Science.gov

Sample records for raw baby corn

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  6. Direct bioconversion of raw corn stalk to hydrogen by a new strain Clostridium sp. FS3.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhao-Xia; Li, Xiao-Hu; Li, Wei-Wei; Bai, Yan-Xia; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2014-04-01

    A new strain FS3 which could achieve an efficient bioconversion of raw corn stalk to hydrogen had been isolated from anaerobic acclimated sludge, and identified as Clostridium butyricum on the basis of a series of physiological and biochemical experiments and 16S rDNA gene sequence. The strain could utilize various carbon sources to produce hydrogen. On the basis of single-factor experiments, the response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to optimize the media for hydrogen production. The maximum hydrogen yield of 92.9ml/g was observed under the optimal conditions: 20g/l raw corn stalk, 1.76g/l NH4HCO3, 0.91g/l KH2PO4 and 10.4ml/l nutrient solution. This finding opens a new avenue for direct conversion of raw cellulosic biomass to bio-hydrogen.

  7. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

  8. An investigation on different harvesting methods on young pods of KKU # 922 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar for baby corn production.

    PubMed

    Kasikranan, S

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to search for the best indicator to be used for the harvest of maize pods for baby corn production. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. The treatments are: T1 (Control) Taking sample when silks of female flower had extended from tip of pod up to 3 cm long T2, silks had extended 1 cm long T3, silks had extended 2 cm long T4, blooming of female flower for 2 days T5, blooming of female flowers for 4 days T6, blooming of female flower for 6 days T7, one third blooming of male flower T8, two third blooming of male flower and T9, full bloom of male flower. Five baby corn Characteristics were used i.e., (1) fresh weight of whole ears, (2) fresh weight of ears without husk, (3) commercial standard ears, (4) off standard ears and (5) disordered kernel-rows of ears. A range of scores from 1 to 9 was applied to judge quality and yield in each item of the five baby corn characteristics. A score of 1 = the best whilst further increases in scores indicated the decline in quality of baby corn. The results showed that an indicator for use in harvesting pods of maize for baby corn production was found with T6, i.e. the best time for the harvest of pods is when the female flowers had bloomed for 6 days after the appearance of silks.

  9. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  10. Ecosystem and human health impacts from increased corn production: vulnerability assessment of exposure to high nitrate concentrations in groundwater and blue baby syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. This study applies the geophysical relationships captured with linked meteorological, air quality and agriculture models to examine the impact of corn production before enactment of the RFS in 2002 and at the height of the RFS targets in 2022. In particular, we investigate the probability of high-levels of nitrate in groundwater resulting from increased corn production and then relate this vulnerability to the potential for infants to acquire Methemoglobinemia, or 'Blue Baby Syndrome'. Blue Baby Syndrome (BBS) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when the hemoglobin (Fe2+) in an infant's red blood cells is oxidized to methemoglobin (Fe3+), preventing the uptake of oxygen from the baby's blood. Exposure to high levels of nitrate in groundwater occur near the intersection of areas where surface water can more readily leach into shallow aquifers, wells are the main source of drinking water, and high nitrogen inputs exist. We use a coupled meteorological, agricultural and air quality model to identify areas vulnerable to increased nitrate contamination and associated risk to acquiring BBS. We first verify the relationship between predictive variables (e.g., nitrogen deposition and fertilization rates, landcover, soils and aquifer type) and nitrate groundwater levels by applying a regression model to over 800 nitrate measurements taken from wells located throughout the US (Figure 1). We then apply the regression coefficients to the coupled model output to identify areas that are at an increased risk for high nitrate groundwater levels in 2022. Finally, we examine the potential change in risk for acquiring BBS resulting from increased corn production by applying an Oral Reference Dose (Rf

  11. Production of gluten and germ by ethanol fermentation of raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Illinois ethanol fuel industry has grown to be an important part of our state's economy over the past 10 years. It provides an additional market for Illinois' abundant corn production, provides many industrial jobs, and substitutes a home-grown renewable energy resource for imported oil. More than 30 percent of all gasoline sold in Illinois contains 10 percent ethanol. The economics of producing ethanol from corn is strongly affected by the byproduct value and by the energy required in the production process. This document reports on efforts to research a new microbial process that would improve the ethanol fermentation process in both these areas. The new process allows direct fermentation of corn starch to ethanol without the usual requirement of cooking the corn. This reduces the amount of energy needed for production and recovers the protein-containing gluten and oil-containing germ with all of the original food value intact.

  12. 76 FR 81467 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Collection; Importation of Baby Corn and Baby Carrots From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. DATES: We will consider...: For information on regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia,...

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of hydroxycinnamic acid derivtives isolated from corn bran in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated raw 264.7 macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the effect of the 80 percent ethanolic extract of corn bran (EECB) on inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells was investigated. The EECB inhibited LPS induced NO production...

  14. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.

  15. Analysis of fumonisins B(1), B(2) and B(3) in corn-based baby food by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    D'Arco, Gilda; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Font, Guillermina; Damiani, Pietro; Mañes, Jordi

    2008-10-31

    A sensitive and reliable method using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyzer has been developed for the analysis of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) and fumonisin B(3) (FB(3)) in corn-based baby foods. Influence of several extraction parameters that affect PLE efficiency such as temperature, pressure, solvent extraction, number of cycles and dispersant/clean-up agents were studied. The selected PLE operating method was: 3g of sample was packed into 11 ml stainless-steel cell and fumonisins were extracted with methanol at 40 degrees C, 34 atm in one cycle of 5 min at 60% flush. The analytes were ionized in ESI operating with positive ion mode and identified by selecting two monitoring transitions, permitting quantification and confirmation in a single injection. Recoveries ranged from 68% to 83% at fortification levels of 200 microg kg(-1) with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 4% to 12%. The limits of quantification were from 2 microg kg(-1) for FB(1) and FB(2), and 5 microg kg(-1) for FB(3), which are below the maximum residue level established by the European Union legislation in infant formulas. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of twenty seven samples of baby food products collected from different markets, and one positive sample with a content of 15.9 microg kg(-1) for FB(1), 9.2 microg kg(-1)for FB(2) and 5.8 microg kg(-1) for FB(3) was obtained. Given the simplicity and potential of the proposed procedure, its application for safety control is recommended.

  16. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products. PMID:24025210

  17. Potential of Microbispora sp. V2 as biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of southern blight of Zea mays L (Baby corn)--in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P

    2014-11-01

    The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses.

  18. Comparison of raw starch hydrolyzing enzyme with conventional liquefaction and saccharification enzymes in dry-grind corn processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a conventional dry-grind corn process, starch is converted into dextrins using liquefaction enzymes at high temperatures (90–120 deg C) during a liquefaction step. Dextrins are hydrolyzed into sugars using saccharification enzymes during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) step...

  19. Baby Your Baby with Sunscreen

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159390.html Baby Your Baby With Sunscreen For starters, apply it at least 15 minutes ... way to protect babies is to avoid direct sun exposure, especially between 10 a.m. and 2 p. ...

  20. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    PubMed

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material.

  1. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis. PMID:26545758

  2. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis.

  3. Efficient production of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch by using a genetically modified L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient and alpha-amylase-secreting Lactobacillus plantarum strain.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Shinkawa, Satoru; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve direct and efficient fermentation of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch, we constructed L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum and introduced a plasmid encoding Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA). The resulting strain produced only D-lactic acid from glucose and successfully expressed amyA. With the aid of secreting AmyA, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished. After 48 h of fermentation, 73.2 g/liter of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.85 g per g of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of 99.6%. Moreover, a strain replacing the ldhL1 gene with an amyA-secreting expression cassette was constructed. Using this strain, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics. This is the first report of direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw starch.

  4. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices. PMID:25475297

  5. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices.

  6. Baby universes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 0+1 DIMENSIONS * Third Quantization of Free One-dimensional Universes * Third Quantization of Interacting One-Dimensional Universes * The Single-Universe Approximation and Dynamical Determination of Coupling Constants * The Third Quantized Uncertainty Principle * THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 3+1 DIMENSIONS * The Gauge Invariant Action * Relation to Other Formalisms * PARENT AND BABY UNIVERSES * The Hybrid Action * Baby Universe Field Operators and Spacetime Couplings * INSTANTONS-FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO QUANTUM GRAVITY * Quantum Mechanics * Quantum Field Theory * Quantum Gravity * Axionic Instantons * The Small Expansion Parameter * THE AXION MODEL AND THE INSTANTON APPROXIMATION * THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT * The Hawking-Baum Argument * Baby Universes and Coleman's Argument * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  7. Baby massage.

    PubMed

    Carr, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Having initially trained as a nurse and then a midwife, massage for me was back to hands on care. In 1992, as part of my continuing professional development, I undertook an anatomy, physiology and massage course. My aim was to acquire skills that could benefit the mothers I cared for. My journey with baby massage began when I had my first son in 1993. At that time there were no courses or sessions on baby massage available but I did adapt some of the massage techniques I had learnt during my massage course to benefit me and my son. PMID:24163920

  8. Babies and shots

    MedlinePlus

    Babies and vaccines; Babies and immunizations; Babies and vaccinations; Chickenpox - shots; DTaP - shots; Hepatitis A - shots; Hepatitis B - shots; Hib - shots; Haemophilus influenza - shots; Influenza - shots; Meningococcal - ...

  9. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  10. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  11. Shaken baby symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby syndrome is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can ...

  12. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations For Preterm Babies Page Content Some parents of ... full-term and preterm babies. The hepatitis B vaccine deserves special mention. In most circumstances, the AAP ...

  13. Bonding with Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... middle-of-the-night feeding and diaper change reading or singing to baby giving the baby a ...

  14. Breastfeed Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips 9 of 10 sections Take Action: Vitamin D Give your baby vitamin D. Babies need vitamin D for healthy bone growth. Even if you take extra vitamin D, your breast milk won’t provide enough vitamin ...

  15. Your Colicky Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... of swallowing too much air while crying. Some theories suggest that colic happens when food moves too ... baby's digestive system or is incompletely digested. Other theories are that colic is due to a baby's ...

  16. The Physics of Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemella, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Since the 2011 birth of my daughter I have been a 100% as a stay-at-home dad and 50% researcher. My ``Routine Adventures'' in the baby universe are the subject of this fun talk that presents the unique challenges of baby physics. Topics include ``Schroedinger's Baby'' and ``The Entropy of Rice.''

  17. The Baby Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Darby L.; Verdeyen, Tasha B.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a project about babies undertaken by a class of children ranging in age from 2.9 years to 3.9 years old in a small Illinois town. Throughout this project, the children studied equipment and supplies needed to care for babies. They made dolls for the classroom, constructed a cradle, made observational drawings, created topic…

  18. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore Fact Sheets 1 Check Out Our Latest Facebook Posts MotherToBaby 4 hours ago If you are ... part of your routine. If you... View on Facebook · Share MotherToBaby 2 days ago A powerful piece ...

  19. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  20. Corn oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Because of its pleasant nutty flavor, its good stability, and its popularity for making margarines, corn oil has long been considered a premium vegetable oil. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of ...

  1. Bringing Your Baby Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid suffocation. Chances are much better that you'll bring home a calm, contented baby if you ... by the manufacturer before the second birthday, you'll need to use a convertible seat designed for ...

  2. Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)

  3. Baby supplies you need

    MedlinePlus

    ... because some babies are sensitive to them. Vaseline (petroleum jelly): good to prevent diaper rash, and to ... 2014 Updated by: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, ...

  4. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain, the heart and lungs, are forming. The placenta grows in your uterus and supplies the baby ... like alcohol, cigarette smoke and drugs through the placenta, too. So don’t drink alcohol , smoke , use ...

  5. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  6. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... old, most babies have developed the fine motor skills — the small, precise movements — needed to pick up ... practice soon evolves into a masterful and efficient skill. Allow your child to self-feed as much ...

  7. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Shaken Baby Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  8. Infants & Toddlers: "Baby Moves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…

  9. Baby universes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Barkley, J.; Budd, T.; Loll, R.

    2011-11-01

    The behavior of baby universes has been an important ingredient in understanding and quantifying non-critical string theory or, equivalently, models of two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity coupled to matter. Within a regularized description based on dynamical triangulations, we amend an earlier conjecture by Jain and Mathur on the scaling behavior of genus-g surfaces containing particular baby universe 'necks', and perform a non-trivial numerical check on our improved conjecture.

  10. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

  11. When Babies Scream: Why Babies Scream and What to Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    When a baby screams, that is a signal that all is not well for the body of the baby, for her emotional well-being, and/or for the baby's relationship with the teacher. During the first year of life, infants learn that adults are in control of providing reassuring care. Adults will "make things better" when a baby's tummy feels horribly empty, when…

  12. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before ... A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a baby before birth may seem ...

  13. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  14. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... because the lungs of preterm babies often lack surfactant, a liquid substance that allows the lungs to remain expanded. Treatment: Artificial surfactants can be used to treat these babies, along ...

  15. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  16. Bah's Baby Brother Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapahonso, Luci

    This illustrated story, written for Native American children, stresses the importance of not drinking alcohol and taking care of oneself during pregnancy. The story centers on Bah, a young Native American girl whose mother is going to have a baby. Bah is very excited about getting a baby brother or sister and wants the baby to be healthy and…

  17. Babies Need Tummy Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Printer-Friendly Email Page Skip sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not ...

  18. No Baby Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    "No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…

  19. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  20. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  1. Aloof baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We show that a suitable choice for the potential term in the two-dimensional baby Skyrme model yields solitons that have a short-range repulsion and a long-range attraction. The solitons are therefore aloof, in the sense that static multi-soliton bound states have constituents that preserve their individual identities and are sufficiently far apart that tail interactions yield small binding energies. The static multi-soliton solutions are found to have a cluster structure that is reproduced by a simple binary species particle model. In the standard three-dimensional Skyrme model of nuclei, solitons are too tightly bound and are often too symmetric, due to symmetry enhancement as solitons coalesce to form bound states. The aloof baby Skyrmion results endorse a way to resolve these issues and provides motivation for a detailed study of the related three-dimensional version of the Skyrme model.

  2. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  3. "Baby rattle" pelvis dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cormier-Daire, V; Savarirayan, R; Lachman, R S; Neidich, J A; Grace, K; Rimoin, D L; Wilcox, W R

    2001-04-15

    We report an apparently previously undescribed lethal skeletal dysplasia, clinically resembling achondrogenesis, but with distinct radiologic and chondro-osseous morphologic features. These comprise bifid distal ends of the long bones of the limbs, absent vertebral body ossification, a unique "baby rattle" pelvic configuration with tall and broad ilia, absent endochondral ossification, regions of mesenchymal cells within the resting cartilage, and abnormal mesenchymal ossification. PMID:11337746

  4. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  5. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  6. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  7. Your baby in the birth canal

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby's head to pass through the pelvis. Internal Rotation As your baby's head descends further, the head ... rotates under and around the pubic bone. External Rotation As the baby's head is delivered, it will ...

  8. Baby universes with induced gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yihong; Gao, Hongbo

    1989-12-01

    Some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. The authors prove that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential.

  9. Corn insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  10. Shaken baby syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, I

    2002-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is the most common cause of death or serious neurological injury resulting from child abuse. It is specific to infancy, when children have unique anatomic features. Subdural and retinal haemorrhages are markers of shaking injury. An American radiologist, John Caffey, coined the name whiplash shaken infant syndrome in 1974. It was, however, a British neurosurgeon, Guthkelch who first described shaking as the cause of subdural haemorrhage in infants. Impact was later thought to play a major part in the causation of brain damage. Recently improved neuropathology and imaging techniques have established the cause of brain injury as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive and specific method of confirming a shaking injury. Families of children with subdural haemorrhages should be thoroughly investigated by social welfare agencies. PMID:12509690

  11. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important.

  12. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important. PMID:27118366

  13. In re Baby M.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    In 1985 William Stern and Mary Beth Whitehead signed a surrogate parenting agreement which provided that Whitehead would be inseminated with Stern's semen and would surrender any resulting child to him and his wife, at which time she would be paid $10,000. Whitehead subsequently tried to keep the child, but the New Jersey Superior Court (Chancery Division/Family Part, Bergen County) awarded temporary custody of "Baby M" to the Sterns and then ruled on 31 March 1987 that the surrogacy contract was valid and that Stern should have sole custody, with Whitehead's parental rights to be terminated and Mrs. Stern given the right to adopt the child. In the current decision, the New Jersey Supreme Court upholds the awarding of custody to Mr. Stern as in the child's best interest, but holds the contract to be unenforceable and restores Whitehead's parental rights, leaving the terms of her visitation rights as noncustodial parent to be established by the trial court.

  14. Isorotating baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halavanau, A.; Shnir, Ya.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss how internal rotation with fixed angular frequency can affect the solitons in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken to the SO(2). Two particular choices of the potential term are considered, the “old” potential and the “new” double vacuum potential, We do not impose any assumptions about the symmetry on the fields. Our results confirm existence of two types of instabilities determined by the relation between the mass parameter of the potential μ and the angular frequency ω. It is shown that multi-Skyrmions in the model with old potential at some critical value of the angular frequency become unstable with respect to decay into single Skyrmion constituents.

  15. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources

  16. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your ... Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  17. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Mian, Maha; Shah, Janki; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar

    2015-06-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs in infants as a result of the brain pushing against the skull due to severe acceleration-deceleration forces. Symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include subdural, subarachnoid, and retinal hemorrhages. MRI and ocular examinations are used to determine the extent of mental and visual damage and β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining is used to detect axonal injuries. Surgeries such as Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) evacuation surgery and the Burr hole craniotomy are used to treat Shaken Baby Syndrome; however, the prognosis is poor in many cases. Because of the severity of Shaken Baby Syndrome and its traumatic and sometimes fatal effects, it is important to educate new parents, nurses, and doctors on the syndrome in order to prevent incidents.

  18. The Baby Boomers’ Intergenerational Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130

  19. Sterol composition of Bulgarian soya and corn oils.

    PubMed

    Milkova, T; Popov, A; Selva, A; Vettori, U

    1977-01-01

    The free sterols, the sterol esters and the sterol glycosides of the raw soya and corn oils as well as those of the technical lecithin and the deodorizer distillated of the latter oils were isolated by preparative TLC. The composition of each of the isolated sterol derivatives was determined by GLC and MS. Sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and an unknown sterol with a molecular weight of 428 are contained in almost all of the examined fractions of the soya oil and its refinement byproducts. Dehydrocampesterol is present in the free sterols of the raw soya oil and the soya lecithin. Stigmasterol is contained in the soya deodorizer distillate in high amounts. It was established that cholesterol was present in the sterol esters of the raw soya oil high amounts. Delta7-stigmastenol occurs only in the sterol esters of the latter oil. Sitosterol, campesterol and stimgasterol are the main components of all sterol fractions of the corn oil and its refinement products. Dehydrocampesterol and unknown sterols with molecular weights of 428 are present in the free sterols of the raw corn oil. Some sterol glycosides of the soya and corn lecithin are esterified with the same major fatty acid components of the glycerides, palmitic acid being the main one. The fatty acid compositon of sterol esters of the raw soya and corn oil roughly corresponds to the fatty acid composition of oils. PMID:558512

  20. Mother-baby package.

    PubMed

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  1. ["Baby cradle coop slots" for abandoned (anonymous) babies: legal problems].

    PubMed

    Riedel, U

    2006-04-01

    It is illegal to propagate or offer anonymous births or to "cradle" abandoned babies in anonymous coop slots ("Babyklappen" in German). Such offers must be rescinded. Offers concerning anonymity of births are ill-suited, since they do not save life. They are unnecessary, because women and children can be assisted even if they are in dire straits, by utilising available help as offered by statutory German child and adolescent aid institutions. Those illegal offers do not solve any problems but create new difficulties and result in lifelong misery for children and parents. Offers for anonymousness create a previously non-existent demand and discredit legal help facilities. Persons assisting anonymous deliveries or recovering "baby cradle" ("Babyklappen") children are obliged to report this to the local registrar's office (in hospitals by the hospital director). Anonymous babies must be immediately reported by hospitals or institutions to local police authorities, and they should be reported to the municipal Youth Office.

  2. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  3. Baby Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  4. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  6. Magnetothermodynamics of BPS baby skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetothermodynamics of skyrmion type matter described by the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model at zero temperature is investigated. We prove that the BPS property of the model is preserved also for boundary conditions corresponding to an asymptotically constant magnetic field. The BPS bound and the corresponding BPS equations saturating the bound are found. Further, we show that one may introduce pressure in the gauged model by a redefinition of the superpotential. Interestingly, this is related to non-extremal type solutions in the so-called fake supersymmetry method. Finally, we compute the equation of state of magnetized BSP baby skyrmions inserted into an external constant magnetic field H and under external pressure P , i.e., V = V ( P, H), where V is the "volume" (area) occupied by the skyrmions. We show that the BPS baby skyrmions form a ferromagnetic medium.

  7. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments. PMID:15586985

  8. "Babies Grow a Long Time": A Preschool Project about Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Andromahi

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…

  9. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Especially for ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  10. Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funds Request Information Get Involved Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby Home Grieving Families Surviving the ... Candle on For Families Who Have Experienced the Death of a Baby The numbers are staggering. Every ...

  11. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day). Feed your baby when they seems hungry. Signs include smacking lips, making suckling movements, and ... to feed her. This means she is very hungry. Your baby should not sleep more than 4 ...

  12. Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160211.html Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development Tiny movements help ... 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When parents watch babies sleep, they often assume that the tiny twitches they ...

  13. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth > For ... sleep sooner. continue My baby falls asleep while nursing. What can I do? Newborns often fall asleep ...

  14. Spring and Baby Poultry are Here!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Spring and Baby Poultry are Here! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  15. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  16. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  17. Understanding How Babies Build Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    Language is a great communication system. Through language, humans can express logical reasoning, grief, happiness, wishes, descriptions, and a rich array of feelings and ideas. Every baby deserves the gift of language power! In this article, the author discusses how babies build language skills and presents activities to help babies build…

  18. Shaken Baby Syndrome. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Susan

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about shaken baby syndrome, brain damage resulting from forceful shaking of an infant or young child. Questions and answers address the following topics: what shaken baby syndrome is and other names for the condition; the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome; the incidence…

  19. How to Care for Your Baby's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... twice a day as soon as the first tooth appears. Until your child is 1 year old, you can use a wet washcloth or gauze to clean your baby's teeth and gums. Start using a soft baby toothbrush and a small dab of toothpaste that does not have fluoride in it when your baby is between 1 ...

  20. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  1. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…

  2. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  3. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive toys, this…

  4. Care of the Migrant Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard

    Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,…

  5. Drug Affected Babies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This 42-item annotated bibliography, represents a comprehensive effort to gather information on the educational problems of infant children of substance-abusing parents. Extensive searches were conducted in databases in the fields of education, medicine, social sciences, and the humanities. In particular, studies on the problems of "crack babies"…

  6. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  7. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  8. Baby Signs: How To Talk with Your Baby before Your Baby Can Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Based on research in infant sign language, this book teaches parents methods of communicating with their infants through the use of simple bodily movements that signify objects, events, and needs. Noting that communication between parent and child can flourish between 9 months and 30 months, when a baby's desire to communicate outstrips the…

  9. The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market.

    PubMed

    Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N

    1989-05-01

    This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.

  10. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  11. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD. PMID:16139550

  12. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Food Safety and Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a completely different person ...

  13. Baby universes in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-03-15

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 2} but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e{sup -N}) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  14. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Mishra, R N; Mishra, O P; Bhargava, V; Prakash, A

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and fifty six babies with birth weight between 1500-2000 g and 103 full term-appropriate for gestational age (FT-AGA) babies delivered at University Hospital, District Hospital and village homes were included for a comparative study of mortality, morbidity and growth pattern. The low birth weight (LBW) babies from the three centres had similar birth weight and gestational age. Neonatal mortality rates for the LBW babies were similar at the three centres. The main cause of death were infections and aspiration with rates again being similar. Diarrhea and respiratory tract infections were common causes of morbidity. The mortality rates for the LBW babies were significantly higher as compared to FT-AGA babies irrespective of the place of delivery. The incidence of morbidities like diarrhea and respiratory infections were also higher in LBW babies. However, the differences were statistically significant mostly in the preterm group. The weight gain of all LBW babies was similar up to 3 months of age. The findings of an identical outcome for the LBW babies at village level to those managed at hospitals is an encouraging trend to increasing domiciliary care for LBW babies. PMID:8406701

  15. Field trials of the Baby Check score card: mothers scoring their babies at home.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Green, S J; Cole, T J; Walker, K A; Bonnett, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card has been developed to help parents and health professionals grade the severity of acute illness in babies. This paper reports the results of two field trials in which mothers used Baby Check at home, 104 mothers scoring their babies daily for a week and 56 using it for six months. They all found Baby Check easy to use, between 68% and 81% found it useful, and 96% would recommended it to others. Over 70% of those using it daily used it very competently. Those using it infrequently did less well, suggesting that familiarity with the assessment is important. The scores obtained show that Baby Check's use would not increase the number of mothers seeking medical advice. With introduction and practice most mothers should be able to use Baby Check effectively. It should help them assess their babies' illnesses and make appropriate decisions about seeking medical advice.

  16. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  17. Stop experimenting on my baby!

    PubMed

    Holzman, I R

    1999-09-01

    Having a small sick baby in a neonatal intensive care unit can be an extremely difficult experience for any family. A minority family brings to this setting the additional burden of a concern that racism may affect the care their child receives. While the technology may be overwhelming, the unique rules and an apparent disparity in the enforcement of these rules can suggest discrimination. In some cases, these parental perceptions lead to a charge of experimentation. An increased understanding by health care providers of the cultural differences and life experiences that families bring to stressful situations can improve communication.

  18. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable.

    PubMed

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J

    2008-12-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales.

  19. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable.

    PubMed

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J

    2008-12-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales. PMID:18995909

  20. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  1. Resistance of early maturing sweet corn varieties to damage caused by Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Velasco, P; Revilla, P; Cartea, M E; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2004-08-01

    In Mediterranean countries, the principal pest of maize, Zea mays L., is Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre. The objective of this work was to study the resistance of the four early maturing varieties of sweet corn, Baby Orchard, Orchard Baby, Dorinny Sweet, and Golden Early Market, and to check the relationship among resistance to S. nonagrioides and infestation dates. In a previous study, these varieties had showed a confusing behavior, being the most resistant varieties to S. nonagrioides attack in some environments and the most susceptible in others. These varieties were again evaluated along with three medium maturing varieties, used as testers because they were more stable in both environments, by using two infestation dates. Plants were more damaged in the late infestation, but the effect of the infestation depends on the variety studied. Orchard Baby and Baby Orchard were the most resistant varieties under two infestation dates. These two varieties are closely related. Therefore, we can use either one as a source of precocity and resistance for modern sweet corn. Although many studies showed that early maturing inbreds had greater damage caused by S. nonagrioides and European corn borer than late maturing inbreds and hybrids, our results showed that the earliest maturing varieties were the most resistant. PMID:15384357

  2. Libraries Are for Babies, Too! [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    This video, produced and shot in Maine libraries, provides a tour of five different approaches to library services for babies. Highlights include: "Finger Fun for Babies" at the Portland Public Library; "Small Is Beautiful" at the Wells Library; unique outreach activities sponsored by the Casco Library and Warren Library in Westbrook; and a…

  3. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  4. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby KidsHealth > For Parents > Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby Print A A A Text Size What's ... recommendations. If you've recently moved to a new area, you may not have personal or social ...

  5. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family Print A A A ... familia If you're going to have a new brother or sister, you'll want to know ...

  6. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

  7. Visiting your baby in the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are having a hard time with your emotions, ask for the social worker in the NICU. Or, talk to your doctor. It is ok to ask for help. By taking care of yourself, you are taking care of your baby too. Your baby needs your love and touch to grow and improve.

  8. Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  9. Rich Responses Help Babies Learn and Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article reminds infant care teachers of the ways thoughtful interactions between adults and very young children teach babies and toddlers who they are as individuals. "When teachers take the time to respond respectfully and thoughtfully, babies and young children learn and thrive."

  10. The "baby lung" became an adult.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luciano; Marini, John J; Pesenti, Antonio; Quintel, Michael; Mancebo, Jordi; Brochard, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The baby lung was originally defined as the fraction of lung parenchyma that, in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), still maintains normal inflation. Its size obviously depends on ARDS severity and relates to the compliance of the respiratory system. CO2 clearance and blood oxygenation primarily occur within the baby lung. While the specific compliance suggests the intrinsic mechanical characteristics to be nearly normal, evidence from positron emission tomography suggests that at least a part of the well-aerated baby lung is inflamed. The baby lung is more a functional concept than an anatomical one; in fact, in the prone position, the baby lung "shifts" from the ventral lung regions toward the dorsal lung regions while usually increasing its size. This change is associated with better gas exchange, more homogeneously distributed trans-pulmonary forces, and a survival advantage. Positive end expiratory pressure also increases the baby lung size, both allowing better inflation of already open units and adding new pulmonary units. Viewed as surrogates of stress and strain, tidal volume and plateau pressures are better tailored to baby lung size than to ideal body weight. Although less information is available for the baby lung during spontaneous breathing efforts, the general principles regulating the safety of ventilation are also applicable under these conditions. PMID:26781952

  11. Binocular Fixation in the Newborn Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Alan M.; Findlay, John M.

    1975-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which 15 babies were presented with visual stimuli which varied in shape and distance from the eye. Results indicated that the majority of subjects binocularly fixated all three stimuli and it was concluded that the newborn baby has the basic requirements for binocular vision. (Author/GO)

  12. Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…

  13. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1) the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2) the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner. PMID:27493815

  14. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  15. Production of apple-based baby food: changes in pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Kovacova, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimir; Kohoutkova, Jana; Lansky, Miroslav; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Apples represent the main component of most fruit-based baby food products. Since not only fruit from organic farming, but also conventionally grown fruit is used for baby food production, the occurrence of pesticide residues in the final product is of high concern. To learn more about the fate of these hazardous compounds during processing of contaminated raw material, apples containing altogether 21 pesticide residues were used for preparation of a baby food purée both in the household and at industrial scale (in the baby food production facility). Within both studies, pesticide residues were determined in raw apples as well as in final products. Intermediate product and by-product were also analysed during the industrial process. Determination of residues was performed by a sensitive multi-detection analytical method based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The household procedure involved mainly the cooking of unpeeled apples, and the decrease of residues was not extensive enough for most of the studied pesticides; only residues of captan, dithianon and thiram dropped significantly (processing factors less than 0.04). On the other hand, changes in pesticide levels were substantial for all tested pesticides during apple processing in the industrial baby food production facility. The most important operation affecting the reduction of residues was removal of the by-products after pulping (rest of the peel, stem, pips etc.), while subsequent sterilisation has an insignificant effect. Also in this case, captan, dithianon and thiram were identified as pesticides with the most evident decrease of residues.

  16. Domain C of thermostable α-amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans mediates raw starch adsorption.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Deepika; Satyanarayana, T

    2014-05-01

    The gene (1,542 bp) encoding thermostable Ca(2+)-independent and raw starch hydrolyzing α-amylase of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans encodes for a protein of 50 kDa (Gt-amyII) with 488 amino acids. The enzyme is optimally active at pH 7.0 and 60 °C with a t 1/2 of 19.4 h at 60 and 4 h at 70 °C. Gt-amyII hydrolyses corn and tapioca raw starches efficiently and therefore finds application in starch saccharification at industrial sub-gelatinisation temperatures. The starch hydrolysis is facilitated following adsorption of the enzyme to starch at the C-terminal domain, as confirmed by the truncation analysis. The adsorption rate constant of Gt-amyII to raw corn starch is 37.6-fold greater than that for the C-terminus truncated enzyme (Gt-amyII-T). Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic analysis in terms of equilibrium parameter (K R) suggested that the adsorption of Gt-amyII to corn starch is more favourable than that of Gt-amyII-T. Thermodynamics of temperature inactivation indicated a decrease in thermostabilisation of Gt-amyII upon truncation of its C-terminus. The addition of raw corn starch increased t 1/2 of Gt-amyII, but it has no such effect on Gt-amyII-T. It can, therefore, be stated that Gt-amyII binds to raw corn starch via C-terminal region that contributes to its thermostability. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that starch binding region of Gt-amyII is, in fact, the non-catalytic domain C, and not the typical SBD of CBM families. The role of domain C in raw starch binding throws light on the evolutionary path of the known SBDs.

  17. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  18. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  19. Babies, Television and Videos: How Did We Get Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen; Richert, Rebekah A.; Robb, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Baby media have exploded in the past decade, and children younger than 2 are showing increased use of these baby media. This paper examines the historical evidence of babies' use of television since the 1950s as well as the various factors that have given rise to the current increase in screen media for babies. We also consider the ubiquitous role…

  20. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  1. Minding the baby a reflective parenting program.

    PubMed

    Slade, Arietta; Sadler, Lois; De Dios-Kenn, Cheryl; Webb, Denise; Currier-Ezepchick, Janice; Mayes, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Minding the Baby, an interdisciplinary, relationship based home visiting program, was initiated to help young, at-risk new mothers keep their babies (and themselves) "in mind" in a variety of ways. The intervention--delivered by a team that includes a nurse practitioner and clinical social worker--uses a mentalization based approach; that is, we work with mothers and babies in a variety of ways to develop mothers' reflective capacities. This approach--which is an adaptation of both nurse home visiting and infant-parent psychotherapy models--seems particularly well suited to highly traumatized mothers and their families, as it is aimed at addressing the particular relationship disruptions that stem from mothers' early trauma and derailed attachment history. We discuss the history of psychoanalytically oriented and attachment based mother-infant intervention, the theoretical assumptions of mentalization theory, and provide an overview of the Minding the Baby program. The treatments of two teenage mothers and their infants are described.

  2. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a new sibling include Look at picture books about a new baby . At the very least, ... he starts asking about mom's growing "stomach." Picture books for preschoolers can be very helpful. So can ...

  3. Questions Parents Ask about Baby Shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby against these diseases? No. Breastfeeding offers temporary immunity against some minor infections like colds, but it ... preferable to “artificial” vaccination, leading to a “natural” immunity. Some even arrange chickenpox “parties” to ensure their ...

  4. Why lions roar like babies cry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    When an angry lion roars, the sounds it emits can terrify anyone within earshot. But, as Ingo Titze explains, the properties of a lion's roar have some surprising similarities with those of a crying baby.

  5. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough infographic . Keep Your Baby's Whooping Cough Vaccine Current Getting the whooping cough vaccine during pregnancy provides ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do ...

  6. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... problems with memory and attention severe mental retardation cerebral palsy Even in milder cases, in which babies look ...

  7. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food.

    PubMed

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended.

  8. Your Baby's Development: The First Trimester

    MedlinePlus

    ... During this stage, the baby is called an embryo. What changes occur during the embryonic stage? During ... parts begin to develop. The cells of the embryo (called embryonic stem cells) multiply and change into ...

  9. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? Skip sharing on ... health care provider during your prenatal visits. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

  10. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  11. Protect Your Baby from Group B Strep!

    MedlinePlus

    ... from spreading to your baby. The antibiotic (usually penicillin) is given to you through an IV (in ... vein) during childbirth. If you are allergic to penicillin, there are other antibiotics to help treat you ...

  12. Protect Yourself and Your Baby from Dengue

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent dengue virus infection during pregnancy » Use mosquito repellents with up to 50% DEET, picaridin, IR3535 or ... For babies over 2 months of age, use repellents with up to 30% DEET, picaridin or IR3535. ...

  13. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin. PMID:11917305

  14. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

    2013-11-01

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  15. The ART of marketing babies.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism. PMID:22106569

  16. The ART of marketing babies.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.

  17. When to transfuse preterm babies

    PubMed Central

    Bell, EF

    2009-01-01

    The physiological anaemia experienced by preterm babies is exacerbated by common care practices such as early clamping of the umbilical cord at birth and gradual exsanguination by phlebotomy for laboratory monitoring. The need for subsequent transfusion with red blood cells can be reduced by delaying cord clamping for 30–60 s in infants who do not require immediate resuscitation. The need for transfusions can be further reduced by limiting phlebotomy losses, providing good nutrition, and using standard guidelines for transfusion based on haemoglobin or haematocrit. What those guidelines should be is not clear. Analysis of two recent large clinical trials comparing restrictive and liberal transfusion guidelines leads to several conclusions. Restrictive transfusion guidelines may reduce the number of transfusions given, but there is no reduction in donor exposures if a single-donor transfusion programme is used. There is some evidence that more liberal transfusion guidelines may help to prevent brain injury, but information on the impact of transfusion practice on long-term outcome is lacking. Until further guidance emerges, transfusion thresholds lower than those used in the two trials should not be used, as there is no evidence that lower thresholds are safe. PMID:18653585

  18. Breast is best for babies.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Sauve, Reginald S.

    2005-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding. Breast milk provides almost all the necessary nutrients, growth factors and immunological components a healthy term infant needs, Other advantages of breastfeeding include reduction of incidences and severity of infections; prevention of allergies; possible enhancement of cognitive development; and prevention of obesity, hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Health gains for breastfeeding mothers include lactation amenorrhea, early involution of the uterus, enhanced bonding between the mother and the infant, and reduction in incidence of ovarian and breast cancer. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is less expensive than formula feeding. In most cases, maternal ingestion of medications and maternal infections are not contraindications to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding, however, is contraindicated in infants with galactosemia. The management of common breastfeeding issues, such as breast engorgement, sore nipples, mastitis and insufficient milk, is discussed. Breastfeeding should be initiated as soon after delivery as possible. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play in promoting and protecting breastfeeding. PMID:16080672

  19. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in corn starch classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, N.; Wojciechowski, C.; Ta, C. D.; Huvenne, J. P.; Legrand, P.

    1997-06-01

    The authentication of food is a very important issue for both the consumer and the food industry at all levels of the food chain from raw materials to finished products. Corn starch can be used in a wide variety of food preparations such as bakery cream fillings, sauces, salad dressings, frozen foods etc. Many modifications are made to corn starch in connection with its use in agrofood. The value of the product increases with the degree of modification. Some chemical and physical tests have been devised to solve the problem of identifying these modifications but all the methods are time consuming and require skilled operators. We separate corn starches into groups related to their modification on the basis of the infrared spectra.

  20. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  1. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    PubMed

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn.

  2. Analysis of flour and food samples for cry9C from bioengineered corn.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Palmer A; Lampel, Keith A; South, Paul K; Assar, Samir K; Carter, Laurenda; Levy, Dan D

    2002-02-01

    StarLink corn is a variety of yellow corn that has been genetically modified by the insertion of an altered cry9C gene into the plant genome. resulting in expression of the insecticidal Cry9C protein. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has approved StarLink corn for use in animal feed but not in food intended for human consumption. Therefore, under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, any food intended for human consumption in which the presence of StarLink corn is indicated by the presence of either the Cry9C protein or the cry9C gene would be considered adulterated. Extraction and PCR-based methods were used to detect the presence of the cry9C DNA initially in corn flour and corn meal, and then these methods were extended to the analysis of processed corn products, including taco shells, cereals, baby foods, party snacks, and chips, for the presence of this modified genetic material. In a survey of 63 products, the cry9C transgene was detected in 4 taco shells.

  3. Alcohol fermentation of corn starch digested by Chalara paradoxa amylase without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Mikuni, K.; Monma, M.; Kainuma, K.

    1987-04-01

    Alcohol fermentation of corn starch without cooking was performed by using Chalara paradoz glucoamylase preparation, which had stronger raw starch digesting activity than those of the conventionally known glucoamylases. A raw corn starch-enzyme-yeast mixture was fermented optimally at pH 5.0 and 30/sup 0/C for five days and produced ethanol. The yields of ethanol were between 63.5 and 86.8% of the theoretical value by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and between 81.1 and 92.1% of the theoretical value by sake yeast (Saccharomyces sake).

  4. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and....1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and glutelin. Corn gluten is...

  5. Feasibility of anaerobic digested corn stover as biosorbent for heavy metal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Peng, Shu-chuan; Wan, Zheng-qiang; Yue, Zheng-bo; Wu, Jian; Chen, Tian-hu

    2013-03-01

    Anaerobic digested (AD) corn stover collected from a lab-scale reactor was used as bioadsorbent to remove the heavy metal in aqueous solution. Effects of contact time and initial heavy metal concentrations on the removal process of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacities of AD corn stover obtained from Langmuir isotherm models were 83.3 and 50.0mg/g for Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was also used to investigate the surface characteristic of raw and heavy metal loaded AD corn stover.

  6. Succinic acid production from corn stover by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Pu; Fang, Lin; Xu, Yan; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhi-Hao

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) technique was applied for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with corn stover as the raw material. The process parameters of SSF, including corn stover pretreatment condition, substrate concentration, enzyme loading and fermentation temperature were investigated. Results indicated that pretreating corn stover with diluted alkaline was beneficial for the succinic acid production, and succinic acid yield could be significantly increased when adding the cellulase supplemented with cellobiase. The maximal succinic acid concentration and yield could reach 47.4 g/l and 0.72 g/g-substrate, respectively. The corresponding operation conditions were summarized as follows: SSF operation at 38 °C for 48 h, diluted alkaline pretreated corn stover as substrate with concentration of 70 g/l, enzyme loading of 20FPU cellulase and 10 U cellobiase per gram substrate. This result suggested an industrial potential of succinic acid production by using SSF and corn stover.

  7. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzollo, Jean

    This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

  8. Bringing Up Baby with Baby Signs: Language Ideologies and Socialization in Hearing Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the functional roles of "baby signing" in three hearing families in the United States, as well as a discussion of the social and ideological implications of the practice. Baby signing fits neatly into the parenting ideologies prevalent in the professional class in the United States that value early…

  9. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

    2012-01-01

    We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate "Babies,"…

  10. Production and Characteristics of Raw-Starch-Digesting α-Amylase from a Protease-Negative Aspergillus ficum Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Shinsaku; Teramoto, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Mutational experiments were carried out to decrease the protease productivity of Aspergillus ficum IFO 4320 by using N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. A protease-negative mutant, M-33, exhibited higher α-amylaseactivity than the parent strain under submerged culture at 30°C for 24 h. About 70% of the total α-amylase activity in the M-33 culture filtrate was adsorbed onto starch granules. The electrophoretically homogeneous preparation of raw-starch-adsorbable α-amylase (molecular weight, 88,000), acid stable at pH 2, showed intensive raw-starch-digesting activity, dissolving corn starch granules completely. The preparation also exhibited a high synergistic effect with glucoamylase I. A mutant, M-72, with higher protease activity produced a raw cornstarch-unadsorbable α-amylase. The purified enzyme (molecular weight, 54,000), acid unstable, showed no digesting activity on raw corn starch and a lower synergistic effect with glucoamylase I in the hydrolysis of raw corn starch. The fungal α-amylase was therefore divided into two types, a novel type of raw-starch-digesting enzyme and a conventional type of raw-starch-nondigesting enzyme. Images PMID:16347204

  11. Liver transplantation in small babies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, J; Gámez, M; Santamaría, M L; Murcia, J; Díaz, M C; Camarena, C; Jara, P; Tovar, J A

    1993-08-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage liver disease with 1- and 5-year survivals approaching 90% and 70%, respectively. Survival is influenced by the recipient's age, weight, primary disease, vascular malformations, and nutritional status. Younger patients weighing less than 13 kg are considered to be a high-risk group. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of this group of patients on the overall results of our pediatric liver transplant program. From January 1986 through January 1992 we performed 76 liver transplants in 59 pediatric patients. Sixteen received a second graft and a third was required in one. Fourteen patients weighed less than 13 kg (mean, 11 kg; range, 6 to 13 kg). Their mean age was 12 months, with a range of 8 to 36 months. Indications for transplantation were: biliary atresia (9), Byler's disease (1), tyrosinemia (3), and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (1). The incidence of rejection in this group (52%) was not significantly different from that in other patients (61%). Ten episodes of acute rejection required only steroids: in one monoclonal antibodies were added. Five patients had a new graft implanted, four for hepatic artery thrombosis and one for primary liver nonfunction. Nine patients are alive (64%) with the follow-up time ranging from 2 to 56 months (mean, 31). Five patients died of multiorgan failure (3), portal vein thrombosis (1), and primary liver nonfunction (1). Four-year graft and patient survival rates were 47% and 64%, respectively. Small babies are a high-risk group in a pediatric liver transplant program.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Babies behind bars; an Irish perspective.

    PubMed

    Enright, F; Boyle, T; Murphy, J

    2007-01-01

    In the Irish Prison service prison is not deemed suitable for babes. Rarely are mothers separated from their children in Ireland as they get temporary release renewed weekly to keep her at home with her baby. The governor explained the system of the prison which I detail below. The women's prison is now known as the Dochas Centre meaning hope, named so by the women themselves. We found that 14 babies lived in the centre with their mothers in the last 4 years. Their length of stay ranged from 2 days to 3 months. Of the 14 babies in prison, five were born to women who were pregnant on admission and the other nine brought their babies with them. Six women are separated from their children, in total 24, due to her incarceration. The implications are that a formal system is needed to plan the baby's admission, stay and discharge with formal links with HSE health and child protection systems where necessary. The HSE and the Irish prison's service are looking at further amalgamation or integration of health care into the prison system.

  13. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. PMID:26602942

  14. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Haberichter, Mareike; Krusch, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as the standard baby Skyrme model must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons while at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  15. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. PMID:12287620

  16. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions.

  17. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  18. [Severe hypernatraemic dehydration in collodion baby].

    PubMed

    Magid, Tobias; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Nymann, Peter; Hansen, Bo Mølholm

    2007-03-26

    Case report on severe hypernatraemic dehydration in a non-recognised collodion baby who also suffered from hydrops fetalis caused by supraventricular tachycardia. Excessive transcutaneous fluid loss caused s-Na+ reaching 182 mmol/l within 36 hours of birth. The infant was cautiously rehydrated during the following three days. No sign of neurologic impairment was observed. It is emphasized that early observation of the collodion baby must take place in a humidified incubator. Major weight changes in the newborn should always result in analysis of serum sodium.

  19. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  20. Hyperbiliverdinemia in the bronze baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S M; Wians, F H; Ackerman, N B; Davis, B M

    1987-01-01

    The bronze baby syndrome is an unusual complication of phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia in the neonate. The pigment or pigments responsible for the discoloration in this syndrome have not yet been identified. Suspected pigments include photodegradation products of bilirubin and copper-porphyrins. We present here the case of a neonate with bronze baby syndrome whose serum had increased spectral absorbance in the region of maximum absorbance for biliverdin. We suggest that biliverdin pigments may also contribute to the "bronze" color associated with this syndrome.

  1. Taking babies' temperatures: science versus social taboos in battle over Baby Check.

    PubMed

    Handysides, S

    1993-09-11

    Baby Check, a scoring system for assessing the severity of illness in babies under 6 months old, has not met with the success its developers expected. The inclusion of rectal temperature in the assessment was strongly opposed by the Royal College of Midwives, which refused to alter its view despite evidence of the safety and accuracy of rectal thermometry. British parents appear not to like rectal thermometers either. Most other medical bodies have supported Baby Check and the reason for midwives' opposition may have more to do with professional pique at not being consulted than clinical wisdom. PMID:8401058

  2. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in hospital.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Cole, T J; Green, S J; Walker, K A; Rennie, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card was used by junior paediatric doctors to assess 262 babies under 6 months old presenting to hospital. The duty registrar and two consultants independently graded the severity of each baby's illness without knowledge of the Baby Check score. The registrars assessed the babies at presentation while the consultants reviewed the notes. The consultants and registrars agreed about the need for hospital admission only about 75% of the time. The score's sensitivity and predictive values were similar to those of the registrars' grading. The score's specificity was 87%. Babies with serious diagnosis scored high, while minor illnesses scored low. The predictive value for requiring hospital admission increased with the score, rising to 100% for scores of 20 or more. The appropriate use of Baby Check should improve the detection of serious illness. It could also reduce the number of babies admitted with minor illness, without putting them at increased risk.

  3. 'Baby-Led' Weaning Doesn't Raise Choking Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies who feed themselves solid foods early on may not be at increased ... known as "baby-led" weaning: Instead of introducing solid foods the traditional way -- spoon-feeding rice cereal, ...

  4. Babies Often Put to Sleep in Unsafe Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160434.html Babies Often Put to Sleep in Unsafe Positions About 3,500 U.S. infants ... Despite decades of warnings from the "Back to Sleep" campaign, many parents are still putting their babies ...

  5. Why at Least 39 Weeks Is Best for Your Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need to have a c-section. A c-section can cause problems for your baby. Babies ... through the vagina, also called the birth canal.) C-sections can cause problems in future pregnancies. Once ...

  6. Bioaugmentation for electricity generation from corn stover biomass using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Yujie; Wang, Heming; Qu, Youpeng; Yu, Yanling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Nan; Wang, Elle; Lee, He; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-08-01

    Corn stover is usually treated by an energy-intensive or expensive process to extract sugars for bioenergy production. However, it is possible to directly generate electricity from corn stover in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through the addition of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC produced a maximum power of 331 mW/m2 with the bioaugmented mixed culture and corn stover, compared to 510 mW/m2 using glucose. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed the communities continued to evolve on both the anode and corn stover biomass over 60 days, with several bacteria identified including Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The use of residual solids from the steam exploded corn stover produced 8% more power (406 mW/m2) than the raw corn stover. These results show that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using naturally occurring bacteria.

  7. Raw Dough's a Raw Deal and Could Make You Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... homemade “play” clay? Do you eat at family restaurants that give kids raw dough to play with ... of the recalled flours had been sold to restaurants that allow children to play with dough made ...

  8. Infants & Toddlers: How Babies Use Gestures to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Evolution has provided babies with wonderful ways to get the loving attention and care that they need from adults. When a baby is distressed, his cry is the most primitive and powerful tool for bringing help. By the time a baby is 2 or 3 months old, his dazzling smile and crooked grin evokes tenderness, smiles, and nurturance from adults who are…

  9. Portrait of Promise: Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome. [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of St. Paul, MN.

    Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…

  10. Shaken Baby Syndrome: What Caregivers Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the causes of shaken baby syndrome and how to recognize, respond to, and prevent it. Identifies horseplay to avoid and recommends never shaking baby even for apnea. Offers 12 tips for working with crying babies and includes ten discussion questions to test knowledge of the syndrome. (DLH)

  11. Infant & Toddlers: How to Calm an Exuberant Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    It is important to understand that babies differ in temperament. Some are sensationally exuberant and loud. Others are more withdrawn and quiet. Babies also differ in tempo and style. Some eat with gusto. Others deliberately scoop a bit of cooked cereal onto a spoon and slowly munch on their food. Helping a baby learn to modulate voice tones means…

  12. Implementing the Fussy Baby Network[R] Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…

  13. With Babies and Banners: Illustrated Historical Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Lyn; Gray, Lorraine

    Background reading materials are provided in this booklet developed to be used in conjunction with the award winning color documentary film "With Babies and Banners." The film records the role that the women of Flint, Michigan, played in the great General Motors sit-down strike of 1937. The readings are suitable for college audiences and for…

  14. Evaluation of products for treating babies' napkins.

    PubMed Central

    Gaya, H.; Thirlwall, J.; Shaw, E. J.; Hassam, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A test is described for assessing the sanitizing effect of napkin treatment products on naturally urine-wetted and faecally-contaminated napkins. This test defines in-use conditions which closely resemble typical domestic situations. One napkin treatment product ('Napisan'), tested at two different concentrations and with challenges of different numbers of babies' napkins, performed satisfactorily under the conditions used. PMID:448064

  15. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and…

  16. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  17. Got Diabetes? Thinking about Having a Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... suh-lin) if ordered by your doctor. 4 Monitor your blood sugar often • Be aware that your blood sugar can ... you begin to take care of your baby. ✓ Monitor and control your blood sugar. ✓ See your doctor regularly. Usually twice a year, ...

  18. Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Seth

    2011-01-01

    In the article, "Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers", Moltz highlights how community colleges are currently implementing programs, such as the American Association of Community Colleges' Plus 50 Completion strategy, to encourage older learners to return to America's college campuses. The effects of the recent recession and the educational desires…

  19. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could retire. One…

  20. The Baby Boom--Entering Midlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.; De Vita, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. baby-boom generation, born between 1946 and 1964, is the largest generation in the nations's history. Numbering over 80 million people in 1990, this giant generation has indelibly changed U.S. society, requiring adjustments in schools, labor markets, housing markets, and government programs. Perhaps more than any other institution,…

  1. [New documentation on the Robert baby bottle].

    PubMed

    Julien, P

    1996-01-01

    The author makes known about a dozen unpublished documents (puzzle-cards, invoice, advertisements, post card, stamped tin signs printed in colors, catalogue, prospectuses) which shed light on the history of the manufacture Robert baby bottles (located successively in Dijon, Paris and in Martres-de-Veyre) and on the practice of bottle feeding. PMID:11624777

  2. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  6. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking.

    PubMed

    Harakotr, Bhornchai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Scott, Marvin Paul; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p⩽0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound and antioxidant activity. Steam cooking preserved more antioxidant compounds than boiling. Boiling caused a significant loss of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds into the cooking water. This cooking water is a valuable co-product because it is a good source of purple pigment. By comparing levels of antioxidant compounds in raw and cooked corn, we determined that degradation results in greater loss than leaching or diffusion into cooking water. Additionally, separation of kernels from the cob prior to cooking caused increased loss of antioxidant compounds. PMID:24996364

  7. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol...

  8. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS). Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group), multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months) that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine). The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier

  9. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  10. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals.

  11. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals. PMID:3745839

  12. Improvement, characterization and use of waste corn cob ash in cement-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanmaneechot, P.; Nochaiya, T.; Julphunthong, P.

    2015-12-01

    This work investigates the development of waste corn cob ash as supplementary cement replacement materials. The study focused on the effects of heat treatment on chemical composition, physical properties and engineering properties of corn cob ash. The results suggest corn cob ash that was heat treated at 600°C for 4 h shows percentage of SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 around 72%, which can be classified as Class N calcined natural pozzolan, as prescribed by ASTM C618. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the amorphous silica phase increased with increasing calcining temperatures. The water requirement, initial setting time and final setting time of specimens increased with increasing replacement percentage of raw or treated corn cob ash. The morta cubes which used 20% of treated corn cob ash replaced cement showed 103% of the 28 days compressive strength as compared to reference samples. The corn cob ash that was treated at 600°C for 4 h samples shows slightly higher effectiveness for improving the splitting tensile strength and compressive strength of concrete when compared to the untreated corn cob ash.

  13. Traumatic brain injury and shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Wellingson S; Soares, Matheus S; Amorim, Robson L O; de Andrade, A Ferreira; Matushita, Hamilton; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2011-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is a serious form of physical child abuse, which is frequently overlooked. It is defined as vigorous manual shaking of an infant who is being held by the extremities or shoulders, leading to whiplash-induced intracranial and intraocular bleeding and no external signs of head trauma. This syndrome is seen most commonly in children under 2 years, mainly in children under 6 months. This article summarizes issues related to clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk factors, and interventions for healthcare professionals.

  14. On the death of a baby.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, R; Stinson, P

    1981-01-01

    Andrew was a desperately premature baby weighing under two pounds. He died after months of "heroic' efforts in an intensive care facility. The story of his short cruel institutionalised life is a case study in the limits and excesses of modern medicine. The night he told us our son Andrew was about to die the doctor who had taken charge of him six months before also told us we were "intellectually tight' that we had "no feelings only thoughts and words and strategies'. We were "bad parents'. As the parents of a five-year-old daughter we knew the love a mother and father feels for children. Yet as Andrew's parents we were used to condemnation and insult. Andrew was a baby born 15 weeks prematurely weighing only 1lb 12oz and in a state of painful deterioration almost from the start. We wanted him to be allowed to die a natural death. Andrew's story is the story of what can happen when a baby becomes hopelessly entrapped in an intensive care unit where the machinery is more sophisticated than the code of law and ethics governing its use. The letter printed below was sent to the administrator and numerous personnel of the hospital that controlled the life and death of our son. The physician-in-chief of that hospital characterised it as a "carefully documented critique'. The letter appear here somewhat edited and abridged and the names of people and institutions have been changed all but our own. It is the personal record of what happened to our baby and to us. PMID:7205897

  15. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, displays its wings at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  16. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, stares at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  17. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, shows its fear and resentment of the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  18. Misshapen Heads in Babies: Position or Pathology?

    PubMed Central

    Bronfin, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    A newborn's skull is highly malleable and rapidly expanding. As a result, any restrictive or constrictive forces applied to a baby's head can result in dramatic distortions. These changes can be mild, reversible deformations or severe, irreversible malformations that can result in brain injury. This paper reviews the anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal brain and skull growth, the etiology of cranial deformation, the types of craniosynostosis most commonly seen in infants, and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21765737

  19. Community Colleges Offer Baby Boomers an Encore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2007-01-01

    A 2005 MetLife Foundation/Civic Ventures New Face of Work Survey found that many baby boomers are eager to make career changes that can launch a new chapter in their working lives while they make social contribution. The survey found that 50 percent of Americans age 50 to 70 want jobs that contribute to the greater good. It found that more than 53…

  20. Halogenated flame retardants in baby food from the United States and from China and the estimated dietary intakes by infants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2014-08-19

    Three categories of baby food (formula, cereal, and puree) were bought from United States and Chinese stores in 2013 and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and related flame retardants. The primary goal of this project was to investigate whether there were differences in the levels of flame retardants between these two nations' baby foods. The median concentrations of total PBDEs (sum of BDE-17, -28, -47, -49, -99, -100, -153, -183, and -209) were 21 and 36 pg/g fresh weight for the Unites States and Chinese baby foods, respectively. Among non-PBDE flame retardants, hexabromobenzene, Dechlorane Plus (DP), and decabromodiphenylethane were frequently detected (22-57%) with median concentrations of 1.6, 8.7, and 17 pg/g fresh weight for United States samples, and 1.3, 13, and 20 pg/g fresh weight for Chinese samples. In general, the flame retardant concentrations in the United States and Chinese samples were not statistically different, but very high DP concentrations were observed in one Chinese formula sample (4000 pg/g) and in one United States cereal sample (430 pg/g), possibly suggesting contamination of the raw materials or contamination during production of these two samples. A comparison of median estimated daily dietary intake rates of BDE-47, -99, and -153 with existing reference doses for neurodevelopmental toxicity and other existing criteria suggested no concerns for the consumption of these baby foods.

  1. The baby killers are still at large.

    PubMed

    Power, J

    1994-08-12

    This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago. PMID:12319575

  2. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)-dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper we present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.

  3. Bronze baby syndrome: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Jori, G; Reddi, E; Rubaltelli, F F

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the appropriateness of an animal model for the bronze baby syndrome. Ligation of the common bile duct in adult Wistar rats induces an accumulation of porphyrins and copper in the liver and a 20% conversion of protoporphyrin IX into (Cu(II)-protoporphyrin IX. Upon irradiation of these animals with super-blue lamps, the plasma content of Cu(II)-protoporphyrin increases by about 30%. Cholestasis also increases the recovery of porphyrins in the urine, although light treatment of ligated rats further increases urinary porphyrin excretion. The spectroscopic changes induced by irradiation of sera of ligated rats are consistent with the formation of products that have the typical spectrum found in bronze baby syndrome patients, i.e. a reduced absorbance in the visible region and an increased absorption in near-UV and red spectral regions. The products responsible for the brown discoloration found in bronze baby syndrome seem to result from phototransformation of copper-porphyrins subsequent to an electron transfer between photoexcited bilirubin and the copper ion.

  4. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

    DOE PAGES

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2016-01-25

    The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)- dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper wemore » present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.« less

  5. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  6. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  7. Baby-led weaning: transitioning to solid foods at the baby's own pace.

    PubMed

    Rapley, Gill

    2011-06-01

    Baby-led weaning is an approach to the introduction of solid foods that is being followed by increasing numbers of parents, but what is it, and should health visitors be encouraging it? This paper aims to refresh practitioners' background knowledge of complementary feeding and to outline the key features of baby-led weaning, as well as to explore the evidence that supports this approach as a logical adjunct to the move to six months for the introduction of solid foods. The more common concerns of parents and professionals, such as choking and iron intake, are addressed. Tips for implementing baby-led weaning are included and some of the potential benefits identified.

  8. Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads

    PubMed Central

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate () and nitrite () contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19 mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89 mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41 mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced. PMID:24804008

  9. Raw eggs-moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Doug

    1999-09-01

    High school physics students often have difficulty with understanding when and where to use an appropriate calculation to solve a problem. In this activity students have to solve a real problem using formulas they have seen before, but in a context with which they are unfamiliar; namely dropping a raw egg on a moving target-their instructor.

  10. Raw milk consumption and health.

    PubMed

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  11. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides. PMID:12020008

  12. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  13. What midwives need to know about baby massage.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2012-09-01

    Baby massage has become increasingly popular in the West among parents and healthcare practitioners alike, with numerous studies continuing to hail the benefits of taking time to massage and bond with your baby. Newborn and infant massage is of particular interest to midwives in their primary role, helping families to bond and heal the pain of traumatic births, but now many midwives are offering baby massage sessions privately in their spare time also. Here's the low down. PMID:23082398

  14. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and....1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in...

  16. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  17. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  18. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. PMID:26470183

  19. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  20. Diagravitropism in corn roots.

    PubMed

    Leopold, A C; Wettlaufer, S H

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  1. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  2. Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love. Birth to Age Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)…

  3. Manual Activity and Onset of First Words in Babies Exposed and Not Exposed to Baby Signing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…

  4. We want what’s best for our baby: Prenatal Parenting of Babies with Lethal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Krowchuk, Heidi; Hall, Wendasha Jenkins; Denney-Koelsch, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on qualitative research into the experience of couples who chose to continue their pregnancies after receiving a lethal fetal diagnosis, and to embrace the parenting of their baby in the shortened time they have. This analysis of interview data is part of a larger research project describing parents’ experiences of continuing pregnancy with a known lethal fetal diagnosis (LFD). PMID:26594107

  5. Leaching of bisphenol A from new and old babies' bottles, and new babies' feeding teats.

    PubMed

    Tan, B L L; Mustafa, A M

    2003-01-01

    Bisphenol A is the monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate. Bisphenol A is also known to mimic the female hormone estrogen. In this study, the possibility of the leaching of bisphenol A from polycarbonate babies' bottles and feeding teats was investigated. Bisphenol A was extracted from water samples exposed to the bottles and teats using liquid-liquid extraction. Bisphenol A was analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with quadrapole detector in selected ion monitoring mode. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 100 used babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.71 +/- 1.65 ng/cm2 (mean +/- standard deviation) and 3.37 +/- 5.68 ng/cm2 respectively. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 30 new babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.03 +/- 0.02 ng/cm2 and 0.18 degrees 0.30 ng/cm2 respectively. Bisphenol A was observed to have leached from babies' feeding teats into 37 degrees C water ranged from non-detectable to 22.86 ng/g. The technique employed in this study is fast, reliable and economical. PMID:15038686

  6. [Outcome after a shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lind, K; Laurent-Vannier, A; Toure, H; Brugel, D-G; Chevignard, M

    2013-04-01

    The Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is a severe inflicted brain injury due to an adult violently shaking an infant. Diagnostic guidelines have been recently published by the "Haute Autorité de santé". The mortality rate after SBS is 21.6 % and the long-term outcome is good for only 8 to 36 % patients followed over more than 5 years. The aim of this article is to describe sequelae after a SBS, their mechanisms, prognostic factors and recommendations for a better long-term care of the patients.

  7. Infertility trial outcomes: healthy moms and babies.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted.

  8. Inspecting baby Skyrmions with effective metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Goulart, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper we investigate the causal structure of the baby Skyrme model using appropriate geometrical tools. We discuss several features of excitations propagating on top of background solutions and show that the evolution of high frequency waves is governed by a curved effective geometry. Examples are given for which the effective metric describes the interaction between waves and solitonic solutions such as kinks, antikinks, and hedgehogs. In particular, it is shown how violent processes involving the collisions of solitons and antisolitons may induce metrics which are not globally hyperbolic. We argue that it might be illuminating to calculate the effective metric as a diagnostic test for pathological regimes in numerical simulations.

  9. Advising parents on washing babies' clothes.

    PubMed

    Scowen, P

    1996-01-01

    Detergents and other laundry products are generally effective and safe for all the family, but use carefully according to the maker's instructions and keep out of the reach of children. Rinse thoroughly to remove detergent residue from fabrics. If handwashing clothes, dissolve detergent before immersing hands. Wear rubber gloves if possible. Wash, rinse and dry hands thoroughly after contact with detergent. If a baby or parent has eczema, it may be necessary to try different products to see which one the client can tolerate. A non-perfumed, non-enzyme product may be found less irritating. PMID:9077252

  10. Perceptions of baby talk, frequency of receiving baby talk, and self-esteem among community and nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B P; Rigby, H

    1996-03-01

    Community-living seniors (n = 113) and nursing home residents (n = 43) provided their impressions of baby-talk and neutral-talk scenarios and completed measures of functional health, need for succorance, and self-esteem. Two orthogonal dimensions were found in perceptions of baby talk: Warmth and Superiority. The personality trait of need for succorance was consistently associated with perceptions of warmth in baby talk, whereas functional health, age, and institutionalization were associated with perceptions of superiority. Significant interactions were found between perceptions of baby talk and frequency of receiving baby talk in the prediction of self-esteem, providing suggestive evidence for previously expressed concerns about potentially harmful effects of receiving baby talk on self-esteem among seniors who have negative perceptions of baby talk. However, older persons with positive perceptions of baby talk reported higher self-esteem when they frequently received baby talk, in accordance with person-environment theory. The self-esteem interaction for men occurred on the Superiority dimension, whereas the interaction for women occurred on the Warmth dimension.

  11. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  12. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  13. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  14. Corn tassel detection based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yane; Zhang, Dongxing; Yang, Wei; Li, Minzan

    2012-01-01

    Machine vision has been widely applied in facility agriculture, and played an important role in obtaining environment information. In this paper, it is studied that application of image processing to recognize and locate corn tassel for corn detasseling machine. The corn tassel identification and location method was studied based on image processing and automated technology guidance information was provided for the actual production of corn emasculation operation. The system is the application of image processing to recognize and locate corn tassel for corn detasseling machine. According to the color characteristic of corn tassel, image processing techniques was applied to identify corn tassel of the images under HSI color space and Image segmentation was applied to extract the part of corn tassel, the feature of corn tassel was analyzed and extracted. Firstly, a series of preprocessing procedures were done. Then, an image segmentation algorithm based on HSI color space was develop to extract corn tassel from background and region growing method was proposed to recognize the corn tassel. The results show that this method could be effective for extracting corn tassel parts from the collected picture and can be used for corn tassel location information; this result could provide theoretical basis guidance for corn intelligent detasseling machine.

  15. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  16. Importance of Preserving Raw Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nagihara, S.; Williams, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Our effort to make the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) data, acquired from 1969 to 1977, readily available to current and future researchers, as reported in this session last year, has made us realize some potentially serious problems that may be common to legacy scientific data. One such problem was the loss of key information contained in the original data. This happened (a) when the original investigators thought it was enough to archive only the data of interest to contemporary researchers; (b) when the data were reformatted to make them readily decipherable to current researchers by someone who did not fully understand the details of the data, thus introducing incorrectly translated information; (c) when errors associated with reading of the original data were not corrected; and (d) simply due to a programming error in reformatting. The only sure way to avoid such a problem is to archive the raw experimental data in addition to the processed data, even though they may not be readily decipherable to most current researchers. For such raw data to be useful, it is also important that complete metadata necessary to interpret the raw data be preserved.

  17. Let Baby Set the Delivery Date: Wait Until 39 Weeks if You Can

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Autism Spectrum Disorder Let Baby Set the Delivery Date Health Capsules ... the lifelong health of that baby.” search Features Autism Spectrum Disorder Let Baby Set the Delivery Date Wise Choices ...

  18. Baby Galaxies in the Adult Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This artist's conception illustrates the decline in our universe's 'birth-rate' over time. When the universe was young, massive galaxies were forming regularly, like baby bees in a bustling hive. In time, the universe bore fewer and fewer 'offspring,' and newborn galaxies (white circles) matured into older ones more like our own Milky Way (spirals).

    Previously, astronomers thought that the universe had ceased to give rise to massive, young galaxies, but findings from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer suggest that may not be the case. Surveying thousands of nearby galaxies with its highly sensitive ultraviolet eyes, the telescope spotted three dozen that greatly resemble youthful galaxies from billions of years ago. In this illustration, those galaxies are represented as white circles on the right, or 'today' side of the timeline.

    The discovery not only suggests that our universe may still be alive with youth, but also offers astronomers their first close-up look at what appear to be baby galaxies. Prior to the new result, astronomers had to peer about 11 billion light-years into the distant universe to see newborn galaxies. The newfound galaxies are only about 2 to 4 billion light-years away.

  19. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

  20. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  1. Safety evaluation of superabsorbent baby diapers.

    PubMed

    Kosemund, Kirstin; Schlatter, Harald; Ochsenhirt, Jennifer L; Krause, Edburga L; Marsman, Daniel S; Erasala, Geetha N

    2009-03-01

    Superabsorbent disposable baby diapers are sophisticated, well-engineered products that provide many benefits including convenience, comfort, exceptional leakage protection, improved hygiene and skin care benefits compared with cloth diapers. Safety assurance is an integral part of the diaper development process at Procter & Gamble, with the goal of ensuring safety for both caregivers and babies. A systematic, stepwise approach to safety assessment starts with a thorough evaluation of new design features and materials, using the principles of general risk assessment including, as appropriate, controlled trials to assess clinical endpoints or independent scientific review of safety data. The majority of the diaper materials are polymers that are safe and do not have inherent toxicity issues. Trace amounts of non-polymeric materials, such as colorants, are assessed based on their skin contact potential. New materials or design features are introduced in marketed products only if they have been shown to be safe under the conditions of recommended or foreseeable use. The product safety continues to be confirmed after launch by means of in-market monitoring. This article provides a broad overview of human safety exposure-based risk assessment used at Procter & Gamble for absorbent hygiene products. PMID:18992296

  2. Motivations of Baby Boomer Doctoral Learners: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory of the motivations of Baby Boomer doctoral learners, using the grounded theory approach. These Baby Boomers possess a wealth of wisdom. Their experiences, coupled with educational credentials, could take their leadership abilities to the next level. The grounded theory method developed by…

  3. Baby Boomers and Community College: A Study of Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, DiAnne H.

    2009-01-01

    Scope and method of study. This descriptive case study was designed to describe the critical issues surrounding Baby Boomers and their motivations to attend community college, in addition to their perceptions of learning and curriculum needs. Additionally the study explored what these Baby Boomers plan to do after completing their courses and…

  4. Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies. Hepatitis B Vaccine Helps Protect Your Baby’s Future! What is hepatitis B and why do I need to protect my baby now? Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by the ...

  5. Babies' Self-Regulation: Taking a Broad Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Enid; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex process that involves coordinating various systems of the body and mind, including feelings. It's not only about emotions but also about cognition. Self-regulation has an impact on social development, influencing how babies and toddlers get along with others. Through self-regulation, babies and toddlers learn to pay…

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Hepatitis C: Testing Baby Boomers Saves Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested for hepatitis C. Doctors, nurses and other health care providers can: Test all baby boomers and people with other risks ... hepatitis C and all doctors, nurses, and other health care providers should test all their patients who are baby boomers for ...

  7. Infants & Toddlers "What's Going On? How to Hold Squriming Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…

  8. Baby Boom Equals Career Bust. Monographs on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles Guy

    Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…

  9. Baby Care Basics: What Every Infant Caregiver Needs To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents information on caring for infants in a child care setting. Suggestions include responding quickly to crying, setting the schedule to baby's pace, talking to the baby, using proper hand-washing procedures, checking the room daily for safety, going outdoors every day, and building partnerships with parents. Includes a sample form for…

  10. The Effects of Baby Sign Training on Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…

  11. Pedagogy with Babies: Perspectives of Eight Nursery Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and…

  12. Early Mother/Baby Contact: Consequences/Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorster, de Wet

    To assess the effect of early mother-infant proximity on later stress and behavior, two studies were made which involved a sample of mother-baby pairs that was larger than samples utilized in previous studies. In Study 1, involving 300 consecutive mother-baby couples at the Maternity Hospital in Plymouth, England clinical medical officers used a…

  13. Better Baby Care: A Book for Family Day Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Margaret; Tate, Costella

    A resource for child caregivers providing family day care for infants and toddlers, this book is designed to provide information and suggestions in a format that is easy to follow, and in language that is easy to read. Chapter 1 gives tips on "baby-proofing" the home, as well as ideas for toys, equipment, and how to integrate a baby into the…

  14. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

  15. Teenagers and Their Babies: A Perinatal Home Visitor's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardone, Ida; Gilkerson, Linda; Wechsler, Nick

    2008-01-01

    "Teenagers and Their Babies" is a self-study and preparation guide for paraprofessional home-based visitors to engage expectant and new parents in an exploration of their baby's development and their expectations for parenthood. The guide includes service interventions--strategies, techniques, and activities--for home visitors and doulas to use…

  16. Talking with Your Baby: Family as the First School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Brophy, Holly Elisabeth

    Noting that children s first words are exciting for parents to hear, this book describes how babies can "talk" before they learn to say actual words and shows ways parents can help babies learn language. The book addresses a neglected area in child development--how to help low literacy parents and parents for whom English is a Second Language…

  17. The total thermal insulation of the new-born baby

    PubMed Central

    Hey, E. N.; Katz, G.; O'Connell, Bridget

    1970-01-01

    1. One hundred and seventeen healthy new-born babies weighing between 0·9 and 4·8 kg at delivery have been studied during the first ten days of life, and sixteen of these babies have been studied serially for 6 weeks after birth. The babies lay supine in a draught-free environment (air speed 4-5 cm/sec) of moderate humidity. The operative temperature was between 26 and 38° C for the babies who were studied naked. 2. Total non-evaporative heat loss was calculated from simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss and the concomitant change in mean body temperature. 3. Approximately 10% of the total body surface area was in contact with the mattress or floor. Conductive heat loss accounted for only about 5% of all non-evaporative heat loss when the naked baby was lying on a thick foam mattress, but for as much as 25% when the baby was lying in a water-jacketed chamber with a floor of clear plastic ∼ 5 mm thick. 4. Insulation to heat loss by convection and radiation varied with environmental temperature. Total specific insulation was low in a warm environment when the naked baby vasodilated, and rose by between 16 and 25% to a maximum in an environment of 31° C. It decreased significantly when the baby became physically active in environments with a temperature less than this. 5. Total specific insulation in an environment of 31° C varied with body size: it averaged 0·156° C.m2.hr/kcal in seven naked babies weighing 0·9-1·2 kg, rose to 0·190° C.m2.hr/kcal in twelve babies weighing 1·8-2·2 kg, and averaged 0·201° C.m2.hr/kcal in the thirty-four babies who weighed over 3 kg. Tissue insulation accounted for 23% of this total specific insulation in the smaller babies, and about 28% of the total in babies weighing over 3 kg. 6. Clothing ten babies in a vest, napkin and long cotton nightdress increased the total specific insulation by an average of 0·23° C.m2.hr/kcal. PMID:5503276

  18. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vertebratus, Diaphania indica, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Approved greenhouses. The baby squash and baby courgettes must be grown in Zambia in insect-proof, pest-free greenhouses approved jointly by the Zambian national plant protection organization (NPPO) and APHIS. (1) The greenhouses...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be equipped with double self-closing doors. (2) Any vents or openings in the greenhouses (other than the double self-closing doors) must be covered with 1.6 mm screening in order to prevent the entry of... identity of the greenhouse. While packing the baby squash or baby courgettes for export to the...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be equipped with double self-closing doors. (2) Any vents or openings in the greenhouses (other than the double self-closing doors) must be covered with 1.6 mm screening in order to prevent the entry of... identity of the greenhouse. While packing the baby squash or baby courgettes for export to the...

  2. Biorefinery of corn cob for microbial lipid and bio-ethanol production: An environmental friendly process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    Microbial lipid and bio-ethanol were co-generated by an integrated process using corn cob bagasse as raw material. After pretreatment, the acid hydrolysate was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the solid residue was further enzymatic hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production. The effect of acid loading and pretreatment time on microbial lipid and ethanol production were evaluated. Under the optimized condition for ethanol production, ∼131.3g of ethanol and ∼11.5g of microbial lipid were co-generated from 1kg raw material. On this condition, ∼71.6% of the overall fermentable sugars in corn cob bagasse could be converted into valuable products. At the same time, at least 33% of the initial COD in the acid hydrolysate was depredated.

  3. Biorefinery of corn cob for microbial lipid and bio-ethanol production: An environmental friendly process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    Microbial lipid and bio-ethanol were co-generated by an integrated process using corn cob bagasse as raw material. After pretreatment, the acid hydrolysate was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the solid residue was further enzymatic hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production. The effect of acid loading and pretreatment time on microbial lipid and ethanol production were evaluated. Under the optimized condition for ethanol production, ∼131.3g of ethanol and ∼11.5g of microbial lipid were co-generated from 1kg raw material. On this condition, ∼71.6% of the overall fermentable sugars in corn cob bagasse could be converted into valuable products. At the same time, at least 33% of the initial COD in the acid hydrolysate was depredated. PMID:27060242

  4. Effect of industrial processing on the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone in corn-milling fractions.

    PubMed

    Brera, Carlo; Catano, Carla; de Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; de Giacomo, Marzia; Pannunzi, Elena; Miraglia, Marina

    2006-07-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone levels in various corn-milling fractions. Corn kernels and six derived milling fractions (germ, bran, large and small grits, flour, and animal feed flour) were sampled in an industrial plant; both conventional and organic corns were sampled. To evaluate the effect of cooking, samples of polenta were prepared starting from naturally contaminated flour. Conventional and organic lots showed mycotoxin contamination. For both lots, germ, bran, and animal feed flour showed a marked concentration factor from 239 to 911% accounting for both the low yields of the derived products and the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone contamination in the outer parts of the kernels. Conversely, a reduction factor of at least four times from raw material to finished products was observed. Polenta samples were unaffected by the cooking process, with levels of contamination similar to those of starting flour. PMID:16819910

  5. Application of cellulase for the modification of corn stalk: leading to oil sorption.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Lan, Zhoulin; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chen; Dang, Zhi

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a new biotechnological procedure was developed using cellulase as a modifier to produce oil sorbent from corn stalk (CMCS). Cellulase treatment of raw corn stalk (RCS) with enzyme loading of 100 U/g at 45°C for 6h resulted in high oil sorption capacity. The sorption capacities of vegetable oil, diesel and crude oil by CMCS were 18.47, 16.15 and 27.23 g/g, respectively, which were found to be much higher than RCS. XRD, BET and SEM were applied to characterize RCS and CMCS. The effects of sorbent dose (0.1-0.5 g), initial oil amount (5-30 g), and the sorption kinetics were also studied. This work demonstrated that corn stalk modified by cellulase is an efficient and environment-friendly biosorbent for the removal of spilled oil. PMID:23618599

  6. Effect of industrial processing on the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone in corn-milling fractions.

    PubMed

    Brera, Carlo; Catano, Carla; de Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; de Giacomo, Marzia; Pannunzi, Elena; Miraglia, Marina

    2006-07-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone levels in various corn-milling fractions. Corn kernels and six derived milling fractions (germ, bran, large and small grits, flour, and animal feed flour) were sampled in an industrial plant; both conventional and organic corns were sampled. To evaluate the effect of cooking, samples of polenta were prepared starting from naturally contaminated flour. Conventional and organic lots showed mycotoxin contamination. For both lots, germ, bran, and animal feed flour showed a marked concentration factor from 239 to 911% accounting for both the low yields of the derived products and the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone contamination in the outer parts of the kernels. Conversely, a reduction factor of at least four times from raw material to finished products was observed. Polenta samples were unaffected by the cooking process, with levels of contamination similar to those of starting flour.

  7. [Baby online to support the mother-baby relationship in neonatalogy].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marie-France; Biondini, Christophe; Boyer, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal separations are always harmful to the development of the parent/baby relationship. At Alès general hospital, the Bébé online scheme enables live images to be transmitted remotely and safely between maternity wards and neonatalogy, physically distant from each other. Supervised by the nursing team, it supports the attachment process by giving parents the possibility of maintainingvisual contact with their newborn.

  8. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, C A; Butterworth, G; Roberts, T; Graupner, L; Hole, G

    1994-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face. PMID:7845772

  9. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face. PMID:24601036

  10. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  11. Malnutrition and hypernatraemia in breastfed babies.

    PubMed

    Paul, A C; Ranjini, K; Muthulakshmi; Roy, A; Kirubakaran, C

    2000-09-01

    Despite the well-known advantages of breast-feeding to both mother and infant, malnutrition of breastfed infants does occur. We report two term neonates who presented in the 3rd week of life with severe wasting, hypernatraemic dehydration and pre-renal failure while being exclusively breastfed. Breast-milk sodium levels were markedly elevated on admission. Both infants recovered following adequate hydration and showed excellent catch-up growth during follow-up while exclusive breast-feeding was maintained. The critical malnutrition in both cases was detected by the family physician during routine postnatal visits. Both mothers were well motivated toward breast-feeding and were unaware of the severity of the baby's illness.

  12. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  13. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui

    2016-06-01

    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children.

  14. Surrogate mothers: whose baby is it?

    PubMed

    Cohen, B

    1984-01-01

    Advances in medical technology offer infertile couples who wish to raise children alternatives to adoption. The increasing number of surrogate mother contracts creates a myriad of legal issues surrounding the rights of the natural mother, the natural father and the child that is produced. In this Article, the Author discusses the legal issues and rights of the parties under the Constitution, the surrogate contract and family law principles. The Author proposes that courts should consider a surrogate contract as a revocable prebirth agreement which allows the natural mother to keep the child if she chooses. In addition, the Author advocates an interpretation of the statutes forbidding baby selling that would prohibit surrogate contracts in which the mother is paid a fee for the child.

  15. Primary health care of the newborn baby.

    PubMed

    Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R

    1990-01-01

    More than 50% of infant deaths in India occur during the neonatal period. High priority therefore needs to be given to improving the survival of newborns. A large number of neonatal deaths have their origin in the perinatal period and are mainly determined by the health and nutritional status of the mother, the quality of care during pregnancy and delivery, and the immediate care of the newborn at birth. Main causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, respiratory problems, and infections, especially tetanus. Most such deaths occur among low birthweight babies. Hypothermia, undernutrition, and mismanaged breast feeding may also indirectly contribute to neonatal mortality. Community-based studies have, however, demonstrated that most neonatal mortality can be affordably prevented through primary health care. Efforts are underway to expand the health care infrastructure, but the outreach of maternal and child health care remains unsatisfactory especially in rural areas. PMID:12319228

  16. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-S.

    2008-05-15

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  17. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  18. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  19. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui

    2016-06-01

    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children. PMID:27353148

  20. Radiation decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials as an integral part of the good pharmaceutical manufacturing practice (GPMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, D.; Katušin-Ražem, B.; Starčević, M.; Galeković, B.

    The microbiological quality of many raw materials used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical and adjuvants often fails to meet the standards set by the pharmaceutical industry. Raw materials of biological provenience are particularly susceptible to contamination. This work describes the present situation regarding the microbial load of corn starch. Given the accepted microbiological criteria, irradiation treatment is proposed as integral to Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice (GPMP). The use of total viable count as a guide for specifying microbial limits for non-sterile materials is supported. Criteria for the choice of dose are discussed.

  1. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  2. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  3. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  4. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  5. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  6. Field-based assessment of resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...

  7. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  8. Effect of Malting and Nixtamalization Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Instant Extruded Corn Flour and Tortilla Quality.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Nicolás Alberto; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos; Morales-Rosas, Ignacio; Marquez-Melendez, Rubén; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to prepare instant flour from malted and raw (un-malted) corn flours nixtamalized by the extrusion process and evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of tortillas prepared using these flours. White maize was malted for 24 h, dried at 50 ± 1 °C, and ground. Subsequently, 0.3 % lime and 25 or 30 % water were added to ground malted or un-malted corn, and the mixture was refrigerated (4 °C) for 12 h. These samples were nixtamalized by an extrusion process in a single screw extruder at two temperature profiles within four heating zones, TP1 (60, 60, 70, and 80 °C) and TP2 (60, 70, 80, and 90 °C), to obtain corn flour. Water was added to the extruded corn flours to make a dough, or masa, and the masa was then molded and baked to obtain tortillas. The corn flours were characterized according to their ability to absorb water and viscosity profile (RVA). The firmness and rollability after 2 and 24 h of storage were determined, and a sensory evaluation was conducted. The malted corn flour extruded with a 25 % moisture content and TP2 temperature profile yielded tortillas with the best firmness and rollability. In conclusion, the changes during the malting of corn grain and the nixtamalization by the extrusion process improved the water absorption capacity of flours and textural properties of the tortilla and produced a product with acceptable sensory properties.

  9. Effect of Malting and Nixtamalization Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Instant Extruded Corn Flour and Tortilla Quality.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Nicolás Alberto; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos; Morales-Rosas, Ignacio; Marquez-Melendez, Rubén; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to prepare instant flour from malted and raw (un-malted) corn flours nixtamalized by the extrusion process and evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of tortillas prepared using these flours. White maize was malted for 24 h, dried at 50 ± 1 °C, and ground. Subsequently, 0.3 % lime and 25 or 30 % water were added to ground malted or un-malted corn, and the mixture was refrigerated (4 °C) for 12 h. These samples were nixtamalized by an extrusion process in a single screw extruder at two temperature profiles within four heating zones, TP1 (60, 60, 70, and 80 °C) and TP2 (60, 70, 80, and 90 °C), to obtain corn flour. Water was added to the extruded corn flours to make a dough, or masa, and the masa was then molded and baked to obtain tortillas. The corn flours were characterized according to their ability to absorb water and viscosity profile (RVA). The firmness and rollability after 2 and 24 h of storage were determined, and a sensory evaluation was conducted. The malted corn flour extruded with a 25 % moisture content and TP2 temperature profile yielded tortillas with the best firmness and rollability. In conclusion, the changes during the malting of corn grain and the nixtamalization by the extrusion process improved the water absorption capacity of flours and textural properties of the tortilla and produced a product with acceptable sensory properties. PMID:26059113

  10. Transgenic corn for control of the European corn borer and corn rootworms: a survey of Midwestern farmers' practices and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ted A; Rice, Marlin E; Tollefson, Jon J; Pilcher, Clinton D

    2005-04-01

    In 2001, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1000 corn, Zea mays L., farmers in each of five states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska) to evaluate their perceptions of transgenic corn designed to control the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. Respondents returned 1,313 surveys (26.2%). Farmers with small acreages planted a greater portion of their corn (54.5%) with transgenic corn for control of European corn borer than farmers with large farms (39.2%). The majority (75.2%) of farmers use crop rotation to control the corn rootworm. Nine insecticides comprised 92.2% of the commercial soil insecticides used for control of corn rootworm larvae. More than one-third of the farmers in Illinois (33.5%) and Indiana (39.4%) treated first-year corn for corn rootworm, primarily due to western corn rootworm egg laying in soybean, Glycine max (L.). When asked whether they would plant transgenic corn protected against the corn rootworm, 35.0% of farmers responded they would, whereas 40.5% said they were unsure. The two greatest farmer concerns about transgenic corn were the ability to sell harvested grain (59.3%) and additional technology fees (54.8%). Respondents indicated that less farmer exposure to insecticide (69.9%) and less insecticide in the environment (68.5%) were the primary benefits of transgenic corn. Farmers who had no concerns about transgenic corn for rootworm control were more likely to purchase the product (46.8%). The most common refuge-planting options farmers favored were adjacent fields (30.9%) and split fields (29.9%). Farmers (21.1%) observed a yield increase (23.7 bu/ha [9.6 bu/acre]) when using transgenic corn for European corn borer control compared with non-transgenic corn. These data can help in understanding farmers' knowledge and concerns regarding transgenic corn. This information may be of value to guide researchers, extension specialists, and policy makers in designing

  11. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  15. Care of low birth weight babies in slums.

    PubMed

    Patel, R B

    1989-01-01

    We studied 289 newborn infants from birth till one year of age. Low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg) were 52.9%. Boys suffered 9.7 episodes of sickness, and girls 8.6 episodes of sickness. The mean episodes of various sicknesses, and their impact on weight gain, feeding pattern and growth pattern are discussed. Six deaths were observed, of which 4 were among the low birth weight babies. Mortality in babies born less than 2 kg was 44.4% and above 2 kg was less than 1%. PMID:2807450

  16. DRIP IRRIGATION OF CORN IN NORTHEAST ARKANSAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall in the midsouthern US is sufficient to produce corn (Zea mays L.) without irrigation in most years; however, timely irrigation of corn has been shown to increase yields. The recent interest in ethanol fuels is expected to lead to increases in US corn production, and subsurface drip irrigati...

  17. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the industrial…

  18. The myth of the miracle baby: how neonatal nurses interpret media accounts of babies of extreme prematurity.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Darbyshire, Philip; Adams, Anne; Jackson, Debra

    2015-09-01

    Improved life sustaining technology in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has resulted in an increased probability of survival in extremely premature babies. Miracle baby stories in the popular press are a regular occurrence and these reports are often the first source from which the general public learn about extremely premature babies. The research from which this paper is drawn sought to explore the care-giving and ethical dilemmas of neonatal nurses when caring for extremely premature babies 24 weeks gestation and less. This current paper aims to outline the views of neonatal nurses on miracle baby stories in the media. Data were collected via a questionnaire to 760 Australian neonatal nurses with 414 returned, representing a response rate of 54.4%. Narrative was collected from semi-structured interviews with 24 experienced neonatal nurses in NSW, Australia. A qualitative approach utilising thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the data. The theme the myth of the miracle baby is seen as generating myths and unrealistic expectations on the part of vulnerable families and the public. Neonatal nurses, as the primary caregivers for tiny babies and their families, viewed popular media publications with suspicion, believing published reports to be incomplete, inaccurate and biased towards the positive.

  19. Preprocessing of raw metabonomic data.

    PubMed

    Vettukattil, Riyas

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in metabolic profiling techniques allow global profiling of metabolites in cells, tissues, or organisms, using a wide range of analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The raw data acquired from these instruments are abundant with technical and structural complexity, which makes it statistically difficult to extract meaningful information. Preprocessing involves various computational procedures where data from the instruments (gas chromatography (GC)/liquid chromatography (LC)-MS, NMR spectra) are converted into a usable form for further analysis and biological interpretation. This chapter covers the common data preprocessing techniques used in metabonomics and is primarily focused on baseline correction, normalization, scaling, peak alignment, detection, and quantification. Recent years have witnessed development of several software tools for data preprocessing, and an overview of the frequently used tools in data preprocessing pipeline is covered.

  20. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  1. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in general practice.

    PubMed

    Morley, C J; Thornton, A J; Green, S J; Cole, T J

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen general practitioners (GPs) used the Baby Check score card to assess illness severity in 86 babies under 6 months old. Their reactions to Baby Check were positive: in 79 (92%) it gave an accurate assessment of the baby's illness and 16 (100%) said they would trust it. Fifteen (94%) found it useful, and most of those who did not said the baby was not ill or had an obvious diagnosis. Thirteen (81%) said they would use it and wanted their health visitors and midwives to use it and 15 (94%) wanted the mothers in their practice to use it. The majority (64%) of babies scored 0-7; 31% scored 8 to 19; and only 5% scored over 20. Well babies had low scores, while the two sickest babies, needing urgent hospital treatment, scored 29 and 33. The use of Baby Check by GPs would help them assess babies thoroughly and quantify illness severity objectively.

  2. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney

    2011-11-01

    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate

  3. Appropriately grown baby with multiple congenital abnormalities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Devangi; Aladangady, Narendra

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a full-term baby girl (Baby A) born with multiple congenital abnormalities that were suggested by prenatal scans. The mother had declined further antenatal diagnostic testing. Postnatal chromosomal analyses revealed the karyotype of the baby to be trisomy 18. After detailed, compassionate discussions with the parents, it was decided to provide palliative care in the best interest of the baby, who died on day 15 of life. This case illustrates ethical difficulties in the care of neonates with congenital anomalies with poor prognoses, such as trisomy 18. Recommending palliative care and "do not resuscitate" orders to optimistic parents is extremely difficult and needs to be done in the most sensitive manner possible.

  4. Collodion baby: a follow-up study of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, D; Lijnen, R L P; Moekti, S S; de Laat, P C J; Oranje, A P

    2002-09-01

    Seventeen cases of collodion baby are reported. Clinical aspects, complications, treatment, final outcome and family history were studied. We did not observe any clinical features in the collodion baby that could serve as a clue in predicting the final diagnosis. Infections were observed in nine, hypothermia in five and hypernatraemic dehydration in four cases. Skin infection mainly occurred in babies treated with emollients (petrolatum, lanolin and cetomacrogolis cream were used). We therefore recommend treating the collodion baby in a humidified incubator, if necessary with intravenous rehydration, but not to use emollients. The final outcome of these study patients was erythrodermic autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis in seven cases (41%), non-erythrodermic autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis in three cases (18%), Sjögren-Larsson in one case (6%), epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in one case (6%), acute neonatal variant of Gaucher disease in one case (6%) and normal skin in four cases (24%).

  5. Life-threatening hypernatraemic dehydration in breastfed babies.

    PubMed

    Shroff, R; Hignett, R; Pierce, C; Marks, S; van't Hoff, W

    2006-12-01

    We describe five babies, who were exclusively breast fed, with life-threatening complications of hypernatraemic dehydration secondary to inadequate breast feeding. An increased awareness among health professionals is required so that this potentially devastating condition can be prevented.

  6. Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160694.html Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies Close to 6 percent who ... yet another example of the damage that maternal Zika infection can inflict on a fetus during the ...

  7. Every Day in The Womb Boosts Babies' Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161778.html Every Day in the Womb Boosts Babies' Brain Development: Study ... What this study shows us is that every day and every week of in utero development is ...

  8. 1st Baby Born with DNA from 3 Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_161176.html 1st Baby Born With DNA From 3 Parents Technique designed to help couples ... be born using a controversial technique that combines DNA from three people -- two women and a man. ...

  9. Pregnancy Problems? Boost the Chance of Having a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chance of Having a Baby For those who dream of being parents, pregnancy problems can be tremendously ... doesn’t work, doctors may recommend medication, surgery, artificial insemination (in which a woman is injected with ...

  10. Your Body After Baby: The First 6 Weeks

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy. Eat healthy foods. Limit sweets and foods with a lot of fat. Drink lots of water. Do something active every day . Walking and swimming are great activities for new moms. Breastfeed your baby . Breastfeeding helps ...

  11. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  12. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    MedlinePlus

    ... collapses as baby drinks, which helps prevent air bubbles. Liners save on cleanup, and are handy for ... have a venting system inside to prevent air bubbles. They are said to help prevent colic and ...

  13. Phonetic features by babies with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, M M; Logemann, J A; Rademaker, A W

    1994-11-01

    Twenty-three babies with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were audiotaped at regular intervals from 5 to 35 months of age. Narrow phonetic transcription of their comfort-state vocalizations and word approximations was accomplished to describe phonetic development over time and according to the nonrandomized age of palatoplasty. The babies that had earlier palatal repair produced significantly higher percentages of oral stops after 12 months of age than babies with similar clefts that had later palatal repair. No significant differences are evident, however, according to age of palatoplasty, for mean frequency use of oral fricatives up to 3 years of age. For all 23 babies, regardless of the age of palatoplasty intervention, time is an even stronger variable than age of palatoplasty for development of palatal, alveolar and velar place features, oral stops, and oral fricatives.

  14. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  15. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies ... Herpes infections are caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus ...

  17. Mother and baby yoga is good for you.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2013-05-01

    Mother and baby yoga is becoming more and more popular in the western world, as postpartum mothers discover the benefits of being able to 'work out', bond with their baby and relax, all in one session. Postnatal yoga can offer calm and a sense of wellbeing, helping mothers to improve and stabilise their emotional health and to bond. Additionally the mother is able to focus on her relationship with her baby, rebuild the weakened pelvic floor, strengthen the abdominal muscles and even alleviate back and neck pain. For babies, yoga can aid digestion and alleviate colic; help to strengthen tiny limbs; improve sleep patterns; and enhance their ability to interact with their mother and other people. PMID:23789249

  18. Baby Boomers and Generation X: strategies to bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    Bertholf, L; Loveless, S

    2001-09-01

    Health care staffing challenges for the next few years necessitate the need to develop strategies to integrate the Generation Xer into a predominantly Baby Boomer work force. Strategies to assist Baby Boomers and Generation Xers to engage one another in constructive relationships are discussed. Misunderstanding and stereotyping create barriers that focus on differences and perceived limitations rather than identification of common thinking and focusing on strengths of each generation.

  19. Improved corn protein based articles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  20. Our Mother Corn. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Designed to accompany the preceding student text (which deals with the role of corn in the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes), the teaching guide contains a suggested sequence of activities and needed supplementary information along with an indication of the student text they follow. Sections include: farming notes; basic needs activities; house…

  1. [Shaken baby syndrome: which lesions in imaging ?].

    PubMed

    Adamsbaum, C; Husson, B

    2012-09-01

    Non-accidental brain trauma (also called shaken baby syndrome) represent the main cause for morbidity and mortality in the context of child abuse. It often occur in young infants aged less than 8months. The shaking leading to brain injuries are very violent and sometimes associated with a final impact. Intracranial injuries may be isolated without skeletal trauma or bruising. In any suspicion of such a diagnosis, emergency hospitalization is indicated. Brain CT, easy to perform in emergency, is the diagnostic key. It discloses diffuse subdural hematomas in typical sites as vertex, interhemispheric space and tentorium. There is no clear background of trauma and the related story is changing over time. The 3D analysis of the skull looks for signs of recent impact as a fracture that is sometimes complex and/or a soft tissue swelling of the scalp. Intraparenchymal injuries (contusions, tearing, and overall anoxic ischemic injuries) are better analyzed with MRI. The prognosis depends on their extent. Ophtalmologic examination is systematically performed looking for retinal hemorrhages (around one third of cases) which may be very subtle. Bruising is a major diagnostic sign, but inconstantly present. A precise datation of skeletal and/or brain injuries is not possible with imaging and the only indication of use is to establish the presence of "age different lesions". This indicates repeated trauma and thereby a high risk of recurrence.

  2. Neonatologists and bioethics after Baby Doe.

    PubMed

    Carter, B S

    1993-01-01

    The use of hospital ethics committees or infant care review committees has been recommended for difficult decision making. In a survey of military and civilian neonatologists, ethics committees had been established in 27 of their 28 hospitals and fewer than 50% had infant care review committees. Despite the frequently of potential cases for committee review, they were seldom consulted. Inquiry into the educational background of respondents revealed that at least 62% of neonatologists had received ethics education during their professional careers. Most made difficult decisions in conjunction with parents or used a multidisciplinary patient care conference. The use of these conferences antedated any federal regulations. Sixty-seven percent indicated that the Baby Doe regulations had affected neither their thinking about ethical issues nor their practice. In 13 different hypothetical cases in delivery room, intensive care nursery, and long-term care settings, the provision of comfort care, limited care, or withdrawal of support was noted by a sizable percentage of neonatologists; exceptions included meningomyelocele and trisomy 21. The need for ethics committee input in decision making for neonates is questionable. PMID:8515309

  3. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm.

    Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis.

    The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test.

    Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of bothmore » ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement

  5. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and

  6. Corn cobs versus corn stalks: a comparison of energy values for drying corn

    SciTech Connect

    Riggins, J.K.; Vaughan, D.H.; Lambert, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Corn residue samples were tested as potential fuel sources for drying corn. Samples were taken during August and September, 1979 at Suffolk, Virginia. Each sample included the entire corn plant cut five inches above ground level. For each sample, bomb calorimeter tests were performed both on representative cob sections and representative plant sections (excluding kernels). All tests were made on non-dried samples and thus reflected variations in energy as a function of moisture content. The combustion results of cob versus the entire plant were compared at different harvested kernel moisture contents to determine the practical use of each fuel, from a combustion standpoint, in drying corn. Combustion results indicated: (1) cobs and stalks contained near identical energy values at the same moisture content and for the same weight of dry matter; (2) cobs averaged 5 percent higher in energy due to a lower moisture content when cobs and stalks were harvested simultaneously; and (3) cob energy can be predicted as a function of kernel moisture content.

  7. Future Sources of Organic Raw Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Irving S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the need for industrial organization, academic institutions, and national governments to agree on cooperative roles in planning the future raw materials demands of the chemical industry. Political and social concerns, as well as technical and economic considerations, are important to the raw material future of the industry. (MA)

  8. η Carinae Baby Homunculus Uncovered by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Zulema; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.

    2014-08-01

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the "Baby Homunculus."

  9. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  10. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  11. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  12. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  13. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  14. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  15. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  16. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  17. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  18. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  19. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  20. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  1. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  2. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  3. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  4. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  5. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  6. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  7. Compositional equivalency of Cry1F corn event TC6275 and conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Phillips, Amy M; Collins, Randy A; Tagliani, Laura A; Claussen, Fred A; Graham, Christopher D; Bickers, Brenda L; Harris, Travis A; Prochaska, Lee M

    2004-05-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants have been transformed to express a Cry1F insecticidal crystal protein originally isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This protein controls lepidopteran pests of maize, including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). As part of the safety assessment for crops containing transgenes, a compositional analysis of the food and feed is conducted. This analysis is designed to detect unintended changes in the nutrient and antinutrient content of the raw commodities produced by the crop due to the insertion of the genes into the genomic DNA of the plant (pleotropic effects). Samples of transgenic and nontransgenic maize forage and grain were collected from six field sites located in the U.S. and Canada. Forage samples were analyzed for proximates and minerals, and grain was further analyzed for fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients. Results demonstrated that maize expressing the Cry1F protein was equivalent to nontransgenic maize with respect to these important components. Comparison of the variability within the nontransgenic and transgenic hybrid, as compared to composition values reported in the literature, suggest that factors other than transgenes may contribute more substantially to the composition of crops.

  8. A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, João L; Figueira, José A; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Ornelas, Laura P; Branco, Ricardo N; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2014-10-01

    The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products - such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC-qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40 °C for 30 min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials.

  9. Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB II) Scoring System in Prediction of Mortality in Premature Babies

    PubMed Central

    Ezz-Eldin, Zahraa Mohamed; Hamid, Tamer A. Abdel; Nabil, Hossam El-Din

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical Risk Index for Babies scoring system (CRIB II) score is a recently developed tool to predict initial risk of mortality amongst low birth weight babies, the utility of which is scarce in many developing countries. Objective To assess the efficiency of CRIB II score as a tool to predict the risk for neonatal mortality among the LBW babies admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at a tertiary care facility Kasr El-Aini paediatric hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Materials and Methods Prospective cohort study design where 113 neonates, admitted during the first 24 hours to the NICU of Kasr El-Aini Hospital, from November 2013 till May 2014 were included. On admission, history taking, neonatal examination, arterial blood gas analysis and variables of CRIB II score were done. Subjects were followed up from admission till discharge or death. Results Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Gestational age ranged from 25-32 weeks, the birth weight ranged from 700-1500 gm with mean of 1134.5 (± 202). CRIB II score ranged from 1-19 with a mean of 9.9 (± 4.0). The total mortality in the included cohort was 34.5% (31/113). Significant positive correlations were found between gestational age, birth weight, temperature, excess base, CRIB II score and the occurrence of mortality and with progressive increase in mortality with increasing CRIB II score (p=0.001). CRIB II score ≥ 11, gestational age ≤ 28 and birth weight ≤ 1100 were all found to be significantly associated with neonatal mortality. Area under ROC curve for CRIB II, gestational age and birth weight were found to be (0.968, 0.900 and 0.834) respectively. CRIB II score with cutoff point of ≥ 11 was the most sensitive (94.9%) with the predictive value (74.0%) and specificity (82.4%) compared to birth weight and gestational age. CRIB II score showed good calibration to predict neonatal mortality as demonstrated with Hosmer-lemeshow goodness of fit test (p= 0.952). Conclusion CRIB II score is a valid

  10. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  11. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally < 15%, much lower than in the southern United States where damage can be up to 30 kernels per ear. At sites with the highest damage levels, Bt hybrids suppressed corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “Dextrose,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7),...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “Dextrose,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7),...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... “Dextrose,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7),...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “Dextrose,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7),...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and....1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly called D-glucose or...

  17. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean.

  18. E835 Store Baby Sitting Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    2002-01-01

    Control of the RF frequency: (1) 'RF Freq Check' on P85 (E835 Baby Sitter) should be turned OFF. (2) The RF frequency should be adjusted so that it is in the notch of the 4-8 GHz momentum cooling pickup response. The RF frequency device to be controlled depends on which RF system is on. If ARF2 is on, the RF frequency device is A:RLLFS1. If ARF3 is on, the RF frequency device is A:RLLFS0. IMPORTANT NOTE: A:RLLFS0 and A:RLLFS1 have very different data base scaling (A:RLLFS0 is 4 bytes and A:RLLFS1 is 2 bytes). A:RLLFS0 can be safely knobbed with a mult factor of 1.0 (i.e. no multiplier is required). A:RLLFS1 requires a mult factor of 0.02 or smaller. The monitoring and adjustment of the RF frequency is accomplished by the following steps: (3) Set up SA1 so that it is connected to CP48-SCH (4-8 GHz momentum cooling pickup). Set the SA center frequency to a harmonic of the RF frequency. This is most easily accomplished by doing one of the following: (a) If ARF3 is on, send P41 file 22 to SA1. (b) If ARF2 is on, set A:RLLFS0 to the set value of A:RLLFS1 then send P41 file 22 to SA1. (4) SA1 can be viewed on CATV channel pbar 20. If the notch in the momentum cooling pickup response is not at the center frequecy of SA1 adjust the RF. (On the low energy ramp, 1 division on the SA1 display at 5.5 GHz corresponds to 2.3 Hz in revolution frequency). Once you've made an adjustment to the RF frequency you should reset the SA1 display according to step 3 above.

  19. Where have all the babies gone?

    PubMed

    1992-05-15

    Critical comment is provided on the phenomena of couples postponing childbearing in Singapore. In spite of a media campaign to promote childbearing and tax incentives, women are choosing to be DINKS, couples with double incomes and no kids. Women's reasons for not having children are to enjoy more freedom and a better material life and maintain a career. Seet Ai Mee, the junior minister of community development, in 1990 spoke in a public address about women's lack of belief in marriage and the loss of independence and career prospects when children come along. Official concern is based on the rising median age of childbearing which has gone from 23.4 years in 1970 to 27.7 years in 1991. A continuing trend would put women 30 years old at the age of 1st childbearing in the year 2000. 1 of 5 women presently do not have children. 2.9% fewer babies were born in the 1st 10 months of 1991 compared with 1990. The Director of the Population Planning Unite believes that the campaign has been successful in promoting coupling, but not procreation. Examples are given of 4 women who chose not to have children. 1 was a 26-year old university graduate who was a product manager. She is married and thinks that the ad campaign is not appropriately geared to an educated population. Romance and hard sell are out of place. Another psychotherapist expressed the opinion that women wanted a house a car before having children, and later age at childbearing was desired because the desire was to a small family anyway. Freedom has a greater value over the desire for children. A 30-year old writer finds women with children boring, and later age at childbearing means greater maternal maturity. Several examples are given of women who desire an earlier start on childbearing because of the demands placed on older mothers. The director of a counseling and care center defines DINKS as educated higher income people who want a career, personal goals, travel, and other things. There should not be a

  20. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  1. Evaluation of transgenic Bt corn for resistance to the Asian corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    He, Kanglai; Wang, Zhenying; Zhou, Darong; Wen, Liping; Song, Yanying; Yao, Zhuyun

    2003-06-01

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is the most important insect pest on corn in China. Bt transgenic corn provides a new tool for Asian corn borer control. Monsanto's YieldGard Bt transgenic corn expressing Cry1Ab protein, and a non-Bt control, were evaluated in Beijing. Laboratory bioassays were carried out by exposing neonates to an agar-free diet containing Bt corn whorl leaves, tassels, and anthers, or by exposing neonates directly to fresh silk and pollen. These are the tissues initially attacked by neonates in the field. All of these tissues, with the exception of pollen, contained sufficient insecticidal protein to kill > or = 95% of larvae within 7 d. Surviving larvae had also not grown beyond first instar and weighed < or = 0.1 mg. Although larvae feeding on Bt corn pollen were significantly smaller than those on non-Bt corn pollen, there was no significant difference in mortality. Field trials were also conducted with artificial infestations of Asian corn borer at mid whorl, late whorl, and silking stages. Damage ratings and number of larvae surviving per plant indicated that Bt corn was highly resistant to Asian corn borer. Therefore, YieldGard offers the potential for season-long protection against first- and second-generation Asian corn borer.

  2. The development of a "Green" aqueous enzymatic process to extract corn oil from corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 2.4 million tons of commercial corn oil were produced worldwide in 2012, compared to 2012 world production of palm oil (53.3 MT) and soybean oil (43.1 MT) according to FAS, USDA. Most commercial corn oil (~90%) is produced from corn germ that is expeller pressed and/or hexane extracte...

  3. Potential Harvestable Corn Cob Biomass in Several Production Systems in the Western Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proposed use of corn residues for biofuel production has increased interest in how much and what components of residue should/can be removed. One component of corn residue that is already being handled (corn cobs) might be an easily harvestable product that could be used for biofuel production. ...

  4. Evaluation of transgenic Bt corn for resistance to the Asian corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    He, Kanglai; Wang, Zhenying; Zhou, Darong; Wen, Liping; Song, Yanying; Yao, Zhuyun

    2003-06-01

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is the most important insect pest on corn in China. Bt transgenic corn provides a new tool for Asian corn borer control. Monsanto's YieldGard Bt transgenic corn expressing Cry1Ab protein, and a non-Bt control, were evaluated in Beijing. Laboratory bioassays were carried out by exposing neonates to an agar-free diet containing Bt corn whorl leaves, tassels, and anthers, or by exposing neonates directly to fresh silk and pollen. These are the tissues initially attacked by neonates in the field. All of these tissues, with the exception of pollen, contained sufficient insecticidal protein to kill > or = 95% of larvae within 7 d. Surviving larvae had also not grown beyond first instar and weighed < or = 0.1 mg. Although larvae feeding on Bt corn pollen were significantly smaller than those on non-Bt corn pollen, there was no significant difference in mortality. Field trials were also conducted with artificial infestations of Asian corn borer at mid whorl, late whorl, and silking stages. Damage ratings and number of larvae surviving per plant indicated that Bt corn was highly resistant to Asian corn borer. Therefore, YieldGard offers the potential for season-long protection against first- and second-generation Asian corn borer. PMID:12852639

  5. 3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavytimber framing, railed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavy-timber framing, railed trackway and corn car at upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  6. Babies born dying: just bad karma? A discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Kain, Victoria J

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the notion of being born dying and karma. Karma is a belief upheld by Buddhists and non-Buddhists: That is, karma follows people from their previous lives into their current lives. This raises a difficult question: Does karma mean that a baby's death is its own fault? While great peace can be found from a belief in karma, the notion of a baby's karma returning in some sort of retributive, universal justice can be de-emphasized and is considered "un-Buddhist." Having an understanding of karma is intrinsic to the spiritual care for the dying baby, not only from the perspective of parents and families who have these beliefs, but also for reconciling one's own beliefs as a healthcare practitioner.

  7. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P, H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V = V( P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

  8. Dexamethasone and infection in preterm babies: a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, P C; Thomson, M A; Dear, P R

    1990-01-01

    To find out if the use of steroids affected the incidence of infection in babies who were nursed in the neonatal intensive care unit for nine weeks or more, 24 preterm babies who had received a three weeks course of dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg/day, reducing to 0.3 mg/kg/day after a week, and 0.15 mg/kg/day after two weeks) were compared with 18 preterm babies who had not been so treated. No differences were found in the incidence or pattern of septicaemia or other bacteriologically proved infections between the groups. Of 57 episodes of septicaemia, 44 (77%) were caused by coagulase negative staphylococci. PMID:2306135

  9. Evidence-based well-baby care. Part 1: Overview of the next generation of the Rourke Baby Record.

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, L.; Rourke, L. L.; Rourke, J. T.; Wakefield, J. G.; Winfield, D.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Well baby and child care in the primary care setting has not always been based on evidence that has been shown to be effective in preventing and detecting disease and injury. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAM: To help physicians and nurses provide care that is more effective than a routine complete examination, the Rourke Baby Record has been revised to include evidence-based recommendations for preventive care for infants and young children. The revision incorporates the approach and recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. The updated record is now called the Rourke Baby Record: Evidence-Based Infant/Child Health Maintenance Guide (Rourke Baby Record: EB). MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Part 1 of this two-part article briefly describes the background for development and presents an overview of the revised record. Part 2 discusses in detail the evidence that exists for maneuvers included in the education and advice section of the revised record. CONCLUSION: Using the Rourke Baby Record: EB and incorporating it into their office record systems as a working guide will help increase the effectiveness of the primary preventive care physicians provide to infants and young children. PMID:9559196

  10. Labor and Delivery Experiences of Mothers with Suspected Large Babies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Erika R.; Declercq, Eugene R.; Belanoff, Candice; Stotland, Naomi E.; Iverson, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the prevalence of and factors associated with clinicians’ prenatal suspicion of a large baby; and to determine whether communicating fetal size concerns to patients was associated with labor and delivery interventions and outcomes. Methods We examined data from women without a prior cesarean who responded to Listening to Mothers III, a nationally representative survey of women who had given birth between July 2011 and June 2012 (n=1,960). We estimated the effect of having a suspected large baby (SLB) on the odds of six labor and delivery outcomes. Results Nearly one-third (31.2%) of women were told by their maternity care providers that their babies might be getting “quite large”; however, only 9.9% delivered a baby weighing ≥4,000 grams (19.7% among mothers with SLBs, 5.5% without). Women with SLBs had increased adjusted odds of medically-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.6), attempted self-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.7), and use of epidural analgesics (AOR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4–2.9). No differences were noted for overall cesarean rates, although women with SLBs were more likely to ask for (AOR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.8–7.6) and have planned (AOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0–4.5) cesarean deliveries. These associations were not affected by adjustment for gestational age and birthweight. Conclusion Only one in five US women who were told that their babies might be getting quite large actually delivered infants weighing ≥4,000 grams. However, the suspicion of a large baby was associated with an increase in perinatal interventions, regardless of actual fetal size. PMID:26140835

  11. Pedagogy with babies: perspectives of eight nursery managers

    PubMed Central

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508–526.] concept of the ‘competent system’ is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present. PMID:26692633

  12. What can be done to keep babies' skin healthy?

    PubMed

    Atherton, David; Mills, Kathryn

    2004-07-01

    Establishing a skincare routine that keeps babies' skin healthy remains a challenge for midwives and parents, since up to 50% of babies suffer from at least one episode of nappy rash at some time. Nappy rash is an irritant contact dermatitis caused by the interaction of several factors, particularly the prolonged contact of the skin with urine and faeces, which makes the skin more prone to disruption through friction with the nappy. Infection is not a primary cause of nappy rash, though secondary infection by Candida albicans can occur. Prevention of nappy rash is the ultimate goal, but if the condition does develop, treatment should aim to reverse the skin damage and prevent recurrence. We propose that routine baby skincare should comprise gentle cleansing whenever the nappy is soiled (using warm water or alcohol-free baby wipes), the use of good-quality super-absorbent nappies, and the application of a barrier preparation at every nappy change. Ideally, a barrier preparation should be clinically proven to be effective in babies and mimic the skin's natural function by forming a long-lasting barrier to maintain optimum moisture levels. It should not contain any unnecessary ingredients, including antiseptic, preservative or perfume (or other potential sensitisers), or any ingredients that are toxic or have undocumented safety. Treatment of nappy rash should comprise essentially the same actions as its prevention. Application of a barrier ointment at every nappy change can help to both prevent and treat this condition. Topical steroid therapy should be reserved for use where the condition has failed to respond to other approaches, and antifungal treatment should only be employed where Candida infection is established or suspected. Implementing these measures would form a simple skincare routine that could help keep babies' skin healthy.

  13. Our Finished Product--Industry's Raw Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Myron

    1978-01-01

    Comparing students in agribusiness sales, supply, and service courses to raw products in need of development, the author discusses the backgrounds of these students and their developing maturity through supervised occupational experience. (BM)

  14. Baby Skyrme model, near-BPS approximations, and supersymmetric extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Zakrzewski, W.

    2015-02-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model as a theory that interpolates between two distinct BPS systems. For this, a near-BPS approximation can be used when there is a small deviation from each of the two BPS limits. We provide analytical explanation and numerical support for the validity of this approximation. We then study the set of all possible supersymmetric extensions of the baby Skyrme model with N =1 and the particular ones with extended N =2 supersymmetries and relate this to the above mentioned almost-BPS approximation.

  15. "Collodion baby": A unique challenge for newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Kayla M; Gaudreau, Philip; Cartee, Todd V; Reilly, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    We present an infant with collodion membrane who had an obstructed external auditory canal, causing the infant to fail her newborn hearing screen (otoacoustic emissions) bilaterally. An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was deferred due to the reported increased risk of infections in these babies. Meticulous but gentle debridement of the membranes on the external auditory canal, using a combination of otic drops (ofloxacin), emollients (baby oil/mineral oil), and suctioning, permitted the infant to ultimately pass otoacoustic emissions bilaterally and subsequent serial audiograms. PMID:27178521

  16. "Collodion baby": A unique challenge for newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Kayla M; Gaudreau, Philip; Cartee, Todd V; Reilly, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    We present an infant with collodion membrane who had an obstructed external auditory canal, causing the infant to fail her newborn hearing screen (otoacoustic emissions) bilaterally. An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was deferred due to the reported increased risk of infections in these babies. Meticulous but gentle debridement of the membranes on the external auditory canal, using a combination of otic drops (ofloxacin), emollients (baby oil/mineral oil), and suctioning, permitted the infant to ultimately pass otoacoustic emissions bilaterally and subsequent serial audiograms.

  17. Vibrio vulnificus sepsis after eating raw oysters.

    PubMed

    Stahr, B; Threadgill, S T; Overman, T L; Noble, R C

    1989-05-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a marine vibrio found in coastal waters of the United States, may contaminate certain seafoods, particularly raw oysters. Patients with underlying liver disease are particularly susceptible to severe illness. Unexplained febrile diseases in patients who have eaten raw oysters may be caused by Vibrio vulnificus. A fatal and a nonfatal case are reported in two such patients. These patients are the first two reported cases of Vibrio vulnificus infection in Kentucky. PMID:2723530

  18. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in baby foods and paprika by HPLC with fluorescence detection: a single-laboratory validation study.

    PubMed

    Brera, C; Debegnach, F; De Santis, B; Pannunzi, E; Berdini, C; Prantera, E; Gregori, E; Miraglia, M

    2011-02-15

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin, the major mycotoxins of food concern are aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Due to the wide range of matrices susceptible to mycotoxin contamination, the possible co-occurrence, and the very wide range of concentration, validated versatile multi-mycotoxin and multi-matrix methods are strongly requested. A reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in baby foods and paprika was set up. Three bulk samples were prepared according to commercial availability, one for paprika and for baby foods, two different bulks were set, a corn based and a multi-cereal based baby food. A single-laboratory validation was performed, for each investigated level ten analyses were performed, relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSD(r)) and recovery factors were calculated; RSD(r) values ranged from 2% to 10% for AFB(1) and from 3% to 10% for OTA, while the recovery factors ranged from 86% to 96% for AFB(1) and from 77% to 96% for OTA. The checked compliance of the RSD(r) and recovery with the values reported in the current EU Regulations confirmed the fitting for purpose of the method. Limit of detection and LoQ values of the method were respectively 0.002 and 0.020 μg/kg for AFB(1) and 0.012 and 0.080 μg/kg for OTA in baby foods; and 0.002 and 0.200 μg/kg for AFB(1) and 0.012 and 0.660 μg/kg for OTA in paprika. The current method represents a good example of the possibility of a multi-mycotoxin and/or a multi-matrix analysis depending on the laboratory research or official control purposes.

  19. Spectral and Image Integrated Analysis of Hyperspectral Data for Waxy Corn Seed Variety Classification

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoling; Hong, Hanmei; You, Zhaohong; Cheng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purity of waxy corn seed is a very important index of seed quality. A novel procedure for the classification of corn seed varieties was developed based on the combined spectral, morphological, and texture features extracted from visible and near-infrared (VIS/NIR) hyperspectral images. For the purpose of exploration and comparison, images of both sides of corn kernels (150 kernels of each variety) were captured and analyzed. The raw spectra were preprocessed with Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and derivation. To reduce the dimension of spectral data, the spectral feature vectors were constructed using the successive projections algorithm (SPA). Five morphological features (area, circularity, aspect ratio, roundness, and solidity) and eight texture features (energy, contrast, correlation, entropy, and their standard deviations) were extracted as appearance character from every corn kernel. Support vector machines (SVM) and a partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model were employed to build the classification models for seed varieties classification based on different groups of features. The results demonstrate that combining spectral and appearance characteristic could obtain better classification results. The recognition accuracy achieved in the SVM model (98.2% and 96.3% for germ side and endosperm side, respectively) was more satisfactory than in the PLS-DA model. This procedure has the potential for use as a new method for seed purity testing. PMID:26140347

  20. Taking Care of You and Your Baby While You're Pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... tilefish. These fish sometimes have high levels of mercury, which could hurt your baby. If you eat ... and other heavy metals (such as copper and mercury), could be damaging to the baby. However, working ...

  1. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    MedlinePlus

    ... DENTAL PATIENT ... From baby bottle to cup Choose training cups carefully, use them temporarily T ooth decay ... you make the change from baby bottle to training cup, be very careful about d what kind ...

  2. Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk But, study found overall odds remain quite ... slight increased risk of having a baby with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. After reviewing data from ...

  3. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  4. [Preparation and performance investigation of Trichoderma viride-modified corn stalk as sorbent materials for oil spills].

    PubMed

    Lan, Zhou-Lin; Peng, Dan; Guo, Chu-Ling; Zhu, Chao-Fei; Xue, Xiu-Ling; Dang, Zhi

    2013-04-01

    This work aims at preparing oil spill sorbent (TCS, Trichoderma viride-modified corn stalk) through solid-state fermentation of corn stalk by Trichoderma viride. Single-factor experiments, including the effect of modification time, solid-liquid ratio of modification and modification temperature, and adsorption experiments simulating oil spill condition, were carried out. The results indicated that the maximum oil adsorption of TCS, 13.84 g x g(-1), could be obtained under the conditions of 6 days of modification, with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:4 and a modification temperature of 25 degrees C. This oil absorption was 110.33% of that of the raw material (RCS, Raw Corn Stalk). Comparing RCS and TCS by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the results separately showed that TCS had rougher surface, lower cellulose content and higher instability, which explains the increase of oil absorption. Also, the component analysis indicated that bio-modification could reduce the contents of celluloses and hemicelluloses from corn stalk. Besides, sorption kinetics and oil retention performance test showed that, TCS, which could reach adsorption equilibrium after 1 h of 80 r x min(-1) oscillating, had fast oil adsorption rate, and it also had good oil retention performance, which could keep 74. 87% of the initial adsorption rate when trickling 10 min after reaching adsorption equilibrium.

  5. [Preparation and performance investigation of Trichoderma viride-modified corn stalk as sorbent materials for oil spills].

    PubMed

    Lan, Zhou-Lin; Peng, Dan; Guo, Chu-Ling; Zhu, Chao-Fei; Xue, Xiu-Ling; Dang, Zhi

    2013-04-01

    This work aims at preparing oil spill sorbent (TCS, Trichoderma viride-modified corn stalk) through solid-state fermentation of corn stalk by Trichoderma viride. Single-factor experiments, including the effect of modification time, solid-liquid ratio of modification and modification temperature, and adsorption experiments simulating oil spill condition, were carried out. The results indicated that the maximum oil adsorption of TCS, 13.84 g x g(-1), could be obtained under the conditions of 6 days of modification, with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:4 and a modification temperature of 25 degrees C. This oil absorption was 110.33% of that of the raw material (RCS, Raw Corn Stalk). Comparing RCS and TCS by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the results separately showed that TCS had rougher surface, lower cellulose content and higher instability, which explains the increase of oil absorption. Also, the component analysis indicated that bio-modification could reduce the contents of celluloses and hemicelluloses from corn stalk. Besides, sorption kinetics and oil retention performance test showed that, TCS, which could reach adsorption equilibrium after 1 h of 80 r x min(-1) oscillating, had fast oil adsorption rate, and it also had good oil retention performance, which could keep 74. 87% of the initial adsorption rate when trickling 10 min after reaching adsorption equilibrium. PMID:23798149

  6. Starlink corn: a risk analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has dramatically increased our ability to alter the agronomic traits of plants. Among the novel traits that biotechnology has made available, an important group includes Bacillus thuringiensis-derived insect resistance. This technology has been applied to potatoes, cotton, and corn. Benefits of Bt crops, and biotechnology generally, can be realized only if risks are assessed and managed properly. The case of Starlink corn, a plant modified with a gene that encodes the Bt protein Cry9c, was a severe test of U.S. regulatory agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had restricted its use to animal feed due to concern about the potential for allergenicity. However, Starlink corn was later found throughout the human food supply, resulting in food recalls by the Food and Drug Administration and significant disruption of the food supply. Here we examine the regulatory history of Starlink, the assessment framework employed by the U.S. government, assumptions and information gaps, and the key elements of government efforts to manage the product. We explore the impacts on regulations, science, and society and conclude that only significant advances in our understanding of food allergies and improvements in monitoring and enforcement will avoid similar events in the future. Specifically, we need to develop a stronger fundamental basis for predicting allergic sensitization and reactions if novel proteins are to be introduced in this fashion. Mechanisms are needed to assure that worker and community aeroallergen risks are considered. Requirements are needed for the development of valid assays so that enforcement and post market surveillance activities can be conducted. PMID:11781159

  7. Sequential dilute acid and alkali pretreatment of corn stover: sugar recovery efficiency and structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Ji Young; Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the feasibility of applying sequential dilute acid and alkali pretreatment into the hydrolysis of corn stover and to elucidate the effects of structural changes in the biomass on its enzymatic digestibility. H2SO4 used in the first step selectively hydrolyzed 74.6-77.3% of xylan and NaOH used in the second step removed 85.9-89.4% of lignin, from the raw corn stover. Compared to single dilute acid pretreatment, the proposed combined pretreatment minimized the generation of byproducts such as acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural in the hydrolysates, and enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid residue. The changes in the structural features (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the solid residue were strongly correlated with the enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. The overall glucose and xylose yields finally obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis reached 89.1-97.9% and 71.0-75.9%, respectively.

  8. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  9. Sweet Corn Hybrid Disease Nursery - 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the reactions of 387 sweet corn hybrids to Stewart’s wilt, common rust, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Southern leaf blight, and Northern leaf blight based on their performance in the University of Illinois sweet corn disease nursery in 2009. The reactions of these hybrids to three...

  10. Sweet Corn Hybrid Disease Nursery - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the reactions of 439 sweet corn hybrids to Stewart’s wilt, common rust, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Southern leaf blight, and Northern leaf blight based on their performance in the University of Illinois sweet corn disease nursery in 2010. The reactions of these hybrids to two h...

  11. Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery (ICBR) process will use new technology to convert corn grain and stover into fermentable sugars for the parallel production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO) and fuel ethanol.

  12. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  13. Rocking & Rolling: Supporting Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families. Helping Babies Make Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Sarah; Britt, Donna

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss three steps to helping babies with transitions: observe, ask, and respond (OAR). They advise teachers about how to ask a family questions about their baby and how to give the family suggestions to alleviate the baby's stress, without offending family members. This column includes a list of recommended resources. (Contains 7…

  14. Organizing the Baby Boomer Construct: An Exploration of Marketing, Social Systems, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Hilt, Michael L.; Reilly, Hugh J.

    2007-01-01

    Baby boomer trends are applied in the development of a conceptual framework that offers a social systems and cultural model for future studies. While there has been considerable recent attention paid to baby boomers, the studies lack a coherent theoretical base that would allow for more advanced and continuing research. Aging baby boomers heading…

  15. Orchestrating Professional Development for Baby Room Practitioners: Raising the Stakes in New Dialogic Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goouch, Kathleen; Powell, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    This article has emerged from a research and development project, The Baby Room, which was designed to examine how babies are cared for in daycare settings. Within the project, a form of professional development was created which designated a central space for dialogic encounter, primarily to enable the baby room practitioners who participated in…

  16. The Baby Boomer Generation--Impact on Public Libraries: Theoretical and Practical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlert, Maureen V.

    This paper discusses the impact of the Baby Boomer generation on public libraries. The paper has five main objectives: (1) to provide a statistical and demographic profile of the Baby Boomers at the local, state, and national levels within Australia; (2) to provide characteristics of the Baby Boomer generation; (3) to present comparative results…

  17. Bringing New Families to the Museum One Baby at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    "Bring Your Baby to the Danforth Museum of Art" is a program for mothers. Unlike other museum programs that focus on the needs of children, Bring Your Baby caters to the intellectual interests of the adult parent. Parents learn about artworks, play with babies in a beautiful environment, and socialize with other families. The program is a joyful…

  18. The Loss of a Baby and the Birth of the Next Infant: The Mother's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the area of perinatal death by focusing on the mother's experience. An argument is made for questioning whether mothers attempt to replace a dead infant. It is suggested instead that they long to mother their lost baby and as a result their new infant is mothered in the shadow of the dead baby. The term "penumbra baby" is…

  19. Keeping Your Baby Healthy: A Practical Manual for Black Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Sharon, Ed.

    Based on the belief that black parents have the power to prevent many of their children's health problems, and thus the responsibility to do so, this manual provides practical advice and lists resources in seven chapters. Chapters concern: (1) prenatal care; (2) having a baby; (3) the child's first 12 months; (4) information every parent should…

  20. Darwin's Intertextual Baby: Erasmus Darwin as Precursor in Child Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that Charles Darwin's observations on babies are not examples of data collected to test hypotheses. Draws from Bakhtin to argue that they extend and vary existing modes of discourse, primarily debates about the place of instinct in language acquisition, traceable to his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin. Concludes that the significance of Darwin's…

  1. Life‐threatening hypernatraemic dehydration in breastfed babies

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, R; Hignett, R; Pierce, C; Marks, S; Hoff, W van't

    2006-01-01

    We describe five babies, who were exclusively breast fed, with life‐threatening complications of hypernatraemic dehydration secondary to inadequate breast feeding. An increased awareness among health professionals is required so that this potentially devastating condition can be prevented. PMID:16690697

  2. 82. Historic American Buildings Survey VIEW SHOWING BABY HOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. Historic American Buildings Survey VIEW SHOWING BABY HOUSE AND PATIO WHERE TENT ROOM NOW LOCATED PHOTOCOPY OF PLATE FROM IRVIN L. SCOTT, 'MARALAGO', THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT (JUNE 20, 1928), P. 797 - Mar-a-Lago, 1100 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  3. Shaken Baby Syndrome: The Problem and a Model for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Jacy

    1992-01-01

    Examines the problem of shaken baby syndrome (SBS), which involves the injury or death of an infant as a result of severe shaking. Advocates a national media campaign to promote awareness of SBS and to prevent needless injuries and deaths. (MDM)

  4. Revisiting the Measurement of Shaken Baby Syndrome Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 10 years, over 80% of adults surveyed report some familiarity with Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) and the dangers of shaking infants younger than 2 years of age ([Dias et al., 2005] and [Russell and Britner, 2006]). Hence, in the context of SBS prevention, the question of whether caregivers knew the safety risks of shaking an infant…

  5. Health benefits of encore careers for baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Topiwala, Anya; Patel, Shivani; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-05-01

    Baby boomers now represent an aging population group at risk of the diseases of older age. Their relatively high education, amongst other attributes, means that they can make a significant contribution to the work force beyond the statutory retirement age. On an individual level, potential health benefits may motivate them to pursue encore careers. We review some of the evidence supporting such a trend.

  6. The History and Examination of the Shaken Baby Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaton, Scott Larue

    2013-01-01

    The History and Examination of the Shaken Baby Project looks at the use of a Child Abuse prevention program at a Southwestern Community Hospital. The origination of the program is researched that uncovers the inception of the curriculum used in the medical facility. The Administrative and Hospital Staff are surveyed to determine their viewpoint to…

  7. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  8. Preparing children for pregnancy and a new baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child may get clingy. Your child may act up. Set limits with your child as you always ... books with you Avoid telling your child to act like a big boy or a big girl. Remember that your child thinks of themselves as your baby.

  9. When Your Baby's in the NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)

    MedlinePlus

    ... leads can count your child's heart rate and breathing rate. A pulse oximetry (or pulse ox) machine also may display your baby's blood oxygen levels on the monitor. Also painless, the ... ventilator (or breathing machine) via an endotracheal tube (a plastic tube ...

  10. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  11. Challenging Our Assumptions: Helping a Baby Adjust to Center Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Enid

    2003-01-01

    Contends that assumptions concerning infants' adjustment to child center care need to be tempered with attention to observation, thought, and commitment to each individual baby. Describes the Options Daycare program for pregnant teens and young mothers. Presents a case study illustrating the need for openness in strategy and planning for…

  12. Sign Language with Babies: What Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Susan Kubic

    2010-01-01

    Teaching sign language--to deaf or other children with special needs or to hearing children with hard-of-hearing family members--is not new. Teaching sign language to typically developing children has become increasingly popular since the publication of "Baby Signs"[R] (Goodwyn & Acredolo, 1996), now in its third edition. Attention to signing with…

  13. What do parents expect antenatally and do babies teach them?

    PubMed Central

    Delight, E; Goodall, J; Jones, P W

    1991-01-01

    Antenatal inquiry of 658 parents in the North Staffordshire District Health Authority showed at least 13% to lack knowledge about a baby's potential for personal interaction when under 1 week old. Mothers and fathers varied significantly, independent of parity. Experienced parents expected later smiles. Two hundred and seventy eight of the same families were questioned three to four months after birth. Most parents had observed their baby's early responsiveness. Specific responses (Looking, listening) were noted earlier when anticipated and looked for. Significant among postnatal non-responders was their antenatal selection of predominantly impersonal stimulation for a baby. The greatest degree of warmth noted in postnatal observations correlated notably with a father's antenatal interest and postnatal support from him and their friends, a mother's commitment to breast feeding and her knowledge that a very young baby can see, like faces, and cries for emotional reasons. This highlights areas for antenatal tuition and postnatal encouragement, aiming to enhance warm early mutual regard between parents and child. PMID:1755644

  14. Ritualized Embarrassment at "Coed" Wedding and Baby Showers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, Dawn O.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that women embarrassed men at "coed" wedding and baby showers by teasing and causing them to look unpoised, and that men used avoidance, humor, remediation, and justification strategies. Adds a new strategy, compliance, to previous frameworks to explain males' reaction to embarrassment. Discusses the importance of context and degree of…

  15. Will the Retiring Baby Boomers Return to Rural Periphery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Jussi S.

    2009-01-01

    Many belonging to large post-war age cohorts in the western countries moved from rural areas to larger industrializing cities. They retire soon and can consider moving back to the childhood places. This article studies these baby boomers and the issues about their return to peripheral rural areas. The case regards one rural municipality,…

  16. Infant feeding. 5. Managing baby related feeding challenges.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Joyce

    2013-02-01

    'Infant feeding' is the 12th series of 'Midwifery basics' targeted at practising midwives. The aim of these articles is to inform and encourage readers to seek further information through a series of activities relating to the topic. In this fifth article Joyce Marshall considers a range of baby related issues that pose challenges for both mothers and midwives in relation to infant feeding.

  17. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing.…

  18. What do parents expect antenatally and do babies teach them?

    PubMed

    Delight, E; Goodall, J; Jones, P W

    1991-11-01

    Antenatal inquiry of 658 parents in the North Staffordshire District Health Authority showed at least 13% to lack knowledge about a baby's potential for personal interaction when under 1 week old. Mothers and fathers varied significantly, independent of parity. Experienced parents expected later smiles. Two hundred and seventy eight of the same families were questioned three to four months after birth. Most parents had observed their baby's early responsiveness. Specific responses (Looking, listening) were noted earlier when anticipated and looked for. Significant among postnatal non-responders was their antenatal selection of predominantly impersonal stimulation for a baby. The greatest degree of warmth noted in postnatal observations correlated notably with a father's antenatal interest and postnatal support from him and their friends, a mother's commitment to breast feeding and her knowledge that a very young baby can see, like faces, and cries for emotional reasons. This highlights areas for antenatal tuition and postnatal encouragement, aiming to enhance warm early mutual regard between parents and child. PMID:1755644

  19. Just a Talking Book? Word Learning from Watching Baby Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Michael B.; Richert, Rebekah A.; Wartella, Ellen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between viewing an infant DVD and expressive and receptive language outcomes. Children between 12 and 15 months were randomly assigned to view "Baby Wordsworth," a DVD highlighting words around the house marketed for children beginning at 12 months of age. Viewings took place in home settings over 6 weeks.…

  20. The Baby-Friendly Initiative: Protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pound, Catherine M; Unger, Sharon L

    2012-06-01

    Breastfeeding confers extensive and well-established benefits and is recognized as an extremely effective preventative health measure for both mothers and babies. Except in very few specific medical situations, breastfeeding should be universally encouraged for all mothers and infants. To improve worldwide breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, the WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-Friendly Initiative (BFI) in 1991. The goal was to protect, promote and support breastfeeding by adherence to the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding". Since then, more than 20,000 hospitals in 156 countries have achieved Baby-Friendly status, with a resultant increase in both breastfeeding initiation and duration. Still, only 500 hospitals are currently designated Baby-Friendly in industrialized countries, including 37 health centres or health authorities in Canada. Health care practitioners have a unique and influential role in promoting and supporting breastfeeding. Provincial and territorial government leadership is essential to ensuring implementation of the BFI in all health care facilities delivering services to families with young children.

  1. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy.

  2. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jools

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the workforce…

  3. Bilirubin, copper-porphyrins, and the bronze-baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Antony F

    2011-01-01

    Controlled in vitro spectroscopic measurements reveal that bilirubin does not photosensitize the degradation of copper-porphyrins, as has been proposed for the mechanism of the bronze-baby syndrome, an uncommon side-effect of phototherapy. Calculations also show that copper-porphyrins are unlikely to cause the "bronzing." In conclusion, the copper-porphyrin hypothesis is photochemically implausible.

  4. [Sudden death in new-born babies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Guilhaume, A

    This sudden death of a new-born baby, which had been thriving up to then, is a dramatic but not exceptional event. A systematic search for the etiology must be made, and this should include an autopsy in order that the diagnosis of "sudden and unexplained death" is confirmed only after eliminating all other possible causes. Knowledge of this syndrome has benefited from epidemiological surveys which have defined the previous clinical condition, but none of the many etiollotical hypotheses envisaged can take into account the total number of cases reported. One of the most recent cases developed apnoea during sleep, which could explain some unexpected deaths in new-born babies. This was discovered by polygraphic sleep recordings and confirmed by pathological examinations. These demonstrated indirect signs of chronic hypoxia which could have been related to the sudden death of the baby. Though there does not appear to be any relationship between the apnoea syndrome during sleep and these sudden and unexpected deaths, this hypothesis has opened up a new promising line of research which could help to identify new-born babies at risk from "sudden death", and to propose preventative measures. PMID:224505

  5. B Is for Baby, B Is for Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Describes an infant and toddler public library program called "Mother Goose Time." It is a language enrichment program that uses rhymes, songs, and books to lay the foundations of listening, learning, and literacy. Activities are planned according to the babies' motor skills--they are divided into two groups, "prewalkers" and "walkers". A list of…

  6. What We Learn about Babies from Engaging with Their Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Trevarthen, Colwyn

    2004-01-01

    Reddy and Trevarthen explore what we can learn from emotionally engaging with babies. Theirs is a different approach from 20th-century psychology, in which doubt and detachment play a role in discerning other people's feelings and thoughts. Instead, the authors suggest that emotions are the key to psychological engagement. When interacting with an…

  7. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Russel M; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Amato, Stephanie M; Capone, Kimberly A; Mack, M Catherine; Telofski, Lorena S; Mays, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema). We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+) in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed. Methods Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+) before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years). Results At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes. Conclusion Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. PMID:27789967

  8. The 2030 Problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers

    PubMed Central

    Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388

  9. Baby-MONITOR: A Composite Indicator of NICU Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kowalkowski, Marc A.; Zupancic, John A. F.; Pietz, Kenneth; Richardson, Peter; Draper, David; Hysong, Sylvia J.; Thomas, Eric J.; Petersen, Laura A.; Gould, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: NICUs vary in the quality of care delivered to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. NICU performance on 1 measure of quality only modestly predicts performance on others. Composite measurement of quality of care delivery may provide a more comprehensive assessment of quality. The objective of our study was to develop a robust composite indicator of quality of NICU care provided to VLBW infants that accurately discriminates performance among NICUs. METHODS: We developed a composite indicator, Baby-MONITOR, based on 9 measures of quality chosen by a panel of experts. Measures were standardized, equally weighted, and averaged. We used the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative database to perform across-sectional analysis of care given to VLBW infants between 2004 and 2010. Performance on the Baby-MONITOR is not an absolute marker of quality but indicates overall performance relative to that of the other NICUs. We used sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the composite indicator, by varying assumptions and methods. RESULTS: Our sample included 9023 VLBW infants in 22 California regional NICUs. We found significant variations within and between NICUs on measured components of the Baby-MONITOR. Risk-adjusted composite scores discriminated performance among this sample of NICUs. Sensitivity analysis that included different approaches to normalization, weighting, and aggregation of individual measures showed the Baby-MONITOR to be robust (r = 0.89–0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The Baby-MONITOR may be a useful tool to comprehensively assess the quality of care delivered by NICUs. PMID:24918221

  10. The properties of weft knitted fabric medical and preventive treatment action using eco-raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halavska, L.; Batrak, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new trend in the world is the clothing production using the new types of ecological raw materials application - milk, pineapple, coconut, hemp, banana, eucalyptus, clams, corn, bamboo, soya, nettle yarn. This makes it possible to create textile materials of new generation with unique antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Such materials have a positive preventive and sometimes therapeutic effect on people, and their health. Eco-raw materials clothing is able to protect the human body from the environment harmful effects: cold, heat, rain, dust, opportunely remove from underclothing layer the steam and gases, sweat; maintain in underclothing layer the necessary microclimate for normal organism functioning. Study of knitwear consumer properties, produced with eco-materials, is an urgent task of the world vector, directed on ecological environmental protection. This paper presents the research results of hygroscopicity and capillarity weft knitted fabrics, what knitted from different types of eco-raw materials: bamboo yarn, yarn containing soybean and nettle yarn. Character of influence of the liquid raising level changes depending on the experiment time and the knitting structure is revealed.

  11. Smart Mom's Baby-Sitting Co-Op Handbook: How We Solved the Baby-Sitter Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Gary

    Noting that a family with young children is under tremendous pressure and that a babysitting cooperative can give parents relief during a vital stage of a family's development, this book provides guidance for mothers of preschool children in starting and maintaining a Smart Mom's Babysitting Cooperative based on the University Place Baby-Sitting…

  12. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul

    2010-04-01

    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.

  13. Extruding foams from corn starch acetate and native corn starch.

    PubMed

    Guan, Junjie; Hanna, Milford A

    2004-01-01

    Because of the hydrophilic characteristics of native starch foams and the cost of modifying starch, the uses of starch and modified starch foams are hindered. To decrease hydrophilicity and cost of starch foams, native corn starch was blended with starch acetate and extruded. A twin-screw mixing extruder was used to produce the foams. Native starch content, screw speed, and barrel temperature had significant effects on molecular degradation of starches during extrusion. The melting temperature of extruded starch acetate/native starch foam was higher (216 degrees C) than that for starch acetate (193.4 degrees C). Strong peaks in the X-ray diffractograms of extruded starch acetate/native starch foam suggested new crystalline regions were formed. Optimum conditions for high radial expansion ratio, high compressibility, low specific mechanical energy requirement, and low water absorption index were 46.0% native starch content, 163 rpm screw speed, and 148 degrees C barrel temperature.

  14. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  15. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  16. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  18. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  19. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  20. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  1. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  2. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  3. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  4. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  5. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  6. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  7. 34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn cracking machine, by Sprout, Waldron and Co., (Muncy, PA), which cut and diced corn to a uniform size, then separated it into three grades of cracked corn and corn meal and removed chaff. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  8. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  9. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  10. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  11. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  12. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  13. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  14. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  15. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  16. Studies of Corn Stover Decomposition Using the Litter Bag Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decomposition rates of residue from three genetically-modified corn hybrids expressing one or more Bt endotoxins were compared to that of residue from a near isogenic, unmodified hybrid. The corn hybrids were (i) DKC60-16 (Yieldguard Corn Borer), (ii) DKC60-12 (Yieldguard Corn Rootworm), (iii) DKC60...

  17. Comparison Between Immunological Markers in Cord Blood of Preterm and Term Babies in Hospital USM

    PubMed Central

    Ashari, Noor Suryani Mohd; Hussin, Che Maraina Che; Musa, Mustaffa; Rostenberghe, Han Vans

    2008-01-01

    A cross sectional pilot study using convenient sampling method was conducted to evaluate various immunological parameters in preterm babies and term babies. Cord blood from 36 preterm and 36 term babies was taken and the following parameters were determined: Immunoglobulin G, A and M, Complement 3 and 4 and NBT. The results showed that NBT was significantly reduced in preterm babies compared to term babies (7.5% versus 12.0%; p= 0.001). The complement levels, C3 (0.5114 versus 0.7192 g/l; p<0.001) and C4 (0.07 versus 0.14g/l; p<0.001) were significantly lower in preterm babies than in the term babies. The mean IgG level in preterm babies was significantly lower than in term babies (9.5583 versus 14.2806 g/l, p<0.001). IgM (0.1 versus 0.2g/l; p<0.001) and IgA (0.210 versus 0.225g/l; p=0.036l) levels were significantly lower in the preterm than in term babies. In conclusion, we found that NBT reduction, IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 levels were significantly lower in the preterm compared to term babies. PMID:22589619

  18. Direct fermentation of raw starch using a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongliang; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as α-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date.

  19. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    The technical and engineering plan for an ethanol from corn fuel grade production facility is given. Included is a review of current technology, process technology recommendation, single vs. multi by-product process, process description, resource requirements, utilities, use of boiler flue gas for by-product drying, plant layout alternatives, production schedule, and procurement plan. As components of production the following are covered: corn supply, other raw materials supply, site selection, and the socio-economic environment of the area. The community infrastructure of Plaquemines Parish is described.

  20. 76 FR 37055 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... plant pests are not introduced into the United States. Allowing baby squash and baby courgettes to...

  1. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  3. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and up until a little over a century ago, all types of cheese were made from raw milk. Over the centuries, signature quality traits were established for the many different types, styles, and varieties of cheese found around the world. ...

  4. Bacterial spores in silage and raw milk.

    PubMed

    te Giffel, M C; Wagendorp, A; Herrewegh, A; Driehuis, F

    2002-08-01

    Spore-forming bacteria can survive food-processing treatments. In the dairy industry, Bacillus and Clostridium species determine the shelf-life of a variety of heat-treated milk products, mainly if the level of post-process contamination is low. In order to minimize problems caused by bacterial spores in foods and food production processes a chain management approach, from raw materials, ingredients and environmental sources to final product storage conditions, is most effective. Silage is considered to be a significant source of contamination of raw milk with spores. PCR-RAPD fingerprinting and heat resistance studies of populations of aerobic spore-formers isolated from grass and maize silage and from raw milk confirmed this assumption. Prevention of outgrowth of aerobic spores in silage will contribute to reduction of the total spore load of raw milk. Therefore, it is important that the silage fermentation process is controlled. Application of cultures of lactic acid bacteria or chemical additives can aid silage fermentation and improve aerobic stability. PMID:12448758

  5. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  6. Bayesian Inference on Predictors of Sex of the Baby

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the sex ratio at birth is a biological constant, being about 106 boys to 100 girls. However couples have always wanted to know and decide in advance the sex of a newborn. For example, a large number of papers appeared connecting biometrical variables, such as length of follicular phase in the woman menstrual cycle or timing of intercourse acts to the sex of new baby. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian model to validate some of these theories by using an independent database. Results show that we could not show an effect of the follicular length on the sex of the baby. We also obtain a slightly larger probability, although not significant, of conceiving a female just after the mucus peak day. PMID:27252938

  7. Bayesian Inference on Predictors of Sex of the Baby.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the sex ratio at birth is a biological constant, being about 106 boys to 100 girls. However couples have always wanted to know and decide in advance the sex of a newborn. For example, a large number of papers appeared connecting biometrical variables, such as length of follicular phase in the woman menstrual cycle or timing of intercourse acts to the sex of new baby. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian model to validate some of these theories by using an independent database. Results show that we could not show an effect of the follicular length on the sex of the baby. We also obtain a slightly larger probability, although not significant, of conceiving a female just after the mucus peak day. PMID:27252938

  8. Anaerobic cultures from preserved tissues of baby mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Fisher, Daniel; Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-10-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 3 oC. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that keeps other bacteria from colonizing a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one month-old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete sample of the species ever recovered. The diversity of novel psychrophilic anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here, we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new psychrophilic strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for characterization of the cultures.

  9. Nutrition, sex, gestational age, and hair growth in babies.

    PubMed

    Berger, H M; King, J; Doughty, S; Wharton, B A

    1978-04-01

    Hair growth measurements are a sensitive indicator of nutrition and we have assessed their value in the perinatal period. The proportion of growing roots and their diameter were studied at birth in 114 babies and repeated 3 weeks later in 29 low birthweight babies. Intrauterine malnutrition resulted in thinner roots but the changes after birth were not related to nutrition and these measurements will not be useful in feeding studies in this period. At birth, gestational age and sex affected the hair root, and it may be important to recognise these differences if the hair root is used in biochemical screening tests. We have used a new simple technique for measuring the root diameter using an image-splitting eye-piece.

  10. Hyperekplexia and stiff-baby syndrome: an identical neurological disorder?

    PubMed

    Cioni, G; Biagioni, E; Bottai, P; Castellacci, A M; Paolicelli, P B

    1993-03-01

    Hyperekplexia (startle disease) is an unusual, familial, neurological disorder characterized by abnormally enhanced startle response, followed in most cases by momentary generalized muscular stiffness. These attacks may cause the patients to fall rigidly, while remaining fully conscious. Startle symptomatology has generally an onset in infancy and is often accompanied, during the first years of life, by rigidity, sleep myoclonus, motor delay, regurgitation and apneic spells, which may cause sudden death. Stiff-baby syndrome is a familial disorder characterized by marked rigidity, with neonatal onset and gradual reduction during infancy, regurgitations, motor delay and attacks of stiffness. We report 4 new cases of hyperekplexia from two different families and another infant with stiff-baby syndrome discussing clinical, electrophysiological and genetic aspects of both neurological disorders in relation to other reported cases. We suggest a continuum between these familial syndromes, which are often misinterpreted as epilepsy or other disorders.

  11. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented.

  12. Being baby friendly: evidence-based breastfeeding support.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment.

  13. Anaerobic Cultures from Preserved Tissues of Baby Mammoth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 4 C. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that prevents other bacteria from over-dominating a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one-month old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete such specimen ever recovered. The diversity of novel anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for the characterization of cultures.

  14. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented. PMID:24350816

  15. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  16. Collodion baby dehydration: the danger of high transepidermal water loss.

    PubMed

    Buyse, L; Graves, C; Marks, R; Wijeyesekera, K; Alfaham, M; Finlay, A Y

    1993-07-01

    We describe transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements in a collodion baby suffering from severe hypernatraemic dehydration and hypothermia, who required intravenous fluid therapy in a special incubator. The TEWL values 4 days after birth were abnormally high compared with normal infants of the same age. The TEWL measurements returned towards normal within the first month, in parallel with the improvement of both the skin signs and the electrolyte and fluid balance.

  17. Ultradian components of the sleep-wake cycle in babies.

    PubMed

    Menna-Barreto, L; Benedito-Silva, A A; Marques, N; de Andrade, M M; Louzada, F

    1993-04-01

    Behavioral states may be analyzed as expressions of underlying cyclic activity involving several physiological systems. The human sleep-wake cycle in the first year of life shows, in addition to the establishment of circadian rhythmicity around the second month, the dynamics of its ultradian components, as can be seen in the more or less gradual decline of the polyphasic pattern. To detect these changes, we have analyzed the sleep-wake cycle of five babies of different ages (3, 4, 9, 11, and 13 months) observed for 5 consecutive days (Monday through Friday), 10 h (08:00-18:00 h) per day at a kindergarten by the first author, and during the night (18:00-08:00 h) by the parents. Behavioral observations were designed for minimizing interference with the babies' habits. Sleep/wake data were arranged in 60-min intervals, and the relative amount of time spent asleep per interval constituted the time series submitted for statistical analysis. The five resulting time series were submitted to spectral analysis for detecting the composition of frequencies contributing to the observed sleep/wake cycle. Several frequencies were thus obtained for each baby in the ultradian and circadian domain, ranging from one cycle in 2.0 h to one cycle in 24 h. The circadian component was the strongest rhythmic influence for all individuals except for the youngest (3-month-old) baby, who showed a semicircadian component as the main frequency in the power spectrum. Three individuals showed ultradian frequencies in the domain of 3-4 h. Differences in the spectra derive from three possible, and probably not exclusive, causes: 1) ontogenetic changes, 2) different masking effects, and 3) individual differences. PMID:8500186

  18. Mucus extravasation phenomenon in newborn babies: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gatti, A F; Moreti, M M; Cardoso, S V; Loyola, A M

    2001-01-01

    Two rare cases of congenital mucoceles in newborn babies are reported. The patients presented with nodular swellings on their lower lips at birth with no obvious local aetiology. In both cases the mucoceles interfered with normal feeding. The lesions were excised by surgical approach under general anaesthesia and histopathological examination confirmed the lesions to be extravasation-type mucoceles. The article includes a brief discussion of the epidemiology and ethiopathogeny of mucoceles. PMID:11309877

  19. Baby Health Checkup - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 子供のかかりつけ医の選択 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Choosing a Doctor for Your Baby 아기를 ...

  20. A baby incubator designed for conditions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Riggs, R J

    1977-01-01

    The prototype is described of a baby incubator, designed to be manufactured and used in Ghana, but of high enough quality to complete directly with imported models. A novel design is used, in which the usual all-round hood, with a sealed control unit underneath it, is replaced by a one-sided configuration, with the control system built into the back. It is much easier to manufacture, but still allows good access and temperature control.