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Sample records for ravimtaimi stress raviks

  1. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... the flu or common cold. Vaccines, such as the flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  2. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... like problems in your marriage, job, health, or finances. When stress occurs, the body prepares to take ... Us Who We Are Careers Contact Us Policies Corporate Support Newsroom Press Releases For Professionals En Español ...

  3. Stress Management: Job Stress

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  4. Childhood Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  5. Caregiver Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Selector Search Alzheimer’s Association Caregiving En Español Caregiver Stress Caregiver Stress Caregiver Stress Share or Print this ... Tips to manage stress 10 symptoms of caregiver stress Denial about the disease and its effect on ...

  6. Manage Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  7. Stress Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  8. Stress Management

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  9. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  10. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  11. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  12. Stress Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  13. Understanding Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellott, Fred K.

    Stress affects everyone in his/her work and everyday life. Some persons are more effective when they are under a certain level of stress, but there are limits to the amount of stress under which one can perform effectively. Competition within complex organizations today is a risk factor not often recognized by the organizations. All organizations…

  14. Neuromuscular Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  15. Stress Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    SPATE 900 Dynamic Stress Analyzer is an acronym for Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emission. It detects stress-induced temperature changes in a structure and indicates the degree of stress. Ometron, Inc.'s SPATE 9000 consists of a scan unit and a data display. The scan unit contains an infrared channel focused on the test structure to collect thermal radiation, and a visual channel used to set up the scan area and interrogate the stress display. Stress data is produced by detecting minute temperature changes, down to one-thousandth of a degree Centigrade, resulting from the application to the structure of dynamic loading. The electronic data processing system correlates the temperature changes with a reference signal to determine stress level.

  16. Stress Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2014. Seaward BL. Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Well-Being. 7th ed. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2012. Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Stress management. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  17. Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Ave

    This guide is intended for use in conducting a three-session course that will help employees in the manufacturing and service industries acquire necessary stress management skills. The instructional materials presented are designed to help students learn to accomplish the following: recognize good and bad stress and understand the physical,…

  18. What Is Stress Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Stress Testing Stress Testing Also known as What Is Stress Testing? ... test and an imaging stress test. Standard Exercise Stress Test A standard exercise stress test uses an ...

  19. Airplane Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F; Crook, L H

    1918-01-01

    Report presents stress analysis of individual components of an airplane. Normal and abnormal loads, sudden loads, simple stresses, indirect simple stresses, resultant unit stress, repetitive and equivalent stress, maximum steady load and stress are considered.

  20. Stress hyperglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Dungan, Kathleen M; Braithwaite, Susan S; Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2011-01-01

    Results of randomised controlled trials of tight glycaemic control in hospital inpatients might vary with population and disease state. Individualised therapy for different hospital inpatient populations and identification of patients at risk of hyperglycaemia might be needed. One risk factor that has received much attention is the presence of pre-existing diabetes. So-called stress hyperglycaemia is usually defined as hyperglycaemia resolving spontaneously after dissipation of acute illness. The term generally refers to patients without known diabetes, although patients with diabetes might also develop stress hyperglycaemia—a fact overlooked in many studies comparing hospital inpatients with or without diabetes. Investigators of several studies have suggested that patients with stress hyperglycaemia are at higher risk of adverse consequences than are those with pre-existing diabetes. We describe classification of stress hyperglycaemia, mechanisms of harm, and management strategies. PMID:19465235

  1. Stress echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Stress echocardiography is a test that uses ultrasound imaging to show how well your heart muscle is working to pump blood to your body. It is most often used to detect a decrease in blood flow to ... A special gel is used to help the ultrasound waves get to your heart. Most people will ...

  2. Thermal Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    can have a significant impact on normal physiological functioning if precipitous increases in core temperature are not adequately controlled with...anterior hypothalamusIntroduction Thermal stress can have a significant impact on normal physiological functioning if precipitous increases in core...fat and skin). The regulation of a relatively constant internal temperature is critical for normal physiological functioning of tissues and cells, as

  3. Stress and Mood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  4. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  5. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  6. Chronic Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Laura M.; Baum, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between chronic stress and symptoms of posttraumatic stress syndrome in people living within five miles of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power station. Results provided evidence of substantive links between chronic stress and development of mild symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. (Author/BL)

  7. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  8. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ... My Child? Looking Ahead Print What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Someone who is the victim of ( ...

  10. Stress and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress and Heart Health Updated:Jan 8,2018 When ... therapist in your community. Last reviewed 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction ...

  11. Overcoming job stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...

  12. Stress Management: Spirituality

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Taking the path less traveled by exploring your spirituality can lead to a clearer life purpose, better personal relationships and enhanced stress management skills. By Mayo Clinic Staff Some stress relief ...

  13. Stress Management: Yoga

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Is yoga right for you? It is if you want to fight stress, get fit and stay healthy. By ... particular, may be a good choice for stress management. Hatha is one of the most common styles ...

  14. Teacher Wellness: Too Stressed for Stress Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipps-Vaughan, Debi; Ponsart, Tyler; Gilligan, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and…

  15. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  16. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise ECG; ECG - exercise treadmill; EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill; CAD - treadmill; Coronary artery disease - treadmill; Chest pain - treadmill; Angina - treadmill; ...

  17. Nuclear Stress Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nuclear Stress Test Menu Topics Topics FAQs Nuclear Stress Test A nuclear stress test lets doctors see pictures of your heart ... after you have exercised. En español A nuclear stress test lets doctors see pictures of your heart ...

  18. Managing Leadership Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vidula; Campbell, Michael; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…

  19. Worksite Stress Management Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents a framework used for viewing stress and organizational stress interventions. Reviews the stress management intervention literature in the context of this framework. Provides examples of corporations committed to stress management programs. Identifies future needs appropriate for organizational psychologists to address. (Author/JS)

  20. Stress and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress — Information from MentalHelp.net. Personal Well-Being Survey™ — Assessment you can take to better understand your stress from the HeartMath ® Institute. Stress — Information from Mental Health America. Stress and pregnancy — Fact sheet from the March of Dimes. Sources ...

  1. Stress and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... uptight; Stress; Tension; Jitters; Apprehension Images Generalized anxiety disorder Stress and anxiety References Ahmed SM, Hershberger PJ, Lemkau ... on stress. www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/stress/index.shtml . Accessed ... aspects of cardiovascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ...

  2. Educational Stress: Sources, Reactions, Preventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Jeffrey S.; Polczynski, James J.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of stress on educators and efforts to understand and cope with stress are discussed. Sources of stress, common reactions to stress, the effects of stress on educator performance, and suggested preventive methods are examined. (JN)

  3. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Takashina, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hidenori; Onozuka, Minoru; Sasaguri, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that suppression of stress-related emotional responses leads to the simultaneous activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and that the expression of these emotional states has a protective effect against ulcerogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether stress-induced bruxism activity (SBA) has a physiological effect of on the stress-induced changes of the stomach, thymus, and spleen as well as blood leukocytes, cortisol, and adrenaline. This study demonstrated that SBA attenuated the stress-induced ulcer genesis as well as degenerative changes of thymus and spleen. SBA also attenuated increases of adrenaline, cortisol, and neutrophils in the blood. In conclusion, expression of aggression through SBA during stress exposure attenuates both stress-induced ANS response, including gastric ulcer formation.

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... last for longer than a month. What Is PTSD? Posttraumatic stress disorder is a set of symptoms — ... such as policemen, firemen, and EMTs. What Causes PTSD? When you're in a stressful or dangerous ...

  5. Takotsubo (Stress) Cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Takotsubo (Stress) Cardiomyopathy Scott W. Sharkey , John R. Lesser , Barry ... heart contraction has returned to normal. Importance of Stress In 85% of cases, takotsubo is triggered by ...

  6. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000553.htm Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... that connect your ankle to your toes. A stress fracture is a break in the bone that ...

  7. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  8. Stress, Tectonics and Cryovolcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.

    2018-06-01

    Here we examine mechanisms, mostly tidal, that can impart stress to the surfaces of icy satellites, the formation of fractures as a response to these stresses, and the ability of these fracture to serve as conduits for eruptive processes.

  9. In plane stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, O. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of the blowing up of UK numerical results for the inplane stress calculations for silicon ribbon is presented. The inplane stress that exists in a thin plate is governed by two general equations of equilibrium and compatibility.

  10. Stress and Protists: No life without stress.

    PubMed

    Slaveykova, Vera; Sonntag, Bettina; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    We report a summary of the symposium "Stress and Protists: No life without stress", which was held in September 2015 on the VII European Congress of Protistology in partnership with the International Society of Protistologists (Seville, Spain). We present an overview on general comments and concepts on cellular stress which can be also applied to any protist. Generally, various environmental stressors may induce similar cell responses in very different protists. Two main topics are reported in this manuscript: (i) metallic nanoparticles as environmental pollutants and stressors for aquatic protists, and (ii) ultraviolet radiation - induced stress and photoprotective strategies in ciliates. Model protists such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Tetrahymena thermophila were used to assess stress caused by nanoparticles while stress caused by ultraviolet radiation was tested with free living planktonic ciliates as well as with the symbiont-bearing model ciliate Paramecium bursaria. For future studies, we suggest more intensive analyses on protist stress responses to specific environmental abiotic and/or biotic stressors at molecular and genetic levels up to ecological consequences and food web dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  12. Teacher Characteristics and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among pupil control orientation, five factors of teacher stress, sex, and age of 130 full-time teachers. Results indicated an authoritarian orientation was significantly related to higher scores on four of the five stress factors and age was significantly related to two stress factors. (Author/MT)

  13. Learning during Stressful Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shors, Tracey J.

    2004-01-01

    Stressful life events can have profound effects on our cognitive and motor abilities, from those that could be construed as adaptive to those not so. In this review, I discuss the general notion that acute stressful experience necessarily impairs our abilities to learn and remember. The effects of stress on operant conditioning, that is, learned…

  14. Organizational Stress among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triesen, David; Williams, Mary-Jo

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine Canadian teachers' perceptions of work related stress and to assess the degree to which these stressors accounted for overall job stress. Results indicated the factors which most contributed to overall job stress were role overload, relationships with students, work load, and relationships with colleagues.…

  15. Stress and the Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Richard H., Ed.

    The proceedings of a conference on stress and the organization, sponsored by the Business Institute in Gerontology, are presented. The materials address the following areas of concern related to the problem of stress, including: (1) physiology and psychological effects; (2) organization-induced stress and its manifestations; (3) mid-life…

  16. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  17. Stress in the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Targgart, Amber

    2017-01-01

    There is little information on the topic of stress experienced by public school superintendents. There are gaps in research regarding the stressors that increase the occupational stress experienced by public school superintendents and methods these individuals use to combat occupational stress. This study searched for clarification of these…

  18. Dimensions of Counselor Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joan, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The nine articles in this issue deal with different aspects of stress that affect school counselors. Discusses environmental and occupational causes of stress, stress management, and methods for dealing with counselor burnout. Emphasizes self-help measures and techniques for increasing counselor effectiveness. (JAC)

  19. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  20. Stress, Hyperreactivity, and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have not yet agreed upon links between stress and illness. Levels of response mediated by the central nervous system are considered important in predicting and determining health consequences of stress. The paper uses the cardiovascular system to examine experimental evidence for the relationship between stress, health/illness, and…

  1. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Cancer.gov

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  2. Stress and headache chronification.

    PubMed

    Houle, Timothy; Nash, Justin M

    2008-01-01

    In this special section, the concept of stress has been linked to the chronification of headache and is considered to be one of several likely mechanisms for the progression of an otherwise episodic disorder to a chronic daily phenomenon. The present review discusses the concept of stress and describes the mechanisms through which stress could influence headache progression. The hypothesized mechanisms include stress serving as a unique trigger for individual attacks, as a nociceptive activator, and as a moderator of other mechanisms. Finally, the techniques used in the screening and management of stress are mentioned in the context of employing strategies for the primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention of headache progression.

  3. Worksite stress management interventions.

    PubMed

    Ivancevich, J M; Matteson, M T; Freedman, S M; Phillips, J S

    1990-02-01

    Despite the general agreement that stress plays a role in everyday life, there continues to be substantial controversy about how stress can be managed at the worksite. During the last decade, our knowledge of stress management interventions has increased substantially. Despite this improvement, deficiencies in the literature exist. In this article, we offer a framework that may be used for viewing organizational stress interventions, briefly review some of the stress management intervention literature in the context of this framework, and identify future needs that may be particularly appropriate for organizational psychologists to address.

  4. Pain stress and headache.

    PubMed

    Panerai, Alberto E

    2012-05-01

    The association between pain and stress is an old one, but still it is not really clear who comes first. Pain induces stress, and stress induces pain. Pain is part of our homeostatic system and in this way is an emotion, i.e., it tells us that something is out-of-order (control), and emotion drives our behavior and one behavior is stress response. Stress comes from ourselves: the imagination we have or would like to have of us, from the image others give of us, from the goals we assume it is necessary to reach for our well-being or the goals others want us to fulfill. Stress comes from our social condition and the condition we would like, stress comes from dangerous situations we cannot control. Headache easily fits in the picture.

  5. Stress Reactivity in Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS.

  6. [Stress in surgeries].

    PubMed

    Daian, Márcia Rodrigues; Petroianu, Andy; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Jeunon, Ester Eliane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide the literature regarding the psychological stress in the peri-operative period of adult patients undergoing operations under general anesthesia. The articles were obtained by surveying the papers published and catalogued in the Medline Pubmed interface database, Lilacs and the Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS) since 1984, crossing the headings stress, surgery, general anesthesia, psychology. Over 800 articles related to stress and surgery were analyzed with regards to their relevance to the considered subject. Eighteen articles were related to psychological stress. Their results confirmed the presence of psychological and physical stress, during the peri-operative period as well as relation between stress and de clinical post-operative recovery. There is a gap regarding in the peri-operative period. More studies on psychological influence on stress may benefit patients and help professionals during the surgical treatment.

  7. Perceptions of job stress.

    PubMed

    Dearmun, A K

    1998-01-01

    The experiences of the first graduate children's nurses to qualify on Part 15 of the UKCC Register were drawn on for this study. The literature shows that stress is more prevalent in newly qualified staff nurses. In order to provide optimum support, awareness of the particular factors that create stress at this time is vital. There was a chronological dimension to the stress experience of the children's nurses', which began with an initial feeling of survival and ended with a sense of equilibrium. Situations which would have initially evoked stress were no longer perceived as stressful as their confidence grew. Towards the end of the year, any specific stressful events were associated with increased managerial responsibilities or beginning a new job. The nurses consistently reported increased stress when dealing with a number of specific situations.

  8. Stress and Protists: No life without stress

    PubMed Central

    Slaveykova, Vera; Sonntag, Bettina; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We report a summary of the symposium “Stress and Protists: No life without stress”, which was held in September 2015 on the VII European Congress of Protistology in partnership with the International Society of Protistologists (Seville, Spain). We present an overview on general comments and concepts on cellular stress which can be also applied to any protist. Generally, various environmental stressors may induce similar cell responses in very different protists. Two main topics are reported in this manuscript: (i) metallic nanoparticles as environmental pollutants and stressors for aquatic protists, and (ii) ultraviolet radiation – induced stress and photoprotective strategies in ciliates. Model protists such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Tetrahymena thermophila were used to assess stress caused by nanoparticles while stress caused by ultraviolet radiation was tested with free living planktonic ciliates as well as with the symbiont-bearing model ciliate Paramecium bursaria. For future studies, we suggest more intensive analyses on protist stress responses to specific environmental abiotic and/or biotic stressors at molecular and genetic levels up to ecological consequences and food web dynamics. PMID:27365178

  9. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  10. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  11. Interoception and stress

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, André; Vögele, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Afferent neural signals are continuously transmitted from visceral organs to the brain. Interoception refers to the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals by the central nervous system, which can finally result in the conscious perception of bodily processes. Interoception can, therefore, be described as a prominent example of information processing on the ascending branch of the brain–body axis. Stress responses involve a complex neuro-behavioral cascade, which is elicited when the organism is confronted with a potentially harmful stimulus. As this stress cascade comprises a range of neural and endocrine pathways, stress can be conceptualized as a communication process on the descending branch of the brain–body axis. Interoception and stress are, therefore, associated via the bi-directional transmission of information on the brain–body axis. It could be argued that excessive and/or enduring activation (e.g., by acute or chronic stress) of neural circuits, which are responsible for successful communication on the brain–body axis, induces malfunction and dysregulation of these information processes. As a consequence, interoceptive signal processing may be altered, resulting in physical symptoms contributing to the development and/or maintenance of body-related mental disorders, which are associated with stress. In the current paper, we summarize findings on psychobiological processes underlying acute and chronic stress and their interaction with interoception. While focusing on the role of the physiological stress axes (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and autonomic nervous system), psychological factors in acute and chronic stress are also discussed. We propose a positive feedback model involving stress (in particular early life or chronic stress, as well as major adverse events), the dysregulation of physiological stress axes, altered perception of bodily sensations, and the generation of physical symptoms, which may in turn facilitate

  12. Stress Erythropoiesis Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Laura F; Liao, Chang; Paulson, Robert F

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow steady-state erythropoiesis maintains erythroid homeostasis throughout life. This process constantly generates new erythrocytes to replace the senescent erythrocytes that are removed by macrophages in the spleen. In contrast, anemic or hypoxic stress induces a physiological response designed to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues. Stress erythropoiesis is a key component of this response. It is best understood in mice where it is extramedullary occurring in the adult spleen and liver and in the fetal liver during development. Stress erythropoiesis utilizes progenitor cells and signals that are distinct from bone marrow steady-state erythropoiesis. Because of that observation many genes may play a role in stress erythropoiesis despite having no effect on steady-state erythropoiesis. In this chapter, we will discuss in vivo and in vitro techniques to study stress erythropoiesis in mice and how the in vitro culture system can be extended to study human stress erythropoiesis.

  13. Learning During Stressful Times

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Tracey J.

    2012-01-01

    Stressful life events can have profound effects on our cognitive and motor abilities, from those that could be construed as adaptive to those not so. In this review, I discuss the general notion that acute stressful experience necessarily impairs our abilities to learn and remember. The effects of stress on operant conditioning, that is, learned helplessness, as well as those on classical conditioning procedures are discussed in the context of performance and adaptation. Studies indicating sex differences in learning during stressful times are discussed, as are those attributing different responses to the existence of multiple memory systems and nonlinear relationships. The intent of this review is to highlight the apparent plasticity of the stress response, how it might have evolved to affect both performance and learning processes, and the potential problems with interpreting stress effects on learning as either good or bad. An appreciation for its plasticity may provide new avenues for investigating its underlying neuronal mechanisms. PMID:15054128

  14. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A computer code which can account for plastic deformation effects on stress generated in silicon sheet grown at high speeds is fully operative. Stress and strain rate distributions are presented for two different sheet temperature profiles. The calculations show that residual stress levels are very sensitive to details of the cooling profile in a sheet with creep. Experimental work has been started in several areas to improve understanding of ribbon temperature profiles and stress distributions associated with a 10 cm wide ribbon cartridge system.

  15. Software Models Impact Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanshaw, Timothy C.; Roy, Dipankar; Toyooka, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Generalized Impact Stress Software designed to assist engineers in predicting stresses caused by variety of impacts. Program straightforward, simple to implement on personal computers, "user friendly", and handles variety of boundary conditions applied to struck body being analyzed. Applications include mathematical modeling of motions and transient stresses of spacecraft, analysis of slamming of piston, of fast valve shutoffs, and play of rotating bearing assembly. Provides fast and inexpensive analytical tool for analysis of stresses and reduces dependency on expensive impact tests. Written in FORTRAN 77. Requires use of commercial software package PLOT88.

  16. Stress and hormones

    PubMed Central

    Ranabir, Salam; Reetu, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves’ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm. PMID:21584161

  17. Correlates of School Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    As part of a continuing series of research studies on stress in schools, this study examined the construct validity of peripheral temperature at the fingertips as a measure of school stress. Measurements were made in classes selected at random from 11 volunteer schools in South Carolina. Three types of correlational studies were undertaken: (1)…

  18. Steps To Beat Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Explains techniques for reducing stress: diaphragmatic breathing, relaxation, progressive muscle relaxation, and meditation. Two sidebars define the fight-or-flight response and the camp administration's role in helping to lower stress through staff training and reduction of camp-wide stressors. (SAS)

  19. Stress and Fear Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Maren, Stephen; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Stress has a critical role in the development and expression of many psychiatric disorders, and is a defining feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress also limits the efficacy of behavioral therapies aimed at limiting pathological fear, such as exposure therapy. Here we examine emerging evidence that stress impairs recovery from trauma by impairing fear extinction, a form of learning thought to underlie the suppression of trauma-related fear memories. We describe the major structural and functional abnormalities in brain regions that are particularly vulnerable to stress, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus, which may underlie stress-induced impairments in extinction. We also discuss some of the stress-induced neurochemical and molecular alterations in these brain regions that are associated with extinction deficits, and the potential for targeting these changes to prevent or reverse impaired extinction. A better understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress effects on extinction promises to yield novel approaches to improving therapeutic outcomes for PTSD and other anxiety and trauma-related disorders. PMID:26105142

  20. Stress Management: Social Support

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/social-support/art-20044445 . Mayo Clinic ...

  1. Stress Management: Massage

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Massage can be a powerful tool to help you take charge of your health and well-being. See if ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/massage/art-20045743 . Mayo Clinic Footer ...

  2. Stress in childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... body changes, in both boys and girls Seeing parents go through a divorce or separation Money problems in the family Living in an unsafe home or neighborhood SIGNS OF UNRESOLVED STRESS IN ... lead parents to suspect an increased stress level is present. ...

  3. CD-ROM Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of stress in library reference departments focuses on stress caused by CD-ROM reference tools. Topics discussed include work overload; nonreference duties; patron attitudes and behavior; staff attitudes; the need for proper staff training; and the need for library administrators to be sensitive to reference staff needs. (LRW)

  4. Stress Management for Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi…

  5. Endocannabinoids and stress.

    PubMed

    Riebe, Caitlin J; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2011-07-01

    Endogenous cannabinoids play an important role in the physiology and behavioral expression of stress responses. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including the release of glucocorticoids, is the fundamental hormonal response to stress. Endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling serves to maintain HPA-axis homeostasis, by buffering basal activity as well as by mediating glucocorticoid fast feedback mechanisms. Following chronic stressor exposure, eCBs are also involved in physiological and behavioral habituation processes. Behavioral consequences of stress include fear and stress-induced anxiety as well as memory formation in the context of stress, involving contextual fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance learning. Chronic stress can also lead to depression-like symptoms. Prominent in these behavioral stress responses is the interaction between eCBs and the HPA-axis. Future directions may differentiate among eCB signaling within various brain structures/neuronal subpopulations as well as between the distinct roles of the endogenous cannabinoid ligands. Investigation into the role of the eCB system in allostatic states and recovery processes may give insight into possible therapeutic manipulations of the system in treating chronic stress-related conditions in humans.

  6. The Meanings of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organ, Dennis W.

    1979-01-01

    Stress has become a modern watchword with a variety of meanings, both popular and scientific. Recent studies in the physiology of stress have important implications for executive behavior. Available from Business Horizons, School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405; $3.00 single copy. (Author)

  7. Helping Children Manage Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Maggie; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes interventions used to enhance coping and stress management to children and adolescents. Argues that the model of stress upon which the intervention is based dictates the intervention. Implications are discussed of the acceptance of an extended Lazarus/Folkman model for interventions in schools. (CFR)

  8. Release from Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    An overview of the most recent ideas on managerial stress is presented along with worksheets and exercises for a program to help educational administrators, their staffs, and secretaries cope with and reduce organizational and personal stress. Research cited includes the author's survey of 1,200 Oregon school administrators and over 200…

  9. The Trail of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blue, Arthur W.; Blue, Meredith A.

    1983-01-01

    Tests of the relationship of culture to response to stress, undertaken with Canadian Indian university students between 1976 and 1979, showed no significant difference between Indian and Euro-Canadian students. Analysis by place of origin suggested that more traditional Indians (from isolated northern communities) tended to respond to stress by…

  10. Keeping Fit: Stress Relievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crupi, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    With all the extra demands that are placed on teachers during the months of May and June, the end of the year can be an extremely stressful time. This article describes several tips for diminishing the effects of end of year stress. The following relaxation tips are described: (1) Neck and Upper Shoulder Stretch; (2) Superman Stretch; (3) Doorway…

  11. Understanding Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Les; Goodall, Robert

    1980-01-01

    There are many stress-producing factors in the life of a teacher. While discipline seems to be the major problem, social and personal problems also increase the pressure of daily living. Changing negative attitudes and widening limited perspectives will help to combat the inevitable stress of teaching. (JD)

  12. Managing Time and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstutter, Sandra; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 14 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers many practical suggestions for managing time and reducing stress. The primary challenge is to unblock the route to effective time/stress management by recognizing unproductive values and attitudes (such as overreliance on the Protestant work ethic or the appearance of…

  13. Oxidative stress, redox stress or redox success?

    PubMed

    Gutteridge, John M C; Halliwell, Barry

    2018-05-09

    The first life forms evolved in a highly reducing environment. This reduced state is still carried by cells today, which makes the concept of "reductive stress" somewhat redundant. When oxygen became abundant on the Earth, due to the evolution of photosynthesis, life forms had to adapt or become extinct. Living organisms did adapt, proliferated and an explosion of new life forms resulted, using reactive oxygen species (ROS) to drive their evolution. Adaptation to oxygen and its reduction intermediates necessitated the simultaneous evolution of select antioxidant defences, carefully regulated to allow ROS to perform their major roles. Clearly this "oxidative stress" did not cause a major problem to the evolution of complex life forms. Why not? Iron and oxygen share a close relationship in aerobic evolution. Iron is used in proteins to transport oxygen, promote electron transfers, and catalyse chemical reactions. In all of these functions, iron is carefully sequestered within proteins and restricted from reacting with ROS, this sequestration being one of our major antioxidant defences. Iron was abundant to life forms before the appearance of oxygen. However, oxygen caused its oxidative precipitation from solution and thereby decreased its bioavailability and thus the risk of iron-dependent oxidative damage. Micro-organisms had to adapt and develop strategies involving siderophores to acquire iron from the environment and eventually their host. This battle for iron between bacteria and animal hosts continues today, and is a much greater daily threat to our survival than "oxidative stress" and "redox stress". Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Stress Compensating Multilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadway, David M.; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'dell, Stephen; Gurgew, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    We present in-situ stress measurement results for single and multilayer thin-films deposited by magnetron sputtering. In particular, we report on the influence of the material interfaces on the ensuing stress in both the transient and steady-state regimes of film growth. This behavior is used to determine the appropriate thicknesses of the constituent layers that will result in a net tensile stress in multilayers composed of various material combinations. These multilayers can then be used to compensate the compressive integrated stress in single and multilayer EUV and x-ray optical coatings. The use of multilayers to compensate the integrated stress might be advantageous because, unlike single layers of chromium, the roughness is not expected to increase with the total thickness of the multilayer. In this paper, we demonstrate the technique for W/Si and Mo/Si multilayers and discuss its application to other material combinations.

  15. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A program to study stress generation mechanisms in silicon sheet growth was started. The purpose of the research is to define post-growth temperature profiles for the sheet that can minimize its stress during growth at high speeds, e.g., greater than 3 cm/min. The initial tasks described concern work in progress toward the development of computing capabilities to (1) model stress-temperature relationships in steady-state ribbon growth, and (2) provide a means to calculate realistic temperature fields in ribbon, given growth system component temperatures as boundary conditions. If it is determined that low stress configurations can be achieved, the modeling is to be tested experimentally by constructing low-stress growth systems for EFG silicon ribbon.

  16. Reviews of Research: Childhood Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on how stress affects young children and how it can be managed. Provides information on internal and external sources of stress, symptoms of stress in children, the four stages of stress experienced by children (alarm, appraisal, search for a coping strategy, and implementation of the strategy), and stress prevention and…

  17. Stress on the College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    A Stress Test designed to help college students increase awareness of stress and ways they deal with it is presented, along with suggestions to reduce stress. The stress test was presented at a workshop by George Washington University graduate students. The test's four scales measure ways that students cope with stress and the student's…

  18. STRESS ETHYLENE PRODUCTION - A MEASURE OF PLANT RESPONSE TO STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contents: Introduction to the symposium; Environmental data acquisition; Plant organ chambers in plant physiology field research; Interpreting the metabolic responses of plants to water stress; Stress ethylene production.

  19. Assessment of Workplace Stress: Occupational Stress, Its Consequences, and Common Causes of Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    This chapter introduces teachers and other education professionals to the assessment of occupational stress. It begins with a brief discussion of what occupational stress is, and overview of the consequences of prolonged stress, and a review of the common causes of teacher stress. Next, it presents methods for reducing occupational stress through…

  20. [Osteoporosis and stress].

    PubMed

    Kumano, Hiroaki

    2005-09-01

    There may be three ways of relationship between stress and osteoporosis. The first is that stress induces some physiological changes leading to osteoporosis. The second is that stress induces behavioral distortion of eating, drinking, exercise, and sleep habits, which leads to osteoporosis. The third is that osteoporosis, on the other hand, brings about anxiety, depression, loss of social roles, and social isolation, which leads to stress. The susceptible sex and age groups are postmenopausal women and young women. The abrupt decrease of estrogen in postmenopausal women promotes reabsorption of bone, and it was also reported that the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is downstream of estrogen was related to the production of osteoclast and to the development of disability of the aged. Regarding the association with stress, while it was reported that depression or depressive states directly increased inflammation-induced cytokines including IL-6, it was also pointed out that stress-induced easy infectious may produce chronic infection, which indirectly increases inflammation-induced cytokines. Anorexia Nervosa that is assumed to be associated with adolescent developmental stress is noteworthy in young women. Amenorrhea is always present in this disease, and in addition to bone reabsorption associated with estrogen deficiency, the decrease of bone formation associated with malnutrition may be related to the development of osteoporosis.

  1. Divorce and psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Booth, A; Amato, P

    1991-12-01

    While research on adjustment to divorce has been extensive, the paucity of studies assessing stress before and after divorce has kept the relation between psychological stress and martial dissolution unclear. Conflicting findings cast some doubt on the utility of using a crisis model to study divorce. Analysis of three-wave panel data from a national sample of persons married in 1980 indicates that the crisis model is appropriate for understanding adjustment to divorce. Comparisons of divorced persons with married persons show a predivorce rise in stress which then returns to levels comparable to those reported by married individuals. No evidence was found supporting the idea that a high level of psychological stress is a general cause of divorce or that dissolution resulted in more or less permanent elevation of psychological stress. Findings support the hypothesis that predivorce resources and outlooks influence the amount of stress experienced in the two years immediately following divorce. Below median family incomes, no post-high school experience, and wife not in the labor force put divorcing individuals at a disadvantage. Individuals reporting few premarital troubles and beliefs in the immorality of divorce also appear to experience heightened stress in the two years following divorce.

  2. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  3. Stress, atopy and allergy

    PubMed Central

    Liezmann, Christiane; Klapp, Burghard

    2011-01-01

    Since the early days of psychosomatic thinking, atopic disease was considered exemplary. In the 70s and 80s numerous reports stated increased anxiety, depression or ill stresscoping in atopics in correlation with enhanced disease activity. Employed patient groups however were small and diverse and controls rare. Therefore, the question remained, whether psychopathological findings in atopics were of pathogenetic relevance or an epiphenomenon of chronic inflammatory disease. Recently, the discussion has been revived and refocused by psychoneuroimmunological findings. We now know that atopic disease is characterized by an imbalance of the classical stress-axis response along the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic axis (SA). This imbalance can be found shoulder-to-shoulder with enhanced expression of newly emerging neuroendocrine stress mediators such as substance P (SP) and nerve growth factor that form up to a third stress axis (neurotrophin neuropeptide axis: NNA). Together they can alter the inflammatory as well as the neuroendocrine stress-response on several levels. In skin, the immediate inflammatory response to stress involves neuropeptide release and mast cell degranulation, in short neurogenic inflammation. Systemically, antigen-presentation and TH2 cytokine bias are promoted under the influence of cortisol and neuropeptides. Imbalanced stress-responsiveness may therefore be at the core of exacerbated allergic disease and deserves re-evaluation of therapeutic options such as neutralization of SP-signaling by antagonists against its receptor NK1, cortisol treatment as supplementation and relaxation techniques to balance the stress-response. PMID:21519408

  4. Bolt Stress Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In photo, an engineer is using a new Ultrasonic Bolt Stress Monitor developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to determine whether a bolt is properly tightened. A highly accurate device, the monitor is an important tool in construction of such structures as pressure vessels, bridges and power plants, wherein precise measurement of the stress on a tightened bolt is critical. Overtightened or undertightened bolts can fail and cause serious industrial accidents or costly equipment break-downs. There are a number of methods for measuring bolt stress. Most widely used and least costly is the torque wrench, which is inherently inaccurate; it does not take into account the friction between nut and bolt, which has an influence on stress. At the other end of the spectrum, there are accurate stress-measuring systems, but they are expensive and not portable. The battery-powered Langley monitor fills a need; it is inexpensive, lightweight, portable and extremely accurate because it is not subject to friction error. Sound waves are transmitted to the bolt and a return signal is received. As the bolt is tightened, it undergoes changes in resonance due to stress, in the manner that a violin string changes tone when it is tightened. The monitor measures the changes in resonance and provides a reading of real stress on the bolt. The device, patented by NASA, has aroused wide interest and a number of firms have applied for licenses to produce it for the commercial market.

  5. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifestyle Stress management What's the difference between normal stress and an adjustment disorder? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to ...

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... words: You are here Home » Clinical Conditions » Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) » Treatment Treatment The first line of ... Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder (VA/DoD PTSD ...

  7. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search FAQs Surgery ... Incontinence FAQ166, July 2017 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is stress urinary ...

  8. Hypnotizability in acute stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R A; Guthrie, R M; Moulds, M L

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acute dissociative reactions to trauma and hypnotizability. Acutely traumatized patients (N=61) with acute stress disorder, subclinical acute stress disorder (no dissociative symptoms), and no acute stress disorder were administered the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale within 4 weeks of their trauma. Although patients with acute stress disorder and patients with subclinical acute stress disorder displayed comparable levels of nondissociative psychopathology, acute stress disorder patients had higher levels of hypnotizability and were more likely to display reversible posthypnotic amnesia than both patients with subclinical acute stress disorder and patients with no acute stress disorder. The findings may be interpreted in light of a diathesis-stress process mediating trauma-related dissociation. People who develop acute stress disorder in response to traumatic experience may have a stronger ability to experience dissociative phenomena than people who develop subclinical acute stress disorder or no acute stress disorder.

  9. Human Reactions to Psychological Stress.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Theoretical issues relating stress, self -concept and attitude change are discussed. Differential effects of communicator credibility under high and... low stress are described. Methodological problems in stress research are explained. (Author)

  10. Joint Contact Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    A joint's normal mechanical history contributes to the maintenance of articular cartilage and underlying bone. Loading facilitates the flow of nutrients into cartilage and waste products away, and additionally provides the mechanical signals essential for normal cell and tissue maintenance. Deleteriously low or high contact stresses have been presumed to result in joint deterioration, and particular aspects of the mechanical environment may facilitate repair of damaged cartilage. For decades, investigators have explored static joint contact stresses (under some more or less arbitrary condition) as a surrogate of the relevant mechanical history. Contact stresses have been estimated in vitro in many joints and in a number of species, although only rarely in vivo. Despite a number of widely varying techniques (and spatial resolutions) to measure these contact stresses, reported ranges of static peak normal stresses are relatively similar from joint to joint across species, and in the range of 0.5 to 5.0 MPa. This suggests vertebrate diarthrodial joints have evolved to achieve similar mechanical design criteria. Available evidence also suggests some disorders of cartilage deterioration are associated with somewhat higher peak pressures ranging from 1-20 MPa, but overlapping the range of normal pressures. Some evidence and considerable logic suggests static contact stresses per se do not predict cartilage responses, but rather temporal aspects of the contact stress history. Static contact stresses may therefore not be a reasonable surrogate for biomechanical studies. Rather, temporal and spatial aspects of the loading history undoubtedly induce beneficial and deleterious biological responses. Finally, since all articular cartilage experiences similar stresses, the concept of a "weight-bearing" versus a "non-weight-bearing" joint seems flawed, and should be abandoned. PMID:16089079

  11. Stress-Detection Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    An Ames Research Center scientist invented an infrared lens used in sunglasses to filter out ultraviolet rays. This product finds its origins in research for military enemy detection. Through a Space Act Agreement, Optical Sales Corporation introduced the Hawkeye Lenses not only as sunglasses but as plant stress detection lenses. The lenses enhance the stressed part of the leaf, which has less chlorophyll than healthy leaves, through dyes that filter out certain wavelengths of light. Plant stress is visible earlier, at a stage when something can be done to save the plants.

  12. Voice stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Malcolm; Shipp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the validity of eight candidate voice measures (fundamental frequency, amplitude, speech rate, frequency jitter, amplitude shimmer, Psychological Stress Evaluator scores, energy distribution, and the derived measure of the above measures) for determining psychological stress, 17 males age 21 to 35 were subjected to a tracking task on a microcomputer CRT while parameters of vocal production as well as heart rate were measured. Findings confirm those of earlier studies that increases in fundamental frequency, amplitude, and speech rate are found in speakers involved in extreme levels of stress. In addition, it was found that the same changes appear to occur in a regular fashion within a more subtle level of stress that may be characteristic, for example, of routine flying situations. None of the individual speech measures performed as robustly as did heart rate.

  13. Measuring Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John E.; Dahm, Douglas B.

    1975-01-01

    Infrared remote sensors, plus photometric interpretation and digital data analysis are being used to record the stresses on air, water, vegetation and soil. Directly recorded photographic information has been the most effective recording media for remote sensing. (BT)

  14. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDQ®) Depression (PDQ®) Family Caregivers in Cancer (PDQ®) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ®) Facing Forward: Life After Cancer Treatment—Your Feelings Pain Control: Support for People With Cancer National Institute of ...

  15. Allowable stress in piles.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-12-01

    "This study presents methods for establishing allowable stresses in steel, concrete, and timber piles using load/resistance factor concepts. These methods take into account not only the material properties of the pile itself but also the individual e...

  16. About Stressful Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coping Skills (cont.) 2. Commit to a Positive Attitude A positive attitude helps stop you from being dragged down by unhappy feelings. A positive attitude also boosts the problem solving that a stressful ...

  17. Altered-stress fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Branagan, P.T.

    Altered-stress fracturing is a concept whereby a hydraulic fracture in one well is reoriented by another hydraulic fracture in a nearby location. The application is in tight, naturally fractured, anisotropic reservoirs in which conventional hydraulic fractures parallel the highly permeable natural fractures and little production enhancement is achieved by conventional hydraulic fracturing. Altered-stress fracturing can modify the stress field so that hydraulic fractures propagate across the permeable natural fractures. A field test was conducted in which stress changes of 250 to 300 psi (1.7 to 2.1 MPa) were measured in an offset well 120 ft (37 m) away during relativelymore » small minifracs in a production well. These results show that stress-altered fracturing is possible at this site and others. Analytic and finite element calculations quantify the effects of layers, stresses, and crack size. Reservoir calculations show significant enhancement compared to conventional treatments. 21 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  18. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Stress distributions were calculated for a creep law to predict a rate of plastic deformation. The expected reduction in stresses is obtained. Improved schemes for calculating growth system temperature distributions were evaluated. Temperature field modeling examined the possibility of using horizontal temperature gradients to influence stress distribution in ribbon. The defect structure of 10 cm wide ribbon grown in the cartridge system was examined. A new feature is identified from an examination of cross sectional micrographs. It consists of high density dislocation bands extending through the ribbon thickness. A four point bending apparatus was constructed for high temperature study of the creep response of silicon, to be used to generate defects for comparison with as grown defects in ribbon. The feasibility of laser interferometric techniques for sheet residual stress distribution measurement is examined. The mathematical formalism for calculating residual stress from changes in surface topology caused by an applied stress in a rectangular specimen was developed, and the system for laser interferometric measurement to obtain surface topology data was tested on CZ silicon.

  19. Overview of Stress Effects on Body and Stress Prevention Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, John L.

    Definitions of stress all imply that stress is a condition resulting from some change or imbalance that requires individual adjustment. When this does not occur, stress becomes an adverse condition which may eventually cause serious harm. Numerous studies have established the connection between unrelieved stress and adverse body reactions such as…

  20. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0493 TITLE: Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...CONTRACT NUMBER Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0493 5c. PROGRAM...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Mouse models suggest that chronic stress promotes ovarian tumorigenesis, but the relationship

  1. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0493 TITLE: Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0493 5c...TERMS ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression, anxiety, social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  2. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Share: © Matthew Lester Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can ... military combat. For Consumers General Information Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ( NIMH ) Anxiety Information Stress Information Depression Information ...

  3. Childhood Stress: The Teacher's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Louis A.

    The paper examines the effects of stress on children and considers ways in which teachers can help them cope. Three major sources of stress are identified: (1) normal developmental stress, such as pressure for academic success; (2) endemic social stress, resulting from such social trends as rising divorce rates and the general erosion of the…

  4. Reconsidering Post-Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…

  5. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  6. Educator Stress: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, James P.; Milstein, Mike

    Although many researchers conclude that education is a profession marked by high levels of stress or experience of "burnout," this paper contends that educators are more adaptable and hence less stressed than the literature would indicate. The paper surveys literature on educator stress, presents studies indicating low educator stress, and…

  7. Stress training improves performance during a stressful flight.

    PubMed

    McClernon, Christopher K; McCauley, Michael E; O'Connor, Paul E; Warm, Joel S

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated whether stress training introduced during the acquisition of simulator-based flight skills enhances pilot performance during subsequent stressful flight operations in an actual aircraft. Despite knowledge that preconditions to aircraft accidents can be strongly influenced by pilot stress, little is known about the effectiveness of stress training and how it transfers to operational flight settings. For this study, 30 participants with no flying experience were assigned at random to a stress-trained treatment group or a control group. Stress training consisted of systematic pairing of skill acquisition in a flight simulator with stress coping mechanisms in the presence of a cold pressor. Control participants received identical flight skill acquisition training but without stress training. Participants then performed a stressful flying task in a Piper Archer aircraft. Stress-trained research participants flew the aircraft more smoothly, as recorded by aircraft telemetry data, and generally better, as recorded by flight instructor evaluations, than did control participants. Introducing stress coping mechanisms during flight training improved performance in a stressful flying task. The results of this study indicate that stress training during the acquisition of flight skills may serve to enhance pilot performance in stressful operational flight and, therefore, might mitigate the contribution of pilot stress to aircraft mishaps.

  8. Stress and Sleep Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kuem Sun; Kim, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review potential, physiological, hormonal and neuronal mechanisms that may mediate the sleep changes. This paper investigates the literatures regarding the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems during sleep in order to identify relations between stress and sleep disorder and the treatment of stress-induced insomnia. Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by the aminergic, cholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Activation of the HPA and/or the sympathetic nervous systems results in wakefulness and these hormones including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol or corticosterone, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, are associated with attention and arousal. Stress-related insomnia leads to a vicious circle by activating the HPA system. An awareness of the close interaction between sleep and stress systems is emerging and the hypothalamus is now recognized as a key center for sleep regulation, with hypothalamic neurontransmitter systems providing the framework for therapeutic advances. An updated understanding of these systems may allow researchers to elucidate neural mechanisms of sleep disorder and to develop effective intervention for sleep disorder. PMID:23319874

  9. Glucocorticoids, stress, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Whirledge, S; Cidlowski, J A

    2010-06-01

    Modifications of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids form a key component of the response of an organism to stressful challenges. Increased levels of glucocorticoids promote gluconeogenesis, mobilization of amino acids, and stimulation of fat breakdown to maintain circulating levels of glucose necessary to mount a stress response. In addition to profound changes in the physiology and function of multiple tissues, stress and elevated glucocorticoids can also inhibit reproduction, a logical effect for the survival of self. Precise levels of glucocorticoids are required for proper gonadal function; where the balance is disrupted, so is fertility. Glucocorticoids affect gonadal function at multiple levels in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: 1) the hypothalamus (to decrease the synthesis and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]); 2) the pituitary gland (to inhibit the synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone [LH] and follicle stimulating hormone [FSH]); 3) the testis/ovary (to modulate steroidogenesis and/or gametogenesis directly). Furthermore, maternal exposure to prenatal stress or exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to permanent modification of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function and stress-related behaviors in offspring. Glucocorticoids are vital to many aspects of normal brain development, but fetal exposure to superabundant glucocorticoids can result in life-long effects on neuroendocrine function. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms believed to mediate glucocorticoid inhibition of reproductive functions and the anatomical sites at which these effects take place.

  10. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Experimental work in support of stress studies in high speed silicon sheet growth has been emphasized in this quarter. Creep experiments utilizing four-point bending have been made in the temperature range from 1000 C to 1360 C in CZ silicon as well as on EFG ribbon. A method to measure residual stress over large areas using laser interferometry to map strain distributions under load is under development. A fiber optics sensor to measure ribbon temperature profiles has been constructed and is being tested in a ribbon growth furnace environment. Stress and temperature field modeling work has been directed toward improving various aspects of the finite element computing schemes. Difficulties in computing stress distributions with a very high creep intensity and with non-zero interface stress have been encountered and additional development of the numerical schemes to cope with these problems is required. Temperature field modeling has been extended to include the study of heat transfer effects in the die and meniscus regions.

  11. Stress and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

  12. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  13. Stress, Epigenetics, and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker’s dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity—for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA–protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism. PMID:23584115

  14. Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2018 Conference Snapshot Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress When you're feeling anxious or stressed, the ... every email. Emails are serviced by Constant Contact. Stress Relief Kits Feeling stressed? Get an ADAA stress ...

  15. [Stress and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Csef, H; Hefner, J

    2005-03-31

    Most people throughout the world die from the consequences of cardiovascular disease. Stress and psychosocial burdens have, in the past, been underestimated with regard to the importance of their impact on the development and course of such diseases. In the INTERHEART study, psychosocial burdens occupy third place among the risk factors for developing acute myocardial infarction. The relevance of these factors is underscored by more recent studies, also with regard to the prognosis in already manifest CAH. The causes of mental stresses may be intrapsychic problems (e.g. depression). The roots may, however, also be found in the private sphere or at the workplace. On the basis of specific history-taking, relevant risk constellations can be identified for a comparatively low expenditure of time. Specific therapeutic approaches aimed at reducing and coping with stress may, in future, help prevent diseases of the heart and lower the risk of contracting a myocardial infarction.

  16. Stress corrosion resistant fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    A family of high performance aerospace fasteners made from corrosion resistant alloys for use in applications where corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking are of major concern are discussed. The materials discussed are mainly A-286, Inconel 718, MP35N and MP159. Most of the fasteners utilize cold worked and aged materials to achieve the desired properties. The fasteners are unique in that they provide a combination of high strength and immunity to stress corrosion cracking not previously attainable. A discussion of fastener stress corrosion failures is presented including a review of the history and a description of the mechanism. Case histories are presented to illustrate the problems which can arise when material selection is made without proper regard for the environmental conditions. Mechanical properties and chemical compositions are included for the fasteners discussed. Several aspects of the application of high performance corrosion resistant fasteners are discussed including galvanic compatibility and torque-tension relationships.

  17. Prenatal stress and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, L; de Rooij, S R; King, S; Matthews, S G; Metz, G A S; Roseboom, T J; Szyf, M

    2017-05-18

    In utero exposure to environmental stress in both animals and humans could result in long-term epigenome alterations which further lead to consequences for adaptation and development in the offspring. Epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, is considered one of the most widely studied and well-characterized mechanisms involved in the long-lasting effects of in utero stress exposure. In this review, we outlined evidence from animal and human prenatal research supporting the view that prenatal stress could lead to lasting, broad and functionally organized signatures in DNA methylation which, in turn, could mediate exposure-phenotype associations. We also emphasized the advantage of using stressor from quasi-randomly assigned experiments. Furthermore, we discuss challenges that still need to be addressed in this field in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress and efficiency studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Optical and electrical characterization of defects has been started in EFG ribbon grown in a system that will be used to test the stress model. Temperature and stress field modeling aimed at defining low stress growth configuration is also in progress, and results will be used to guide development of the experimental system. The baseline defect configuration for ribbon grown at speeds of approx. 1 cm/min consists of dislocation densities of the order of 10 to the 5th power to 10 to the 6th power/sq cm, as well as saucer type etch pits and line defects. All these defects are inhomogeneously distributed. EBIC measurements indicate that diffusion lengths are in the range 20 to 60 microns, and significant spatial inhomogeneities occur through the ribbon thickness. Growth speed changes in the range 0.7-1.0 cm/min do not produce significant variations in ribbon defect configurations.

  19. Calculating Tidal Stresses on Satellites Using SatStressGUI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patthoff, D. A.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Harper, C.; Ismailyan, A.; Doan, N.; Sinclair, P.; Ayton, B.; Tang, L.; Li, J.; Kay, J.; DuBois, D.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Icy and rocky satellites of our solar system have a wide range of geological histories. Some moons are old and heavily cratered while others are observed to be presently active or relatively recently tectonically deformed. Potential sources of stress which can deform satellites are driven by the tidal deformation the moons experience as they orbit their parent planets, e.g. nonsynchronous rotation, polar wander, or orbital obliquity. Other sources of stress are derived from interior changes, such as volume change induced by the melting or freezing of a subsurface layer. We turn to computer modeling to calculate the magnitude and orientations of the stresses which can then be correlated to observed geologic features. Here we demonstrate our recent enhancements to our open source SatStressGUI model. SatStressGUI computes stress vectors and Love numbers for diurnal tidal stresses, nonsynchronous rotation, ice shell thickening, obliquity, and polar wander. The program generates stress plots and model lineaments that predict the expected fracture patterns. We have continued to enhance SatStressGUI in numerous ways, such as improved the ability to batch process stressing mechanisms, generate videos of evolving stresses, and calculate stresses resulting from polar wander, obliquity, and despinning. Here we demonstrate our recent enhancements to SatStressGUI and its abilities, by comparing observed features on Enceladus, Europa, and Io to modeled stressing mechanisms.

  20. Stress wave focusing transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where dmore » = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.« less

  1. Thyro-stress.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Verma, Komal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the biopsychosocial model of health, and its influence on chronic endocrine conditions, has improved over the past few decades. We can distinguish, for example, between diabetes distress and major depressive disorders in diabetes. Similar to diabetes distress, we suggest the existence of "thyrostress" in chronic thyroid disorders. Thyro-stress is defined as an emotional state, characterized by extreme apprehension, discomfort or dejection, caused by the challenges and demand of living with thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism. This communication describes the etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and management of thyro-stress.

  2. Stress and personality.

    PubMed

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J

    2011-01-01

    Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal

  3. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  4. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  5. Mobbing and Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Mobbing is an important construct which has impact on the numerous psychological variables. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between mobbing and stress. Participants were 436 teachers (206 (55%) were female, 230 (45%) were male) from Sakarya, Turkey. Their ages ranged from 26 to 55 years and the mean age of the…

  6. Exercise stress testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1975-01-01

    Positive maximum stress tests in the management of coronary patients are discussed. It is believed that coronary angiography would be the ultimate test to predict the future of patients with coronary heart disease. Progression of angina, myocardial infarction, and death due to heart disease were analyzed.

  7. Meditation and Teacher Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csaszar, Imre Emeric; Buchanan, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood teachers can be relaxed and peaceful as they create playful and harmonious classrooms, even if they work in stressful contexts. However, the stressors faced by teachers may lead to negative consequences that can undermine their ability to sustain personal health and positive interactions. In the absence of positive coping…

  8. Stress Without Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selye, Hans

    1977-01-01

    The author asserts that a way of life based on understanding man's responses to stress and constant change is the only way that leads out of the present jungle of conflicting judgements about right and wrong, justice and injustice, in which a sense of values has become entangled and obscured. (Author)

  9. Memory dynamics under stress.

    PubMed

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  10. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and…

  11. Stress/Burnout Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James J., Ed.; Masley, Barbara A., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    The awareness of the effects of stress on school personnel and its effects on student achievement led to the formation of a committee to examine the problem and establish some objectives. A copy of the questionnaire submitted to the personnel of the Worchester, Massachusetts, Public Schools is presented. Job related factors were listed with…

  12. Stress and the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.; Griffith, Derek M.; Thorpe, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of CKD has increased considerably over the past 2 decades. The rising rates of CKD have been attributed to known comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; however, recent research has begun to explore the degree to which social, economic, and psychological factors have implications for the prevalence and progression of CKD, especially among high-risk populations such as African Americans. It has been suggested that stress can have implications for CKD, but this area of research has been largely unexplored. One contributing factor associated with the paucity of research on CKD is that many of the social, psychological, and environmental stressors cannot be recreated or simulated in a laboratory setting. Social science has established that stress can have implications for health, and we believe that stress is an important determinant of the development and progression of CKD. We draw heavily from the social scientific and social epidemiologic literature to present an intersectional conceptual frame specifying how stress can have implications for kidney disease, its progression, and its complications through multiple stressors and pathways. PMID:25573512

  13. Surviving the Ultimate Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    A superintendent who was nearly appointed New York City Schools chancellor explains the physical and mental stamina his job requires. Most school executives don't recognize job stresses leading to physical disorders, adverse effects on family life, and alcoholism. Since superintendents' demise usually centers on political/interpersonal conflicts,…

  14. Stress in medical students.

    PubMed

    Nechita, Florina; Nechita, Dan; Pîrlog, Mihail Cristian; Rogoveanu, Ion

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been defined as the state of a body threatened by imbalance under the influence of agents or conditions endangering its homeostatic mechanisms but the concept have multiple meanings in correlation with the origin and biological support of its effects. Also, stressors are multiple, recording one of the highest levels during the academic studies. For the medical students, stress represents an important challenge, especially during the first year of medical school, caused by the absence of a learning strategy, the sleepless night before the exam and also an unhealthy food intake during the exams. The coping strategies are important, their background being represented by the social support, especially within the family, and emotional, the passions of the medicine students being the most important stress-combating factor. Gender represents also an important factor for the stress vulnerability, manifested through medical and psychiatric symptoms. In order to train good doctors, fair and above all healthy, it is important to consider not only the information we want to transmit, but also the context in which we educate.

  15. Detecting Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through an exclusive patent license from NASA Stennis Space Center, Spectrum Technologies, Inc., has developed a hand-held tool that helps farmers, foresters and other growers detect unhealthy crops before the human eye can see the damage. Developed by two NASA researchers, the Observer,TM shows the viewer which plants are under stress through multispectral imaging, a process that uses specific wavelengths of the light spectrum to obtain information about objects-in this case, plants. With this device, several wavelengths of light collect information about the plant and results are immediately processed and displayed. NASA research found that previsible signs of stress, such as such as a lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease, or insect damage, can be detected by measuring the chlorophyll content based on light energy reflected from the plant. The Observer detects stress up to 16 days before deterioration is visible to the eye. Early detection provides an opportunity to reverse stress and save the plant. The hand-held, easily operated unit works in both natural and artificial light, making it suitable for outdoor or indoor planting.

  16. Stress in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jack

    Through the extensive use of teachers' reports, the many and varied stresses endured by teaching staff and their reactions to them are identified. In focusing on the dual problem of reducing pressures on teaching staff and strengthening their coping resources, this book calls attention to a series of issues within education. Chapters are devoted…

  17. Stress in Children Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Kent

    This annotated bibliography concerns itself with issues that may contribute to childhood stress, provides resource materials for teachers and parents, and covers a wide variety of fiction and non-fiction for students (K-12). The publication's organization along with examples of the issues included follows: (1) adolescence issues (substance abuse,…

  18. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... leakage and fluid intake. Pelvic or abdominal ultrasound . Post-void residual (PVR) to measure the amount of urine left after you urinate. Urinalysis to check for urinary tract infection. Urinary stress test: You stand with a full bladder and then ...

  19. Stress and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  20. Stress and child development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability to succeed in school and in life. For example, when children are born into a world where resources are scarce and violence is a constant possibility, neurobiological changes may make them wary and vigilant, and they are likely to have a hard time controlling their emotions, focusing on tasks, and forming healthy relationships. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses to chronic stress serve them poorly in situations, such as school and work, where they must concentrate and cooperate to do well. But thanks to the plasticity of the developing brain and other biological systems, the neurobiological response to chronic stress can be buffered and even reversed, Thompson writes, especially when we intervene early in children's lives. In particular, warm and nurturing relationships between children and adults can serve as a powerful bulwark against the neurobiological changes that accompany stress, and interventions that help build such relationships have shown particular promise. These programs have targeted biological parents, of course, but also foster parents, teachers and other caregivers, and more distant relatives, such as grandparents. For this reason, Thompson suggests that the concept of two-generation programs may need to be expanded, and that we should consider a "multigenerational" approach to helping children living in poverty cope and thrive in the face of chronic stress.

  1. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Rinwa, Puneet; Kaur, Gurleen; Machawal, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management. PMID:23833514

  2. Competitive ability, stress tolerance and plant interactions along stress gradients.

    PubMed

    Qi, Man; Sun, Tao; Xue, SuFeng; Yang, Wei; Shao, DongDong; Martínez-López, Javier

    2018-04-01

    Exceptions to the generality of the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) may be reconciled by considering species-specific traits and stress tolerance strategies. Studies have tested stress tolerance and competitive ability in mediating interaction outcomes, but few have incorporated this to predict how species interactions shift between competition and facilitation along stress gradients. We used field surveys, salt tolerance and competition experiments to develop a predictive model interspecific interaction shifts across salinity stress gradients. Field survey and greenhouse tolerance tests revealed tradeoffs between stress tolerance and competitive ability. Modeling showed that along salinity gradients, (1) plant interactions shifted from competition to facilitation at high salinities within the physiological limits of salt-intolerant plants, (2) facilitation collapsed when salinity stress exceeded the physiological tolerance of salt-intolerant plants, and (3) neighbor removal experiments overestimate interspecific facilitation by including intraspecific effects. A community-level field experiment, suggested that (1) species interactions are competitive in benign and, facilitative in harsh condition, but fuzzy under medium environmental stress due to niche differences of species and weak stress amelioration, and (2) the SGH works on strong but not weak stress gradients, so SGH confusion arises when it is applied across questionable stress gradients. Our study clarifies how species interactions vary along stress gradients. Moving forward, focusing on SGH applications rather than exceptions on weak or nonexistent gradients would be most productive. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Oxidative stress adaptation with acute, chronic, and repeated stress.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Andrew M; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; A Davies, Kelvin J

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation, or hormesis, is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by upregulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12-h or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the levels of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila nevertheless also caused significant reductions in life span for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Benefits of Leisure Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jr., Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    Leisure bereft of all stress is action without purpose. Maximum motivation and gratification are achieved when a balance is achieved between abilities and responsibilities. Stress is an essential leisure ingredient that provides meaning and clarity to social experience. (CJ)

  5. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home 22 Apr 2013 Report Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children Supporting Children and Families After Traumatic ... affiliate of AIR, developed a resource, Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children , to help. This guide describes the ...

  6. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breadcrumb Learn From Us Managing Anxiety Exercise for Stress and Anxiety The physical benefits of exercise — improving ... University Press, 2011) Fitness Tips: Stay Healthy, Manage Stress The most recent federal guidelines for adults recommend ...

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000925.htm Post-traumatic stress disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder . ...

  8. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You Should Know: ... Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To Be Cost ...

  9. Stress and Intimate Partner Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that stressed couples also tend to be aggressive couples. Chronic external stresses interact with individuals’ dispositional and regulatory deficiencies, resulting in a spillover of these stresses into the relationship. High individual stress in combination with problematic interaction styles and problem-solving abilities increases the likelihood of IPA. We applied the I3 Model to better organize the instigating, impelling, and inhibiting factors and processes that moderate the stress-IPA association. Evidence suggests that certain forms of stress, such as IPA victimization, reliably instigate IPA perpetration, with weak inhibitory processes and impaired problem solving moderating the stress-IPA association. More research is needed that specifies the ‘perfect storm’ of factors that increase our understanding of how, and for whom, stress increases IPA risk. PMID:28497106

  10. Acute stress reduces speech fluency.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tony W; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S; Duff, Melissa C

    2014-03-01

    People often report word-finding difficulties and other language disturbances when put in a stressful situation. There is, however, scant empirical evidence to support the claim that stress affects speech productivity. To address this issue, we measured speech and language variables during a stressful Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as during a less stressful "placebo" TSST (Het et al., 2009). Compared to the non-stressful speech, participants showed higher word productivity during the TSST. By contrast, participants paused more during the stressful TSST, an effect that was especially pronounced in participants who produced a larger cortisol and heart rate response to the stressor. Findings support anecdotal evidence of stress-impaired speech production abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Arnett, J J

    1999-05-01

    G. S. Hall's (1904) view that adolescence is a period of heightened "storm and stress" is reconsidered in light of contemporary research. The author provides a brief history of the storm-and-stress view and examines 3 key aspects of this view: conflict with parents, mood disruptions, and risk behavior. In all 3 areas, evidence supports a modified storm-and-stress view that takes into account individual differences and cultural variations. Not all adolescents experience storm and stress, but storm and stress is more likely during adolescence than at other ages. Adolescent storm and stress tends to be lower in traditional cultures than in the West but may increase as globalization increases individualism. Similar issues apply to minority cultures in American society. Finally, although the general public is sometimes portrayed by scholars as having a stereotypical view of adolescent storm and stress, both scholars and the general public appear to support a modified storm-and-stress view.

  12. Stress and Intimate Partner Aggression.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Christopher I; Parrott, Dominic J

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that stressed couples also tend to be aggressive couples. Chronic external stresses interact with individuals' dispositional and regulatory deficiencies, resulting in a spillover of these stresses into the relationship. High individual stress in combination with problematic interaction styles and problem-solving abilities increases the likelihood of IPA. We applied the I 3 Model to better organize the instigating, impelling, and inhibiting factors and processes that moderate the stress-IPA association. Evidence suggests that certain forms of stress, such as IPA victimization, reliably instigate IPA perpetration, with weak inhibitory processes and impaired problem solving moderating the stress-IPA association. More research is needed that specifies the 'perfect storm' of factors that increase our understanding of how, and for whom, stress increases IPA risk.

  13. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  14. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis: The Mean Stress Effect in Metallic Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baaklini, George Y.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this study involved the utilization of the thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) method to demonstrate the mean stress dependence of the thermoelastic constant. Titanium and nickel base alloys, commonly employed in aerospace gas turbines, were the materials of interest. The repeatability of the results was studied through a statistical analysis of the data. Although the mean stress dependence was well established, the ability to confidently quantify it was diminished by the experimental variations. If calibration of the thermoelastic response to mean stress can be successfully implemented, it is feasible to use the relationship to determine a structure's residual stress state.

  15. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Electrical characterization of defects induced in FZ and CZ silicon stress in four-point bending above 1200 C was started. Techniques to study electrical activity that will permit correlation of defect activity with diffusion length and with room and low temperature EBIC are being developed. Preliminary characterization of defects in ribbon grown at very low speeds of less than 1 cm/min shows that the dislocation density is very low over significant regions of cross section, while regions of high dislocation density (approx. 5 x 10(6)/cm(2)) occur in bands in a number of places. Addition measurements of stress distributions in EFG material were obtained at the University of Illinois using shadow-Moire interferometry.

  16. Stress Management in Correctional Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Jaclyn A.

    Current economic conditions have created additional sources of stress in the correctional setting. Often, recreation professionals employed in these settings also add to inmate stress. One of the major factors limiting stress management in correctional settings is a lack of understanding of the value, importance, and perceived freedom, of leisure.…

  17. Teacher Stress: Issues and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Susan; Calhoun, James F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined methods of assisting public school teachers with managing stress by assigning 124 female teachers to either individualized training method or global approach training method. Individual training participants did significantly increase time spent on managing stress. Results also provided data on types of stress experienced, sources of…

  18. Stress Measurement by Geometrical Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.; Rossnagel, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Fast, simple technique measures stresses in thin films. Sample disk bowed by stress into approximately spherical shape. Reflected image of disk magnified by amount related to curvature and, therefore, stress. Method requires sample substrate, such as cheap microscope cover slide, two mirrors, laser light beam, and screen.

  19. Stress, Coping, and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Sybil A.

    1990-01-01

    Adult educators can help students cope with stress by (1) designing programs that are responsive to stress factors; (2) including information on stress effects in orientation sessions; (3) developing individualized programs of study; (4) integrating education into students' work and other life roles; (5) providing personal attention, advising, and…

  20. Consultation Stressors and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Sandy Kosub

    A high incidence of occupational stress has been demonstrated in the mental health and social service professions and appears to be a major factor contributing to low worker morale, absenteeism, high job turnover, and other indices of job stress. A study was conducted to examine the issue of occupational stress among psychological consultants.…

  1. Help Teachers Feel Less Stressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The author's concern for how teachers nationwide are coping with unrelenting levels of stress is the topic of current research. A national sample of 1,200 teachers was asked to complete a survey addressing three areas: the sources of teacher stress; the manifestations of stress; and coping strategies they found most successful. Knowing the areas…

  2. Stress, Coping and Coffee Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-30

    Henry and Stephens (1980) have found evidence for this role for caffeine as an intensifier for stress effects on plasma renin, corticosterone , and...have learned a lot. Vll TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Stress, coping and perceived control Stress Coping Perceived control Effects of caffeine...Central nervous system effects of caffeine Mood effects of caffeine Health effects of caffeine cardiovascular effects caffeine and

  3. Stress Management: A Rational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cecil

    This workbook was designed for use as the primary resource tool during a l-day participatory stress management seminar in which participants identify stressful situations, conduct analyses, and develop approaches to manage the stressful situations more effectively. Small group warm-up activities designed to introduce participants, encourage…

  4. Stress Conflation: Evidence from Sooke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stuart

    A comparison of the application of two current theories of stress to a particular stress pattern found in the Salish language Sooke is presented. Hammond's (1986) grid-like tree structure representation of stress is compared with Halle and Vergnaud's (1986) tree-like grid structure. Examples in the Australian language Maranungku show that, in…

  5. Helping Young Children Manage Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…

  6. Stress Management for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    Stress management for school children has had various degrees of success. School officials need information about stress and how to deal with it. The purpose of this book is to provide information useful in inauguration of such programs where they do not exist. While stress management should begin in the home and include nutrition, physical…

  7. Stress, Distress, and Psychosocial Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Lennert

    1973-01-01

    This paper, presented at the Occupational Stress Conference of the Center for Occupational Mental Health, Sept. 22, 1972, discusses the possibility of a relationship between psychosocial stimuli and stress-related disease. Using Selye's understanding of stress, the author views it in relation to non-specific diseases and suggests hypotheses…

  8. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  9. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  10. Stress Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Advanced testing of structural materials was developed by Lewis Research Center and Langley Research Center working with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Under contract, Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) conducted a study for evaluating stress corrosion cracking, and recommended the "breaking load" method which determines fracture strengths as well as measuring environmental degradation. Alcoa and Langley plan to submit the procedure to ASTM as a new testing method.

  11. Stress and recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Craig, M

    2001-09-01

    Our current understanding into the role of stress in unexplained recurrent miscarriages comes from two different research strategies. The majority of research has examined the role of psychological support within this patient population. This support has been provided in a number of ways ranging from weekly interviews with a psychiatrist or gynaecologist and or visual re-assurance in the form of ultrasound scans. A comparison of psychological support with an absence of such intervention has found differences in successful pregnancy outcome varying from as great as 84 versus 26%, respectively. It has been assumed that psychological support reduces the miscarriage rate by reducing “stress”within this patient population. In addition it provides indirect support for a role of stress in the aetiology of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Other studies have attempted to directly assess the effect of personality characteristics on miscarriage rate; these studies have yielded conflicting results.The mechanism by which stress may be causal in the aetiology of unexplained recurrent miscarriage has not been examined in humans. Animal studies, however, have found that psychological distress can alter immune parameters that may be intricately involved with implantation. These parameters include an elevation of the “abortive” cytokine TNF-a and a reduction in the “anti-abortive” cytokine TGF-P2. Cells that are involved in the release of TNF-a at the feto-maternal interface include T cells, macrophages and mast cells.Mechanisms through which stress may act on these cells are explored and an integrated model is postulated.

  12. Echo: skin stress test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-05-14

    Photographed in 1960. -- Skin Stress Test of the 12-foot satellite built as a prototype of the full-scale Echo satellite. The 12-foot diameter of the sphere was chosen because that was the ceiling height in the Langley model shop. The proposal to build the 12-foot satellite was made in November 1957. -- Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 170-171.

  13. Oxidative Stress in BPH.

    PubMed

    Savas, M; Verit, A; Ciftci, H; Yeni, E; Aktan, E; Topal, U; Erel, O

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH and this may assist to contribute to the realistic explanation of the ethiopathogenesis of BPH. Seventy four newly diagnosed men with BPH (mean age: 54+/-11.2), who had not undergone any previous treatment for BPH, and 62 healthy volunteers (mean age: 55+/-14) were enrolled in the present study. To determine the antioxidative status of plasma, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated, and to determine the oxidative status of plasma (TOS) total peroxide levels were measured. The ratio of TAC to total peroxide was accepted as an indicator of oxidative stress (OSI). Data are presented as mean SD +/- unless specified. Student t-test and correlation analyses were used to evaluate the statistical significance differences in the median values recorded for all parameters between BPH and control group. Plasma TAC TOS were found in patients and controls (1.70 +/- 0.32, 1.68 +/- 0.19 micromol Trolox Equiv./L), (12.48 +/- 1.98, 12.40 +/- 1.14 micromol / L) respectively. OSI was calculated as 7.57 +/- 1.91, 7.48 +/- 1.33, respectively. Plasma TAC, TOS and OSI levels were not found to be significantly difference between patients and control subjects (p>0.05, p>0.05, p>0.05). The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis.

  14. CVD and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes Gracia, Karla; Llanas-Cornejo, Daniel; Husi, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, it is known that oxidative stress plays at least two roles within the cell, the generation of cellular damage and the involvement in several signaling pathways in its balanced normal state. So far, a substantial amount of time and effort has been expended in the search for a clear link between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the effects of oxidative stress. Here, we present an overview of the different sources and types of reactive oxygen species in CVD, highlight the relationship between CVD and oxidative stress and discuss the most prominent molecules that play an important role in CVD pathophysiology. Details are given regarding common pharmacological treatments used for cardiovascular distress and how some of them are acting upon ROS-related pathways and molecules. Novel therapies, recently proposed ROS biomarkers, as well as future challenges in the field are addressed. It is apparent that the search for a better understanding of how ROS are contributing to the pathophysiology of CVD is far from over, and new approaches and more suitable biomarkers are needed for the latter to be accomplished. PMID:28230726

  15. Response to Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Haruo; Posas, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    An appropriate response and adaptation to hyperosmolarity, i.e., an external osmolarity that is higher than the physiological range, can be a matter of life or death for all cells. It is especially important for free-living organisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When exposed to hyperosmotic stress, the yeast initiates a complex adaptive program that includes temporary arrest of cell-cycle progression, adjustment of transcription and translation patterns, and the synthesis and retention of the compatible osmolyte glycerol. These adaptive responses are mostly governed by the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which is composed of membrane-associated osmosensors, an intracellular signaling pathway whose core is the Hog1 MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cytoplasmic and nuclear effector functions. The entire pathway is conserved in diverse fungal species, while the Hog1 MAPK cascade is conserved even in higher eukaryotes including humans. This conservation is illustrated by the fact that the mammalian stress-responsive p38 MAPK can rescue the osmosensitivity of hog1Δ mutations in response to hyperosmotic challenge. As the HOG pathway is one of the best-understood eukaryotic signal transduction pathways, it is useful not only as a model for analysis of osmostress responses, but also as a model for mathematical analysis of signal transduction pathways. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of both the upstream signaling mechanism and the downstream adaptive responses to hyperosmotic stress in yeast. PMID:23028184

  16. Probing Earth's State of Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorey, A. A.; Maceira, M.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The state of stress in the Earth's crust is a fundamental physical property that controls both engineered and natural systems. Engineered environments including those for hydrocarbon, geothermal energy, and mineral extraction, as well those for storage of wastewater, carbon dioxide, and nuclear fuel are as important as ever to our economy and environment. Yet, it is at spatial scales relevant to these activities where stress is least understood. Additionally, in engineered environments the rate of change in the stress field can be much higher than that of natural systems. In order to use subsurface resources more safely and effectively, we need to understand stress at the relevant temporal and spatial scales. We will present our latest results characterizing the state of stress in the Earth at scales relevant to engineered environments. Two important components of the state of stress are the orientation and magnitude of the stress tensor, and a measure of how close faults are to failure. The stress tensor at any point in a reservoir or repository has contributions from both far-field tectonic stress and local density heterogeneity. We jointly invert seismic (body and surface waves) and gravity data for a self-consistent model of elastic moduli and density and use the model to calculate the contribution of local heterogeneity to the total stress field. We then combine local and plate-scale contributions, using local indicators for calibration and ground-truth. In addition, we will present results from an analysis of the quantity and pattern of microseismicity as an indicator of critically stressed faults. Faults are triggered by transient stresses only when critically stressed (near failure). We show that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes in both tectonic and reservoir environments and can reveal both stress and poroelastic conditions.

  17. Life Event, Stress and Illness

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Mohd. Razali

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between stress and illness is complex. The susceptibility to stress varies from person to person. Among the factors that influenced the susceptibility to stress are genetic vulnerability, coping style, type of personality and social support. Not all stress has negative effect. Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and suppressor T cells levels, which suppress the immune system. This suppression, in turn raises the risk of viral infection. Stress also leads to the release of histamine, which can trigger severe broncho-constriction in asthmatics. Stress increases the risk for diabetes mellitus, especially in overweight individuals, since psychological stress alters insulin needs. Stress also alters the acid concentration in the stomach, which can lead to peptic ulcers, stress ulcers or ulcerative colitis. Chronic stress can also lead to plaque buildup in the arteries (atherosclerosis), especially if combined with a high-fat diet and sedentary living. The correlation between stressful life events and psychiatric illness is stronger than the correlation with medical or physical illness. The relationship of stress with psychiatric illness is strongest in neuroses, which is followed by depression and schizophrenia. There is no scientific evidence of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the immune system changes and the development of cancer. However, recent studies found a link between stress, tumour development and suppression of natural killer (NK) cells, which is actively involved in preventing metastasis and destroying small metastases. PMID:22589633

  18. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  19. Laboratory stress: what causes it?

    PubMed

    Griffin, P; Klun, C L

    1980-07-01

    One hundred-fifty questionnaires were distributed to gather specific information about the causes of stress in the hospital-employed medical technologist (MT). Sixty-four percent were returned. The results were analyzed using Friedman's two-way analysis of variance by ranks. Although the causes of stress to the medical laboratorian are many and they are affected by variables within the worker, certain items are more significant causes of stress than others. Physicians, stats, the need for accuracy, lack of communication, errors, and overwork are major causes of stress. These are the stressors that must be controlled or modified to reduce stress to the MT employed in a hospital laboratory.

  20. Stress situations in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, M; Baylard, J F

    1994-01-01

    Several studies indicate that stress is inherently present in dental practice. The present study was conducted to help identify the factors underlying this stress and the relative contribution of each factor. A questionnaire presented participating dentists with 52 potentially-stressful situations related to dental practice. Respondents were asked to rate each situation on a five-point scale, using a range of responses that varied from "not stressful" to "exceedingly stressful," and "I don't know" to "not applicable." The present data are based on the ratings given by the 1,332 dentists practicing in Québec who answered the questionnaire (52 per cent). Ten situations received a mean score of greater than 3.0, and were therefore considered as above average stress-producing situations. The majority of these situations could be classified as being related either to dental procedures and office organization or to interpersonal relationships involving patients and/or office personnel. It was found that the older age groups showed significantly less stress for six of the 10 most stressful situations. This study has indicated the specific situations that most frequently lead to stress in dentists. The precise identification of these situations could lead to reduced stress through the elimination of its vague and insidious character. Furthermore, an understanding of the most common stress-causing situations allows the practitioner to take preventive measures to eliminate its damaging effects in the dental practice.

  1. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alert Number 85 Print Version The Link Between Stress and Alcohol Today, more and more servicemen and ... in alleviating and perpetuating stress. Common Types of Stress Most causes of stress can be grouped into ...

  2. 5 Things You Should Know about Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Share 5 Things You Should Know About Stress Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... five things you should know about stress: 1. Stress affects everyone. Everyone feels stressed from time to ...

  3. Quantifying Residual Stresses by Means of Thermoelastic Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    This study focused on the application of the Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) technique as a tool for assessing the residual stress state of structures. TSA is based on the fact that materials experience small temperature changes when compressed or expanded. When a structure is cyclically loaded, a surface temperature profile results which correlates to the surface stresses. The cyclic surface temperature is measured with an infrared camera. Traditionally, the amplitude of a TSA signal was theoretically defined to be linearly dependent on the cyclic stress amplitude. Recent studies have established that the temperature response is also dependent on the cyclic mean stress (i.e., the static stress state of the structure). In a previous study by the authors, it was shown that mean stresses significantly influenced the TSA results for titanium- and nickel-based alloys. This study continued the effort of accurate direct measurements of the mean stress effect by implementing various experimental modifications. In addition, a more in-depth analysis was conducted which involved analyzing the second harmonic of the temperature response. By obtaining the amplitudes of the first and second harmonics, the stress amplitude and the mean stress at a given point on a structure subjected to a cyclic load can be simultaneously obtained. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions for both the first and second harmonics of the temperature response. As a result, confidence was achieved concerning the ability to simultaneously obtain values for the static stress state as well as the cyclic stress amplitude of structures subjected to cyclic loads using the TSA technique. With continued research, it is now feasible to establish a protocol that would enable the monitoring of residual stresses in structures utilizing TSA.

  4. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on nursing practice. Stress.

    PubMed

    Lyon, B L; Werner, J S

    1987-01-01

    Clearly, there is not agreement among nurse researchers regarding a definitional orientation to stress that best fits nursing's orientation to human experiences. Varying theoretical orientations are used to explain stress or stress-related phenomena, for example, stress as a stimulus, stress as a response, and stress as a transaction. The studies are fairly evenly distributed among the four definitional categories. The various approaches do not represent expanding theoretical explanations of stress, but rather are incompatible approaches to explaining stress. More disconcerting than the lack of direction in research efforts, however, is that all too commonly the measurement of the variables and the methodology were not "linked" or consistent with the theoretical framework. For the most part the research efforts reviewed fell short of theory testing. Even for those studies that were designed to contribute to theory development, it was rare to find research reports that included implications regarding theory in the discussion sections. Additionally, discussion sections of the reports typically did not identify alternative explanations for the findings. Quasi-experimental, ex post facto, and causal comparative studies typically were flawed with validity problems. If nursing is to strengthen its contribution to knowledge in the area of stress, more emphasis will need to be placed on congruence between design and measurement, and on issues of statistical rigor, validity, and reliability. Although some might argue that it is too early to expect a coalescing of definitional orientations, it is important to point out that considerable confusion regarding stress phenomena results from a nonsystematic or nondeliberative mixture of incompatible orientations to or definitions of stress. It is little wonder that the vast number of opinion articles that appear in the nursing literature include varied definitions of stress, often making conflicting recommendations regarding the

  6. [Psychosomatic aspects of stress].

    PubMed

    Okuse, S; Anzai, T

    1992-03-01

    We established the Bromocriptine test for the dopaminergic function of the hypothalamopituitary gland. The secretion patterns of plasma GH and PRL to 2.5 mg Bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist, were classified into two types; a response type and a non-response type. The former showed an increase in plasma GH levels and suppression of PRL secretion; the latter showed no change in GH after Bromocriptine administration. The response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by neurotic and maladaptive behavior. The non-response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by alexithymic and over adaptive behaviors. Case Presentation 1. Essential Hypertension: a. 56-year old male, response type, blood pressure elevated by stress in daily life. Psychosomatic treatment: advice about blood pressure measurement at his home, brief psychotherapy and drug therapy. b. 53-year-old male, non-response type, type A behavior. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of his disorder, self-control training and drug therapy. 2. Gastric ulcers: a. 40-year-old male, response type, CMI IV region (Neurotic tendencies). Psychosomatic treatment: autogenic training and drug therapy. b. 28-year-old male, non-response type, high JAS scores(Over adaptative behavior). Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of occurrence of his ulcers, to induce change in his perceptions of way of life, to encourage taking rest. 3. Technostress syndrome: a. 23-year-old female, response type, technoanxiety. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to make her take rest, and change in arrangements at her working place. b. 27-year-old male, non-response type, technodependent. Psychosomatic treatment: Fasting therapy. This therapy changed the non-response pattern to normal.

  7. Exploring family physician stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. Joseph; Brown, Judith Belle; Stewart, Moira

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the nature of professional stress and the strategies used by family physicians to deal with this stress. DESIGN Qualitative study. SETTING Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Ten key-informant family physicians. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. A total of 40 key informants were identified, based on selected criteria; 24 provided consent. The potential participants were rank-ordered for interviews to provide maximum variation in age, sex, and years in practice. Interviews were conducted, audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed until thematic saturation was reached, as determined through an iterative process. This occurred after 10 in-depth interviews. Immersion and crystallization techniques were used. MAIN FINDINGS The participants described professional stresses and strategies at the personal, occupational, and health care system levels. Personal stressors included personality traits and the need to balance family and career, which were countered by biological, psychological, social, and spiritual strategies. Occupational stressors included challenging patients, high workload, time limitations, competency issues, challenges of documentation and practice management, and changing roles within the workplace. Occupational stressors were countered by strategies such as setting limits, participating in continuing medical education, soliciting support from colleagues and staff, making use of teams, improving patient-physician relationships, exploring new forms of remuneration, and scheduling appropriately. Stressors affecting the wider health care system included limited resources, imposed rules and regulations, lack of support from specialists, feeling undervalued, and financial concerns. CONCLUSION Family physicians face a multitude of challenges at personal, occupational, and health care system levels. A systems approach provides a new framework in which proactive strategies can augment more than

  8. Heat Stress Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The heavy, cumbersome body protection suits worn by members of hazardous materials response teams cause marked elevation of body temperatures, which can reduce effectiveness and lead to heat stress and injury. The CorTemp System, marketed by Human Technologies, Inc., provides the basis for a body temperature monitoring alarm system. Encased in a three-quarter-inch ingestible capsule, the system includes a mini-thermometer, miniature telemetry system, a microbattery and temperature sensor. It makes its way through the digestive system, continuously monitoring temperature. Findings are sent to the recorder by telemetry, and then displayed and stored for transfer to a computer.

  9. Managing common marital stresses.

    PubMed

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  10. Integrated quadruple stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Picano, Eugenio; Morrone, Doralisa; Scali, Maria C; Huqi, Alda; Coviello, Katia; Ciampi, Quirino

    2018-04-11

    Stress Echocardiography (SE) is an established diagnostic technique. For 40 years, the cornerstone of the technique has been the detection of regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA), due to the underlying physiologically-relevant epicardial coronary artery stenosis. In the last decade, three new parameters (more objective than RWMA) have shown the potential to integrate and comple- ment RWMA: 1- B-lines, also known as ultrasound lung comets, as a marker of extra-vascular lung water, measured using lung ultrasound with the 4-site simplified scan symmetrically of the antero- lateral thorax on the third intercostal space, from mid-axillary to anterior axillary and mid- clavicular line; 2-left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR), assessed as the peak stress/rest ratio of left ventricular force, also known as elastance (systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanome- ter/end-systolic volume from 2D echocardiography); 3- coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) on left anterior descending coronary artery, calculated as peak stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity assessed using pulsed-wave Doppler. The 4 parameters (RWMA, B-lines, LVCR and CFVR) now converge conceptually, logistically, and methodologically in the Integrated Quadruple (IQ)-SE. IQ-SE optimizes the versatility of SE to include in a one-stop shop the core "ABCD" (Asynergy+B-lines+Contractile reserve+Doppler flowmetry) protocol. It allows a synoptic assess- ment of parameters mirroring the epicardial artery stenosis (RWMA), interstitial lung water (B- lines), myocardial function (LVCR) and small coronary vessels (CFVR). Each variable has a clear clinical correlate, different and complementary to all others: RWMA identify an ischemic vs non- ischemic heart; B-lines a wet vs dry lung; LVCR a strong vs weak heart; CFVR a warm vs cold heart. IQ-SE is highly feasible, with minimal increase in the imaging and analysis time, and obvi- ous diagnostic and prognostic impact also beyond coronary artery

  11. Stress Prediction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA wanted to know how astronauts' bodies would react under various gravitational pulls and space suit weights. Under contract to NASA, the University of Michigan's Center for Ergonomics developed a model capable of predicting what type of stress and what degree of load a body could stand. The algorithm generated was commercialized with the ISTU (Isometric Strength Testing Unit) Functional Capacity Evaluation System, which simulates tasks such as lifting a heavy box or pushing a cart and evaluates the exertion expended. It also identifies the muscle group that limits the subject's performance. It is an effective tool of personnel evaluation, selection and job redesign.

  12. Evaluation of Stress Levels of Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Janet K.; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    This study was conducted to analyze levels and areas of stress of professionals in selected service professions and to establish national norms of stress for these professions. The 60-item Tennessee Stress Scale-R (TSS-R) is a work-related stress inventory for professionals which provides a measure of stress in three areas: stress producers,…

  13. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  14. Urban Teacher Stress: A Critical Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Victor Brian

    This review of literature on stress among teachers in urban schools examines the stress concept as it is defined in medicine, psychology, and teaching; causes of teacher stress; the nature of the stress response in teachers; ways of coping with stress and the effects of various stress reduction techniques; economic and educational costs of teacher…

  15. Executive Well-Being: Stress and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giammatteo, Michael C.; Giammatteo, Dolores M.

    This booklet explains the meaning and sources of stress, presents a model differentiating among several approaches to dealing with stress, and offers advice and self-help exercises to aid in alleviating the causes of stress. Each chapter topic is a component of the stress alleviation model: stress awareness, tolerance, stress reduction, and stress…

  16. Managing Anxiety and Stress. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.

    This self-help book provides information about stress and stress management. The first part focuses on awareness of stress. A number of activities are included to help the individual understand and analyze stress reactions. Information is provided about stressors, performance stress, cumulative stress, and several other aspects of stress…

  17. A Stress Management Primer for College Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of stress and college administrators looks at two types of stress (eustress and distress), stress and the autonomic nervous system, the need for regular exercise as well as stress reduction activities, the influence of personality on stress, the sources and stages of burnout, and stress management for administrators. (MSE)

  18. Life stress events and alcohol misuse: distinguishing contributing stress events from consequential stress events.

    PubMed

    Hart, Kenneth E; Fazaa, Norman

    2004-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between life stress events and level of alcohol misuse using two stress indices. The first index consisted of stress events that are not likely to be caused by alcohol misuse (i.e., alcohol uncontaminated stress events). The second stress index consisted of items that were judged as being likely consequences of alcohol misuse (i.e., alcohol contaminated stress events). Results based on a questionnaire study of 378 undergraduates in 2000 showed that level of alcohol misuse was much more strongly related to alcohol contaminated life stress events than alcohol uncontaminated life events. Comparative analysis of the coefficients of determination indicated the effect size of the association to alcohol contaminated life stress events was 240% larger than the corresponding effect size for the association to alcohol uncontaminated life events. Results suggest that studies, which are tests of the tension reduction hypothesis, should employ greater methodological rigor to ensure measures of life stress events are not inadvertently assessing the consequences of alcohol misuse. The results highlight the need to distinguish between stressful life events that contribute to alcohol misuse and stressful life events that are consequential to alcohol misuse.

  19. Stress field models from Maxwell stress functions: southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The lithospheric stress field is formally divided into three components: a standard pressure which is a function of elevation (only), a topographic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field) and a tectonic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field). The boundary between topographic and tectonic stress anomalies is somewhat arbitrary, and here is based on the modeling tools available. The topographic stress anomaly is computed by numerical convolution of density anomalies with three tensor Green's functions provided by Boussinesq, Cerruti and Mindlin. By assuming either a seismically estimated or isostatic Moho depth, and by using Poisson ratio of either 0.25 or 0.5, I obtain four alternative topographic stress models. The tectonic stress field, which satisfies the homogeneous quasi-static momentum equation, is obtained from particular second derivatives of Maxwell vector potential fields which are weighted sums of basis functions representing constant tectonic stress components, linearly varying tectonic stress components and tectonic stress components that vary harmonically in one, two and three dimensions. Boundary conditions include zero traction due to tectonic stress anomaly at sea level, and zero traction due to the total stress anomaly on model boundaries at depths within the asthenosphere. The total stress anomaly is fit by least squares to both World Stress Map data and to a previous faulted-lithosphere, realistic-rheology dynamic model of the region computed with finite-element program Shells. No conflict is seen between the two target data sets, and the best-fitting model (using an isostatic Moho and Poisson ratio 0.5) gives minimum directional misfits relative to both targets. Constraints of computer memory, execution time and ill-conditioning of the linear system (which requires damping) limit harmonically varying tectonic stress to no more than six cycles along each axis of the model. The primary limitation on close fitting is that the Shells model predicts very sharp

  20. Symposium on teacher stress. Occupational stress among vocational teachers.

    PubMed

    Pithers, R T; Fogarty, G J

    1995-03-01

    There is a widespread belief that work related stress among teachers is serious, with implications for teachers' health status and performance. The difficulty with interpreting data on teacher stress is that the measuring instruments used are often neither standardised nor sometimes focused on stressors pertinent to the occupational roles of teachers. This study, therefore, uses a recently developed test instrument called the Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) which concisely measures occupational stress, strain and coping resources. Data were obtained, using the OSI, from a group of vocational teachers and compared to a group of professional non-teachers. Overall the results showed a significantly higher level of teacher stress, although only one of 10 stress and strain measures contributed to this effect. The implications for teachers, in terms of occupational role, are discussed.

  1. Corrosion Product Film-Induced Stress Facilitates Stress Corrosion Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhiliang; Ren, Xuechong; Guan, Yongjun; Su, Yanjing

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analyses were conducted to clarify the role of corrosion product films (CPFs) in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Flat and U-shaped edge-notched specimens were investigated in terms of the CPF-induced stress in the metallic substrate and the stress in the CPF. For a U-shaped edge-notched specimen, the stress field in front of the notch tip is affected by the Young’s modulus of the CPF and the CPF thickness and notch geometry. The CPF-induced tensile stress in the metallic substrate is superimposed on the applied load to increase the crack tip strain and facilitate localized plasticity deformation. In addition, the stress in the CPF surface contributes to the rupture of the CPFs. The results provide physical insights into the role of CPFs in SCC. PMID:26066367

  2. Pull the plug on stress.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Bruce; McCraty, Rollin; Childre, Doc

    2003-07-01

    Stress is rampant, stress is growing, and stress hurts the bottom line. A 1999 study of 46,000 workers revealed that health care costs are 147% higher for those who are stressed or depressed, independent of other health issues. But what exactly is stress? It usually refers to our internal reaction to negative, threatening, or worrisome situations--a looming performance report, say, or interactions with a dismissive colleague. Accumulated over time, negative stress can depress you, burn you out, make you sick, or even kill you--because it's both an emotional and a physiological habit. Of course, many companies understand the negative impact of cumulative stress and offer programs to help employees counteract it. The problem is that employees in the greatest need of help often don't seek it. Since 1991, the authors have studied the physiological impact of stress on performance, at both the individual and organizational levels. Their goal largely has been to decode the underlying mechanics of stress. They've sought not only to understand how stress works on a person's mind, heart, and other bodily systems but also to discover the precise emotional, mental, and physiological levers that can counteract it. After working with more than 50,000 workers and managers in more than 100 organizations, the authors have found that learning to manage stress is easier than most people think. They have devised a scientifically based system of tools, techniques, and technologies that organizations can use to reduce employee stress and boost overall health and performance. In this article, they use the story of someone they call Nigel, a senior executive with whom they've worked, to describe how these techniques reduce stress in the real world.

  3. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    noted that phobic anxiety and social isolation were suggestively associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer (hazard ratios of 1.14 and 1.24...SUBJECT TERMS ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression, anxiety , social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...application is to examine whether self-reported stress exposures (depressive symptoms, phobic anxiety , social support, job strain, care-giving stress) are

  4. A 100-Year Review: Stress physiology including heat stress.

    PubMed

    Collier, R J; Renquist, B J; Xiao, Y

    2017-12-01

    Stress is an external event or condition that places a strain on a biological system. The animal response to a stress involves the expenditure of energy to remove or reduce the impact of the stress. This increases maintenance requirements of the animal and results in loss of production. The biological response to stress is divided into acute and chronic phases, with the acute phase lasting hours to a few days and the chronic phase lasting several days to weeks. The acute response is driven by homeostatic regulators of the nervous and endocrine systems and the chronic phase by homeorhetic regulators of the endocrine system. Both responses involve alterations in energy balance and metabolism. Thermal environment affects all animals and therefore represents the largest single stressor in animal production. Other types of stressors include housing conditions, overcrowding, social rank, disease, and toxic compounds. "Acclimation" to a stress is a phenotypic response developed by the animal to an individual stressor within the environment. However, under natural conditions, it is rare for only one environmental variable to change over time. "Acclimatization" is the process by which an animal adapts to several stressors within its natural environment. Acclimation is a homeorhetic process that takes several weeks to occur and occurs via homeorhetic, not homeostatic, mechanisms. It is a phenotypic change that disappears when the stress is removed. When the stress is severe and not relieved by acclimatization or management changes, the animal is considered chronically stressed and is susceptible to increased incidence of disease and poor health. Milk yield and reproduction are extremely sensitive to stress because of the high energy and protein demands of lactation and the complexity of the reproductive process and multiple organs that are involved. Improvements in protection of animals against stress require improved education of producers to recognize stress and methods

  5. Stress induced obesity: lessons from rodent models of stress

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Zachary R.; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Stress was once defined as the non-specific result of the body to any demand or challenge to homeostasis. A more current view of stress is the behavioral and physiological responses generated in the face of, or in anticipation of, a perceived threat. The stress response involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system and recruitment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. When an organism encounters a stressor (social, physical, etc.), these endogenous stress systems are stimulated in order to generate a fight-or-flight response, and manage the stressful situation. As such, an organism is forced to liberate energy resources in attempt to meet the energetic demands posed by the stressor. A change in the energy homeostatic balance is thus required to exploit an appropriate resource and deliver useable energy to the target muscles and tissues involved in the stress response. Acutely, this change in energy homeostasis and the liberation of energy is considered advantageous, as it is required for the survival of the organism. However, when an organism is subjected to a prolonged stressor, as is the case during chronic stress, a continuous irregularity in energy homeostasis is considered detrimental and may lead to the development of metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. This concept has been studied extensively using animal models, and the neurobiological underpinnings of stress induced metabolic disorders are beginning to surface. However, different animal models of stress continue to produce divergent metabolic phenotypes wherein some animals become anorexic and lose body mass while others increase food intake and body mass and become vulnerable to the development of metabolic disturbances. It remains unclear exactly what factors associated with stress models can be used to predict the metabolic outcome of the organism. This review will explore a variety of rodent stress models and discuss the

  6. Good Stress, Bad Stress and Oxidative Stress: Insights from Anticipatory Cortisol Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as “peak” cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as “anticipatory” cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (p<.01). A moderated mediation model was tested, in which it was hypothesized that heightened anticipatory cortisol reactivity would mediate the relationship between perceived stress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-OxoG and IsoP (but not

  7. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (p<.01). A moderated mediation model was tested, in which it was hypothesized that heightened anticipatory cortisol reactivity would mediate the relationship between perceived stress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHd

  8. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d’Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress. PMID:25120434

  9. A molecular web: endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.

  10. Subjective Stress, Salivary Cortisol, and Electrophysiological Responses to Psychological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mingming; Gao, Heming; Guan, Lili; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition) or without a time limit (the control condition). The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information. PMID:26925026

  11. [Relationships between stress perception and stress biomarkers in family caregivers].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuan-Chin; Chiu, Yi-Chen; Lee, Yi-Nung; Liao, Shun-Kuei; Lee, Shwu-Hua

    2011-06-01

    Family caregivers (FCGs) of persons with dementia (PWDs) face chronic stress. However, their stress has often been assessed by their distress in the absence of physiological indicators. Studies to date have rarely documented the relationships between distress and various stress biomarkers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between distress and stress biomarkers in FCGs. This was a secondary data analysis study that used data collected by two projects funded by the National Science Council. Samples included 113 dyads of PWDs and their FCGs willing to donate blood samples. Original study data sites comprised two teaching hospitals (memory clinics and psychiatric outpatients), two regional hospitals (neurology clinics), and two dementia daycare centers for community-dwelling PWDs in northern Taiwan. FCG distress was assessed using the Chinese Neuropsychological Inventory-Caregiver Distress Scale (CNPI-CD); Stress biomarkers included interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, cortisol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Stress biomarker levels did not correlate with overall FCG distress related to PWD neuropsychological problems. However, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 levels did correlate with specific FCG distress toward specific PWD neuropsychological symptoms. This study found certain stress biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10) associated with specific PWDs' neuropsychological symptoms (p < .05). Further longitudinal research is needed to clarify causal relationships between subjective distress and objective stress biomarkers to evaluate FCG stress levels more comprehensively.

  12. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Bosch-Morell; Salvador, Mérida; Amparo, Navea

    2015-01-01

    Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem. PMID:25922643

  13. Stress, Aging and Thirst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1998-01-01

    After growth during adolesence, total body water decreases progressively with aging from 65% of body weight to about 53% of body weight in the 70th decade; a majority of the loss occurs from the extracellular volume, from 42% to about 25%, respectively. Cellular volume also reaches equilibrium in the 70th decade at about 25% of body weight. Various stresses such as exercise, heat and attitude exposure, ad prior dehydration attenuate voluntary fluid intake (involuntary dehydration). Voluntary fluid intake appears to decrease with aging (involuntary dehydration in this sense aging can be considered as a stress. Kidney function and muscle mass (80% water) decrease somewhat with aging, and voluntary fluid intake (thirst) is also attenuated. Thirst is stimulated by increasing osmolality (hypernatremia) of the extracellular fluid and by decreased extracellular volume (mainly plasma volume) which act to increase intracellular fluid volume osmolality to activiate drinking. The latter decreases fluid compartment osmolality which ' It terminates drinking. However, this drinking mechanism seems to be attenuated with aging such that increasing plasma osmolality no longer stimulates fluid intake appropriately. Hypernatremia in the elderly has been associated all too frequently with greater incidence of bacterial infection and increased mortality. Involuntary dehydration can be overcome in young men by acclimation to an intermittent exercise-in-heat training program. Perhaps exercise training in the elderly would also increase voluntary fluid intake and increase muscle mass to enhance retention of water.

  14. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  15. Occupational stress and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D A; Edye, B V; Long, A A; Ng, T K

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Occupational and Environmental Health in the Commonwealth Institute of Health and the University of Sydney has since 1977 been conducting a study of possible occupational factors in hypertension and in other precursors of coronary heart disease. The study arose out of claims by public service employees that the stress of their work was inducing these diseases. The study has two additional aims: prospective observation of progression of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk variables in relation to evolving occupational conditions; and a trial of non-pharmacological modification of mild hypertension and associated variables through intervention by occupational nurses. A total of 4607 subject drawn from telecommunications and taxation offices in Sydney underwent medical screening before allocation, according to risk, into intervention and reference groups. Data acquisition included self-administration of two questionnaires, on personal, social, occupational and medical history, and on reaction to potential work stresses and to recent life events. Response to questions related to the coronary prone behaviour pattern was tested in a sub-set of the population against rating of the pattern by Rosenman and Friedman's interview method. The paper reports on method and preliminary description of the population.

  16. Stress, catecholaminergic system and cancer.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, O; Babula, P; Pacak, K

    2016-07-01

    Stress as a modern civilization factor significantly affects our lives. While acute stress might have a positive effect on the organism, chronic stress is usually detrimental and might lead to serious health complications. It is known that stress induced by the physical environment (temperature-induced cold stress) can significantly impair the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapies and the anti-tumor immune response. On the other hand, epidemiological evidence has shown that patients taking drugs known as β-adrenergic antagonists ("β-blockers"), which are commonly prescribed to treat arrhythmia, hypertension, and anxiety, have significantly lower rates of several cancers. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about catecholamines as important stress hormones in tumorigenesis and discuss the use of β-blockers as the potential therapeutic agents.

  17. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  18. Oxidative stress during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Charles Ian; Fraser, John Francis; Coombes, Jeff S; Fung, Yoke Lin

    2014-12-01

    There is an increased oxidative stress response in patients having cardiac surgery, haemodialysis or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation that is related to poorer outcomes and increased mortality. Exposure of the patients' blood to the artificial surfaces of these extracorporeal devices, coupled with inflammatory responses, hyperoxia and the pathophysiological aspects of the underlying illness itself, all contribute to this oxidative stress response. Oxidative stress occurs when there is a disruption of redox signalling and loss of control of redox balance. Ongoing oxidative stress occurring during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) results in damage to lipids, proteins and DNA and contributes to morbidity and mortality. This review discusses reactive species generation and the potential clinical consequences of oxidative stress during ECC as well as provides an overview of some current antioxidant compounds that are available to potentially mitigate the oxidative stress response. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. The stress and migraine interaction.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Khara M; Becker, Werner J

    2009-10-01

    There are several ways in which stress may interact with migraine in those predisposed to migraine attacks. These interactions may result from biochemical changes related to the physiological stress response, as, for example, the release of corticotrophin releasing hormone, or from changes induced by the psychological response to stressors. Stress is the factor listed most often by migraine sufferers as a trigger for their attacks, but in addition there is evidence that stress can help initiate migraine in those predisposed to the disorder, and may also contribute to migraine chronification. Migraine attacks themselves can act as a stressor, thereby potentially leading to a vicious circle of increasing migraine frequency. Since the important factor in the stress-migraine interaction is likely the individual's responses to stressors, rather than the stressors themselves, the acquisition of effective stress management skills has the potential to reduce the impact of stressors on those with migraine.

  20. Stress shadows - a controversial topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasocki, Stanislaw; Karakostas, Vassilis G.; Papadimitriou, Eletheria E.; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2010-05-01

    The spatial correlation between the positive Coulomb stress changes and the subsequent seismic activity has been firmly confirmed in many recent studies. If, however, the static stress transfer is a consistent expression of interaction between earthquakes one should also observe a decrease of the activity in the zones of negative stress changes. Instead, the existence of stress shadows is poorly evidenced and may be questioned. We tested the influence of the static stress changes associated with the coseismic slip of the 1995 Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake on locations of its aftershocks. The study was based on a detailed slip model for the main shock and accurate locations and reliable fault plane solutions of an adequate number of the aftershocks. We developed a statistical testing method, which tested whether the proportions of aftershocks located inside areas determined by a selected criterion on the static stress change could be attained if there were no effect of the stress change due to the main shock on aftershock locations. The areas of stress change were determined at the focus of every aftershock. The distribution of test statistic was constructed with the use of a two-dimensional nonparametric, kernel density estimator of the reference epicenter distribution. The tests highly confidently indicated a rise in probability to locate aftershocks inside areas of positive static stress change, which supported the hypothesis on the triggering effect in these areas. Furthermore, it was evidenced that a larger stress increase caused a stronger triggering effect. The analysis, however, did not evidence the existence of stress shadows inside areas of negative stress change. Contrary to expectations, the tests indicated a significant increase of the probability of event location in the areas of a stress decrease of more than or equal to 5.0 and 10.0 bar. It turned out that for areas of larger absolute stress change this probability increased regardless of

  1. [Increasing oxidative stress in aging].

    PubMed

    Shimosawa, Tatsuo

    2005-06-01

    The balance between reactive oxigen species (ROS) production and degradation is important in defining oxidative stress. In aging process, ROS production increases and degradation is impaired and thus oxidative stress is accumulated. Oxidative stress damages organs both directly and indirectly. Protein, lipid, as well as DNA are directly react with ROS, more over, ROS interact with intracellular signaling system. It is reported that several transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, AP-1 and ASK-1 and also it interferes MAPK activity. Besides these signaling, we recently showed that insulin resistance is induced by accumulated oxidative stress in aged mice. Adrenomedullin deficient mice accumulate higher oxidative stress and insulin resistance developed in aging. Oxidative stress in aging relates not only direct organ damage but also induce risk factors for vascular damage such as metabolic syndrome.

  2. Stress Corrosion of Ceramic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    stresses are liable to fail after an indeterminate period of time, leading to a considerable uncertainty in the safe design stress. One of the objectives...of modern ceramics technology is to reduce the uncertainty associated with structural design , and hence, to improve our capabilities of designing ...processes that occur during stress corrosion cracking. Recent advances in th~earea of structural design with ceramic materials have lead to several

  3. Tornado disasters and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Godleski, L S

    1997-04-01

    Each year, a number of tornados rip through Kentucky, leaving fear, destruction, and human injury in their path. Persons who endure these catastrophes often experience a variety of stress responses. The psychological and medical sequelae include depression, acute and post-traumatic stress disorders, substance abuse, anxiety, and somatization. It is especially important for the Kentucky practitioner to be able to recognize and screen for pathology following a tornado disaster in order to provide leadership in ascertaining treatment for such stress responses.

  4. Residual stress at fluid interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.E.

    We extend the Navier-Stokes equations to allow for residual stress in Newtonian fluids. A fluid, which undergoes a constrained volume change, will have residual stress. Corresponding to every constrained volume change is an eigenstrain. We present a method to include in the equations of fluid motion the eigenstrain that is a result of the presence in a fluid of a soluble chemical species. This method is used to calculate the residual stress associated with a chemical transformation. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Stress release structures for actuator beams with a stress gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaasse, G.; Puers, R.; Tilmans, H. A. C.

    2007-10-01

    Stress release structures are introduced in fixed-fixed beams or membranes for releasing average stress. The influence of a stress gradient on the initial deformation of a fixed-fixed beam with stress release structures is studied in this paper. The objective is to obtain actuator beams that are insensitive to both the average stress and the stress gradient. The target application for the actuator beam in this study is a surface micromachined variable capacitor with a fixed electrode at the center of the beam. An analytical one-dimensional model is derived which predicts the initial deflection of a fixed-fixed beam with one stress release structure at any location and with two stress release structures, placed symmetrically with respect to the center of the beam at any location. The initial center deflection of the beam with one stress release structure was found from the analytical modeling to be zero for a specific set of parameters, but a negative deflection is always present for this specific configuration, leading to beams that touch the substrate at undesired positions, which implies non-functional devices. The configuration with the two symmetrically placed stress release structures can have zero initial center deflection, according to the analytical model, when the stress release structures are placed at a distance of a quarter of the beam length from the anchor points. Finite-element simulations are performed for both configurations and validate the theory. Deviations from the assumed model result in small initial center deflections, but can be compensated for by a little shift of the stress release structures. Experiments are performed for less ideal configurations with two stress release structures where they are shaped as round meanders. These structures do not fully release the stress and the center deflection therefore depends on the average stress to some extent, as demonstrated by finite element simulations. However, the location can be chosen such

  6. Designing a Stress Management Curiculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Educators must develop, for therapeutic recreation students, curriculum that teaches stress management techniques and theories. Guidelines for curriculum revision or enhancement in this area are presented. (CJ)

  7. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y

    2014-08-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut microbiota lend support for the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and other microbiota-altering agents as potential therapeutic measures in stress-induced bowel dysfunction.

  8. Psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity.

    PubMed

    Yonas, Michael A; Lange, Nancy E; Celedón, Juan C

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview and discussion of recent epidemiologic and mechanistic studies of stress in relation to asthma incidence and morbidity. Recent findings suggest that stress, whether at the individual (i.e. epigenetics, perceived stress), family (i.e. prenatal maternal stress, early-life exposure, or intimate partner violence) or community (i.e. neighborhood violence; neighborhood disadvantage) level, influences asthma and asthma morbidity. Key recent findings regarding how psychosocial stress may influence asthma through Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, prenatal and postnatal maternal/caregiver stress, and community violence and deprivation are highlighted. New research illustrates the need to further examine, characterize, and address the influence of social and environmental factors (i.e. psychological stress) on asthma. Further, research and innovative methodologies are needed to characterize the relationship and pathways associated with stress at multiple levels to more fully understand and address asthma morbidity, and to design potential interventions, especially to address persistent disparities in asthma in ethnic minorities and economically disadvantaged communities.

  9. Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  10. Stress reduction in the workplace.

    PubMed

    DiPaola, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The modern radiology department operates within an environment of competition, increased regulation, and decreasing budgets. Functioning in this setting may lead the radiology manager to experience job related stress. Stress in the workplace has been linked to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders. While there are a number of triggers for job related stress, it is important to identify the early warning signs and knee-jerk reactions. Emotional intelligence (EI) is one of several techniques that can be used to reduce job related stress. The key components of EI are self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.

  11. Gender differences in competitive stress.

    PubMed

    Madden, C C; Kirkby, R J

    1995-06-01

    Stress experienced in competitive basketball was investigated in a sample of 84 men and 49 women recruited from players engaged in regular, organized, competitive grade basketball. Subjects were administered the Stressful Situations in Basketball Questionnaire which provides measures on 5 types of stress in competitive basketball. Analyses of gender differences showed that men reported more stress than female players on the "Team performance" scale. Research is required to evaluate whether this difference is due to a perception of women that they have less influence over the performance of the team or whether it is due to men having a higher stake in the results of competition.

  12. A little stress is good.

    PubMed

    Ferrarelli, Leslie K

    2017-05-30

    Acute psychological stress triggers signaling between sympathetic neurons and the spleen to protect against ischemic tissue damage. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Genes, stress, and depression.

    PubMed

    Wurtman, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    A relationship between genetic makeup and susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD) has long been suspected on the basis of family and twin studies. A metaanalysis of reports on the basis of twin studies has estimated MDD's degree of heritability to be 0.33 (confidence interval, 0.26-0.39). Among families exhibiting an increased prevalence of MDD, risk of developing the illness was enhanced in members exposed to a highly stressful environment. Aberrant genes can predispose to depression in a number of ways, for example, by diminishing production of growth factors that act during brain development. An aberrant gene could also increase or decrease a neurotransmitter's release into synapses, its actions, or its duration of activity. The gene products of greatest interest at present are those involved in the synthesis and actions of serotonin; among them, the serotonin-uptake protein localized within the terminals and dendrites of serotonin-releasing neurons. It has been found that the Vmax of platelet serotonin uptake is low in some patients with MDD; also, Vmax is highly correlated in twins. Antidepressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act on this uptake protein. The specific genetic locus causing serotonin uptake to be lower in some patients with major depression involves a polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the gene for the uptake protein. The gene itself exists as several alleles, the short "S" allele and the long "L" allele. The S variant is associated with less, and the L variant with more, of the uptake protein. The effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms in young adults was found to be significantly stronger among SS or SL subjects than among LL subjects. Neuroimaging studies showed that people with the SS or SL alleles exhibited a greater activation of the amygdala in response to fearful stimuli than those with LL. It has been reported recently that mutations in the gene that controls

  14. STRESS Counting Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botticella, M. T.; Cappellaro, E.; Riello, M.; Greggio, L.; Benetti, S.; Patat, F.; Turatto, M.; Altavilla, G.; Pastorello, A.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.; Harutyunyan, A.; Pignata, G.; Taubenberger, S.

    2008-12-01

    The rate of occurrence of supernovae (SNe) is linked to some of the basic ingredients of galaxy evolution, such as the star formation rate, the chemical enrichment and feedback processes. SN rates at intermediate redshift and their dependence on specific galaxy properties have been investigated in the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search (STRESS). The rate of core collapse SNe (CC SNe) at a redshift of around 0.25 is found to be a factor two higher than the local value, whereas the SNe Ia rate remains almost constant. SN rates in red and blue galaxies were also measured and it was found that the SNe Ia rate seems to be constant in galaxies of different colour, whereas the CC SN rate seems to peak in blue galaxies, as in the local Universe.

  15. [Emotional stress psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V E

    1989-01-01

    The concept of emotional stress psychotherapy (ESP) is based on the theoretical understanding of mental process as a system of cross-potentiating synergism of consciousness and the unconscious. Therefore, one can regard this kind of treatment as an appeal to the spiritual components of personality arousing its need of self-perfectioning. Owing to this, ESP turns the demands and higher interests creating a personality dominant to oppose the illness with ensuing depression and apathy. In a sense, this method is a qualitative contrast to S. Freud's psychoanalysis digging in the dark compartments of the soul. As a result of treatment of thousands of neurotic patients and those with psychosomatic disorders and alcoholism, the following techniques of ESP were elaborated: rational, shaped as a socratic dialogue; hypnosuggestive comprising individual or collective hypnosis, extremely loaded with emotions; autosuggestive like mental self-regulation and autogenic training filled with specific emotions.

  16. Stress and Stress Relief in the Educational Research Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Vicki A.

    Factors that increase stress and those that decrease stress were studied with 33 graduate students in an introductory educational research course. Participants completed the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) (R. Cruse, R. Cash, and D. Bolton, 1985) and were asked to rate their anxiety daily during the 4 weeks of the class. The instructor's…

  17. Does Stressing Performance Goals Lead to Too Much, Well, Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockterman, David; Weber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that stressing goals leads to stress and negatively affects the very objectives that educators are trying to achieve. Reaching testing goals matter, but if we are not careful, the goal of educating children for the 21st century becomes subsumed by the narrow measures meant to track progress. Performance measures become…

  18. Stress and Stress Management Strategies Among Botswana Women Lecturers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loate, Irene M.; Marais, James L.

    1996-01-01

    A stress inventory administered to black women faculty at seven Botswana colleges and universities (n=201) found the greatest stressor to be student class boycotts, followed by uncertainties about their institution's future and dual roles. Almost two-thirds experienced fatigue. The most successful stress management technique was positive thinking.…

  19. Stress and Stress Management in Contemporary Adult Education: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosbab, F. Paul

    The stress felt by older students in higher education should be addressed by educators and members of the helping professions. The word stress is related to "distress" and perhaps best describes what substantial numbers of adult learners experience when returning to school. For instance, researchers have found graduate students to be particularly…

  20. To stress or not to stress: a question of models.

    PubMed

    Gray, J Megan; Chaouloff, Francis; Hill, Matthew N

    2015-01-05

    Stress research is a rapidly evolving field that encompasses numerous disciplines ranging from neuroscience to metabolism. With many new researchers migrating into the field, navigating the hows and whys of specific research questions can sometimes be enigmatic given the availability of so many models in the stress field. Additionally, as with every field, there are many seemingly minor experimental details that can have dramatic influences on data interpretation, although many of these are unknown to those not familiar with the field. The aim of this overview is to provide some suggestions and points to guide researchers moving into the stress field and highlight relevant methodological points that they should consider when choosing a model for stress and deciding how to structure a study. We briefly provide a primer on the basics of endpoint measurements in the stress field, factors to consider when choosing a model for acute stress, the difference between repeated and chronic stress, and importantly, influencing variables that modulate endpoints of analysis in stress work. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Measuring Science Teachers' Stress Level Triggered by Multiple Stressful Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, Lilia; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Meerah, T. Subahan M.; Osman, Kamisah

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of science teaching requires science teachers to encounter a range of tasks. Some tasks are perceived as stressful while others are not. This study aims to investigate the extent to which different teaching situations lead to different stress levels. It also aims to identify the easiest and most difficult conditions to be regarded…

  2. Stressing Out: Connecting Race, Gender, and Stress with Faculty Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Garvey, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilevel modeling to analyze data from a national sample of full-time, undergraduate faculty at four-year institutions to examine the connections among race, gender, sources of stress, and productivity in the areas of research, teaching, and service. We find that stress due to discrimination has particular negative salience for…

  3. [Grave's disease and stress].

    PubMed

    Santos, A Matos; Nobre, E Lacerda; Garcia e Costa, J; Nogueira, P J; Macedo, Ana; De Castro, J Jácome; Teles, A Galvão

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there have been many reports about a possible association between Stressful Life Events (SLE) and the onset of Graves' Disease (GD). Nevertheless, most papers have been criticised and no such association has yet been proven. To assess the possible associations between SLE and the onset of GD. Retrospective study of 62 subjects, divided into 2 groups of 31 each, GD (Gp1) and controls (Gp2). The patients in Gp1 had thyroid disease diagnosed within the last 12 months, with clinical and biochemical confirmation. In Gp2, psychopathological and endocrine disturbances had been ruled out. Each 2 group consisted of 9 males (29%) and 22 females (71%). The mean age was 38.48 + 10.9 in Gp1 and 41.1 + 11.8 in Gp2. SLE evaluation (number and impact) was reported for the 12 months preceding the onset of symptoms of thyroid disease. To assess SLE, we used the Life Experiences Survey-LES from Saranson, Johnson and Siegel (1978; 1985). Statistical analysis was done using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Patients with GD had a significantly greater number of SLEs compared to Controls (p < .001). The number and impact of negative SLEs was significantly higher in Gp1 compared to Gp2 (p < .001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the number and impact of both positive and neutral SLEs. The findings of this study support that SLEs may contribute to the precipitation of GD. We observed that patients with GD had significantly more negative events and experienced a greater negative impact from them prior to the onset of GD. The association of SLEs with GD is probably related to the association of stress with changes in the immune system, which can play an important role in the aetiology of thyrotoxicosis.

  4. Stress evolution in solidifying coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Jason Alan

    The goal of this study is to measure, in situ, and control the evolution of stress in liquid applied coatings. In past studies, the stress in a coating was determined after processing (i.e., drying or curing). However, by observing a coating during drying or curing, the effects of processing variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, composition, etc.) on the stress state can be better determined. To meet the project goal, two controlled environment stress measurement devices, based on a cantilever deflection measurement principle, were constructed. Stress evolution experiments were completed for a number of coating systems including: solvent-cast homopolymers, tape-cast ceramics, aqueous gelatins, and radiation-cured multifunctional acrylates. In the majority of systems studied here, the final stresses were independent of coating thickness and solution concentration. Typical stress magnitudes for solvent-cast polymers ranged from zero to 18 MPa depending upon the pure polymer glass transition temperature (Tsb{g}), the solvent volatility, and additional coating components, such as plasticizers. Similar magnitudes and dependencies were observed in tape-cast ceramic layers. Stresses in gelatin coatings reached 50 MPa (due to the high Tsb{g} of the gelatin) and were highly dependent upon drying temperature and relative humidity. In contrast to the aforementioned coatings, stress in UV-cured tri- and tetrafunctional acrylate systems showed a large thickness dependence. For these materials, stress evolution rate and magnitude increased with photoinitiator concentration and with light intensity. Somewhat unexpectedly, larger monomer functionality led to greater stresses at faster rates even though the overall conversion fell. The stress magnitude and evolution rate at any stage in the solidification process are the result of a competition between shrinkage (due to drying, curing, etc.) and stress relaxation. A firm understanding of the mechanical, the thermal, and

  5. National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Información en Español Topics What is Child Traumatic Stress Trauma Types Finding Help Trauma-Informed Screening & Assessment ... Adolescence and Substance Abuse Culture and Trauma Economic Stress Military and Veteran Families and Children Secondary Traumatic ...

  6. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  7. Teachers' Workload and Associated Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Margaret

    A sample of 570 Scottish classroom teachers, promoted staff, and senior management recorded the work they were doing for a full week, in 15-minute blocks of time. Respondents also recorded whether or not they felt stressed on that day and described the cause and symptoms of the stress. Results revealed that the mean working day was 7.89 hours,…

  8. A Model of Teacher Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriacou, Chris; Sutcliffe, John

    1978-01-01

    A definition and model of teacher stress is presented which conceptualizes teacher stress as a response syndrome (anger or depression) mediated by (1) an appraisal of threat to the teacher's self-esteem or well-being and (2) coping mechanisms activated to reduce the perceived threat. (Author)

  9. Children & Stress: Helping Children Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Abigail Stahl, Ed.; And Others

    Written by professional psychologists, the 10 articles collected in this bulletin focus on stressful experiences that, when inappropriately responded to, can result in developmental problems for children. Stress factors are conceptualized as being either direct or indirect, or internal or external. Articles are organized in terms of these four…

  10. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    PubMed

    Boonekamp, Jelle J; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling birds (jackdaws Corvus monedula ) that show a high rate of telomere attrition in early life. Telomere attrition was measured between ages 5 and 30 days, and was highly variable (average telomere loss: 323 bp, CV = 45%). Oxidative stress markers were measured in blood at age 20 days and included markers of oxidative damage (TBARS, dROMs and GSSG) and markers of antioxidant protection (GSH, redox state, uric acid). Variation in telomere attrition was not significantly related to these oxidative stress markers (| r | ≤ 0.08, n = 87). This finding raises the question whether oxidative stress accelerates telomere attrition in vivo The accumulation of telomere attrition over time depends both on the number of cell divisions and on the number of base pairs lost per DNA replication and, based on our findings, we suggest that in a growing animal cell proliferation, dynamics may be more important for explaining variation in telomere attrition than oxidative stress. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Residual Stresses in Ground Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-13

    stress near the surface can be lower. The level of residual stress is also strongly affected by carbon,’3 which influences the microplastic behaviour of...1966, Vol. 14, 99-104. 14. C. 3. )4cMahon: “ Microplastic Behaviour in Iron” in Mv. in Mater . S d . Res., Vol. 2, 121-140, Interscience, New York

  12. Alleviating Stress for Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Elshof, Annette; Tomlinson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help women administrators assess individual stress levels. Stress can be alleviated through exercise, support groups or networking, sleep and diet, relaxation, guided fantasy, and planned activity. The long-term implications include preventing illness and making women more effective within the administrative…

  13. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  14. Substance Abuse and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimian, Michael J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined on-the-job stress in relationship with need to use and frequency of use of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (P) drugs and alcohol (A), across five teacher samples (N=1,788). Results showed high stress frequencies were significantly related to the frequent use of OTC, P, and A substances. (Author/BH)

  15. Perceived stress in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.

  16. Stress: The Special Educator's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raschke, Donna; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The article describes approaches special education teachers can take to reduce stress including diet and exercise, relaxation techniques, use of social support systems, goal setting, time management, and networking. A survey of special education teachers found the use of humor the most common strategy for coping with stress. (DB)

  17. Stress Management in Leisure Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Heywood, Lloyd A.

    1982-01-01

    While recreation and leisure have not traditionally been considered a high stress profession, many professionals in the fields are becoming more concerned with their work environment and attendant job satisfaction. Various stressors for leisure and recreation personnel are listed along with ways to manage stress. (CJ)

  18. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  19. Job Stress among Hispanic Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Calcagno, Maria; Brewer, Ernest W.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores job stress among a random sample of 219 Hispanic professionals. Participants complete the Job Stress Survey by Spielberger and Vagg and a demographic questionnaire. Responses are analyzed using descriptive statistics, a factorial analysis of variance, and coefficients of determination. Results indicate that Hispanic…

  20. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  1. Technology & Stress: Are They Inseparable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Becky

    1998-01-01

    Describes how technology changes the nature of the school media specialist's job, and discusses staff and equipment sources of techno-stress. Notes the importance of anticipating problem areas and planning to deal with them in advance. Presents strategies for minimizing the amount of frustration/stress associated with technology. (AEF)

  2. Telecommuting: stress and social support.

    PubMed

    Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L

    1994-06-01

    Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.

  3. Coping with Stress in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Signs and sources of stress among approximately 220 special educators were identified, the most prevalent being feelings of exhaustion, frustration, disturbed sleep, and withdrawal. Coping resources included personal, interpersonal, organizational, and community approaches. Conclusions stressed the need for more administrative support, counseling,…

  4. Coping with Stress. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1995-01-01

    Research related to the impact of exercise on stress indicates that a regular aerobic exercise program is important to control the negative effects of stress. It was also reported that those who are physically fit have higher levels of self-esteem. Implications for camp staff involve starting a regular exercise program to offset job-related…

  5. Reading Teacher Burnout and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    Considers causes for stress and burnout in the reading teacher's profession. Suggests ways for reading teachers to reduce stress. Identifies two categories of problems: (1) work overload, excessive paperwork, and repetitive tasks; and (2) isolation from other teaching which leads to loneliness. (KEH)

  6. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  7. Tectonic stress in the plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Sleep, N. H.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, the basic set of global intraplate stress orientation data is plotted and tabulated. Although the global intraplate stress field is complicated, several large-scale patterns can be seen. Much of stable North America is characterized by an E-W to NE-SW trend for the maximum compressive stress. South American lithosphere beneath the Andes, and perhaps farther east in the stable interior, has horizontal compressive stresses trending E-W to NW-SE. Western Europe north of the Alps is characterized by a NW-SE trending maximum horizontal compression, while Asia has the maximum horizontal compressive stress trending more nearly N-S, especially near the Himalayan front.

  8. The Surgically Induced Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes which induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to improve chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  9. Fiber networks amplify active stress

    PubMed Central

    Ronceray, Pierre; Broedersz, Chase P.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale force generation is essential for biological functions such as cell motility, embryonic development, and muscle contraction. In these processes, forces generated at the molecular level by motor proteins are transmitted by disordered fiber networks, resulting in large-scale active stresses. Although these fiber networks are well characterized macroscopically, this stress generation by microscopic active units is not well understood. Here we theoretically study force transmission in these networks. We find that collective fiber buckling in the vicinity of a local active unit results in a rectification of stress towards strongly amplified isotropic contraction. This stress amplification is reinforced by the networks’ disordered nature, but saturates for high densities of active units. Our predictions are quantitatively consistent with experiments on reconstituted tissues and actomyosin networks and shed light on the role of the network microstructure in shaping active stresses in cells and tissue. PMID:26921325

  10. The stresses in stiffener openings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marguerre, K

    1942-01-01

    The present study treats as a typical example a ring the center line of which is produced by the intersection of two circular cylinders of different diameter. Three load cases are analyzed: (1) Axial and circumferential stresses in both cylinders, the cylinder stresses themselves to be in the ratio conformal to the cylinders loaded under internal pressure. (2) Pure longitudinal tension in the large cylinder. (3) Pure shear (torsion) in the large cylinder. To simplify the calculation, it is assumed that the ring, compared to the shell, is very strong, so that its deformations have no perceptible effect on the stress condition in the shell. This provides an upper limit for the ring stresses actually produced in a shell design, for, according to the theory of stressed skin statics the shells, by elastic flexibility of the ring, regroup the forces deposited on it in such a manner that the ring is relieved.

  11. PCBA depaneling stress minimization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darus, M. H. B. M.; Aziz, M. H. B. A.; Ong, N. R.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Printed circuit board (PCB) is board that used to connect the electricity using the conductive pathways. The PCB that consists with electronic components was called as printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). Bending process has been used as one of the depaneling techniques may contribute to mechanical stress and the failure of capacitors and other components to function. As a result, the idea to create holes in particular location was implemented in order to absorb the stress. In this study, finite element analysis is demonstrated by using ANSYS software. Two PCBA design models are considered in order to investigate the effect of the hole and the stress response. The simulation results show that the hole on the PCBA has reduced the stress. For Design model 2, the stress response of the holes located vertically to the PCBA is lower than the holes located horizontally to the PCBA.

  12. Coping with stress and by stress: Russian men and women talking about transition, stress and health.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Rytkönen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have claimed stress to be a major reason for poor public health in Russia and referred to significant social changes as a reason for the high level of perceived stress among Russians. This article aims to examine how stress and its relation to health are interpreted in the context of everyday life in Russian men's and women's interview talk with a focus on descriptions of recent social changes. The research material consists of 29 thematic interviews of men and women from St. Petersburg aged 15-81. In the analysis of contextual constructions of stress, we found that stress was used not only within a context of an individual's own life as an expression of a strained psycho-physiological state but also denoted larger societal processes and changes. In addition to individual experiences, the whole of Russian society was described as suffering from stress. Throughout the material, most interviewees, whilst outspokenly blaming stress for deteriorating physical health, met difficulties in making concrete these negative influences. Based on analysis, we interpret our interviewees' accounts of stress as a part of the cultural discourse wherein 'stress' serves as a conceptual tool in making interpretations about both the people and their social environment. Stress, as a concept, has emerged in a wide range of different institutional sites, such as the media and public health policy and has become a discursive entity of contemporary social life in Russia. We claim that it has simultaneously become an intermediary concept articulating a shared, cultural experience of the changes in Russian society and their effects on individuals' everyday life and health. Thus, the concept of stress helps people to articulate, make sensible, and cope with the impacts of transition on their individual lives.

  13. Earthquake stress drops, ambient tectonic stresses and stresses that drive plate motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, T.C.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of geophysical observations suggests that the upper portion of the lithosphere, herein referred to as the elastic plate, has long-term material properties and frictional strength significantly greater than the lower lithosphere. If the average frictional stress along the non-ridge margin of the elastic plate is of the order of a kilobar, as suggested by the many observations of the frictional strength of rocks at mid-crustal conditions of pressure and temperature, the only viable mechanism for driving the motion of the elastic plate is a basal shear stress of several tens of bars. Kilobars of tectonic stress are then an ambient, steady condition of the earth's crust and uppermost mantle. The approximate equality of the basal shear stress and the average crustal earthquake stress drop, the localization of strain release for major plate margin earthquakes, and the rough equivalence of plate margin slip rates and gross plate motion rates suggest that the stress drops of major plate margin earthquakes are controlled by the elastic release of the basal shear stress in the vicinity of the plate margin, despite the existence of kilobars of tectonic stress existing across vertical planes parallel to the plate margin. If the stress differences available to be released at the time of faulting are distributed in a random, white fasbion with a mean-square value determined by the average earthquake stress drop, the frequency of occurrence of constant stress drop earthquakes will be proportional to reciprocal faulting area, in accordance with empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics. ?? 1977 Birkha??user Verlag.

  14. Stress in Professional Classes: Causes, Manifestations, Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Fred F.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates whether students in professional journalism and mass communication classes experience class-related stress, what factors contribute to the stress, and whether that stress changes over time. Finds that students perceive stress in their professional course work, and reveals general stress patterns over the 15-week semester. (SR)

  15. Children and Stress: Indications, Implications and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    Stress is a part of the normal process of growing and developing for children. A stress situation is composed of anxiety and stress. If coping strategies are inadequate, depression can result. Four categories of stress include time, anticipatory, situational, and encounter stress. It is important to recognize unsuccessful defense mechanisms…

  16. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Can stress cause hair loss? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Yes, stress and hair loss ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/expert-answers/stress-and-hair-loss/faq-20057820 . ...

  17. 77 FR 61238 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...'') stress tests. One commenter suggested that the OCC introduce stress test requirements on a rolling basis... Stress Test and Use of Stress Test Results One commenter noted that the OCC's proposed rule defined... concerns, the OCC is implementing a one-year delay for application of the annual stress test requirement to...

  18. Residual stresses in welded plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple model which could be used to study residual stress. The mechanism that results in residual stresses in the welding process starts with the deposition of molten weld metal which heats the immediately adjacent material. After solidification of weld material, normal thermal shrinkage is resisted by the adjacent, cooler material. When the thermal strain exceeds the elastic strain corresponding to the yield point stress, the stress level is limited by this value, which decreases with increasing temperature. Cooling then causes elastic unloading which is restrained by the adjoining material. Permanent plastic strain occurs, and tension is caused in the region immediately adjacent to the weld material. Compression arises in the metal farther from the weld in order to maintain overall static equilibrium. Subsequent repair welds may add to the level of residual stresses. The level of residual stress is related to the onset of fracture during welding. Thus, it is of great importance to be able to predict the level of residual stresses remaining after a weld procedure, and to determine the factors, such as weld speed, temperature, direction, and number of passes, which may affect the magnitude of remaining residual stress. It was hoped to use traditional analytical modeling techniques so that it would be easier to comprehend the effect of these variables on the resulting stress. This approach was chosen in place of finite element methods so as to facilitate the understanding of the physical processes. The accuracy of the results was checked with some existing experimental studies giving residual stress levels found from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  19. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    PubMed

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  20. Background Stress Inventory: Developing a Measure of Understudied Stress.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Gjerde, Jill M; Garofalo, John P

    2015-10-01

    Background stress is an understudied source of stress that involves both ambient stress and daily hassles upon which new stressors are superimposed. To date, an accurate measure of the background stress construct has not been available. We developed the Background Stress Inventory, a 25-item self-report measure that asks respondents to indicate how distressed they have felt over the past month and the majority of the past year across five domains: financial, occupation, environment, health and social. Seven hundred seventy-two participants completed the paper-and-pencil measure; the sample was randomly split into two separate subsamples for analyses. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors corresponding to these domains, and confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable global fit (X(2)(255) = 456.47, comparative fit index = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation = 0.045). Cronbach's alpha (0.89) indicated good internal reliability. Construct validity analyses showed significant positive relationships with measures of perceived stressfulness (r = 0.62) and daily hassles (0.41), p's < 0.01. Depressive symptoms (0.62) and basal blood pressure (0.21) were both significantly associated with background stress, p's < 0.01. The importance of the proposed measure is reflected in the limited research base on the impact of background stress. Systematic investigation of this measure will provide insight into this understudied form of chronic stress and its potential influence on both psychological and physical endpoints. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression , anxiety, social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...Changes/ Problems ...….………………………………………………3 6. Products…………………………………….……….….…………….3 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations……………3 8. Special...reported stress exposures ( depressive symptoms, phobic anxiety, social support, job strain, care-giving stress) are associated with ovarian cancer risk

  3. Earthquake stress triggers, stress shadows, and seismic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Many aspects of earthquake mechanics remain an enigma at the beginning of the twenty-first century. One potential bright spot is the realization that simple calculations of stress changes may explain some earthquake interactions, just as previous and ongoing studies of stress changes have begun to explain human- induced seismicity. This paper, which is an update of Harris1, reviews many published works and presents a compilation of quantitative earthquake-interaction studies from a stress change perspective. This synthesis supplies some clues about certain aspects of earthquake mechanics. It also demonstrates that much work remains to be done before we have a complete story of how earthquakes work.

  4. Interactive effects of stress reactivity and usual stress on adolescents cardiovascular health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adolescents experience stressful situations at high rates during school. Psychological stress is associated with the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The diathesis-stress model suggests that youth experiencing the greatest cumulative stress are at greatest risk for developing antecedents...

  5. Chronically stressed or stress-preconditioned neurons fail to maintain stress granule assembly.

    PubMed

    Shelkovnikova, Tatyana A; Dimasi, Pasquale; Kukharsky, Michail S; An, Haiyan; Quintiero, Annamaria; Schirmer, Claire; Buée, Luc; Galas, Marie-Christine; Buchman, Vladimir L

    2017-05-11

    Dysregulation of stress granules (SGs) and their resident proteins contributes to pathogenesis of a number of (neuro)degenerative diseases. Phosphorylation of eIF2α is an event integrating different types of cellular stress and it is required for SG assembly. Phosphorylated eIF2α (p-eIF2α) is upregulated in the nervous system in some neurodegenerative conditions. We found that increasing p-eIF2α level by proteasomal inhibition in cultured cells, including mouse and human neurons, before a SG-inducing stress ('stress preconditioning'), limits their ability to maintain SG assembly. This is due to upregulation of PP1 phosphatase regulatory subunits GADD34 and/or CReP in preconditioned cells and early decline of p-eIF2α levels during subsequent acute stress. In two model systems with constitutively upregulated p-eIF2α, mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking CReP and brain neurons of tau transgenic mice, SG formation was also impaired. Thus, neurons enduring chronic stress or primed by a transient mild stress fail to maintain p-eIF2α levels following subsequent acute stress, which would compromise protective function of SGs. Our findings provide experimental evidence on possible loss of function for SGs in certain neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Stress Can Be a Friend: Approaches to Producing Good Stresses That Reduce and Control Bad Stresses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Marie

    Individuals can produce good stresses that will inhibit or eliminate the bad stresses of anxiety, depression, resentment, and hopelessness. This can be accomplished as individuals learn to include in their lifestyles these nine approaches: self-talk, commitment, self-control, challenge, interpersonal relations, time management, relaxation,…

  7. Stress Management by Biofeedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980's, Dr. Patrick Doyle served on a project to train U.S. astronauts at Johnson Space Center in biofeedback techniques to control anxiety and hypertension. Traditional biofeedback concepts were found to be too mundane, repetitive and boring, so Doyle developed Bio-Games with more interesting and involved formats. The first product, Bio-Ball, is an interactive, multimedia baseball video game that is played by relaxing in order to hit the ball. Gradually the player is able to relax at will, and with practice is able to apply the skills to real-life situations. Doyle has since gone on to create a number of biofeedback games marketed by Creative MultiMedia Inc. including Bio-Golf, Clutch City, and Pachyderm. Stress-busting screen savers are also being marketed under the Buddies series. In addition to being used in the corporate world, Bio-Games have been recognized by the Starbright Foundation which focuses on improving the total hospital environments of critically injured and chronically-ill children.

  8. Stress in dilute suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passman, Stephen L.

    1989-01-01

    Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.

  9. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  10. Employee occupational stress in banking.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Maria; Georgiou, Yiota

    2005-01-01

    Occupational stress literature emphasizes the importance of assessment and management of work related stress. The recognition of the harmful physical and psychological effects of stress on both individuals and organizations is widely studied in many parts of the world. However, in other regions such research is only at the introductory stages. The present study examines occupational stress of employees in the banking sector. A sample of 60 bank employees at different organizational levels and educational backgrounds was used. Data collection utilized the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). Results of data analysis provided evidence that employees' educational levels affect the degree of stress they experience in various ways. Bank employees cannot afford the time to relax and "wind down" when they are faced with work variety, discrimination, favoritism, delegation and conflicting tasks. The study also shows the degree to which some employees tend to bring work-related problems home (and take family problems to work) depends on their educational background, the strength of the employees' family support, and the amount of time available for them to relax. Finally, the drinking habits (alcohol) of the employees were found to play a significant role in determining the levels of occupational stress.

  11. Workplace peer educators and stress.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David; Kgatea, Kabelo Duncan

    2008-11-01

    Peer educators form an important component of company responses to HIV and AIDS. Based on interviews with peer educators working in and around a mining company in South Africa's North-West Province, the study examines the relationship between involvement in peer education and stress. The paper discusses how becoming a peer educator can be a response to the often personal stress brought about by the HIV epidemic. In addition, structural difficulties, skills deficiencies and other obstacles to effective communication with their peers can create stress. The stress that active peer education brings to individuals is discussed, particularly in regard to the embeddedness of peer educators within their communities. The need for confidentiality also magnifies stress in the case of individuals who disregard peer educators' advice. Peer educators face many stresses in managing and supporting their own lives, thus their (voluntary) work as peer educators should not be taken out of context. Using this approach, we discuss how the role of peer educator should be conceptualised and how they can be organised and supported in order that their stress be minimised and effective engagement maximised.

  12. Plant responses to water stress

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  13. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  14. [Stress and neurodegeneration: pharmacologic strategies].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Fernández, P

    1999-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress has detrimental effects on several brain functions in many species, including humans and leads to neurodegenerative changes. However, the underlying neural mechanisms by which stress causes neurodegeneration are still unknown. We have investigated the role of endogenously released nitric oxide (NO) in this phenomenon and the possible induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) isoform. In adult male rats, stress (immobilisation for 6 h during 21 days) increases the activity of a calcium-independent NOS and induces the expression of iNOS in cortical neurons as seen by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. Three weeks of repeated immobilisation increases immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine, a nitration product of peroxynitrate. Repeated stress causes NO2(-) + NO3- (NOx) accumulation in cortex, and these changes occurs in parallel with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and impairment of glutamate uptake in synaptosomes. The administration of the preferred iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (400 mg/kg i.p. daily from days 7 to 21 of stress) prevents NOx- accumulation in cortex, LDH release and impairment of glutamate uptake in synaptosomes, as well as other markers of oxidative stress such as lipid peroxidation and decrease in glutation. Taken together, these findings indicate that a sustained overproduction of nitric oxide via iNOS expression may be responsible, at least in part, of some of the neurodegenerative changes caused by stress, and support a possible neuro-protective role for specific iNOS inhibitors in this situation.

  15. Plant Photodynamic Stress: What's New?

    PubMed Central

    Issawi, Mohammad; Sol, Vincent; Riou, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    In the 1970's, an unconventional stressful photodynamic treatment applied to plants was investigated in two directions. Exogenous photosensitizer treatment underlies direct photodynamic stress while treatment mediating endogenous photosensitizer over-accumulation pinpoints indirect photodynamic stress. For indirect photodynamic treatment, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway was deregulated by 5-aminolevulenic acid or diphenyl ether. Overall, photodynamic stress involves the generation of high amount of reactive oxygen species leading to plant cell death. All these investigations were mainly performed to gain insight into new herbicide development but they were rapidly given up or limited due to the harmfulness of diphenyl ether and the high cost of 5-aminolevulinic acid treatment. Twenty years ago, plant photodynamic stress came back by way of crop transgenesis where for example protoporphyrin oxidases from human or bacteria were overexpressed. Such plants grew without dramatic effects of photodamage suggesting that plants tolerated induced photodynamic stress. In this review, we shed light on the occurrence of plant photodynamic stress and discuss challenging issues in the context of agriculture focusing on direct photodynamic modality. Indeed, we highlighted applications of exogenous PS especially porphyrins on plants, to further develop an emerged antimicrobial photodynamic treatment that could be a new strategy to kill plant pathogens without disturbing plant growth. PMID:29875786

  16. A stress-free model for residual stress assessment using thermoelastic stress analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Geoffrey; Dulieu-Barton, Janice M.; Achintha, Mithila; Robinson, Andrew F.

    2015-03-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) has been proposed as a method of obtaining residual stresses. The results of a preliminary study demonstrated that when Al-2024 plate containing holes that were plastically deformed by cold expansion process to 2% and 4% strain the thermoelastic response in the material around the hole was different to that obtained from a plate that had not experienced any plastic cold expansion (i.e. a reference specimen). This observation provides an opportunity for obtaining residual stresses based on TSA data. In many applications a reference specimen (i.e. residual stress free specimen) may not be available for comparison, so a synthetic, digital bitmap has been proposed as an alternative. An elastic finite element model is created using commercially available software Abaqus/Standard and the resultant stress field is extracted. The simulated stress field from the model is mapped onto a grid that matches the TSA pixel data from a physical reference specimen. This stress field is then converted to a ΔT/T field that can be compared to the full-field TSA data. When the reference experimental data is subtracted from the, bitmap dataset the resultant ΔT/T field is approximately zero. Further work proposes replacing the experimental reference data with that from specimens that have undergone cold expansion with the aim of revealing the regions affected by residual stress through a departure from zero in the resultant stress field. The paper demonstrates the first steps necessary for deriving the residual stresses from a general specimen using TSA.

  17. Traumatic Stress: New Roads to Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress: New Roads to Recovery Follow us Traumatic Stress: New Roads to Recovery NIH research looks for ... do not develop long-lasting disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the more common ...

  18. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress. These signs of stress are normal, and may ...

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Small Text Medium Text Large Text Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is ...

  20. Help your teen cope with stress

    MedlinePlus

    Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress ... Common sources of stress in teens include: Worrying about schoolwork or grades Juggling responsibilities, such as school and work or sports Having problems ...

  1. Headaches: Reduce Stress to Prevent the Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ability to cope with stress. Lack of sleep puts your body under stress and may trigger the release of stress hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol. Seek support. Talking things out with family or friends or allowing ...

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Yang, Weng-Lang; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is an enormous public health issue and the leading cause of death in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU). Overwhelming inflammation, characterized by cytokine storm, oxidative threats, and neutrophil sequestration is an underlying component of sepsis-associated organ failure. Despite recent advances in sepsis research, there is still no effective treatment available beyond the standard of care and supportive therapy. To reduce sepsis-related mortality, a better understanding of the biological mechanism associated with the sepsis is essential. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a subcellular organelle is responsible for the facilitation of protein folding and assembly and involved in several other physiological activities. Under the stress and inflammation condition, ER loses the homeostasis in its function, which is termed as ER stress. During ER stress, unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to restore ER function to its normal balance. However, once the stress is beyond the compensatory capacity of UPR or protracted, the apoptosis would be initiated by triggering cell injuries, even to cell death. As such, ER stress and UPR are reported to be implicated in several pathological and inflammatory conditions. Although the detrimental role of ER stress during infections has been demonstrated, there is growing evidences that ER stress participate in the pathogenesis of sepsis. In this review, we summarize the current research in the context of ER stress and UPR signaling associated with sepsis and its related clinical conditions, such as trauma- hemorrhage, and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We also discuss the potential implication of ER stress as a novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker in patients with sepsis. PMID:26125088

  3. Stressing The Person: Legal and Everyday Person Attributions Under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Jennifer T.; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Raio, Candace; Brosch, Tobias; Uleman, Jim S.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    When determining the cause of a person’s behavior, perceivers often overweigh dispositional explanations and underweigh situational explanations, an error known as the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE). The FAE occurs in part because dispositional explanations are relatively automatic, whereas considering the situation requires additional cognitive effort. Stress is known to impair the prefrontal cortex and executive functions important for the attribution process. We investigated if stress increases dispositional attributions in common place and legal situations. Experiencing a physiological stressor increased participants’ cortisol, dispositional attributions of common everyday behaviors, and negative evaluations. When determining whether a crime was due to the defendant’s disposition or the mitigating situation, self-reported stress correlated with increased dispositional judgments of defendant’s behavior. These findings indicate that stress may makes people more likely to commit the FAE and less favorable in their evaluations of others both in daily life and when making socially consequential judicial decisions. PMID:25175000

  4. [Peptic ulcer disease and stress].

    PubMed

    Herszényi, László; Juhász, Márk; Mihály, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease revolutionised our views on the etiology and treatment of the disease. This discovery has tempted many experts to conclude that psychological factors and, specifically, stress are unimportant. However, Helicobacter pylori infection alone does not explain fully the incidence and prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. It has been demonstrated that stress can cause peptic ulcer disease even in the absence of Helicobacter pylori infection, supporting a multicausal model of peptic ulcer etiology. Psychological stress among other risk factors can function as a cofactor with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  5. Voice stress analysis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.

    2001-02-01

    Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.

  6. Combat Stress Reaction and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    CONDUCTED . PSYCHOLOGICAL, PHYSIOL..3ICAL S. AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE AETIO ..OGY OF BOTH DISORDERS WERE DISCUSSED, WITH A SPECIAL...reviewsof the Literature examining Combat Stress Reactions and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder s conducted . PsychotogicaL, physiotogicaL and environsmet...Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1987, 43, 1:, 44 - 53. Figley C.R. red] !,tress Disorders Among Vietnam Veterans: Theory , Research and Development

  7. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    PubMed

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. PMID:26668010

  9. [Psychosocial Stress, Stress Perception and Stress Management of Students of Social Work: a Quantitative Study].

    PubMed

    Kriener, C; Schwertfeger, A; Deimel, D; Köhler, T

    2018-02-01

    In this quantitative study, data on 746 students of social work were collected regarding their current sense of stress, experience of psychosocial drain as well as their use of specific coping strategies. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (TICS) were used. The results show that one out of 3 students suffer from a lot of to extreme stress. One-fourth of the students report feeling overworked and socially overburdened. More than half of the students are exposed to psychosocial drain as a consequence of past events in their biography (e. g. death or mental illness of a close relative). Despite these obvious burdens, only one-fourth made use of professional aid or counseling. Students who are primarily using functional coping strategies have a lower sensibility to stress and feel less overworked than students primarily using dysfunctional coping strategies. In the university setting, the theoretically and empirically sound knowledge based on this report can be used profitably: The increasing implementation of seminars on coping with stress at universities itself suggests that learning and utilizing functional coping strategies can contribute to a reduction of stress and strain among students. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Suppressing the endocrine and autonomic stress systems does not impact the emotional stress experience after psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nida; Nitschke, Jonas P; Cooperman, Cory; Pruessner, Jens C

    2017-04-01

    Acute psychosocial stress activates the physiological and endocrine stress systems and increases the subjective emotional experience of stress. While considerable efforts have been made to link changes in the activity of the biological stress systems with changes in the subjective emotional experience of stress, results so far have been mixed, at best. To investigate this association in a study employing experimental manipulation, we pharmacologically suppressed both the autonomic and the endocrine stress responses, and investigated the effects of acute psychosocial stress on the emotional stress experience. 22 healthy men and women received dexamethasone (2mg) the day before, and propranolol (80mg) one hour before psychosocial stress induction. A control group (n=24) received placebo pills on each occasion. Salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and heart-rate responses to stress were assessed before, during and after stress induction. Subjective stress, mood, and state self-esteem assessments were made before and after stress. In the pharmacological manipulation group, subjects demonstrated no increase in autonomic or endocrine stress response, after exposure to psychosocial stress. Despite these effects, the emotional stress experience was intact in this group and identical to the control group. Participants in the experimental group showed an increase in subjective stress, greater mood dysregulation, and lower state self-esteem following stress exposure, with the response magnitude comparable to the control group. Our findings suggest that at least acutely, the physiological stress arousal systems and the emotional experience of stress are dissociated. This raises important questions about the efficacy of our measurement of subjective stress, and the unique contributions of the autonomic and endocrine responses in the subjective stress experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Re-conceptualizing stress: Shifting views on the consequences of stress and its effects on stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jenny J W; Vickers, Kristin; Reed, Maureen; Hadad, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of stress are typically regarded from a deficit-oriented approach, conceptualizing stress to be entirely negative in its outcomes. This approach is unbalanced, and may further hinder individuals from engaging in adaptive coping. In the current study, we explored whether negative views and beliefs regarding stress interacted with a stress framing manipulation (positive, neutral and negative) on measures of stress reactivity for both psychosocial and physiological stressors. Ninety participants were randomized into one of three framing conditions that conceptualized the experience of stress in balanced, unbalanced-negative or unbalanced-positive ways. After watching a video on stress, participants underwent a psychosocial (Trier Social Stress Test), or a physiological (CO2 challenge) method of stress-induction. Subjective and objective markers of stress were assessed. Most of the sampled population regarded stress as negative prior to framing. Further, subjective and objective reactivity were greater to the TSST compared to the CO2 challenge. Additionally, significant cubic trends were observed in the interactions of stress framing and stress-induction methodologies on heart rate and blood pressure. Balanced framing conditions in the TSST group had a significantly larger decrease in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure following stress compared to the positive and negative framing conditions. Findings confirmed a deficit-orientation of stress within the sampled population. In addition, results highlighted the relative efficacy of the TSST compared to CO2 as a method of stress provocation. Finally, individuals in framing conditions that posited stress outcomes in unbalanced manners responded to stressors less efficiently. This suggests that unbalanced framing of stress may have set forth unrealistic expectations regarding stress that later hindered individuals from adaptive responses to stress. Potential benefits of alternative conceptualizations

  12. Re-conceptualizing stress: Shifting views on the consequences of stress and its effects on stress reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jenny J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The consequences of stress are typically regarded from a deficit-oriented approach, conceptualizing stress to be entirely negative in its outcomes. This approach is unbalanced, and may further hinder individuals from engaging in adaptive coping. In the current study, we explored whether negative views and beliefs regarding stress interacted with a stress framing manipulation (positive, neutral and negative) on measures of stress reactivity for both psychosocial and physiological stressors. Method Ninety participants were randomized into one of three framing conditions that conceptualized the experience of stress in balanced, unbalanced-negative or unbalanced-positive ways. After watching a video on stress, participants underwent a psychosocial (Trier Social Stress Test), or a physiological (CO2 challenge) method of stress-induction. Subjective and objective markers of stress were assessed. Results Most of the sampled population regarded stress as negative prior to framing. Further, subjective and objective reactivity were greater to the TSST compared to the CO2 challenge. Additionally, significant cubic trends were observed in the interactions of stress framing and stress-induction methodologies on heart rate and blood pressure. Balanced framing conditions in the TSST group had a significantly larger decrease in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure following stress compared to the positive and negative framing conditions. Conclusion Findings confirmed a deficit-orientation of stress within the sampled population. In addition, results highlighted the relative efficacy of the TSST compared to CO2 as a method of stress provocation. Finally, individuals in framing conditions that posited stress outcomes in unbalanced manners responded to stressors less efficiently. This suggests that unbalanced framing of stress may have set forth unrealistic expectations regarding stress that later hindered individuals from adaptive responses to stress. Potential

  13. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  14. Long-Term Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques enabling faculty to decrease stress to more reasonable and productive levels are discussed, including management of chemical stressors, physical activities, relaxation, coping strategies for disappointment, emotional support, assertiveness, and time management. (MSE)

  15. Internal Stresses in Laminated Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heim, A L; Knauss, A C; Seutter, Louis

    1923-01-01

    This report reviews the procedure employed in an investigation of the sources and influence of internal stresses in laminated construction, and discusses the influence of shrinkage and swelling stresses caused by atmospheric conditions upon the tensile strength across grain in laminated construction with special reference to airplane propellers. The investigation covered three sources of internal stress, namely, the combination of plain-sawed and quarter-sawed material in the same construction, the gluing together of laminations of different moisture contents, and the gluing together of laminations of different densities. Glued specimens and free specimens, made up under various manufacturing conditions, were subjected to various climatic changes inducing internal stresses and then were tested.

  16. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  17. Are Geotehrmal Reservoirs Stressed Out?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Laboso, R. C.; Layland-Bachmann, C. E.; Feigl, K. L.; Foxall, W.; Tabrez, A. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Templeton, D. C.; Akerley, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal permeability can be strongly influenced by developing connected networks of open fractures. However, the detailed evolution of a fracture network, its extent, and the persistence of fracture porosity are difficult to analyze. Even in fault-hosted geothermal systems, where heat is brought to the surface from depth along a fault, hydrothermal flow is heterogeneously distributed. This is presumably due to variations in fracture density, connectivity, and attitude, as well as variations in fracture permeability caused by sealing of fractures by precipitated cements or compaction. At the Brady Geothermal field in Nevada, we test the relationship between the modeled local stress state perturbed by dislocations representing fault slip or volume changes in the geothermal reservoir inferred from surface deformation measured by InSAR and the location of successful geothermal wells, hydrothermal activity, and seismicity. We postulate that permeability is favored in volumes that experience positive Coulomb stress changes and reduced compression, which together promote high densities of dilatant fractures. Conversely, permeability can be inhibited in locations where Coulomb stress is reduced, compression promotes compaction, or where the faults are poorly oriented in the stress field and consequently slip infrequently. Over geologic time scales spanning the development of the fault system, these local stress states are strongly influenced by the geometry of the fault network relative to the remote stress driving slip. At shorter time scales, changes in fluid pressure within the fracture network constituting the reservoir cause elastic dilations and contractions. We integrate: (1) direct observations of stress state and fractures in boreholes and the mapped geometry of the fault network; (2) evidence of permeability from surface hydrothermal features, production/injection wells and surface deformations related to pumping history; and (3) seismicity to test the

  18. Job stress and productivity increase.

    PubMed

    Adaramola, Samson Sunday

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines mental and physical pressures that workers bear at work. The authors discuss how on the-job stress affects a person's capabilities and productivity, and how such pressures lend to higher incidences of accidents at work. The paper also discuss methods of reducing job-related stress and increasing productivity. An intervention was conducted amongst workers in a private firm. It shows mental and emotional pressure can affect performance and productivity of a worker on the job. One of the biggest influences of today's worker is on the-job stress. Job stress occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. This consequently affects how a person would normally deal with customer service problems, grievances, violence, conflict, and decisions on the job. Stress is an inevitable part of everyday life, and is therefore a distinct part of a person's job. To properly control the outcome of stress, there are certain precautions and methods that should be taken that will boost productivity.

  19. Stress response physiology of thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Ranawat, Preeti; Rawat, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Thermo (or hyperthermo) philic microorganisms are ubiquitous having a wide range of habitats from freshly fallen snow to pasteurized milk to geothermal areas like hot springs. The variations in physicochemical conditions, viz., temperature, pH, nutrient availability and light intensity in the habitats always pose stress conditions for the inhabitants leading to slow growth or cell death. The industrial processes used for harvesting secondary metabolites such as enzymes, toxins and organic acids also create stressed environments for thermophiles. The production of DNA-binding proteins, activation of reactive oxygen species detoxification system, compatible solute accumulation, expression of heat shock proteins and alterations in morphology are a few examples of physiological changes demonstrated by these microscopic lifeforms in stress. These microorganisms exhibit complex genetic and physiological changes to minimize, adapt to and repair damage caused by extreme environmental disturbances. These changes are termed as 'stress responses' which enable them to stabilize their homeostasis. The exploration of important thermophilic factors would pave the way in engineering the microbial strains for various biotechnological applications. This review article presents a picture of physiological responses of thermophiles against various stress conditions as their mechanisms to respond to stress make them model organisms to further explore them for basic and applied biology purposes.

  20. Stress concentration investigations using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillcrist, M. C.; Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Parametic investigations are performed using several two dimensional finite element formulations to determine their suitability for use in predicting extremum stresses in marine propellers. Comparisons are made of two NASTRAN elements (CTRIM6 and CTRAIA2) wherein elasticity properties have been modified to yield plane strain results. The accuracy of the elements is investigated by comparing finite element stress predictions with experimentally determined stresses in two classical cases: (1) tension in a flat plate with a circular hole; and (2) a filleted flat bar subjected to in-plane bending. The CTRIA2 element is found to provide good results. The displacement field from a three dimensional finite element model of a representative marine propeller is used as the boundary condition for the two dimensional plane strain investigations of stresses in the propeller blade and fillet. Stress predictions from the three dimensional analysis are compared with those from the two dimensional models. The validity of the plane strain modifications to the NASTRAN element is checked by comparing the modified CTRIA2 element stress predictions with those of the ABAQUS plane strain element, CPE4.

  1. Individual modulation of pain sensitivity under stress.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2013-05-01

    Stress has a strong influence on pain sensitivity. However, the direction of this influence is unclear. Recent studies reported both decreased and increased pain sensitivities under stress, and one hypothesis is that interindividual differences account for these differences. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of stress on individual pain sensitivity in a relatively large female sample. Eighty female participants were included. Pain thresholds and temporal summation of pain were tested before and after stress, which was induced by the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. In an independent sample of 20 women, correlation coefficients between 0.45 and 0.89 indicated relatively high test-retest reliability for pain measurements. On average, there were significant differences between pain thresholds under non-stress and stress conditions, indicating an increased sensitivity to pain under stress. No significant differences between non-stress and stress conditions were found for temporal summation of pain. On an individual basis, both decreased and increased pain sensitivities under stress conditions based on Jacobson's criteria for reliable change were observed. Furthermore, we found significant negative associations between pain sensitivity under non-stress conditions and individual change of pain sensitivity under stress. Participants with relatively high pain sensitivity under non-stress conditions became less sensitive under stress and vice versa. These findings support the view that pain sensitivity under stress shows large interindividual variability, and point to a possible dichotomy of altered pain sensitivity under stress. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prediction of life stress on athletes' burnout: the dual role of perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Chyi, Theresa; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Wang, Erica T W; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chang, Ko-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies adopted Smith's (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout in examining stress-burnout relationship, very few studies examined the mediating/moderating role of perceived stress on the stress-burnout relationship. We sampled 195 college student-athletes and assessed their life stress, perceived stress, and burnout. Correlation analyses found all study variables correlated. Two separate hierarchical regression analyses found that the "distress" component of perceived stress mediated athletes' two types of life stress-burnout relationship but "counter-stress" component of perceived stress-moderated athletes' general-life stress-burnout relationship. We concluded that interweaving relationships among athletes' life stress, perceived stress, and burnout are not straightforward. Future research should consider the nature of athletes life stress, and dual role of perceived stress in examining its' association with related psychological responses in athletic settings.

  3. Stress, stress reduction and hypercholesterolemia in African Americans: a review.

    PubMed

    Calderon, R; Schneider, R H; Alexander, C N; Myers, H F; Nidich, S I; Haney, C

    1999-01-01

    Psychological stress may directly contribute to the disproportionately high rates of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and its etiologic risk factors in African Americans. Specifically, acute and chronic stress have been shown to raise serum lipids and are associated with clinical coronary events. The mechanisms by which stress contributes to alterations in lipid levels are not fully known, but various pathways (ie, hormonal, dietary, etc) have been implicated. Traditional methods for reducing blood serum lipids include diet, drugs or both. These methods have been criticized because of issues of compliance, side effects, and cost. Because of these limitations, nondrug behavioral methods are recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program as the first line of prevention and treatment for hypercholesterolemia and other risk factors. Research shows that CHD morbidity and mortality and major risk factors may be modifiable by behavioral intervention. Specifically, the Transcendental Meditation technique, an effective antidote to stress, reduces levels of major CHD risk factors including hypercholesterolemia, as well as blood pressure and smoking. Using an effective stress reduction approach for prevention and treatment of CHD and its risk factors in African Americans may prove to be a valuable asset for this underserved population.

  4. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  5. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  6. Challenge and Hindrance Stress among Schoolteachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Zuber, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The challenge-hindrance stress framework argues that certain job stressors have entirely detrimental effects (hindrance stress), but some may also have beneficial effects (challenge stress). Though the challenge-hindrance framework has largely been neglected in teacher stress research, we adopted it to provide a more differentiated view of the…

  7. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  8. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...

  9. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Computer-Related Repetitive Stress ... injuries and how to prevent them. About Repetitive Stress Injuries Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are conditions caused ...

  10. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  11. The Contagion of Stress across Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Niall; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined causal dynamics of stress contagion across work and home domains in married couples. Results revealed that husbands were more likely than wives to bring home stresses into workplace. Stress contagion from work to home was evident for both husbands and wives. Contagion of work stress into home appeared to set into motion process of dyadic…

  12. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  13. Consequences of Stress for Public School Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study is a quantitative study of Oklahoma Public School Superintendents. The data was collected by surveys using an online format. Data was analyzed to determine correlation and predictive values of the four specific stress factors: conflict mediating stress, boundary spanning stress, task based stress and role…

  14. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  15. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  16. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...

  17. Miniature stress transducer has directional capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    San Miguel, A.; Silver, R. H.

    1965-01-01

    Miniature stress transducer uses a semiconductive piezoresistive element to detect stress only on specific axes. Measurement of internal mass stress is based on the compressive deformation of the transducer. The device is applicable to constant stress monitoring in building and dam structural parts.

  18. The Stress Resistant Employee: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowack, Kenneth M.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the effects of work and life stress are costly both to the individual and to the organization. Everyone experiences work and life stress, yet many people are more stress resistant (hardy) than others. Several factors appear to be quite predictive of the stress resistant employee. These include the perception…

  19. Coping with Stress: A Group Counseling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Betsy

    A group approach to dealing with stress is the basis for a series of workshops outlined in this paper. The stress management program materials, especially suitable for those in the helping professions, identifies the nature and causes of stress, and uses group supports to target and work to change counter-productive stress-related behaviors. The…

  20. Evaluating a Seminar on Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shepard, Jeffrey M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines a college seminar's capacity to reduce stress by evaluating a psychology seminar on stress management over a six-year period. Students reported significantly less general anxiety, general anger, situational stress reactivity, and stress-related physiological reactivity after taking the class. Follow-ups of two classes indicated…

  1. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  2. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  3. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  4. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  5. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  6. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  7. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  8. 77 FR 3408 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (``OCC... certain companies to conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective... stress test as prescribed by this proposed rule. In addition to the annual stress test requirement, such...

  9. 77 FR 16484 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325 RIN 3064-AD91 Annual Stress Test AGENCY... to conduct annual stress tests. \\1\\ Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Public... billion (``covered banks'') to conduct annual stress tests (``bank-run stress tests''). The proposed rule...

  10. 77 FR 3166 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... the stress test; A general description of the methodologies employed to estimate losses, pre-provision... of stress test results and related information. 325.206 Supervisory review of stress tests and post....206 Supervisory review of stress tests and post-assessment actions. (a) Each covered bank shall take...

  11. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  12. Stress, Eustress and the National Student Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to explore the relationship between sources of stress and a range of coping behaviours on student satisfaction and motivation. Most research exploring sources of stress construes stress as distress, with little attempt to consider positive, good stress or "eustress" experiences. A cohort of first-year psychology students…

  13. Towards a Stress Free Education: International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Stress is simply the body's response to changes that create taxing demands. When one cannot cope with it, these cause distresses. Stress is not always bad. The manageable stress motivates individuals to achieve what he/she wishes to achieve. When one can cope with stress it is called "eustress" which is good. Education in many countries…

  14. Stress-tolerance of baker's-yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells: stress-protective molecules and genes involved in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-29

    During the fermentation of dough and the production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cells are exposed to numerous environmental stresses (baking-associated stresses) such as freeze-thaw, high sugar concentrations, air-drying and oxidative stresses. Cellular macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and membranes, are seriously damaged under stress conditions, leading to the inhibition of cell growth, cell viability and fermentation. To avoid lethal damage, yeast cells need to acquire a variety of stress-tolerant mechanisms, for example the induction of stress proteins, the accumulation of stress protectants, changes in membrane composition and repression of translation, and by regulating the corresponding gene expression via stress-triggered signal-transduction pathways. Trehalose and proline are considered to be critical stress protectants, as is glycerol. It is known that these molecules are effective for providing protection against various types of environmental stresses. Modifications of the metabolic pathways of trehalose and proline by self-cloning methods have significantly increased tolerance to baking-associated stresses. To clarify which genes are required for stress tolerance, both a comprehensive phenomics analysis and a functional genomics analysis were carried out under stress conditions that simulated those occurring during the commercial baking process. These analyses indicated that many genes are involved in stress tolerance in yeast. In particular, it was suggested that vacuolar H+-ATPase plays important roles in yeast cells under stress conditions.

  15. Abiotic stress signaling and responses in plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Summary As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing. Stress signaling regulates proteins critical for ion and water transport and for metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming to bring about ionic and water homeostasis and cellular stability under stress conditions. Understanding stress signaling and responses will increase our ability to improve stress resistance in crops to achieve agricultural sustainability and food security for a growing world population. PMID:27716505

  16. Foot and Ankle Stress Fractures in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Greaser, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of stress fractures in the general athletic population is less than 1%, but may be as high as 15% in runners. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle account for almost half of bone stress injuries in athletes. These injuries occur because of repetitive submaximal stresses on the bone resulting in microfractures, which may coalesce to form complete fractures. Advanced imaging such as MRI and triple-phase bone scans is used to evaluate patients with suspected stress fracture. Low-risk stress fractures are typically treated with rest and protected weight bearing. High-stress fractures more often require surgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody.

    PubMed

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity.

  18. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody

    PubMed Central

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287

  19. PPARγ and Stress: Implications for Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Ryan, Karen K.

    2012-01-01

    Complex interactions link psychological stress and aging - stress generally promotes aging processes, and conversely, aging can contribute to stress dysregulation. Stress and aging have remarkably similar effects on brain. Both induce neuroinflammation and alter neuronal metabolism and activity, which to varying extents are causally-linked to the development of stress and aging pathology. As such, induction of one or more of these brain disturbances by either stress or aging could predispose for the development of dysfunction in the other. Notably, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in brain regions that regulate both stress and aging (e.g., hippocampus) and can act to prevent the consequences of aging and stress on the brain. In addition, PPARγ agonists reduce the physiological stress response itself. Thus, PPARγ may represent a critical mechanistic link between brain aging and stress that could hold therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive and mood disorders. PMID:22960592

  20. [Tool for measuring occupational stress: a nurses' stress inventory].

    PubMed

    Stacciarini, J M; Tróccoli, B T

    2000-12-01

    We present an exploratory study aiming at constructing an inventory to measure occupational stress in nurses ("Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros"--IEE). A set of items was initially constructed from previously defined categories based on interviews with nurses and then improved through semantic analysis by referees and a pilot-test with nursing students. A sample of 461 nurses--workers from the public services of the Federal District--who answered the IEE was used in the study. Factorial analysis indicated the presence of a second-order global factor and three first-order factors: Interpersonal Relationships, Stressful Career Roles and Intrinsic Job Factors.

  1. Autophagic pathways and metabolic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, S.; Singh, R.; Cuervo, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential intracellular process that mediates degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Autophagy was initially identified for its role as alternative source of energy when nutrients are scarce but, in recent years, a previously unknown role for this degradative pathway in the cellular response to stress has gained considerable attention. In this review, we focus on the novel findings linking autophagic function with metabolic stress resulting either from proteins or lipids. Proper autophagic activity is required in the cellular defense against proteotoxicity arising in the cytosol and also in the endoplasmic reticulum, where a vast amount of proteins are synthesized and folded. In addition, autophagy contributes to mobilization of intracellular lipid stores and may be central to lipid metabolism in certain cellular conditions. In this review, we focus on the interrelation between autophagy and different types of metabolic stress, specifically the stress resulting from the presence of misbehaving proteins within the cytosol or in the endoplasmic reticulum and the stress following a lipogenic challenge. We also comment on the consequences that chronic exposure to these metabolic stressors could have on autophagic function and on how this effect may underlie the basis of some common metabolic disorders. PMID:21029294

  2. Autophagic pathways and metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, S; Singh, R; Cuervo, A M

    2010-10-01

    Autophagy is an essential intracellular process that mediates degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Autophagy was initially identified for its role as alternative source of energy when nutrients are scarce but, in recent years, a previously unknown role for this degradative pathway in the cellular response to stress has gained considerable attention. In this review, we focus on the novel findings linking autophagic function with metabolic stress resulting either from proteins or lipids. Proper autophagic activity is required in the cellular defense against proteotoxicity arising in the cytosol and also in the endoplasmic reticulum, where a vast amount of proteins are synthesized and folded. In addition, autophagy contributes to mobilization of intracellular lipid stores and may be central to lipid metabolism in certain cellular conditions. In this review, we focus on the interrelation between autophagy and different types of metabolic stress, specifically the stress resulting from the presence of misbehaving proteins within the cytosol or in the endoplasmic reticulum and the stress following a lipogenic challenge. We also comment on the consequences that chronic exposure to these metabolic stressors could have on autophagic function and on how this effect may underlie the basis of some common metabolic disorders. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Fiber networks amplify active stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Martin; Ronceray, Pierre; Broedersz, Chase

    Large-scale force generation is essential for biological functions such as cell motility, embryonic development, and muscle contraction. In these processes, forces generated at the molecular level by motor proteins are transmitted by disordered fiber networks, resulting in large-scale active stresses. While fiber networks are well characterized macroscopically, this stress generation by microscopic active units is not well understood. I will present a comprehensive theoretical study of force transmission in these networks. I will show that the linear, small-force response of the networks is remarkably simple, as the macroscopic active stress depends only on the geometry of the force-exerting unit. In contrast, as non-linear buckling occurs around these units, local active forces are rectified towards isotropic contraction and strongly amplified. This stress amplification is reinforced by the networks' disordered nature, but saturates for high densities of active units. I will show that our predictions are quantitatively consistent with experiments on reconstituted tissues and actomyosin networks, and that they shed light on the role of the network microstructure in shaping active stresses in cells and tissue.

  4. The history of stress hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Balasanthiran, A; Shotliff, K

    2015-01-01

    Stress hyperglycaemia, is a common phenomenon, frequently associated with adverse outcomes in a number of prevalent conditions including myocardial infarction and stroke. Knowledge on stress hyperglycaemia evolved in tandem with knowledge relating to homeostasis, stress and disease and involved some of the world's most eminent thinkers. Despite this, it still remains under-recognised. This paper illustrates significant points in the history of stress hyperglycaemia, from antiquity through to the present day, as well as the challenges faced in translating research into clinical benefit for patients. Profiles of significant protagonists including Claude Bernard, Walter Cannon and Hans Seyle are presented, as well their roles in the emergence of modern-day terminology and pathophysiological models. Major themes such as 'fight or flight' and homeostasis are central to this discussion. Closer to the present day, the role of stress hyperglycaemia in a number of common medical conditions is explored in more detail. Contention around evidence for treatment and the future risk of diabetes mellitus are also discussed.

  5. Nutrient Requirements for High Stress Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-20

    Certain types of stress can cause increased nutrient requirements to maintain physiological or psychological performance levels; however, not all stress...elicits * this response and relatively few nutrient requirements are actually increased. Environmental stress sometimes causes increased energy...influence of "stress" is superimposed upon the dose-response curve. It is known that certain types of stress can result in an increased requirement for

  6. Blunted stress reactivity in chronic cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Spradlin, Alexander; Nusbaum, Amy T; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2017-08-01

    One of the most commonly cited reasons for chronic cannabis use is to cope with stress. Consistent with this, cannabis users have shown reduced emotional arousal and dampened stress reactivity in response to negative imagery. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first to examine the effects of an acute stress manipulation on subjective stress and salivary cortisol in chronic cannabis users compared to non-users. Forty cannabis users and 42 non-users were randomly assigned to complete either the stress or no stress conditions of the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). The stress condition of the MAST manipulates both physiological (placing hand in ice bath) and psychosocial stress (performing math under conditions of social evaluation). Participants gave baseline subjective stress ratings before, during, and after the stress manipulation. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples obtained before and after the stress manipulation. Further, cannabis cravings and symptoms of withdrawal were measured. Subjective stress ratings and cortisol levels were significantly higher in non-users in the stress condition relative to non-users in the no stress condition. In contrast, cannabis users demonstrated blunted stress reactivity; specifically, they showed no increase in cortisol and a significantly smaller increase in subjective stress ratings. The stress manipulation had no impact on cannabis users' self-reported cravings or withdrawal symptoms. Chronic cannabis use is associated with blunted stress reactivity. Future research is needed to determine whether this helps to confer resiliency or vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as well as the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  7. Stress and Schooling: A Search for Stress Profiles of Adolescent Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Elwyn

    This study examined how a sample of pre-university Singaporean adolescents (N=212) with an average age of 17 years 5 months attending a variety of junior colleges perceived and managed different sources of stress. Measures of stress included Behavior Profile, Life Events, School Stress Factors, Home-School Stress Conditions and Stress Symptoms.…

  8. Stress Regularity or Consistency? Reading Aloud Italian Polysyllables with Different Stress Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burani, Cristina; Arduino, Lisa S.

    2004-01-01

    Stress assignment to three- and four-syllable Italian words is not predictable by rule, but needs lexical look-up. The present study investigated whether stress assignment to low-frequency Italian words is determined by stress regularity, or by the number of words sharing the final phonological segment and the stress pattern (stress neighborhood…

  9. Stressing Academia? Stress-as-Offence-to-Self at Danish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Academic work has traditionally been seen as relatively stress free. However, a growing number of studies have reported increases in occupational stress experienced by university researchers. In order to explain stress among this group, we build on a new perspective in occupational stress research: the so-called stress-as-offence-to-self…

  10. Improved Heat-Stress Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Fehn, Steven

    2007-01-01

    NASA Dryden presents an improved and automated site-specific algorithm for heat-stress approximation using standard atmospheric measurements routinely obtained from the Edwards Air Force Base weather detachment. Heat stress, which is the net heat load a worker may be exposed to, is officially measured using a thermal-environment monitoring system to calculate the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). This instrument uses three independent thermometers to measure wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and the black-globe temperatures. By using these improvements, a more realistic WBGT estimation value can now be produced. This is extremely useful for researchers and other employees who are working on outdoor projects that are distant from the areas that the Web system monitors. Most importantly, the improved WBGT estimations will make outdoor work sites safer by reducing the likelihood of heat stress.

  11. Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Durany, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. The histopathological changes in AD include neuronal cell death, formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. There is also evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress (e.g., protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, DNA oxidation and glycoxidation) during the course of the disease. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are present in amyloid plaques in AD, and its extracellular accumulation may be caused by an accelerated oxidation of glycated proteins. AGEs participate in neuronal death causing direct (chemical) and indirect (cellular) free radical production and consequently increase oxidative stress. The development of drugs for the treatment of AD that breaks the vicious cycles of oxidative stress and neurodegeneration offer new opportunities. These approaches include AGE-inhibitors, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory substances, which prevent free radical production. PMID:19372765

  12. Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Gella, Alejandro; Durany, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. The histopathological changes in AD include neuronal cell death, formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. There is also evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress (e.g., protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, DNA oxidation and glycoxidation) during the course of the disease. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are present in amyloid plaques in AD, and its extracellular accumulation may be caused by an accelerated oxidation of glycated proteins. AGEs participate in neuronal death causing direct (chemical) and indirect (cellular) free radical production and consequently increase oxidative stress. The development of drugs for the treatment of AD that breaks the vicious cycles of oxidative stress and neurodegeneration offer new opportunities. These approaches include AGE-inhibitors, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory substances, which prevent free radical production.

  13. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  14. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zakkar, Mustafa; Guida, Gustavo; Suleiman, M-Saadeh; Angelini, Gianni D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) revolutionized cardiac surgery and contributed immensely to improved patients outcomes. CPB is associated with the activation of different coagulation, proinflammatory, survival cascades and altered redox state. Haemolysis, ischaemia, and perfusion injury and neutrophils activation during CPB play a pivotal role in oxidative stress and the associated activation of proinflammatory and proapoptotic signalling pathways which can affect the function and recovery of multiple organs such as the myocardium, lungs, and kidneys and influence clinical outcomes. The administration of agents with antioxidant properties during surgery either intravenously or in the cardioplegia solution may reduce ROS burst and oxidative stress during CPB. Alternatively, the use of modified circuits such as minibypass can modify both proinflammatory responses and oxidative stress. PMID:25722792

  15. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  17. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-07-06

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly.

  18. Stress analysis of ribbon parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, D. T.; Mullins, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed for determining the internal load distribution for ribbon parachutes subjected to known riser and aerodynamic forces. Finite elements with non-linear elastic properties represent the parachute structure. This method is an extension of the analysis previously developed by the authors and implemented in the digital computer program CANO. The present analysis accounts for the effect of vertical ribbons in the solution for canopy shape and stress distribution. Parametric results are presented which relate the canopy stress distribution to such factors as vertical ribbon strength, number of gores, and gore shape in a ribbon parachute.

  19. Stress in the police service.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Davidson, M J; Robinson, P

    1982-01-01

    In this study, the sources of stress among supervisory police officers were explored. It was found that one of the major sources of stress across all managerial levels among the police was the perception that the police service was inhibited by unnecessary bureaucratic and outside obstacles, e.g., increased paperwork, interdepartmental politics, lack of adequate planning and resources and the inability of the courts to prosecute offenders. It was also found that junior and middle supervisory police officers were adversely affected by lack of available manpower and long working hours, whereas senior officers were affected more by the conflict in maintaining positive policing as well as good community relations.

  20. Pharmacological Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Chotenimitkhun, Runyawan; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved into a cardiac stress testing modality that can be used to diagnose myocardial ischemia using intravenous dobutamine or vasodilator perfusion agents such as adenosine or dipyridamole. Because CMR produces high-resolution tomographic images of the human heart in multiple imaging planes, it has become a highly attractive noninvasive testing modality for those suspected of having myocardial ischemia. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical, diagnostic, and prognostic utility of stress CMR testing for patients with (or suspected of having) coronary artery disease. PMID:21566427

  1. Measurements on stress dependent permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risnes, R.; Faldaas, I.; Korsnes, R. I.; Norland, T.

    2003-04-01

    Hydrostatic loading is the conventional test procedure to determine the stress dependence of permeability. However, hydrostatic tests do not truly reflect the deviatoric stress state that exists in most reservoirs. The main objective of the present project was to study permeability changes under deviatoric stresses, like encountered in standard triaxial tests. However in measuring permeability in a triaxial cell, end effects may be important. The friction between the axial steel pistons and the sample may cause stress concentrations and thereby a non-homogeneous strain pattern towards the sample ends. To overcome this problem, the cell was modified to have pressure outlets from the mid-section of the sample, with the pressure tubes connected to the outside of the cell for pressure recording. The cell was designed for 1.5 in plugs with plug lengths of about 80 mm. Tests have been performed on two types of high porosity outcrop chalk: Liège chalk with porosity around 40 percent and permeability 1-2 millidarcy, and Aalborg chalk with porosity around 45 percent and permeability in the range 3-5 millidarcy. Methanol was used as saturating fluid for the chalks. In addition some sandstone samples from core material were included. The porosity values were rather high, around 30 percent, and the permeability ranged from around 50 millidarcy to over one Darcy. Synthetic oil was used as saturating fluid for the sandstone samples, to avoid any reactions with clay minerals. The results so far can be summarized as follows:(1) In almost all the tests, the permeability calculated by the overall pressure drop is smaller than the mid-section permeability. The reduction could typically be around 20 percent. This means that end-effects play an important role.(2) The permeability generally decrease with increasing hydrostatic stresses. This is in agreement with observations from other sources.(3) During deviatoric phases the average stress level is increasing, but the changes in

  2. Stressed lungs: unveiling the role of circulating stress ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ozone, a major component of smog generated through the interaction of light and anthropogenic emissions, induces adverse pulmonary, cardiovascular, and systemic health effects upon inhalation. It is generally accepted that ozone-induced lung injury is mediated by its interaction with lung lining components causing local oxidative changes, which then leads to cell damage and recruitment of inflammatory cells. It is postulated that the spillover of reactive intermediates and pro-inflammatory molecules from lung to systemic circulation mediates extra-pulmonary effects. However, recent work from our laboratory supports an alternative hypothesis that circulating stress hormones, such as epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone pulmonary effects. We have shown in rats and humans that ozone increases the levels of circulating stress hormones through activation of the hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis before any measurable effects are observed in the lung. The surgical removal of adrenals diminishes circulating stress hormones and at the same time, the pulmonary effects of ozone suggesting a significant contribution of these hormones in ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation. While ozone effects in the lung have been extensively studied, the contribution of central nervous system -mediated hormonal stress response has not been examined. In order to understand the signaling pathways that might be involved in ozone-induced lun

  3. Feeling Stressed? Stress Relief Might Help Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Green McDonald says, “studies have also shown that mindfulness (focused attention on one’s own emotions) and other meditative practices can effectively relieve stress.” “Mindfulness means staying aware and conscious of your experiences. ...

  4. Opposite Effects of Stress on Pain Modulation Depend on the Magnitude of Individual Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acute stress on pain threshold and intolerance threshold are reported as producing either hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia. Yet, the contribution of individual stress reactivity in this respect has not been established. The aim was to test 2 pain modulation paradigms under acute stress manipulation, to our knowledge, for the first time, to study whether stress differentially affects pain modulation, and whether the effect is related to individual stress response. Participants were 31 healthy subjects. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain adaptation were measured before and after inducing an acute stress response using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. Subjects' stress response was evaluated according to salivary cortisol, autonomic function, and perceived stress and anxiety. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task induced a validated stress response. On a group level, stress induced reduction in CPM magnitude and increase in pain adaptation compared with baseline. These responses correlated with stress reactivity. When the group was subdivided according to stress reactivity, only high stress responders exhibited reduced CPM whereas only low stress responders exhibited increased pain adaptation. The results suggest that acute stress may induce opposite effects on pain modulation, depending on individual stress reactivity magnitude, with an advantage to low stress responders. This study evaluated the effect of acute stress on pain modulation. Pain modulation under stress is affected by individual stress responsiveness; decreased CPM occurs in high stress responders whereas increased pain adaptation occurs in low stress responders. Identification of high stress responders may promote better pain management. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P < 0.005. Correlation between the two trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Social support, stress and the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L.; Schnyer, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support ‘buffers’ the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress. PMID:26060327

  7. Kinetics model of bainitic transformation with stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mingxing; Xu, Guang; Hu, Haijiang; Yuan, Qing; Tian, Junyu

    2018-01-01

    Thermal simulations were conducted on a Gleeble 3800 simulator. The main purpose is to investigate the effects of stress on the kinetics of bainitic transformation in a Fe-C-Mn-Si advanced high strength bainitic steel. Previous studies on modeling the kinetics of stress affected bainitic transformation only considered the stress below the yield strength of prior austenite. In the present study, the stress above the yield strength of prior austenite is taken into account. A new kinetics model of bainitic transformation dependent on the stress (including the stresses below and above the yield strength of prior austenite) and the transformation temperature is proposed. The new model presents a good agreement with experimental results. In addition, it is found that the acceleration degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the stress whether its magnitude is below or above the yield strength of austenite, but the increasing rate gradually slows down when the stress is above the yield strength of austenite.

  8. Longitudinal association between child stress and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Boone, Liesbet; Braet, Caroline; Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been linked with an unhealthy lifestyle but the relation's direction remains unclear. Does stress induce sleeping problems, comfort food consumption, and lower physical activity, or do these unhealthy lifestyle factors enhance stress? This study examined the bidirectional stress-lifestyle relation in children. The relation between stress and lifestyle was examined over 2 years in 312 Belgian children 5-12 years old as part of the Children's Body Composition and Stress study. Stress-related aspects were measured by questionnaires concerning negative events, negative emotions, and behavioral problems. The following lifestyle factors were assessed: physical activity (by accelerometers), sleep duration, food consumption (sweet food, fatty food, snacks, fruits and vegetables), and eating behavior (emotional, external, restrained). Bidirectional relations were examined with cross-lagged analyses. Certain stress aspects increased physical activity, sweet food consumption, emotional eating, restrained eating, and external eating (βs = .140-.319). All relations were moderated by sex and age: Dietary effects were mainly in the oldest children and girls; stress increased physical activity in the youngest, whereas it tended to decrease physical activity in the oldest. One reversed direction effect was found: Maladaptive eating behaviors increased anxiety feelings. Relations were mainly unidirectional: Stress influenced children's lifestyle. Stress stimulated eating in the absence of hunger, which could facilitate overweight. Consequently, families should realize that stress may influence children's diet, and problem-solving coping skills should be acquired. In contrast to recent findings, stress might also stimulate physical activity in the youngest as positive stress coping style.

  9. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Reager, John T.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human‐dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE‐based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions. PMID:26900185

  10. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE-based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions.

  11. Clinical experimental stress studies: methods and assessment.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Stress induction methods are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these methods are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well-described methods to induce stress in humans include the cold pressor test, Trier Social Stress Test, Montreal Imaging Stress Task, Maastricht Acute Stress Test, CO2 challenge test, Stroop test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, noise stress, and Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. Stress assessment in humans is done by measuring biochemical markers such as cortisol, cortisol awakening response, dexamethasone suppression test, salivary α-amylase, plasma/urinary norepinephrine, norepinephrine spillover rate, and interleukins. Physiological and behavioral changes such as galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, pupil size, and muscle and/or skin sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported anxiety are also monitored to assess stress response. This present review describes these commonly employed methods to induce stress in humans along with stress assessment methods.

  12. The impact of static stress change, dynamic stress change, and the background stress on aftershock focal mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    The focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Southern California before and after four M ≥ 6.7 main shocks provide insight into how fault systems respond to stress and changes in stress. The main shock static stress changes have two observed impacts on the seismicity: changing the focal mechanisms in a given location to favor those aligned with the static stress change and changing the spatial distribution of seismicity to favor locations where the static stress change aligns with the background stress. The aftershock focal mechanisms are significantly aligned with the static stress changes for absolute stress changes of ≥ 0.02 MPa, for up to ~20 years following the main shock. The dynamic stress changes have similar, although smaller, effects on the local focal mechanisms and the spatial seismicity distribution. Dynamic stress effects are best observed at long periods (30–60 s) and for metrics based on repeated stress cycling in the same direction. This implies that dynamic triggering operates, at least in part, through cyclic shear stress loading in the direction of fault slip. The background stress also strongly controls both the preshock and aftershock mechanisms. While most aftershock mechanisms are well oriented in the background stress field, 10% of aftershocks are identified as poorly oriented outliers, which may indicate limited heterogeneity in the postmain shock stress field. The fault plane orientations of the outliers are well oriented in the background stress, while their slip directions are not, implying that the background stress restricts the distribution of available fault planes.

  13. Parental Stress and Coping Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Gonzalez, Jennifer E.; O'Hare, Vanessa N.

    2017-01-01

    The Parental Stress and Coping Inventory was developed for mental health professionals serving low-income and low-resource parents. A sample of 1,567 parents completed a revised Family Adjustment Measure for the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted in this study. Findings resulted in three scales that explained 53% of the…

  14. Traumatic Stress: Recovery and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... everyone who lives through a dangerous event develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, most people will not develop the ... learning from it Treatment The main treatments for PTSD are medications and psychotherapy (“talk” therapy) with a ...

  15. Microelectromechanical systems contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2007-12-25

    A microelectromechanical systems stress sensor comprising a microelectromechanical systems silicon body. A recess is formed in the silicon body. A silicon element extends into the recess. The silicon element has limited freedom of movement within the recess. An electrical circuit in the silicon element includes a piezoresistor material that allows for sensing changes in resistance that is proportional to bending of the silicon element.

  16. Women Religious Leaders and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others

    This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…

  17. [Oxidative stress and infectious pathology].

    PubMed

    Romero Alvira, D; Guerrero Navarro, L; Gotor Lázaro, M A; Roche Collado, E

    1995-03-01

    Pathogenic organism can be considered as pro-oxidant agents because they produce cell death and tissue damage. In addition organism can be eliminated by specific cell defense mechanism which utilize in part, reactive oxygen radicals formed by oxidative stress responses. The cause of the necessarily defense process results in cell damage thereby leading to development of inflammation, a characteristic oxidative stress situation. This fact shows the duality of oxidative stress in infections and inflammation: oxygen free radicals protect against microorganism attack and can produce tissue damage during this protection to trigger inflammation. Iron, a transition metal which participates generating oxygen free radicals, displays also this duality in infection. We suggest also that different infectious pathologies, such as sickle cell anemia/malaria and AIDS, may display in part this duality. In addition, it should be noted that oxidative damage observed in infectious diseases is mostly due the inflammatory response than to the oxidative potential of the pathogenic agent, this last point is exemplified in cases of respiratory distress and in glomerulonephritis. This review analyzes these controversial facts of infectious pathology in relation with oxidative stress.

  18. Stress, Teaching and Teacher Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Managers in 281 schools of all types in 20 LEAs in England completed a survey about teacher absence and its causes. This paper reports reasons for teachers' long-term absences in those schools, examining the link between age and ability to report for work. Head teachers' views on the impact of school stress on teacher attendance are also explored.…

  19. Academic Stress in Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedey, Linda Brenckman; Lichtenstein, James M.

    This research examined stress in the kindergarten in the public school system of North Carolina. A questionnaire was designed to collect information from public school kindergarten teachers concerning seven stressors: (1) academic tasks that students were developmentally unable to handle; (2) death of a close family member or friend; (3) the move…

  20. Stressed Out in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Many teachers feel overwhelmed about meeting the needs of students getting ready for tests, and about relations with principals. Four exceptionally high-stress factors that teachers admit carrying into their classrooms are money management, health, relationships, and care giving. A sidebar lists tips for administrators to help alleviate teachers'…

  1. Preparing Children for Stressful Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Ruth

    Based on the author's experiences with severely disturbed preschool children, the paper focuses on the importance of classroom preparation in helping children cope with both routine and unusual stressful experiences. Briefly described is the Child Study Center program for severely disturbed children designed to develop a corrective relationship…

  2. Measuring Daily Stress in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfenoff, Sheila H.; Jose, Paul E.

    A study of school-age children was designed to: (1) identify hassles that children experience in their families, among peers, and at school; (2) determine the ability of hassles to predict unhealthy psychological and physical functioning; and (3) explore the effect of daily hassles on school behavior. A measure of children's daily stress that used…

  3. The stress and underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  4. Managing Teacher Stress and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis; Hammond, Janice

    This monograph offers a practical guide for identifying and managing those stressors that are in the specific domain of the individual--exercise, diet, sleep, interpersonal relations, time and conflict management, and relaxation. The first section covers stress theory; methods to identify and clarify stressors; restoration of a balanced…

  5. Relationships between Stress and Immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stress, as it relates to bodily functions, has been defined as the sum of all biologic reactions to physical, emotional, or mental stimuli that disturb an individual’s homeostasis. Therefore, a stressor can be defined as any internal or external stimuli or threat that disrupts homeostasis of the bod...

  6. Full Field Photoelastic Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesniak, Jon R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A structural specimen coated with or constructed of photoelastic material, when illuminated with circularly polarized light will, when stressed: reflect or transmit elliptically polarized light, the direction of the axes of the ellipse and variation of the elliptically light from illuminating circular light will correspond to and indicate the direction and magnitude of the shear stresses for each illuminated point on the specimen. The principles of this invention allow for several embodiments of stress analyzing apparatus, ranging from those involving multiple rotating optical elements, to those which require no moving parts at all. A simple polariscope may be constructed having two polarizing filters with a single one-quarter waveplate placed between the polarizing filters. Light is projected through the first polarizing filter and the one-quarter waveplate and is reflected from a sub-fringe birefringent coating on a structure under load. Reflected light from the structure is analyzed with a polarizing filter. The two polarizing filters and the one-quarter waveplate may be rotated together or the analyzer alone may be rotated. Computer analysis of the variation in light intensity yields shear stress magnitude and direction.

  7. Recognizing Posttraumatic Stress in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Terri; Bates, Cory

    1997-01-01

    Children who are exposed to violence may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To effectively work with children's responses to trauma, school personnel must be familiar with symptoms of PTSD and prepare possible coping strategies. The paper presents examples of affective, cognitive, and behavioral coping strategies that are effective for…

  8. Stressing out the Social Network.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Lowry A; Sohal, Vikaas S

    2016-07-20

    In this issue of Neuron, Hultman et al. (2016) find that stress-induced abnormal social behavior reflects aberrant prefrontal regulation of downstream limbic networks. This illustrates how linking aberrant network dynamics to neuropsychiatric disorders may lead to new circuit-based therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  10. Stress and the HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Mary Ann C.; Wand, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Stress has long been suggested to be an important correlate of uncontrolled drinking and relapse. An important hormonal response system to stress—the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis—may be involved in this process, particularly stress hormones known as glucocorticoids and primarily cortisol. The actions of this hormone system normally are tightly regulated to ensure that the body can respond quickly to stressful events and return to a normal state just as rapidly. The main determinants of HPA axis activity are genetic background, early-life environment, and current life stress. Alterations in HPA axis regulation are associated with problematic alcohol use and dependence; however, the nature of this dysregulation appears to vary with respect to stage of alcohol dependence. Much of this research has focused specifically on the role of cortisol in the risk for, development of, and relapse to chronic alcohol use. These studies found that cortisol can interact with the brain’s reward system, which may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects. Cortisol also can influence a person’s cognitive processes, promoting habit-based learning, which may contribute to habit formation and risk of relapse. Finally, cortisol levels during abstinence may be useful clinical indicators of relapse vulnerability in alcohol-dependent people. PMID:23584113

  11. Minority Adolescent Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; George, Preethy E.; Fernandez, Aida Cristina; Huerta, Violeta L.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the stressful life events and daily hassles of adolescence are similar for youths despite differences in cultural background or place of residence. However, adolescents from diverse cultural groups often encounter unique challenges that arise from the particular cultural-ecological niches they inhabit by virtue of their ethnic group…

  12. Student-Life Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The reliability of the Student-Life Stress Inventory of B. M. Gadzella (1991) was studied. The inventory consists of 51 items listed in 9 sections indicating different types of stressors (frustrations, conflicts, pressures, changes, and self-imposed stressors) and reactions to the stressors (physiological, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) as…

  13. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  14. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    PubMed

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  15. Disruptive Pupils and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Teachers have identified a number of stress situations in their work with disruptive children: insecurity due to student unpredictability, doubting their effectiveness, frustrated attempts at communication with other professionals, and feelings of isolation and limited social relationships (expressed by residential workers). (CT)

  16. Managing stress in a crisis.

    PubMed

    Wright-Reid, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Crisis situations are inherently uncertain and threatening. Although the primal stress reactions they provoke deliver some advantages, they so severely restrict intellect and behaviour that consultants observe crisis teams making the same mistakes over and again. Stress risks can be managed before, during and after a crisis. Crisis planning can select the right people, control the crisis team environment, and mitigate fatigue risks and memory demands. Because stress reactions are primitive, stress can be manipulated at a remarkably primitive level and teams can increase their resilience through such basics as sleep and breathing skills. Teams can learn to manipulate perceptions of danger, to tolerate uncertainty and to become comfortable making decisions which were reasonable at the time. Crisis leaders can frame the crisis as a challenge and options as gains, and can ensure the team avoids groupthink and challenges the paradigm. Where individuals are trained to apply critical thinking processes, intuitive decision-making is not only fast, but also accurate, and helps to challenge assumptions, predictions and groupthink. Crises are more easily recognised and managed where training has covered critical decision methods.

  17. Stress evolution during caldera collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holohan, E. P.; Schöpfer, M. P. J.; Walsh, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    The mechanics of caldera collapse are subject of long-running debate. Particular uncertainties concern how stresses around a magma reservoir relate to fracturing as the reservoir roof collapses, and how roof collapse in turn impacts upon the reservoir. We used two-dimensional Distinct Element Method models to characterise the evolution of stress around a depleting sub-surface magma body during gravity-driven collapse of its roof. These models illustrate how principal stress orientations rotate during progressive deformation so that roof fracturing transitions from initial reverse faulting to later normal faulting. They also reveal four end-member stress paths to fracture, each corresponding to a particular location within the roof. Analysis of these paths indicates that fractures associated with ultimate roof failure initiate in compression (i.e. as shear fractures). We also report on how mechanical and geometric conditions in the roof affect pre-failure unloading and post-failure reloading of the reservoir. In particular, the models show how residual friction within a failed roof could, without friction reduction mechanisms or fluid-derived counter-effects, inhibit a return to a lithostatically equilibrated pressure in the magma reservoir. Many of these findings should be transferable to other gravity-driven collapse processes, such as sinkhole formation, mine collapse and subsidence above hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  18. Managing Stress in the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, James E.

    1990-01-01

    The principal's office is frequently a collection point for problems and demands. Secondary school principals often average 1,000 interactions daily. Principals can manage stress by declining to solve every problem, delegating responsibility, reexamining their supervisory role, developing networks of trusted friends, and engaging in…

  19. Stroking Stressed-Out Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Stress seems to be a way of life for teachers. Many teachers describe themselves as over-whelmed. They admit to feeling anxious and apprehensive, especially about meeting the mounting needs of troubled students, doing justice to an all-consuming curriculum, and getting kids ready for a relentless series of tests. According to a study of Midwestern…

  20. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; O, Wuliji; Li, Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Ghanbari, Hossein A.

    2013-01-01

    Living cells continually generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS at low or moderate concentration can play important physiological roles. However, an excessive amount of ROS under oxidative stress would be extremely deleterious. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption, weakly antioxidative systems and the terminal-differentiation characteristic of neurons. Thus, oxidative stress elicits various neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, chemotherapy could result in severe side effects on the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of cancer patients, and a growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of ROS in drug-induced neurotoxicities as well. Therefore, development of antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs is a potentially beneficial strategy for clinical therapy. In this review, we summarize the source, balance maintenance and physiologic functions of ROS, oxidative stress and its toxic mechanisms underlying a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possible involvement of ROS in chemotherapy-induced toxicity to the CNS and PNS. We ultimately assess the value for antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs and provide our comments on the unmet needs. PMID:24351827

  1. Traumatic stress in Japanese broadcast journalists.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Miho; Matsui, Yutaka; Ando, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Kako; Fukuoka, Yoshiharu; Koshiro, Eiko; Itamura, Hidenori

    2010-02-01

    Job-related traumatic stress experienced by broadcast journalists in Japan was investigated. A questionnaire inquiring about the most traumatic event they faced when covering the news and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were administered to 270 journalist participants working for Japanese news companies. Of these, 6% met the IES-R criterion for potential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, posttraumatic stress reactions at the time of the survey were strongly related to symptoms of stress experienced during the stressful assignment. The early assessment of stress symptoms in journalists that experience traumatic news coverage is important for preventing the development of PTSD symptoms.

  2. [Psychological stress and sudden death].

    PubMed

    Pignalberi, Carlo; Ricci, Renato; Santini, Massimo

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies provide relevant evidence that psychological stress significantly influences the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death. Psychological stress expresses a situation of imbalance, derived from a real or perceived disparity between environmental demands and the individual's ability to cope with these demands. A situation of psychological stress may include different components: personality factors and character traits, anxiety and depression, social isolation and acute or chronic adverse life events. In particular, it has been documented that a sudden extremely hard event, such as an earthquake or a war strike, can significantly increase the incidence of sudden death. Nevertheless, each one of these factors, if not present, can balance a partially unfavorable situation; this overview suggests a multifactorial situation where almost all elements are present and in which the relative influence of each one varies according to the individual examined. Sudden death occurs when a transient disruption (such as acute myocardial ischemia, platelet activation or neuroendocrine variations), occurring in a patient with a diseased myocardium (such as one with a post-necrotic scar or hypertrophy), triggers a malignant arrhythmia. Psychological stress acts at both levels: by means of a "chronic" action it contributes to create the myocardial background, while by means of an acute action it can create the transient trigger precipitating sudden death. In the chronic action two possible mechanisms can be detected: the first is a direct interaction, which contributes to cause a hypertension status or to exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis consequent to endothelial dysfunction; the second one acts through adverse health behaviors, such as a poor diet, alcohol consumption or smoking. In case of acute psychological stress, the mechanisms involved are mainly the ability to trigger myocardial ischemia, to promote arrhythmogenesis, to stimulate platelet function, and to increase

  3. Stress changes ahead of an advancing tunnel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abel, J.F.; Lee, F.T.

    1973-01-01

    Instrumentation placed ahead of three model tunnels in the laboratory and ahead of a crosscut driven in a metamorphic rock mass detected stress changes several tunnel diameters ahead of the tunnel face. Stress changes were detected 4 diameters ahead of a model tunnel drilled into nearly elastic acrylic, 2??50 diameters ahead of a model tunnel drilled into concrete, and 2 diameters ahead of a model tunnel drilled into Silver Plume Granite. Stress changes were detected 7??50 diameters ahead of a crosscut driven in jointed, closely foliated gneisses and gneissic granites in an experimental mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado. These results contrast markedly with a theoretical elastic estimate of the onset of detectable stress changes at 1 tunnel diameter ahead of the tunnel face. A small compressive stress concentration was detected 2 diameters ahead of the model tunnel in acrylic, 1.25 diameters ahead of the model tunnel in concrete, and 1 diameter ahead of the model tunnel in granite. A similar stress peak was detected about 6 diameters ahead of the crosscut. No such stress peak is predicted from elastic theory. The 3-dimensional in situ stress determined in the field demonstrate that geologic structure controls stress orientations in the metamorphic rock mass. Two of the computed principal stresses are parallel to the foliation and the other principal stress is normal to it. The principal stress orientations vary approximately as the foliation attitude varies. The average horizontal stress components and the average vertical stress component are three times and twice as large, respectively, as those predicted from the overburden load. An understanding of the measured stress field appears to require the application of either tectonic or residual stress components, or both. Laboratory studies indicate the presence of proportionately large residual stresses. Mining may have triggered the release of strain energy, which is controlled by geologic structure. ?? 1973.

  4. Stress and academic performance among medical students.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Nudrat

    2013-01-01

    To determine the relationship of stress and academic performance in first year medical students and to identify sources of stress, levels of stress and relevant coping strategies. Mixed method sequential. Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, from March to December 2010. Survey questionnaire and in-depth interviews were carried out in the first year students with their consent. Two hundred and fifty students were surveyed, out of whom 120 students responded. Twelve students with their consent were interviewed. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed for both types of data collection. SPSS version 20 was used. The qualitative data generated through structured in-depth interviews, were analyzed by content analysis. Low level of stress was found in 7.5% (score ‹150), moderate level of stress was present in 71.67% (score between 150 and 300), and high level of stress was observed in 20.83% (score ›300) of the students. There is moderate negative (-0.583) and significant (p < 0.01) correlation between academic performance and sources of stress. Similarly there is moderate negative (-0.478) and significant (p < 0.01) correlation between academic performance and levels of stress. There was strong positive (0.799) and significant (p < 0.01), correlation between stress level and number of stress sources. The study showed a diversity of stress sources and a high level of stress in the medical students. The results also show that higher level of stress is associated with poor academic performance.

  5. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  6. Stresses in Circular Plates with Rigid Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.

  7. Abscisic Acid and abiotic stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra

    2007-05-01

    Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant growth and development and plays an important role in integrating various stress signals and controlling downstream stress responses. Plants have to adjust ABA levels constantly in responce to changing physiological and environmental conditions. To date, the mechanisms for fine-tuning of ABA levels remain elusive. The mechanisms by which plants respond to stress include both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Various transcription factors such as DREB2A/2B, AREB1, RD22BP1 and MYC/MYB are known to regulate the ABA-responsive gene expression through interacting with their corrosponding cis-acting elements such as DRE/CRT, ABRE and MYCRS/MYBRS, respectively. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve stress tolerance in crops plants. This article first describes the general pathway for plant stress response followed by roles of ABA and transcription factors in stress tolerance including the regulation of ABA biosynthesis.

  8. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant growth and development and plays an important role in integrating various stress signals and controlling downstream stress responses. Plants have to adjust ABA levels constantly in responce to changing physiological and environmental conditions. To date, the mechanisms for fine-tuning of ABA levels remain elusive. The mechanisms by which plants respond to stress include both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Various transcription factors such as DREB2A/2B, AREB1, RD22BP1 and MYC/MYB are known to regulate the ABA-responsive gene expression through interacting with their corrosponding cis-acting elements such as DRE/CRT, ABRE and MYCRS/MYBRS, respectively. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve stress tolerance in crops plants. This article first describes the general pathway for plant stress response followed by roles of ABA and transcription factors in stress tolerance including the regulation of ABA biosynthesis. PMID:19516981

  9. Aftershocks halted by static stress shadows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Marsan, David

    2012-01-01

    Earthquakes impart static and dynamic stress changes to the surrounding crust. Sudden fault slip causes small but permanent—static—stress changes, and passing seismic waves cause large, but brief and oscillatory—dynamic—stress changes. Because both static and dynamic stresses can trigger earthquakes within several rupture dimensions of a mainshock, it has proven difficult to disentangle their contributions to the triggering process1–3. However, only dynamic stress can trigger earthquakes far from the source4,5, and only static stress can create stress shadows, where the stress and thus the seismicity rate in the shadow area drops following an earthquake6–9 . Here we calculate the stress imparted by the magnitude 6.1 Joshua Tree and nearby magnitude 7.3 Landers earthquakes that occurred in California in April and June 1992, respectively, and measure seismicity through time. We show that, where the aftershock zone of the first earthquake was subjected to a static stress increase from the second, the seismicity rate jumped. In contrast, where the aftershock zone of the first earthquake fell under the stress shadow of the second and static stress dropped, seismicity shut down. The arrest of seismicity implies that static stress is a requisite element of spatial clustering of large earthquakes and should be a constituent of hazard assessment.

  10. Strategies for Dealing with Stress: Taking Care of Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    University department chairs need to manage stress to their advantage. Myths pertaining to stress include: (1) stress is harmful; (2) stress should be avoided; (3) stress correlates with level of responsibility; (4) stress is predominantly a male phenomenon; and (5) there is one appropriate coping method. The Chair Stress Cycle provides a broad…

  11. Stress and Traumatic Stress: How Do Past Events Influence Current Traumatic Stress among Mothers Experiencing Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julie K.; Hall, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relationship between past traumatic events and the level of current traumatic stress among mothers experiencing homelessness. The data for this study were gathered from 75 homeless mothers between May 2006 and October 2006 using a cross-sectional survey design with purposive sampling. All mothers…

  12. Coping with Stress. Stress Education Curriculum. A Stress Control Program for Troubled Youth. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Jennie C.

    Project Stress Control was developed for the Fulton County (Georgia) school system in 1984 and was implemented at an elementary school. The program was very successful in reducing suspension rates and office referrals for disruptive behavior and in increasing academic performance and parent participation. This curriculum is an outgrowth of the…

  13. Dispersion Forces of Solids under Stress. Chemisorption under Stress.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    The objective of the research summerized here was to determine the stress ce dependence of the chemical potential of atoms chemisorbed to metal...received by the scientific- engineering community. In- terest was shown to carry out the experiments suggested in our paper and we hope that this phase...out several benchmark theoretical investi- gations on our chemostress effect. These papers were well received by both .* scientific and engineering

  14. Extraversion and cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress: Effect of stress intensity.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei; Xing, Wanying; Hughes, Brian M; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-10-28

    The present study sought to establish whether the effects of extraversion on cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress are contingent on stress intensity. A 2×5×1 mixed-factorial experiment was conducted, with social stress intensity as a between-subject variable, study phase as a within-subject variable, extraversion as a continuous independent variable, and cardiovascular parameter (HR, SBP, DBP, or RSA) as a dependent variable. Extraversion (NEO-FFI), subjective stress, and physiological stress were measured in 166 undergraduate students randomly assigned to undergo moderate (n=82) or high-intensity (n=84) social stress (a public speaking task with different levels of social evaluation). All participants underwent continuous physiological monitoring while facing two consecutive stress exposures distributed across five laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2, post-stress 2. Results indicated that under moderate-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited lesser HR reactivity to stress than participants lower on extraversion, while under high-intensity social stress, they exhibited greater HR, SBP, DBP and RSA reactivity. Under both moderate- and high-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited pronounced SBP and DBP response adaptation to repeated stress, and showed either better degree of HR recovery or greater amount of SBP and DBP recovery after stress. These findings suggest that individuals higher on extraversion exhibit physiological flexibility to cope with social challenges and benefit from adaptive cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotional intelligence and perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Pau, Allan

    2008-04-01

    Many studies have reported that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in students in the health care profession. Stress has been defined as the strain that accompanies a demand perceived to be either challenging (positive) or threatening (negative) and, depending on the appraisal, may be either adaptive or debilitating. The aim of the present survey was to gain some understanding of the explanatory factors for stress and an evaluation of the role that emotional intelligence (EI) plays in the experience of perceived stress (PS). It also aimed to compare EI and PS and explore the association between academic background, satisfaction with career choice and EI, and PS in first year dental students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of the Western Cape. First year dental undergraduates who had completed at least six months of their dental degree course during 2005/06 were invited to complete a set of questionnaires on emotional intelligence and perceived stress. Demographic questions included gender and age. Students were also asked if they had a previous qualification from a higher education institution and if they were satisfied with their decision to study dentistry. Ninety eight completed the questionnaires representing a response rate of 96%. 43 were male (44%) and 55 female (56%), Results of t-tests indicated that low scorers on the EI scale were more likely to be (i) younger compared to older students (p<0.001), (ii) those without compared to those with a previous higher education qualification (p<0.001), and (iii) those who were not satisfied compared to those who were satisfied with their decision to study dentistry (p<0.001). Statistically significant differences were noted in mean PS scores between (i) male and female students (p<0.05), (ii) younger compared to older students (p<0.001), (iii) those without compared to those with previous higher education qualification (p<0.001), and (iv) those who

  16. Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    EXPOSURE TO STRESS Occupational Hazards in Hospitals DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Exposure to Stress Occupational Hazards in Hospitals DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND ...

  17. Aging Veterans and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Aging Veterans and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Aging Veterans and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms For many Veterans, memories of their wartime ...

  18. How Might New Neurons Buffer Against Stress?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 54 items) How Might New Neurons Buffer Against Stress? Clues Emerging from Studies in New Porter Neuroscience ... role in the action of antidepressants, resilience to stress , the benefits of exercise and enriched environments , and ...

  19. Acoustic analysis of speech under stress.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Savita; Khan, Munna; Vijay, Ritu; Salhan, Ashok K; Chouhan, Satish

    2015-01-01

    When a person is emotionally charged, stress could be discerned in his voice. This paper presents a simplified and a non-invasive approach to detect psycho-physiological stress by monitoring the acoustic modifications during a stressful conversation. Voice database consists of audio clips from eight different popular FM broadcasts wherein the host of the show vexes the subjects who are otherwise unaware of the charade. The audio clips are obtained from real-life stressful conversations (no simulated emotions). Analysis is done using PRAAT software to evaluate mean fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, F4) both in neutral and stressed state. Results suggest that F0 increases with stress; however, formant frequency decreases with stress. Comparison of Fourier and chirp spectra of short vowel segment shows that for relaxed speech, the two spectra are similar; however, for stressed speech, they differ in the high frequency range due to increased pitch modulation.

  20. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with post-traumatic stress need early treatment with methods that are used to treat other trauma victims. ... symptoms of post-traumatic stress. The crisis intervention method aims to relieve distress and help the patient ...

  1. Systems biology approach in plant abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi

    2017-12-01

    Plant abiotic stresses are the major constraint on plant growth and development, causing enormous crop losses across the world. Plants have unique features to defend themselves against these challenging adverse stress conditions. They modulate their phenotypes upon changes in physiological, biochemical, molecular and genetic information, thus making them tolerant against abiotic stresses. It is of paramount importance to determine the stress-tolerant traits of a diverse range of genotypes of plant species and integrate those traits for crop improvement. Stress-tolerant traits can be identified by conducting genome-wide analysis of stress-tolerant genotypes through the highly advanced structural and functional genomics approach. Specifically, whole-genome sequencing, development of molecular markers, genome-wide association studies and comparative analysis of interaction networks between tolerant and susceptible crop varieties grown under stress conditions can greatly facilitate discovery of novel agronomic traits that protect plants against abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Degreasing of titanium to minimize stress corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Stress corrosion of titanium and its alloys at elevated temperatures is minimized by replacing trichloroethylene with methanol or methyl ethyl ketone as a degreasing agent. Wearing cotton gloves reduces stress corrosion from perspiration before the metal components are processed.

  3. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  4. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  5. Vocational Teacher Stress and the Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Elaine; Heath-Camp, Betty; Camp, William G.

    1999-01-01

    A multiple regression analysis of data from 235 secondary vocational teachers in Virginia found that educational system-related variables explained most teacher stress. The most important explanatory variables were task stress and role overload. (SK)

  6. 8 Ways to DE-STRESS

    Cancer.gov

    Sometimes, women work so hard and take care of so many others that they forget to take care of themselves. This can add up to extra stress. Over time, extra stress can lead to physical discomforts and negative moods.

  7. Analysis of silicon stress/strain relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, O.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented for work on stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon. Calculations of stress fields, dislocation desities, and buckling were made; uniaxial tensile tests were made on silicon at 1150 C; and dislocation motion studies were performed.

  8. Stressful Experience and Learning Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Tracey J.

    2012-01-01

    It is usually assumed that stressful life events interfere with our ability to acquire new information. However, many studies suggest that stressful experience can enhance processes involved in learning. The types of learning that are enhanced after stressful experiences include classical fear and eyeblink conditioning, as well as processes related to learning about threatening stimuli. Stressful life experiences do seem to interfere with processes involved in memory, often expressed as deficits in the retention or retrieval of information that was acquired prior to and was unrelated to the stressful experience. The trends are limited, as are their implications, because most studies examine adult males, yet the effects of stress on learning processes are influenced by age and sex differences. With respect to mechanisms and anatomical substrates, the effects of stress on learning are usually dependent on the action of stress hormones in combination with neuronal activities within the hippocampus, amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the prefrontal cortex. PMID:16318589

  9. Residual stress measurements in carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Min, N.

    1986-01-01

    External dc magnetic field-induced changes in natural velocity of Rayleigh surface waves were measured in steel specimens under various stress conditions. The low field slopes of curves representing the fractional changes of natural velocity were proved to provide correct stress information in steels with different metallurgical properties. The slopes of curves under uniaxial compression, exceeding about one third of the yield stress, fell below zero in all the specimens when magnetized along the stress axis. The slopes under tension varied among different steels but remained positive in any circumstances. The stress effect was observed for both applied and residual stress. A physical interpretation of these results is given based on the stress-induced domain structure changes and the delta epsilon effect. Most importantly, it is found that the influence of detailed metallurgical properties cause only secondary effects on the obtained stress information.

  10. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The ... limits. Reduce stress by recognizing where you have control You can’t control all the outside events ...

  11. Stress-corrosion cracking in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices for preventing stress-corrosion cracking from impairing the structural integrity and flightworthiness of space vehicles are presented. The important variables affecting stress-corrosion cracking are considered to be the environment, including time and temperature; metal composition, and structure; and sustained tensile stress. For designing spacecraft structures that are free of stress-corrosion cracking for the service life of the vehicle the following rules apply: (1) identification and control of the environments to which the structure will be exposed during construction, storage, transportation, and use; (2) selection of alloy compositions and tempers which are resistant to stress-corrosion cracking in the identified environment; (3) control of fabrication and other processes which may introduce residual tensile stresses or damage the material; (4) limitation of the combined residual and applied tensile stresses to below the threshold stress level for the onset of cracking throughout the service life of the vehicle; and (5) establishment of a thorough inspection program.

  12. Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on

  13. Low-stress doped ultrananocrystalline diamond

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Buja, Federico; van Spengen, Willem Merlijn

    2016-10-25

    Nanocrystalline diamond coatings exhibit stress in nano/micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS). Doped nanocrstalline diamond coatings exhibit increased stress. A carbide forming metal coating reduces the in-plane stress. In addition, without any metal coating, simply growing UNCD or NCD with thickness in the range of 3-4 micron also reduces in-plane stress significantly. Such coatings can be used in MEMS applications.

  14. Stress Analysis and Fracture in Nanolaminate Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2008-01-01

    A stress analysis is performed on a nanolaminate subjected to bending. A composite mechanics computer code that is based on constituent properties and nanoelement formulation is used to evaluate the nanolaminate stresses. The results indicate that the computer code is sufficient for the analysis. The results also show that when a stress concentration is present, the nanolaminate stresses exceed their corresponding matrix-dominated strengths and the nanofiber fracture strength.

  15. Is stress a trigger factor for migraine?

    PubMed

    Schoonman, G G; Evers, D J; Ballieux, B E; de Geus, E J; de Kloet, E R; Terwindt, G M; van Dijk, J G; Ferrari, M D

    2007-06-01

    Although mental stress is commonly considered to be an important trigger factor for migraine, experimental evidence for this belief is yet lacking. To study the temporal relationship between changes in stress-related parameters (both subjective and objective) and the onset of a migraine attack. This was a prospective, ambulatory study in 17 migraine patients. We assessed changes in perceived stress and objective biological measures for stress (saliva cortisol, heart rate average [HRA], and heart rate variability [low-frequency power and high-frequency power]) over 4 days prior to the onset of spontaneous migraine attacks. Analyses were repeated for subgroups of patients according to whether or not they felt their migraine to be triggered by stress. There were no significant temporal changes over time for the whole group in perceived stress (p=0.50), morning cortisol (p=0.73), evening cortisol (p=0.55), HRA (p=0.83), low-frequency power (p=0.99) and high-frequency power (p=0.97) prior to or during an attack. Post hoc analysis of the subgroup of nine stress-sensitive patients who felt that >2/3 of their migraine attacks were triggered by psychosocial stress, revealed an increase for perceived stress (p=0.04) but no changes in objective stress response measures. At baseline, this group also showed higher scores on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (p=0.003) and the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (p=0.001) compared to non-stress-sensitive patients. Although stress-sensitive patients, in contrast to non-stress-sensitive patients, may perceive more stress in the days before an impending migraine attack, we failed to detect any objective evidence for a biological stress response before or during migraine attacks.

  16. Occupational stress in a rural hospital.

    PubMed

    McKenna, J F

    1985-01-01

    A rural hospital served as the research setting for this study. Respondents completed occupational stress questionnaires which incorporated five sources of work-related stress factors. Specifically, knowledge, patient care, conflict, environmental, and managerial sources of stress were assessed. The results of an analysis of variance procedure indicated that certain forms of occupational stress were clearly more associated with certain departmental groupings within the hospital than others.

  17. A study of RSI under combined stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. J.; Rosen, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of typical rigidized surface insulation material (RSI) under combined loading states was investigated. In particular, the thermal stress states induced during reentry of the space shuttle were of prime concern. A typical RSI tile was analyzed for reentry thermal stresses under computed thermal gradients for a model of the RSI material. The results of the thermal stress analyses were then used to aid in defining typical combined stress states for the failure analysis of RSI.

  18. The influence of deployment stress and life stress on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) diagnosis among military personnel.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Zitnik, Gerard A; McLean, Carmen P; Gehrman, Philip R

    2018-05-08

    There is increasing recognition that traumatic stress encountered throughout life, including those prior to military service, can put individuals at increased risk for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of both traumatic stress encountered during deployment, and traumatic stress over one's lifetime on probable PTSD diagnosis. Probable PTSD diagnosis was compared between military personnel deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF; N = 21,499) and those who have recently enlisted (N = 55,814), using data obtained from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Probable PTSD diagnosis was assessed using the PTSD Checklist. The effect of exposure to multiple types (i.e. diversity) of traumatic stress and the total quantity (i.e. cumulative) of traumatic stress on probable PTSD diagnosis was also compared. Military personnel who had been deployed experienced higher rates of PTSD symptoms than new soldiers. Diversity of lifetime traumatic stress predicted probable PTSD diagnosis in both groups, whereas cumulative lifetime traumatic stress only predicted probable PTSD for those who had been deployed. For deployed soldiers, having been exposed to various types of traumatic stress during deployment predicted probable PTSD diagnosis, but cumulative deployment-related traumatic stress did not. Similarly, the total quantity of traumatic stress (i.e. cumulative lifetime traumatic stress) did not predict probable PTSD diagnosis among new soldiers. Together, traumatic stress over one's lifetime is a predictor of probable PTSD for veterans, as much as traumatic stress encountered during war. Clinicians treating military personnel with PTSD should be aware of the impact of traumatic stress beyond what occurs during war. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational stress and employee turnover.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert S; Day, Andrea J; Morton, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data captured in January-March 2007 were examined in relation to turnover in males and females during the next five years. In general, most of the workplace stressors (such as role conflict or peer support) were not antecedents of turnover in any group. Junior personnel with psychological strain in 2007 had an increased risk of turnover in the next five years. Low commitment to the service in 2007 increased the odds of turnover in male and female juniors and in female officers. Female juniors with less effective skills for coping with stress and who exercised less frequently on a weekly basis were more likely to leave. An incidental finding was that the odds of turnover were three times greater in female officers with children than in female officers with no children. Stress management interventions focusing on effective coping and sports and exercise participation which are targeted appropriately may improve retention.

  20. Stress Disrupts Context-Dependent Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohringer, Andreas; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2009-01-01

    Memory is facilitated when the retrieval context resembles the learning context. The brain structures underlying contextual influences on memory are susceptible to stress. Whether stress interferes with context-dependent memory is still unknown. We exposed healthy adults to stress or a control procedure before they learned an object-location task…

  1. 78 FR 38878 - Critical Incident Stress Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...-0131, Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC00 Critical Incident Stress Plans AGENCY: Federal Railroad... incident stress plans that provide for appropriate support services to be offered to their employees who... railroad's critical incident stress plan, the type of employees to be covered by the plan, a requirement...

  2. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses...

  3. Modeling Reliability Growth in Accelerated Stress Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    MODELING RELIABILITY GROWTH IN ACCELERATED STRESS TESTING DISSERTATION Jason K. Freels Major...Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT-ENS-DS-13-D-02 MODELING RELIABILITY GROWTH IN ACCELERATED STRESS TESTING ...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS-DS-13-D-02 MODELING RELIABILITY GROWTH IN ACCELERATED STRESS TESTING Jason K. Freels

  4. The Stress Sources of Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner Altiok, Hatice; Ustun, Besti

    2013-01-01

    Overall, nursing training is a stressful process. Especially when second year nursing students are evaluated within the professional socialization theory, they are stated to be affected by these sources of stress more negatively. This research was carried out in order to determine the stress sources of second year nursing students. 15 nursing…

  5. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Facts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-22

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ... PTSD treated? POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER : THE FACTS! He who did well in war, earns the right to begin doing well in peace. —Robert...Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (NC- PTSD ), the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC),

  6. Healing Art: Young Children Coping With Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Judy Ann

    Helping young children to cope with stress plays a vital role in today's classroom. It is normal for children to experience stress, which comes from pressures such as family, friends, and school. Some of the indicators of stress in young children are behavioral changes (e.g., mood swings, changes in sleep patterns, and incontinence) and physical…

  7. Good Counsel on Curbing Counselors' Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucci, Frank A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents results from survey of 610 College Placement Council members to determine causes of career counselor stress. Offers 13 suggestions for relieving stress: learn to relax, resist perfectionism, learn to laugh, listen to soft music, try stress inoculation, practice desensitization, get organized, physical exercise, healthy lifestyles, get…

  8. Residual stresses of thin, short rectangular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andonian, A. T.; Danyluk, S.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the residual stresses in thin, short rectangular plates is presented. The analysis is used in conjunction with a shadow moire interferometry technique by which residual stresses are obtained over a large spatial area from a strain measurement. The technique and analysis are applied to a residual stress measurement of polycrystalline silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film growth technique.

  9. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  10. Stress Testing of Data-Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leucht, Kurt; Bedette, Guy

    2006-01-01

    NetStress is a computer program that stress-tests a data-communication network and components thereof. NetStress comprises two components running, respectively, in a transmitting system and a receiving system connected to a network under test

  11. Stress, Adaptive Coping, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.; Kearney, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between stress, adaptive coping, and life satisfaction among college students who reported having a friend or family member with eating disorder symptomatology. A hierarchical regression confirmed the study's hypotheses. Higher stress was linked with less life satisfaction. After stress was controlled, plan…

  12. New Horizons in Organizational Stress Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaffey, Thomas N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses and describes some active Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). An EAP is a stress intervention program that, when combined with other stress prevention procedures, can serve as an effective base for developing a comprehensive managerial system for combating organizational stress. (Author/IRT)

  13. Imaging of Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    transformative imaging agent. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Positron Emission Tomography, Oxidative Stress, Hydrogen Peroxide, 18F, 124I, Prostate...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0029 TITLE: Imaging of Oxidative Stress in...27September2012-26September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Imaging of Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  14. Meditation as an Intervention in Stress Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goleman, Daniel J.; Schwartz, Gary E.

    1976-01-01

    Meditation and relaxation were compared for ability to reduce stress reactions in a laboratory threat situation. Meditation can produce a psychophysiological configuration in stress situations opposite to that seen in stress-related syndromes. Research is indicated on clinical applications and on the process whereby meditation state effects may…

  15. Stress, Communication, and Marital Quality in Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledermann, Thomas; Bodenmann, Guy; Rudaz, Myriam; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The association between daily stress outside and inside of the relationship and marital functioning in the form of communication in conflict situations and marital quality was examined. We hypothesized that relationship stress mediates the association between external stress and marital functioning at the individual level, and that the association…

  16. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  17. Stress Indicators of Kentucky Elementary Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, H. J.; And Others

    Stress has become a problem to educational administrators who often report a high level of stress. This study explored the perceived stress levels of Kentucky elementary school principals. Questionnaires mailed to 200 elementary school principals produced 115 usable returns, a 57.5 percent response rate. The questionnaire consisted of a 24-item…

  18. Parenting Stress: Maternal & Child Health Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidin, Richard R.; Wilfong, Ellen M.

    A study was undertaken to examine the relationship among parenting stress, maternal and child health, and medical utilization. Participants were patients from a large group pediatric practice. Mothers (N=56) of patients completed the Parenting Stress Index. Twelve months after completion of the Parenting Stress Index, subjects were assessed using…

  19. Stress, Race and Substance Use in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the role of stress in the substance use behavior of black and white college students. We examine the issue across race and look both at measures of traumatic stress and life stress. A perusal of the research literature reveals that the relationship between traumatic stressors and substance use behavior among both black and…

  20. Adolescent Coping with Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Moran, Erica G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents living in poverty face numerous stressors that are toxic for their mental health and well-being. There are effective strategies for coping with poverty-related stress that have been shown to reduce psychological symptoms in the face of this stress. However, stress itself weakens an adolescent's ability to use these cognitively…