mg, Al, Si, and Fe along the Galactic radius to provide new constraints on the chemical evolution models of the Galaxy and Galaxy models such as the Besançon model. Thanks to the large number of stars of our RAVE sample we can study how the gradients vary as function of the distance from the Galactic plane. Methods: We analysed three different samples selected from three independent datasets: a sample of 19 962 dwarf stars selected from the RAVE database, a sample of 10 616 dwarf stars selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) dataset, and a mock sample (equivalent to the RAVE sample) created by using the GALAXIA code, which is based on the Besançon model. The three samples were analysed by using the very same method for comparison purposes. We integrated the Galactic orbits and obtained the guiding radii (Rg) and the maximum distances from the Galactic plane reached by the stars along their orbits (Zmax). We measured the chemical gradients as functions of Rg at different Zmax. Results: We found that the chemical gradients of the RAVE and GCS samples are negative and show consistent trends, although they are not equal: at Zmax< 0.4 kpc and 4.5 RAVE sample is d [Fe/H] /dRg = -0.065 dex kpc-1, whereas for the GCS sample it is d [Fe/H] /dRg = -0.043 dex kpc-1 with internal errors of ±0.002 and ±0.004 dex kpc-1, respectively. The gradients of the RAVE and GCS samples become flatter at larger Zmax. Conversely, the mock sample has a positive iron gradient of d [Fe/H] /dRg = +0.053 ± 0.003 dex kpc-1 at Zmax< 0.4 kpc and remains positive at any Zmax. These positive and unrealistic values originate from the lack of correlation between metallicity and tangential velocity in the Besançon model. In addition, the low metallicity and asymmetric drift of the thick disc causes a shift of the stars towards lower Rg and metallicity which, together with the thin

  3. ORIGINS OF THE THICK DISK AS TRACED BY THE ALPHA ELEMENTS OF METAL-POOR GIANT STARS SELECTED FROM RAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, G. R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Gilmore, G. F.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Siviero, A.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Steinmetz, M.

    2010-10-01

    Theories of thick-disk formation can be differentiated by measurements of stellar elemental abundances. We have undertaken a study of metal-poor stars selected from the RAVE spectroscopic survey of bright stars to establish whether or not there is a significant population of metal-poor thick-disk stars ([Fe/H] {approx_lt} -1.0) and to measure their elemental abundances. In this Letter, we present abundances of four {alpha}-elements (Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti) and iron for a subsample of 212 red giant branch and 31 red clump/horizontal branch stars from this study. We find that the [{alpha}/Fe] ratios are enhanced, implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. This requires that star formation in each star-forming region had a short duration. The relative lack of scatter in the [{alpha}/Fe] ratios implies good mixing in the interstellar medium prior to star formation. In addition, the ratios resemble that of the halo, indicating that the halo and thick disk share a similar massive star initial mass function. We conclude that the {alpha}-enhancement of the metal-poor thick disk implies that direct accretion of stars from dwarf galaxies similar to surviving dwarf galaxies today did not play a major role in the formation of the thick disk.

  4. Origins of the Thick Disk as Traced by the Alpha Elements of Metal-poor Giant Stars Selected from Rave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, G. R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Gilmore, G. F.; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Zwitter, T.

    2010-10-01

    Theories of thick-disk formation can be differentiated by measurements of stellar elemental abundances. We have undertaken a study of metal-poor stars selected from the RAVE spectroscopic survey of bright stars to establish whether or not there is a significant population of metal-poor thick-disk stars ([Fe/H] <~ -1.0) and to measure their elemental abundances. In this Letter, we present abundances of four α-elements (Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti) and iron for a subsample of 212 red giant branch and 31 red clump/horizontal branch stars from this study. We find that the [α/Fe] ratios are enhanced, implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. This requires that star formation in each star-forming region had a short duration. The relative lack of scatter in the [α/Fe] ratios implies good mixing in the interstellar medium prior to star formation. In addition, the ratios resemble that of the halo, indicating that the halo and thick disk share a similar massive star initial mass function. We conclude that the α-enhancement of the metal-poor thick disk implies that direct accretion of stars from dwarf galaxies similar to surviving dwarf galaxies today did not play a major role in the formation of the thick disk.

  5. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  6. Paradoxical relationship between RAVE (relative activity versus endocytosis) values of several opioid receptor agonists and their liability to cause dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-hua; Sun, Jian-feng; Tao, Yi-min; Xu, Xue-jun; Chi, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Jing-gen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between the RAVE (relative activity versus endocytosis) values of opiate agonists and their dependence liability by studying several potent analgesics with special profiles in the development of physical and psychological dependence. Methods: The effects of (−)-cis-(3R,4S,2′R) ohmefentanyl (F9202), (+)-cis-(3R,4S,2′S) ohmefentanyl (F9204), dihydroetorphine (DHE) and morphine on [35S]GTPγS binding, forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, and receptor internalization were studied in CHO cells stably expressing HA-tagged μ-opioid receptors (CHO-HA-MOR). cAMP overshoot in response to the withdrawal of these compound treatments was also tested. Results: All four agonists exhibited the same rank order of activity in stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and induction of receptor internalization: DHE>F9204>F9202>morphine. Based on these findings and the previous in vivo analgesic data obtained from our and other laboratories, the RAVE values of the four agonists were calculated. The rank order of RAVE values was morphine>F9202>F9204>DHE. For the induction of cAMP overshoot, the rank order was F9202≥morphine>F9204≥DHE. Conclusion: Taken in combination with previous findings of these compounds' liability to develop dependence, the present study suggests that the agonist with the highest RAVE value seems to have a relatively greater liability to develop psychological dependence relative to the agonist with the lowest RAVE value. However, the RAVE values of these agonists are not correlated with their probability of developing physical dependence or inducing cAMP overshoot, a cellular hallmark of dependence. PMID:20228826

  7. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  8. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-05-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  9. Kinematics of the local disk from the RAVE survey and the Gaia first data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Annie C.; Bienaymé, Olivier; Fernández-Trincado, José G.; Reylé, Céline

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We attempt to constrain the kinematics of the thin and thick disks using the Besançon population synthesis model together with RAVE DR4 and Gaia first data release (TGAS). Methods: The RAVE fields were simulated by applying a detailed target selection function and the kinematics was computed using velocity ellipsoids depending on age in order to study the secular evolution. We accounted for the asymmetric drift computed from fitting a Stäckel potential to orbits. Model parameters such as velocity dispersions, mean motions, and velocity gradients were adjusted using an ABC-MCMC method. We made use of the metallicity to enhance the separation between thin and thick disks. Results: We show that this model is able to reproduce the kinematics of the local disks in great detail. The disk follows the expected secular evolution, in very good agreement with previous studies of the thin disk. The new asymmetric drift formula, fitted to our previously described Stäckel potential, fairly well reproduces the velocity distribution in a wide solar neighborhood. The U and W components of the solar motion determined with this method agree well with previous studies. However, we find a smaller V component than previously thought, essentially because we include the variation of the asymmetric drift with distance to the plane. The thick disk is represented by a long period of formation (at least 2 Gyr), during which, as we show, the mean velocity increases with time while the scale height and scale length decrease, very consistently with a collapse phase with conservation of angular momentum. Conclusions: This new Galactic dynamical model is able to reproduce the observed velocities in a wide solar neighborhood at the quality level of the TGAS-RAVE sample, allowing us to constrain the thin and thick disk dynamical evolution, as well as determining the solar motion.

  10. Chromospherically Active Stars in the RAVE Survey. II. Young Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žerjal, M.; Zwitter, T.; Matijevič, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Seabroke, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Wojno, J.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Conrad, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Kunder, A.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of over 38,000 chromospherically active candidate solar-like stars and cooler dwarfs from the RAVE survey is addressed in this paper. An improved activity identification with respect to the previous study was introduced to build a catalog of field stars in the solar neighborhood with an excess emission flux in the calcium infrared triplet wavelength region. The central result of this work is the calibration of the age–activity relation for main-sequence dwarfs in a range from a few 10 {Myr} up to a few Gyr. It enabled an order of magnitude age estimation of the entire active sample. Almost 15,000 stars are shown to be younger than 1 {Gyr} and ∼2000 younger than 100 {Myr}. The young age of the most active stars is confirmed by their position off the main sequence in the J ‑ K versus {N}{UV}-V diagram showing strong ultraviolet excess, mid-infrared excess in the J ‑ K versus {W}1-{W}2 diagram, and very cool temperatures (J-K> 0.7). They overlap with the reference pre-main-sequence RAVE stars often displaying X-ray emission. The activity level increasing with the color reveals their different nature from the solar-like stars and probably represents an underlying dynamo-generating magnetic fields in cool stars. Of the RAVE objects from DR5, 50% are found in the TGAS catalog and supplemented with accurate parallaxes and proper motions by Gaia. This makes the database of a large number of young stars in a combination with RAVE’s radial velocities directly useful as a tracer of the very recent large-scale star formation history in the solar neighborhood. The data are available online in the Vizier database.

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF FIELD DWARFS AND GIANTS IN RAVE AND ITS USE IN STELLAR STREAM DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Klement, R. J.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Rix, H.-W.; Smith, K. W.; Fuchs, B. E-mail: fuchs@ari.uni-heidelberg.de

    2011-01-10

    Samples of bright stars, as they emerge from surveys such as RAVE, contain comparable fractions of dwarf and giant stars. An efficient separation of these two luminosity classes is therefore important, especially for studies in which distances are estimated through photometric parallax relations. We use the available spectroscopic log g estimates from the second RAVE data release (DR2) to assign each star a probability for being a dwarf or subgiant/giant based on mixture model fits to the log g distribution in different color bins. We further attempt to use these stars as a labeled training set in order to classify stars which lack log g estimates into dwarfs and giants with a Support Vector Machine algorithm. We assess the performance of this classification against different choices of the input feature vector. In particular, we use different combinations of reduced proper motions, 2MASS JHK, DENIS IJK, and USNO-B B2R2 apparent magnitudes. Our study shows that-for our color ranges-the infrared bands alone provide no relevant information to separate dwarfs and giants. Even when optical bands and reduced proper motions are added, the fraction of true giants classified as dwarfs (the contamination) remains above 20%. Using only the dwarfs with available spectroscopic log g and distance estimates (the latter from Breddels et al.), we then repeat the stream search by Klementet al. (KFR08), which assumed that all stars were dwarfs and claimed the discovery of a new stellar stream at V {approx} -160 km s{sup -1} in a sample of 7015 stars from RAVE DR1. The existence of the KFR08 stream has been supported by two recent studies using other independent data sets. Our re-analysis of the pure DR2 dwarf sample exhibits an overdensity of five stars at the phase-space position of the KFR08 stream, with a metallicity distribution that appears inconsistent with that of stars at comparably low rotational velocities. Compared to several smooth Milky Way models, the mean standardized

  12. Identification of globular cluster stars in RAVE data - I. Application to stellar parameter calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguiano, B.; Zucker, D. B.; Scholz, R.-D.; Grebel, E. K.; Seabroke, G.; Kunder, A.; Binney, J.; McMillan, P. J.; Zwitter, T.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Kordopatis, G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.

    2015-08-01

    We present the identification of potential members of nearby Galactic globular clusters using radial velocities from the RAdial Velocity Experiment Data Release 4 (RAVE-DR4) survey data base. Our identifications are based on three globular clusters - NGC 3201, NGC 5139 (ω Cen) and NGC 362 - all of which are shown to have ∣RV∣ > 100 km s-1. The high radial velocity of cluster members compared to the bulk of surrounding disc stars enables us to identify members using their measured radial velocities, supplemented by proper motion information and location relative to the tidal radius of each cluster. The identification of globular cluster stars in RAVE DR4 data offers a unique opportunity to test the precision and accuracy of the stellar parameters determined with the currently available Stellar Parameter Pipelines used in the survey, as globular clusters are ideal test-beds for the validation of stellar atmospheric parameters, abundances, distances and ages. For both NGC 3201 and ω Cen, there is compelling evidence for numerous members (>10) in the RAVE data base; in the case of NGC 362 the evidence is more ambiguous, and there may be significant foreground and/or background contamination in our kinematically selected sample. A comparison of the RAVE-derived stellar parameters and abundances with published values for each cluster and with BASTI isochrones for ages and metallicities from the literature reveals overall good agreement, with the exception of the apparent underestimation of surface gravities for giants, in particular for the most metal-poor stars. Moreover, if the selected members are part of the main body of each cluster our results would also suggest that the distances from Binney et al., where only isochrones more metal rich than -0.9 dex were used, are typically underestimated by ˜40 per cent with respect to the published distances for the clusters, while the distances from Zwitter et al. show stars ranging from 1 to ˜6.5 kpc - with

  13. Kinematic Modeling of the Milky Way Using the RAVE and GCS Stellar Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Binney, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Steinmetz, M.; Boeche, C.; Bienaymé, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Watson, F.; Williams, M. E. K.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the kinematic parameters of the Milky Way disk using the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) and Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) stellar surveys. We do this by fitting a kinematic model to the data and taking the selection function of the data into account. For stars in the GCS we use all phase-space coordinates, but for RAVE stars we use only (l, b, v los). Using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, we investigate the full posterior distributions of the parameters given the data. We investigate the age-velocity dispersion relation for the three kinematic components (σ R , σphi, σ z ), the radial dependence of the velocity dispersions, the solar peculiar motion (U ⊙, V ⊙, W ⊙), the circular speed Θ0 at the Sun, and the fall of mean azimuthal motion with height above the midplane. We confirm that the Besançon-style Gaussian model accurately fits the GCS data but fails to match the details of the more spatially extended RAVE survey. In particular, the Shu distribution function (DF) handles noncircular orbits more accurately and provides a better fit to the kinematic data. The Gaussian DF not only fits the data poorly but systematically underestimates the fall of velocity dispersion with radius. The radial scale length of the velocity dispersion profile of the thick disk was found to be smaller than that of the thin disk. We find that correlations exist between a number of parameters, which highlights the importance of doing joint fits. The large size of the RAVE survey allows us to get precise values for most parameters. However, large systematic uncertainties remain, especially in V ⊙ and Θ0. We find that, for an extended sample of stars, Θ0 is underestimated by as much as 10% if the vertical dependence of the mean azimuthal motion is neglected. Using a simple model for vertical dependence of kinematics, we find that it is possible to match the Sgr A* proper motion without any need for V ⊙ being larger than that estimated locally by

  14. The relation between chemical abundances and kinematics of the Galactic disc with RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeche, C.; Chiappini, C.; Minchev, I.; Williams, M.; Steinmetz, M.; Sharma, S.; Kordopatis, G.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bienaymé, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2013-05-01

    Aims: We study the relations between stellar kinematics and chemical abundances of a large sample of RAVE giants in search of the selection criteria needed for disentangling different Galactic stellar populations, such as thin disc, thick disc and halo. A direct comparison between the chemo-kinematic relations obtained with our medium spectroscopic resolution data and those obtained from a high-resolution sample is carried out with the aim of testing the robustness of the RAVE data. Methods: We selected a sample of 2167 giant stars with signal-to-noise per spectral measurements above 75 from the RAVE chemical catalogue and followed the analysis performed by Gratton and colleagues on 150 subdwarf stars spectroscopically observed at high resolution. We then used a larger sample of 9131 giants (with signal-to-noise above 60) to investigate the chemo-kinematical characteristics of our stars by grouping them into nine subsamples with common eccentricity (e) and maximum distance achieved above the Galactic plane (Zmax). Results: The RAVE kinematical and chemical data proved to be reliable by reproducing the results by Gratton et al. obtained with high-resolution spectroscopic data. We successfully identified three stellar populations that could be associated with the Galactic thin disc, a dissipative component composed mostly of thick-disc stars, as well as a component comprised of halo stars (presence of debris stars cannot be excluded). Our analysis, based on the e-Zmax plane combined with additional orbital parameters and chemical information, provides an alternative way of identifying different populations of stars. In addition to extracting canonical thick- and thin-disc samples, we find a group of stars in the Galactic plane (Zmax < 1 kpc and 0.4 < e < 0.6) that show homogeneous kinematics but differ in their chemical properties. We interpret this as a clear sign that some of these stars have experienced the effects of heating and/or radial migration, which have

  15. The asymmetric drift, the local standard of rest, and implications from RAVE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubov, O.; Just, A.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Seabroke, G.; Reid, W.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M.; Watson, F.; Zwitter, T.

    2013-09-01

    Context. The determination of the local standard of rest (LSR), which corresponds to the measurement of the peculiar motion of the Sun based on the derivation of the asymmetric drift of stellar populations, is still a matter of debate. The classical value of the tangential peculiar motion of the Sun with respect to the LSR was challenged in recent years, claiming a significantly larger value. Aims: We present an improved Jeans analysis, which allows a better interpretation of the measured kinematics of stellar populations in the Milky Way disc. We show that the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) sample of dwarf stars is an excellent data set to derive tighter boundary conditions to chemodynamical evolution models of the extended solar neighbourhood. Methods: We propose an improved version of the Strömberg relation with the radial scalelengths as the only unknown. We redetermine the asymmetric drift and the LSR for dwarf stars based on RAVE data. Additionally, we discuss the impact of adopting a different LSR value on the individual scalelengths of the subpopulations. Results: Binning RAVE stars in metallicity reveals a bigger asymmetric drift (corresponding to a smaller radial scalelength) for more metal-rich populations. With the standard assumption of velocity-dispersion independent radial scalelengths in each metallicity bin, we redetermine the LSR. The new Strömberg equation yields a joint LSR value of V⊙ = 3.06 ± 0.68 km s-1, which is even smaller than the classical value based on Hipparcos data. The corresponding radial scalelength increases from 1.6 kpc for the metal-rich bin to 2.9 kpc for the metal-poor bin, with a trend of an even larger scalelength for young metal-poor stars. When adopting the recent Schönrich value of V⊙ = 12.24 km s-1 for the LSR, the new Strömberg equation yields much larger individual radial scalelengths of the RAVE subpopulations, which seem unphysical in part. Conclusions: The new Strömberg equation allows a cleaner

  16. Requirements based system level risk modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steven; Feather, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The problem that we address in this paper is assessing the expected degree of success of the system or mission based on the degree to which each requirement is satisfied and the relative weight of the requirements.

  17. National Airspace System. Operational Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    processing for PIREPs and efficient assimilation of PIREPs into appropriate Cdata bases (i.e., screening , purging). 3. The NAS shall acquire and maintain...within 3 minutes. 5. The system shall screen each flight plan or amendment for proposed flight into areas of reported or forecast hazardous weather and...Ambient noise shall ha. ,optrolled inside manned NAS -A: i um t; n c spe atists 5.Manned N ,a\\ ill s shall b- rs tructed to applicablea agency and

  18. Requirements Analysis for Information-Intensive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. D.; Hartsough, C.; Morris, R. V.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses role of requirements analysis in development of information-intensive systems. System examined from variety of human viewpoints during design, development, and implementation. Such examination, called requirements analysis, ensures system simultaneously meets number of distinct but interacting needs. Viewpoints defined and integrated to help attain objectives.

  19. Methodology requirements for intelligent systems architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Terry; Colombano, Silvano

    1987-01-01

    The methodology required for the development of the 'intelligent system architecture' of distributed computer systems which integrate standard data processing capabilities with symbolic processing to provide powerful and highly autonomous adaptive processing capabilities must encompass three elements: (1) a design knowledge capture system, (2) computer-aided engineering, and (3) verification and validation metrics and tests. Emphasis must be put on the earliest possible definition of system requirements and the realistic definition of allowable system uncertainties. Methodologies must also address human factor issues.

  20. Addicted to Democracy: "South Park" and the Salutary Effects of Agitation (Reflections of a Ranting and Raving "South Park" Junkie)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruna, Katherine Richardson

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections of a ranting and raving "South Park" junkie. The church the author goes to is Unitarian Universalist (UU). UUism is the religion for people who don't believe in religion but somehow feel the need to regularly assemble in a religious tradition and affirm their nontraditional religiosity. From what the author can…

  1. Addicted to Democracy: "South Park" and the Salutary Effects of Agitation (Reflections of a Ranting and Raving "South Park" Junkie)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruna, Katherine Richardson

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections of a ranting and raving "South Park" junkie. The church the author goes to is Unitarian Universalist (UU). UUism is the religion for people who don't believe in religion but somehow feel the need to regularly assemble in a religious tradition and affirm their nontraditional religiosity. From what the author can…

  2. Detection of a radial velocity gradient in the extended local disc with RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, A.; Famaey, B.; Minchev, I.; Seabroke, G. M.; Binney, J.; Burnett, B.; Freeman, K. C.; Williams, M.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W. A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2011-04-01

    Using a sample of 213 713 stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey, limited to a distance of 2 kpc from the Sun and to |z| < 1 kpc, we report the detection of a velocity gradient of disc stars in the fourth quadrant, directed radially from the Galactic Centre. In the direction of the Galactic Centre, we apply a simple method independent of stellar proper motions and of Galactic parameters to assess the existence of this gradient in the RAVE data. This velocity gradient corresponds to |K+C| > rsim 3 km s-1 kpc-1, where K and C are the Oort constants measuring the local divergence and radial shear of the velocity field, respectively. In order to illustrate the effect, assuming a zero radial velocity of the local standard of rest we then reconstruct the two-dimensional Galactocentric velocity maps using two different sets of proper motions and photometric distances based either on isochrone fitting or on K-band magnitudes, and considering two sets of values for the Galactocentric radius of the Sun and local circular speed. Further observational confirmation of our finding with line-of-sight velocities of stars at low latitudes, together with further modelling, should help constrain the non-axisymmetric components of the Galactic potential, including the bar, the spiral arms and possibly the ellipticity of the dark halo.

  3. Taking the Pulse of a River System: Research on the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Jennifer; Johnson, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Mark Twain raved about the Mississippi River basin as, 'the body of the Nation'. The 'upper body', upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River, includes commercially navigable reaches and branching tributaries that are recreationally and environmentally important. Together they feed and shelter an array of fish and wildlife in their flowing channels, floodplain lakes, backwaters, wetlands, and floodplain forests. Effective river management requires knowledge about factors controlling the dynamics and interactions of important ecosystem components. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) is the prized diagnostic tool in the Environmental Management Program for the Upper Mississippi River System that provides critical information about the status and trends of key environmental resources.

  4. Maintainability Program Requirements for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

  5. Control requirements for future battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that sophisticated battery control systems are required to support the high power, high energy spacecraft secondary battery systems of the post 1985 time period. Four categories of battery control system functions are defined and discussed: battery operational control, auxiliary system control, battery system status indication and fault detection fault isolation. A concept for implementation of such a control system is also presented and discussed.

  6. Teleoperators - Manual/automatic system requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janow, C.; Malone, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    The teleoperator is defined as a remotely controlled, cybernetic, man-machine system designed to extend and augment man's sensory, manipulative, and cognitive capabilities. The teleoperator system incorporates the decision making, adaptive intelligence without requiring its presence. The man and the machine work as a team, each contributing unique and significant capabilities, and each depending on the other to achieve a common goal. Some of the more significant requirements associated with the development of teleoperator systems technology for space, industry, and medicine are examined. Emphasis is placed on the requirement to more effectively use the man and the machine in any man-machine system.

  7. SIMON Host Computer System requirements and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Harpring, L.J.

    1990-11-29

    Development Service Order {number sign}90025 requested recommendations for computer hardware, operating systems, and software development utilities based on current and future SIMON software requirements. Since SIMON's main objective is to be dispatched on missions by an operator with little computer experience, user friendly'' hardware and software interfaces are required. Other design criteria include: a fluid software development environment, and hardware and operating systems with minimal maintenance requirements. Also, the hardware should be expandable; extra processor boards should be easily integrated into the existing system. And finally, the use of well established standards for hardware and software should be implemented where practical.

  8. SIMON Host Computer System requirements and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Harpring, L.J.

    1990-11-29

    Development Service Order {number_sign}90025 requested recommendations for computer hardware, operating systems, and software development utilities based on current and future SIMON software requirements. Since SIMON`s main objective is to be dispatched on missions by an operator with little computer experience, ``user friendly`` hardware and software interfaces are required. Other design criteria include: a fluid software development environment, and hardware and operating systems with minimal maintenance requirements. Also, the hardware should be expandable; extra processor boards should be easily integrated into the existing system. And finally, the use of well established standards for hardware and software should be implemented where practical.

  9. Requirements for a patient recruitment system.

    PubMed

    Schreiweis, Björn; Bergh, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Computerization and increasing need for evidence based medicine are not stopping at biomedical research. Clinical trials need participants and the problem of matching patients with eligibility criteria to support clinical trials has many different solutions. A detailed analysis of stakeholders' requirements would help implementing better patient recruitment systems (PRSs) in the future. Thus we decided to analyse the requirements in literature and talk to stakeholders what they feel the features of PRSs should be. Including patients and data privacy officers as stakeholders gives a holistic overview. Requirements are overlapping between different stakeholders with each stakeholder adding a different view on PRSs. Requirements implemented in current PRSs overlap mostly with requirements expressed by physicians and researchers. Especially patients' requirements (e.g. not having to enter medical data themselves) on PRSs give the impression that PRSs need to integrate with EHR systems or even PEHRs.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic open clusters in RAVE (Conrad+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, C.; Scholz, R.-D.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Schilbach, E.; Roser, S.; Boeche, C.; Kordopatis, G.; Siebert, A.; Williams, M.; Munari, U.; Matijevic, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Zwitter, T.; de Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G.; Freeman, K.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W.; Watson, F.; Gibson, B. K.; Bienayme, O.; Wyse, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Siviero, A.

    2014-01-01

    The presented tables summarise new radial velocities and average metallicities for Galactic open clusters extracted from the Catalogue of Open Cluster Data (COCD; Kharchenko et al. 2005, Cat. J/A+A/438/1163, J/A+A/440/403). The data were obtained from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE; Kordopatis et al. 2013AJ....146..134K) through a cross match with the stellar catalogues related to the COCD. The RV and [M/H] values were computed as weighted means, considering the individual uncertainties of the included members and their cluster membership probability based on position, proper motion, and photometry. The three uncertainties listed originate from different calculations: "RVRAVE" and "MetRAVE" are the weighted mean values for RV and [M/H] "errRV" and "errMet" are equivalent to the uncertainty of the mean values "sigRV" and "sigMet" are the standard deviations of the mean values "eRV" and "eMet" weighted mean values of the individual uncertainties of the included open cluster (OC) members For the calculations we primarily considered most probable OC members (best members) with a membership probability of at least 61%. Only in cases where just one or no most probable members was available we also included possible members (good members) with membership probabilities above 14%. In the table we include the numbers for both types of members separately: best members -> "bmem" and good members -> "gmem". We included reference values for RVs from the second version of the Catalogue of Radial Velocities with Astrometric Data (CRVAD-2) and the Catalogue of Radial Velocities of Open Clusters and Associations (CRVOCA) provided by Kharchenko et al. 2007, Cat. III/254). The CRVAD-2 reference values were computed according to the RAVE values for identified OC members. The CRVOCA references were directly extracted from the catalogue and number of OC members used are given in column "nmem". The reference values for [M/H] were obtained from the online compilation provided by Dias

  11. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. Trebules

    2006-06-02

    This document establishes the Monitored Geologic Repository system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are based on the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document'' (CRD) (DOE 2004a). The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Systems Requirements Document'' (MGR-RD) is developed in accordance with LP-3.3 SQ-OCRWM, ''Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of Repository Development Requirements Document''. As illustrated in Figure 1, the MGR-RD forms part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Technical Requirements Baseline. Revision 0 of this document identifies requirements for the current phase of repository design that is focused on developing a preliminary design for the repository and will be included in the license application submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a repository at Yucca Mountain in support of receiving a construction authorization and subsequent operating license. As additional information becomes available, more detailed requirements will be identified in subsequent revisions to this document.

  12. Requirements for CEC POP Machine Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Pinayev, I.

    2015-02-18

    The requirements of CEC POP machine protection system are meant to prevent damage to a vacuum chamber by a missteered electron beam. In this example, beam energy = 22 MeV, Maximal bunch charge = 5 nC, Maximal repetition rate = 78 kHz, Normalized emittance = 5 mm mrad, Minimal β-function = 1 m. From this information the requirements of the protection system can be calculated by factoring the information into equations to find beam densities and temperature excursions.

  13. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details.

  14. Security requirements in EHR systems and archives.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2004-01-01

    EHR system is a system for recording, retrieving, and manipulating information in electronic health care records. Archive is an organisation that intends to preserve health records for access and use for an identified group of consumers. There exist many combinations of EHR-systems and archives. EHR-system can be a single on-line system with integrated archiving functions or archive and EHR-system are co-operative or federated systems. This paper describes both common security requirements for EHR-systems and archives and security requirement specific for archives. Requirements are derived from ethical and legal principles. From principles a set of security requirements are derived. Safeguards for implementing security are discussed. In practise EHR-system and archive share many security services. This document is proposing that inside a security domain both the archive and EHR-system have a common security policy. In addition to this the archiving organisation needs a documented policy for information preserving and a policy for access and distribution of information between other archives.

  15. Online mass storage system detailed requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

  16. Microwave landing system requirements for STOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C. N.; Brown, S. C.; Goka, T.; Park, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    The operational/functional requirements for the new Microwave Landing System (MLS) are examined for STOL operations. The study utilizes a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom simulation of a De Havilland Buffalo C-8A aircraft and automatic flight control system to assess the MLS/STOL accuracy, coverage, and data rate requirements for the azimuth, DME, primary elevation, and flare elevation functions. The aircraft performance is statistically determined for representative curved flight paths through touchdown. A range of MLS errors and coverages, environmental disturbances, and navigation filtering are investigated. The study indicates that STOL applications do not place any unique requirements on the MLS.

  17. Distance determination for RAVE stars using stellar models . II. Most likely values assuming a standard stellar evolution scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwitter, T.; Matijevič, G.; Breddels, M. A.; Smith, M. C.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Brown, A. G. A.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Fulbright, J.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2010-11-01

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way which already collected over 400 000 spectra of ~ 330 000 different stars. We use the subsample of spectra with spectroscopically determined values of stellar parameters to determine the distances to these stars. The list currently contains 235 064 high quality spectra which show no peculiarities and belong to 210 872 different stars. The numbers will grow as the RAVE survey progresses. The public version of the catalog will be made available through the CDS services along with the ongoing RAVE public data releases. The distances are determined with a method based on the work by Breddels et al. (2010, A&A, 511, A16). Here we assume that the star undergoes a standard stellar evolution and that its spectrum shows no peculiarities. The refinements include: the use of either of the three isochrone sets, a better account of the stellar ages and masses, use of more realistic errors of stellar parameter values, and application to a larger dataset. The derived distances of both dwarfs and giants match within ~ 21% to the astrometric distances of Hipparcos stars and to the distances of observed members of open and globular clusters. Multiple observations of a fraction of RAVE stars show that repeatability of the derived distances is even better, with half of the objects showing a distance scatter of ⪉ 11%. RAVE dwarfs are ~ 300 pc from the Sun, and giants are at distances of 1 to 2 kpc, and up to 10 kpc. This places the RAVE dataset between the more local Geneva-Copenhagen survey and the more distant and fainter SDSS sample. As such it is ideal to address some of the fundamental questions of Galactic structure and evolution in the pre-Gaia era. Individual applications are left to separate papers, here we show that the full 6-dimensional information on position and velocity is accurate enough to discuss the vertical structure and kinematic properties of the thin and thick disks. The catalog is

  18. Local stellar kinematics from RAVE data - I. Local standard of rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkunoǧlu, B.; Ak, S.; Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Yaz, E.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G. M.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Grebel, E. K.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2011-04-01

    We analyse a sample of 82 850 stars from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey, with well-determined velocities and stellar parameters, to isolate a sample of 18 026 high-probability thin-disc dwarfs within 600 pc of the Sun. We derive space motions for these stars, and deduce the solar space velocity with respect to the local standard of rest. The peculiar solar motion we derive is in excellent agreement in radial U⊙ and vertical W⊙ peculiar motions with other recent determinations. Our derived tangential peculiar velocity, V⊙, agrees with very recent determinations, which favour values near 13 km s-1, in disagreement with earlier studies. The derived values are not significantly dependent on the comparison sample chosen, or on the method of analysis. The local Galaxy seems very well dynamically relaxed, in a near symmetric potential.

  19. "Partying" hard: party style, motives for and effects of MDMA use at rave parties.

    PubMed

    M ter Bogt, Tom F; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2005-01-01

    This study examines motives for and consequences of MDMA use at different types of dance parties in the Netherlands (2001 and 2002). Participants were 490 visitors of three different types of rave parties, "club/mellow," "trance/mainstream," and "hardcore" (34% female, mean age 22.3 years, 76.5% MDMA users). Partygoers are motivated primarily by the energetic and euphoric effects they expect from MDMA. Quantity of MDMA use is associated with hardcore and trance/mainstream party style, with the motives of euphoria, sexiness, self-insight, and sociability/flirtatiousness (negative), and with gender, educational level (negative), and MDMA use by friends. Women report more (acute) negative effects--depression, confusion, loss of control, suspiciousness, edginess, nausea, dizziness--than men; and in particular, women who are motivated to cope with their problems by using MDMA are at risk. Men's polydrug use and notably their motivation to conform to friends by using MDMA are associated with negative effects.

  20. Identifying Bright Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars in the RAVE Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Bright metal-poor stars are of great importance for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up, since their brightness allows for detailed studies of the chemical compositions of their atmospheres, obtainable with short integration times on 4m-8m class telescopes. We have carried out a medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up survey of very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) stars selected from the RAVE catalog.Over the course of four semesters we observed over 1,200 stars with the Gemini North, Gemini South, SOAR, KPNO/Mayall, and ESO/NTT telescopes. These spectra are used to confirm the estimated atmospheric parameters from RAVE, as well as to determine [C/Fe], using our spectroscopic analysis pipeline. This information has already enabled the identification of many new carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including representatives of the inner- and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way, for which high-resolution spectroscopy is in progress from the ground with the Magellan/Clay Telescope and with the South African Large Telescope (SALT). The most interesting stars from the high-resolution follow-up will be observed from space with HST/STIS or COS. In this talk I will present the results of the medium-resolution follow-up, and preliminary results from the high-resolution effort.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  1. CHROMOSPHERICALLY ACTIVE STARS IN THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT (RAVE) SURVEY. I. THE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Žerjal, M.; Zwitter, T.; Matijevič, G.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Freeman, K. C.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2013-10-20

    RAVE, the unbiased magnitude limited survey of southern sky stars, contained 456,676 medium-resolution spectra at the time of our analysis. Spectra cover the Ca II infrared triplet (IRT) range, which is a known indicator of chromospheric activity. Our previous work classified all spectra using locally linear embedding. It identified 53,347 cases with a suggested emission component in calcium lines. Here, we use a spectral subtraction technique to measure the properties of this emission. Synthetic templates are replaced by the observed spectra of non-active stars to bypass the difficult computations of non-local thermal equilibrium profiles of the line cores and stellar parameter dependence. We derive both the equivalent width of the excess emission for each calcium line on a 5 Å wide interval and their sum EW{sub IRT} for ∼44,000 candidate active dwarf stars with signal-to-noise ratio >20, with no cuts on the basis of the source of their emission flux. From these, ∼14,000 show a detectable chromospheric flux with at least a 2σ confidence level. Our set of active stars vastly enlarges previously known samples. Atmospheric parameters and, in some cases, radial velocities of active stars derived from automatic pipelines suffer from systematic shifts due to their shallower calcium lines. We re-estimate the effective temperature, metallicity, and radial velocities for candidate active stars. The overall distribution of activity levels shows a bimodal shape, with the first peak coinciding with non-active stars and the second with the pre-main-sequence cases. The catalog will be made publicly available with the next RAVE public data releases.

  2. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  3. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, R. W.

    2004-02-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  4. Translation of User Needs to System Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    written under the premise that the current state of the art of system development does not warrant or support a formal standards document.” Experience...1992). C4I for the warrior. Washington, D.C. Carson, R., Aslaksen, E., Caple, G., Davies, P., Griego , R., Kohl, R., et al. (2004). Requirements...Hilliard, R. (2004). ANSI/IEEE 1471 and systems engineering. Systems Engineering Journal, 7(3), 257-270. Maier, M., & Rechtin, E. (2002). The art of

  5. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  6. Requirements development for a patient computing system.

    PubMed

    Wald, J S; Pedraza, L A; Reilly, C A; Murphy, M E; Kuperman, G J

    2001-01-01

    Critical parts of the software development life cycle are concerned with eliciting, understanding, and managing requirements. Though the literature on this subject dates back for several decades, practicing effective requirements development remains a current and challenging area. Some projects flourish with a requirements development process (RDP) that is implicit and informal, but this approach may be overly risky, particularly for large projects that involve multiple individuals, groups, and systems over time. At Partners HealthCare System in Boston, Massachusetts, we have applied a more formal approach for requirements development to the Patient Computing Project. The goal of the project is to create web-based software that connects patients electronically with their physician's offices and has the potential to improve care efficiency and quality. It is a large project, with over 500 function points. Like most technological innovation, the successful introduction of this system requires as much attention to understanding the business needs and workflow details as it does to technical design and implementation. This paper describes our RDP approach, and key business requirements discovered through this process. We believe that a formal RDP is essential, and that informatics as a field must include proficiencies in this area.

  7. Requirements development for a patient computing system.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, J. S.; Pedraza, L. A.; Reilly, C. A.; Murphy, M. E.; Kuperman, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    Critical parts of the software development life cycle are concerned with eliciting, understanding, and managing requirements. Though the literature on this subject dates back for several decades, practicing effective requirements development remains a current and challenging area. Some projects flourish with a requirements development process (RDP) that is implicit and informal, but this approach may be overly risky, particularly for large projects that involve multiple individuals, groups, and systems over time. At Partners HealthCare System in Boston, Massachusetts, we have applied a more formal approach for requirements development to the Patient Computing Project. The goal of the project is to create web-based software that connects patients electronically with their physician's offices and has the potential to improve care efficiency and quality. It is a large project, with over 500 function points. Like most technological innovation, the successful introduction of this system requires as much attention to understanding the business needs and workflow details as it does to technical design and implementation. This paper describes our RDP approach, and key business requirements discovered through this process. We believe that a formal RDP is essential, and that informatics as a field must include proficiencies in this area. PMID:11825282

  8. Test requirements for 42 V battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weighall, M. J.

    The introduction of the 42 V PowerNet imposes new performance requirements on the battery. The required performance parameters will vary dependent on the application and to what extent the power train is hybridised, with additional features such as start-stop, launch assist etc. This makes it more difficult to specify relevant laboratory test procedures. This paper reviews the vehicle electrical system developments and the impact these developments will have on the battery performance and testing requirements. Suitable test equipment from Digatron/Firing Circuits is discussed and reviewed.

  9. Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Kouts

    2006-05-10

    The CRD addresses the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3-Change 1, ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets'', by providing the Secretarial Acquisition Executive (Level 0) scope baseline and the Program-level (Level 1) technical baseline. The Secretarial Acquisition Executive approves the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) critical decisions and changes against the Level 0 baseline; and in turn, the OCRWM Director approves all changes against the Level 1 baseline. This baseline establishes the top-level technical scope of the CRMWS and its three system elements, as described in section 1.3.2. The organizations responsible for design, development, and operation of system elements described in this document must therefore prepare subordinate project-level documents that are consistent with the CRD. Changes to requirements will be managed in accordance with established change and configuration control procedures. The CRD establishes requirements for the design, development, and operation of the CRWMS. It specifically addresses the top-level governing laws and regulations (e.g., ''Nuclear Waste Policy Act'' (NWPA), 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 63, 10 CFR Part 71, etc.) along with specific policy, performance requirements, interface requirements, and system architecture. The CRD shall be used as a vehicle to incorporate specific changes in technical scope or performance requirements that may have significant program implications. Such may include changes to the program mission, changes to operational capability, and high visibility stakeholder issues. The CRD uses a systems approach to: (1) identify key functions that the CRWMS must perform, (2) allocate top-level requirements derived from statutory, regulatory, and programmatic sources, and (3) define the basic elements of the system architecture and operational concept. Project-level documents address CRD requirements by further

  10. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  11. Methodology for assessing systems materials requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, D.H.; Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A potential stumbling block to new system planning and design is imprecise, confusing, or contradictory data regarding materials - their availability and costs. A methodology is now available that removes this barrier by minimizing uncertainties regarding materials availability. Using this methodology, a planner can assess materials requirements more quickly, at lower cost, and with much greater confidence in the results. Developed specifically for energy systems, its potential application is much broader. This methodology and examples of its use are discussed.

  12. The disk-halo interface of the Milky Way as observed with the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is the largest wide-field spectroscopic stellar survey of the Milky Way in the pre-Gaia era. Over the period of 2003-2013, 574,630 spectra for 483,330 stars have been amassed in the Ca triplet region at 8410-8795 Å with resolving power R ~ 7500. Spectral range and resolution are comparable to the RVS unit of the Gaia Satellite. Radial velocities at 2km/s accuracy have been derived as well as stellar parameters and chemical abundances for Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni. Furthermore, distances have been derived by combining RAVE data with 2MASS and APASS photometry.RAVE data have been applied to a multitude of questions regarding the dynamical and chemical evolution of the Milky Way. In this presentation I will focus on the interface between the thin and thick disk(s) and the Galactic halo, respectively, presenting data on systematic changes in abundence and alpha enrichment of the respectice stellar population with their kinematical properties (rotation velocity, velocity dispersion) out to distances of several kpc from the Sun. Furthermore, systematic changes in the chemical gradients will be presented. An analysis of high velocity stars reveals that while most have abundance properties typical for halo stars, a few stars have more disk-like chemical abundance pattern indicative of that these stars were formed in the disk but later on ejected into the stellar halo.

  13. Safety Requirements for Human Rated Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, M.; Sgobba, T.

    2010-09-01

    Human rated space systems are those that, to the maximum extent practical, ensure the safety of humans(i.e.: public, ground and crew personnel) from any critical or catastrophic hazards and/or safely recovery from them, ensure that human needs are covered and their capabilities are effectively utilized. The need to define these safety considerations has been the result of previous space accidents and lessons learnt onboard the International Space Station(ISS). In 2003, NASA released programmatic and technical requirements for human rating certification, which were reviewed and updated in 2008. In 2009, ESA launched an activity to identify safety technical requirements for human rated space systems in support of future European crewed space vehicles. Within this framework, ESA has reviewed and evaluated a comprehensive list of documentation, literature and identified a number of proven safety requirements for future crewed vehicles. This paper firstly presents an historical perspective of human spaceflight and European space activities. Secondly, human rating is introduced. Then, it describes the development of ESA safety requirements for human rated space systems and it provides details about its scope, requirements heritage and its applicability for European human spaceflight initiatives.

  14. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  15. Health requirements for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.

  16. Human Systems Integration: Requirements and Functional Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berson, Barry; Gershzohn, Gary; Boltz, Laura; Wolf, Russ; Schultz, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This deliverable was intended as an input to the Access 5 Policy and Simulation Integrated Product Teams. This document contains high-level pilot functionality for operations in the National Airspace System above FL430. Based on the derived pilot functions the associated pilot information and control requirements are given.

  17. User requirements for a patient scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.

    1979-01-01

    A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

  18. Materiel requirements for airborne minefield detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, Karl A.; Huegle, Helmut

    1997-07-01

    Within the concept study, Material Requirements for an airborne minefield detection systems (AMiDS) the following topics were investigated: (i) concept concerning airborne minefield detection technique sand equipment, (ii) verification analysis of the AMiDS requirements using simulation models and (iii) application concept of AMiDS with regard o tactics and military operations. In a first approach the problems concerning unmanned airborne minefield detection techniques within a well-defined area were considered. The complexity of unmanned airborne minefield detection is a result of the following parameters: mine types, mine deployment methods, tactical requirements, topography, weather conditions, and the size of the area to be searched. In order to perform the analysis, a simulation model was developed to analyze the usability of the proposed remote controlled air carriers. The basic flight patterns for the proposed air carriers, as well as the preparation efforts of military operations and benefits of such a system during combat support missions were investigated. The results of the conceptual study showed that a proposed remote controlled helicopter drone could meet the stated German MOD scanning requirements of mine barriers. Fixed wing air carriers were at a definite disadvantage because of their inherently large turning loops. By implementing a mine detection system like AMiDS minefields can be reconnoitered before an attack. It is therefore possible either to plan, how the minefields can be circumvented or where precisely breaching lanes through the mine barriers are to be cleared for the advancing force.

  19. Requirements for a transformerless power conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J.; Koerner, T.; Rippel, W.; Kalbach, J.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for development of a Transformerless Power Conditioning Subsystem (TPCS) that will meet utility, manufacturer, and customer needs are detailed. Issues analyzed include current utility guidelines, safety and grounding issues that appear as local codes, various kinds of TPCS connections that can be developed, dc injection, and a brief survey of TPCS circuit topologies that will meet requirements. The major result is that a finite time exists for control operation before dc injection into the distribution transformer causes customer outage (on the order of seconds). This time permits the control system to sense a dc injection condition and remove the TPCS from the utility system. Requirements for such a control system are specified. A three wire connection will ensure balanced operation for customer loads and two wire connections caused average value dc to be injected into single phase loads. This type of connection also allows for the lowest array voltage. The conclusion is that requirements for a TPCS can be determined and that there are not showstopping issues preventing implementation. The actual design and topology of the TPCS was left for further study.

  20. Requirements for a transformerless power conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, J.; Koerner, T.; Rippel, W.; Kalbach, J.

    1984-03-01

    Requirements for development of a Transformerless Power Conditioning Subsystem (TPCS) that will meet utility, manufacturer, and customer needs are detailed. Issues analyzed include current utility guidelines, safety and grounding issues that appear as local codes, various kinds of TPCS connections that can be developed, dc injection, and a brief survey of TPCS circuit topologies that will meet requirements. The major result is that a finite time exists for control operation before dc injection into the distribution transformer causes customer outage (on the order of seconds). This time permits the control system to sense a dc injection condition and remove the TPCS from the utility system. Requirements for such a control system are specified. A three wire connection will ensure balanced operation for customer loads and two wire connections caused average value dc to be injected into single phase loads. This type of connection also allows for the lowest array voltage. The conclusion is that requirements for a TPCS can be determined and that there are not showstopping issues preventing implementation. The actual design and topology of the TPCS was left for further study.

  1. HSCT high lift system aerodynamic requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of high lift system aerodynamic requirements are provided. Low speed aerodynamics has been identified as critical to the successful development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The airplane must takeoff and land at a sufficient number of existing or projected airports to be economically viable. At the same time, community noise must be acceptable. Improvements in cruise drag, engine fuel consumption, and structural weight tend to decrease the wing size and thrust required of engines. Decreasing wing size increases the requirements for effective and efficient low speed characteristics. Current design concepts have already been compromised away from better cruise wings for low speed performance. Flap systems have been added to achieve better lift-to-drag ratios for climb and approach and for lower pitch attitudes for liftoff and touchdown. Research to achieve improvements in low speed aerodynamics needs to be focused on areas most likely to have the largest effect on the wing and engine sizing process. It would be desirable to provide enough lift to avoid sizing the airplane for field performance and to still meet the noise requirements. The airworthiness standards developed in 1971 will be the basis for performance requirements for an airplane that will not be critical to the airplane wing and engine size. The lift and drag levels that were required to meet the performance requirements of tentative airworthiness standards established in 1971 and that were important to community noise are identified. Research to improve the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the HSCT needs to be focused in the areas of performance deficiency and where noise can be reduced. Otherwise, the wing planform, engine cycle, or other parameters for a superior cruising airplane would have to be changed.

  2. Future Orbital Power Systems Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA is actively involved in program planning for missions requiring several orders of magnitude, more energy than in the past. Therefore, a two-day symposium was held to review the technology requirements for future orbital power systems. The purpose of the meeting was to give leaders from government and industry a broad view of current government supported technology efforts and future program plans in space power. It provided a forum for discussion, through workshops, to comment on current and planned programs and to identify opportunities for technology investment. Several papers are presented to review the technology status and the planned programs.

  3. Automatic Visualization of Software Requirements: Reactive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, R.; Mili, R.; Tollis, I.G.; Winter, V.

    1999-05-12

    In this paper we present an approach that facilitates the validation of high consequence system requirements. This approach consists of automatically generating a graphical representation from an informal document. Our choice of a graphical notation is statecharts. We proceed in two steps: we first extract a hierarchical decomposition tree from a textual description, then we draw a graph that models the statechart in a hierarchical fashion. The resulting drawing is an effective requirements assessment tool that allows the end user to easily pinpoint inconsistencies and incompleteness.

  4. The RAVE-on Catalog of Stellar Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Abundances for Chemo-dynamic Studies in the Gaia Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Hawkins, Keith; Hogg, David W.; Ness, Melissa; Rix, Hans-Walter; Kordopatis, Georges; Kunder, Andrea; Steinmetz, Matthias; Koposov, Sergey; Enke, Harry; Sanders, Jason; Gilmore, Gerry; Zwitter, Tomaž; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Casagrande, Luca; Matijevič, Gal; Seabroke, George; Bienaymé, Olivier; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Gibson, Brad K.; Grebel, Eva K.; Helmi, Amina; Munari, Ulisse; Navarro, Julio F.; Reid, Warren; Siebert, Arnaud; Wyse, Rosemary

    2017-05-01

    The orbits, atmospheric parameters, chemical abundances, and ages of individual stars in the Milky Way provide the most comprehensive illustration of galaxy formation available. The Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) will deliver astrometric parameters for the largest ever sample of Milky Way stars, though its full potential cannot be realized without the addition of complementary spectroscopy. Among existing spectroscopic surveys, the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) has the largest overlap with TGAS (≳200,000 stars). We present a data-driven re-analysis of 520,781 RAVE spectra using The Cannon. For red giants, we build our model using high-fidelity APOGEE stellar parameters and abundances for stars that overlap with RAVE. For main sequence and sub-giant stars, our model uses stellar parameters from the K2/EPIC. We derive and validate effective temperature T eff, surface gravity log g, and chemical abundances of up to seven elements (O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ni). We report a total of 1,685,851 elemental abundances with a typical precision of 0.07 dex, a substantial improvement over previous RAVE data releases. The synthesis of RAVE-on and TGAS is the most powerful data set for chemo-dynamic analyses of the Milky Way ever produced.

  5. Cathodic protection requirements for deepwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, C.M.; Hanson, H.R.; Kane, R.D.; Farquhar, G.B.

    1999-07-01

    Field and laboratory experience related to requirements for cathodic protection (CP) in deep water are reviewed with emphasis on identification of the major variables that need to be specified for successful deepwater CP designs for offshore structures. The subject is addressed based on the historical development of cathodic protection design methodologies for offshore structures focusing on sacrificial anode systems and trends that have resulted in specific changes in design requirements. Three main subjects are discussed: (1) application of existing industry standards such as NACE RP0176; (2) environmental factors--dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water velocity and fouling; and (3) calcareous deposits--difference between shallow and deep waters. Current practice of design criteria and systems for deepwater applications is assessed, including initial polarization, use of coatings and anode materials. The results from laboratory tests are compared with available documented service experiences and field tests results.

  6. Auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency. Previously announced in STAR as N83-26922

  7. Auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency.

  8. Electric airplane environmental control systems energy requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, L.B.

    1984-05-01

    The electric airplane environmental control system (ECS) design drivers is discussed for an electric airplane from two aspects. The first aspect considered is the type of aircraft. The three examples selected are the 150-passenger commercial airline transport, the military on-station electronic-surveillance patrol aircraft, and the air-defense interceptor fighter. These vehicle examples illustrate the effect of both mission and mission profile on the design requirements of the ECS and the differences that the requirements make on the resulting advantages and disadvantages of electrification. For the commercial transport, the selection of the air source for ventilation will be featured. For the patrol aircraft, the cooling unit will be evaluated. For the fighter, emphasis will be placed on the need for systems integration. The second and more important consideration is the definition of the environmental control system requirements for both energy supply and heat sink thermal management integration from the power plant (engine) that make an electric ECS viable for each type of vehicle.

  9. High incidence of mild hyponatraemia in females using ecstasy at a rave party.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Geetruida D; Blom, Renske E; Hené, Ronald J; Boer, Walther H; NIGRAM Consortium

    2013-09-01

    Globally, millions of subjects regularly use ecstasy, a drug popular due to its empathogenic and entactogenic effects. Dilutional hyponatraemia, mainly caused by direct stimulation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion by ecstasy, is among the many side effects of the drug (active substance 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA). Severe, symptomatic hyponatraemia related to the use of MDMA has been reported in more than 30 cases. The mortality of this complication is high and mainly females are involved. Dramatic cases that reach the literature probably represent the tip of the iceberg. We decided to study the incidence of hyponatraemia in subjects using MDMA at an indoor rave party. The study was performed at the indoor event 'Awakenings', held in Amsterdam in the fall of 2010. The plasma sodium concentration was measured at the party using a point of care method in 63 subjects using MDMA and 44 controls. The use of MDMA was confirmed by a urine test. The plasma sodium concentration in subjects using MDMA was significantly lower than in those not using the drug (138 ± 2 mmol/L versus 140 ± 2 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.001). The overall incidence of hyponatraemia, defined as a plasma sodium concentration <136 mmol/L, was 14.3% in MDMA users (9/63 subjects). Most cases of hyponatraemia occurred in females, in whom the incidence was 26.7% (8 of 30 females), with lowest values of 133 mmol/L. The number of ecstasy pills ingested by the females developing hyponatraemia was not different from that ingested by those who did not develop this complication. Fluid intake in ecstasy users exceeded that of non-users, suggesting a dipsogenic effect of the drug. Only 3% of males, but no less than ∼25% of females attending a rave party and using MDMA developed mild hyponatraemia during the event. Especially females are therefore probably also at risk of developing severe symptomatic hyponatraemia. Not using MDMA is obviously the best option to prevent MDMA

  10. Evaporative condensing minimizes system power requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Knebel, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    Evaporative condensing is a heat-rejection technology widely applied with industrial refrigeration. When employed with HVAC systems it can reduce electrical energy and demand consumption of an HVAC system by 20 to 40%, depending on location, compared to air-cooled condensing. Evaporative condensing allows direct-expansion (DX) systems to achieve energy and demand consumption comparable to the most efficient chilled water central plant systems. As the industry focuses its attention on solving the problems of energy conservation, demand reduction, and global warming, high-efficiency air conditioning systems utilizing evaporative condensing provide a reliable and cost-effective solution today. This article addresses the advantages of evaporative condensing over air-cooled and water-cooled condensing in DX packaged systems as well as chiller/cooling tower systems. A review of condensing methods and standard system operating characteristics will be used as examples to illustrate the thermodynamic benefits of evaporative condensing. Requirements for successful operation of evaporative condensers will be discussed.

  11. Reliable vacuum system cuts steam requirements 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    In choosing a new high-vacuum system for fractional distillation, Polarome Manufacturing Company, New York, NY and Newark, NJ, a producer of high-quality flavor and fragrance chemicals, considered reliability and performance and steam consumption to be the most important factors. Distillation is carried out under vacuum to minimize thermal degradation. For stable operation, the vacuum system for the distillation column has to be ultra-reliable, and has to be able to go on-line quickly. Fluctuations in vacuum affect operating temperature and fractionation and cause deterioration of the product quality. Polarome's process requires a gas removal rate from the distillation column of 7.5 lg/hr of air plus 7.5 lb/hr of condensible vapors at 0.5 mm Hg absolute pressure at 105/sup 0/F. Polarome chose a combination ejector/liquid ring pump system that combines the two distinctly different types of equipment to improve high-vacuum efficiency. The unit requires only 400 lb/hr of motive steam at 125 psig, and the liquid ring pump only draws 5.7 brake hp. Polarome purchased two virtually identical four-stage systems, each composed of two ejector stages, a shell-and-tube condenser, and a two-stage liquid ring vacuum pump. The fully packaged systems were delivered skid-mounted, ready to pipe and operate. Polarome found a number of advantages with their combined system. Steam savings are considerable - up to 50% over a conventional ejector system - because the liquid-ring pump is substituted for the less efficient final two ejector stages. In Polarome's vacuum range of 0.5 mm Hg, this was considered the most efficient way of drawing vacuum, with lowest investment and operating costs for the greatest capacity.

  12. Intelligent redundant actuation system requirements and preliminary system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defeo, P.; Geiger, L. J.; Harris, J.

    1985-01-01

    Several redundant actuation system configurations were designed and demonstrated to satisfy the stringent operational requirements of advanced flight control systems. However, this has been accomplished largely through brute force hardware redundancy, resulting in significantly increased computational requirements on the flight control computers which perform the failure analysis and reconfiguration management. Modern technology now provides powerful, low-cost microprocessors which are effective in performing failure isolation and configuration management at the local actuator level. One such concept, called an Intelligent Redundant Actuation System (IRAS), significantly reduces the flight control computer requirements and performs the local tasks more comprehensively than previously feasible. The requirements and preliminary design of an experimental laboratory system capable of demonstrating the concept and sufficiently flexible to explore a variety of configurations are discussed.

  13. Basic data requirements for microwave radiometer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    Microwave radiometry has emerged over the last two decades to become an integral part of the field of environmental remote sensing. Numerous investigations were conducted to evaluate the use of microwave radiometry for atmospheric, oceanographic, hydrological, and geological applications. Remote sensing of the earth using microwave radiometry began in 1968 by the Soviet satellite Cosmos 243, which included four microwave radiometers (Ulably, 1981). Since then, microwave radiometers were included onboard many spacecraft, and were used to infer many physical parameters. Some of the basic concepts of radiometric emission and measurement will be discussed. Several radiometer systems are presented and an overview of their operation is discussed. From the description of the radiometer operation the data stream required from the radiometer and the general type of algorithm required for the measurement is discussed.

  14. Advanced EVA system design requirements study: EVAS/space station system interface requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    The definition of the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems interface requirements and accomodations for effective integration of a production EVA capability into the space station are contained. A description of the EVA systems for which the space station must provide the various interfaces and accomodations are provided. The discussion and analyses of the various space station areas in which the EVA interfaces are required and/or from which implications for EVA system design requirements are derived, are included. The rationale is provided for all EVAS mechanical, fluid, electrical, communications, and data system interfaces as well as exterior and interior requirements necessary to facilitate EVA operations. Results of the studies supporting these discussions are presented in the appendix.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial metallicity gradient from RAVE DR3 (Coskunoglu+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coskunoglu, B.; Ak, S.; Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Onal, O.; Yaz, E.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G. M.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate radial metallicity gradients for a sample of dwarf stars from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 3 (DR3, Cat. III/265). We select a total of approximately 17000 F-type and G-type dwarfs, using a selection of colour, log g and uncertainty in the derived space motion, and calculate for each star a probabilistic (kinematic) population assignment to a thick or thin disc using space motion and additionally another (dynamical) assignment using stellar vertical orbital eccentricity. We additionally subsample by colour, to provide samples biased toward young thin-disc and older thin-disc stars. We derive a metallicity gradient as a function of Galactocentric radial distance, i.e. d[M/H]/dRm=-0.051+/-0.005dex/kpc, for the youngest sample, F-type stars with vertical orbital eccentricities ev<=0.04. Samples biased toward older thin-disc stars show systematically shallower abundance gradients. (1 data file).

  16. Local Stellar Kinematics from RAVE Data: IV. Solar Neighbourhood Age-Metallicity Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Ş.; Ak, S.; Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Ak, T.; Bostancı, Z. F.; Coşkunoğlu, B.

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the age-metallicity relation using a sample of 5691 F- and G-type dwarfs from RAdial Velocity Experiment Data Release 3 (RAVE DR3) by applying several constraints. (i) We selected stars with surface gravities log g(cm s-2) ≥ 3.8 and effective temperatures in the 5310 ≤ T_{eff}(K) ≤ 7300 range and obtained a dwarf sample. (ii) We plotted the dwarfs in metallicity sub-samples in the T_{eff}-(J-K_s)_0 plane to compare with the corresponding data of González Hernández & Bonifacio (2009) and identified the ones in agreement. (iii) We fitted the reduced dwarf sample obtained from constraints (i) and (ii) to the Padova isochrones and re-identified those which occupy the plane defined by isochrones with ages t ≤ 13 Gyr. (iv) Finally, we omitted dwarfs with total velocity errors larger than 10.63 km s-1. We estimated the ages using the Bayesian procedure of Jørgensen & Lindegren (2005). The largest age-metallicity slope was found for early F-type dwarfs. We found steeper slopes when we plotted the data as a function of spectral type rather than Galactic population. We noticed a substantial scatter in metallicity distribution at all ages. The metal-rich old dwarfs turned out to be G-type stars which can be interpreted as they migrated from the inner disc or bulge.

  17. Ecstasy overdoses at a New Year's Eve rave--Los Angeles, California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-06-11

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) is an illegal synthetic amphetamine used as a stimulant and hallucinogen. On January 4, 2010, the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health (DPH) learned of six MDMA-related emergency department (ED) visits and one death, all linked to a New Year's Eve event attended by approximately 45,000 persons. LAC DPH conducted an investigation to search for additional MDMA-related ED visits, characterize the cases, and determine whether drug contamination was involved. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which determined that 18 patients visited EDs in LAC for MDMA-related illness within 12 hours of the rave. All were aged 16-34 years, and nine were female. In addition to using MDMA, 10 of the 18 had used alcohol, and five had used other drugs. Three patients were admitted to the hospital, including one to intensive care. A tablet obtained from one of the patients contained MDMA and caffeine, without known toxic contaminants. The cluster of apparent ecstasy overdoses occurred in the context of likely increasing MDMA use in the county during 2005-2009, as indicated by increased identification of MDMA-containing forensic specimens and a large increase in LAC residents entering drug treatment programs for MDMA. Collaboration between public health, police, fire, and emergency medical service (EMS) officials on a comprehensive prevention strategy might reduce the number of overdoses at similar events.

  18. Vehicle systems and payload requirements evaluation. [computer programs for identifying launch vehicle system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, F. G.; Pittenger, J. L.; Conlon, R. J.; Allen, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques developed for identifying launch vehicle system requirements for NASA automated space missions are discussed. Emphasis is placed on development of computer programs and investigation of astrionics for OSS missions and Scout. The Earth Orbit Mission Program - 1 which performs linear error analysis of launch vehicle dispersions for both vehicle and navigation system factors is described along with the Interactive Graphic Orbit Selection program which allows the user to select orbits which satisfy mission requirements and to evaluate the necessary injection accuracy.

  19. Foreign Currency Requirements Automated Data System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-07

    RIDef. 4O02 LSNA 1080 HAz 1705 BPP IV. Code Fiscal Year Submit I/ V. Code Fiscal Year Submit 4/ .82 -4982 83 1983 84 1984 85 1985 86 1986 87 1987 VI...discussion of the equipment configuration requires that the following equipment categories be addressed: 0 Processors 0 Storage media * Output devices • Input...memory (core). They operate under the Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS) operating system. 5.1.2 Storage Media The part of the computer that is able to

  20. Future space transportation system architecture avionics requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Howard; Engelund, Walt

    1993-01-01

    NASA began a multi-center study in January 1993 to examine options for providing the most cost effective space transportation system in the future. The key advanced avionics requirements for these vehicle concepts are envisioned to provide significantly improved operational efficiency and effectiveness. It is very desirable to have adaptive guidance, navigation, and control approaches that will allow launch and return in almost any weather condition. The vehicles must be able to accommodate atmospheric density variations and winds without software changes. The flight operations must become much more autonomous in all flight regimes like an aircraft, and preflight checkout should make use of the onboard systems. When the vehicle returns to the launch site, subsystem health must be known and maintenance tasks scheduled accordingly. Ground testing of most subsystems must be eliminated. Also, the health monitoring system must be designed to enhance the ability to abort the mission significantly and save the crew and the vehicle. The displays and controls must be much less complex than current systems and must significantly reduce pilot work load. It is important to have low power, light weight displays and controls. Rendezvous and docking and all flight phases must have autopilot capability to reduce pilot work load for routine operations and in abort situations. The vehicles must have the demonstrated ability to return to the launch site. Abort from all mission phases can put additional demands on the communications system.

  1. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajamani, Ravi; Saxena, Abhinav; Kramer, Frank; Augustin, Mike; Schroeder, John B.; Goebel, Kai; Shao, Ginger; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a "real-world" example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.

  2. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that

  3. Requirements and Solutions for Personalized Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Lopez, Diego M; Oemig, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Organizational, methodological and technological paradigm changes enable a precise, personalized, predictive, preventive and participative approach to health and social services supported by multiple actors from different domains at diverse level of knowledge and skills. Interoperability has to advance beyond Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) concerns, including the real world business domains and their processes, but also the individual context of all actors involved. The paper introduces and compares personalized health definitions, summarizes requirements and principles for pHealth systems, and considers intelligent interoperability. It addresses knowledge representation and harmonization, decision intelligence, and usability as crucial issues in pHealth. On this basis, a system-theoretical, ontology-based, policy-driven reference architecture model for open and intelligent pHealth ecosystems and its transformation into an appropriate ICT design and implementation is proposed.

  4. 46 CFR 63.20-1 - Specific control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specific control system requirements. 63.20-1 Section 63... AUXILIARY BOILERS Additional Control System Requirements § 63.20-1 Specific control system requirements. In... following requirements apply for specific control systems: (a) Primary safety control system....

  5. 46 CFR 63.20-1 - Specific control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specific control system requirements. 63.20-1 Section 63... AUXILIARY BOILERS Additional Control System Requirements § 63.20-1 Specific control system requirements. In... following requirements apply for specific control systems: (a) Primary safety control system. Following...

  6. 46 CFR 63.20-1 - Specific control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specific control system requirements. 63.20-1 Section 63... AUXILIARY BOILERS Additional Control System Requirements § 63.20-1 Specific control system requirements. In... following requirements apply for specific control systems: (a) Primary safety control system. Following...

  7. 46 CFR 63.20-1 - Specific control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specific control system requirements. 63.20-1 Section 63... AUXILIARY BOILERS Additional Control System Requirements § 63.20-1 Specific control system requirements. In... following requirements apply for specific control systems: (a) Primary safety control system....

  8. 46 CFR 63.20-1 - Specific control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific control system requirements. 63.20-1 Section 63... AUXILIARY BOILERS Additional Control System Requirements § 63.20-1 Specific control system requirements. In... following requirements apply for specific control systems: (a) Primary safety control system....

  9. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 2: System requirements and conceptual description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the development of the business system for the SRB automated production control system, special attention had to be paid to the unique environment posed by the space shuttle. The issues posed by this environment, and the means by which they were addressed, are reviewed. The change in management philosphy which will be required as NASA switches from one-of-a-kind launches to multiple launches is discussed. The implications of the assembly process on the business system are described. These issues include multiple missions, multiple locations and facilities, maintenance and refurbishment, multiple sources, and multiple contractors. The implications of these aspects on the automated production control system are reviewed including an assessment of the six major subsystems, as well as four other subsystem. Some general system requirements which flow through the entire business system are described.

  10. Superconducting Super Collider Magnet System requirements. Revision A

    SciTech Connect

    1986-10-23

    This report discusses the Superconducting Super Collider magnet system requirements when the following categories: Functions; operational performance requirements; system configuration and essential features; structural requirements; availability/reliability; instrumentation and control requirements; design life; environment; maintenance requirements; interface systems; quality assurance; safety; and applicable codes and standards.

  11. Facility requirements for hypersonic propulsion system testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, M. G.; Lordi, J. A.; Wittliff, C. E.; Holden, M. S.

    Facility requirements and capabilities for hypersonic propulsion system testing are reviewed with emphasis on short-duration test facilities. Past and current hypersonic facility studies are reviewed, and some of the many problems currently associated with wing-body hypersonic aircraft and several currently operational ground-based facilities or facilities in the development stage are described. Limitations on the short-duration shock tunnel are examined, including problem areas where this device can make significant contributions to the type of unified computational, ground-test, and flight-experiment program that will be necessary to resolve complex issues associated with the development of either a SSTO vehicle or an air-breathing/rocket-assist-to-orbit vehicle.

  12. Scientific requirements for space science data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond J.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1990's space plasma physics studies will increasingly involve correlative analysis of observations from multiple instruments and multiple spacecraft. The solar terrestrial physics missions in the 1990's will be designed around simultaneous observations from spacecraft monitoring the solar wind, the polar magnetosphere and the near and distant magnetotail. Within these regions, clusters of spacecraft flying in formation will increasingly involve comparative magnetospheric studies. No single lab will have the expertise to process and analyze all of the different types of data so the data repositories will be distributed. Catalog and browse systems will be required to help select events for study. Data compression techniques may be useful in designing the data bases used for selecting events for study. Data compression onboard the spacecraft will be necessary, since instrument data rates will be much larger than available telemetry rates. However, considerable care will be necessary to avoid losing valuable data when applying data compression algorithms.

  13. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  14. System requirements specification for waste information and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the requirements for the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The document defines the functions, constraints, and objectives that pertain to WICS. This shall serve as the baseline document to ensure the needs of the Hazardous Material Control group (HMC) at 222-S Laboratory are met with regard to assurance of accuracy and quality of data taken with WICS.

  15. Kinematic analysis of solar-neighborhood stars based on RAVE4 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2016-02-01

    We consider stars with radial velocities, proper motions, and distance estimates from the RAVE4 catalogue. Based on a sample of more than 145 000 stars at distances r < 0.5 kpc, we have found the following kinematic parameters: ( U, V, W)_ ⊙ = (9.12, 20.80, 7.66) ± (0.10, 0.10, 0.08) km s-1, Ω0 = 28.71 ± 0.63 km s-1 kpc-1, and Ω0 ' = -4.28 ± 0.11 km s-1 kpc-2. This gives the linear rotation velocity V 0 = 230 ± 12 km s-1 (for the adopted R 0 = 8.0 ± 0.4 kpc) and the Oort constants A = 17.12 ± 0.45 km s-1 kpc-1 and B = -11.60 ± 0.77 km s-1 kpc-1. The 2D velocity distributions in the UV, UW, and VW planes have been constructed using a local sample, r < 0.25 kpc, consisting of ~47 000 stars. A difference of the UV velocity distribution from the previously known ones constructed from a smaller amount of data has been revealed. It lies in the fact that our distribution has an extremely enhanced branch near the Wolf 630 peak. A previously unknown peak at ( U, V) = (-96, -10) km s-1 and a separate new feature in the Wolf 630 stream, with the coordinates of its center being ( U, V) = (30, -40) km s-1, have been detected.

  16. Constraints on the Galactic bar from the Hercules stream as traced with RAVE across the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoja, T.; Helmi, A.; Dehnen, W.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Famaey, B.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Kunder, A.; Minchev, I.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-03-01

    Non-axisymmetries in the Galactic potential (spiral arms and bar) induce kinematic groups such as the Hercules stream. Assuming that Hercules is caused by the effects of the outer Lindblad resonance of the Galactic bar, we model analytically its properties as a function of position in the Galaxy and its dependence on the bar's pattern speed and orientation. Using data from the RAVE survey we find that the azimuthal velocity of the Hercules structure decreases as a function of Galactocentric radius, in a manner consistent with our analytical model. This allows us to obtain new estimates of the parameters of the Milky Way's bar. The combined likelihood function of the bar's pattern speed and angle has its maximum for a pattern speed of Ωb = (1.89 ± 0.08) × Ω0, where Ω0 is the local circular frequency. Assuming a solar radius of 8.05 kpc and a local circular velocity of 238 km s-1, this corresponds to Ωb = 56 ± 2 km s-1 kpc-1. On the other hand, the bar's orientation φb cannot be constrained with the available data. In fact, the likelihood function shows that a tight correlation exists between the pattern speed and the orientation, implying that a better description of our best fit results is given by the linear relation Ωb/Ω0 = 1.91 + 0.0044(φb(deg) - 48), with standard deviation of 0.02. For example, for an angle of φb = 30 deg the pattern speed is 54.0 ± 0.5 km s-1 kpc-1. These results are not very sensitive to the other Galactic parameters such as the circular velocity curve or the peculiar motion of the Sun, and are robust to biases in distance. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    SciTech Connect

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  18. 21 CFR 821.25 - Device tracking system and content requirements: manufacturer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Tracking Requirements § 821.25 Device tracking system and content requirements: manufacturer requirements. (a) A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Device tracking system and content...

  19. 21 CFR 821.25 - Device tracking system and content requirements: manufacturer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device tracking system and content requirements... Requirements § 821.25 Device tracking system and content requirements: manufacturer requirements. (a) A... distributes that enables a manufacturer to provide FDA with the following information in writing for...

  20. Capturing security requirements for software systems.

    PubMed

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way.

  1. Capturing security requirements for software systems

    PubMed Central

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way. PMID:25685514

  2. Cryogenic propellant management system requirements for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucillo, R. J.; Stevenson, S. M.; Corban, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    Specific propellant management system requirements have been identified for each facility category of SSF. Distributed systems have been analyzed to indentify momentum management, guidance, and traffic management requirements associated with the guidance, navigation, and control system; space-to-space communications and enhanced tracking requirements associated with the communications and tracking system; and propellant management system utility requirements associated with the electrical power system. Flight element analyses determined attach structure, utility distribution, and structural integrity requirements for the pre-integrated truss and high mass manipulation and translation requirements for the mobile base system.

  3. A HIGH-RESOLUTION, MULTI-EPOCH SPECTRAL ATLAS OF PECULIAR STARS INCLUDING RAVE, GAIA , AND HERMES WAVELENGTH RANGES

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasella, Lina; Munari, Ulisse; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2010-12-15

    We present an Echelle+CCD, high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R = 20,000) spectroscopic atlas of 108 well-known objects representative of the most common types of peculiar and variable stars. The wavelength interval extends from 4600 to 9400 A and includes the RAVE, Gaia, and HERMES wavelength ranges. Multi-epoch spectra are provided for the majority of the observed stars. A total of 425 spectra of peculiar stars, which were collected during 56 observing nights between 1998 November and 2002 August, are presented. The spectra are given in FITS format and heliocentric wavelengths, with accurate subtraction of both the sky background and the scattered light. Auxiliary material useful for custom applications (telluric dividers, spectrophotometric stars, flat-field tracings) is also provided. The atlas aims to provide a homogeneous database of the spectral appearance of stellar peculiarities, a tool useful both for classification purposes and inter-comparison studies. It could also serve in the planning and development of automated classification algorithms designed for RAVE, Gaia, HERMES, and other large-scale spectral surveys. The spectrum of XX Oph is discussed in some detail as an example of the content of the present atlas.

  4. Information System Requirements Determination: Factors Impeding Stakeholders from Reaching Common Understandings and Agreements on Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gissel, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Information system implementations require developers to first know what they must create and then determine how best to create it. The requirements determination phase of the system development life cycle typically determines what functions a system must perform and how well it must accomplish required functions. Implementation success depends on…

  5. Information System Requirements Determination: Factors Impeding Stakeholders from Reaching Common Understandings and Agreements on Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gissel, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Information system implementations require developers to first know what they must create and then determine how best to create it. The requirements determination phase of the system development life cycle typically determines what functions a system must perform and how well it must accomplish required functions. Implementation success depends on…

  6. Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS) requirements definition and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, S. R.; Goorevich, C. E.; Teles, J.; Pajerski, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements definition for the prototype version of the automated orbit determination system (AODS) is presented including the AODS requirements at all levels, the functional model as determined through the structured analysis performed during requirements definition, and the results of the requirements analysis. Also specified are the implementation strategy for AODS and the AODS-required external support software system (ADEPT), input and output message formats, and procedures for modifying the requirements.

  7. X-30 ground support system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Percy B.

    1992-12-01

    A summary is presented of the Ground Systems Associate Contractor's (GSAC) responsibility for all stationary facilities and systems that support final assembly of the X-30 aircraft and the follow on flight test program. This includes process systems, building structures and infrastructure. The GSAC is also responsible for coordination of all ground support systems necessary for the flight test program exclusive of purely electronic systems.

  8. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  9. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inactivation. (c) Inactivation treatment technology requirements. Unfiltered systems must use chlorine dioxide... section. (1) Systems that use chlorine dioxide or ozone and fail to achieve the...

  10. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivation. (c) Inactivation treatment technology requirements. Unfiltered systems must use chlorine dioxide... section. (1) Systems that use chlorine dioxide or ozone and fail to achieve the...

  11. 23 CFR 972.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The FWS shall develop, establish and implement the management systems as... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 972.204 Section 972.204...

  12. 23 CFR 970.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The NPS shall develop, establish and implement the management systems as described in this... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 970.204 Section 970.204...

  13. 23 CFR 973.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... system; (2) A process to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; (3... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 973.204 Section 973.204... Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The BIA, in...

  14. 23 CFR 973.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... system; (2) A process to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; (3... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 973.204 Section 973.204... Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The BIA, in...

  15. 23 CFR 973.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system; (2) A process to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; (3... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 973.204 Section 973.204... Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The BIA, in...

  16. HVDC control developments - addressing system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Patel, H.S.; Piwko, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes typical high voltage direct current (HVDC) control systems and some of the new developments in the control area. HVDC control systems are showing their flexible characteristics as demonstrated, for example, by the new modulation, torsional damping, and alternating current voltage and reactive power controllers. Extensive studies are conducted to design and integrate such controllers into HVDC systems and to assure against any detrimental interactions within the total control system. 8 figures.

  17. 46 CFR 167.45-50 - Foam smothering system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-50 Foam smothering system requirements. (a) When a foam-type system is fitted, its capacity shall be such as to rapidly... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foam smothering system requirements. 167.45-50 Section...

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-50 - Foam smothering system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-50 Foam smothering system requirements. (a) When a foam-type system is fitted, its capacity shall be such as to rapidly... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam smothering system requirements. 167.45-50 Section...

  19. 46 CFR 167.45-50 - Foam smothering system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-50 Foam smothering system requirements. (a) When a foam-type system is fitted, its capacity shall be such as to rapidly... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foam smothering system requirements. 167.45-50 Section...

  20. 46 CFR 167.45-50 - Foam smothering system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-50 Foam smothering system requirements. (a) When a foam-type system is fitted, its capacity shall be such as to rapidly... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foam smothering system requirements. 167.45-50 Section...

  1. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  2. 49 CFR 659.21 - System security plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System security plan: general requirements. 659.21... State Oversight Agency § 659.21 System security plan: general requirements. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to implement a system security plan that, at a minimum,...

  3. 49 CFR 659.21 - System security plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: general requirements. 659.21... State Oversight Agency § 659.21 System security plan: general requirements. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to implement a system security plan that, at a minimum,...

  4. 7 CFR 1767.12 - Accounting system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting system requirements. 1767.12 Section 1767..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.12 Accounting system requirements. (a) Each Rural Development electric borrower...

  5. 7 CFR 1770.11 - Accounting system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Accounting system requirements. 1770.11 Section 1770..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.11 Accounting system requirements. (a) Each RUS borrower subject to...

  6. 7 CFR 1767.12 - Accounting system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Accounting system requirements. 1767.12 Section 1767..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.12 Accounting system requirements. (a) Each Rural Development electric borrower...

  7. 7 CFR 1770.11 - Accounting system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting system requirements. 1770.11 Section 1770..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.11 Accounting system requirements. (a) Each RUS borrower subject to...

  8. 7 CFR 1770.11 - Accounting system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting system requirements. 1770.11 Section 1770..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.11 Accounting system requirements. (a) Each RUS borrower subject to the...

  9. 7 CFR 1767.12 - Accounting system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting system requirements. 1767.12 Section 1767..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.12 Accounting system requirements. (a) Each Rural Development electric borrower must...

  10. Analytical tool requirements for power system restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Borkoski, J.N. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper is one of series presented by Power System Restoration Working Group (SRWG) on behalf of the System, Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration. In this paper a set of analytical tools is specified which together describe the static, transient and dynamic behavior of a power system during restoration. These tools are identified and described for restoration planning, training and operation. Their applications cover all stages of restoration including pre-disturbance condition, post-disturbance status, post-restoration target system, and minimization of unserved loads. The paper draws on the previous reports by the SRWG.

  11. Teleoperator system man-machine interface requirements for satellite retrieval and satellite servicing. Volume 1: Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements were determined analytically for the man machine interface for a teleoperator system performing on-orbit satellite retrieval and servicing. Requirements are basically of two types; mission/system requirements, and design requirements or design criteria. Two types of teleoperator systems were considered: a free flying vehicle, and a shuttle attached manipulator. No attempt was made to evaluate the relative effectiveness or efficiency of the two system concepts. The methodology used entailed an application of the Essex Man-Systems analysis technique as well as a complete familiarization with relevant work being performed at government agencies and by private industry.

  12. System requirements specification for SMART structures mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Specified here are the functional and informational requirements for software modules which address the geometric and data modeling needs of the aerospace structural engineer. The modules are to be included as part of the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) package developed for the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose is to precisely state what the SMART Structures modules will do, without consideration of how it will be done. Each requirement is numbered for reference in development and testing.

  13. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements ancillary systems SSDR 1.5.6

    SciTech Connect

    Spann, J.; Reed, R.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-09-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Ancillary Systems, which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS).

  14. 78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sean Crain, Electronic Engineer, Signal and Train Control Division, Office of Railroad Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE... Report form into an electronic format. The electronic form required all of the same information as...

  15. Energy System Emissions and Materiel Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1989-02-01

    This report compares a central station solar photovoltaic plant to two coal plants, one gas plant, and a nuclear plant. It is of interest to geothermal energy studies only as source materials for comparisons on material requirements. This contains 48 references / citations. (DJE 2005)

  16. Exploration Planetary Surface Structural Systems: Design Requirements and Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Project developed system concepts that would be necessary to establish and maintain a permanent human presence on the Lunar surface. A variety of specific system implementations were generated as a part of the scenarios, some level of system definition was completed, and masses estimated for each system. Because the architecture studies generally spawned a large number of system concepts and the studies were executed in a short amount of time, the resulting system definitions had very low design fidelity. This paper describes the development sequence required to field a particular structural system: 1) Define Requirements, 2) Develop the Design and 3) Demonstrate Compliance of the Design to all Requirements. This paper also outlines and describes in detail the information and data that are required to establish structural design requirements and outlines the information that would comprise a planetary surface system Structures Requirements document.

  17. Developing Systemic Theories Requires Formal Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobet, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Ziegler and Phillipson (Z&P) advance an interesting and ambitious proposal, whereby current analytical/mechanistic theories of gifted education are replaced by systemic theories. In this commentary, the author focuses on the pros and cons of using systemic theories. He argues that Z&P's proposal both goes too far and not far enough. The future of…

  18. Developing Systemic Theories Requires Formal Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobet, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Ziegler and Phillipson (Z&P) advance an interesting and ambitious proposal, whereby current analytical/mechanistic theories of gifted education are replaced by systemic theories. In this commentary, the author focuses on the pros and cons of using systemic theories. He argues that Z&P's proposal both goes too far and not far enough. The future of…

  19. Autonomy requirements for satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, T.M.; Gjermundsen, E.; Wise, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    The focus of this paper, automating the power subsystems of satellites, represents one of the more complex and challenging tasks in achieving future autonomy goals. Recent studies have determined that our current satellites cannot survive for extended periods of time without the aid of ground support. Future survivable spacecraft will be required to perform their own support by utilizing a distributed processing architecture where smart subsystems interact with the centralized spacecraft computer.

  20. 14 CFR 121.127 - Flight following system; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight following system; requirements. 121... Supplemental Operations § 121.127 Flight following system; requirements. (a) Each certificate holder conducting supplemental operations using a flight following system must show that— (1) The system has adequate facilities...

  1. 14 CFR 121.127 - Flight following system; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight following system; requirements. 121... Supplemental Operations § 121.127 Flight following system; requirements. (a) Each certificate holder conducting supplemental operations using a flight following system must show that— (1) The system has adequate facilities...

  2. 14 CFR 121.127 - Flight following system; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight following system; requirements. 121... Supplemental Operations § 121.127 Flight following system; requirements. (a) Each certificate holder conducting supplemental operations using a flight following system must show that— (1) The system has adequate facilities...

  3. 14 CFR 121.127 - Flight following system; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight following system; requirements. 121... Supplemental Operations § 121.127 Flight following system; requirements. (a) Each certificate holder conducting supplemental operations using a flight following system must show that— (1) The system has adequate facilities...

  4. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An alternative trading system shall comply with the requirements in...

  5. 23 CFR 971.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 971.204 Section 971.204 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.204 Management systems requirements. (a...

  6. 23 CFR 971.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 971.204 Section 971.204 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.204 Management systems requirements. (a...

  7. 23 CFR 973.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 973.204 Section 973.204... Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The BIA, in consultation... management systems for federally and tribally owned IRRs. The BIA may tailor the nationwide...

  8. 23 CFR 973.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 973.204 Section 973.204... Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The BIA, in consultation... management systems for federally and tribally owned IRRs. The BIA may tailor the nationwide...

  9. 40 CFR 91.327 - Sampling system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling system requirements. 91.327....327 Sampling system requirements. (a) Sample component surface temperature. For sampling systems which..., sample line section, filters, and so forth) in the heated portion of the sampling system that has a...

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Maintenance Requirement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    I I 1 jefterson Oavs Highway. Suite 1204. Arington. VA 22202-302 and tOthe Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-01S...Requirement System (MRS) is a tool that appears to accomplish this by defining maintenance requirements, projecting those requirements into the future, and...requirements, projecting those requirements into the future, and assessing the risk of not fully funding maintenance requirements in terms of

  11. New Work Systems and Skill Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappelli, Peter; Rogovsky, Nikolai

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between production systems, work organization, and skills has become a policy consideration in many industrialized countries seeking to improve competitiveness without reducing wage standards. Decision makers should weigh the costs of making these changes. (JOW)

  12. Observational Requirements and Measurement Systems Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Six philosophical elements that a measurement strategy for dynamic qualities should contain are: systemic global observations; nested coverage; continuous upgrading of observational capability and testing of promising instrument concepts; orbit considerations; quality control: data validity and management; and data interpretation. The criteria for determining an observational program should include the following: significance of the primary scientific questions, technical readiness; potential of undeveloped techniques, engineering and economic feasibility; and data access and data systems.

  13. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  14. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  15. Implementation Procedure for STS Payloads, System Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines and instructions for the implementation of the SP&R system safety requirements applicable to STS payloads are provided. The initial contact meeting with the payload organization and the subsequent safety reviews necessary to comply with the system safety requirements of the SP&R document are described. Waiver instructions are included for the cases in which a safety requirement cannot be met.

  16. Live, Model, Learn: Experiencing Information Systems Requirements through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzel, Kathleen S.; Pike, Jacqueline C.

    2015-01-01

    Information system professionals strive to determine requirements by interviewing clients, observing activities at the client's site, and studying existing system documentation. Still this often leads to vague and inaccurate requirements documentation. When teaching the skills needed to determine requirements, it is important to recreate a…

  17. 49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical system requirements. 228.313 Section...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements. (a) All heating, cooking, ventilation, air conditioning, and...

  18. 49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical system requirements. 228.313 Section...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements. (a) All heating, cooking, ventilation, air conditioning, and...

  19. 49 CFR 228.313 - Electrical system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical system requirements. 228.313 Section...; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.313 Electrical system requirements. (a) All heating, cooking, ventilation, air conditioning, and...

  20. Performance Requirements for the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, D.F.

    2001-09-10

    This document identifies the upper-level Double-Shell Tank (DST) System functions and bounds the associated performance requirements. The functions and requirements are provided along with supporting bases. These functions and requirements, in turn, will be incorporated into specifications for the DST System.

  1. Automated Derivation of Complex System Constraints from User Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muery, Kim; Foshee, Mark; Marsh, Angela

    2006-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) payload developers submit their payload science requirements for the development of on-board execution timelines. The ISS systems required to execute the payload science operations must be represented as constraints for the execution timeline. Payload developers use a software application, User Requirements Collection (URC), to submit their requirements by selecting a simplified representation of ISS system constraints. To fully represent the complex ISS systems, the constraints require a level of detail that is beyond the insight of the payload developer. To provide the complex representation of the ISS system constraints, HOSC operations personnel, specifically the Payload Activity Requirements Coordinators (PARC), manually translate the payload developers simplified constraints into detailed ISS system constraints used for scheduling the payload activities in the Consolidated Planning System (CPS). This paper describes the implementation for a software application, User Requirements Integration (URI), developed to automate the manual ISS constraint translation process.

  2. Profiles of urine samples taken from Ecstasy users at Rave parties: analysis by immunoassays, HPLC, and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Brenneisen, R; Scholer, A; McNally, A J; ElSohly, M A; Murphy, T P; Salamone, S J

    2001-01-01

    The abuse of the designer amphetamines such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is increasing throughout the world. They have become popular drugs, especially at all-night techno dance parties (Raves), and their detection is becoming an important issue. Presently, there are no MDMA- or MDA-specific immunoassays on the market, and detection of the designer amphetamines is dependent upon the use of commercially available amphetamine assays. The success of this approach has been difficult to assess because of the general unavailability of significant numbers of samples from known drug users. The objectives of the present study are to characterize the drug content of urine samples from admitted Ecstasy users by chromatographic methods and to assess the ability of the available amphetamine/methamphetamine immunoassays to detect methylenedioxyamphetamines. We found that, when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD), 64% of 70 urine samples (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS]: 88% of 64 urine samples) obtained from Rave attendees contained MDMA and/or 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) alone or in combination with amphetamine, methamphetamine, or other designer amphetamines such as 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). This suggests that the majority of the Ravers are multidrug users. At the manufacturer's suggested cutoffs, the Abbott TDx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II and the new Roche HS Amphetamine/MDMA assays demonstrated greater detection sensitivity for MDMA than the other amphetamine immunoassays tested (Abuscreen OnLine Hitachi AMPS, Abuscreen OnLine Integra AMPS, Abuscreen OnLine Integra AMPSX, CEDIA AMPS, and EMIT II AMPS). There is 100% agreement between each of the two immunoassays with the reference chromatographic methods, HPLC-DAD and GC-MS, for the detection of methylenedioxyamphetamines.

  3. Facility Requirements for Integrated Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses features in the physical environment that need to be considered for integrated learning systems (ILSs). Highlights include ergonomics; lighting, including contrast and colors; space, furniture, and equipment, including keyboard, monitor, software, and printer; ambient noise and acoustics; temperature, humidity, and air quality control;…

  4. Facility Requirements for Integrated Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses features in the physical environment that need to be considered for integrated learning systems (ILSs). Highlights include ergonomics; lighting, including contrast and colors; space, furniture, and equipment, including keyboard, monitor, software, and printer; ambient noise and acoustics; temperature, humidity, and air quality control;…

  5. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, or viruses. ... systems must meet the combined Cryptosporidium inactivation requirements of this section and Giardia lamblia and virus inactivation requirements of § 141.72(a) using a minimum of two disinfectants, and each...

  6. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, or viruses. ... systems must meet the combined Cryptosporidium inactivation requirements of this section and Giardia lamblia and virus inactivation requirements of § 141.72(a) using a minimum of two disinfectants, and each...

  7. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, or viruses. ... systems must meet the combined Cryptosporidium inactivation requirements of this section and Giardia lamblia and virus inactivation requirements of § 141.72(a) using a minimum of two disinfectants, and each...

  8. Shielding Requirements for Particle Bed Propulsion Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    neutron and gamma ray fluxes throughout the system. The difficulty in solving the equation arises from the fact that one side is differential and the other...the flux calculations. A zero order representation uses a monoenergetic, isotropic source. A first order approximation uses the multigroup diffusion...DIMENSIONS RESULTS MODIFY CRITERIA SHIELD NO FLUX & HEATING MAP Figure 4: Calculational Procedure 7 The K’s for neutron radiation radiation are given

  9. Research Requirements for Future Visual Guidance Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    operations at SEATAC International Airport in Washington. Future research efforts will be needed to develop surface guidance systems that will assist air... Airport in Washington State. Because of frequently occurring low-visibility conditions, SEATAC was considered an ideal location for the testing of...been carried out in the United States at JFK Airport in New York in the late 1980’s (reference 21). The costs of retrofitting the SEATAC airport with

  10. Display Systems Dynamics Requirements for Flying Qualities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-09

    augmentation of the aircraft dynamics by a control system has been studied extensively, with current and evolving standards in existence. Consideration of the...MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVES Current and emerging military aircraft present a number of challenges with respect to ".." ensuring good flying qualities... current and emerging military aircraft and the often costly consequences of poor design with respect to flying qualifies, such guidelines should be

  11. 48 CFR 7.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the future if they are likely to be needed in substantial quantities during the system's service life... with the system that are likely to be acquired in substantial quantities during the service life of the... technology necessary to meet the system's required capabilities. If such proposals are required, the...

  12. 48 CFR 7.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the future if they are likely to be needed in substantial quantities during the system's service life... with the system that are likely to be acquired in substantial quantities during the service life of the... technology necessary to meet the system's required capabilities. If such proposals are required, the...

  13. 46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management Information System requirements. 16.500 Section 16.500 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

  14. 46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management Information System requirements. 16.500 Section 16.500 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

  15. 46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management Information System requirements. 16.500 Section 16.500 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

  16. 46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management Information System requirements. 16.500 Section 16.500 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

  17. 46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management Information System requirements. 16.500 Section 16.500 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

  18. 40 CFR 90.327 - Sampling system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling system requirements. 90.327... Equipment Provisions § 90.327 Sampling system requirements. (a) Sample component surface temperature. For sampling systems which use heated components, use engineering judgment to locate the coolest portion of...

  19. 40 CFR 280.41 - Requirements for petroleum UST systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for petroleum UST systems... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Detection § 280.41 Requirements for petroleum UST systems. Owners and operators of petroleum UST systems must provide release detection for tanks and piping as follows: (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 280.41 - Requirements for petroleum UST systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for petroleum UST systems... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Detection § 280.41 Requirements for petroleum UST systems. Owners and operators of petroleum UST systems must provide release detection for tanks and piping as follows: (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 280.41 - Requirements for petroleum UST systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for petroleum UST systems... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Detection § 280.41 Requirements for petroleum UST systems. Owners and operators of petroleum UST systems must provide release detection for tanks and piping as follows: (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 280.41 - Requirements for petroleum UST systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for petroleum UST systems... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Detection § 280.41 Requirements for petroleum UST systems. Owners and operators of petroleum UST systems must provide release detection for tanks and piping as follows: (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 280.41 - Requirements for petroleum UST systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for petroleum UST systems... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Detection § 280.41 Requirements for petroleum UST systems. Owners and operators of petroleum UST systems must provide release detection for tanks and piping as follows: (a)...

  4. A search for new members of the β Pictoris, Tucana-Horologium and ɛ Cha moving groups in the RAVE data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, L. L.; Moór, A.; Szalai, T.; Kovács, J.; Bayliss, D.; Gilmore, G. F.; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Fulbright, J. P.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2011-02-01

    We report on the discovery of new members of nearby young moving groups, exploiting the full power of combining the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey with several stellar age diagnostic methods and follow-up high-resolution optical spectroscopy. The results include the identification of one new and five likely members of the β Pictoris moving group, ranging from spectral types F9 to M4 with the majority being M dwarfs, one K7 likely member of the ɛ Cha group and two stars in the Tucana-Horologium association. Based on the positive identifications, we foreshadow a great potential of the RAVE data base in progressing towards a full census of young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood.

  5. Requirement analysis of an intelligent, redundant, actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Feo, P.; Shih, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability and fault tolerance requirements of integrated, critical, digital fly-by-wire control systems for advanced military and civil aircraft requires redundant, reconfigurable implementations of the actuation system. An effective way for controlling the actuators and implementing the required fault detection and reconfiguration strategies is by means of dedicated microprocessors. This paper describes a laboratory implementation of a flexible intelligent redundant actuation system capable of demonstrating the concept and analyzing a variety of configurations and technical issues.

  6. Industrial process driven system requirements for PSII applications

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a room temperature, plasma-based surface enhancement technology which is being commercialized through the efforts of a group of companies. A number of issues are critical to the successful design and operation of a commercial PSII system. These include overall vacuum system design, plasma source requirements and plasma-target interaction considerations, pulsed, high voltage sub-system (typically referred to as modulator) requirements, and target requirements and limitations. Critical system components are outlined and overall system design will be briefly covered.

  7. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845 Section 28.845 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical...

  8. Requirements controlled design: A method for discovery of discontinuous system boundaries in the requirements hyperspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Peter Michael

    The drive toward robust systems design, especially with respect to system affordability throughout the system life-cycle, has led to the development of several advanced design methods. While these methods have been extremely successful in satisfying the needs for which they have been developed, they inherently leave a critical area unaddressed. None of them fully considers the effect of requirements on the selection of solution systems. The goal of all of current modern design methodologies is to bring knowledge forward in the design process to the regions where more design freedom is available and design changes cost less. Therefore, it seems reasonable to consider the point in the design process where the greatest restrictions are placed on the final design, the point in which the system level requirements are set. Historically the requirements have been treated as something handed down from above. However, neither the customer nor the solution provider completely understood all of the options that are available in the broader requirements space. If a method were developed that provided the ability to understand the full scope of the requirements space, it would allow for a better comparison of potential solution systems with respect to both the current and potential future requirements. The key to a requirements conscious method is to treat requirements differently from the traditional approach. The method proposed herein is known as Requirements Controlled Design (RCD). By treating the requirements as a set of variables that control the behavior of the system, instead of variables that only define the response of the system, it is possible to determine a-priori what portions of the requirements space that any given system is capable of satisfying. Additionally, it should be possible to identify which systems can satisfy a given set of requirements and the locations where a small change in one or more requirements poses a significant risk to a design program

  9. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  10. 2 CFR 25.215 - Requirements for agency information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for agency information systems... information related to the awards, and other systems as appropriate, are able to accept and use the DUNS... UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Policy § 25.215 Requirements for agency...

  11. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  12. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must be...

  14. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  15. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  16. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  17. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  18. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  19. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  20. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  1. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  2. Space Station electric power system requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, Fred

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual definition and design of the Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is given. Responsibilities for the design and development of the EPS are defined. The EPS requirements are listed and discussed, including average and peak power requirements, contingency requirements, and fault tolerance. The most significant Phase B trade study results are summarized, and the design selections and rationale are given. Finally, the power management and distribution system architecture is presented.

  3. Space station electric power system requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, Fred

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual definition and design of the space station Electric Power System (EPS) is given. Responsibilities for the design and development of the EPS are defined. The EPS requirements are listed and discussed, including average and peak power requirements, contingency requirements, and fault tolerance. The most significant Phase B trade study results are summarized, and the design selections and rationale are given. Finally, the power management and distribution system architecture is presented.

  4. 2 CFR 25.215 - Requirements for agency information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for agency information systems... information systems. Each agency that makes awards (as defined in § 25.325) must ensure that systems processing information related to the awards, and other systems as appropriate, are able to accept and...

  5. 2 CFR 25.215 - Requirements for agency information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for agency information systems... information systems. Each agency that makes awards (as defined in § 25.325) must ensure that systems processing information related to the awards, and other systems as appropriate, are able to accept and...

  6. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart. (2) Air brake systems. Buses, trucks and truck-tractors equipped with air brake systems and..., and 393.52 of this subpart. (4) Electric brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with electric brake... failure requirements of FMVSS No. 105 in effect on the date of manufacture. (2) Air brake systems. Buses...

  7. Information Requirements for a Procurement Management Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    Management Information System is...described and some justification for this type of procurement management information system is presented. A literature search was made to determine...information systems. If information requirements are correctly identified and satisfied by a procurement management information system , contract administration and procurement management can be

  8. 2 CFR 25.215 - Requirements for agency information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for agency information systems... information systems. Each agency that makes awards (as defined in § 25.325) must ensure that systems processing information related to the awards, and other systems as appropriate, are able to accept and use...

  9. 23 CFR 972.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; and (5) A process for... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 972.204 Section 972.204... WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.204...

  10. 23 CFR 971.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... maintain the management systems and their associated databases; and (5) A process for data collection, processing, analysis, and updating for each management system. (c) All management systems will use databases... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 971.204 Section...

  11. 23 CFR 970.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the management systems and their associated databases; and (5) A process for data collection, processing, analysis and updating for each management system. (d) All management systems will use databases... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 970.204 Section...

  12. 23 CFR 970.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the management systems and their associated databases; and (5) A process for data collection, processing, analysis and updating for each management system. (d) All management systems will use databases... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 970.204 Section...

  13. 23 CFR 972.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; and (5) A process for... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 972.204 Section 972.204... WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.204...

  14. 23 CFR 972.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; and (5) A process for... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 972.204 Section 972.204... WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.204...

  15. Space Station Information System requirements for integrated communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marker, W.; Whitelaw, V.; Muratore, J.; Bigham, J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Space Station Information System (SSIS) requirements for integrated end-to-end communications are presented. The SSIS is defined as the integrated set of space and ground data and information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open System Interconnection (OSI). These SSIS requirements include grades of service, priority classifications, systems management, flow control, bandwidth allocation, and standard SSIS data services.

  16. Space Station Information System requirements for integrated communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marker, W.; Whitelaw, V.; Muratore, J.; Bigham, J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Space Station Information System (SSIS) requirements for integrated end-to-end communications are presented. The SSIS is defined as the integrated set of space and ground data and information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open System Interconnection (OSI). These SSIS requirements include grades of service, priority classifications, systems management, flow control, bandwidth allocation, and standard SSIS data services.

  17. Expert system verification and validation study. Phase 2: Requirements Identification. Delivery 2: Current requirements applicability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The second phase of a task is described which has the ultimate purpose of ensuring that adequate Expert Systems (ESs) Verification and Validation (V and V) tools and techniques are available for Space Station Freedom Program Knowledge Based Systems development. The purpose of this phase is to recommend modifications to current software V and V requirements which will extend the applicability of the requirements to NASA ESs.

  18. Power system requirements and definition for lunar and Mars outposts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petri, D. A.; Cataldo, R. L.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Candidate power systems being considered for outpost facilities (stationary power systems) and vehicles (mobile systems) are discussed, including solar, chemical, isotopic, and reactor. The current power strategy was an initial outpost power system composed of photovoltaic arrays for daytime energy needs and regenerative fuel cells for power during the long lunar night. As day and night power demands grow, the outpost transitions to nuclear-based power generation, using thermoelectric conversion initially and evolving to a dynamic conversion system. With this concept as a guideline, a set of requirements has been established, and a reference definition of candidate power systems meeting these requirements has been identified.

  19. Power system requirements and definition for lunar and Mars outposts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petri, D. A.; Cataldo, R. L.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Candidate power systems being considered for outpost facilities (stationary power systems) and vehicles (mobile systems) are discussed, including solar, chemical, isotopic, and reactor. The current power strategy was an initial outpost power system composed of photovoltaic arrays for daytime energy needs and regenerative fuel cells for power during the long lunar night. As day and night power demands grow, the outpost transitions to nuclear-based power generation, using thermoelectric conversion initially and evolving to a dynamic conversion system. With this concept as a guideline, a set of requirements has been established, and a reference definition of candidate power systems meeting these requirements has been identified.

  20. Technology requirements for a generic aerocapture system. [for atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The technology requirements for the design of a generic aerocapture vehicle system are summarized. These spacecraft have the capability of completely eliminating fuel-costly retropropulsion for planetary orbit capture through a single aerodynamically controlled atmospheric braking pass from a hyperbolic trajectory into a near circular orbit. This generic system has application at both the inner and outer planets. Spacecraft design integration, navigation, communications, and aerothermal protection system design problems were assessed in the technology requirements study and are discussed in this paper.

  1. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements automatic alignment system SSDR 1.5.5

    SciTech Connect

    VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-09-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Automatic Alignment System, which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS).

  2. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated safety systems SSDR 1.5.4

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-09-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Safety System, which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS).

  3. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  4. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  5. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Training Requirements Analysis Model (TRAMOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The training requirements analysis model (TRAMOD) described in this report represents an important portion of the larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. TRAMOD is the second of three models that comprise an LCC impact modeling system for use in the early stages of system development. As…

  6. 5 CFR 9701.405 - Performance management system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance management system... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.405 Performance... performance management systems for DHS employees, subject to the requirements set forth in this subpart. (b...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.405 - Performance management system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance management system... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.405 Performance... performance management systems for DHS employees, subject to the requirements set forth in this subpart. (b...

  8. 46 CFR 10.410 - Quality Standard System (QSS) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... institution certified under a national or international Quality Management System Standard as meeting one or... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quality Standard System (QSS) requirements. 10.410... MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL Training Courses and Programs § 10.410 Quality Standard System...

  9. System Requirements for On-Line and Batch Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Information Science, Washington, DC. Special Interest Group on Computerized Retrieval Services.

    Three papers on system requirements for on-line and batch retrieval presented at the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) annual meeting are included here. At G.D. Searle, data for records related to pharmacology screening are used in a batch system, and an on-line system is used to search information on mutagenic, carcinogenic, and…

  10. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... historical costs, and other analyses used to generate cost estimates. (b) General. The Contractor shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost estimating system... of Provisions And Clauses 252.215-7002 Cost estimating system requirements. As prescribed in...

  11. System Requirements for On-Line and Batch Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Information Science, Washington, DC. Special Interest Group on Computerized Retrieval Services.

    Three papers on system requirements for on-line and batch retrieval presented at the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) annual meeting are included here. At G.D. Searle, data for records related to pharmacology screening are used in a batch system, and an on-line system is used to search information on mutagenic, carcinogenic, and…

  12. Functional Requirements for an Electronic Work Package System

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna H.

    2016-12-01

    This document provides a set of high level functional requirements for a generic electronic work package (eWP) system. The requirements have been identified by the U.S. nuclear industry as a part of the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages - Enterprise Requirements (NEWPER) initiative. The functional requirements are mainly applied to eWP system supporting Basic and Moderate types of smart documents, i.e., documents that have fields for recording input such as text, dates, numbers, and equipment status, and documents which incorporate additional functionalities such as form field data “type“ validation (e.g. date, text, number, and signature) of data entered and/or self-populate basic document information (usually from existing host application meta data) on the form when the user first opens it. All the requirements are categorized by the roles; Planner, Supervisor, Craft, Work Package Approval Reviewer, Operations, Scheduling/Work Control, and Supporting Functions. The categories Statistics, Records, Information Technology are also included used to group the requirements. All requirements are presented in Section 2 through Section 11. Examples of more detailed requirements are provided for the majority of high level requirements. These examples are meant as an inspiration to be used as each utility goes through the process of identifying their specific requirements. The report’s table of contents provides a summary of the high level requirements.

  13. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  14. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  15. Towards Requirements in Systems Engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Health management (HM) technologies have been employed for safety critical system for decades, but a coherent systematic process to integrate HM into the system design is not yet clear. Consequently, in most cases, health management resorts to be an after-thought or 'band-aid' solution. Moreover, limited guidance exists for carrying out systems engineering (SE) on the subject of writing requirements for designs with integrated vehicle health management (IVHM). It is well accepted that requirements are key to developing a successful IVHM system right from the concept stage to development, verification, utilization, and support. However, writing requirements for systems with IVHM capability have unique challenges that require the designers to look beyond their own domains and consider the constraints and specifications of other interlinked systems. In this paper we look at various stages in the SE process and identify activities specific to IVHM design and development. More importantly, several relevant questions are posed that system engineers must address at various design and development stages. Addressing these questions should provide some guidance to systems engineers towards writing IVHM related requirements to ensure that appropriate IVHM functions are built into the system design.

  16. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  17. Generating requirements for complex embedded systems using State Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, Michel D.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Moncada, Alex C.

    2006-06-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering methodology called State Analysis, which provides a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using State Analysis, using representative spacecraft examples.

  18. Software Requirements Specifications of a Proposed Plant Property Management System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    RD-li32 176 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS OF R PROPOSED 1/2 PLANT PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(U) NAVAL POSTGRRDUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA E J...1983J THESIS SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS OF A PROPOSED PLANT PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SY’STEM by Edward J. Buselt June 1983 C)Thesis Advisor: R.W...Subtitle) s. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Software Requirements Specifications Master’s Thesis; of a (June 1983) * Proposed Plant Property Management

  19. Propulsion element requirements using electrical power system unscheduled power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, Frank; Hodge, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of using the electrical energy from the Space Station's Electrical Power System (EPS) during the periods of peak solar insolation which is currently not specifically allocated (unscheduled power) to produce propulsion propellants, gaseous hydrogen, and oxygen by electrolyzing water is investigated. Reboost propellant requirements are emphasized, but the results are more generally relevant because the balance of recurring propellant requirements are an order of magnitude smaller and the nonrecurring requirements are not significant on an average basis.

  20. Development and analysis of SCR requirements tables for system scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Morrison, Jeffery L.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the use of scenarios to develop and refine requirement tables for parts of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing EOSDIS as part of its Mission-To-Planet-Earth (MTPE) project to accept instrument/platform observation requests from end-user scientists, schedule and perform requested observations of the Earth from space, collect and process the observed data, and distribute data to scientists and archives. Current requirements for the system are managed with tools that allow developers to trace the relationships between requirements and other development artifacts, including other requirements. In addition, the user community (e.g., earth and atmospheric scientists), in conjunction with NASA, has generated scenarios describing the actions of EOSDIS subsystems in response to user requests and other system activities. As part of a research effort in verification and validation techniques, this paper describes our efforts to develop requirements tables from these scenarios for the EOSDIS Core System (ECS). The tables specify event-driven mode transitions based on techniques developed by the Naval Research Lab's (NRL) Software Cost Reduction (SCR) project. The SCR approach has proven effective in specifying requirements for large systems in an unambiguous, terse format that enhance identification of incomplete and inconsistent requirements. We describe development of SCR tables from user scenarios and identify the strengths and weaknesses of our approach in contrast to the requirements tracing approach. We also evaluate the capabilities of both approach to respond to the volatility of requirements in large, complex systems.

  1. Data requirements analysis in support of system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a user-oriented safety data bank is reported and its data requirements are outlined. The information retrieval system employed is described along with the problems involved in its establishment and operation.

  2. 27 CFR 25.41 - Measuring system required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.41 Measuring system required. The brewer shall accurately and reliably measure the quantity of beer transferred from the brewery cellars...

  3. 27 CFR 25.41 - Measuring system required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.41 Measuring system required. The brewer shall accurately and reliably measure the quantity of beer transferred from the brewery cellars...

  4. 27 CFR 25.41 - Measuring system required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.41 Measuring system required. The brewer shall accurately and reliably measure the quantity of beer transferred from the brewery cellars...

  5. 27 CFR 25.41 - Measuring system required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.41 Measuring system required. The brewer shall accurately and reliably measure the quantity of beer transferred from the brewery cellars...

  6. 27 CFR 25.41 - Measuring system required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.41 Measuring system required. The brewer shall accurately and reliably measure the quantity of beer transferred from the brewery cellars...

  7. Lesson 6: Using the Checklist to Work through System Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lesson 6 describes how these same requirements are presented in the CROMERR System Checklist (which was introduced in Lesson 4). You may want to refer to the checklist as you step through this lesson.

  8. The PPB Systems Analyst: Skills and Training Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Augustus B.

    Results are given of a six-week effort to (1) define the knowledge and skill requirements for successful performance as a Planning-Programming-Budgeting (PPB) systems analyst, (2) determine how these requirements are best acquired, and (3) evaluate the implications for the training programs of the Civil Service Commission. The findings in relation…

  9. National Ignition Facility system design requirements conventional facilities SDR001

    SciTech Connect

    Hands, J.

    1996-04-09

    This System Design Requirements (SDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the minimum design requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) site infrastructure and conventional facilities. These consist of the physical site and buildings necessary to house the laser, target chamber, target preparation areas, optics support and ancillary functions.

  10. 7 CFR 400.403 - Required system of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required system of records. 400.403 Section 400.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION... and Storage of Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.403 Required...

  11. Information systems requirements for the Microgravity Science and Applications Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kicza, M. E.; Kreer, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications (MSAD) Program is presented. Additionally, the types of information produced wiithin the program and the anticipated growth in information system requirements as the program transitions to Space Station Freedom utilization are discussed. Plans for payload operations support in the Freedom era are addressed, as well as current activities to define research community requirements for data and sample archives.

  12. Flight simulation visual requirements and a new display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amery, John G.; Streid, Harry R.

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the technical requirements for Out The Window (OTW) visual systems. Requirements for different modes of training and/or simulation will be stated. A new type of visual display will be described that provides improved, cost effective implementation and performance.

  13. Information systems requirements for the Microgravity Science and Applications Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kicza, M. E.; Kreer, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications (MSAD) Program is presented. Additionally, the types of information produced wiithin the program and the anticipated growth in information system requirements as the program transitions to Space Station Freedom utilization are discussed. Plans for payload operations support in the Freedom era are addressed, as well as current activities to define research community requirements for data and sample archives.

  14. Information systems requirements for the microgravity science and applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kicza, M. E.; Kreer, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications (MSAD) Program is presented. Additionally, the types of information produced within the program and the anticipated growth in information system requirements as the program transitions to Space Station Freedom utilization are discussed. Plans for payload operations support in the Freedom era are addressed, as well as current activities to define research community requirements for data and sample archives.

  15. Demonstrating Through-Life and NEC Requirements for Defence Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    The research in NECTISE was founded on a set of business requirements that were translated into research questions to make them appropriate to...planning activities that influence acquisition of military systems. The research scenario was created to satisfy a number of business requirements and

  16. Classification and certification requirements for floating production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, R.D.; Richardson, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    Floating Production Systems (FPSs) can be either, custom built or a converted semi-submersible, tanker or barge. The paper describes the necessary steps to be taken for the Classification and Certification of FPSs and FPSOS. The paper outlines the latest Classification and certification requirements for both semi-submersible and ship type FPSS. Classification and regulatory requirements for the Hull Structure, Stability, Station Keeping, Shipboard and Production Systems are discussed.

  17. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) interface requirements and prototyping plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Philips, John; Bassman, Mitchell; Williams, C.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the data collection and requirements analysis effort of the Ground System Development Environment (GSDE) Interface Requirements study. It identifies potential problems in the interfaces among applications and processors in the heterogeneous systems that comprises the GSDE. It describes possible strategies for addressing those problems. It also identifies areas for further research and prototyping to demonstrate the capabilities and feasibility of those strategies and defines a plan for building the necessary software prototypes.

  18. Analyzing resolution requirements of automated target recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Roger K.; Brush, Jeffrey S.

    1992-07-01

    Determining the spatial image resolution required to perform automated target recognition (ATR) can provide crucial information to designers of sensors and systems employing ATR technology. We present an analytic framework for performing this determination based on a functional decomposition of the algorithmic portion of an ATR system. The effects of changes in resolution in each component are taken into consideration separately, then combined to provide a hierarchical description of the required spatial resolution.

  19. Requirements Management System Browser (RMSB) software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.D.

    1996-09-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide an ``as-built`` design description for the Requirements Management System Browser (RMSB) application. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) and database structure design are described for the RMSB application, referred to as the ``Browser.`` The RMSB application provides an easy to use PC-based interface to browse systems engineering data stored and managed in a UNIX software application. The system engineering data include functions, requirements, and architectures that make up the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) technical baseline.

  20. The 30/20 GHz communications system functional requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siperko, C. M.; Frankfort, M.; Markham, R.; Wall, M.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of 30/20 GHz usage in satellite systems to be used in support of projected communication requirements of the 1990's are defined. A requirements analysis which develops projected market demand for satellite services by general and specialized carriers and an analysis of the impact of propagation and system constraints on 30/20 GHz operation are included. A set of technical performance characteristics for the 30/20 GHz systems which can serve the resulting market demand and the experimental program necessary to verify technical and operational aspects of the proposed systems is also discussed.

  1. Energy Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS): functional requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-17

    This report deals with the functional requirements of the Energy Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS) as it is defined for State level use (EEMIS-S). This report provides a technical description of the EEMIS-S requirements. These guidelines state that in order to create the widest practicable competition the system's requirements, with few exceptions, must be expressed in functional terms without reference to specific hardware or software products, and that wherever exceptions are made a statement of justification must be provided. In addition, these guidelines set forth a recommended maximum threshold limit of annual contract value for schedule contract procurements. Section 2.0 presents a general overview of the EEMIS structure in terms of requirements for vendor support. The functional requirements for each component are developed by section as: Teleprocessing Monitor Requirements, Section 3.0; EEMIS File Requirements, Section 4.0; Data Base Management Requirements, Section 5.0; Application Program Requirements, Section 6.0; and Utility Program Requirements, Section 7.0. The final Section, 8.0, justifies the use of the GSA Teleprocessing Service Program - Multiple Award Schedule Contracts (TSP-MASC) procurement process. The intent of this section is to substantiate, in this instance, the desirability of obtaining time-sharing vendor services to support EEMIS under a schedule contract, even if certain TSP-MASC threshold limits might be exceeded.

  2. Who is 'Molly'? MDMA adulterants by product name and the impact of harm-reduction services at raves.

    PubMed

    Saleemi, Sarah; Pennybaker, Steven J; Wooldridge, Missi; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-08-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), often sold as 'Ecstasy' or 'Molly', is commonly used at music festivals and reported to be responsible for an increase in deaths over the last decade. Ecstasy is often adulterated and contains compounds that increase morbidity and mortality. While users and clinicians commonly assume that products sold as Molly are less-adulterated MDMA products, this has not been tested. Additionally, while pill-testing services are sometimes available at raves, the assumption that these services decrease risky drug use has not been studied. This study analyzed data collected by the pill-testing organization, DanceSafe, from events across the United States from 2010 to 2015. Colorimetric reagent assays identified MDMA in only 60% of the 529 samples collected. No significant difference in the percentage of samples testing positive for MDMA was determined between Ecstasy and Molly. Individuals were significantly less likely to report intent to use a product if testing did not identify MDMA (relative risk (RR) = 0.56, p = 0.01). Results suggest that Molly is not a less-adulterated substance, and that pill-testing services are a legitimate harm-reduction service that decreases intent to consume potentially dangerous substances and may warrant consideration by legislators for legal protection. Future research should further examine the direct effects of pill-testing services and include more extensive pill-testing methods.

  3. Establishing performance requirements of computer based systems subject to uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.

    1997-02-01

    An organized systems design approach is dictated by the increasing complexity of computer based systems. Computer based systems are unique in many respects but share many of the same problems that have plagued design engineers for decades. The design of complex systems is difficult at best, but as a design becomes intensively dependent on the computer processing of external and internal information, the design process quickly borders chaos. This situation is exacerbated with the requirement that these systems operate with a minimal quantity of information, generally corrupted by noise, regarding the current state of the system. Establishing performance requirements for such systems is particularly difficult. This paper briefly sketches a general systems design approach with emphasis on the design of computer based decision processing systems subject to parameter and environmental variation. The approach will be demonstrated with application to an on-board diagnostic (OBD) system for automotive emissions systems now mandated by the state of California and the Federal Clean Air Act. The emphasis is on an approach for establishing probabilistically based performance requirements for computer based systems.

  4. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  5. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  6. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) interface requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Philips, John; Hartenstein, Ray; Bassman, Mitchell; Ruskin, Leslie; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1991-01-01

    A set of procedural and functional requirements are presented for the interface between software development environments and software integration and test systems used for space station ground systems software. The requirements focus on the need for centralized configuration management of software as it is transitioned from development to formal, target based testing. This concludes the GSDE Interface Requirements study. A summary is presented of findings concerning the interface itself, possible interface and prototyping directions for further study, and results of the investigation of the Cronus distributed applications environment.

  7. Reliability program requirements for aeronautical and space system contractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    General reliability program requirements for NASA contracts involving the design, development, fabrication, test, and/or use of aeronautical and space systems including critical ground support equipment are prescribed. The reliability program requirements require (1) thorough planning and effective management of the reliability effort; (2) definition of the major reliability tasks and their place as an integral part of the design and development process; (3) planning and evaluating the reliability of the system and its elements (including effects of software interfaces) through a program of analysis, review, and test; and (4) timely status indication by formal documentation and other reporting to facilitate control of the reliability program.

  8. Reliability program requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The objectives of the reliability program requirements described in this report are (1) to provide contractors with an outline of the reliability requirements established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in the areas of design, development, production, testing, and acceptance of space and terrestrial nuclear systems hardware, and (2) to guide the contractor in meeting these requirements. This publication or particular portions of it is applicable as specified in the contract. Whether the contractors/subcontractors are subject to all the requirements or only to part of them will be specified by contract, program letter, or by the contract statement-of-work.

  9. Patient Accounting Systems: Are They Fit with the Users' Requirements?

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, Haleh; Nazemi, Zahra; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    A patient accounting system is a subsystem of a hospital information system. This system like other information systems should be carefully designed to be able to meet users' requirements. The main aim of this research was to investigate users' requirements and to determine whether current patient accounting systems meet users' needs or not. This was a survey study, and the participants were the users of six patient accounting systems used in 24 teaching hospitals. A stratified sampling method was used to select the participants (n = 216). The research instruments were a questionnaire and a checklist. The mean value of ≥3 showed the importance of each data element and the capability of the system. Generally, the findings showed that the current patient accounting systems had some weaknesses and were able to meet between 70% and 80% of users' requirements. The current patient accounting systems need to be improved to be able to meet users' requirements. This approach can also help to provide hospitals with more usable and reliable financial information.

  10. Patient Accounting Systems: Are They Fit with the Users' Requirements?

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Haleh; Nazemi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A patient accounting system is a subsystem of a hospital information system. This system like other information systems should be carefully designed to be able to meet users' requirements. The main aim of this research was to investigate users' requirements and to determine whether current patient accounting systems meet users' needs or not. Methods This was a survey study, and the participants were the users of six patient accounting systems used in 24 teaching hospitals. A stratified sampling method was used to select the participants (n = 216). The research instruments were a questionnaire and a checklist. The mean value of ≥3 showed the importance of each data element and the capability of the system. Results Generally, the findings showed that the current patient accounting systems had some weaknesses and were able to meet between 70% and 80% of users' requirements. Conclusions The current patient accounting systems need to be improved to be able to meet users' requirements. This approach can also help to provide hospitals with more usable and reliable financial information. PMID:26893945

  11. Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R.; Boland, S.; Lempert, R.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny. Therefore, an effective system must openly and transparently produce data of unassailable quality. A global greenhouse gas information system will likely require a combination of space-and air-based remote- sensing assets, ground-based measurements, carbon cycle modeling and self-reporting. The specific requirements on such a system will be shaped by the degree of international cooperation it enjoys and the needs of the policy regime it aims to support, which might range from verifying treaty obligations, to certifying the tradable permits and offsets underlying a market in greenhouse gas emission reductions, to providing a comprehensive inventory of high and low emitters that could be used by non-governmental organizations and other international actors. While some technical studies have examined particular system components in single scenarios, there remains a need for a comprehensive survey of the range of potential requirements, options, and strategies for the overall system. We have initiated such a survey and recently hosted a workshop which engaged a diverse community of stakeholders to begin synthesizing requirements for such a system, with an initial focus on carbon dioxide. In this paper we describe our plan for completing the definition of the requirements, options, and strategies for a global greenhouse gas monitoring system. We discuss our overall approach and provide a status on the initial requirements synthesis activity.

  12. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

  13. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  14. Formal analysis of imprecise system requirements with Event-B.

    PubMed

    Le, Hong Anh; Nakajima, Shin; Truong, Ninh Thuan

    2016-01-01

    Formal analysis of functional properties of system requirements needs precise descriptions. However, the stakeholders sometimes describe the system with ambiguous, vague or fuzzy terms, hence formal frameworks for modeling and verifying such requirements are desirable. The Fuzzy If-Then rules have been used for imprecise requirements representation, but verifying their functional properties still needs new methods. In this paper, we propose a refinement-based modeling approach for specification and verification of such requirements. First, we introduce a representation of imprecise requirements in the set theory. Then we make use of Event-B refinement providing a set of translation rules from Fuzzy If-Then rules to Event-B notations. After that, we show how to verify both safety and eventuality properties with RODIN/Event-B. Finally, we illustrate the proposed method on the example of Crane Controller.

  15. Structural Requirements for the Space Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin K.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2004, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was given a vision for Space Exploration by President Bush, setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. As NASA gets ready to meet the vision set by President Bush, failures are not an option. Reliability of the propulsion engine systems will play an important role in establishing an overall safe and reliable operation of these new space systems. A new standard, NASA-STD-5012, Strength and Life Assessment for Space Propulsion System Engines, has been developed to provide structural requirements for assessment of the propulsion systems engine. This standard is a complement to the current NASA-wide standard NASA-STD-5001, Structural Design and Test Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware, which excluded the requirement for the engine systems (rotatory structures) along with pressure vessels. As developed, this document builds on the heritage of the multiple industrial standards related to strength and life assessment of the structures. For assuring a safe and reliable operation of a product and/or mission, establishing a set of structural assessment requirements is a key ingredient. Hence, a concentrated effort was made to improve the requirements where there are known lessons learned during the design, test, and operation phases of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and other engine development programs. Requirements delineated in this standard are also applicable for the reusable and/or human missions. It shall be noted that "reliability of a system cannot be tested and inspected but can only be achieved if it is first designed into a system." Hence, these strength and life assessment requirements for the space propulsion system engines shall be used along with other good engineering practices, requirements, and policies.

  16. Bantam System Technology Project Ground System Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, J. M.; Beveridge, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The Low Cost Booster Project (LCBP), also known as Bantam, is an element of the Advanced Space Transportation Program focused on Low Cost Booster Technologies. During FY 99 flight demonstrations are planned to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a booster capable of inserting a 150 kg payload into low earth orbit. The ground support system is an element of the full launch system. The ground support system provides for integration of the payload with the launch vehicle, preparation of the vehicle for launch (including maintenance, integration and test of the vehicle flight software), monitor and control of the launch sequence, range safety during launch, and collection of telemetry during the flight up to payload release. The ground support system is intended to make the maximum possible use of Government Off-the-Shelf (GOTS) or Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software to obtain the best value in terms of development operations support and ultimate life cycle cost for the launch system.

  17. Remote Sensing System Requirements Development: A Simulation-Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Davis, Bruce; Ryan, Robert; Blonski, Slavomir; Gasser, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Earth science research and application requirements for multispectral data have often been driven by currently available remote sensing technology. Few parametric studies exist that specify data required for certain applications. Consequently, data requirements are often defined based on the best data available or on what has worked successfully in the past. Since properites such as spatial resolution, swath width, spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), data quantization, and band-to-band registration drive sensor platform and spaceraft system architecture and cost, analysis of these criteria is important to objectively optimize system design. Remote sensing data requirements are also linked to calibration and characterization methods. Parameters such as spatial resolution, radiometric accuracy, and geopositional accuracy affect the complexity and cost of calibration methods. However, there are few studies that quantify the true accuracies required for specific problems. As calibration methods and standards are proposed, it is important that they be tied to well-known data requirements. The Application Research Toolbox (ART) developed at Stennis Space Center provides a simulation-based method for multispectral data requirements development. The ART produces simulated data sets from hyperspectral data through band synthesis. Parameters such as spectral band shape and width, SNR, data quantization, spatial resolution, and band-to-band registration can be varied to create many different simulated data products. Simulated data utility can then be assessed for different applications so that requirements can be better understood. This paper describes the ART and its applicability for rigorously deriving remote sensing data requirements.

  18. A Methodological Framework for Enterprise Information System Requirements Derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplinskas, Albertas; Paškevičiūtė, Lina

    Current information systems (IS) are enterprise-wide systems supporting strategic goals of the enterprise and meeting its operational business needs. They are supported by information and communication technologies (ICT) and other software that should be fully integrated. To develop software responding to real business needs, we need requirements engineering (RE) methodology that ensures the alignment of requirements for all levels of enterprise system. The main contribution of this chapter is a requirement-oriented methodological framework allowing to transform business requirements level by level into software ones. The structure of the proposed framework reflects the structure of Zachman's framework. However, it has other intentions and is purposed to support not the design but the RE issues.

  19. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...—partial failure of service brakes—(1) Hydraulic brake systems. Motor vehicles manufactured on or after... requirements of § 393.52(b), except in the case of a structural failure of the brake master cylinder body. (3... provided in this section. (b) Service brakes—(1) Hydraulic brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with...

  20. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...—partial failure of service brakes—(1) Hydraulic brake systems. Motor vehicles manufactured on or after... requirements of § 393.52(b), except in the case of a structural failure of the brake master cylinder body. (3... provided in this section. (b) Service brakes—(1) Hydraulic brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with...

  1. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...—partial failure of service brakes—(1) Hydraulic brake systems. Motor vehicles manufactured on or after... requirements of § 393.52(b), except in the case of a structural failure of the brake master cylinder body. (3... provided in this section. (b) Service brakes—(1) Hydraulic brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with...

  2. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...—partial failure of service brakes—(1) Hydraulic brake systems. Motor vehicles manufactured on or after... requirements of § 393.52(b), except in the case of a structural failure of the brake master cylinder body. (3... provided in this section. (b) Service brakes—(1) Hydraulic brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with...

  3. 23 CFR 971.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The tri-party partnership shall develop, establish, and implement the management systems as described.... (b) The tri-party partnership shall develop and implement procedures for the acceptance of the... by the tri-party partnership to meet the management system requirements. (e) The tri-party...

  4. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  5. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  6. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  7. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  8. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Phil

    1994-05-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  9. Teaching the Free Enterprise System in Required Social Studies Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    Guidelines are provided for integrating the teaching of the American free enterprise system into required high school social studies courses, as specified in Texas school accreditation standards. Five sample instructional units are included: an introductory unit which defines the essentials and benefits of the free enterprise system, and four…

  10. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  11. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  12. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  13. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  14. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  15. 19 CFR 143.5 - System performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.5 System... are detailed in Customs Publication 552, Customs And Trade Automated Interface Requirements (CATAIR... must demonstrate that his system can interface directly with the Customs computer and ensure...

  16. 19 CFR 143.5 - System performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.5 System... are detailed in Customs Publication 552, Customs And Trade Automated Interface Requirements (CATAIR... must demonstrate that his system can interface directly with the Customs computer and ensure...

  17. 19 CFR 143.5 - System performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.5 System... are detailed in Customs Publication 552, Customs And Trade Automated Interface Requirements (CATAIR... must demonstrate that his system can interface directly with the Customs computer and ensure...

  18. 19 CFR 143.5 - System performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.5 System... are detailed in Customs Publication 552, Customs And Trade Automated Interface Requirements (CATAIR... must demonstrate that his system can interface directly with the Customs computer and ensure...

  19. 19 CFR 143.5 - System performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.5 System... are detailed in Customs Publication 552, Customs And Trade Automated Interface Requirements (CATAIR... must demonstrate that his system can interface directly with the Customs computer and ensure...

  20. Fault Tolerance Requirements of Tactical Information Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Systems, Johns Hopkins University, 1998. [2] G. Brown, D. Bernard, and R. Rasmussen, “Attitude and articulation control for the Cassini spacecraft : a...systems obviously influences fault tolerance requirements, e.g., spacecraft control in [2], most fault tolerance research has focused on fault tolerance

  1. 5 CFR 9701.405 - Performance management system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements. 9701.405 Section 9701.405 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.405...

  2. 5 CFR 9901.405 - Performance management system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance management system requirements. 9901.405 Section 9901.405 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Investigation of Propulsion System Requirements for Spartan Lite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, Mike; Gruner, Timothy; Morrissey, James; Sneiderman, Gary

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the (chemical or electric) propulsion system requirements necessary to increase the Spartan Lite science mission lifetime to over a year. Spartan Lite is an extremely low-cost (less than 10 M) spacecraft bus being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to accommodate sounding rocket class (40 W, 45 kg, 35 cm dia by 1 m length) payloads. While Spartan Lite is compatible with expendable launch vehicles, most missions are expected to be tertiary payloads deployed by. the Space Shuttle. To achieve a one year or longer mission life from typical Shuttle orbits, some form of propulsion system is required. Chemical propulsion systems (characterized by high thrust impulsive maneuvers) and electrical propulsion systems (characterized by low-thrust long duration maneuvers and the additional requirement for electrical power) are discussed. The performance of the Spartan Lite attitude control system in the presence of large disturbance torques is evaluated using the Trectops(Tm) dynamic simulator. This paper discusses the performance goals and resource constraints for candidate Spartan Lite propulsion systems and uses them to specify quantitative requirements against which the systems are evaluated.

  4. Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Requirements Specialty Engineering Subsystem Requirements Stakeholder ( Business ) Requirements Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive...Requirements Software Requirements Hardware Requirements Stakeholder ( Business ) Requirements Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive

  5. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated timing system SSDR 1.5.3

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedwald, J.; Van Aersau, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-08-26

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Timing System, WBS 1.5.3 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The Integrated Timing System provides all temporally-critical hardware triggers to components and equipment in other NIF systems.

  6. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements computer system SSDR 1.5.1

    SciTech Connect

    Spann, J.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-09-05

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Computer System, WBS 1.5.1 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in ICCS (WBS 1.5) which is the document directly above.

  7. Clinical and Management Requirements for Computerized Mental Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Levinton, Paula H.; Dunning, Tessa F.E.

    1980-01-01

    Information requirements of mental health providers are sufficiently different from those of other health care managers to warrant a different approach to the development of management information systems (MIS). Advances in computer technology and increased demands for fiscal accountability have led to developing integrated mental health information systems (MHIS) that support clinical and management requirements. In a study made to define a set of generic information requirements of mental health providers that can be supported by an MHIS, it was found that basic data needs can be defined and classified in functional terms: clinical, management, and consultation/education requirements. A basic set of data to support these needs was defined: demographic, financial, clinical, programmatic, and service delivery data.

  8. Visualization System Requirements for Data Processing Pipeline Design and Optimization.

    PubMed

    von Landesberger, Tatiana; Fellner, Dieter; Ruddle, Roy

    2016-08-25

    The rising quantity and complexity of data creates a need to design and optimize data processing pipelines - the set of data processing steps, parameters and algorithms that perform operations on the data. Visualization can support this process but, although there are many examples of systems for visual parameter analysis, there remains a need to systematically assess users' requirements and match those requirements to exemplar visualization methods. This article presents a new characterization of the requirements for pipeline design and optimization. This characterization is based on both a review of the literature and first-hand assessment of eight application case studies. We also match these requirements with exemplar functionality provided by existing visualization tools. Thus, we provide end-users and visualization developers with a way of identifying functionality that addresses data processing problems in an application. We also identify seven future challenges for visualization research that are not met by the capabilities of today's systems.

  9. Recent and proposed changes in criticality alarm system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, V.L.

    1998-09-01

    Various changes in criticality alarm system (CAS) requirements of American Nuclear Society (ANS) standards, US Department of Energy (DOE) orders, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and guidance, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards or regulations were approved or proposed in the last 5 yr. Many changes interpreted or clarified existing requirements or accommodated technological or organizational developments. However, some changes could substantively affect CAS programs, including several changes originally thought to be editorial. These changes are discussed here.

  10. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  11. Information security requirements in patient-centred healthcare support systems.

    PubMed

    Alsalamah, Shada; Gray, W Alex; Hilton, Jeremy; Alsalamah, Hessah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling Patient-Centred (PC) care in modern healthcare requires the flow of medical information with the patient between different healthcare providers as they follow the patient's treatment plan. However, PC care threatens the stability of the balance of information security in the support systems since legacy systems fall short of attaining a security balance when sharing their information due to compromises made between its availability, integrity, and confidentiality. Results show that the main reason for this is that information security implementation in discrete legacy systems focused mainly on information confidentiality and integrity leaving availability a challenge in collaboration. Through an empirical study using domain analysis, observations, and interviews, this paper identifies a need for six information security requirements in legacy systems to cope with this situation in order to attain the security balance in systems supporting PC care implementation in modern healthcare.

  12. Requirements specification for nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The requirements for performance, design, test, and qualification of a computer program identified as NICBES, Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System, is established. The specific spacecraft power system configuration selected was the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Electrical Power System (EPS) Testbed. Power for the HST comes from a system of 13 Solar Panel Arrays (SPAs) linked to 6 Nickel Cadmium Batteries which are connected to 3 Busses. An expert system, NICBES, will be developed at Martin Marietta Aerospace to recognize a testbed anomaly, identify the malfunctioning component and recommend a course of action. Besides fault diagnosis, NICBES will be able to evaluate battery status, give advice on battery status and provide decision support for the operator. These requirements are detailed.

  13. Systems Requirement Document for the MSRE U-233 Conversion System

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, R.D.

    2001-01-11

    The fissile material reclamation activities for the MSRE remediation project include the removal and recovery of uranium from the off-gas system, from the stored fuel salt, and finally, from the uranium-laden charcoal in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB). Each of these operations produces an uranium/fluoride compound that is not suitable for long-term storage. The uranium-fluoride compounds can be stored for a limited period of time in pressure vessels. The interim-storage vessels are designed to handle the internal pressure buildup from gases formed by radiolysis of the uranium-fluoride compounds. The conversion process will take the pressurized vessels from interim storage and process the materials in a hot cell located at Building 4501. The gas in the vessels will be vented through chemical traps and then the traps will be processed to convert the various uranium-fluoride compounds to a stable uranium oxide form. This will be done one trap at a time. The chemical form of uranium being extracted from the off-gas system and from fuel salt fluorination process is uranium hexafluoride UF{sub 6}. During the operations at MSRE, the UF{sub 6} is chemisorbed onto sodium fluoride (NaF) traps where it forms the complex, 2NaF{center_dot}UF{sub 6}. The conversion process that will be installed in the Building 4501 Hot Cell D will recover the UF{sub 6} from the NaF traps by decomposition of the binary complex at elevated temperatures (>300 C). After the uranium is extracted from the NaF traps, it is collected in the conversion process reaction vessel. The reaction vessel is then hydrolized and heated through several step operations up to 900 C in order to convert the material to a stable uranium oxide. The ACB at MSRE contains uranium-laden charcoal with unstable C{sub x}F compounds. After extraction at MSRE, this material will be delivered to Building 4501 Hot Cell D for processing to a stable oxide. The charcoal conversion process is still under development, with mockup and

  14. Software requirements definition Shipping Cask Analysis System (SCANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.L.; Serbin, R.

    1985-07-21

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff reviews the technical adequacy of applications for certification of designs of shipping casks for spent nuclear fuel. In order to confirm an acceptable design, the NRC staff may perform independent calculations. The current NRC procedure for confirming cask design analyses is laborious and tedious. Most of the work is currently done by hand or through the use of a remote computer network. The time required to certify a cask can be long. The review process may vary somewhat with the engineer doing the reviewing. Similarly, the documentation on the results of the review can also vary with the reviewer. To increase the efficiency of this certification process, LLNL was requested to design and write an integrated set of user-oriented, interactive computer programs for a personal microcomputer. The system is known as the NRC Shipping Cask Analysis System (SCANS). The computer codes and the software system supporting these codes are being developed and maintained for the NRC by LLNL. The objective of this system is generally to lessen the time and effort needed to review an application. Additionally, an objective of the system is to assure standardized methods and documentation of the confirmatory analyses used in the review of these cask designs. A software system should be designed based on NRC-defined requirements contained in a requirements document. The requirements document is a statement of a project's wants and needs as the users and implementers jointly understand them. The requirements document states the desired end products (i.e. WHAT's) of the project, not HOW the project provides them. This document describes the wants and needs for the SCANS system. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Evolving Requirements for Magnetic Tape Data Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gniewek, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic tape data storage systems have evolved in an environment where the major applications have been back-up/restore, disaster recovery, and long term archive. Coincident with the rapidly improving price-performance of disk storage systems, the prime requirements for tape storage systems have remained: (1) low cost per MB, (2) a data rate balanced to the remaining system components. Little emphasis was given to configuring the technology components to optimize retrieval of the stored data. Emerging new applications such as network attached high speed memory (HSM), and digital libraries, place additional emphasis and requirements on the retrieval of the stored data. It is therefore desirable to consider the system to be defined both by STorage And Retrieval System (STARS) requirements. It is possible to provide comparative performance analysis of different STARS by incorporating parameters related to (1) device characteristics, and (2) application characteristics in combination with queuing theory analysis. Results of these analyses are presented here in the form of response time as a function of system configuration for two different types of devices and for a variety of applications.

  16. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  17. System Modeling of Lunar Oxygen Production: Mass and Power Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Linne, Diane L.; Faykus, Eric W.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Green, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    A systems analysis tool for estimating the mass and power requirements for a lunar oxygen production facility is introduced. The individual modeling components involve the chemical processing and cryogenic storage subsystems needed to process a beneficiated regolith stream into liquid oxygen via ilmenite reduction. The power can be supplied from one of six different fission reactor-converter systems. A baseline system analysis, capable of producing 15 metric tons of oxygen per annum, is presented. The influence of reactor-converter choice was seen to have a small but measurable impact on the system configuration and performance. Finally, the mission concept of operations can have a substantial impact upon individual component size and power requirements.

  18. The HYDROS Mission: Requirements and Baseline System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; O'Neill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freezel/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications. HYDROS uses a unique active and passive L-band microwave system that optimizes measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage. It provides measurements in nearly all weather conditions, regardless of solar illumination. The designs of the radar and radiometer electronics, antenna feedhorn and reflector, and science data system, are driven by specific mission and science objectives. These objectives impose requirements on the frequencies, polarizations, sampling, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the system. In this paper we describe the HYDROS mission requirements, baseline design, and measurement capabilities.

  19. The HYDROS Mission: Requirements and Baseline System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; O'Neill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freezel/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications. HYDROS uses a unique active and passive L-band microwave system that optimizes measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage. It provides measurements in nearly all weather conditions, regardless of solar illumination. The designs of the radar and radiometer electronics, antenna feedhorn and reflector, and science data system, are driven by specific mission and science objectives. These objectives impose requirements on the frequencies, polarizations, sampling, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the system. In this paper we describe the HYDROS mission requirements, baseline design, and measurement capabilities.

  20. Automated support requirement system user's guide for nondata entry personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maryland, J. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    ASRS provides the capability to process intercenter/agency support requirements and commitments necessary for support of the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing, Flight, and Cargo operations. The instructions and commands that users will be allowed to utilize are presented. ASRS utilizes a data base stored on Honeywell DPS8 computer. ASRS programs are written in COBOL 74 utilizing the Honeywell DMIV-TP Processing System and the GCOS8 Operating System; they can also be accessed through Telenet or Datanet.

  1. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  2. Automated Derivation of Complex System Constraints from User Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foshee, Mark; Murey, Kim; Marsh, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) located at the Marshall Space Flight Center has the responsibility of integrating US payload science requirements for the International Space Station (ISS). All payload operations must request ISS system resources so that the resource usage will be included in the ISS on-board execution timelines. The scheduling of resources and building of the timeline is performed using the Consolidated Planning System (CPS). The ISS resources are quite complex due to the large number of components that must be accounted for. The planners at the POIC simplify the process for Payload Developers (PD) by providing the PDs with a application that has the basic functionality PDs need as well as list of simplified resources in the User Requirements Collection (URC) application. The planners maintained a mapping of the URC resources to the CPS resources. The process of manually converting PD's science requirements from a simplified representation to a more complex CPS representation is a time-consuming and tedious process. The goal is to provide a software solution to allow the planners to build a mapping of the complex CPS constraints to the basic URC constraints and automatically convert the PD's requirements into systems requirements during export to CPS.

  3. A box full of chocolates: The rich structure of the nearby stellar halo revealed by Gaia and RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmi, Amina; Veljanoski, Jovan; Breddels, Maarten A.; Tian, Hao; Sales, Laura V.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The hierarchical structure formation model predicts that stellar halos should form, at least partly, via mergers. If this was a predominant formation channel for the Milky Way's halo, imprints of this merger history in the form of moving groups or streams should also exist in the vicinity of the Sun. Aims: We study the kinematics of halo stars in the Solar neighbourhood using the very recent first data release from the Gaia mission, and in particular the TGAS dataset, in combination with data from the RAVE survey. Our aim is to determine the amount of substructure present in the phase-space distribution of halo stars that could be linked to merger debris. Methods: To characterise kinematic substructure, we measured the velocity correlation function in our sample of halo (low-metallicity) stars. We also studied the distribution of these stars in the space of energy and two components of the angular momentum, in what we call "integrals of motion" space. Results: The velocity correlation function reveals substructure in the form of an excess of pairs of stars with similar velocities, well above that expected for a smooth distribution. Comparison to cosmological simulations of the formation of stellar halos indicates that the levels found are consistent with the Galactic halo having been built solely via accretion. Similarly, the distribution of stars in the space of integrals of motion is highly complex. A strikingly high fraction (from 58% up to more than 73%) of the stars that are somewhat less bound than the Sun are on (highly) retrograde orbits. A simple comparison to Milky Way-mass galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations suggests that less than 1% have such prominently retrograde outer halos. We also identify several other statistically significant structures in integrals of motion space that could potentially be related to merger events.

  4. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentz, John

    This dissertation will provide a detailed approach and analysis of a new collaborative requirements prioritization methodology that has been used successfully on four Coast Guard avionics acquisition and development programs valued at $400M+. A statistical representation of participant study results will be discussed and analyzed in detail. Many technically compliant projects fail to deliver levels of performance and capability that the customer desires. Some of these systems completely meet "threshold" levels of performance; however, the distribution of resources in the process devoted to the development and management of the requirements does not always represent the voice of the customer. This is especially true for technically complex projects such as modern avionics systems. A simplified facilitated process for prioritization of system requirements will be described. The collaborative prioritization process, and resulting artifacts, aids the systems engineer during early conceptual design. All requirements are not the same in terms of customer priority. While there is a tendency to have many thresholds inside of a system design, there is usually a subset of requirements and system performance that is of the utmost importance to the design. These critical capabilities and critical levels of performance typically represent the reason the system is being built. The systems engineer needs processes to identify these critical capabilities, the associated desired levels of performance, and the risks associated with the specific requirements that define the critical capability. The facilitated prioritization exercise is designed to collaboratively draw out these critical capabilities and levels of performance so they can be emphasized in system design. Developing the purpose, scheduling and process for prioritization events are key elements of systems engineering and modern project management. The benefits of early collaborative prioritization flow throughout the

  5. Reliability analysis and initial requirements for FC systems and stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, K.; Fontell, E.; Virtanen, S.

    In the year 2000 Wärtsilä Corporation started an R&D program to develop SOFC systems for CHP applications. The program aims to bring to the market highly efficient, clean and cost competitive fuel cell systems with rated power output in the range of 50-250 kW for distributed generation and marine applications. In the program Wärtsilä focuses on system integration and development. System reliability and availability are key issues determining the competitiveness of the SOFC technology. In Wärtsilä, methods have been implemented for analysing the system in respect to reliability and safety as well as for defining reliability requirements for system components. A fault tree representation is used as the basis for reliability prediction analysis. A dynamic simulation technique has been developed to allow for non-static properties in the fault tree logic modelling. Special emphasis has been placed on reliability analysis of the fuel cell stacks in the system. A method for assessing reliability and critical failure predictability requirements for fuel cell stacks in a system consisting of several stacks has been developed. The method is based on a qualitative model of the stack configuration where each stack can be in a functional, partially failed or critically failed state, each of the states having different failure rates and effects on the system behaviour. The main purpose of the method is to understand the effect of stack reliability, critical failure predictability and operating strategy on the system reliability and availability. An example configuration, consisting of 5 × 5 stacks (series of 5 sets of 5 parallel stacks) is analysed in respect to stack reliability requirements as a function of predictability of critical failures and Weibull shape factor of failure rate distributions.

  6. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  7. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  8. Aerothermodynamic testing requirements for future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Miller, Charles G., III

    1995-01-01

    Aerothermodynamics, encompassing aerodynamics, aeroheating, and fluid dynamic and physical processes, is the genesis for the design and development of advanced space transportation vehicles. It provides crucial information to other disciplines involved in the development process such as structures, materials, propulsion, and avionics. Sources of aerothermodynamic information include ground-based facilities, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and engineering computer codes, and flight experiments. Utilization of this triad is required to provide the optimum requirements while reducing undue design conservatism, risk, and cost. This paper discusses the role of ground-based facilities in the design of future space transportation system concepts. Testing methodology is addressed, including the iterative approach often required for the assessment and optimization of configurations from an aerothermodynamic perspective. The influence of vehicle shape and the transition from parametric studies for optimization to benchmark studies for final design and establishment of the flight data book is discussed. Future aerothermodynamic testing requirements including the need for new facilities are also presented.

  9. An Investigation of Requirements Traceability to Support Systems Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    keyphrases to express relationships between entities. The keyphrases , extracted to a file, are compared and traceability information is provided. A...Relational Information Management System (RIMS), centered on an Oracle DBMS, loads the keyphrases into a database and provides early warning of impact...child relationships (and how to determine them), functional hierarchy, keywords, attributes, querying, requirements extraction , and customized report

  10. 40 CFR 141.624 - Additional requirements for consecutive systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements for consecutive systems. 141.624 Section 141.624 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection...

  11. Topside facilities for floating production systems require new engineering thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, A.J.; Graaf, G.

    1983-05-01

    Since the oil industry moved offshore, great emphasis has been placed on the need to reduce space and weight requirements of topside facilities. For successful design of floating production systems, weight consciousness assumes an even higher level of importance, necessitating systematic attention to detail even at the feasibility study stage of a project.

  12. 48 CFR 207.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Government surveillance of the process by which prime contractors consider such sources and determine whether... Government to use technical data to competitively reprocure identical items or components of the system if... mobilization requirements are insufficient to meet the agency's mobilization needs; or (3) The Government...

  13. 48 CFR 207.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Government surveillance of the process by which prime contractors consider such sources and determine whether... Government to use technical data to competitively reprocure identical items or components of the system if... mobilization requirements are insufficient to meet the agency's mobilization needs; or (3) The Government...

  14. 47 CFR 73.6024 - Transmission standards and system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission standards and system requirements. 73.6024 Section 73.6024 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6024...

  15. 47 CFR 73.6024 - Transmission standards and system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission standards and system requirements. 73.6024 Section 73.6024 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6024...

  16. 47 CFR 73.6024 - Transmission standards and system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission standards and system requirements. 73.6024 Section 73.6024 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6024...

  17. 47 CFR 73.6024 - Transmission standards and system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission standards and system requirements. 73.6024 Section 73.6024 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6024...

  18. 47 CFR 73.6024 - Transmission standards and system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission standards and system requirements. 73.6024 Section 73.6024 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6024...

  19. Design and Test Requirements for Space Flight Pressurized Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-26

    in death, injury, occupational illness, damage to or loss of equipment or property, or damage to the environment. Hazard Analysis: The analysis of...systems to determine potential hazards and recommended actions to eliminate or control the hazards . Hydrogen Embrittlement: A mechanical...operations, orbital operations, refurbishment, retesting, reentry or recovery from orbit , and reuse that may be required or specified for the flight

  20. Shielded Cells D&D and Dismantlement System Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, R.L.

    1995-03-27

    This document describes the basis for the development of the System for Highly Radioactive Equipment Dismantlement or SHRED. It is the result of a thorough investigation into current and past dismantlement practices at shielded cell facilities around the DOE complex. This information has been used to formulate the development requirements for the SHRED.

  1. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meet the requirements listed below. Cargo tanks, whether gravity or pressure vessel type, for cargoes... tank is insulated) shall be provided with a valving system designated as Gravity-1. Cargo tanks, whether gravity or pressure vessel type, for cargoes which are carried below ambient temperature and whose...

  2. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meet the requirements listed below. Cargo tanks, whether gravity or pressure vessel type, for cargoes... tank is insulated) shall be provided with a valving system designated as Gravity-1. Cargo tanks, whether gravity or pressure vessel type, for cargoes which are carried below ambient temperature and whose...

  3. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY... inaccurate when filed. (v) The alternative trading system shall promptly file a cessation of operations... provided for in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (v) of this section must be filed with surveillance...

  4. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY... inaccurate when filed. (v) The alternative trading system shall promptly file a cessation of operations... provided for in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (v) of this section must be filed with surveillance...

  5. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY... inaccurate when filed. (v) The alternative trading system shall promptly file a cessation of operations... provided for in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (v) of this section must be filed with surveillance...

  6. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY... inaccurate when filed. (v) The alternative trading system shall promptly file a cessation of operations... provided for in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (v) of this section must be filed with surveillance...

  7. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for surveillance systems. 15.511 Section 15.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY... limits specified in the table in paragraph (c) of this section, UWB transmitters operating under the...

  8. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pressure vessels at any time when there is a change in operating pressures that requires new settings for... significant change in operating pressures. The most recent pressure-recorder charts used to determine... subfreezing climates, the lessee shall furnish evidence to the District Manager that the firefighting system...

  9. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pressure vessels at any time when there is a change in operating pressures that requires new settings for... significant change in operating pressures. The most recent pressure-recorder charts used to determine... subfreezing climates, the lessee shall furnish evidence to the District Manager that the firefighting system...

  10. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pressure vessels at any time when there is a change in operating pressures that requires new settings for... significant change in operating pressures. The most recent pressure-recorder charts used to determine... subfreezing climates, the lessee shall furnish evidence to the District Manager that the firefighting system...

  11. Research Perspectives for Material Requirements Planning Systems. Paper No. 434.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, W. L.; Whybark, D. Clay

    Material requirements planning (MRP) systems are described as management tools for planning and controlling production operations. A wide variety of industries and production organizations are credited as reporting significant operating improvements in such areas as inventory control, production scheduling, delivery performance, and production…

  12. Energy resource requirements of a solar heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. W. O.

    1980-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of the total energy resource use of a solar hot water and space heating system compared to the traditional oil, gas and electric heating options. The methods of energy analysis have been applied to a liquid-based, short-term storage solar space and water heating system for a dwelling in Toronto, and the results indicate that the indirect use of energy resources does not have a major impact on the overall energy conservation characteristics of the system which, being in many respects a worst case, takes 1.0-3.5 years of operation to conserve the energy resources, required to build, operate and maintain the system. Over the assumed 20-year lifetime the solar heating system, sized to provide 50% of the heating requirement to a house, uses between 53 and 62% as many energy resources as a conventional system, heating the same house. The energy-conservation characteristics of the system can be completely negated by the use of thermally generated electricity as backup in a 50% solar heating system which replaces oil or gas heating. The collectors and annual operating energy for the pumps were found to be the two most significant factors in the analysis.

  13. Clinical requirements for closed-loop control systems.

    PubMed

    Clarke, William L; Renard, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Closed-loop (CL) therapy systems should be safe, efficacious, and easily manageable for type 1 diabetes mellitus patient use. For the first two clinical requirements, noninferiority and superiority criteria must be determined based on current conventional and intensive therapy outcomes. Current frequencies of hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis are reviewed and safety expectations for CL therapy systems are proposed. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels lower than current American Diabetes Association recommendations for different age groups are proposed as superiority criteria. Measures of glycemic variability are described and the recording of blood glucose levels as percentages within, above, and below a target range are suggested as reasonable alternatives to sophisticated statistical analyses. It is also suggested that Diabetes Quality of Life and Fear of Hypoglycemia surveys should be used to track psychobehavioral outcomes. Manageability requirements for safe and effective clinical management of CL systems are worth being underscored. The weakest part of the infusion system remains the catheter, which is exposed to variable and under-delivery incidents. Detection methods are needed to warn both the system and the patient about altered insulin delivery, including internal pressure and flow alarms. Glucose monitor sensor accuracy is another requirement; it includes the definition of conditions that lead to capillary glucose measurement, eventually followed by sensor recalibration or replacement. The crucial clinical requirement will be a thorough definition of the situations when the patient needs to move from CL to manual management of insulin delivery, or inversely can switch back to CL after a requested interruption. Instructions about these actions will constitute a major part of the education process of the patients before using CL systems and contribute to the manageability of these systems. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Interface requirements in nuclear medicine devices and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, G.Q. Jr.; Brill, A.B.; Noz, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Interface designs for three nuclear medicine imaging systems, and computer networking strategies proposed for medical imaging departments are presented. Configurations for two positron-emission-tomography devices (PET III and ECAT) and a general-purpose tomography instrument (the UNICON) are analyzed in terms of specific performance parameters. Interface designs for these machines are contrasted in terms of utilization of standard versus custom modules, cost, and ease of modification, upgrade, and support. The requirements of general purpose systems for medical image analysis, display, and archiving, are considered, and a realizable state-of-the-art system is specfied, including a suggested timetable.

  15. Formal Requirements-Based Programming for Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Gracanin, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Computer science as a field has not yet produced a general method to mechanically transform complex computer system requirements into a provably equivalent implementation. Such a method would be one major step towards dealing with complexity in computing, yet it remains the elusive holy grail of system development. Currently available tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The gap that such tools and methods leave unfilled is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the system requirements as originated by the customer For the classes of complex systems whose behavior can be described as a finite (but significant) set of scenarios, we offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements (expressed in restricted natural language, or appropriate graphical notations) into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. While other techniques are available, this method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. We illustrate the application of the method to an example procedure from the Hubble Robotic Servicing Mission currently under study and preliminary formulation at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  16. Minimum Control Requirements for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulange, Richard; Jones, Harry; Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Advanced control technologies are not necessary for the safe, reliable and continuous operation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. ALS systems can and are adequately controlled by simple, reliable, low-level methodologies and algorithms. The automation provided by advanced control technologies is claimed to decrease system mass and necessary crew time by reducing buffer size and minimizing crew involvement. In truth, these approaches increase control system complexity without clearly demonstrating an increase in reliability across the ALS system. Unless these systems are as reliable as the hardware they control, there is no savings to be had. A baseline ALS system is presented with the minimal control system required for its continuous safe reliable operation. This baseline control system uses simple algorithms and scheduling methodologies and relies on human intervention only in the event of failure of the redundant backup equipment. This ALS system architecture is designed for reliable operation, with minimal components and minimal control system complexity. The fundamental design precept followed is "If it isn't there, it can't fail".

  17. Characterizing the high-velocity stars of RAVE: the discovery of a metal-rich halo star born in the Galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, K.; Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Masseron, T.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Ruchti, G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Kunder, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W. A.; Scholz, R. D.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.; Zwitter, T.

    2015-02-01

    We aim to characterize high-velocity (HiVel) stars in the solar vicinity both chemically and kinematically using the fourth data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). We used a sample of 57 HiVel stars with Galactic rest-frame velocities larger than 275 km s-1. With 6D position and velocity information, we integrated the orbits of the HiVel stars and found that, on average, they reach out to 13 kpc from the Galactic plane and have relatively eccentric orbits consistent with the Galactic halo. Using the stellar parameters and [α/Fe] estimates from RAVE, we found the metallicity distribution of the HiVel stars peak at [M/H] = -1.2 dex and is chemically consistent with the inner halo. There are a few notable exceptions that include a hypervelocity star candidate, an extremely HiVel bound halo star, and one star that is kinematically consistent with the halo but chemically consistent with the disc. High-resolution spectra were obtained for the metal-rich HiVel star candidate and the second highest velocity star in the sample. Using these high-resolution data, we report the discovery of a metal-rich halo star that has likely been dynamically ejected into the halo from the Galactic thick disc. This discovery could aid in explaining the assembly of the most metal-rich component of the Galactic halo.

  18. Safety integrity requirements for computer based I&C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, N.N.Q.; Ficheux-Vapne, F.

    1997-12-01

    In order to take into account increasingly demanding functional requirements, many instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants are implemented with computers. In order to ensure the required safety integrity of such equipment, i.e., to ensure that they satisfactorily perform the required safety functions under all stated conditions and within stated periods of time, requirements applicable to these equipment and to their life cycle need to be expressed and followed. On the other hand, the experience of the last years has led EDF (Electricite de France) and its partners to consider three classes of systems and equipment, according to their importance to safety. In the EPR project (European Pressurized water Reactor), these classes are labeled E1A, E1B and E2. The objective of this paper is to present the outline of the work currently done in the framework of the ETC-I (EPR Technical Code for I&C) regarding safety integrity requirements applicable to each of the three classes. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  20. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  1. Rationale for windshield glass system specification requirements for shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K.; King, G. L.; Tesinsiky, J.; Wittenburg, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary procurement specification for the space shuttle orbiter windshield pane, and some of the design considerations and rationale leading to its development are presented. The windshield designer is given the necessary methods and procedures for assuring glass pane structural integrity by proof test. These methods and procedures are fully developed for annealed and thermally tempered aluminosilicate, borosilicate, and soda lime glass and for annealed fused silica. Application of the method to chemically tempered glass is considered. Other considerations are vision requirements, protection against bird impact, hail, frost, rain, and meteoroids. The functional requirements of the windshield system during landing, ferrying, boost, space flight, and entry are included.

  2. An onboard navigation system which fulfills Mars aerocapture guidance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Timothy J.; Fuhry, Douglas P.; Shepperd, Stanley W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a candidate autonomous onboard Mars approach navigation scheme capable of supporting aerocapture into Mars orbit is discussed. An aerocapture guidance and navigation system which can run independently of the preaerocapture navigation was used to define a preliminary set of accuracy requirements at entry interface. These requirements are used to evaluate the proposed preaerocapture navigation scheme. This scheme uses optical sightings on Deimos with a star tracker and an inertial measurement unit for instrumentation as a source for navigation nformation. Preliminary results suggest that the approach will adequately support aerocaputre into Mars orbit.

  3. An onboard navigation system which fulfills Mars aerocapture guidance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Timothy J.; Fuhry, Douglas P.; Shepperd, Stanley W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a candidate autonomous onboard Mars approach navigation scheme capable of supporting aerocapture into Mars orbit is discussed. An aerocapture guidance and navigation system which can run independently of the preaerocapture navigation was used to define a preliminary set of accuracy requirements at entry interface. These requirements are used to evaluate the proposed preaerocapture navigation scheme. This scheme uses optical sightings on Deimos with a star tracker and an inertial measurement unit for instrumentation as a source for navigation nformation. Preliminary results suggest that the approach will adequately support aerocaputre into Mars orbit.

  4. Quality functions for requirements engineering in system development methods.

    PubMed

    Johansson, M; Timpka, T

    1996-01-01

    Based on a grounded theory framework, this paper analyses the quality characteristics for methods to be used for requirements engineering in the development of medical decision support systems (MDSS). The results from a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) used to rank functions connected to user value and a focus group study were presented to a validation focus group. The focus group studies take advantage of a group process to collect data for further analyses. The results describe factors considered by the participants as important in the development of methods for requirements engineering in health care. Based on the findings, the content which, according to the user a MDSS method should support is established.

  5. An iterative requirements specification procedure for decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Brookes, C H

    1987-08-01

    Requirements specification is a key element in a DSS development project because it not only determines what is to be done, it also drives the evolution process. A procedure for requirements elicitation is described that is based on the decomposition of the DSS design task into a number of functions, subfunctions, and operators. It is postulated that the procedure facilitates the building of a DSS that is complete and integrates MIS, modelling and expert system components. Some examples given are drawn from the health administration field.

  6. Establishing functional requirements for emergency management information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The advancement of computer technologies has led to the development of a number of emergency management information systems (e.g., EIS, CAMEO, IEMIS). The design of these systems has tended to be technologically driven rather than oriented to meeting information management needs during an emergency. Of course, emergency management needs vary depending on the characteristics of the emergency. For example, in hurricanes, onset is typically slow enough to allow emergency managers to simulate evacuations dynamically while in chemical disasters onset may be sufficiently rapid to preclude such simulation(s). This paper describes a system design process in which the analysis of widely recognized emergency management functions was used to identify information requirements and the requisite software and hardware capabilities to deal with rapid onset, low probability, high consequence events. These requirements were then implemented as a prototype emergency management system using existing hardware and software to assure feasibility. Data, hardware, and software requirements were further developed, refined, and made more concrete through an iterative prototyping effort. This approach focuses attention directly on meeting emergency management information needs while avoiding unneeded technological innovations. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Latency in Visionic Systems: Test Methods and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2005-01-01

    A visionics device creates a pictorial representation of the external scene for the pilot. The ultimate objective of these systems may be to electronically generate a form of Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to eliminate weather or time-of-day as an operational constraint and provide enhancement over actual visual conditions where eye-limiting resolution may be a limiting factor. Empirical evidence has shown that the total system delays or latencies including the imaging sensors and display systems, can critically degrade their utility, usability, and acceptability. Definitions and measurement techniques are offered herein as common test and evaluation methods for latency testing in visionics device applications. Based upon available data, very different latency requirements are indicated based upon the piloting task, the role in which the visionics device is used in this task, and the characteristics of the visionics cockpit display device including its resolution, field-of-regard, and field-of-view. The least stringent latency requirements will involve Head-Up Display (HUD) applications, where the visionics imagery provides situational information as a supplement to symbology guidance and command information. Conversely, the visionics system latency requirement for a large field-of-view Head-Worn Display application, providing a Virtual-VMC capability from which the pilot will derive visual guidance, will be the most stringent, having a value as low as 20 msec.

  8. Avionic architecture requirements for Space Exploration Initiative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbella, C. G.; Brown, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group (SATWG) and the results of the first study commissioned by the SATWG, the Space Avionics Requirements Study (SARS). The goal of the SARS task was to show that an open avionics architecture, using modular, standardized components, could be applied across the wide range of systems that comprise the Space Exploration Initiative. The study addressed systems ranging from expendable launch vehicles and the space station to surface systems such as Mars or lunar rovers and habitats. Top-level avionics requirements were derived from characterizations of each of the systems considered. Then a set of avionics subsystems were identified, along with estimates of the numbers and types of modules needed to meet the requirements. Applicability of these results across the infrastructure was then illustrated. In addition to these tasks, critical technologies were identified, characterized, and assessed in terms of their criticality and impact on the program. Design, development, test, and evaluation methods were addressed to identify potential areas of improvement.

  9. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Mars Mission Systems Analysis and Requirements Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Chiroux, Robert C.; Thomas, Dan; Crane, Tracie

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Mars transportation vehicle design concepts developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office. These vehicle design concepts provide an indication of the most demanding and least demanding potential requirements for nuclear thermal propulsion systems for human Mars exploration missions from years 2025 to 2035. Vehicle concept options vary from large "all-up" vehicle configurations that would transport all of the elements for a Mars mission on one vehicle. to "split" mission vehicle configurations that would consist of separate smaller vehicles that would transport cargo elements and human crew elements to Mars separately. Parametric trades and sensitivity studies show NTP stage and engine design options that provide the best balanced set of metrics based on safety, reliability, performance, cost and mission objectives. Trade studies include the sensitivity of vehicle performance to nuclear engine characteristics such as thrust, specific impulse and nuclear reactor type. Tbe associated system requirements are aligned with the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Reference Mars mission as described in the Explorations Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) report. The focused trade studies include a detailed analysis of nuclear engine radiation shield requirements for human missions and analysis of nuclear thermal engine design options for the ESAS reference mission.

  10. Microgravity fluid management requirements of advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migra, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    The advanced solar dynamic system (ASDS) program is aimed at developing the technology for highly efficient, lightweight space power systems. The approach is to evaluate Stirling, Brayton and liquid metal Rankine power conversion systems (PCS) over the temperature range of 1025 to 1400K, identify the critical technologies and develop these technologies. Microgravity fluid management technology is required in several areas of this program, namely, thermal energy storage (TES), heat pipe applications and liquid metal, two phase flow Rankine systems. Utilization of the heat of fusion of phase change materials offers potential for smaller, lighter TES systems. The candidate TES materials exhibit large volume change with the phase change. The heat pipe is an energy dense heat transfer device. A high temperature application may transfer heat from the solar receiver to the PCS working fluid and/or TES. A low temperature application may transfer waste heat from the PCS to the radiator. The liquid metal Rankine PCS requires management of the boiling/condensing process typical of two phase flow systems.

  11. NGSI: FUNCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR A CYLINDER TRACKING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Branney, S.

    2012-06-06

    While nuclear suppliers currently track uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders in various ways, for their own purposes, industry practices vary significantly. The NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and International Security's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has begun a 5-year program to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies and tracks UF{sub 6} cylinders. As part of this effort, NGSI's multi-laboratory team has documented the 'life of a UF{sub 6} cylinder' and reviewed IAEA practices related to UF{sub 6} cylinders. Based on this foundation, this paper examines the functional requirements of a system that would uniquely identify and track UF{sub 6} cylinders. There are many considerations for establishing a potential tracking system. Some of these factors include the environmental conditions a cylinder may be expected to be exposed to, where cylinders may be particularly vulnerable to diversion, how such a system may be integrated into the existing flow of commerce, how proprietary data generated in the process may be protected, what a system may require in terms of the existing standard for UF{sub 6} cylinder manufacture or modifications to it and what the limiting technology factors may be. It is desirable that a tracking system should provide benefit to industry while imposing as few additional constraints as possible and still meeting IAEA safeguards objectives. This paper includes recommendations for this system and the analysis that generated them.

  12. Future planetary missions potentially requiring Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondt, Jack F.; Nesmith, Bill J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the potential Radioisotope Power System, (RPS), technology requirements for future missions being planned for NASA's Solar System Exploration (SSE) theme. Many missions to the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond) require completion of the work on advanced radioisotope power systems (ARPS) now underway in NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program. The power levels for the ARPS can be divided into four classes. Forty to one hundred milliwatt-class provides both thermal and electric power for small in situ science laboratories on the surface of bodies in the solar system. One to two watt class for surface and aerobot science laboratories. Ten to twenty-watt class for micro satellites in orbit, surface science stations and aerobots. One hundred to two hundred watt class for orbiter science spacecraft, for drilling core samples, for powering subsurface hydrobots and cryobots on accessible bodies and for data handling and communicating data from small orbiters, surface laboratories, aerobots and hydrobots back to Earth. Using the most optimistic solar-based power system instead of advanced RPSs pushes the launch masses of these missions beyond the capability of affordable launch vehicles. Advanced RPS is also favored over solar power for obtaining comet samples on extended-duration missions. .

  13. Validating Requirements for Fault Tolerant Systems Using Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Francis; Easterbrook, Steve M.; Callahan, John R.; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    1997-01-01

    Model checking is shown to be an effective tool in validating the behavior of a fault tolerant embedded spacecraft controller. The case study presented here shows that by judiciously abstracting away extraneous complexity, the state space of the model could be exhaustively searched allowing critical functional requirements to be validated down to the design level. Abstracting away detail not germane to the problem of interest leaves by definition a partial specification behind. The success of this procedure shows that it is feasible to effectively validate a partial specification with this technique. Three anomalies were found in the system one of which is an error in the detailed requirements, and the other two are missing/ambiguous requirements. Because the method allows validation of partial specifications, it also is an effective methodology towards maintaining fidelity between a co-evolving specification and an implementation.

  14. HLLV avionics requirements study and electronic filing system database development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This final report provides a summary of achievements and activities performed under Contract NAS8-39215. The contract's objective was to explore a new way of delivering, storing, accessing, and archiving study products and information and to define top level system requirements for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) avionics that incorporate Vehicle Health Management (VHM). This report includes technical objectives, methods, assumptions, recommendations, sample data, and issues as specified by DPD No. 772, DR-3. The report is organized into two major subsections, one specific to each of the two tasks defined in the Statement of Work: the Index Database Task and the HLLV Avionics Requirements Task. The Index Database Task resulted in the selection and modification of a commercial database software tool to contain the data developed during the HLLV Avionics Requirements Task. All summary information is addressed within each task's section.

  15. Current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1988-08-01

    This study defines the current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage technologies based on the characteristics of conventional air conditioning equipment and residential time-of-day (TOD) rate structures existing during the 1986--1987 time frame. Currently, rate structures are changing rapidly. Given the volatility of rate structures, the establishment of cost goal is challenging. The goals presented in this study are based on the utility rate structure as of 1986. This study serves to define residential cool storage cost and performance requirements in the current economic environment as well as the many issues affecting the requirements for residential cool storage systems both now and in the future. The same methodology can be employed to establish long-run goals once future rate structures are adequately defined. 12 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) interface requirements analysis: Operations scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Phillips, John

    1991-01-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the functional and data interface requirements to the link between the GSDE GS/SPF (Amdahl) and the Space Station Control Center (SSCC) and Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) Integration, Verification, and Test Environments (IVTE's). These interfaces will be involved in ground software development of both the control center and the simulation and training systems. Our understanding of the configuration management (CM) interface and the expected functional characteristics of the Amdahl-IVTE interface is described. A set of assumptions and questions that need to be considered and resolved in order to complete the interface functional and data requirements definitions are presented. A listing of information items defined to describe software configuration items in the GSDE CM system is included. It also includes listings of standard reports of CM information and of CM-related tools in the GSDE.

  17. Integrated Station Executive requirements and systems design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Eugene L.; Morris, C. Doug

    1992-01-01

    The Avionics Office of the Space Station Projects Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is working to define and integrate end-to-end requirements for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) space-ground operations. As part of these efforts, the project office has had the MITRE Corporation perform assessments and analyses in areas where they had particular concern. These areas include the changing concepts for test methodologies, the operation and performance of the communication protocols, end-to-end network management, and the Master Objects Data Base (MODB). Since the recent restructure of the space station design, a new software application, the Integrated Station Executive (ISE), has been established. This application is to act as an executive agent along with the crew and ground controllers, while replacing (or absorbing) many of the system management functions that required a home when distributed element management was eliminated. This document summarizes the current state of the ISE requirements and assesses the characteristics of the current design. MITRE's goals in this assessment and analysis is twofold: first, identify any internal inconsistencies in either the requirements or in the current design; and second, to examine the applicability of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) management standards. Inasmuch as the ISE has been defined as the executive or operations manager application within the integrated avionics of the space station, special attention is given to adapting OSI management for the specification of the ISE functions.

  18. Unmanned Aircraft System Control and ATC Communications Bandwidth Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There are significant activities taking place to establish the procedures and requirements for safe and routine operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Among the barriers to overcome in achieving this goal is the lack of sufficient frequency spectrum necessary for the UAS control and air traffic control (ATC) communications links. This shortcoming is compounded by the fact that the UAS control communications links will likely be required to operate in protected frequency spectrum, just as ATC communications links are, because they relate to "safety and regularity of flight." To support future International Telecommunications Union (ITU) World Radio Conference (WRC) agenda items concerning new frequency allocations for UAS communications links, and to augment the Future Communications Study (FCS) Technology Evaluation Group efforts, NASA Glenn Research Center has sponsored a task to estimate the UAS control and ATC communications bandwidth requirements for safe, reliable, and routine operation of UAS in the NAS. This report describes the process and results of that task. The study focused on long-term bandwidth requirements for UAS approximately through 2030.

  19. A Methodology for Systems Requirements Specification and Traceability for Large Real Time Complex Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-27

    The ECS block is divided into four projects : Systems Design Synthesis Technology, Systems Evaluation and Assessment Technology, Systems Reengineering...Technology, and Engineering Application Prototype. These projects work closely together to incorporate new technology across the entire system...development life cycle. The Requirements Specification and Traceability Task is within the Systems Design Synthesis Technology Project . The project looks at

  20. Quantitative methods for developing C2 system requirement

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Army established the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Experimentation Site (AES) to provide a place where material and combat developers could experiment with command and control systems. The AES conducts fundamental and applied research involving command and control issues using a number of research methods, ranging from large force-level experiments, to controlled laboratory experiments, to studies and analyses. The work summarized in this paper was done by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under task order from the Army Tactical Command and Control System Experimentation Site. The purpose of the task was to develop the functional requirements for army engineer automation and support software, including MCS-ENG. A client, such as an army engineer, has certain needs and requirements of his or her software; these needs must be presented in ways that are readily understandable to the software developer. A requirements analysis then, such as the one described in this paper, is simply the means of communication between those who would use a piece of software and those who would develop it. The analysis from which this paper was derived attempted to bridge the communications gap'' between army combat engineers and software engineers. It sought to derive and state the software needs of army engineers in ways that are meaningful to software engineers. In doing this, it followed a natural sequence of investigation: (1) what does an army engineer do, (2) with which tasks can software help, (3) how much will it cost, and (4) where is the highest payoff This paper demonstrates how each of these questions was addressed during an analysis of the functional requirements of engineer support software. Systems engineering methods are used in a task analysis and a quantitative scoring method was developed to score responses regarding the feasibility of task automation. The paper discusses the methods used to perform utility and cost-benefits estimates.

  1. Quantitative methods for developing C2 system requirement

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Army established the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Experimentation Site (AES) to provide a place where material and combat developers could experiment with command and control systems. The AES conducts fundamental and applied research involving command and control issues using a number of research methods, ranging from large force-level experiments, to controlled laboratory experiments, to studies and analyses. The work summarized in this paper was done by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under task order from the Army Tactical Command and Control System Experimentation Site. The purpose of the task was to develop the functional requirements for army engineer automation and support software, including MCS-ENG. A client, such as an army engineer, has certain needs and requirements of his or her software; these needs must be presented in ways that are readily understandable to the software developer. A requirements analysis then, such as the one described in this paper, is simply the means of communication between those who would use a piece of software and those who would develop it. The analysis from which this paper was derived attempted to bridge the ``communications gap`` between army combat engineers and software engineers. It sought to derive and state the software needs of army engineers in ways that are meaningful to software engineers. In doing this, it followed a natural sequence of investigation: (1) what does an army engineer do, (2) with which tasks can software help, (3) how much will it cost, and (4) where is the highest payoff? This paper demonstrates how each of these questions was addressed during an analysis of the functional requirements of engineer support software. Systems engineering methods are used in a task analysis and a quantitative scoring method was developed to score responses regarding the feasibility of task automation. The paper discusses the methods used to perform utility and cost-benefits estimates.

  2. Defense Information Systems Program Automated CORDIVEM Design Requirements,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-28

    data by providing a clear audit trail of how and why decisions were made as a function of the C2 system performance. Further, the careful and...environmental resolution must be made with great care because it dramatically influences the resolution of most combat effects and determines to a large...other items, however, this analysis demonstrates the potential model definition problem unless careful attention is given to the user requirements and

  3. Defining Requirements for an Integrated Water Resource Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, David A.; Peterson, Todd S.; Frodge, Jonathan

    2002-07-29

    This paper describes the process used to define the requirements for an integrated water resource modeling system that will be employed by a range of users with varying backgrounds and needs. A five-step process was initiated to ensure consideration of the needs and interests of users representing many different parts of the organization. The steps of the process, the results of each step and a summary of the results are presented.

  4. System requirements for laser power beaming to geosynchronous satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.D.; McKechnie, T.S.; Neal, D.R.

    1994-03-01

    Geosynchronous satellites use solar arrays as their primary source of electrical power. During earth eclipse, which occurs 90 times each year, the satellites are powered by batteries, but the heavy charge-discharge cycle decreases their life expectancy. By beaming laser power to satellites during the eclipses, satellite life expectancy can be significantly increased. In this paper, the authors investigate the basic system parameters and trade-offs of using reactor pumped laser technology to beam power from the Nevada Test Site. A first order argument is used to develop a consistent set of requirements for such a system.

  5. System requirements for laser power beaming to geosynchronous satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.D.; McKechnie, T.S.; Neal, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Geosynchronous satellites use solar arrays as their primary source of electrical power. During earth eclipse, which occurs 90 times each year, the satellites are powered by batteries, but the heavy charge-discharge cycle decreases their life expectancy. By beaming laser power to satellites during the eclipses, satellite life expectancy can be significantly increased. In this paper, the authors investigate the basic system parameters and trade-offs of using reactor pumped laser technology to beam power from the Nevada Test Site. A first order argument is used to develop a consistent set of requirements for such a system.

  6. Performance requirements of automotive batteries for future car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Richter, G.

    The further increase in the number of power-consuming functions which has been announced for future vehicle electrical systems, and in particular the effects of new starting systems on battery performance, requires a further optimization of the lead acid system coupled with effective energy management, and enhanced battery operating conditions. In the face of these increased requirements, there are proven benefits to splitting the functions of a single SLI battery between two separate, special-purpose batteries, each of which are optimized, for high power output and for high energy throughput, respectively. This will bring about a marked improvement in weight, reliability, and state of charge (SOC). The development of special design starter and service batteries is almost completed and will lead to new products with a high standard of reliability. The design of the power-optimized lead acid accumulator is particularly suitable for further development as the battery for a 42/36 V electrical system. This is intended to improve the efficiency of the generator and the various power-consuming functions and to improve start/stop operation thereby bringing about a marked reduction in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. This improvement can also be assisted by a charge management system used in conjunction with battery status monitoring.

  7. Architectural requirements for the Red Storm computing system.

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, William J.; Tomkins, James Lee

    2003-10-01

    This report is based on the Statement of Work (SOW) describing the various requirements for delivering 3 new supercomputer system to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program. This system is named Red Storm and will be a distributed memory, massively parallel processor (MPP) machine built primarily out of commodity parts. The requirements presented here distill extensive architectural and design experience accumulated over a decade and a half of research, development and production operation of similar machines at Sandia. Red Storm will have an unusually high bandwidth, low latency interconnect, specially designed hardware and software reliability features, a light weight kernel compute node operating system and the ability to rapidly switch major sections of the machine between classified and unclassified computing environments. Particular attention has been paid to architectural balance in the design of Red Storm, and it is therefore expected to achieve an atypically high fraction of its peak speed of 41 TeraOPS on real scientific computing applications. In addition, Red Storm is designed to be upgradeable to many times this initial peak capability while still retaining appropriate balance in key design dimensions. Installation of the Red Storm computer system at Sandia's New Mexico site is planned for 2004, and it is expected that the system will be operated for a minimum of five years following installation.

  8. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Biringer, K.L. ); Bartine, D.E. ); Buden, D. ); Foreman, J. ); Harrison, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Requirements and applications for robotic servicing of military space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledford, Otto C., Jr.; Bennett, Rodney G.

    1992-01-01

    The utility of on-orbit servicing of spacecraft has been demonstrated by NASA several times using shuttle-based astronaut EVA. There has been interest in utilizing on-orbit servicing for military space systems as well. This interest has been driven by the increasing reliance of all branches of the military upon space-based assets, the growing numbers, complexity, and cost of those assets, and a desire to normalize support policies for space-based operations. Many military satellites are placed in orbits which are unduly hostile for astronaut operations and/or cannot be reached by the shuttle. In addition, some of the projected tasks may involve hazardous operations. This has led to a focus on robotic systems, instead of astronauts, for the basis of projected servicing systems. This paper describes studies and activities which will hopefully lead to on-orbit servicing being one of the tools available to military space systems designers and operators. The utility of various forms of servicing has been evaluated for present and projected systems, critical technologies have been identified, and strategies for the development and insertion of this technology into operational systems have been developed. Many of the projected plans have been adversely affected by budgetary restrictions and evolving architectures, but the fundamental benefits and requirements are well understood. A method of introducing servicing capabilities in a manner which has a low impact on the system designer and does not require the prior development of an expensive infrastructure is discussed. This can potentially lead to an evolutionary implementation of the full technology.

  10. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  11. Onboard shuttle on-line software requirements system: Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolkhorst, Barbara; Ogletree, Barry

    1989-01-01

    The prototype discussed here was developed as proof of a concept for a system which could support high volumes of requirements documents with integrated text and graphics; the solution proposed here could be extended to other projects whose goal is to place paper documents in an electronic system for viewing and printing purposes. The technical problems (such as conversion of documentation between word processors, management of a variety of graphics file formats, and difficulties involved in scanning integrated text and graphics) would be very similar for other systems of this type. Indeed, technological advances in areas such as scanning hardware and software and display terminals insure that some of the problems encountered here will be solved in the near-term (less than five years). Examples of these solvable problems include automated input of integrated text and graphics, errors in the recognition process, and the loss of image information which results from the digitization process. The solution developed for the Online Software Requirements System is modular and allows hardware and software components to be upgraded or replaced as industry solutions mature. The extensive commercial software content allows the NASA customer to apply resources to solving the problem and maintaining documents.

  12. Job Management Requirements for NAS Parallel Systems and Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saphir, William; Tanner, Leigh Ann; Traversat, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    A job management system is a critical component of a production supercomputing environment, permitting oversubscribed resources to be shared fairly and efficiently. Job management systems that were originally designed for traditional vector supercomputers are not appropriate for the distributed-memory parallel supercomputers that are becoming increasingly important in the high performance computing industry. Newer job management systems offer new functionality but do not solve fundamental problems. We address some of the main issues in resource allocation and job scheduling we have encountered on two parallel computers - a 160-node IBM SP2 and a cluster of 20 high performance workstations located at the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation facility. We describe the requirements for resource allocation and job management that are necessary to provide a production supercomputing environment on these machines, prioritizing according to difficulty and importance, and advocating a return to fundamental issues.

  13. Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  14. Opportunistically discovering usability requirements for a clinical handover system.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, David; Parry, David; Carlsen, Victoria; Carter, Philip; Parry, Emma; Westbrook, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Handover in hospital is a process that can cause a major risk to patients, and be inefficient and time-consuming for staff. Software designed to support such processes needs to be used in a demanding and fast-moving environment. This work formulated Usability Design Requirements for such a handover software system. The requirements have been derived from a usability evaluation at Auckland City Hospital, where the handover was observed in two different environments during a handover improvement process. The requirements were produced using a multi-method, triangulated approach and they may be able to inform the design of systems to support clinical handover. The physical environment and the protocols adopted for handover were changed during this process, with software changes waiting for a larger project. Periods of change in work practice may be particularly favourable times to perform such studies, even if major software changes are not implemented. Staff engagement with the process may also be improved during times of change.

  15. Universal Documentation System Handbook. Volume 2. Requirement Formats and Instructions; Program Introduction, Program Requirements Document/Operations Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    toxic, poisonous, flammable, explosive, or which otherwise presents a hazard to humans, animals, fish , vegetation, and soil. Include specific...IN=CFIONS FODAT 2710 - GIUND CMNCATIONS DEAIL NCJPE: This format is used to state requirements for all ground ccurimications except longline , telephone...NETWORK TRANSMISSION - VOICE NOTES: (1) This format is used to outline longline communications requirements for voice transmission requirements which have

  16. Mirror Quality Required By The Antares Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweatt, W. C.

    1980-11-01

    The Antares laser system is a large (100 kJ) CO2 pulse laser operating at 10.6 pm. The system has 72 beam lines, each with an aperture of 900 cm2. The system will be composed primarily of large copper-faced mirrors whose principal dimensions range up to 65 cm. These mirrors will be single-point diamond turned (SPDT) at the Y-12 facility of Union Carbide Corporation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. We have had to develop surface quality specifications for these mirrors. These specifications were initially set at 50 nm peak-to-valley (p-v) surface error for the microsurface over 0.5-mm areas and 500 nm (p-v) over the whole mirror surface. In this paper an attempt has been made to refine these specifications to a more phys-ically meaningful set based on the performance of the system. The optical specification for Antares is that 80% of the energy from each beam should be deliverable inside a 400-μm circle. The diffraction limited focal spot is 160 pm across, so small amounts of low spa-tial frequency wavefront aberrations are acceptable. This is the "figure error" and can be represented by a best-fit fourth-order polynomial. It is specified separately from the higher spatial frequency "subfigure" errors that diffract light out of the 400-μm circle. Antares will have a completely automatic alignment and centering system. A more versatile and less expensive alignment system can be developed if the alignment is done with visible light. This tightens the tolerances on the microsurface but not the figure error. These requirements, along with several lesser ones, must be considered when tolerancing the mirror quality. It appears that the SPDT mirrors turned at Y-12 will meet our minimum requirements.

  17. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed. PMID:24595212

  18. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial engines. 3: Propulsion system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 3 effort cover the requirements and objectives for future aircraft propulsion systems. These requirements reflect the results of the Task 1 and 2 efforts and serve as a baseline for future evaluations, specification development efforts, contract/purchase agreements, and operational plans for future subsonic commercial engines. This report is divided into five major sections: (1) management objectives for commercial propulsion systems, (2) performance requirements for commercial transport propulsion systems, (3) design criteria for future transport engines, (4) design requirements for powerplant packages, and (5) testing.

  19. Resource requirements for digital computations on electrooptical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshaghian, Mary M.; Panda, Dhabaleswar K.; Kumar, V. K. Prasanna

    1991-03-01

    The resource requirements of electrooptical organizations in performing digital computing tasks are studied via a generic model of parallel computation using optical interconnects, called the 'optical model of computation' (OMC). In this model, computation is performed in digital electronics and communication is performed using free space optics. Relationships between information transfer and computational resources in solving a given problem are derived. A computationally intensive operation, two-dimensional digital image convolution is undertaken. Irrespective of the input/output scheme and the order of computation, a lower bound of Omega(nw) is obtained on the optical volume required for convolving a w x w kernel with an n x n image, if the input bits are given to the system only once.

  20. INO340 telescope control system: middleware requirements, design, and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalchian, Hengameh; Ravanmehr, Reza

    2016-07-01

    The INO340 Control System (INOCS) is being designed in terms of a distributed real-time architecture. The real-time (soft and firm) nature of many processes inside INOCS causes the communication paradigm between its different components to be time-critical and sensitive. For this purpose, we have chosen the Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard as the communications middleware which is itself based on the publish-subscribe paradigm. In this paper, we review and compare the main middleware types, and then we illustrate the middleware architecture of INOCS and its specific requirements. Finally, we present the experimental results, performed to evaluate our middleware in order to ensure that it meets our requirements.

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2: SPS system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Collected data reflected the level of definition resulting from the evaluation of a broad spectrum of SPS (satellite power systems) concepts. As the various concepts matured, these requirements were updated to reflect the requirements identified for the projected satellite system/subsystem point design(s). The study established several candidate concepts which were presented to provide a basis for the selection of one or two approaches that would be given a more comprehensive examination. The two selected concepts were expanded and constitute the selected system point designs. The identified system/subsystem requirements was emphasized and information on the selected point design was provided.

  2. NIRVANA GOSIP (Government Open Systems Interconnect Profile) requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.J.

    1990-08-01

    NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper outlines the requirements that a NIRVANA Network must satisfy to comply with the Government Open Systems Interconnect Profile (GOSIP). The author also identifies several issues involved in achieving GOSIP compliance. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Search Hanford accessible reports electronically system requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Willers, K.J.

    1994-02-28

    The Emergency, Safety, & Quality (ESQ) Services organization of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is experiencing changes related to new programs. The programs include Corrective Actions Management Systems, Self-Assessment, Trend Analysis, and Lessons Learned analysis. The programs are pushing up organizational costs while funding and manpower levels are projected to be dropping. A large cost involved in implementing the new programs is the cost for people to locate unstructured information required to make decisions or write documentation. But, most resources for retrieving information are found in structured database systems. This means that unstructured information that must be located has to be found by one of these methods: (1) searching manually through documents, (2) searching individual documents one at a time with word processing programs, (3) searching through text fields with query systems primarily designed for structured database information, or (4) develop a text search and retrieval system designed for unstructured information. One example of this is using Occurrence Reporting Processing System (ORPS) and Quality, Environmental, and Safety Tracking (QUEST) documents. An explanation of this is in the following textual box.

  4. Special requirements for electronic health record systems in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Michael F; Boland, Michael V; Brewer, Allen; Epley, K David; Horton, Mark B; Lim, Michele C; McCannel, Colin A; Patel, Sayjal J; Silverstone, David E; Wedemeyer, Linda; Lum, Flora

    2011-08-01

    The field of ophthalmology has a number of unique features compared with other medical and surgical specialties regarding clinical workflow and data management. This has important implications for the design of electronic health record (EHR) systems that can be used intuitively and efficiently by ophthalmologists and that can promote improved quality of care. Ophthalmologists often lament the absence of these specialty-specific features in EHRs, particularly in systems that were developed originally for primary care physicians or other medical specialists. The purpose of this article is to summarize the special requirements of EHRs that are important for ophthalmology. The hope is that this will help ophthalmologists to identify important features when searching for EHR systems, to stimulate vendors to recognize and incorporate these functions into systems, and to assist federal agencies to develop future guidelines regarding meaningful use of EHRs. More broadly, the American Academy of Ophthalmology believes that these functions are elements of good system design that will improve access to relevant information at the point of care between the ophthalmologist and the patient, will enhance timely communications between primary care providers and ophthalmologists, will mitigate risk, and ultimately will improve the ability of physicians to deliver the highest-quality medical care. Proprietary or commercial interest disclosure may be found after the references. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 55060 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Expanded Vessel Monitoring System Requirement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Vessel Monitoring System Requirement in the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery AGENCY: National Oceanic and... commercial fishing vessels are required to install and use a vessel monitoring system (VMS)...

  6. [Requirements for the successful installation of an data management system].

    PubMed

    Benson, M; Junger, A; Quinzio, L; Hempelmann, G

    2002-08-01

    Due to increasing requirements on medical documentation, especially with reference to the German Social Law binding towards quality management and introducing a new billing system (DRGs), an increasing number of departments consider to implement a patient data management system (PDMS). The installation should be professionally planned as a project in order to insure and complete a successful installation. The following aspects are essential: composition of the project group, definition of goals, finance, networking, space considerations, hardware, software, configuration, education and support. Project and finance planning must be prepared before beginning the project and the project process must be constantly evaluated. In selecting the software, certain characteristics should be considered: use of standards, configurability, intercommunicability and modularity. Our experience has taught us that vaguely defined goals, insufficient project planning and the existing management culture are responsible for the failure of PDMS installations. The software used tends to play a less important role.

  7. Reliability and availability requirements analysis for DEMO: fuel cycle system

    SciTech Connect

    Pinna, T.; Borgognoni, F.

    2015-03-15

    The Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO) will be a fusion reactor prototype designed to demonstrate the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. Two of the key elements of the engineering development of the DEMO reactor are the definitions of reliability and availability requirements (or targets). The availability target for a hypothesized Fuel Cycle has been analysed as a test case. The analysis has been done on the basis of the experience gained in operating existing tokamak fusion reactors and developing the ITER design. Plant Breakdown Structure (PBS) and Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) related to the DEMO Fuel Cycle and correlations between PBS and FBS have been identified. At first, a set of availability targets has been allocated to the various systems on the basis of their operating, protection and safety functions. 75% and 85% of availability has been allocated to the operating functions of fuelling system and tritium plant respectively. 99% of availability has been allocated to the overall systems in executing their safety functions. The chances of the systems to achieve the allocated targets have then been investigated through a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Reliability Block Diagram analysis. The following results have been obtained: 1) the target of 75% for the operations of the fuelling system looks reasonable, while the target of 85% for the operations of the whole tritium plant should be reduced to 80%, even though all the tritium plant systems can individually reach quite high availability targets, over 90% - 95%; 2) all the DEMO Fuel Cycle systems can reach the target of 99% in accomplishing their safety functions. (authors)

  8. Space station resistojet system requirements and interface definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckert, Bruce J.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary resistojet design requirements were established based on initial technical requirements imposed by the results of NASA and Rocketdyne studies. The requirements are directed toward long life, simplicity, flexibility, and commonality with other space station components. The resistojet assembly is comprised of eight resistojets, fluid components downstream of the waste fluid storage system, a power controller, structure, and shielding. It consists of two identical subassemblies, one of which is redundant. Each subassembly consists of four 500-W resistojets, series redundant latch values, a power controller, a water vaporizer, two pressure regulators, filters, check valves, disconnects, fluid tubing, and electrical cables. All components are packaged at the end of the stinger aft of the JEM and Columbus modules. Different flow and power control methods were studied. A constant inlet pressure and a two-power setting controller were tentatively selected based on simplicity and reasonably high specific impulse for the range of waste gas compositions that are anticipated. The constant pressure is supplied by pressure regulators. The two set point power control includes individual power supplies to each resistojet heater and water vaporizer. An embedded data processor, a multiplexer-demultiplexer, and a network interface unit that are standard space station components are included in the power controller. The total dry weight of the resistojet assembly is approximately 172 lb. The total cost for design, development, test, evaluation, qualification, and flight hardware is estimated to be $16 million.

  9. Electronic collection system for spacelab mission timeline requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, James P.; Piner, John R.; Huang, Allen K. H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Functional Objective Requirements Collection System (FORCS) software tool that has been developed for use by Principal Investigators (PI's) and Payload Element Developers (PED's) on their own personal computers to develop on-orbit timelining requirements for their payloads. The FORCS tool can be used either in a totally stand-alone mode, storing the information in a local file on the user's personal computer hard disk or in a remote mode where the user's computer is linked to a host computer containing the integrated database of the timeline requirements for all of the payloads on a mission. There are a number of features incorporated in the FORCS software to assist the user. The user may move freely back and forth between the various forms for inputting the data. Several methods are used to input the information, depending on the type of the information. These methods range from filling in text boxes, using check boxes and radio buttons, to inputting information into a spreadsheet format. There are automated features provided to assist in developing the proper format for the data, ranging from limit checking on some of the parameters to automatic conversion of different formats of time data inputs to the one standard format used for the timeline scheduling software.

  10. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  11. Space station resistojet system requirements and interface definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckert, Bruce J.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary resistojet design requirements were established based on initial technical requirements imposed by the results of NASA and Rocketdyne studies. The requirements are directed toward long life, simplicity, flexibility, and commonality with other space station components. The resistojet assembly is comprised of eight resistojets, fluid components downstream of the waste fluid storage system, a power controller, structure, and shielding. It consists of two identical subassemblies, one of which is redundant. Each subassembly consists of four 500-W resistojets, series redundant latch values, a power controller, a water vaporizer, two pressure regulators, filters, check valves, disconnects, fluid tubing, and electrical cables. All components are packaged at the end of the stinger aft of the JEM and Columbus modules. Different flow and power control methods were studied. A constant inlet pressure and a two-power setting controller were tentatively selected based on simplicity and reasonably high specific impulse for the range of waste gas compositions that are anticipated. The constant pressure is supplied by pressure regulators. The two set point power control includes individual power supplies to each resistojet heater and water vaporizer. An embedded data processor, a multiplexer-demultiplexer, and a network interface unit that are standard space station components are included in the power controller. The total dry weight of the resistojet assembly is approximately 172 lb. The total cost for design, development, test, evaluation, qualification, and flight hardware is estimated to be $16 million.

  12. Focusing the research agenda for simulation training visual system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charles J.

    2014-06-01

    Advances in the capabilities of the display-related technologies with potential uses in simulation training devices continue to occur at a rapid pace. Simultaneously, ongoing reductions in defense spending stimulate the services to push a higher proportion of training into ground-based simulators to reduce their operational costs. These two trends result in increased customer expectations and desires for more capable training devices, while the money available for these devices is decreasing. Thus, there exists an increasing need to improve the efficiency of the acquisition process and to increase the probability that users get the training devices they need at the lowest practical cost. In support of this need the IDEAS program was initiated in 2010 with the goal of improving display system requirements associated with unmet user needs and expectations and disrupted acquisitions. This paper describes a process of identifying, rating, and selecting the design parameters that should receive research attention. Analyses of existing requirements documents reveal that between 40 and 50 specific design parameters (i.e., resolution, contrast, luminance, field of view, frame rate, etc.) are typically called out for the acquisition of a simulation training display system. Obviously no research effort can address the effects of this many parameters. Thus, we developed a defensible strategy for focusing limited R&D resources on a fraction of these parameters. This strategy encompasses six criteria to identify the parameters most worthy of research attention. Examples based on display design parameters recommended by stakeholders are provided.

  13. Innovative requirements and technologies for future RLVs health management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltecca, L.; Miccichè, L.; Russo, G.; Sellitto, M.

    2002-07-01

    The Italian aerospace research program PRORA (PROgramma nazionale di Ricerche Aerospaziali), which has been conceived and managed by CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Center), is focused on the development of innovative technologies, also based on experience from flying test beds. One family of these test beds, designated USV (Unmanned Space Vehicle) will be dedicated to acquire the knowledge about future RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) technologies. Major strategic technologies identified are reusability, hypersonic flight and atmospheric re-entry. The Phase-A study has been concluded and recently approved. Laben (a Finmeccanica Company) has contributed to identify requirements for the next generations of on board Vehicle Health Management System (VHMS) and to investigate possible innovative architectures. This new generation VHMS will be able to manage in a real-time mode the health of the vehicle (structure, propulsion, avionics, etc.). The proposed approach is based on a set of decentralised computers linked via an advanced high-speed interconnect system. This paper will describe preliminary requirements analysis and trade-off's mainly in terms of HW (e.g. use of general purpose CPUs versus DSPs, interconnects and topologies).

  14. Operational requirements for the Remote maintenance Monitoring System (RMMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-06-01

    This operational requirements document was prepared for use in support of the development and implementation of a Remote Maintenance Monitoring System (RMMS) for the National Airspace System (NAS). Fundamental concepts of RMMS operation and the system description have been previously developed by the Airway Facilities Service (AAF). The information generated by the Remote Monitoring Subsystem (RMS) at the equipment site shall be directly available to the responsible maintenance personnel at their work center. Initially, a Maintenance Processor Subsystem (MPS) will be installed at the ARTCC where communication lines with enroute equipment and major airports presently exist. Future MPSs shall be located at sector offices, or major workcenters. The MPS shall monitor the status of all equipment for a specific geographical area and shall automatically notify the monitoring facilities of the equipment alarms. The monitoring facility shall be alerted of an alarm by both visual and aural signals describing where alarm has occurred, the type of alarm, and which equipment is alarming. The MPS shall serve as the primary collection point, processor, and distribution center for all RMM and Maintenance Management System (MMS) data. The RMMS will remote many routine maintenance functions currently performed at the remote equipment sites and will permit them to be accomplished at any suitably equipped work center.

  15. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5. Appendix: Requirements data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Appendix A contains data that characterize the system functions in sufficient depth as to determine the requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS). This data is in the form of: (1) top down traceability report; (2) bottom up traceability report; (3) requirements data sheets; and (4) cross index of requirements paragraphs of the source documents and the requirements numbers. A data base users guide is included that interested parties can use to access the requirements data base and get up to date information about the functions.

  16. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Mathews, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    This standard establishes requirements and guidance for design and fabrication of ground systems (GS) that includes: ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F GSS) to provide uniform methods and processes for design and development of robust, safe, reliable, maintainable, supportable, and cost-effective GS in support of space flight and institutional programs and projects.

  17. Observing System Simulations for ASCENDS: Synthesizing Science Measurement Requirements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Wang, J. S.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ott, L.; Zaccheo, T.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Moore, B.; Crisp, D.

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric CO2 from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments. Application of this new technology aims to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle science into the next decade. The NASA Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission has been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for the next generation of space-based CO2 observing systems. ASCENDS is currently planned for launch in 2022. Several possible lidar instrument approaches have been demonstrated in airborne campaigns and the results indicate that such sensors are quite feasible. Studies are now underway to evaluate performance requirements for space mission implementation. Satellite CO2 observations must be highly precise and unbiased in order to accurately infer global carbon source/sink fluxes. Measurement demands are likely to further increase in the wake of GOSAT, OCO-2, and enhanced ground-based in situ and remote sensing CO2 data. The objective of our work is to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for ASCENDS in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. Considerations include requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we attempt to synthesize the results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, into a coherent set of mission performance guidelines. A variety of forward and inverse model frameworks are employed to reduce the potential dependence of the results on model

  18. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance, Requirements, and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Contractor Report summarizes and documents the work performed to develop concepts of use (ConUse) and high-level system requirements and architecture for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. This work was completed as a follow-on to the technology assessment conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center and ITT for the Future Communications Study (FCS). ITT assessed air-to-ground (A/G) communications concepts of use and operations presented in relevant NAS-level, international, and NAS-system-level documents to derive the appropriate ConUse relevant to potential A/G communications applications and services for domestic continental airspace. ITT also leveraged prior concepts of use developed during the earlier phases of the FCS. A middle-out functional architecture was adopted by merging the functional system requirements identified in the bottom-up assessment of existing requirements with those derived as a result of the top-down analysis of ConUse and higher level functional requirements. Initial end-to-end system performance requirements were derived to define system capabilities based on the functional requirements and on NAS-SR-1000 and the Operational Performance Assessment conducted as part of the COCR. A high-level notional architecture of the L-DACS supporting A/G communication was derived from the functional architecture and requirements.

  19. Reduction of pH buffer requirement in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-11-01

    Low pH buffer capacity of waste streams limits further development of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) because accumulation of protons potentially leads to acidification of the anodic biofilm. Here we introduce a system that makes it possible to recover alkalinity in an extra recovery compartment. The system consisted of this extra compartment which was located between anode and cathode compartment. The compartment was separated from the anode by a cation exchange membrane and from the cathode by an anion exchange membrane, which made clean hydrogen production possible. To compensate for the charge movement as a result of the flow of electrons, both cations and hydroxyl ions moved into the new recovery compartment. When a synthetic waste stream was fed through this recovery compartment, both pH and conductivity increased. When this stream is then fed to the anode of the BES, no additional buffer was required to produce the same current (3.5 A/m(2)) at an applied voltage of 1 V.

  20. 30 CFR 250.440 - What are the general requirements for BOP systems and system components?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.440 What are the general...